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Sample records for prolonged metal ag

  1. Distinct metal-exchange pathways of doped Ag25 nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa

    2016-09-09

    Atomically precise metal nanoclusters (NCs) containing more than one type of metal atom (i.e., doped or alloyed), due to synergistic effects, open new avenues for engineering the catalytic and optical properties of NCs in a manner that homometal NCs cannot. Unfortunately, it is still a major challenge to controllably introduce multimetallic dopants in NCs, understanding the dopants\\' positions, mechanism, and synergistic effects. To overcome these challenges, we designed a metal-exchange approach involving NCs as molecular templates and metal ions as the source of the incoming dopant. In particular, two structurally similar monodoped silver-rich NCs, [MAg24(SR)(18)](2-) (M = Pd/Pt and SR: thiolate), were synthesized as templates to study their mechanistic transformation in response to the introduction of gold atoms. The controllable incorporation of Au atoms into the MAg24 framework facilitated the elucidation of distinct doping pathways through high-resolution mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Interestingly, gold replaced the central Pd atom of [PdAg24(SR)(18)](2-) clusters to produce predominantly bimetallic [AuAg24(SR)(18)](-) clusters along with a minor product of an [Au2Ag23(SR)(18)](-) cluster. In contrast, the central Pt atom remained intact in [PtAg24(SR)(18)](2-) clusters, and gold replaced the noncentral Ag atoms to form trimetallic [AuxPtAg24-x(SR)(18)](2-) NCs, where x = 1-2, with a portion of the starting [PtAg24(SR)(18)](2-) NCs remaining. This study reveals some of the unusual metal-exchange pathways of doped NCs and the important role played by the initial metal dopant in directing the position of a second dopant in the final product.

  2. Ion beam induced nanosized Ag metal clusters in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, H.-E.; Schattat, B.; Schubert-Bischoff, P.; Novakovic, N.

    2006-01-01

    Silver metal clusters have been formed in soda lime glass by high-energy heavy-ion irradiation at ISL. The metal cluster formation was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) in fluorescence mode, and the shape of the clusters was imaged with transmission electron microscopy. While annealing in reducing atmosphere alone, leads to the formation of metal clusters in Ag-containing glasses, where the Ag was introduced by ion-exchange, such clusters are not very uniform in size and are randomly distributed over the Ag-containing glass volume. Irradiation with 600-MeV Au ions followed by annealing, however, results in clusters more uniform in size and arranged in chains parallel to the direction of the ion beam

  3. Zr-(Cu,Ag)-Al bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q.K.; Wang, X.D.; Nie, X.P.; Zhang, G.Q.; Ma, H.; Fecht, H.-J.; Bendnarcik, J.; Franz, H.; Liu, Y.G.; Cao, Q.P.; Jiang, J.Z.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report the formation of a series Zr-(Cu,Ag)-Al bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with diameters at least 20 mm and demonstrate the formation of about 25 g amorphous metallic ingots in a wide Zr-(Cu,Ag)-Al composition range using a conventional arc-melting machine. The origin of high glass-forming ability (GFA) of the Zr-(Cu,Ag)-Al alloy system has been investigated from the structural, thermodynamic and kinetic points of view. The high GFA of the Zr-(Cu,Ag)-Al system is attributed to denser local atomic packing and the smaller difference in Gibbs free energy between amorphous and crystalline phases. The thermal, mechanical and corrosion properties, as well as elastic constants for the newly developed Zr-(Cu,Ag)-Al BMGs, are also presented. These newly developed Ni-free Zr-(Cu,Ag)-Al BMGs exhibit excellent combined properties: strong GFA, high strength, high compressive plasticity, cheap and non-toxic raw materials and biocompatible property, as compared with other BMGs, leading to their potential industrial applications

  4. Metallic Carbon Nanotubes and Ag Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brus, Louis E

    2014-03-04

    The goal of this DOE solar energy research was to understand how visible light interacts with matter, and how to make electric excitations evolve into separated electrons and holes in photovoltaic cells, especially in nanoparticles and nanowires. Our specific experiments focused on A) understanding plasmon enhanced spectroscopy and charge-transfer (metal-to-molecule) photochemistry on the surface of metallic particles and B) the spectroscopy and photochemistry of carbon nanotubes and graphene. I also worked closely with R. Friesner on theoretical studies of photo-excited electrons near surfaces of titanium dioxide nanoparticles; this process is relevant to the Gratzel photovoltaic cell.

  5. A novel metal-to-metal bonding process through in-situ formation of Ag nanoparticles using Ag2O microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Akio; Tatsumi, Hiroaki; Takeda, Naoya; Akada, Yusuke; Ogura, Tomo; Ide, Eiichi; Morita, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    The metal-to-metal bonding has been successfully achieved via the bonding process using Ag metallo-organic nanoparticles at a bonding temperature of around 300-, which can be alternative to the current microsoldering in electronics assembly using high-temperature solders. However, further reduction of bonding temperature and/or bonding pressure is needed. In the present research, a novel bonding process through in-situ formation of Ag nanoparticles instead of the filler material of the Ag metallo-organic nanoparticles has been developed. The Ag nanoparticles can form by the reduction of Ag 2 O particles. In this study, the Ag 2 O particles were mixed with triethylene glycol as a reducing agent to form a paste for bonding. The Au coated cylindrical specimens were bonded using the paste. The Ag nanoparticles formed at around 130 to 160 through the reduction process of Ag2O particles with triethylene glycol. The Ag nanoparticles were immediately sintered each other due to a great surface energy per volume. A transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the sintered Ag metallurgically bonded to the Au substrate at around 160 and a dense Ag layer formed after further heating. The tensile strength of the joint bonded at 250 under a bonding pressure of 5MPa was around 60MPa

  6. Formation and evolution of nanoporous bimetallic Ag-Cu alloy by electrochemically dealloying Mg-(Ag-Cu)-Y metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ran; Wu, Na; Liu, Jijuan; Jin, Yu; Chen, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniform nanoporous Ag-Cu alloy was fabricated by dealloying Mg-based metallic glass. • The nanoporous structure was built up with numerous Ag-Cu ligaments. • The nanoporous ligaments show two-stage coarsening behavior with dealloying time. • The formation and evolution mechanisms of the nanoporous structure were clarified. • It could provide new guidance to the synthesis of nanoporous multi-component alloys. - Abstract: A three-dimensional nanoporous bimetallic Ag-Cu alloy with uniform chemical composition has been fabricated by dealloying Mg_6_5Ag_1_2_._5Cu_1_2_._5Y_1_0 metallic glass in dilute (0.04 M) H_2SO_4 aqueous solution under free-corrosion conditions. The nanoporous Ag-Cu evolves through two distinct stages. First, ligaments of the nanoporous structure, consisting of supersaturated Ag(Cu) solid solution with a constant Ag/Cu mole ratio of 1:1, are yielded. Second, with excessive immersion, some Cu atoms separate from the metastable nanoporous matrix and form spherical Cu particles on the sample surface. Formation and evolution mechanisms of the nanoporous structure are proposed.

  7. Ag Isotopic Evolution of the Mantle During Accretion: New Constraints from Pd and Ag Metal-Silicate Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Schonbachler, M.

    2018-01-01

    Decay of (sup 107) Pd to (sup 107) Ag has a half-life of 6.5 times 10 (sup 6) mega-annums. Because these elements are siderophile but also volatile, they offer potential constraints on the timing of core formation as well as volatile addition. Initial modelling has shown that the Ag isotopic composition of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) can be explained if accretion occurs with late volatile addition. These arguments were tested for sensitivity for pre-cursor Pd/Ag contents, and for a fixed Pd/Ag ratio of the BSE of 0.1. New Ag and Pd partitioning data has allowed a better understanding of the partitioning behavior of Pd and Ag during core formation. The effects of S, C and Si, and the effect of high temperature and pressure has been evaluated. We can now calculate D(Ag) and D(Pd) over the wide range of PT conditions and variable metallic liquid compositions that are known during accretion. We then use this new partitioning information to revisit the Ag isotopic composition of the BSE during accretion.

  8. Simultaneous synthesis of polyaniline nanofibers and metal (Ag and Pt) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Li-Ming; Liao, Wei-Hao; Ling, Han-Chern; Wen, Ten-Chin

    2009-01-01

    An approach for the synthesis of Ag/Pt nanoparticle-incorporated polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers and Ag/Pt nanoparticles was developed that considers both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. Ag/Pt nanoparticles and PANI nanofibers are generated simultaneously by the reduction of Ag + /Pt 4+ ions to Ag/Pt nanoparticles and by the polymerization of aniline (ANI) to PANI nanofibers. The PANI nanofibers serve as anchor seeds for the formation of Ag/Pt nanoparticles. The simple and inexpensive route for the preparation of PANI-Ag/Pt nanocomposites can be extended to the polymerization of ANI derivatives and the formation of metal/metal oxides for applications such as sensors, direct methanol fuel cells, and capacitors.

  9. Transparent Conducting Film Fabricated by Metal Mesh Method with Ag and Cu@Ag Mixture Nanoparticle Pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Min Nam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting electrode film is highly desirable for application in touch screen panels (TSPs, flexible and wearable displays, sensors, and actuators. A sputtered film of indium tin oxide (ITO shows high transmittance (90% at low sheet resistance (50 Ω/cm2. However, ITO films lack mechanical flexibility, especially under bending stress, and have limitation in application to large-area TSPs (over 15 inches due to the trade-off in high transmittance and low sheet resistance properties. One promising solution is to use metal mesh-type transparent conducting film, especially for touch panel application. In this work, we investigated such inter-related issues as UV imprinting process to make a trench layer pattern, the synthesis of core-shell-type Ag and Cu@Ag composite nanoparticles and their paste formulation, the filling of Ag and Cu@Ag mixture nanoparticle paste to the trench layer, and touch panel fabrication processes.

  10. Effect of thermal annealing on the microstructures and photocatalytic performance of silver orthophosphate: The synergistic mechanism of Ag vacancies and metallic Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Tingjiang; Guan, Wenfei; Xiao, Ying; Tian, Jun; Qiao, Zheng; Zhai, Huishan; Li, Wenjuan; You, Jinmao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag_3PO_4 was initially prepared via ion-exchange reaction and then annealed in air. • Thermal annealing also resulted in the formation of metallic Ag and Ag vacancies. • The annealed samples exhibited superior activity to the pristine sample. • Both Ag vacancies and metallic Ag contributed to the high activity. - Abstract: In this work, a simple thermal annealing route has been developed to improve the photocatalytic performance of silver orthophosphate (Ag_3PO_4) photocatalyst toward organic pollutants degradation under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicated that thermal treatment of Ag_3PO_4 led to an obvious lattice shift towards right and significantly narrowed band gap energies due to the formation of Ag vacancies and metallic Ag during Ag_3PO_4 decomposition. These structural variations notably affected the photocatalytic performance of Ag_3PO_4 photocatalysts. The activity of the annealed samples was found to be significantly enhanced toward the degradation of MO dye. The highest activity was observed over the sample annealed at 400 °C, which exceeded that of pristine Ag_3PO_4 by a factor of about 21 times. By means of photoluminescence spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements, we propose that the enormous enhancement in activity was mainly attributed to the efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes driven by the synergistic effect of Ag vacancies and metallic Ag. The strong interaction between annealed particles also inhibited the dissolution of Ag"+ from Ag_3PO_4 into aqueous solution, contributing to an improved photocatalytic stability. The strategy presented here provides an ideal platform for the design of other highly efficient and stable Ag-based photocatalysts for broad applications in the field of photocatalysis.

  11. Texturization of diamond-wire-sawn multicrystalline silicon wafer using Cu, Ag, or Ag/Cu as a metal catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shing-Dar; Chen, Ting-Wei

    2018-06-01

    In this work, Cu, Ag, or Ag/Cu was used as a metal catalyst to study the surface texturization of diamond-wire-sawn (DWS) multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafer by a metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) method. The DWS wafer was first etched by standard HF-HNO3 acidic etching, and it was labeled as AE-DWS wafer. The effects of ratios of Cu(NO3)2:HF, AgNO3:HF, and AgNO3:Cu(NO3)2 on the morphology of AE-DWS wafer were investigated. After the process of MACE, the wafer was treated with a NaF/H2O2 solution. In this process, H2O2 etched the nanostructure, and NaF removed the oxidation layer. The Si {1 1 1} plane was revealed by etching the wafer in a mixture of 0.03 M Cu(NO3)2 and 1 M HF at 55 °C for 2.5 min. These parallel Si {1 1 1} planes replaced some parallel saw marks on the surface of AE-DWS wafers without forming a positive pyramid or an inverted pyramid structure. The main topography of the wafer is comprised of silicon nanowires grown in direction when Ag or Ag/Cu was used as a metal catalyst. When silicon is etched in a mixed solution of Cu(NO3)2, AgNO3, HF and H2O2 at 55 °C with a concentration ratio of [Cu2+]/[Ag+] of 50 or at 65 °C with a concentration ratio of [Cu2+]/[Ag+] of 33, a quasi-inverted pyramid structure can be obtained. The reflectivity of the AE-DWS wafers treated with MACE is lower than that of the multiwire-slurry-sawn (MWSS) mc-Si wafers treated with traditional HF + HNO3 etching.

  12. Biocorrosion Evaluation on a Zr-Cu-Ag-Ti Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shresh; Anwar, Rebin; Ryu, Wookha; Park, E. S.; Vincent, S.

    2018-04-01

    Metallic glasses are in high demand for fabrication of variety of innovative products, in particular surgical and biomedical tools and devices owing to its excellent biocompatible properties. In the present investigation, a novel Zr39.5Cu50.5Ag4Ti6 metallic glass composition was synthesized using melt spinning technique. Potentiodynamic polarization studies were conducted to investigate bio-corrosion behaviour of Zr39.5Cu50.5Ag4Ti6 metallic glass. The test were conducted in various simulated artificial body conditions such as artificial saliva solution, phosphate-buffered saline solution, artificial blood plasma solution, and Hank’s balanced saline solution. The bio-corrosion results of metallic glass were compared with traditional biomaterials. The study aims to provide bio-compatible properties of Zr39.5Cu50.5Ag4Ti6 metallic glass.

  13. Bidirectional threshold switching characteristics in Ag/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt electrochemical metallization cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Gang, E-mail: dugang@hdu.edu.cn; Li, Hongxia; Mao, Qinan; Ji, Zhenguo [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ruoshui Road 398, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A bidirectional threshold switching (TS) characteristic was demonstrated in Ag/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt electrochemical metallization cells by using the electrochemical active Ag electrode and appropriate programming operation strategies The volatile TS was stable and reproducible and the rectify ratio could be tuned to ∼10{sup 7} by engineering the compliance current. We infer that the volatile behavior is essentially due to the moisture absorption in the electron beam evaporated films, which remarkably improved the anodic oxidation as well as the migration of Ag{sup +} ions. The resultant electromotive force would act as a driving force for the metal filaments dissolution, leading to the spontaneous volatile characteristics. Moreover, conductance quantization behaviors were also achieved owing to formation and annihilation of atomic scale metal filaments in the film matrix. Our results illustrate that the Ag/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt device with superior TS performances is a promising candidate for selector applications in passive crossbar arrays.

  14. Bidirectional threshold switching characteristics in Ag/ZrO2/Pt electrochemical metallization cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A bidirectional threshold switching (TS characteristic was demonstrated in Ag/ZrO2/Pt electrochemical metallization cells by using the electrochemical active Ag electrode and appropriate programming operation strategies The volatile TS was stable and reproducible and the rectify ratio could be tuned to ∼107 by engineering the compliance current. We infer that the volatile behavior is essentially due to the moisture absorption in the electron beam evaporated films, which remarkably improved the anodic oxidation as well as the migration of Ag+ ions. The resultant electromotive force would act as a driving force for the metal filaments dissolution, leading to the spontaneous volatile characteristics. Moreover, conductance quantization behaviors were also achieved owing to formation and annihilation of atomic scale metal filaments in the film matrix. Our results illustrate that the Ag/ZrO2/Pt device with superior TS performances is a promising candidate for selector applications in passive crossbar arrays.

  15. Growth of Ag micro/nanoparticles using stress migration from multilayered metallic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yebo; Li, Yuan; Saka, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A multilayered metallic structure was proposed to fabricate Ag micro/nanoparticles via stress migration. • Both ductile Pt and brittle TiN films can be used as the passivation layer by providing pathways for atomic migration. • The diameter of the formed Ag particle can be controlled using different material for passivation layer and changing the heating temperature. - Abstract: A multilayered metallic structure, consisting of Cu foil and subsequently deposited Ag thin film covered with a passivation layer, was proposed to fabricate Ag micro/nanoparticles by stress migration. With employing a ductile Pt or brittle TiN thin film as passivation, Ag micro/nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by annealing the corresponding multilayered structure. The relationship between characteristics (average diameter, number and volume) of the formed Ag micro/nanoparticles and the annealing temperature was discussed. On this basis, the growth mechanism was developed, which indicates that the dimension of Ag particles was mainly dominated by the different pathways for the migration of diffused Ag atoms in the passivation layers of Pt and TiN and the annealing temperature

  16. Synthesis of novel cellulose- based antibacterial composites of Ag nanoparticles@ metal-organic frameworks@ carboxymethylated fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chao; Meng, Jingru; Wang, Xinqi; Meng, Xin; Sun, Xiaole; Xu, Yongjian; Zhao, Wei; Ni, Yonghao

    2018-08-01

    A novel cellulose-based antibacterial material, namely silver nanoparticles@ metal-organic frameworks@ carboxymethylated fibers composites (Ag NPs@ HKUST-1@ CFs), was synthesized. The results showed that the metal-organic frameworks (HKUST-1) were uniformly anchored on the fiber's surfaces by virtue of complexation between copper ions in HKUST-1 and carboxyl groups on the carboxymethylated fibers (CFs). The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were immobilized and well-dispersed into the pores and/or onto the surfaces of HKUST-1 via in situ microwave reduction, resulting in the formation of novel Ag NPs@ HKUST-1@ CFs composites. The antibacterial assays showed that the as-prepared composites exhibited a much higher antibacterial activity than Ag NPs@ CFs or HKUST-1@ CFs samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and characterization of metallic supported thin Pd-Ag membranes for hydrogen separation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Ekain; Medrano, Jose Antonio; Melendez, Jon; Parco, Maria; Viviente, J.L.; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Gallucci, Fausto; Pacheco Tanaka, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of thin-film (4-5 µm thick) Pd-Ag metallic supported membranes for high temperature applications. Various thin film membranes have been prepared by depositing a ceramic interdiffusion barrier layer prior to the simultaneous Pd-Ag electroless plating deposition. Two deposition techniques for ceramic layers (made of zirconia and alumina) have been evaluated: atmospheric plasma spraying and dip coating of a powder suspension. Initially, the...

  18. Cu-Zr-Ag bulk metallic glasses based on Cu8Zr5 icosahedron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junhai; Qiang Jianbing; Wang Yingmin; Wang Qing; Dong Chuang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the cluster line criterion, the Ag addition into the Cu 8 Zr 5 cluster composition is investigated for the search of ternary Cu-Zr-Ag bulk metallic glasses with high glass forming abilities. Two initial binary compositions Cu 0.618 Zr 0.382 and Cu 0.64 Zr 0.36 are selected. The former one corresponds to a deep eutectic point; it is also the composition of the Cu 8 Zr 5 icosahedron, which is derived from the Cu 8 Zr 3 structure. The latter one, which can be regarded as the Cu 8 Zr 5 cluster plus a glue atom Cu, is the best glass-forming composition in the Cu-Zr binary system. Two composition lines (Cu 0.618 Zr 0.382 ) 1-x Ag x and (Cu 0.64 Zr 0.36 ) 1-x Ag x are thus constructed in the Cu-Zr-Ag system by linking these two compositions with the third constitute Ag. A series of Cu-Zr-Ag bulk metallic glasses are found with 2-8 at.% Ag contents in both composition lines. The optimum composition (Cu 0.618 Zr 0.382 ) 0.92 Ag 0.08 within the searched region with the highest T g /T l = 0.633, is located along the cluster line (Cu 0.618 Zr 0.382 ) 1-x Ag x , where the deep eutectic Cu 0.618 Zr 0.382 exactly corresponds to the dense packing cluster Cu 8 Zr 5 . The alloying mechanism is discussed in the light of atomic size and electron concentration factors

  19. The effect of dielectric constants on noble metal/semiconductor SERS enhancement: FDTD simulation and experiment validation of Ag/Ge and Ag/Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Zhaoshun; Liao, Fan; Cai, Qian; Li, Yanqing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Shao, Mingwang

    2014-02-11

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was employed to simulate the electric field distribution for noble metal (Au or Ag)/semiconductor (Ge or Si) substrates. The simulation showed that noble metal/Ge had stronger SERS enhancement than noble metal/Si, which was mainly attributed to the different dielectric constants of semiconductors. In order to verify the simulation, Ag nanoparticles with the diameter of ca. 40 nm were grown on Ge or Si wafer (Ag/Ge or Ag/Si) and employed as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates to detect analytes in solution. The experiment demonstrated that both the two substrates exhibited excellent performance in the low concentration detection of Rhodamine 6G. Besides, the enhancement factor (1.3 × 10(9)) and relative standard deviation values (less than 11%) of Ag/Ge substrate were both better than those of Ag/Si (2.9 × 10(7) and less than 15%, respectively), which was consistent with the FDTD simulation. Moreover, Ag nanoparticles were grown in-situ on Ge substrate, which kept the nanoparticles from aggregation in the detection. To data, Ag/Ge substrates showed the best performance for their sensitivity and uniformity among the noble metal/semiconductor ones.

  20. Modification of trace metal accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis by exposure to Ag, Cu, and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dalin; Wang Wenxiong

    2004-01-01

    To examine the Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis affected by previous exposure to Cu, Ag, or Zn, the dietary metal assimilation efficiency (AE) and the uptake rate from the dissolved phase were quantified. The mussel's filtration rate, metallothionein (MT) concentration, and metal tissue burden as well as the metal subcellular partitioning were also determined to illustrate the potential mechanisms underlying the influences caused by one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of the other metals. The green mussels were pre-exposed to Cu, Ag, or Zn for different periods (1-5 weeks) and the bioaccumulation of Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn were concurrently determined. Pre-exposure to the three metals did not result in any significant increase in MT concentration in the green mussels. Ag concentration in the insoluble fraction increased with increasing Ag exposure period and Ag ambient concentration. Our data indicated that Cd assimilation were not influenced by the mussel's pre-exposure to the three metals (Cu, Ag, and Zn), but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn exposure. Although Hg assimilation from food was not affected by the metal pre-exposure, its influx rate from solution was generally inhibited by the exposure to Cu, Ag, and Zn. Ag bioaccumulation was affected the most obviously, in which its AE increased with increasing Ag tissue concentration, and its dissolved uptake decreased with increasing tissue concentrations of Ag and Cu. As an essential metal, Zn bioaccumulation remained relatively stable following the metal pre-exposure, suggesting the regulatory ability of Zn uptake in the mussels. Zn AE was not affected by metal pre-exposure, but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn pre-exposure. All these results indicated that the influences of one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of other metals were metal-specific due to the differential binding and toxicity of metals to the mussels. Such factors should

  1. Alloying of Yb-Cu and Yb-Ag utilizing liquid ammonia metal solutions of ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, H.; Yoshimura, T.; Sakata, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In the course of the studies on preparation of novel compounds using the dissolution of Eu or Yb metals in liquid ammonia, the formation of Yb-Cu and Yb-Ag intermetallic films has been found. When Cu or Ag metal powders were placed in a reactor containing a solution of Yb metal in liquid ammonia, the dissolved Yb readily react with the Cu or Ag metal particles to form surface alloy compounds. X-ray diffraction of Yb-Cu showed that upon thermal treatment above 673 K, the Yb metal deposited on the Cu particles reacted together to be transformed into the YbCu 6.5 intermetallic compound. A characteristic endothermic peak at 749 K, due to alloying of Yb-Cu, was observed by the differential scanning calorimeter measurements. By use of the high reactivity of liquid ammonia metal solutions of ytterbium, it was found that the ytterbium intermetallic films were readily formed under mild conditions. Yb-Cu and Yb-Ag exhibited enhanced catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of ethene as a result of alloying

  2. Distinct metal-exchange pathways of doped Ag25 nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa; Sinatra, Lutfan; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Atomically precise metal nanoclusters (NCs) containing more than one type of metal atom (i.e., doped or alloyed), due to synergistic effects, open new avenues for engineering the catalytic and optical properties of NCs in a manner that homometal NCs

  3. Controllable synthesis of metal selenide heterostructures mediated by Ag2Se nanocrystals acting as catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangcong; Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-09-01

    Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe, and even multi-segment heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe-ZnSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe-CdSe, were successfully synthesized. Several interesting features were found in the Ag2Se based heterogrowth. At the initial stage of heterogrowth, a layer of the second phase forms on the surface of an Ag2Se nanosphere, with a curved junction interface between the two phases. With further growth of the second phase, the Ag2Se nanosphere tends to flatten the junction surface by modifying its shape from sphere to hemisphere in order to minimize the conjunct area and thus the interfacial energy. Notably, the crystallographic relationship of the two phases in the heterostructure varies with the lattice parameters of the second phase, in order to reduce the lattice mismatch at the interface. Furthermore, a small lattice mismatch at the interface results in a straight rod-like second phase, while a large lattice mismatch would induce a tortuous product. The reported results may provide a new route for developing novel selenide semiconductor heterostructures which are potentially applicable in optoelectronic, biomedical, photovoltaic and catalytic fields.Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se

  4. Prolonged QT Syndrome and Seizure Secondary to Alkaline Earth Metal Deficiency: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. McKinney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alkaline earth metal deficiency is recognized as a cause of both seizure and long QT syndrome. Their deficiency can have significant repercussions on the function of cells, tissues, and organs of the body. An understanding of the role of electrolytes allows an appreciation of the significance of depleted levels on cell function. Case Report. A 65-year-old lady was admitted with symptoms of chest discomfort, vomiting, increased stoma output, and dizziness. Two days following admission she suffered a tonic-clonic seizure. ECG review demonstrated a prolonged QTc interval, raising the possibility of an underlying Torsades de Pointes as the precipitant. This was attributed to electrolyte disturbance arising as a result of multiple aetiologies. Discussion. This paper highlights the multisystem effects of electrolyte disturbance, with emphasis upon its role in precipitating cardiac arrhythmia and neurological symptoms.

  5. Application of the specific thermal properties of Ag nanoparticles to high-resolution metal patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Yong; Yeo, Junyeob; Ha, Cheol Woo; Lee, Jinhwan; Hong, Sukjoon; Nam, Koo Hyun; Yang, Dong-Yol; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles exhibit specific electronic, chemical and optical properties due to the thermodynamic size effect, which cannot be observed in bulk materials. Ag NPs show size dependent melting temperature depression phenomena. In this study, the thermal sintering behavior of the self-assembled monolayer protected Ag NPs has been observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy. The thermal characteristics of the Ag NPs have also been examined with a thermogravimetric analysis, a differential scanning calorimetry and a thermal conductivity measurement. These assessments have shown that the melting of the Ag NPs starts at 150 °C, which is much lower than the melting temperature of bulk silver (960 °C). The measured thermal conductivity of the Ag NPs (0.37 W/(m K)) is also lower than that of bulk silver (429 W/(m K)). These specific thermal properties of the Ag NPs can be applied to a low-temperature and a high-resolution direct-metal patterning process.

  6. Compatibility between Co-Metallized PbTe Thermoelectric Legs and an Ag-Cu-In Brazing Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ayoun, Dana; Sadia, Yatir; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2018-01-10

    In thermoelectric (TE) generators, maximizing the efficiency of conversion of direct heat to electricity requires the reduction of any thermal and electrical contact resistances between the TE legs and the metallic contacts. This requirement is especially challenging in the development of intermediate to high-temperature TE generators. PbTe-based TE materials are known to be highly efficient up to temperatures of around 500 °C; however, only a few practical TE generators based on these materials are currently commercially available. One reason for that is the insufficient bonding techniques between the TE legs and the hot-side metallic contacts. The current research is focused on the interaction between cobalt-metallized n -type 9.104 × 10 -3 mol % PbI₂-doped PbTe TE legs and the Ag 0.32 Cu 0.43 In 0.25 brazing alloy, which is free of volatile species. Clear and fine interfaces without any noticeable formation of adverse brittle intermetallic compounds were observed following prolonged thermal treatment testing. Moreover, a reasonable electrical contact resistance of ~2.25 mΩmm² was observed upon brazing at 600 °C, highlighting the potential of such contacts while developing practical PbTe-based TE generators.

  7. Heavy metals contamination and their risk assessment around the abandoned base metals and Au-Ag mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals contamination in the areas of abandoned Au-Ag and base metal mines in Korea was investigated in order to assess the level of metal pollution, and to draw general summaries about the fate of toxic heavy metals in different environments. Efforts have been made to compare the level of heavy metals, chemical forms, and plant uptake of heavy metals in each mine site. In the base-metals mine areas, significant levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in mine dump soils developed over mine waste materials and tailings. Leafy vegetables tend to accumulate heavy metals(in particular, Cd and Zn) higher than other crop plants, and high metal concentrations in rice crops may affect the local residents' health. In the Au-Ag mining areas, arsenic would be the most characteristic contaminant in the nearby environment. Arsenic and heavy metals were found to be mainly associated with sulfide gangue minerals, and the mobility of these metals would be enhanced by the effect of continuing weathering and oxidation. According to the sequential extraction of metals in soils, most heavy metals were identified as non-residual chemical forms, and those are very susceptible to the change of ambient conditions of a nearby environment. The concept of pollution index(PI) of soils gives important information on the extent and degree of multi-element contamination, and can be applied to the evaluation of mine soils before their agricultural use and remediation. The risk assessment process comprising exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization was discussed, and the results of non-cancer risk of As, Cd, and Zn, and those of cancer risk of As were suggested.

  8. Probable metal-insulator transition in Ag{sub 4}SSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebushchak, V.A., E-mail: dva@igm.nsc.ru [V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Pr. Ac. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pal’yanova, G.A.; Seryotkin, Yu.V. [V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Pr. Ac. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Drebushchak, T.N. [Novosibirsk State University, Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, SB RAS, Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • New phase transition in Ag{sub 4}SSe was discovered with scanning calorimetry and supported with X-ray powder diffraction. • The thermal effect relates to the anomaly in electrical and thermal conductivity of Ag{sub 4}SSe. • Similar thermal and electrical effects in K{sub 3}Cu{sub 8}S{sub 6} are explained with the metal-insulator transition. - Abstract: New phase transition (285 K) in low-temperature monoclinic Ag{sub 4}SSe was found out below the α-β transition (358 K) after the measurements with differential scanning calorimetry. The transition reveals significant hysteresis (over 30 K). X-ray powder diffraction shows that the superlattice with doubled a and b parameters of the unit cell exists below the new transition point. The signs of this new phase transition can be found in thermal and electrical conductivity of Ag{sub 4}SSe published in literature. Elusive phase transition in Ag{sub 2}Se shows similar properties. The new transition is likely related to the metal-insulator type transition, like K{sub 3}Cu{sub 8}S{sub 6}.

  9. Comparison of Au and Ag nanoshells' metal-enhanced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chen, Huang-Chih; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2014-01-01

    The average enhancement factors of Au and Ag nanoshells (NSs) were analyzed theoretically to compare their overall performances on metal-enhanced fluorescence. We used the Mie theory and dyadic Green's functions to calculate the excitation rate and apparent quantum yield of NS interacting with a plane wave and a dipole, respectively, and then to obtain the enhancement factor. Moreover, the average enhancement factor (AEF) of NS on the fluorescence of a nearby molecule was obtained by averaging all possible orientations and locations of the molecule with a constant distance from NS. Our results show that the maximum AEF of Au NS occurs at the wavelength of the dipole mode, which is broadband. In contrast, the maximum AEF of Ag NS is at the narrowband quadrupole mode. In addition, the Stokes shift effect on AEF was studied for Au and Ag NSs. - Highlights: • The average enhancement factors of Au and Ag nanoshells were analyzed theoretically. • The maximum AEF of Au NS occurs at the wavelength of the dipole mode. • The maximum AEF of Ag NS is at the narrowband quadrupole mode. • The Stokes shift effect on AEF is discussed for Au and Ag NSs

  10. Solvent and stabilizer free growth of Ag and Pd nanoparticles using metallic salts/cyclotriphosphazenes mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz Valenzuela, C. [Departamento de Química, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Chile, La Palmeras 3425, Nuñoa, Casilla 653, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Valenzuela, M.L., E-mail: mlvalenzuela@unab.cl [Universidad Andres Bello, Departamento de Ciencias Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Av. Republica 275, Santiago (Chile); Caceres, S.; Diaz, R. [Departamento de Química, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Chile, La Palmeras 3425, Nuñoa, Casilla 653, Santiago de Chile (Chile); O' Dwyer, C. [Applied Nanoscience Group, Department of Chemistry, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Micro and Nanoelectronics Centre, Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2013-12-16

    Cyclotriphosphazene is used as a sacrificial solid-state template to synthesize a range of Ag and Pd nanoparticles with diverse geometries by thermal treatment using MLn/N{sub 3}P{sub 3}(O{sub 2}C{sub 12}H{sub 8}){sub 3} mixtures. The Pd and Ag nanoparticles are synthesized by solid-state pyrolysis of AgPPh{sub 3}[CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}]/N{sub 3}P{sub 3}(O{sub 2}C{sub 12}H{sub 8}){sub 3} and PdCl{sub 2}/N{sub 3}P{sub 3}(O{sub 2}C{sub 12}H{sub 8}){sub 3} mixtures with molar relationships of 1:1, 1:5 and 1:10 respectively, in air and at 800 °C. The morphology of the as-prepared nanoparticles is found to depend on the molar ratio of the precursor mixture, the preparation method and of the nature of the metal. Ag and Pd, microcrystals were thermally grown on Si from the respective 1:1 precursors while that metal foams were grown from 1:5 ratios precursors on SiO{sub 2} wafers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations reveal in most cases small crystals of Pd. HRSTEM measurements indicate that the formation of the Pd and Ag nanoparticles occurs through a phase demixing and dewetting mechanism. This approach has potential to be a useful and facile method to prepare metallic nanoparticles without requiring solutions or surfactants for application in electronic, catalytic and sensor materials and devices. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis MLn/N{sub 3}P{sub 3}(O{sub 2}C{sub 12}H{sub 8}){sub 3} mixtures under air, give Pd and Ag nanoparticles. • AgPPh{sub 3}[CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] and PdCl{sub 2} in molar ratios 1:1 and 1:5 were used. • Metal foams were obtained from 1:5 ratios when deposited on SiO{sub 2.} • Using crucible supporting in 1:1 metal/trimer <2 nm Pd nanoparticles were obtained. • The probable mechanism involves a dewetting, nucleation and ripening crystallization.

  11. Electronic structure of metal phthalocyanines on Ag (100)

    OpenAIRE

    Krull, Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    El uso de moléculas orgánicas en dispositivos tecnológicos ofrece una serie de ventajas: su tamaño (~nm), su capacidad de auto ensamblan dando lugar a la formación de estructuras funcionales, y la posibilidad de adaptar sus propiedades electrónicas y magnéticas a través de los métodos de síntesis molecular. Sin embargo, la implementación de dispositivos orgánicos depende fundamentalmente de la comprensión entre la interacción de las moléculas y los electrodos de metal, así como las interaccio...

  12. Work function and quantum efficiency study of metal oxide thin films on Ag(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, V.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Harrison, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing the quantum efficiency (QE) of metal photocathodes is in the design and development of photocathodes for free-electron laser applications. The growth of metal oxide thin films on certain metal surfaces has previously been shown to reduce the work function (WF). Using a photoemission model B. Camino et al. [Comput. Mater. Sci. 122, 331 (2016), 10.1016/j.commatsci.2016.05.025] based on the three-step model combined with density functional theory calculations we predict that the growth of a finite number of MgO(100) or BaO(100) layers on the Ag(100) surface increases significantly the QE compared with the clean Ag(100) surface for a photon energy of 4.7 eV. Different mechanisms for affecting the QE are identified for the different metal oxide thin films. The addition of MgO(100) increases the QE due to the reduction of the WF and the direct excitation of electrons from the Ag surface to the MgO conduction band. For BaO(100) thin films, an additional mechanism is in operation as the oxide film also photoemits at this energy. We also note that a significant increase in the QE for photons with an energy of a few eV above the WF is achieved due to an increase in the inelastic mean-free path of the electrons.

  13. Alloying behaviour of electroplated Ag film with its underlying Pd/Ti film stack for low resistivity interconnect metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Hirokazu; Miyata, Masahiro; Tatsumi, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alloying behavior of Ag/Pd/Ti film stack was studied by annealing at 400-800 °C. • The Ag film resistivity decreased with increasing annealing temperature. • Formation of the Pd-Ti intermetallics was found to be dominant over Ag-Pd alloying. • The excess Ti was consumed to form Ti oxides, which inhibited Ti alloying with Ag. -- Abstract: In this paper, viability of electroplated Ag film into device application was studied. Alloying behavior of the Ag film with its underlying Pd(50 nm)/Ti(100 nm) film stack was investigated with respect to heat treatment at different temperatures from 400 °C to 800 °C in an argon ambient. After annealing at 400 °C, the electrical resistivity of the Ag film increased due to Pd alloying with Ag. Formation of Pd–Ti intermetallic phases became dominant over Ag–Pd alloying with increasing annealing temperature, leading to the resistivity decrease of the Ag film. The resistivity of the 800 °C annealed Ag film approached that of its as-plated Ag film. The excess Ti atoms which were not consumed to form the intermetallic phases with the Pd atoms migrated to the Ag film surface to form Ti oxides along the Ag grain boundaries on the topmost film surface. The Ag/Pd/Ti film stack has been confirmed to maintain the resistivity of the Ag film at as-plated low levels after high temperature annealing. This paper also discusses process integration issues to enable the Ag metallization process for future scaled and three dimensionally chip stacked devices

  14. Formation of Ag2, Au2 and AgAu particles on MgO(1 0 0): DFT study on the role of support-induced charge transfer in metal-metal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, Silvia A.; Belelli, Patricia G.; Branda, Maria M.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of Ag 2 , Au 2 and AgAu particles oriented perpendicularly to the MgO(1 0 0) surface was studied using the density functional theory. While the support induces a slight enhancement of the Ag-Ag bond (by 0.3-0.4 eV), the Au-Au bond is strongly enhanced (by 0.8-1.1 eV). Concerning the bimetallic particle, the Ag-Au bond stabilization depends on the relative position of each atom. Thus, in general terms, the strength of the metal-metal bond is determined by the nature of the terminal atom; the bond is stronger in Au-terminal particles. The partial electronic charge transfer to the terminal Au atom and its ability to polarize this charge are responsible for this energetic stabilization.

  15. Combinatorial development of antibacterial Zr-Cu-Al-Ag thin film metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhui; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Cheung, Bettina; Liu, Jingbei; Chen, Zheng; Scanley, B Ellen; Wesolowski, Donna; Pressley, Mariyah; Broadbridge, Christine C; Altman, Sidney; Schwarz, Udo D; Kyriakides, Themis R; Schroers, Jan

    2016-05-27

    Metallic alloys are normally composed of multiple constituent elements in order to achieve integration of a plurality of properties required in technological applications. However, conventional alloy development paradigm, by sequential trial-and-error approach, requires completely unrelated strategies to optimize compositions out of a vast phase space, making alloy development time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we challenge the conventional paradigm by proposing a combinatorial strategy that enables parallel screening of a multitude of alloys. Utilizing a typical metallic glass forming alloy system Zr-Cu-Al-Ag as an example, we demonstrate how glass formation and antibacterial activity, two unrelated properties, can be simultaneously characterized and the optimal composition can be efficiently identified. We found that in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ag alloy system fully glassy phase can be obtained in a wide compositional range by co-sputtering, and antibacterial activity is strongly dependent on alloy compositions. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity is sensitive to Cu and Ag while essentially remains unchanged within a wide range of Zr and Al. The proposed strategy not only facilitates development of high-performing alloys, but also provides a tool to unveil the composition dependence of properties in a highly parallel fashion, which helps the development of new materials by design.

  16. Photocatalytic deposition of Ag nanoparticles on TiO2: Metal precursor effect on the structural and photoactivity properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Albiter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1 wt.% Ag–TiO2 photocatalysts were obtained by photodeposition using different organic (acetylacetonate, Ag-A and inorganic (nitrate, Ag-N, and perchlorate, Ag-C silver precursors in order to determinate the influence of the silver precursor on final properties of the photocatalysts. The resulting photocatalytic materials were characterized by different techniques (UV–Vis DRS, TEM/HRTEM and XPS and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (used as model pollutant in aqueous solution under simulated solar light. The photocatalytic reduction of Ag species to Ag0 on TiO2 was higher with silver nitrate as precursor compared to acetylacetonate or perchlorate. All the Ag-modified TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a surface plasmon resonance effect in the visible region (400–530 nm indicating different metal particle sizes depending on the Ag precursor used in their synthesis. A higher photocatalytic activity was obtained with all the Ag/TiO2 samples compared with non-modified TiO2. The descending order of photocatalytic activity was as follows: Ag-A/TiO2 ≈ Ag-N/TiO2 > Ag-C/TiO2 > TiO2-P25. The enhanced photoactivity was attributed to the presence of different amounts Ag0 nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on Ag2O and TiO2, trapping the photogenerated electrons and avoiding charge recombination.

  17. Metal Fe3+ ions assisted synthesis of highly monodisperse Ag/SiO2 nanohybrids and their antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nianchun; Xue, Feng; Yu, Xiang; Zhou, Huihua; Ding, Enyong

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TEM images of the Ag/SiO 2 -2 nanohybrids. The homogeneous and more mono-disperse Ag nanoparticles deposit on SiO 2 spheres. Through this method, Ag nanoparticles are easily formed on the surface of SiO 2 compared to other methods. Highlights: ► We prepared homogeneous and mono-dispersed Ag/SiO 2 -2 nanohybrids by adding Fe 3+ ions. ► The Ag/SiO 2 -2 nanohybrids had core(SiO 2 )-shell(Ag) structure. ► The Ag/SiO 2 -2 nanohybrids exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against bacteria. ► The reaction temperature was lower and the yield of Ag/SiO 2 -2 nanohybrids were higher. - Abstract: Highly monodispersed Ag/SiO 2 nanohybrids with excellent antibacterial property were synthesized by using DMF as a reducing agent and employing an additional redox potential of metal Fe 3+ ion as a catalytic agent. The obtained Ag/SiO 2 -2 nanohybrids of about 240 nm were highly monodispersity and uniformity by adding trace Fe 3+ ions into the reaction which Ag + reacted with N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) at 70 °C. Compared to the conventional techniques, which need long time and high temperature for silica coating of Ag nanoparticles, this new method was capable of synthesizing monodispersed, uniform, high yield Ag/SiO 2 nanohybrids. The electron was transferred from the Fe 2+ ion to the Ag + ion to accelerate the nucleation of silver nanoparticles. The chemical structures, morphologies and properties of the Ag/SiO 2 nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), (High-resolution, Scanning transmission) transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM and STEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis) and test of antibacterial. The results demonstrated that the silver nanoparticles supported on the surface of SiO 2 spheres in Ag/SiO 2 -2 nanohybrids structure, the Ag nanoparticles were homogeneous and monodispersed. The results also indicated that the Ag/SiO 2 -2 nanohybrid had excellent antibacterial.

  18. Theoretical description of metal/oxide interfacial properties: The case of MgO/Ag(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, via R. Cozzi, 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Giordano, Livia, E-mail: livia.giordano@mater.unimib.it [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, via R. Cozzi, 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Pacchioni, Gianfranco [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, via R. Cozzi, 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Goniakowski, Jacek [CNRS-Sorbonne Universités UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Characteristics of Ag-supported MgO(100) films are studied with different DFT functionals. • All approaches predict a similar nature of supported pristine and oxygen-deficient films. • Interface distances and adhesion are particularly sensitive to the choice of the approximation. • Satisfactory matching with the experiment is obtained with the DFT-optB88 functional. • Charge transfer, work function and vacancy characteristics are little influenced by the method. - Abstract: We compare the performances of different DFT functionals applied to ultra-thin MgO(100) films supported on the Ag(100) surface, a prototypical system of a weakly interacting oxide/metal interface, extensively studied in the past. Beyond semi-local DFT-GGA approximation, we also use the hybrid DFT-HSE approach to improve the description of the oxide electronic structure. Moreover, to better account for the interfacial adhesion, we include the van de Waals interactions by means of either the semi-empirical force fields by Grimme (DFT-D2 and DFT-D2*) or the self-consistent density functional optB88-vdW. We compare and discuss the results on the structural, electronic, and adhesion characteristics of the interface as obtained for pristine and oxygen-deficient Ag-supported MgO films in the 1–4 ML thickness range.

  19. Synthesis of TiCuAg thick film inks for glass frit free metallization of aluminium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlassnig, A.; Schuster, J. C.; Smetana, W.; Reicher, R.

    1997-01-01

    A glas frit free screen printing ink for metallization of AIN was developed. Bonding to the substrate is achieved by active metal additives. The metallic component consists of Cu and Ag powder synthesized from inorganic salts by the polyol process, and Cu-Ti powder synthesized by arc melting, milling and ultracentrifugation. This ternary powder mixture was introduced to a specifically developed organic vehicle and screen printed onto AIN. The detailed development process and the results will be presented. (author)

  20. Results from Evaluation of Proposed ASME AG-1 Section FI Metal Media Filters - 13063

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, John A.; Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration technology is commonly used in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that require control of radioactive particulate matter (PM) emissions due to treatment or management of radioactive materials. Although HEPA technology typically makes use of glass fiber media, metal and ceramic media filters are also capable of filtering efficiencies beyond the required 99.97%. Sintered metal fiber filters are good candidates for use in DOE facilities due to their resistance to corrosive environments and resilience at high temperature and elevated levels of relative humidity. Their strength can protect them from high differential pressure or pressure spikes and allow for back pulse cleaning, extending filter lifetime. Use of these filters has the potential to reduce the cost of filtration in DOE facilities due to life cycle cost savings. ASME AG-1 section FI has not been approved due to a lack of protocols and performance criteria for qualifying section FI filters. The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) with the aid of the FI project team has developed a Section FI test stand and test plan capable of assisting in the qualification ASME AG-1 section FI filters. Testing done at ICET using the FI test stand evaluates resistance to rated air flow, test aerosol penetration and resistance to heated air of the section FI filters. Data collected during this testing consists of temperature, relative humidity, differential pressure, flow rate, upstream particle concentration, and downstream particle concentration. (authors)

  1. Crystal structure and properties of tetragonal EuAg4In8 grown by metal flux technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, Udumula; Sarkar, Sumanta; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2015-01-01

    The compound EuAg 4 In 8 has been obtained as single crystals in high yield from reactions run in liquid indium. X-ray diffraction on single crystals suggests that EuAg 4 In 8 crystallizes in the CeMn 4 Al 8 structure type, tetragonal space group I4/mmm with lattice constants a=b=9.7937(2) Å and c=5.7492(2) Å. Crystal structure of EuAg 4 In 8 is composed of pseudo Frank–Kasper cages occupied by one europium atom in each ring, which are shared through the corner along the ab plane resulting in a three dimensional network. The magnetic susceptibility of EuAg 4 In 8 was measured in the temperature range 2–300 K, which obeyed Curie–Weiss law above 50 K. Magnetic moment value calculated from the fitting indicates the presence of divalent europium, which was confirmed by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy. Electrical resistivity measurements suggest that EuAg 4 In 8 is metallic in nature with a probable Fermi liquid behavior at low temperature. - Graphical abstract: The tetragonal EuAg 4 In 8 has been grown as single crystals from reactions run in liquid indium. Magnetic and XANES measurements suggest divalent nature of Eu and resistivity measurements suggest metallic nature. - Highlights: • EuAg 4 In 8 phase having tetragonal phase is grown by metal flux technique. • Magnetic and XANES measurements exhibit divalent nature of Eu in EuAg 4 In 8 . • Resistivity measurement suggests metallic nature and probable Fermi liquid behavior

  2. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel/Brass Joints Brazed by Sn-Electroplated Ag Brazing Filler Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Peng, Jin; Cui, Datian

    2018-05-01

    To develop a high-Sn-content AgCuZnSn brazing filler metal, the BAg50CuZn was used as the base filler metal and a Sn layer was electroplated upon it. Then, the 304 stainless steel and the H62 brass were induction-brazed with the Sn-plated brazing filler metals. The microstructures of the joints were examined with an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope and an x-ray diffractometer. The corresponding mechanical properties were obtained with a universal tensile testing machine. The results indicated that the induction brazed joints consisted of the Ag phase, the Cu phase and the CuZn phase. When the content of Sn in the Sn-plated Ag brazing filler metal was 6.0 or 7.2 wt.%, the Cu5Zn8, the Cu41Sn11 and the Ag3Sn phases appeared in the brazed joint. The tensile strength of the joints brazed with the Sn-plated filler metal was higher compared to the joints with the base filler metal. When the content of Sn was 6.0 wt.%, the highest tensile strength of the joint reached to 395 MPa. The joint fractures presented a brittle mode, mixed with a low amount of ductile fracture, when the content of Sn exceeded 6.0 wt.%.

  3. Antimicrobial properties of Zr–Cu–Al–Ag thin film metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsien-Wei; Hsu, Kai-Chieh; Chan, Yu-Chen; Duh, Jenq-Gong; Lee, Jyh-Wei; Jang, Jason Shian-Ching; Chen, Guo-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Metallic glass as a prominent class of structure and multifunctional materials exhibits several unique properties in mechanical, electrochemical, and thermal properties. This study aimed to realize the advantage of biomedical application and to promote the attainable size of metallic glasses by the physical vapor deposition. The Zr–Cu–Al–Ag thin film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on silicon wafer and SUS304 stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering with single target. For X-ray diffraction analysis, all TFMGs revealed typical broad peaks around the incident angle of 30 to 50°, suggesting that coatings possess amorphous structure. In addition, diffuse halo ring patterns of transmission electron microscopy indicated a fine amorphorization for TFMG via sputtering process. The variation of surface roughness showed that TFMG derived from higher power of metallic targets revealed rougher morphology. Besides, the roughness of SUS304 stainless steel substrate significantly reduced from 7 nm to about 1 nm after TFMGs were deposited. The microbes of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used and cultivated on the TFMG coatings with medium to investigate the antimicrobial properties. In the incubation experiment, the growth of each microbe was recorded by a digital photography system and the growth area was calculated by image processing software. The growth area of the microbes on the TFMG was mostly smaller than that on SUS304 stainless steel ones within incubation time of 72 h, indicating that the TFMGs reveal better antimicrobial capability. Moreover, the coatings exhibit a particularly long-term antimicrobial effect for P. aeruginosa. In summary, the Zr–Cu–Al–Ag prepared by sputtering with a single target device presented superior glass forming ability, and coatings with copper and silver constituents revealed significantly antimicrobial properties. Besides, the surface roughness is another factor to affect the

  4. Antimicrobial properties of Zr–Cu–Al–Ag thin film metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsien-Wei; Hsu, Kai-Chieh; Chan, Yu-Chen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Duh, Jenq-Gong, E-mail: jgd@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Chen, Guo-Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-30

    Metallic glass as a prominent class of structure and multifunctional materials exhibits several unique properties in mechanical, electrochemical, and thermal properties. This study aimed to realize the advantage of biomedical application and to promote the attainable size of metallic glasses by the physical vapor deposition. The Zr–Cu–Al–Ag thin film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on silicon wafer and SUS304 stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering with single target. For X-ray diffraction analysis, all TFMGs revealed typical broad peaks around the incident angle of 30 to 50°, suggesting that coatings possess amorphous structure. In addition, diffuse halo ring patterns of transmission electron microscopy indicated a fine amorphorization for TFMG via sputtering process. The variation of surface roughness showed that TFMG derived from higher power of metallic targets revealed rougher morphology. Besides, the roughness of SUS304 stainless steel substrate significantly reduced from 7 nm to about 1 nm after TFMGs were deposited. The microbes of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used and cultivated on the TFMG coatings with medium to investigate the antimicrobial properties. In the incubation experiment, the growth of each microbe was recorded by a digital photography system and the growth area was calculated by image processing software. The growth area of the microbes on the TFMG was mostly smaller than that on SUS304 stainless steel ones within incubation time of 72 h, indicating that the TFMGs reveal better antimicrobial capability. Moreover, the coatings exhibit a particularly long-term antimicrobial effect for P. aeruginosa. In summary, the Zr–Cu–Al–Ag prepared by sputtering with a single target device presented superior glass forming ability, and coatings with copper and silver constituents revealed significantly antimicrobial properties. Besides, the surface roughness is another factor to affect the

  5. Solar photocatalytic water oxidation over Ag3PO4/g-C3N4 composite materials mediated by metallic Ag and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingkai; Tian, Lin; Xian, Xiaozhai; Tang, Hua; Yang, Xiaofei

    2018-02-01

    Solar-driven water splitting over semiconductor-based photocatalysts provides direct conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, in which electron-hole separation and charge transport are critical for enhancing the photocatalytic activity of semiconducting materials. Moreover, the search for active photocatalysts that efficiently oxidize water remains a challenging task. Here, we demonstrate that a series of Ag3PO4/Ag/graphene/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) heterostructured materials can drive photocatalytic water oxidation efficiently under LED illumination. The water oxidation behavior of as-prepared composite photocatalysts in relation to the added amount of g-C3N4 and the roles of electron mediators was investigated in detail. Based on the illuminated Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism, the photogenerated electrons and holes can be separated effectively and the electron-hole recombination of bulk material is suppressed. The reduced metallic Ag nanoparticles were found to function as the center for the accumulation of electrons from Ag3PO4 and holes from g-C3N4. By exploiting the proper addition of g-C3N4 into the composite, photocatalytic oxygen evolution performance over the heterostructured materials could be suitably tuned, which resulted in highly efficient water oxidation.

  6. Energy barriers for diffusion on heterogeneous stepped metal surfaces: Ag/Cu(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbiaai, K.; Boughaleb, Y.; Mazroui, M.; Hajjaji, A.; Kara, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the diffusion of Ag adatom by computing the energy barriers for many elementary diffusive processes which are likely to happen near to the step edge on Cu (110). The barriers are calculated by means of molecular dynamics simulation by using embedded atom potentials. The proximity to steps alters these barriers considerably, and very different results may be expected. In fact, our numerical calculations show that the diffusion via jump process along step edge is predominant for Ag/Cu(110) and the diffusion over the step occurs sometimes, but only via exchange mechanisms. The adatom diffusion across channels is difficult due to the high value of activation energy required (around 1 eV). Furthermore, we found the Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier for diffusion around 120 meV in order to descend via exchange process and of the order of 170 meV via hopping mode. This aspect may have a strong influence on the growth character. In general our results suggest that, for our metal system, diffusion mechanism may be important for mass transport across the steps. Implications of these findings are discussed. - Highlights: • Study of adatom diffusion near the step edge • The diffusion along channel is enhanced through jump process. • Arrhenius law is satisfied for a wide range of temperature (310–600 K)

  7. A Metal Bump Bonding Method Using Ag Nanoparticles as Intermediate Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weixin; Nimura, Masatsugu; Kasahara, Takashi; Mimatsu, Hayata; Okada, Akiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Ishizuka, Shugo; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The future development of low-temperature and low-pressure bonding technology is necessary for fine-pitch bump application. We propose a bump structure using Ag nanoparticles as an intermediate layer coated on a fine-pitch Cu pillar bump. The intermediate layer is prepared using an efficient and cost-saving squeegee-coating method followed by a 100°C baking process. This bump structure can be easily flattened before the bonding process, and the low-temperature sinterability of the nanoparticles is retained. The bonding experiment was successfully performed at 250°C and 39.8 MPa and the bonding strength was comparable to that achieved via other bonding technology utilizing metal particles or porous material as bump materials.

  8. Mode Specific Electronic Friction in Dissociative Chemisorption on Metal Surfaces: H2 on Ag(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Reinhard J.; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua; Tully, John C.

    2017-06-01

    Electronic friction and the ensuing nonadiabatic energy loss play an important role in chemical reaction dynamics at metal surfaces. Using molecular dynamics with electronic friction evaluated on the fly from density functional theory, we find strong mode dependence and a dominance of nonadiabatic energy loss along the bond stretch coordinate for scattering and dissociative chemisorption of H2 on the Ag(111) surface. Exemplary trajectories with varying initial conditions indicate that this mode specificity translates into modulated energy loss during a dissociative chemisorption event. Despite minor nonadiabatic energy loss of about 5%, the directionality of friction forces induces dynamical steering that affects individual reaction outcomes, specifically for low-incidence energies and vibrationally excited molecules. Mode-specific friction induces enhanced loss of rovibrational rather than translational energy and will be most visible in its effect on final energy distributions in molecular scattering experiments.

  9. Pressure induced Ag{sub 2}Te polymorphs in conjunction with topological non trivial to metal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.; Zhang, S. J., E-mail: sjzhang@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: jin@iphy.ac.cn; Yu, X. H.; Yu, R. C.; Jin, C. Q., E-mail: sjzhang@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: jin@iphy.ac.cn; Dai, X.; Fang, Z. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Oganov, A. R. [Department of Geosciences, University of New York at Stony Brook (United States); Feng, W. X.; Yao, Y. G. [Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China); Zhu, J. L. [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Zhao, Y. S. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2016-08-15

    Silver telluride (Ag{sub 2}Te) is well known as superionic conductor and topological insulator with polymorphs. Pressure induced three phase transitions in Ag{sub 2}Te have been reported in previous. Here, we experimentally identified high pressure phase above 13 GPa of Ag{sub 2}Te by using high pressure synchrotron x ray diffraction method in combination with evolutionary crystal structure prediction, showing it crystallizes into a monoclinic structure of space group C2/m with lattice parameters a = 6.081Å, b = 5.744Å, c = 6.797 Å, β = 105.53°. The electronic properties measurements of Ag{sub 2}Te reveal that the topologically non-trivial semiconducting phase I and semimetallic phase II previously predicated by theory transformed into bulk metals for high pressure phases in consistent with the first principles calculations.

  10. Characterization of a glass frit free TiCuAg-thick film metallization applied on aluminium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicher, R.; Smetana, W.; Adlassnig, A.; Schuster, J. C.; Gruber, U.

    1997-01-01

    The metallization of aluminium nitride substrates by glass frit free Ti CuAg-thick film pastes were investigated. Adhesion properties of the conductor paste were tested by measuring tensile strength and compared with commercial Cu-thick film pastes (within glass frit). Also numerical analysis of temperature-distribution and thermal extension of metallized aluminium nitride ceramic, induced by a continuous and a pulsed working electronic device were made with a finite element program. (author)

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF AG-1 SECTION FI ON METAL MEDIA FILTERS - 9061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.; Waggoner, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Development of a metal media standard (FI) for ASME AG-1 (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) has been under way for almost ten years. This paper will provide a brief history of the development process of this section and a detailed overview of its current content/status. There have been at least two points when dramatic changes have been made in the scope of the document due to feedback from the full Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT). Development of the proposed section has required resolving several difficult issues associated with scope; namely, filtering efficiency, operating conditions (media velocity, pressure drop, etc.), qualification testing, and quality control/acceptance testing. A proposed version of Section FI is currently undergoing final revisions prior to being submitted for balloting. The section covers metal media filters of filtering efficiencies ranging from medium (less than 99.97%) to high (99.97% and greater). Two different types of high efficiency filters are addressed; those units intended to be a direct replacement of Section FC fibrous glass HEPA filters and those that will be placed into newly designed systems capable of supporting greater static pressures and differential pressures across the filter elements. Direct replacements of FC HEPA filters in existing systems will be required to meet equivalent qualification and testing requirements to those contained in Section FC. A series of qualification and quality assurance test methods have been identified for the range of filtering efficiencies covered by this proposed standard. Performance characteristics of sintered metal powder vs. sintered metal fiber media are dramatically different with respect to parameters like differential pressures and rigidity of the media. Wide latitude will be allowed for owner specification of performance criteria for filtration units that will be placed into newly designed systems. Such allowances will permit use of the most

  12. Addressing Challenges and Scalability in the Synthesis of Thin Uniform Metal Shells on Large Metal Nanoparticle Cores: Case Study of Ag-Pt Core-Shell Nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Umar; Linic, Suljo

    2017-12-13

    Bimetallic nanoparticles in which a metal is coated with an ultrathin (∼1 nm) layer of a second metal are often desired for their unique chemical and physical properties. Current synthesis methods for producing such core-shell nanostructures often require incremental addition of a shell metal precursor which is rapidly reduced onto metal cores. A major shortcoming of this approach is that it necessitates precise concentrations of chemical reagents, making it difficult to perform at large scales. To address this issue, we considered an approach whereby the reduction of the shell metal precursor was controlled through in situ chemical modification of the precursor. We used this approach to develop a highly scalable synthesis for coating atomic layers of Pt onto Ag nanocubes. We show that Ag-Pt core-shell nanostructures are synthesized in high yields and that these structures effectively combine the optical properties of the plasmonic Ag nanocube core with the surface properties of the thin Pt shell. Additionally, we demonstrate the scalability of the synthesis by performing a 10 times scale-up.

  13. Hydrazine reduction of metal ions to porous submicro-structures of Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, and Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yue; Shi Yongfang; Chen Yubiao [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Wu Liming, E-mail: liming_wu@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Porous submicro-structures of Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, and Bi with high surface area have been prepared by the reduction of hydrazine in glycerol-ethanol solution at room temperature or 120-180 Degree-Sign C. Phase purity, morphology, and specific surface area have been characterized. The reactions probably undergo three different mechanisms: simple reduction for Ag and Pd, coordination-then-reduction for Cu and Ni, and hydrolysis-then-reduction for Bi. The reductant hydrazine also plays an important role to the formation of the porous submicro-structure. The reaction temperature influences the size of the constituent particles and the overall architecture of the submicro-structure so as to influence the surface area value. The as-prepared porous metals have shown the second largest surface area ever reported, which are smaller than those made by the reduction of NaBH{sub 4}, but larger than those made by hard or soft template methods. - Graphical abstract: Porous submicro-structures of Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, and Bi with high surface area have been prepared by the reduction of hydrazine in the glycerol-ethanol solution at room temperature or 120-180 Degree-Sign C. The reactions undergo different mechanisms: simple reduction for Ag and Pd, coordination-then-reduction for Cu and Ni, and hydrolysis-then-reduction for Bi. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Syntheses of porous Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, and Bi with high surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag and Pd undergo simple reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu and Ni undergo coordination-then-reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi undergoes hydrolysis-then-reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-prepared metals have shown the second largest surface area ever reported.

  14. A 3D Ag(I) metal-organic framework for sensing luminescence and photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hai-Ning; Liu, Li-Wei; Hao, Zeng Chuan; Cui, Guang-Hua

    2018-03-01

    A fluorescent metal-organic framework (MOF), [Ag(btx)0.5(DCTP)0.5]n (1) (H2DCTP = 2,5-dichloroterephthalic acid and btx = 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffractions and thermogravimetry. The framework of 1 can be classified as a binodal (4,4)-connected PtS topological network. The fluorescence explorations demonstrated that 1 shows selective and sensitive detection towards Cr2O72- with high quenching efficiency of 1.92 × 104 M-1. The rapid and efficient response of 1 to Cr2O72- ion suggests that this material could be used as a luminescent sensor for Cr2O72- ion. Meanwhile the photocatalytic properties of 1 for the degradation of RhB have also been investigated under UV radiation. The possible photocatalytic mechanisms were also speculated. Hence, 1 can become multi-functional material in sensitive detection and effective removal of some environment pollutants in industrial waste water solutions.

  15. Analysis of atomic mobility in a Cu38Zr46Ag8Al8 bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, J.C.; Pelletier, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Atomic mobility in Cu 38 Zr 46 Ag 8 Al 8 bulk metallic glass have been investigated by DMA. ► Loss factor is directly connected to the energy lost during application of the stress. ► Structural relaxation and crystallization induces a decrease of the atomic mobility. ► The concentration of quasi-point defects links to atomic mobility in metallic glasses. - Abstract: Atomic mobility in as-cast and annealed Cu 38 Zr 46 Ag 8 Al 8 bulk metallic glass samples is analyzed by performing dynamic mechanical analysis. The loss factor is directly connected to the energy lost during application of the stress. Structural relaxation process and crystallization lead to a decrease of the atomic mobility in the bulk metallic glass. A physical model, based on the concept of quasi point defects is introduced, to describe the atomic mobility. Movements in amorphous materials are correlated. The correlation factor χ reflects the atomic mobility in bulk metallic glasses: structural relaxation and crystallization lead to a decrease of χ, implying the reduction of atomic mobility. The evolution of elastic, visco-elastic and viscoplastic components after structural relaxation and partial crystallization state during the mechanical response has been obtained. Compared with as-cast state, structural relaxation induced an increase of elastic component and a decrease of visco-elastic component in the metallic glass.

  16. Study of helium diffusion, implanted at a cyclotron, in face-centered cubic metals: Au, Ag and Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciani, V.

    1985-01-01

    Helium in metals is produced by nuclear reactions of energetic particles. In nuclear technology the interest on helium in metals is import, due to its production by (n, α) reaction. Because helium has extremely low solubility in metals, the precipitation in the form of filled bubbles at elevated temperatures occurs, which have detrimental effects on mechanical properties and may limit the lifetime of structural components. One typical example is the high temperature embrittlement. The nucleation and growth of the bubbles strongly depends on the mobility of the helium. This work presents the study of helium diffusion in Au, Ag and Al at temperatures above room temperature. The helium created by (n, α) reactions has been simulated by homogeneous alpha particles implantation in cyclotron, at room temperature, in specimens of thicknesses between 5 and 50 μm and helium concentration between 10 -3 to 10 ppm. After implantation, the specimens were dropped in a furnace in a UHV-chamber and the diffusion was measured by observing the He-release during linear and isothermal annealings. The occurence of free diffusion was comparing the dependence of release kinetics on helium concentration, sample thickness, time and heating rate to diffusion theory and is clearly separeted from agglomeration process. The diffusion constants of helium in Au, Ag and Al follow an Arrhenius behavior, with: Au:D o =10 -1.0 cm 2 /s ΔH=1.70eV Ag:D 0 =10 -1.2 cm 2 /s ΔH=1.51eV Al:D o =10 +0.5 cm 2 /s ΔH=1.40eV. The results are compared to self-diffusion and to the diffusion of other gases in these metals. Comparison with theoretical estimates favours the vacancy mechanism for helium diffusion in Au, Ag and Al. (author) [pt

  17. Retrieval of Au, Ag, Cu precious metals coupled with electric energy production via an unconventional coupled redox fuel cell reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Fan, Zheng; Xu, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Wu, Zu-Cheng

    2017-09-15

    The recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solutions or e-wastes is of upmost importance. Retrieval of Au, Ag, and Cu with electricity generation through building an ethanol-metal coupled redox fuel cells (CRFCs) is demonstrated. The cell was uniquely assembled on PdNi/C anode the electro-oxidation of ethanol takes place to give electrons and then go through the external circuit reducing metal ions to metallic on the cathode, metals are recovered. Taking an example of removal of 100mgL -1 gold in 0.5M HAc-NaAc buffer solution as the catholyte, 2.0M ethanol in 1.0M alkaline solution as the anolyte, an open circuit voltage of 1.4V, more than 96% of gold removal efficiency in 20h, and equivalent energy production of 2.0kWhkg -1 of gold can be readily achieved in this system. When gold and copper ions coexist, it was confirmed that metallic Cu is formed on the cathodic electrode later than metallic Au formation by XPS analysis. Thus, this system can achieve step by step electrodeposition of gold and copper while the two metal ions coexisting. This work develops a new approach to retrieve valuable metals from aqueous solution or e-wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of a metal filling and liner formation mechanism of the blind via with nano-Ag particles for TSV (through silicon via) interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Y-H; Kim, D-P; Baek, K-H; Park, K-S; Do, L-M; Kwon, K-H

    2012-01-01

    We investigated a metal filling and liner formation mechanism with a nano-Ag particle for the blind Si via, which is used in the via first process of through silicon via (TSV) interconnection. Using the deep reactive ion etching process, we produced the blind Si via (which is called the blind via hole or via) with a nearly vertical profile. The diameter and depth of the blind Si via were about 10 and 71 µm, respectively. The blind via holes were filled with a nano-Ag particle solution to form a metal plug or a metal liner. At this time, the Ag filling properties were monitored as a function of the volatilization rate of the Ag particle solution in the evacuating chamber. In the fast volatilization of the nano-Ag particle solution, an Ag liner formed on the inner wall of via holes. Meanwhile, both an Ag liner at the sidewall and the Ag plug at the bottom were obtained by the slow volatilization process. Finally, blind via holes fully filled with nano-Ag particles were obtained using four repetitions of the slow volatilization filling process. The proposed TSV filling process can fill large-diameter via holes over 100 µm without a seed layer and chemical mechanical planarization for TSV interconnection at low temperature. This is a simple and cost-effective TSV filling process. (paper)

  19. Bandgap Engineering of Lead-Free Double Perovskite Cs2 AgBiBr6 through Trivalent Metal Alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ke-Zhao; Meng, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaoming; Yan, Yanfa; Mitzi, David B

    2017-07-03

    The double perovskite family, A 2 M I M III X 6 , is a promising route to overcome the lead toxicity issue confronting the current photovoltaic (PV) standout, CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 . Given the generally large indirect band gap within most known double perovskites, band-gap engineering provides an important approach for targeting outstanding PV performance within this family. Using Cs 2 AgBiBr 6 as host, band-gap engineering through alloying of In III /Sb III has been demonstrated in the current work. Cs 2 Ag(Bi 1-x M x )Br 6 (M=In, Sb) accommodates up to 75 % In III with increased band gap, and up to 37.5 % Sb III with reduced band gap; that is, enabling ca. 0.41 eV band gap modulation through introduction of the two metals, with smallest value of 1.86 eV for Cs 2 Ag(Bi 0.625 Sb 0.375 )Br 6 . Band structure calculations indicate that opposite band gap shift directions associated with Sb/In substitution arise from different atomic configurations for these atoms. Associated photoluminescence and environmental stability of the three-metal systems are also assessed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Bandgap engineering of lead-free double perovskite Cs_2AgBiBr_6 through trivalent metal alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ke-zhao; Mitzi, David B.; Meng, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaoming; Yan, Yanfa

    2017-01-01

    The double perovskite family, A_2M"IM"I"I"IX_6, is a promising route to overcome the lead toxicity issue confronting the current photovoltaic (PV) standout, CH_3NH_3PbI_3. Given the generally large indirect band gap within most known double perovskites, band-gap engineering provides an important approach for targeting outstanding PV performance within this family. Using Cs_2AgBiBr_6 as host, band-gap engineering through alloying of In"I"I"I/Sb"I"I"I has been demonstrated in the current work. Cs_2Ag(Bi_1_-_xM_x)Br_6 (M=In, Sb) accommodates up to 75 % In"I"I"I with increased band gap, and up to 37.5 % Sb"I"I"I with reduced band gap; that is, enabling ca. 0.41 eV band gap modulation through introduction of the two metals, with smallest value of 1.86 eV for Cs_2Ag(Bi_0_._6_2_5Sb_0_._3_7_5)Br_6. Band structure calculations indicate that opposite band gap shift directions associated with Sb/In substitution arise from different atomic configurations for these atoms. Associated photoluminescence and environmental stability of the three-metal systems are also assessed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Biodynamic modelling of the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Ag, As and Zn) by an infaunal estuarine invertebrate, the clam Scrobicularia plana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, J.; Smith, B.D.; Bury, N.R.; Rainbow, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodynamic modelling is used to predict accumulation of Ag, As and Zn in S. plana. • Dissolved and sediment-associated metals contribute to total metal bioaccumulation. • Relative importance varies with water and sediment concentrations and geochemistries. - Abstract: Biodynamic modelling was used to investigate the uptake and accumulation of three trace metals (Ag, As, Zn) by the deposit feeding estuarine bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. Radioactive labelling techniques were used to quantify the rates of trace metal uptake (and subsequent elimination) from water and sediment diet. The uptake rate constant from solution (±SE) was greatest for Ag (3.954 ± 0.375 l g −1 d −1 ) followed by As (0.807 ± 0.129 l g −1 d −1 ) and Zn (0.103 ± 0.016 l g −1 d −1 ). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediment were 40.2 ± 1.3% (Ag), 31.7 ± 1.0% (Zn) and 25.3 ± 0.9% (As). Efflux rate constants after exposure to metals in the solution or sediment fell in the range of 0.014–0.060 d −1 . By incorporating these physiological parameters into biodynamic models, our results showed that dissolved metal is the predominant source of accumulated Ag, As and Zn in S. plana, accounting for 66–99%, 50–97% and 52–98% of total accumulation of Ag, As and Zn, respectively, under different field exposure conditions. In general, model-predicted steady state concentrations of Ag, As and Zn matched well with those observed in clams collected in SW England estuaries. Our findings highlight the potential of biodynamic modelling to predict Ag, As and Zn accumulation in S. plana, taking into account specific dissolved and sediment concentrations of the metals at a particular field site, together with local water and sediment geochemistries

  2. Partially Covered Metal Stents May Not Prolong Stent Patency Compared to Uncovered Stents in Unresectable Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yun; Ko, Gyu Bong; Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Yun Nah; Cho, Young Sin; Jung, Yunho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Choi, Hyun Jong; Cha, Sang-Woo; Moon, Jong Ho; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Controversy still exists regarding the benefits of covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) compared to uncovered SEMSs. We aimed to compare the patency and stent-related adverse events of partially covered SEMSs (PC-SEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. Methods A total of 134 patients who received a PC-SEMS or uncovered SEMS for palliation of unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction were reviewed retrospectively. The main outcome measures were stent patency, stent-related adverse events, and overall survival. Results The median stent patency was 118 days (range, 3 to 802 days) with PC-SEMSs and 105 days (range, 2 to 485 days) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.718). The overall endoscopic revision rate due to stent dysfunction was 36.6% (26/71) with PC-SEMSs and 36.5% (23/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.589). Tumor ingrowth was more frequent with uncovered SEMSs (4.2% vs 19.1%, p=0.013), but migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs (11.2% vs 1.5%, p=0.04). The incidence of stent-related adverse events was 2.8% (2/71) with PC-SEMSs and 9.5% (6/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.224). The median overall survival was 166 days with PC-SEMSs and 168 days with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.189). Conclusions Compared to uncovered SEMSs, PC-SEMSs did not prolong stent patency in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. Stent migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs. However, tumor ingrowth was less frequent with PC-SEMSs compared to uncovered SEMSs. PMID:28208003

  3. Experiment Analysis and Modelling of Compaction Behaviour of Ag60Cu30Sn10 Mixed Metal Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengcheng; Huang, Shangyu; Liu, Wei; Lei, Yu; Yan, Shiwei

    2018-03-01

    A novel process method combines powder compaction and sintering was employed to fabricate thin sheets of cadmium-free silver based filler metals, the compaction densification behaviour of Ag60Cu30Sn10 mixed metal powders was investigated experimentally. Based on the equivalent density method, the density-dependent Drucker-Prager Cap (DPC) model was introduced to model the powder compaction behaviour. Various experiment procedures were completed to determine the model parameters. The friction coefficients in lubricated and unlubricated die were experimentally determined. The determined material parameters were validated by experiments and numerical simulation of powder compaction process using a user subroutine (USDFLD) in ABAQUS/Standard. The good agreement between the simulated and experimental results indicates that the determined model parameters are able to describe the compaction behaviour of the multicomponent mixed metal powders, which can be further used for process optimization simulations.

  4. Photoluminescence and photocatalytic activities of Ag/ZnO metal-semiconductor heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Bikash; Deb, Sujit Kumar; Sarma, Bimal K.

    2016-01-01

    Present article focuses on the photocatalytic activities of ZnO nanorods and Ag/ZnO heterostructure deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. ZnO nanorods are synthesized by thermal decomposition technique and Ag nanoparticles deposition is done by photo-deposition technique using UV light. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the ZnO nanorods are of hexagonal wurtzite structure. Further, as-prepared samples are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The surface plasmon resonance response of Ag/ZnO is found at 420 nm. The photocatalytic activities of the samples are evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange (MO) dye with UV irradiation. The degradation rate of MO increases with increase in irradiation time. The degradation of MO follows the first order kinetics. The photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO heterostructure is found to be more than that of ZnO nanorods. The PL intensity of ZnO nanorods is stronger than that of the Ag/ZnO heterostructure. The strong PL intensity indicates high recombination rate of photoinduced charge carriers which lowers the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods. The charge carrier recombination is effectively suppressed by introducing Ag nanoparticles on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. This study demonstrates a strong relationship between PL intensity and photocatalytic activity. (paper)

  5. Measurement of the energetics of metal film growth on a semiconductor: Ag/ Si(100)-2x1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, D.E.; Ranney, J.T.; Larsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2001-01-01

    The first direct calorimetric measurements of the energetics of metal film growth on a semiconductor surface are presented. The heat of adsorption of Ag on Si(100)-(2 x 1) at 300 K decreases from similar to 347 to 246 kJ/mol with coverage in the first monolayer (ML) due to overlap of substrate...... strain from nearby Ag islands. It then rises quickly toward the bulk sublimation enthalpy (285 kJ/mol) as 3D particles grow. A wetting layer grows to 1.0 ML, but is metastable above similar to0.55 ML and dewets when kinetics permit. This may be common when adsorbate islands induce a large strain...

  6. Effect of impregnation protocol in the metallic sites of Pt–Ag/activated carbon catalysts for water denitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristizábal, A. [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Contreras, S., E-mail: sandra.contreras@urv.cat [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Divins, N.J.; Llorca, J. [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques i Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Medina, F. [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Mean particle size is tuned by the Pt precursor. H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} leads to smaller size. • H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} leads to higher extent of Pt–Ag particles with a composition richer in silver. • Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} leads to Ag{sup 0} particles and some Pt–Ag ensembles in less extent. • Nitrate and nitrite rates are linearly related to mean metal particle size. • Physical mixture of catalysts enhances N{sub 2} selectivities. - Abstract: The influence of the Pt precursor and the impregnation protocol in the catalytic behavior of 3%Pt–1.5%Ag supported on activated carbon for water denitration in a continuous reactor was studied. Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} were selected as Pt precursors. Five protocols were investigated: sequential impregnations (both sequences), co-impregnation, physical mixture of monometallic catalysts, and physical mixture of a bimetallic catalyst with a Pt monometallic catalyst. The samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, TPR, HRTEM and physisorption. It was found that the catalytic activity strongly depends on the synthesis protocol and the Pt precursor, which modify the particle size. Higher nitrate rates are achieved using H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} than Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}; this is mainly related to the smaller metal particle size of the former, evidenced by HRTEM. Nitrate consumption rate is directly related with the mean particle size. The physical mixture of monometallic catalysts resulted in the highest nitrogen rate.

  7. Vanadium oxide based cpd. useful as a cathode active material - is used in lithium or alkali metal batteries to prolong life cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    A mixt. of metallic iron particles and vanadium pentoxide contg. V in its pentavalent state in a liq. is reacted to convert at least some of the pentavalent V to its tetravalent state and form a gel. The liq. phase is then sepd. from the oxide based gel to obtain a solid material(I) comprising Fe......, V and oxygen where at least some of the V is in the tetravalent state. USE-(I) is a cathode active material in electric current producing storage cells. ADVANTAGE-Use of (I) in Li or alkali metal batteries gives prolonged life cycles.Storage cells using (I) have improved capacity during charge...

  8. Processing and Prolonged 500 C Testing of 4H-SiC JFET Integrated Circuits with Two Levels of Metal Interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Chen, Liangyu; Lukco, Dorothy; Chang, Carl W.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.

    2015-01-01

    Complex integrated circuit (IC) chips rely on more than one level of interconnect metallization for routing of electrical power and signals. This work reports the processing and testing of 4H-SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET) prototype IC's with two levels of metal interconnect capable of prolonged operation at 500 C. Packaged functional circuits including 3- and 11-stage ring oscillators, a 4-bit digital to analog converter, and a 4-bit address decoder and random access memory cell have been demonstrated at 500 C. A 3-stage oscillator functioned for over 3000 hours at 500 C in air ambient. Improved reproducibility remains to be accomplished.

  9. N-Heterocyclic carbenes on close-packed coinage metal surfaces: bis-carbene metal adatom bonding scheme of monolayer films on Au, Ag and Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhang, Bodong; Médard, Guillaume; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo; Haag, Felix; Allegretti, Francesco; Reichert, Joachim; Kuster, Bernhard; Barth, Johannes V; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C

    2017-12-01

    By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), complementary density functional theory (DFT) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) we investigate the binding and self-assembly of a saturated molecular layer of model N -heterocyclic carbene (NHC) on Cu(111), Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. XPS reveals that at room temperature, coverages up to a monolayer exist, with the molecules engaged in metal carbene bonds. On all three surfaces, we resolve similar arrangements, which can be interpreted only in terms of mononuclear M(NHC) 2 (M = Cu, Ag, Au) complexes, reminiscent of the paired bonding of thiols to surface gold adatoms. Theoretical investigations for the case of Au unravel the charge distribution of a Au(111) surface covered by Au(NHC) 2 and reveal that this is the energetically preferential adsorption configuration.

  10. Optical and structural properties of TiO2/Ti/Ag/TiO2 and TiO2/ITO/Ag/ITO/TiO2 metal-dielectric multilayers by RF magnetron sputtering for display application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hyu; Hwangbo, Chang-Kwon; Lee, Kwang-Su

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding and near-infrared (NIR) cutoff filters for plasma display panels, based on fundamental structures (ITO/Ag/ITO), (TiO 2 /Ti/Ag/TiO 2 ) and (TiO 2 /ITO/Ag/ITO/TiO 2 ), were designed and prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering. The optical, structural and electrical properties of the filters were investigated by using spectrophotometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and four-point-probe measurements. The results show that ITO films as the barriers and base layers lead to higher transmittance in the visible spectrum and smoother surface roughness than Ti metal barriers, while maintaining high NIR cutoff characteristics and chemical stability, which may be attributed to the lower absorption in the interfacial layers and better protection of the Ag layers by the ITO layers.

  11. Organic adsorbates on metal surfaces. PTCDA and NTCDA on AG(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Afshin

    2010-02-22

    Polyaromatic molecules functionalized with carboxylic groups have served as model systems for the growth of organic semiconducting films on a large variety of substrates. Most non-reactive substrates allow for a growth mode compatible with the bulk phase of the molecular crystal with two molecules in the unit cell, but some more reactive substrates including Ag(111) and Ag(110) can induce substantial changes in the first monolayer (ML). In the specific case of Ag(110), the adsorbate unit cell of both NTCDA and PTCDA resembles a brickwall structure, with a single molecule in the unit cell. From this finding, it can be concluded that the adsorbate-substrate interaction is stronger than typical inter-molecular binding energies in the respective bulk phases. In the present work, the interactions between small Ag(110) clusters and a single NTCDA or PTCDA molecule are investigated with different ab initio techniques. Four major ingredients contribute to the binding between adsorbate and substrate: Directional bonds between Ag atoms in the topmost layer and the oxygen atoms of the molecule, Pauli repulsion between filled orbitals of molecule and substrate, an attractive van-der-Waals interaction, and a negative net charge on the molecule inducing positive image charges in the substrate, resulting therefore in an attractive Coulomb interaction between these opposite charges. As both Hartree-Fock theory and density functional theory with typical gradient-corrected density functional do not contain any long range correlation energy required for dispersion interactions, we compare these approaches with the fastest numerical technique where the leading term of the van-der-Waals interaction is included, i.e. second order Moeller-Plesset theory (MP2). Both Hartree-Fock and density functional theory result in bended optimized geometries where the adsorbate is interacting mainly via the oxygen atoms, with the core of the molecule repelled from the substrate. Only at the MP2 level

  12. Distributions of dissolved trace metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ag in the southeastern Atlantic and the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boye

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive synoptic datasets (surface water down to 4000 m of dissolved cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, lead (Pb and silver (Ag are presented along a section between 34° S and 57° S in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean to the south off South Africa. The vertical distributions of Cu and Ag display nutrient-like profiles similar to silicic acid, and of Cd similar to phosphate. The distribution of Mn shows a subsurface maximum in the oxygen minimum zone, whereas Pb concentrations are rather invariable with depth. Dry deposition of aerosols is thought to be an important source of Pb to surface waters close to South Africa, and dry deposition and snowfall may have been significant sources of Cu and Mn at the higher latitudes. Furthermore, the advection of water masses enriched in trace metals following contact with continental margins appeared to be an important source of trace elements to the surface, intermediate and deep waters in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Hydrothermal inputs may have formed a source of trace metals to the deep waters over the Bouvet Triple Junction ridge crest, as suggested by relatively enhanced dissolved Mn concentrations. The biological utilization of Cu and Ag was proportional to that of silicic acid across the section, suggesting that diatoms formed an important control over the removal of Cu and Ag from surface waters. However, uptake by dino- and nano-flagellates may have influenced the distribution of Cu and Ag in the surface waters of the subtropical Atlantic domain. Cadmium correlated strongly with phosphate (P, yielding lower Cd / P ratios in the subtropical surface waters where phosphate concentrations were below 0.95 μM. The greater depletion of Cd relative to P observed in the Weddell Gyre compared to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current could be due to increase Cd uptake induced by iron-limiting conditions in these high

  13. Schottky junction interfacial properties at high temperature: A case of AgNWs embedded metal oxide/p-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahala, Pramila; Patel, Malkeshkumar; Gupta, Navneet; Kim, Joondong; Lee, Byung Ha

    2018-05-01

    Studying the performance limiting parameters of the Schottky device is an urgent issue, which are addressed herein by thermally stable silver nanowire (AgNW) embedded metal oxide/p-Si Schottky device. Temperature and bias dependent junction interfacial properties of AgNW-ITO/Si Schottky photoelectric device are reported. The current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T), capacitance-voltage-temperature (C-V-T) and impedance analysis have been carried out in the high-temperature region. The ideality factor and barrier height of Schottky junction are assessed using I-V-T characteristics and thermionic emission, to reveal the decrease of ideality factor and increase of barrier height by the increasing of temperature. The extracted values of laterally homogeneous Schottky (ϕb) and ideality factor (n) are approximately 0.73 eV and 1.58, respectively. Series resistance (Rs) assessed using Cheung's method and found that it decreases with the increase of temperature. A linear response of Rs of AgNW-ITO/Si Schottky junction is observed with respect to change in forward bias, i.e. dRS/dV from 0 to 0.7 V is in the range of 36.12-36.43 Ω with a rate of 1.44 Ω/V. Impedance spectroscopy is used to study the effect of bias voltage and temperature on intrinsic Schottky properties which are responsible for photoconversion efficiency. These systematic analyses are useful for the AgNWs-embedding Si solar cells or photoelectrochemical cells.

  14. Joining of pressureless-sintered SiC to stainless steel using Ag-Cu alloy and insert-metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Toyohiko; Takada, Naohiro; Iseki, Takayoshi

    1987-01-01

    Brazing of pressureless-sintered SiC to stainless steel using Ag-28 wt% Cu alloy was studied. In SiC plate joined to stainless steel rod (6 mm in diameter) using an Ag-Cu alloy powder containing 1.5 wt% Ti, the bond strength increased with decreasing brazing temperature and holding time. When the increased size of stainless steel plate (10 x 10 x 4 mm), joining was unsuccessful by the method mentioned above and even with Ti insert-metal. However, simultaneous use of Ti and Mo as insert-metal gave a good bonding in the order SiC/Ti/Mo/stainless steel, because of relaxation of residual stress due to thermal expansion mismatch. The shear strength was 30 - 50 MPa. A thin layer, probably Ti 3 SiC 2 , was observed at the interface between SiC and brazing filler immediately after melting. But with increasing both temperature and time, Ti 5 Si 3 (C) and TiC x were formed if Ti was continuously provided from the brazing filler. Since the interface of Ti 3 SiC 2 and either Ti 5 Si 3 (C) or TiC x seemed to be brittle, the formation of Ti 5 Si 3 (C) and TiC x decreased the bond strength. At lower temperature and short time, a high bond strength is expected when Ti was inserted in contact with SiC. (author)

  15. Change of quasilattice constant during amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation in Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Rasmussen, A.R.; Jensen, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    The amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation in a Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass has been investigated by monitoring the quasilattice constant and the composition of quasicrystalline particles in the samples annealed in vacuum at 663 K for various times. It is found that the quas......The amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation in a Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass has been investigated by monitoring the quasilattice constant and the composition of quasicrystalline particles in the samples annealed in vacuum at 663 K for various times. It is found......Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass is a nonpolymorphous reaction....

  16. New Ti-based Ti–Cu–Zr–Fe–Sn–Si–Ag bulk metallic glass for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Shujie; Liu, Ying; Li, Haifei; Sun, Lulu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Ti 47 Cu 38 Zr 7.5 Fe 2.5 Sn 2 Si 1 Ag 2 (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with a critical diameter of 7 mm was discovered. • The present BMG is the largest Ni- and Be-free Ti-based BMG containing low content of noble metal reported to date. • The glassy alloy possesses high specific strength, low Young’s modulus, and good corrosion resistance and bio-compatibility. • Combination of high glass-forming ability and good mechano- and bio-compatibility for the Ti-based BMG demonstrates the potential for use in biomedical applications. - Abstract: A novel Ni-free Ti 47 Cu 38 Zr 7.5 Fe 2.5 Sn 2 Si 1 Ag 2 (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with superior glass-forming ability, good mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility was discovered. The Ti-based BMG with a diameter of 7 mm can be prepared by copper mold casting and the supercooled liquid region was 52 K. Compressive strength, specific strength, Young’s modulus and microhardness of the Ti-based BMG were about 2.08 GPa, 3.2 × 10 5 N m/kg, 100 GPa and 588 Hv, respectively. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the Ti-based glassy alloy possesses higher corrosion resistance than Ti–6Al–4V alloy in a simulated body fluid environment. Attachment, spreading out and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti-based BMG surface demonstrated the excellent biocompatibility. Mechanisms of the formation and properties for the Ti-based glassy alloy are also discussed. The combination of high glass-forming ability, excellent mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility demonstrates the potential of the Ni-free Ti-based BMG for use in biomedical applications

  17. Effects of PCB Pad Metal Finishes on the Cu-Pillar/Sn-Ag Micro Bump Joint Reliability of Chip-on-Board (COB) Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoon; Lee, Seyong; Shin, Ji-won; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2016-06-01

    While solder bumps have been used as the bump structure to form the interconnection during the last few decades, the continuing scaling down of devices has led to a change in the bump structure to Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bumps. Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bump interconnections differ from conventional solder bump interconnections in terms of their assembly processing and reliability. A thermo-compression bonding method with pre-applied b-stage non-conductive films has been adopted to form solder joints between Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps and printed circuit board vehicles, using various pad metal finishes. As a result, various interfacial inter-metallic compounds (IMCs) reactions and stress concentrations occur at the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps joints. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the influence of pad metal finishes on the structural reliability of fine pitch Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps flip chip packaging. In this study, four different pad surface finishes (Thin Ni ENEPIG, OSP, ENEPIG, ENIG) were evaluated in terms of their interconnection reliability by thermal cycle (T/C) test up to 2000 cycles at temperatures ranging from -55°C to 125°C and high-temperature storage test up to 1000 h at 150°C. The contact resistances of the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump showed significant differences after the T/C reliability test in the following order: thin Ni ENEPIG > OSP > ENEPIG where the thin Ni ENEPIG pad metal finish provided the best Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump interconnection in terms of bump joint reliability. Various IMCs formed between the bump joint areas can account for the main failure mechanism.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of metallic and non-metallic materials in various media in the Anhydrite and Gypsum Mine Felsenau/AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laske, D.; Wiedemann, K.H.

    1983-10-01

    The final underground disposal of radioactive wastes necessitates container materials with a good long-term resistance against corrosion from both external agents and the solidification matrix inside. For low- and medium-level active waste, repositories in anhydrite sites, among others, are under consideration. Sheet and plate samples from 14 metallic and 8 non-metallic materials have been tested for 5 years in a tunnel in the Anhydrite and Gypsum Mine Felsenau/AG for their corrosion resistance in the tunnel atmosphere, anhydrite powder, gypsum powder, gypsum, and cement. From the metallic materials tested, only chromium-nickel steel is corrosion resistant to all the media present. Zinc plated and tin plated iron sheet as well as aluminium and aluminium alloys are corrosion resistant only in the atmosphere of the tunnel, and lead plated iron sheet is resistant also in cement. Aluminium is dissolved in cement. Uncovered iron sheet undergoes severe corrosion. The non-metallic coatings tested (lacquer, stove lacquer, or synthetic resins) partially flake off already after one year's testing and are therefore not appropriate for iron sheet corrosion protection. No influence of the different media has been observed after 5 years on the 8 plastic materials tested (6 without, and 2 with glass fiber reinforcement). (author)

  19. Photoemission studies of zinc-noble metal alloys: Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au films on Ru(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Hrbek, J.

    1993-01-01

    Zn and the noble metals alloy when coadsorbed on Ru(001). The properties of Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au alloys have been studied using core- and valence-level photoemission and temperature programmed desorption. Alloy formation induces only small shifts (-0.2 to -0.3 eV) in the position of the Zn 2p, 3s, and 3d levels. In contrast, the core and valence levels of the noble metals show large shifts toward higher binding energy. For small amounts of Cu, Ag, and Au dissolved in Zn multilayers, the shifts in the core levels of the nobel metals follow the sequence: Cu(2p 3/2 ), 0.8 eV∼Ag(3d 5/2 ), 0.8 eV 7/2 ), 1.4 eV. The magnitude of the shift increases as the Pauling electronegativity of the noble metal increases. However, the sign of the shifts for the Cu(2p 3/2 ), Ag(3d 5/2 ), or Au(4f 7/2 ) levels is not directly determined by the direction of charge transfer within the corresponding Zn-noble metal bond

  20. Enhanced brightness of organic light-emitting diodes based on Mg:Ag cathode using alkali metal chlorides as an electron injection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Ye; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Denghui; Lü Zhaoyue; Yin Yuehong; Du Hailiang; Chen Zheng; Wang Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Different thicknesses of cesium chloride (CsCl) and various alkali metal chlorides were inserted into organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as electron injection layers (EILs). The basic structure of OLED is indium tin oxide (ITO)/N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-napthyl-phenyl)-1.1′-biphenyl-4.4′-diamine (NPB)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3 )/Mg:Ag/Ag. The electroluminescent (EL) performance curves show that both the brightness and efficiency of the OLEDs can be obviously enhanced by using a thin alkali metal chloride layer as an EIL. The electron injection barrier height between the Alq 3 layer and Mg:Ag cathode is reduced by inserting a thin alkali metal chloride as an EIL, which results in enhanced electron injection and electron current. Therefore, a better balance of hole and electron currents at the emissive interface is achieved and consequently the brightness and efficiency of OLEDs are improved. - Highlights: ► Alkaline metal chlorides were used as electron injection layers in organic light-emitting diodes based on Mg:Ag cathode. ► Brightness and efficiency of OLEDs with alkaline metal chlorides as electron injection layers were all greatly enhanced. ► The Improved OLED performance was attributed to the possible interfacial chemical reaction. ► Electron-only devices are fabricated to demonstrate the electron injection enhancement.

  1. Theoretical study of PTCDA adsorbed on the coinage metal surfaces, Ag(111), Au(111) and Cu(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaner, L; Nabok, D; Puschnig, P; Ambrosch-Draxl, C; Zojer, E

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the adsorption of molecules on metallic surfaces is a crucial prerequisite for the development and improvement of functionalized materials. A prominent representative within the class of π-conjugated molecules is 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) which, adsorbed on the Ag(111), Au(111) or Cu(111) surfaces, shows characteristic trends for work-function modification, alignment of molecular levels with the substrate Fermi energy and binding distances. We carried out density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate to what extent these trends can be rationalized on a theoretical basis. We used different density functionals (DF) including a fully non-local van der Waals (vdW) DF capable of describing dispersion interactions. We show that, rather independent of the DF, the calculations yield level alignments and work-function modifications consistent with ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy when the monolayer is placed onto the surfaces at the experimental distances (as determined from x-ray standing wave experiments). The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital is occupied on the Ag and Cu surfaces, whereas it remains unoccupied on the Au surface. Simultaneously, the work function increases for Ag but decreases for Cu and Au. Adsorption distances and energies, on the other hand, depend very sensitively on the choice of the DF. While calculations in the local density approximation bind the monolayer consistently with the experimental trends, the generalized gradient approximation in several flavors fails to reproduce realistic distances and energies. Calculations employing the vdW-DF reveal that substantial bonding contributions arise from dispersive interactions. They yield reasonable binding energies but larger binding distances than the experiments.

  2. Biodynamic modelling of the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Ag, As and Zn) by an infaunal estuarine invertebrate, the clam Scrobicularia plana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, J., E-mail: judit.kalman@uca.es [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Smith, B.D. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bury, N.R. [Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Science, King' s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Biodynamic modelling is used to predict accumulation of Ag, As and Zn in S. plana. • Dissolved and sediment-associated metals contribute to total metal bioaccumulation. • Relative importance varies with water and sediment concentrations and geochemistries. - Abstract: Biodynamic modelling was used to investigate the uptake and accumulation of three trace metals (Ag, As, Zn) by the deposit feeding estuarine bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. Radioactive labelling techniques were used to quantify the rates of trace metal uptake (and subsequent elimination) from water and sediment diet. The uptake rate constant from solution (±SE) was greatest for Ag (3.954 ± 0.375 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}) followed by As (0.807 ± 0.129 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and Zn (0.103 ± 0.016 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediment were 40.2 ± 1.3% (Ag), 31.7 ± 1.0% (Zn) and 25.3 ± 0.9% (As). Efflux rate constants after exposure to metals in the solution or sediment fell in the range of 0.014–0.060 d{sup −1}. By incorporating these physiological parameters into biodynamic models, our results showed that dissolved metal is the predominant source of accumulated Ag, As and Zn in S. plana, accounting for 66–99%, 50–97% and 52–98% of total accumulation of Ag, As and Zn, respectively, under different field exposure conditions. In general, model-predicted steady state concentrations of Ag, As and Zn matched well with those observed in clams collected in SW England estuaries. Our findings highlight the potential of biodynamic modelling to predict Ag, As and Zn accumulation in S. plana, taking into account specific dissolved and sediment concentrations of the metals at a particular field site, together with local water and sediment geochemistries.

  3. Multi-metallic Nanomaterials From Ni, Ag, Pd With Pt's Catalytic Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2015-06-04

    A trimetallic catalyst that is a combination of nickel, silver and palladium metal is described. The trimetallic catalyst can be used to produce hydrogen and is useful as a replacement for platinum in hydrogenation reactions.

  4. Multi-metallic Nanomaterials From Ni, Ag, Pd With Pt's Catalytic Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei; Lai, Zhiping; Hu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    A trimetallic catalyst that is a combination of nickel, silver and palladium metal is described. The trimetallic catalyst can be used to produce hydrogen and is useful as a replacement for platinum in hydrogenation reactions.

  5. Diffusion Brazing of Ti-6Al-4V and Stainless Steel 316L Using AgCuZn Filler Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soltani Tashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, vacuum brazing was applied to join Ti-6Al-4V and stainless steel using AgCuZn filler metal. The bonds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical strengths of the joints were evaluated by the shear test and microhardness. It has been shown that shear strength decreased with increasing the brazing temperature and time. The wettability of the filler alloy was increased by enhancing the wetting test temperature. By increasing the brazing temperature various intermetallic compounds were formed in the bond area. These intermetallic compounds were mainly a combination of CuTi and Fe-Cu-Ti. The shear test results verified the influence of the bonding temperature on the strength of the joints based on the formation of different intermetallics in the bond zone. The fracture analysis also revealed different fracture footpath and morphology for different brazing temperatures.

  6. Spin and orbital magnetism of coinage metal trimers (Cu3, Ag3, Au3: A relativistic density functional theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Afshar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated electronic structure and magnetic properties of Cu3, Ag3 and Au3 trimers using a full potential local orbital method in the framework of relativistic density functional theory. We have also shown that the non-relativistic generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional gives reliable magnetic properties in coinage metal trimers compared to experiment. In addition we have indicated that the spin-orbit coupling changes the structure and magnetic properties of gold trimer while the structure and magnetic properties of copper and silver trimers are marginally affected. A significant orbital moment of 0.21μB was found for most stable geometry of the gold trimer whereas orbital magnetism is almost quenched in the copper and silver trimers.

  7. Control of optical properties of metal-dielectric planar plasmonic nanostructures by adjusting their architecture in the case of TiAlN/Ag system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, D. L.; Vakhrushev, V. O.; Kovalev, A. I.

    2017-05-01

    The multilayer Ag/(Ti34Al66)N metal-insulator-metal (MIM) heterostructures with different thicknesses of individual layers varied from several to several hundred nanometers were fabricated by DC-magnetron sputtering on the surfaces of Si single crystal wafers. The coatings structure was determined by STEM. The phase composition and crystallography of individual layers were studied by X-ray diffraction. The reflection indexes were measured in the photons energies range from 1 to 5 eV, or from 1240 to 248 nm. The spectroscopy of plasmon losses and plasmon microscopy allowed us to measure the plasmons losses characteristic energies and their surface distribution. The energies of plasmons peaks and their locations are strongly depending on Ag layers thickness in the MIM nanocomposite. The surface plasmon with energy about 4 eV was observed in the middle of 20 nm Ag layer. The plasmons were localized at the metal/dielectric interface for Ag layers 5 nm and less. The reflectance spectral profiles edges positions at long and short waves are correlated with plasmons energies and features of their spatial distribution. The MIMs based on the TiAlN/Ag can find applications as optical filters, photovoltaic energy conversion devices, etc.

  8. The Effect of Ag Addition on the Enhancement of the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of CuZrAl Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Man Chung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the thermal and mechanical properties of Cu50−xZr43Al7Agx (x = 0, 3, 4, 5, 6 bulk metallic glasses (BMGs are investigated by using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD, a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, differential thermal analysis (DTA, a Vickers hardness tester, a material test system (MTS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Cu50−xZr43Al7Agx (x = 0, 3, 4, 5, 6 BMGs were made by arc-melting and an injection casting process. The results revealed that the glass transition temperature (Tg and the crystallization temperature (Tx of CuZrAl alloy decreased with the Ag addition. Hence, the supercooled liquid region and γ of Cu45Zr43Al7Ag5 alloy increased to 76 K and 0.42, respectively. The thermal stability and glass forming ability of CuZrAlAg BMG alloys were enhanced by the microalloyed Ag content. The room temperature compressive fracture strength and strain measured of Cu47Zr43Al7Ag3 were about 2200 MPa and 2.1%, respectively. The distribution of vein patterns and the formation of nanocrystalline phases on the fracture surface of Cu47Zr43Al7Ag3 alloy can be observed by SEM and TEM to be significant, indicating a typical ductile fracture behavior and an improved plasticity of alloys with the addition of microalloyed Ag from 0 to 6 atom %.

  9. Ag K- and L3-edge XAFS study on Ag species in Ag/Ga2O3 photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, N; Yoshida, T; Nomoto, T; Yamamoto, A; Yoshida, H; Yagi, S

    2016-01-01

    Ag loaded Ga 2 O 3 (Ag/Ga 2 O 3 ) shows photocatalytic activity for reduction of CO 2 with water. Ag L 3 -edge XANES and K-edge EXAFS spectra were measured for various Ag/Ga 2 O 3 samples, which suggested that structural and chemical states of Ag species varied with the loading amount of Ag and the preparation method. The Ag species were metallic Ag particles with an AgGaO 2 -like interface structure in the sample with high loading amount of Ag while predominantly Ag metal clusters in the sample with low loading amount of Ag. The XANES feature just above the edge represented the interaction between the Ag species and the Ga 2 O 3 surface, showing that the Ag metal clusters had more electrons in the d -orbitals by interacting with the Ga 2 O 3 surface, which would contribute the high photocatalytic activity. (paper)

  10. The effect of chemical modification of DNA base on binding of Hg-II and Ag-I in metal-mediated base pairs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebera, Jakub; Tanaka, Y.; Ono, A.; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 452, Oct 1 (2016), s. 199-204 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27676S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DFT * metal-mediated base pairs * Hg * Ag Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  11. Improving the oxidation resistance and stability of Ag nanoparticles by coating with multilayered reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yahui; Zhang, Huayu; Wu, Bowen; Guo, Zhuo

    2017-12-01

    A kind of coating nanostructure, Ag nanoparticles coated with multilayered reduced graphene oxide (RGO), is fabricated by employing a three-step reduction method in an orderly manner, which is significantly different from the conventional structures that are simply depositing or doping with Ag nanoparticles on RGO via chemical reduction. The as-prepared nanostructure is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electronic diffraction (SEAD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that the obtained Ag/RGO nanostructure is observed to be a perfect coating structure with well dispersed Ag particles, which is responsible for the remarkable oxidation resistance. The results of XPS spectra indicate the content of metallic Ag is far greater than that of Ag oxides despite of prolonged exposure to the air, which fully demonstrate the excellent stability of thus coating nanostructure.

  12. New Ti-based Ti–Cu–Zr–Fe–Sn–Si–Ag bulk metallic glass for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Shujie; Liu, Ying; Li, Haifei; Sun, Lulu [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Yan [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Tao, E-mail: zhangtao@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Novel Ti{sub 47}Cu{sub 38}Zr{sub 7.5}Fe{sub 2.5}Sn{sub 2}Si{sub 1}Ag{sub 2} (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with a critical diameter of 7 mm was discovered. • The present BMG is the largest Ni- and Be-free Ti-based BMG containing low content of noble metal reported to date. • The glassy alloy possesses high specific strength, low Young’s modulus, and good corrosion resistance and bio-compatibility. • Combination of high glass-forming ability and good mechano- and bio-compatibility for the Ti-based BMG demonstrates the potential for use in biomedical applications. - Abstract: A novel Ni-free Ti{sub 47}Cu{sub 38}Zr{sub 7.5}Fe{sub 2.5}Sn{sub 2}Si{sub 1}Ag{sub 2} (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with superior glass-forming ability, good mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility was discovered. The Ti-based BMG with a diameter of 7 mm can be prepared by copper mold casting and the supercooled liquid region was 52 K. Compressive strength, specific strength, Young’s modulus and microhardness of the Ti-based BMG were about 2.08 GPa, 3.2 × 10{sup 5} N m/kg, 100 GPa and 588 Hv, respectively. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the Ti-based glassy alloy possesses higher corrosion resistance than Ti–6Al–4V alloy in a simulated body fluid environment. Attachment, spreading out and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti-based BMG surface demonstrated the excellent biocompatibility. Mechanisms of the formation and properties for the Ti-based glassy alloy are also discussed. The combination of high glass-forming ability, excellent mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility demonstrates the potential of the Ni-free Ti-based BMG for use in biomedical applications.

  13. Anomalous conductance oscillations and half-metallicity in atomic Ag-O chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Mikkel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Sethna, James P

    2008-01-01

    . The conductances of the chains exhibit weak even-odd oscillations around an anomalously low value of 0.1G(0) (G(0) = 2e(2)/h) which coincide with the averaged experimental conductance in the long chain limit. The unusual conductance properties are explained in terms of a resonating-chain model, which takes...... the reflection probability and phase shift of a single bulk-chain interface as the only input. The model also explains the conductance oscillations for other metallic chains.......Using spin density functional theory, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of atomically thin, suspended chains containing silver and oxygen atoms in an alternating sequence. Chains longer than 4 atoms develop a half-metallic ground state implying fully spin-polarized charge carriers...

  14. Covered duodenal self-expandable metal stents prolong biliary stent patency in double stenting: The largest series of bilioduodenal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Kondo, Hiromu; Yoshida, Michihiro; Shimizu, Shuya; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Okumura, Fumihiro; Ando, Tomoaki; Jinno, Naruomi; Takada, Hiroki; Togawa, Shozo; Joh, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Endoscopic biliary and duodenal stenting (DS; double stenting) is widely accepted as a palliation therapy for malignant bilioduodenal obstruction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the patency and adverse events of duodenal and biliary stents in patients with DS. Patients who underwent DS from April 2004 to March 2017 were analyzed retrospectively with regard to clinical outcomes and predictive factors of recurrent biliary and duodenal obstruction (recurrent biliary obstruction [RBO] and recurrent duodenal obstruction [RDO]). A total of 109 consecutive patients was enrolled. Technical success of DS was achieved in 108 patients (99.1%). Symptoms due to biliary and duodenal obstruction were improved in 89 patients (81.7%). RBO occurred in 25 patients (22.9%) and RDO in 13 (11.9%). The median times to RBO and RDO from DS were 87 and 76 days, respectively. Placement of a duodenal uncovered self-expandable metal stent (U-SEMS) was significantly associated with RBO in the multivariable analysis (P = 0.007). Time to RBO was significantly longer in the duodenal covered self-expandable metal stent group than in the U-SEMS group (P = 0.003). No predictive factors of RDO were detected, and duodenal stent type was not associated with the time to RDO (P = 0.724). Double stenting was safe and effective for malignant bilioduodenal obstruction. Duodenal U-SEMS is a risk factor for RBO. The covered self-expandable metal stent is the preferred type of duodenal SEMS in patients with DS (Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000027606). © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Relativity-Induced Bonding Pattern Change in Coinage Metal Dimers M2 (M = Cu, Ag, Au, Rg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Lu, Jun-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Ling; Hu, Han-Shi; Li, Jun

    2018-05-07

    The periodic table provides a fundamental protocol for qualitatively classifying and predicting chemical properties based on periodicity. While the periodic law of chemical elements had already been rationalized within the framework of the nonrelativistic description of chemistry with quantum mechanics, this law was later known to be affected significantly by relativity. We here report a systematic theoretical study on the chemical bonding pattern change in the coinage metal dimers (Cu 2 , Ag 2 , Au 2 , Rg 2 ) due to the relativistic effect on the superheavy elements. Unlike the lighter congeners basically demonstrating ns- ns bonding character and a 0 g + ground state, Rg 2 shows unique 6d-6d bonding induced by strong relativity. Because of relativistic spin-orbit (SO) coupling effect in Rg 2 , two nearly degenerate SO states, 0 g + and 2 u , exist as candidate of the ground state. This relativity-induced change of bonding mechanism gives rise to various unique alteration of chemical properties compared with the lighter dimers, including higher intrinsic bond energy, force constant, and nuclear shielding. Our work thus provides a rather simple but clear-cut example, where the chemical bonding picture is significantly changed by relativistic effect, demonstrating the modified periodic law in heavy-element chemistry.

  16. Spatially Probed Plasmonic Photothermic Nanoheater Enhanced Hybrid Polymeric-Metallic PVDF-Ag Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Chi Hao; Lu, Xin; Tan, Chuan Fu; Chan, Kwok Hoe; Zeng, Kaiyang; Li, Shuzhou; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2018-02-01

    Surface plasmon-based photonics offers exciting opportunities to enable fine control of the site, span, and extent of mechanical harvesting. However, the interaction between plasmonic photothermic and piezoresponse still remains underexplored. Here, spatially localized and controllable piezoresponse of a hybrid self-polarized polymeric-metallic system that correlates to plasmonic light-to-heat modulation of the local strain is demonstrated. The piezoresponse is associated to the localized plasmons that serve as efficient nanoheaters leading to self-regulated strain via thermal expansion of the electroactive polymer. Moreover, the finite-difference time-domain simulation and linear thermal model also deduce the local strain to the surface plasmon heat absorption. The distinct plasmonic photothermic-piezoelectric phenomenon mediates not only localized external stimulus light response but also enhances dynamic piezoelectric energy harvesting. The present work highlights a promising surface plasmon coordinated piezoelectric response which underpins energy localization and transfer for diversified design of unique photothermic-piezotronic technology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The photodeposition of surface plasmon Ag metal on SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites sphere for enhancement of the photo-Fenton behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, Kasimayan; Arjun, Nadarajan; Pan, Guan-Ting; Yang, Thomas C.-K.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a simple sol-gel method was used for the synthesis of a core-shell structure of SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites for employment as a visible light photocatalyst. It was observed that Ag nanoparticles about 20 nm in size were successfully deposited on the surface of the SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activity of the Ag-SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites catalyst was investigated by observing the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye in a photo-Fenton process. The results showed that the Ag nanoparticles acted as centers for photo induced electron transfer. The catalytic activity in the SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were enhanced due to the plasmoni c effect of Ag metal under visible light irradiation. The addition of H2O2 played an important role, generating more OH radicals which improved the photo-Fenton catalytic activity, resulting in quicker degradation of the MB dye using the Ag-SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite catalyst.

  18. Tuning dispersion correction in DFT-D2 for metal-molecule interactions: A tailored reparameterization strategy for the adsorption of aromatic systems on Ag(1 1 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, Eduardo; Muñoz-García, Ana B.; Barone, Vincenzo; Vittadini, Andrea; Casarin, Maurizio; Forrer, Daniel; Pavone, Michele

    2018-02-01

    Common local and semi-local density functionals poorly describe the molecular physisorption on metal surfaces due to the lack of dispersion interactions. In the last decade, several correction schemes have been proposed to amend this fundamental flaw of Density Functional Theory. Using the prototypical case of aromatic molecules adsorbed on Ag(1 1 1), we discuss the accuracy of different dispersion-correction methods and present a reparameterization strategy for the simple and effective DFT-D2. For the adsorption of different aromatic systems on the same metallic substrate, good results at feasible computational costs are achieved by means of a fitting procedure against MP2 data.

  19. Thiacalix[4]arene derivatives as extractants for metal ions in aqueous solutions: Application to the selective facilitated transport of Ag(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghbani, Asma [Laboratoire Eau et Technologies Membranaires, CERTE, BP 273, 8020 Soliman (Tunisia); Fontas, Claudia [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain)], E-mail: claudia.fontas@udg.edu; Hidalgo, Manuela [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Tayeb, Rafik; Dhahbi, Mahmoud [Laboratoire Eau et Technologies Membranaires, CERTE, BP 273, 8020 Soliman (Tunisia); Vocanson, Francis; Lamartine, Roger [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, F-69622 (France); CNRS, UMR 5246, ICBMS, equipe CSAp, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, Villeurbanne, F-69622 (France); Seta, Patrick [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR CNRS 5635, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier (France)

    2008-07-01

    The complexation abilities of different thiacalix[4]arene derivatives towards some rare earth metal ions, metallic pollutants, and noble metals have been investigated in liquid-liquid experiments. Thiacalix[4]arene dissolved in chloroform effectively extracts Pd(II) (in acidic chloride media) and also Ag(I), Cd(II), Sm(III) and Ce(III), all buffered at pH 6 or 8. The modification of this compound to form an amide derivative results in an effective extraction of noble metals, ranked according to Au(III) > Pd(II) > Pt(IV) > Ag(I). Moreover, a supported liquid membrane system for silver transport has been developed based on thiacalix[4]arene dissolved in NPOE, and parameters affecting its efficiency have been investigated, such as the stripping composition and the pH of the feed solution. Finally, the selectivity of the membrane system has been evaluated by using as feed sources mixtures of silver and other metal ion000.

  20. Metal (Ag/Ti)-Containing Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Nanocomposite Films with Enhanced Nanoscratch Resistance: Hybrid PECVD/PVD System and Microstructural Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios; Nikolaou, Petros; Koutsokeras, Loukas; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Moschovas, Dimitrios; Varotsis, Constantinos; Patsalas, Panos; Kelires, Pantelis; Constantinides, Georgios

    2018-03-30

    This study aimed to develop hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films with embedded metallic nanoparticles (a-C:H:Me) of controlled size and concentration. Towards this end, a novel hybrid deposition system is presented that uses a combination of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technologies. The a-C:H matrix was deposited through the acceleration of carbon ions generated through a radio-frequency (RF) plasma source by cracking methane, whereas metallic nanoparticles were generated and deposited using terminated gas condensation (TGC) technology. The resulting material was a hydrogenated amorphous carbon film with controlled physical properties and evenly dispersed metallic nanoparticles (here Ag or Ti). The physical, chemical, morphological and mechanical characteristics of the films were investigated through X-ray reflectivity (XRR), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and nanoscratch testing. The resulting amorphous carbon metal nanocomposite films (a-C:H:Ag and a-C:H:Ti) exhibited enhanced nanoscratch resistance (up to +50%) and low values of friction coefficient (<0.05), properties desirable for protective coatings and/or solid lubricant applications. The ability to form nanocomposite structures with tunable coating performance by potentially controlling the carbon bonding, hydrogen content, and the type/size/percent of metallic nanoparticles opens new avenues for a broad range of applications in which mechanical, physical, biological and/or combinatorial properties are required.

  1. Metal (Ag/Ti-Containing Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Nanocomposite Films with Enhanced Nanoscratch Resistance: Hybrid PECVD/PVD System and Microstructural Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Constantinou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films with embedded metallic nanoparticles (a–C:H:Me of controlled size and concentration. Towards this end, a novel hybrid deposition system is presented that uses a combination of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD technologies. The a–C:H matrix was deposited through the acceleration of carbon ions generated through a radio-frequency (RF plasma source by cracking methane, whereas metallic nanoparticles were generated and deposited using terminated gas condensation (TGC technology. The resulting material was a hydrogenated amorphous carbon film with controlled physical properties and evenly dispersed metallic nanoparticles (here Ag or Ti. The physical, chemical, morphological and mechanical characteristics of the films were investigated through X-ray reflectivity (XRR, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and nanoscratch testing. The resulting amorphous carbon metal nanocomposite films (a–C:H:Ag and a–C:H:Ti exhibited enhanced nanoscratch resistance (up to +50% and low values of friction coefficient (<0.05, properties desirable for protective coatings and/or solid lubricant applications. The ability to form nanocomposite structures with tunable coating performance by potentially controlling the carbon bonding, hydrogen content, and the type/size/percent of metallic nanoparticles opens new avenues for a broad range of applications in which mechanical, physical, biological and/or combinatorial properties are required.

  2. Mobilisation of heavy metals and arsenic by acid mine drainage in polluted sites of the Ag-Pb-Zn deposit near Wiesloch; Mobilisierbarkeit von Schwermetallen und Arsen durch saure Grubenabwaesser in Bergbaualtlasten der Ag-Pb-Zn-Lagerstaette in Wiesloch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappes, B.A.

    2000-07-01

    2000 years of small scale Ag-Pb-Zn mining has created a legacy of potentially hazardous waste material in Wiesloch. The objective of our study is to investigate the processes to identify the that might lead to a mobilisation of heavy metals and arsenic and their fate at this specific site. The objective of this study is: a) to examine in more detail the chemical and mineralogical composition of ore, dressing and slag material and b) to compare the heavy metal release potential to toxic elements of primary ore versus processing material if subjected to weathering. Three depth profiles due to drilling-operations retrieved mineralogical, chemical and physical data. The three most important pollutants are primary ore, dressing residue and slag. Apart from a chemical characterisation of these materials in order to establish the heavy metal and arsenic content field and laboratory experiments simulated worst case weathering conditions. Elution experiments demonstrated that heavy metal release is very much pH-dependent. The highest release potential was observed in flotation material from the dressing residue whereas primary ore and slag material released 10 times fewer heavy metals and arsenic. (orig.)

  3. Dissolved trace metal (Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, and Ag) distribution and Cu speciation in the southern Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiaojing, Wang; Jihua, Liu; Xuefa, Shi

    2017-02-01

    Trace metals play an important role in biogeochemical cycling in ocean systems. However, because the use of trace metal clean sampling and analytical techniques has been limited in coastal China, there are few accurate trace metal data for that region. This work studied spatial distribution of selected dissolved trace metals (Ag, Cu, Co, Cd, and Ni) and Cu speciation in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) and Bohai Sea (BS). In general, the average metal (Cu, Co, Cd, and Ni) concentrations found in the SYS were lower by a factor of two than those in BS, and they are comparable to dissolved trace metal concentrations in coastal seawater of the United States and Europe. Possible sources and sinks and physical and biological processes that influenced the distribution of these trace metals in the study region were further examined. Close relationships were found between the trace metal spatial distribution with local freshwater discharge and processes such as sediment resuspension and biological uptake. Ag, owing to its extremely low concentrations, exhibited a unique distribution pattern that magnified the influences from the physical and biological processes. Cu speciation in the water column showed that, in the study region, Cu was strongly complexed with organic ligands and concentrations of free cupric ion were in the range of 10-12.6-10-13.2 mol L-1. The distribution of Cu-complexing ligand, indicated by values of the side reaction coefficient α', was similar to the Chl a distribution, suggesting that in situ biota production may be one main source of Cu-complexing organic ligand.

  4. Adhesion profile and differentiation capacity of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells grown on metal ion (Zn, Ag and Cu) doped hydroxyapatite nano-coated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostancioglu, R Beklem; Gurbuz, Mevlut; Akyurekli, Ayse Gul; Dogan, Aydin; Koparal, A Savas; Koparal, A Tansu

    2017-07-01

    Accelerated Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) condensation and robust MSC-matrix and MSC-MSC interactions on nano-surfaces may provide critical factors contributing to such events, likely through the orchestrated signal cascades and cellular events modulated by the extracellular matrix. In this study, human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC)', were grown on metal ion (Zn, Ag and Cu) doped hydroxyapatite (HAP) nano-coated surfaces. These metal ions are known to have different chemical and surface properties; therefore we investigated their respective contributions to cell viability, cellular behavior, osteogenic differentiation capacity and substrate-cell interaction. Nano-powders were produced using a wet chemical process. Air spray deposition was used to accumulate the metal ion doped HAP films on a glass substrate. Cell viability was determined by MTT, LDH and DNA quantitation methods Osteogenic differentiation capacity of hMSCs was analyzed with Alizarin Red Staining and Alkaline Phosphatase Specific Activity. Adhesion of the hMSCs and the effect of cell adhesion on biomaterial biocompatibility were explored through cell adhesion assay, immunofluorescence staining for vinculin and f-actin cytoskeleton components, SEM and microarray including 84 known extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion pathway genes, since, adhesion is the first step for good biocompability. The results demonstrate that the viability and osteogenic differentiation of the hMSCs (in growth media without osteogenic stimulation) and cell adhesion capability are higher on nanocoated surfaces that include Zn, Ag and/or Cu metal ions than commercial HAP. These results reveal that Zn, Ag and Cu metal ions contribute to the biocompatibility of exogenous material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analyzing relationships between surface perturbations and local chemical reactivity of metal sites: Alkali promotion of O2 dissociation on Ag(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hongliang; Linic, Suljo

    2016-06-01

    Many commercial heterogeneous catalysts are complex structures that contain metal active sites promoted by multiple additives. Developing fundamental understanding about the impact of these perturbations on the local surface reactivity is crucial for catalyst development and optimization. In this contribution, we develop a general framework for identifying underlying mechanisms that control the changes in the surface reactivity of a metal site (more specifically the adsorbate-surface interactions) upon a perturbation in the local environment. This framework allows us to interpret fairly complex interactions on metal surfaces in terms of specific, physically transparent contributions that can be evaluated independently of each other. We use Cs-promoted dissociation of O2 as an example to illustrate our approach. We concluded that the Cs adsorbate affects the outcome of the chemical reaction through a strong alkali-induced electric field interacting with the static dipole moment of the O2/Ag(111) system.

  6. Effects of Ag loading on structural and photocatalytic properties of flower-like ZnO microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: fatzhxd@126.com [Environment and Low-Carbon Research Center, School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Wang, Yuxin, E-mail: wyx790914@aliyun.com [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, Taizhou Vocation & Technical College, Taizhou Zhejiang 318000 (China); Hou, Fulin; Li, Hongxin; Yang, Yang [Environment and Low-Carbon Research Center, School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Zhang, Xinxin [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, Taizhou Vocation & Technical College, Taizhou Zhejiang 318000 (China); Yang, Yiqiong; Wang, Yin [Environment and Low-Carbon Research Center, School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique flower-like Ag/ZnO spheres were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method. • Depositing with moderate Ag improved visible light response and activity. • Photoexcited electrons transfer from Ag to ZnO due to surface plasmon resonance. • Ag/ZnO was stable even after recycling many times. - Abstract: Flower-like Ag/ZnO samples were successfully fabricated via a simple and cost efficient method without surfactants. The morphologies, structural and optical properties of Ag/ZnO samples with various Ag content were investigated. The samples were systematically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). It was found that ZnO was wurtzite phase and metallic Ag particles were wrapped by ZnO nanosheets. Compared with pure metallic Ag, the binding energy of Ag 3d for the Ag/ZnO samples distinctly shifted to the lower binding energy, which was attributed to the interaction between ZnO and Ag. With the increase of Ag content, surface plasmon absorption band of Ag/ZnO samples was obviously widened; meanwhile, PL intensity was decreased. The photocatalytic performance of Ag/ZnO samples were carried out by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under visible light irradiation. The deposition of a certain amount of Ag was beneficial to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of the Ag/ZnO sample with Ag/Zn ratio 1/20 was greater than fourfold times faster than that of ZnO. It was suggested that photoexcited electrons transferred from Ag to ZnO due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which could effectively reduce the recombination of electron–hole pairs and prolong lifetime of the electron–holes pairs, promoting the degradation efficiency. The deposition of a large amount of Ag

  7. Subcellular partitioning of non-essential trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl) in livers of American (Anguilla rostrata) and European (Anguilla anguilla) yellow eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosabal, Maikel [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Pierron, Fabien [Université de Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Couture, Patrice [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Baudrimont, Magalie [Université de Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Hare, Landis [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Handling of hepatic metals consistently involved cytosolic, thermostable ligands. • Granule-like fractions are also involved in the detoxification of Ni, Pb, and Tl. • Despite these sequestration mechanisms, metal detoxification is incomplete. • Along the metal gradient, concentrations increase in metal-sensitive fractions. • This increase could represent a toxicological risk for the yellow eels. - Abstract: We determined the intracellular compartmentalization of the trace metals Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl in the livers of yellow eels collected from the Saint Lawrence River system in Canada (Anguilla rostrata) and in the area of the Gironde estuary in France (Anguilla anguilla). Differential centrifugation, NaOH digestion and thermal shock were used to separate eel livers into putative “sensitive” fractions (heat-denatured proteins, mitochondria and microsomes + lysosomes) and detoxified metal fractions (heat-stable peptides/proteins and granules). The cytosolic heat-stable fraction (HSP) was consistently involved in the detoxification of all trace metals. In addition, granule-like structures played a complementary role in the detoxification of Ni, Pb, and Tl in both eel species. However, these detoxification mechanisms were not completely effective because increasing trace metal concentrations in whole livers were accompanied by significant increases in the concentrations of most trace metals in “sensitive” subcellular fractions, that is, mitochondria, heat-denatured cytosolic proteins and microsomes + lysosomes. Among these “sensitive” fractions, mitochondria were the major binding sites for As, Cd, Pb, and Tl. This accumulation of non-essential metals in “sensitive” fractions likely represents a health risk for eels inhabiting the Saint Lawrence and Gironde environments.

  8. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  9. Development of casting investment preventing blackening of noble metal alloys part 1. Application of developed investment for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Kiyoshi; Nakai, Akira; Goto, Shin-ichi; Wakamatsu, Yasushi; Yara, Atushi; Miyagawa, Yukio; Ogura, Hideo

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a casting investment that prevents the blackening of the cast surface of noble metal alloys. The experimental investments were prepared using a gypsum-bonded investment in which the metallic powders such as boron (B), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al) and titanium (Ti) were added as oxidizing agents. An Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy was cast into the mold made of the prepared investment. The effect of the addition of each metal powder was evaluated from the color difference between the as-cast surface and the polished surface of the cast specimen. The color of the as-cast surface approached that of the polished surface with increasing B and Al content. A lower mean value in the color difference was obtained at 0.25-1.00 mass% B content. B and Al are useful as an additive in a gypsum-bonded investment to prevent the blackening of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. The effects of Si and Ti powder addition could not be found.

  10. Thermodynamic and structural properties of the specific binding between Ag⁺ ion and C:C mismatched base pair in duplex DNA to form C-Ag-C metal-mediated base pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Hidetaka; Okamoto, Itaru; Dairaku, Takenori; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Ono, Akira; Kozasa, Tetsuo

    2012-11-01

    Metal ion-nucleic acid interactions have attracted considerable interest for their involvement in structure formation and catalytic activity of nucleic acids. Although interactions between metal ion and mismatched base pair duplex are important to understand mechanism of gene mutations related to heavy metal ions, they have not been well-characterized. We recently found that the Ag(+) ion stabilized a C:C mismatched base pair duplex DNA. A C-Ag-C metal-mediated base pair was supposed to be formed by the binding between the Ag(+) ion and the C:C mismatched base pair to stabilize the duplex. Here, we examined specificity, thermodynamics and structure of possible C-Ag-C metal-mediated base pair. UV melting indicated that only the duplex with the C:C mismatched base pair, and not of the duplexes with the perfectly matched and other mismatched base pairs, was specifically stabilized on adding the Ag(+) ion. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated that the Ag(+) ion specifically bound with the C:C base pair at 1:1 molar ratio with a binding constant of 10(6) M(-1), which was significantly larger than those for nonspecific metal ion-DNA interactions. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry also supported the specific 1:1 binding between the Ag(+) ion and the C:C base pair. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and NMR revealed that the Ag(+) ion may bind with the N3 positions of the C:C base pair without distorting the higher-order structure of the duplex. We conclude that the specific formation of C-Ag-C base pair with large binding affinity would provide a binding mode of metal ion-DNA interactions, similar to that of the previously reported T-Hg-T base pair. The C-Ag-C base pair may be useful not only for understanding of molecular mechanism of gene mutations related to heavy metal ions but also for wide variety of potential applications of metal-mediated base pairs in various fields, such as material, life and environmental sciences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  11. Reprint of “Theoretical description of metal/oxide interfacial properties: The case of MgO/Ag(001)”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, via R. Cozzi, 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Giordano, Livia, E-mail: livia.giordano@mater.unimib.it [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, via R. Cozzi, 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Pacchioni, Gianfranco [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, via R. Cozzi, 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Goniakowski, Jacek [CNRS-Sorbonne Universités UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Characteristics of Ag-supported MgO(100) films are studied with different DFT functionals. • All approaches predict a similar nature of supported pristine and oxygen-deficient films. • Interface distances and adhesion are particularly sensitive to the choice of the approximation. • Satisfactory matching with the experiment is obtained with the DFT-optB88 functional. • Charge transfer, work function and vacancy characteristics are little influenced by the method. - Abstract: We compare the performances of different DFT functionals applied to ultra-thin MgO(100) films supported on the Ag(100) surface, a prototypical system of a weakly interacting oxide/metal interface, extensively studied in the past. Beyond semi-local DFT-GGA approximation, we also use the hybrid DFT-HSE approach to improve the description of the oxide electronic structure. Moreover, to better account for the interfacial adhesion, we include the van de Waals interactions by means of either the semi-empirical force fields by Grimme (DFT-D2 and DFT-D2*) or the self-consistent density functional optB88-vdW. We compare and discuss the results on the structural, electronic, and adhesion characteristics of the interface as obtained for pristine and oxygen-deficient Ag-supported MgO films in the 1–4 ML thickness range.

  12. The problem of intermixing of metals possessing no mutual solubility upon explosion welding (Cu–Ta, Fe–Ag, Al–Ta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, B.A.; Ivanov, M.A.; Rybin, V.V.; Elkina, O.A.; Antonova, O.V.; Patselov, A.M.; Inozemtsev, A.V.; Plotnikov, A.V.; Volkova, A.Yu.; Besshaposhnikov, Yu.P.

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the results obtained for joints of dissimilar metals such as copper–tantalum and iron–silver, the reason of immiscible suspensions mixing upon explosion welding has been cleared out. It has been found that the interface (plain or wavy) is not smooth and contains inhomogeneities, namely, cusps and local melting zones. The role of granulating fragmentation providing partitioning of initial materials as a main channel of input energy dissipation has been revealed. It has been shown that in joints of metals possessing normal solubility the local melting zones are true solutions, but if metals possess no mutual solubility the local melting zones are colloidal solutions. Realization of either emulsion or suspension variant takes place. The results can be used in the development of new joints of metals possessing no mutual solubility. - Highlights: ► Immiscible pairs Ta/Cu and Fe/Ag are welded successfully by explosive welding. ► Fragmentation provides for partitioning as the main energy dissipation channel. ► Immiscible metals form colloidal solid solutions during solidification. ► Melting and boiling temperatures ratio determines the colloidal solution type. ► Local melting zones being in suspension form enhance welds hardening.

  13. The problem of intermixing of metals possessing no mutual solubility upon explosion welding (Cu-Ta, Fe-Ag, Al-Ta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.A., E-mail: bella@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, S. Kovalevskoi str. 18, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, M.A. [Kurdyumov Institute of Metal Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Vernadskogo blvd. 36, Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine); Rybin, V.V. [State Polytechnical University, Politekhnicheskaya str. 29, St. Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation); Elkina, O.A.; Antonova, O.V.; Patselov, A.M.; Inozemtsev, A.V.; Plotnikov, A.V.; Volkova, A.Yu. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, S. Kovalevskoi str. 18, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation); Besshaposhnikov, Yu.P. [OJSC Ural Chemical Machine Building Plant, Khibinogorskii Lane 33, Ekaterinburg, 620010 (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-15

    On the basis of the results obtained for joints of dissimilar metals such as copper-tantalum and iron-silver, the reason of immiscible suspensions mixing upon explosion welding has been cleared out. It has been found that the interface (plain or wavy) is not smooth and contains inhomogeneities, namely, cusps and local melting zones. The role of granulating fragmentation providing partitioning of initial materials as a main channel of input energy dissipation has been revealed. It has been shown that in joints of metals possessing normal solubility the local melting zones are true solutions, but if metals possess no mutual solubility the local melting zones are colloidal solutions. Realization of either emulsion or suspension variant takes place. The results can be used in the development of new joints of metals possessing no mutual solubility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immiscible pairs Ta/Cu and Fe/Ag are welded successfully by explosive welding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fragmentation provides for partitioning as the main energy dissipation channel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immiscible metals form colloidal solid solutions during solidification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melting and boiling temperatures ratio determines the colloidal solution type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local melting zones being in suspension form enhance welds hardening.

  14. Characterization of freshwater bivalves as radio contamination (57Co, 110mAg, 134Cs) bio-indicators in a metallic multi pollution context (Cd, Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraysse, B.

    2001-07-01

    This study concerns freshwater bio-indicators of radio-contamination, in a metallic multi-pollution context. Metals, such as cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), are widely represented in aquatic ecosystems, and their concentrations can induce physiological effects. This chronicle exposure generates both metabolic and behaviour stress of individuals, and can also yield to detoxification mechanisms induction. The main goal of this work was to estimate the influence of metals on the radionuclides ( 57 Co, 110m Ag, 134 Cs) bioaccumulation by two different bivalve species (Corbicula fluminea et Dreissena polymorpha), by studying the contamination level, the kinetic of the radionuclide transfer and the soft-body repartition. As the exploratory feature of this study, two parts have been developed: (i) testing the problematic suitability in a really bio-monitoring situation, and (ii) analysing the metal/radionuclide interaction mechanisms under controlled and standardised conditions (laboratory). For the different experimental conditions explored (laboratory and field), radionuclide bioaccumulation by freshwater bivalves has been influenced by metal exposure. This result was obtained after assessing a decrease of the organisms contamination level by radionuclide and their accumulation rate, an increase of their depuration rate and tissue and cellular repartition changes. (author)

  15. Effect of different surface treatments and retainer designs on the retention of posterior Pd-Ag porcelain-fused-to-metal resin-bonded fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiwen; Zhang, Yixin; Zhou, Jinru; Chen, Chenfeng; Zhu, Zhimin; Li, Lei

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the adhesive property of palladium-silver alloy (Pd-Ag) and the simulated clinical performance of Pd-Ag porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM), resin-bonded, fixed partial dentures (RBFPDs). A total of 40 Pd-Ag discs (diameter=5 mm) were prepared and divided into the following four groups (n=10): a) No sandblasting, used as a control; and b, 50 µm; c, 110 µm; and d, 250 µm aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) particles, respectively. Another 50 discs were pre-sandblasted and divided into five groups (n=10) subjected to different treatments: e) Sandblasting, used as a control; f) silane; g) alloy primer; h) silica coating + silane and i) silica coating + alloy primer. All 90 discs were bonded to enamel with Panavia F 2.0 and then subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) testing. The fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Next, 40 missing maxillary second premolar models were restored with one of the four following RBFPD designs (n=10): I) A premolar occlusal bar combined with molar double rests (MDR); II) both occlusal bars with a wing (OBB); III) a premolar occlusal bar combined with a molar dental band (MDB); and IV) two single rests adjacent to the edentulous space with a wing (SRB) used as a control. All specimens were aged with thermal cycling and mechanical loading. Subsequently, they were loaded until broken. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Al 2 O 3 (250 µm) abrasion provided the highest SBS (P<0.05). The alloy primer and silica + silane exhibited increased SBS. Furthermore, fracture analysis revealed that the failure mode varied among the different treatments. Whereas MDB exhibited the highest retention (P<0.05), that of OBB was greater than that of MDR (P<0.05), and the control exhibited the lowest retention. Abrasion with Al 2 O 3 (250 µm) effectively increased the adhesive property of Pd-Ag. Additionally, treatment with the alloy primer and silica coating + silane was able to

  16. The preparation of Ag-BiVO4 metal composite oxides and its application in efficient photocatalytic oxidative thiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Ming; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Hong

    2013-06-01

    A series of Ag-BiVO4 photocatalysts was synthesized by the hydrothemal synthesis method for different pH values. A strong correlation was found among the prepared processing, structure and property of the samples. With increasing pH value from 5 to 9, the crystallinity increases and the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 sample gradually disappeared from the nanostructures. The light absorption became higher in the UV and visible range, accompanied by a bathochromic shift of the absorption edge. The competitive relations between crystallinity and surface area affecting photocatalytic activity were also discussed. Photocatalytic desulfurization on the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 samples using thiophene dissolved in n-octane as a model organosulfur compound was performed. It showed that the photocatalytic desulfurization on the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 sample at pH=7 can be up to 95%, which existed as various size particles and had significant high surface area of 13.768 m2 g-1.

  17. Structure analysis of complex metallic alloys in the Eu-Ag-In system by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Cesar Pay; Morita, Yoshiki; Tsai, An Pang; Yamamoto, Akiji

    2009-01-01

    In this work we investigate the complex atomic structures of two CMAs in the Eu-Ag-In system, these are quasicrystal approximants and their structures are similar to those of the 1/1 and 2/1 approximants found in the Yb-Cd system. The similarities between the Yb-Cd and Eu-Ag-In systems indicate that the RE-Ag-In systems in several ways can be treated as pseudo-binary. The investigated phases however also show some interesting differences; when Cd is replaced by the elements Ag and In partial chemical disorder is introduced into the system. As a response, the positional disorder which is usually observed in certain atomic positions for these types of approximants tends to disappear. The complete structures refined from single crystal data are described in detail and the differences with other related phases are highlighted. The 2/1 approximant in the Eu-Ag-In system is the first to exhibit such a degree of structural perfection in terms of positional order, a feature which makes this phase very suitable for further studies of chemical order and also can give insight into the local structures of related disordered phases. Electron diffraction studies on the 1/1 approximant phase have previously shown the presence of weak superlattice reflections, indicating a superstructure similar to that of the related phase Eu 4 Cd 25 . However, no superlattice reflections could be observed by single crystal diffraction and it is thus concluded that the phase has a disordered average structure with possible short to medium range superlattice ordering.

  18. Enhanced current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance effect in half-metallic NiMnSb based nanojunctions with multiple Ag spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenchao; Yamamoto, Tatsuya [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kubota, Takahide; Takanashi, Koki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-06-06

    Current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) heterostructure devices using half-metallic NiMnSb Heusler alloy electrodes with single, dual, and triple Ag spacers were fabricated. The NiMnSb alloy films and Ag spacers show (001) epitaxial growth in all CPP-GMR multilayer structures. The dual-spacer CPP-GMR nanojunction exhibited an enhanced CPP-GMR ratio of 11% (a change in the resistance-area product, ΔRA, of 3.9 mΩ μm{sup 2}) at room temperature, which is approximately twice (thrice) of 6% (1.3 mΩ μm{sup 2}) in the single-spacer device. The enhancement of the CPP-GMR effects in the dual-spacer devices could be attributed to improved interfacial spin asymmetry. Moreover, it was observed that the CPP-GMR ratios increased monotonically as the temperatures decreased. At 4.2 K, a CPP-GMR ratio of 41% (ΔRA = 10.5 mΩ μm{sup 2}) was achieved in the dual-spacer CPP-GMR device. This work indicates that multispacer structures provide an efficient enhancement of CPP-GMR effects in half-metallic material-based CPP-GMR systems.

  19. Bandgap engineering of lead-free double perovskite Cs{sub 2}AgBiBr{sub 6} through trivalent metal alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Ke-zhao; Mitzi, David B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, and Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaoming; Yan, Yanfa [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2017-07-03

    The double perovskite family, A{sub 2}M{sup I}M{sup III}X{sub 6}, is a promising route to overcome the lead toxicity issue confronting the current photovoltaic (PV) standout, CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}. Given the generally large indirect band gap within most known double perovskites, band-gap engineering provides an important approach for targeting outstanding PV performance within this family. Using Cs{sub 2}AgBiBr{sub 6} as host, band-gap engineering through alloying of In{sup III}/Sb{sup III} has been demonstrated in the current work. Cs{sub 2}Ag(Bi{sub 1-x}M{sub x})Br{sub 6} (M=In, Sb) accommodates up to 75 % In{sup III} with increased band gap, and up to 37.5 % Sb{sup III} with reduced band gap; that is, enabling ca. 0.41 eV band gap modulation through introduction of the two metals, with smallest value of 1.86 eV for Cs{sub 2}Ag(Bi{sub 0.625}Sb{sub 0.375})Br{sub 6}. Band structure calculations indicate that opposite band gap shift directions associated with Sb/In substitution arise from different atomic configurations for these atoms. Associated photoluminescence and environmental stability of the three-metal systems are also assessed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Unidirectional threshold switching in Ag/Si-based electrochemical metallization cells for high-density bipolar RRAM applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Song, Bing; Li, Qingjiang; Zeng, Zhongming

    2018-03-01

    We herein present a novel unidirectional threshold selector for cross-point bipolar RRAM array. The proposed Ag/amorphous Si based threshold selector showed excellent threshold characteristics in positive field, such as high selectivity ( 105), steep slope (type RRAM. By integrating a bipolar RRAM device with the selector, experiments showed that the undesired sneak was significantly suppressed, indicating its potentiality for high-density integrated nonvolatile memory applications.

  1. Ag-CuO-ZnO metal-semiconductor multiconcentric nanotubes for achieving superior and perdurable photodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaichen; Wu, Jiagen; Tan, Chuan Fu; Ho, Ghim Wei; Wei, Ang; Hong, Minghui

    2017-08-17

    Solar energy represents a robust and natural form of resource for environment remediation via photocatalytic pollutant degradation with minimum associated costs. However, due to the complexity of the photodegradation process, it has been a long-standing challenge to develop reliable photocatalytic systems with low recombination rates, excellent recyclability, and high utilization rates of solar energy, especially in the visible light range. In this work, a ternary hetero-nanostructured Ag-CuO-ZnO nanotube (NT) composite is fabricated via facile and low-temperature chemical and photochemical deposition methods. Under visible light irradiation, the as-synthesized ZnO NT based ternary composite exhibits a greater enhancement (∼300%) of photocatalytic activity than its counterpart, Ag-CuO-ZnO nanorods (NRs), in pollutant degradation. The enhanced photocatalytic capability is primarily attributed to the intensified visible light harvesting, efficient charge carrier separation and much larger surface area. Furthermore, our as-synthesised hybrid ternary Ag-CuO-ZnO NT composite demonstrates much higher photostability and retains ∼98% of degradation efficiency even after 20 usage cycles, which can be mainly ascribed to the more stable polar planes of ZnO NTs than those of ZnO NRs. These results afford a new route to construct ternary heterostructured composites with perdurable performance in sewage treatment and photocorrosion suppression.

  2. CsAg{sub 5}Te{sub 3}: a new metal-rich telluride with a unique tunnel structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li [Rutgers Univ., Camden, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chem.; Hongyou, Guo [Rutgers Univ., Camden, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chem.; Xiang, Zhang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kanatzidis, M G [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-02-15

    The synthesis and structure of a new ternary silver telluride, CsAg{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, is described. The compound was prepared from a Cs{sub 2}Te-CaTe-Te flux but it can also be prepared from a direct combination of Cs{sub 2}Te and Ag{sub 2}Te under vacuum at 600 C. The crystal data for CsAg{sub 5}Te{sub 3} at 20 C (Mo K{alpha} radiation) are as follows: a=14.672(2) A and c=4.601(3) A; V=990.5(8) A{sup 3}; Z=4; D{sub calc}=7.075 g cm{sup -3}; space group, P4{sub 2} /mnm (No. 136); 2{theta}{sub max}=50 ; number of independent data collected, 572; number of data observed with I>3{sigma}(I), 267; number of variables, 32; {mu}=218.51 cm{sup -1}; extinction coefficient, 0.585x10{sup -7}; final R=0.040; R{sub w}=0.046; goodness of fit, 1.42. The compound features a new structure type with Cs{sup +}-filled, relatively large tunnels running through the lattice. The material is a semiconductor with a band gap of about 0.65 eV. ((orig.))

  3. Metal dispersion and mobility in soils from the Lik Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulphide deposit, NW Alaska: Environmental and exploration implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Kelley, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Lik deposit in northern Alaska is a largely unexposed shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulphide deposit that is underlain by continuous permafrost. Residual soils overlying the mineralized zone have element enrichments that are two to six times greater than baseline values. The most prominent elements are Ag, Mo, P, Se, Sr, V by total 4-acid digestion and Tl by a weak partial digestion (Enzyme Leach or EL) because they show multi-point anomalies that extend across the entire mineralized zone, concentration ranges are 0.5-2.6 ppm Ag, 4-26 ppm Mo, 0.1-0.3% P, 3-22 ppm Se, 90-230 ppm Sr, 170-406 ppm V, and 1.6-30 ppb Tl. Lead, Sb, and Hg are also anomalous (up to 178 ppm, 30 ppm, and 1.9 ppm, respectively), but all are characterized by single point anomalies directly over the mineralized zone, with only slightly elevated concentrations over the lower mineralized section. Zinc (total) has a consistent baseline response of 200 ppm, but it is not elevated in soils overlying the mineralized zone. However, Zn by EL shows a distinct single-point anomaly over the ore zone that suggests it was highly mobile and partly adsorbed on oxides or other secondary phases during weathering. In situ analyses (by laser ablation ICP-MS) of pyrite and sphalerite from drill core suggest that sphalerite is the primary residence for Ag, Cd, and Hg in addition to Zn, and pyrite contains As, Fe, Sb, and Tl. The level and degree of oxidation, and the proportion of reacting pyrite and carbonate minerals are two factors that affected the mobility and transport of metals. In oxidizing conditions, Zn is highly mobile relative to Hg and Ag, perhaps explaining the decoupling of Zn from the other sphalerite-hosted elements in the soils. Soils are acidic (to 3.9 pH) directly over the deposit due to the presence of acid-producing pyrite, but acid-neutralizing carbonate away from the mineralized zone yield soils that are near neutral. The soils therefore formed in a complex system involving oxidation and

  4. Fabrication of Ag/ZnO heterostructure and the role of surface coverage of ZnO microrods by Ag nanoparticles on the photophysical and photocatalytic properties of the metal-semiconductor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Bikash; Sarma, Bimal K., E-mail: sarmabimal@gmail.com

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication of Ag/ZnO heterostructure by facile chemical processes. • Decoration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on ZnO microrods through direct attachment. • Quenching of photoluminescence is observed in Ag/ZnO heterostructure. • Extent of surface coverage governs photophysical and photochemical properties. - Abstract: This report presents findings on microstructural, photophysical, and photocatalytic properties of Ag/ZnO heterostructure grown on flexible and silicon substrates. ZnO microrods are prepared by thermal decomposition method for different solute concentrations and Ag/ZnO heterostructure are fabricated by photo-deposition of Ag nanoparticles on ZnO microrods. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies confirm that ZnO microrods belong to the hexagonal wurtzite structure and grown along [001] direction with random alignment showing that majority microrods are aligned with (100) face parallel to the sample surface. Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles are attached to different faces of ZnO. In the optical reflection spectra of Ag/ZnO heterostructure, the surface plasmon resonance peak due to Ag nanoparticles appears at 445 nm. Due to the oxygen vacancies the band gaps of ZnO microrods turn out to be narrower compared to that of bulk ZnO. The presence of Ag nanoparticles decreases the photoluminescence intensity which might be attributed to the non-radiative energy and direct electron transfer in the plasmon–exciton system. The quenching of photoluminescence in Ag/ZnO heterostructure at different growth conditions depend on the extent of surface coverage of ZnO by plasmonic Ag nanoparticles. Photocatalytic degradation efficiency of Ag/ZnO heterostructure is higher than that of ZnO microrods. The extent of surface coverage of ZnO microrods by Ag nanoparticles is crucial for the observed changes in photophysical and photochemical properties.

  5. Exploiting multi-function Metal-Organic Framework nanocomposite Ag@Zn-TSA as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheying; Zhang, Dandan; Suo, Gaochao; Wei, Wenbo; Huang, Tinglin

    2016-08-31

    A novel multi-function Metal-Organic Framework composite Ag@Zn-TSA (zinc thiosalicylate, Zn(C7H4O2S), Zn-TSA) was synthesized as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of myoglobin (Mb)/glucose oxidase (GOx) for electrochemical biosensing. The electrochemical biosensors based on Ag@Zn-TSA composite and ionic liquid (IL) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) were fabricated successfully. Furthermore, the properties of the sensors were discussed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometric current-time curve, respectively. The results showed the proposed biosensors had wide linear response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the range of 0.3-20,000 μM, to nitrite (NO2(-)) for 1.3 μM-1660 μM and 2262 μM-1,33,000 μM, to glucose for 2.0-1022 μM, with a low detection limit of 0.08 μM for H2O2, 0.5 μM for NO2(-), 0.8 μM for glucose. The values of the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) for Mb and GOx were estimated as 2.05 s(-1) and 2.45 s(-1), respectively. Thus, Ag@Zn-TSA was a kind of ideal material as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing. In addition, this work indicated that MOF nanocomposite had a great potential for constructing wide range of sensing interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical and structural properties of TiO{sub 2}/Ti/Ag/TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/ITO/Ag/ITO/TiO{sub 2} metal-dielectric multilayers by RF magnetron sputtering for display application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hyu; Hwangbo, Chang-Kwon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwang-Su [Quantum Photonic Science Research Center, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    Electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding and near-infrared (NIR) cutoff filters for plasma display panels, based on fundamental structures (ITO/Ag/ITO), (TiO{sub 2}/Ti/Ag/TiO{sub 2}) and (TiO{sub 2}/ITO/Ag/ITO/TiO{sub 2}), were designed and prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering. The optical, structural and electrical properties of the filters were investigated by using spectrophotometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and four-point-probe measurements. The results show that ITO films as the barriers and base layers lead to higher transmittance in the visible spectrum and smoother surface roughness than Ti metal barriers, while maintaining high NIR cutoff characteristics and chemical stability, which may be attributed to the lower absorption in the interfacial layers and better protection of the Ag layers by the ITO layers.

  7. Topological states in a two-dimensional metal alloy in Si surface: BiAg/Si(111)-4 ×4 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Cui, Bin; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Feng

    2018-02-01

    A bridging topological state with a conventional semiconductor platform offers an attractive route towards future spintronics and quantum device applications. Here, based on first-principles and tight-binding calculations, we demonstrate the existence of topological states hosted by a two-dimensional (2D) metal alloy in a Si surface, the BiAg/Si(111)-4 ×4 surface, which has already been synthesized experimentally. It exhibits a topological insulating state with an energy gap of 71 meV (˜819 K ) above the Fermi level and a topological metallic state with quasiquantized conductance below the Fermi level. The underlying mechanism leading to the formation of such nontrivial states is revealed by analysis of the "charge-transfer" and "orbital-filtering" effect of the Si substrate. A minimal effective tight-binding model is employed to reveal the formation mechanism of the topological states. Our finding opens opportunities to detect topological states and measure its quantized conductance in a large family of 2D surface metal alloys, which have been or are to be grown on semiconductor substrates.

  8. Electrical characteristics for Sn-Ag-Cu solder bump with Ti/Ni/Cu under-bump metallization after temperature cycling tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I.; Lin, Y. C.; Duh, J. G.; Hsu, Tom

    2006-10-01

    Lead-free solder bumps have been widely used in current flip-chip technology (FCT) due to environmental issues. Solder joints after temperature cycling tests were employed to investigate the interfacial reaction between the Ti/Ni/Cu under-bump metallization and Sn-Ag-Cu solders. The interfacial morphology and quantitative analysis of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were obtained by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and field emission electron probe microanalysis (FE-EPMA). Various types of IMCs such as (Cu1-x,Agx)6Sn5, (Cu1-y,Agy)3Sn, and (Ag1-z,Cuz)3Sn were observed. In addition to conventional I-V measurements by a special sample preparation technique, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) internal probing system was introduced to evaluate the electrical characteristics in the IMCs after various test conditions. The electrical data would be correlated to microstructural evolution due to the interfacial reaction between the solder and under-bump metallurgy (UBM). This study demonstrated the successful employment of an internal nanoprobing approach, which would help further understanding of the electrical behavior within an IMC layer in the solder/UBM assembly.

  9. The challenge of screen printed Ag metallization on nano-scale poly-silicon passivated contacts for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Song, Lixin; Yan, Li; Becht, Gregory; Zhang, Yi; Hoerteis, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Passivated contacts can be used to reduce metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon solar cells, and are obtained increasing attentions by PV industries in recent years. The reported thicknesses of passivated contact layers are mostly within tens of nanometer range, and the corresponding metallization methods are realized mainly by plating/evaporation technology. This high cost metallization cannot compete with the screen printing technology, and may affect its market potential comparing with the presently dominant solar cell technology. Very few works have been reported on screen printing metallization on passivated contact solar cells. Hence, there is a rising demand to realize screen printing metallization technology on this topic. In this work, we investigate applying screen printing metallization pastes on poly-silicon passivated contacts. The critical challenge for us is to build low contact resistance that can be competitive to standard technology while restricting the paste penetrations within the thin nano-scale passivated contact layers. The contact resistivity of 1.1mohm-cm2 and the open circuit voltages > 660mV are achieved, and the most appropriate thickness range is estimated to be around 80 150nm.

  10. Transition from metal-ligand bonding to halogen bonding involving a metal as halogen acceptor a study of Cu, Ag, Au, Pt, and Hg complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vytor; Cremer, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    Utilizing all-electron Dirac-exact relativistic calculations with the Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (NESC) method and the local vibrational mode approach, the transition from metal-halide to metal halogen bonding is determined for Au-complexes interacting with halogen-donors. The local stretching force constants of the metal-halogen interactions reveal a smooth transition from weak non-covalent halogen bonding to non-classical 3-center-4-electron bonding and finally covalent metal-halide bonding. The strongest halogen bonds are found for dialkylaurates interacting with Cl2 or FCl. Differing trends in the intrinsic halogen-metal bond strength, the binding energy, and the electrostatic potential are explained.

  11. Exploiting multi-function Metal-Organic Framework nanocomposite Ag@Zn-TSA as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Sheying, E-mail: dongsyy@126.com [College of Sciences, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China); Zhang, Dandan; Suo, Gaochao; Wei, Wenbo [College of Sciences, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China); Huang, Tinglin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China)

    2016-08-31

    A novel multi-function Metal-Organic Framework composite Ag@Zn-TSA (zinc thiosalicylate, Zn(C{sub 7}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}S), Zn-TSA) was synthesized as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of myoglobin (Mb)/glucose oxidase (GOx) for electrochemical biosensing. The electrochemical biosensors based on Ag@Zn-TSA composite and ionic liquid (IL) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) were fabricated successfully. Furthermore, the properties of the sensors were discussed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometric current-time curve, respectively. The results showed the proposed biosensors had wide linear response to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the range of 0.3–20,000 μM, to nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) for 1.3 μM–1660 μM and 2262 μM–1,33,000 μM, to glucose for 2.0–1022 μM, with a low detection limit of 0.08 μM for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 0.5 μM for NO{sub 2}{sup −}, 0.8 μM for glucose. The values of the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) for Mb and GOx were estimated as 2.05 s{sup −1} and 2.45 s{sup −1}, respectively. Thus, Ag@Zn-TSA was a kind of ideal material as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing. In addition, this work indicated that MOF nanocomposite had a great potential for constructing wide range of sensing interface. - Highlights: • Novel Ag@Zn-TSA was used as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of Mb/glucose. • We exploited multi-function MOFs for a wide range of electrocatalytic sensing interface. • The proposed biosensors had an excellent catalytic effect on the small molecule (NO{sub 2}{sup −}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, glucose).

  12. Exploiting multi-function Metal-Organic Framework nanocomposite Ag@Zn-TSA as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Sheying; Zhang, Dandan; Suo, Gaochao; Wei, Wenbo; Huang, Tinglin

    2016-01-01

    A novel multi-function Metal-Organic Framework composite Ag@Zn-TSA (zinc thiosalicylate, Zn(C_7H_4O_2S), Zn-TSA) was synthesized as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of myoglobin (Mb)/glucose oxidase (GOx) for electrochemical biosensing. The electrochemical biosensors based on Ag@Zn-TSA composite and ionic liquid (IL) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) were fabricated successfully. Furthermore, the properties of the sensors were discussed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometric current-time curve, respectively. The results showed the proposed biosensors had wide linear response to hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) in the range of 0.3–20,000 μM, to nitrite (NO_2"−) for 1.3 μM–1660 μM and 2262 μM–1,33,000 μM, to glucose for 2.0–1022 μM, with a low detection limit of 0.08 μM for H_2O_2, 0.5 μM for NO_2"−, 0.8 μM for glucose. The values of the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k_s) for Mb and GOx were estimated as 2.05 s"−"1 and 2.45 s"−"1, respectively. Thus, Ag@Zn-TSA was a kind of ideal material as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing. In addition, this work indicated that MOF nanocomposite had a great potential for constructing wide range of sensing interface. - Highlights: • Novel Ag@Zn-TSA was used as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of Mb/glucose. • We exploited multi-function MOFs for a wide range of electrocatalytic sensing interface. • The proposed biosensors had an excellent catalytic effect on the small molecule (NO_2"−, H_2O_2, glucose).

  13. Isothermal Stability and Selected Mechanical Properties of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 Bulk Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błyskun P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of isothermal annealing on the amorphous structure stability of the Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 alloy. A series of continuous heating examinations was performed on the differential scanning calorimeter in order to determine the temperature limits for isothermal annealing series where the time to crystallization was measured. The obtained results were calculated and a time-temperature-transformation diagram was created and discussed. Static compression test as well as microhardness measurements of the as-quenched samples gave a mechanical properties results supplement. The measured properties (σc = 1800 MPa and 614 HV0.05 are comparable to the literature results for this alloy. Fractographic observations with the scanning electron microscope were also performed in order to prove some plasticity observed during the strength tests.

  14. Process for joining by diffusion two metal parts, particularly in nickel and in Ag-In-Cd alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The description is given of a process for joining by diffusion two parts in different metals and having a first and second surface identical in shape. This process, which is particularly advantageous for parts in nickel and in an alloy of silver, indium and cadmium, is characterised by the fact that a third and fourth surface parallel to the first and second surface are made on the parts and that the first and second surface are pressed one against the other by means of pressure applied on the third and fourth surface, so as to cause a metal substance to diffuse in the other [fr

  15. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2010-08-11

    Ag2S and Ag are important functional materials that have received considerable research interest in recent years. In this work, we develop a solution-based synthetic method to combine these two materials into hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature. Starting from monodisperse Cu2O solid spheres, CuS hollow spheres can be converted from Cu2O through a modified Kirkendall process, and the obtained CuS can then be used as a solid precursor for preparation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers through ion exchange and photo-assisted reduction. We have found that formation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers is instantaneous, and the size of Ag nanocrystals on the hollow spheres of Ag2S can be controlled by changing the concentration and power of reducing agents in the synthesis. The growth of Ag nanoparticles on hollow spheres of Ag2S in the dimers is along the [111] direction of the silver crystal; the light absorption properties have also been investigated. Furthermore, coupling or tripling of Ag2S/Ag heterodimers into dumbbell-like trimers ((Ag 2S)2/Ag, linear) and triangular tetramers ((Ag 2S)3/Ag, coplanar) can also be attained at 60°C by adding the bidentate ligand ethylenediamine as a cross-linking agent. To test the applicability of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under prolonged UV irradiation, and no appreciable solid dissolution is found. Possible mechanisms regarding the enhanced antibacterial activity have also been addressed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Short-to-Medium-Range Order and Atomic Packing in Zr48Cu36Ag8Al8 Bulk Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its excellent glass-forming ability (GFA, the Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 bulk metallic glass (BMG is of great importance in glass transition investigations and new materials development. However, due to the lack of detailed structural information, the local structure and atomic packing of this alloy is still unknown. In this work, synchrotron measurement and reverse Monte Carlo simulation are performed on the atomic configuration of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass. The local structure is characterized in terms of bond pairs and Voronoi tessellation. It is found that there are mainly two types of bond pairs in the configuration, as the body-centered cubic (bcc-type and icosahedral (ico-type bond pairs. On the other hand, the main polyhedra in the configuration are icosahedra and the bcc structure. That is, the bcc-type bond pairs, together with the ico-type bond pairs, form the bcc polyhedra, introducing the distortion in bcc clusters in short range. However, in the medium range, the atoms formed linear or planar structures, other than the tridimensional clusters. That is, the medium-range order in glass is of 1D or 2D structure, suggesting the imperfect ordered packing feature.

  17. Influence of Group-III-metal and Ag adsorption on the Ge growth on Si(111) and its vicinal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckmann, Moritz

    2011-12-15

    the latter ones are terminated by (111), (013) and (103) side facets as well as a (112) top facet. Ga and In have a contrary impact on the Ge diffusion on the Si(112) surface. While Ga reduces the diffusion for Ge atoms, compared to the growth on the bare Si(112) surface, In increases the diffusion. For the first time Ag was employed as surfactant material for Ge growth on Si. On a completely ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-R 30 -Ag covered Si(111) surface a drastic increase of the diffusion length for Ge and, thus, the growth of huge Ge islands (sizes of several {mu}m) is observed. Their density is about three orders of magnitude lower as compared to the growth on the clean Si(111) surface. At a coverage of around 90 bilayers (layer thickness of around 28 nm) the islands are coalesced and a closed Ge film is formed. Ag deposition on both, Si(112) and Si(113), induces the formation of a regular array of nanometer-scale facets along the [110] direction, the sizes of which are dependent on the growth temperature and a maximum periodicity perpendicular to [110] of 55 nm is determined. On Si(112) the array consists of alternating (111) and (113) facets, whereas on Si(113) alternating (111) and (115) facets are found. Subsequently deposited Ge grows nicely along the direction of the facets. Thereby, Ge nanowires with lengths of up to 600 nm and aspect ratios of up to 10:1 are formed.

  18. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  19. Investigation of the potential for concealed base-metal mineralization at the Drenchwater Creek Zn-Pb-Ag occurrence, northern Alaska, using geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, and airborne electromagnetic geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth E.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Abraham, Jared E.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and State of Alaska cooperated on an investigation of the mineral potential of a southern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, Howard Pass quadrangle, to provide background information for future land-use decisions. The investigation incorporated an airborne electromagnetic (EM) survey covering 1,500 mi2 (~3,900 km2), including flight lines directly over the Drenchwater Creek sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag occurrence, the largest known base-metal occurrence in the survey area. Samples from the mineralized outcrop and rubblecrop contain metal concentrations that can exceed 11 percent Zn+Pb, with appreciable amounts of Ag. Soil samples with anomalous Pb concentrations are distributed near the sulfide-bearing outcrops and along a >2.5 km zone comprising mudstone, shale, and volcanic rocks of the Kuna Formation.

  20. Timing of porphyry (Cu-Mo) and base metal (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system—Morococha district, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Honza; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bendezú, Aldo; Ovtcharova, Maria; Spikings, Richard; Stein, Holly; Fontboté, Lluís

    2015-12-01

    The Morococha district in central Peru is characterised by economically important Cordilleran polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) vein and replacement bodies and the large Toromocho porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in its centre. U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology data for various porphyry-related hydrothermal mineralisation styles record a 3.5-Ma multi-stage history of magmatic-hydrothermal activity in the district. In the late Miocene, three individual magmatic-hydrothermal centres were active: the Codiciada, Toromocho, and Ticlio centres, each separated in time and space. The Codiciada centre is the oldest magmatic-hydrothermal system in the district and consists of a composite porphyry stock associated with anhydrous skarn and quartz-molybdenite veins. The hydrothermal events are recorded by a titanite U-Pb age at 9.3 ± 0.2 Ma and a molybdenite Re-Os age at 9.26 ± 0.03 Ma. These ages are indistinguishable from zircon U-Pb ages for porphyry intrusions of the composite stock and indicate a time span of 0.2 Ma for magmatic-hydrothermal activity. The small Ticlio magmatic-hydrothermal centre in the west of the district has a maximum duration of 0.3 Ma, ranging from porphyry emplacement to porphyry mineralisation at 8.04 ± 0.14 Ma (40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling age). The Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre has a minimum of five recorded porphyry intrusions that span a total of 1.3 Ma and is responsible for the formation of the giant Toromocho Cu-Mo deposit. At least two hydrothermal pulses are identified. Post-dating a first pulse of molybdenite mineralisation, wide-spread hydrous skarn covers an area of over 6 km2 and is recorded by five 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages at 7.2-6.8 Ma. These ages mark the end of the slowly cooling and long-lived Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre soon after last magmatic activity at 7.26 ± 0.02 Ma. District-wide (50 km2) Cordilleran base metal vein and replacement bodies post-date the youngest recorded porphyry mineralisation event at Toromocho

  1. Study of interfacial reactions in Sn-3.5Ag-3.0Bi and Sn-8.0Zn-3.0Bi sandwich structure solder joint with Ni(P)/Cu metallization on Cu substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Peng; Andersson, Cristina; Wei, Xicheng; Cheng, Zhaonian; Shangguan, Dongkai; Liu, Johan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the coupling effect in Sn-3.5Ag-3.0Bi and Sn-8.0Zn-3.0Bi solder joint with sandwich structure by long time reflow soldering was studied. It was found that the interfacial compound at the Cu substrate was binary Cu-Sn compound in Sn-Ag-Bi solder joint and Cu 5 Zn 8 phase in Sn-Zn-Bi solder joint. The thickness of the Cu-Zn compound layer formed at the Cu substrate was greater than or equal to that of Cu-Sn compound layer, although the reflow soldering temperature of Sn-Zn-Bi (240 o C) was lower than that of Sn-Ag-Bi (250 o C). The stable Cu-Zn compound was the absolute preferential phase in the interfacial layer between Sn-Zn-Bi and the Cu substrate. The ternary (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 compound was formed at the Sn-Ag-Bi/Ni(P)-Cu metallization interface, and a complex alloy Sn-Ni-Cu-Zn was formed at the Sn-Zn-Bi/Ni(P)-Cu metallization interface. It was noted that Cu atoms could diffuse from the Cu substrate through the solder matrix to the Ni(P)-Cu metallization within 1 min reflow soldering time for both solder systems, indicating that just 30 s was long enough for Cu to go through 250 μm diffusion length in the Sn-Ag-Bi solder joint at 250 o C. The coupling effect between Ni(P)/Cu metallization and Cu substrate was confirmed as the type of IMCs at Ni(P) layer had been changed from Ni-Sn system to Cu-Sn system apparently by the diffusion effect of Cu atoms. The (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 layer at the Ni(P)/Cu metallization grew significantly and its thickness was even greater than that of the Cu-Sn compound on the opposite side, however the growth of the complex alloy including Sn, Ni, Cu and Zn on the Ni(P)/Cu metallization was suppressed

  2. On new ternary equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminum compounds ScTAl with T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Benndorf, Christopher [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Haverkamp, Sandra [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    The new equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminides ScTAl for T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au were obtained by arc-melting of the elements followed by subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The samples were studied by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of three compounds were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: ScCrAl, MgZn{sub 2} type, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a = 525.77(3), c = 858.68(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0188, wR{sub 2} = 0.0485, 204 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables, ScPtAl, TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 642.83(4), b = 428.96(2), c = 754.54(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0326, wR{sub 2} = 0.0458, 448 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables and ScAuAl, HfRhSn type, P anti 62c, a = 722.88(4), c = 724.15(4) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0316, wR{sub 2} = 0.0653, 512 F{sup 2} values, 18 variables. Phase pure samples of all compounds were furthermore investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements, and Pauli-paramagnetism but no superconductivity was observed down to 2.1 K for all of them. The local structural features and disordering phenomena have been characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc magic angle spinning (MAS) and static NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  3. Influence of the noble metals (Pd, Au, Ag) in the thermoluminescent signal induced by radiation in the ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa S, G.

    2006-01-01

    When increasing the use of the ionizing and non ionizing radiations (for example, gamma and ultraviolet radiation) in different areas of the science and technology, there is necessary to apply more accurate safety measures and to avoid over-exposures that could put in risk the life of workers that manipulate radiation sources, patient that are exposed to this under some medical treatment, as well as materials that undergo intentionally to radiation. Also, the UV radiation that arrives to the earth can cause some damages, to the one to weaken the protector layer of ozone the UV radiation increases that arrives to the earth surface being able to affect the alive beings and the materials. By this so much the development of new materials able to take a census of in a more accurate way, fields of gamma and UV radiation is becoming necessary. In this sense, this work presents the obtained results when quantifying radiation fields, through the analysis in the thermoluminescent behavior (TL) induced by the gamma and UV radiation in the zirconium dioxide synthesized by the sol gel method and doped with nanoparticles of Pd, Au and Ag. It is necessary to mention that in reported works in this respect its mention that the zircon has good thermoluminescent sensitivity induced by these radiation types, however it has shown high thermoluminescent instability that is translated in an important lost of the information after the irradiation. For that through the incorporation of the metallic nanoparticles it was intended to stabilize the TL behavior of zircon. The results showed that the doped zircon has a high sensitivity to the gamma and UV radiation. These also show that the ionizing and non ionizing radiation induce a thermoluminescent curve consisting of two TL peaks with maxima located around 65 C and 145 C and that the intensity is increased with the dose, following a lineal behavior in certain interval of dose exposure that is influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles

  4. Evolution with time of 12 metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb, Bi and U) and of lead isotopes in the snows of Coats Land (Antarctica) since the 1830's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, F.

    2001-01-01

    This work shows that it is now possible to get reliable data on the occurrence of numerous heavy metals at ultra low levels in Antarctic snow, by combining ultra clean field sampling and laboratory sub-sampling procedures and the use of ultra sensitive analytical techniques such as ICP-SFMS and TIMS. It has allowed us to determine concentrations of twelve metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb, Bi et U) and lead isotopic composition in the ultra clean series of snow samples collected at Coats Land, in the Atlantic sector of Antarctica. This work presents a 150 years record of metal inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to Antarctica from the 1830's to the early 1990's. Lead atmospheric pollution begins as early as the end of the 19. century, peaks during the 1970's-1980's and then falls sharply during recent decades. Evolution in lead isotopic abundance shows that Pb inputs to Antarctica reflect a complex blend of contributions originating from the Southern part of South America and Australia. For Cr, Cu, Zn, Ag, Bi and U, concentrations in the snow show significant increases from 1950 to 1980. These enhancements which cannot be explained by variations in natural inputs, illustrate that atmospheric pollution for heavy metals linked with anthropogenic activities in the Southern Hemisphere countries such as for example ferrous and non-ferrous metal mining and smelting is really global. Study of the time period 1920-1990, has allowed us to detail short-term (intra and inter annual) heavy metals concentration's changes. The large short-term variability, observed in Coats Land snow, shows the complex patterns of metal inputs to Antarctica, associated for instance to changes in long-range transport processes from mid-latitude to polar zone and to variability in the different natural sources, such local volcanic activity, sea-salt spray or crustal dust inputs. (author)

  5. Life prolongation of hot metal ladle by improved shape and material of the bricks; Renga keijo to zaishitsu kaizen ni yoru yosenka jumyo no encho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Toru.; Mori, Hajime.; Fukushima, Hironori.; Iiyama, Makoto. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Keihin Works, NKK, intended to extend life of a hot metal ladle and reduction of refractory cost by improving shapes and materials of bricks. The refractory composition of the ladle is a 4-layer structure constituted of a permanent lining comprising 3 layers of agalmatolite bricks and a 180 mm thick work lining. High alumina bricks are used for a free board part and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-C bricks for the slag line part to the ground part. Elevation of the pore rate was observed from the working face to the back face in a brick after use. The former is considered caused by densification of structure and the latter by embrittlement by oxidation. Cracks parallel to the working face are considered caused by structural spalling by the difference of the physical properties. Since cracks vertical to the working face are observed, the finite element method (FEM) thermal stress analysis is applied to inspect the possibility of cracks by thermal stress. A brick whose degree of sintering was suppressed was tri allyl manufactured. It brought wide extension of life and reduction of refractory cost. (NEDO)

  6. Ag nanoprisms with Ag₂S attachment.

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Shenglin; Xi, Baojuan; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Yifei; Jiang, Jianwen; Hu, Jiangyong; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2013-01-01

    Triangular Ag nanoprisms are a type of most-studied noble-metal nanostructures over the past decade owing to their special structural architecture and outstanding optical and catalytic properties for a wide range of applications. Nevertheless, in contrast to active research for the synthesis of phase-pure Ag nanoprisms, no asymmetric heterodimers containing Ag prisms have been developed so far, probably due to lack of suitable synthetic methods. Herein, we devise a simple ion-exchange method to synthesize Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature, through which Ag nanoprisms with controllable size and thickness can be fabricated. Formation chemistry and optical properties of the heterodimers have been investigated. These semiconductor/metal heterodimers have exhibited remarkable bactericidal activity to E. coli cells under visible light illumination.

  7. Synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles for light-trapping enhancement in organic bulk heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Ding, Qiuyu; Li, Ben Q.; Jiang, Xinbing; Zhang, Manman

    2018-02-01

    Though noble metal nanoparticles have been explored to enhance the performance of the organic solar cell, effect of dielectric nanoparticles, and coupled effect of dielectric and metal nanoparticles, have rarely been reported, if at all, on organic solar cell. This work reports an experimental study on synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles in a bulk organic heterojunction for the broadband light absorption enhancement. The wavelength scale SiO2 particles were arranged as a monolayer on the surface of the solar cell to guide incident light into the active layer and prolong the effective optical length of the entered energy. This is achieved by the excitation of whispering gallery modes in SiO2 nanoparticles and by leaky mode radiation. When small size Ag particles were incorporated into the transport layer of the solar cell, synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles is formed by coupling of the whispering gallery mode of closely arranged SiO2 particles atop and collaborative localized surface plasma resonance scattering of Ag nanoparticles dispersed in the transport layer. As a result, the performance of the organic solar cell is greatly enhanced and the short-circuit current density has an improvement of 42.47%. Therefore, the organic solar cell incorporated with SiO2 and Ag particles presents a meaningful strategy to achieve high energy-harvesting performance. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Formation of quasicrystals and amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation kinetics in Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Zhuang, Yanxin; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl

    2001-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the formation of quasicrystals and the amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation kinetics in the supercooled liquid region for a Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass have been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature nonisothermal and isothermal...... of quasicrystals decrease, Atomic mobility is important for the formation of quasicrystals from the metallic glass whereas the relationship of the crystallization temperature vs pressure for the transition from the quasicrystalline state to intermetallic compounds may mainly depend on the thermodynamic potential...... energy barrier. To study the amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation kinetics in the metallic glass, relative volume fractions of the transferred quasicrystalline phase as a function of annealing time, obtained at 663, 673, 683, and 693 K, have been analyzed in details using 14 nucleation...

  9. Sonochemical synthesis of Ag/AgCl nanocubes and their efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deliang; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Huang, Qingsong; Ali, Ghafar; Cho, Sung Oh

    2012-04-23

    A novel one-step sonochemical approach to synthesize a plasmonic photocatalyst of AgCl nanocubes (ca. 115 nm in edge length) with a small amount of Ag metal species is presented. The nanoscale Ag/AgCl hybrid photocatalysts with cubic morphology are readily formed under ambient ultrasonic conditions and neither external heat treatment nor reducing agents are required. The size of the Ag/AgCl photocatalysts could be controlled by changing the concentrations of Ag(+) ions and polyvinylpyrrolidone molecules in precursor solutions. The compositions, microstructures, influencing factors, and possible growth mechanism of the Ag/AgCl hybrid nanocubes were systematically investigated. The Ag/AgCl photocatalysts show excellent photocatalytic performance for degradation of various dye molecules under visible light. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigation on photocatalytic activities of 1D Ag/Ag2WO4 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danqing; Huang, Weicheng; Li, Long; Liu, Lu; Sun, Xiaojun; Liu, Bo; Yang, Bin; Guo, Chongshen

    2017-09-01

    Ag2WO4 is a significant photocatalyst that responds to UV light irradiation only, which greatly hinders it for further practical application for solar light. To address this problem, herein, 1D plasmonic Ag/Ag2WO4 photocatalysts have been fabricated by a successive process including hydrothermal synthesis to obtain Ag2WO4 followed by an additional in situ chemical-reduction process for Ag decoration. Then, the structural features, optical properties, and electronic structures of Ag2WO4 and Ag/Ag2WO4 nanowires were systematically investigated via a combination of theoretical calculations and experimental evidence. The plasmon-enhanced Ag/Ag2WO4 nanowires exhibited higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity, which performed a desired photodestruction ratio of 91.2% on methylene blue within 60 min and good stability in five cycles. The Ag decoration greatly facilitates visible-light harvesting and thus promotes photogenerated radical oxidation to dye, which is evidenced by the higher hydroxyl radical level of Ag/Ag2WO4 detected in the ESR test during the photocatalytic process. The theoretical calculation based on density functional theory indicates that Ag nanoparticles formed on the surface of Ag2WO4 could narrow the band gap of Ag2WO4. In addition, the surface plasmon resonance absorption effect and fast charge transfer effect in the metal-semiconductor system contribute to the photocatalytic performance of Ag/Ag2WO4.

  12. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg"0 using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids were employed for Hg"0 removal under fluorescent light. • Superoxide radical (·O_2"−) played a key role in Hg"0 removal. • NO exhibited a significant effect on Hg"0 removal in comparison to SO_2. • The mechanism for enhanced Hg"0 removal over Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 was proposed. - Abstract: A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg"0 removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N_2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg"0 removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg"0 removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg"0 removal in comparison to SO_2. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag_2CO_3 showed the highest Hg"0 removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag_2CO_3 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag"0 NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (·O_2"−) may play a key role in Hg"0 removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg"0 removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag_2CO_3 hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  13. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  14. Studies on electronic structure of interfaces between Ag and gelatin for stabilization of Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Tadaaki; Uchida, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Extremely high stability of Ag nanoparticles in photographic materials has forced us to study the electronic structures of the interfaces between thin layers of Ag, Au, and Pt and their surface membranes in ambient atmosphere by photoelectron yield spectroscopy in air and Kelvin probe method. Owing to the Fermi level equalization between a metal layer and a membrane coming from air, the electron transfer took place from the membrane to Pt and Au layers and from an Ag layer to the membrane, giving the reason for poor stability of Ag nanoparticles in air. The control of the Fermi level of an Ag layer with respect to that of a gelatin membrane in air could be widely made according to Nernst's equation by changing the pH and pAg values of an aqueous gelatin solution used to form the membrane, and thus available to stabilize Ag nanoparticles in a gelatin matrix. (author)

  15. Influence of the noble metals (Pd, Au, Ag) in the thermoluminescent signal induced by radiation in the ZrO{sub 2}; Influencia de los metales nobles (Pd, Au, Ag) en la senal termoluminiscente inducida por la radiacion en la ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa S, G

    2006-07-01

    When increasing the use of the ionizing and non ionizing radiations (for example, gamma and ultraviolet radiation) in different areas of the science and technology, there is necessary to apply more accurate safety measures and to avoid over-exposures that could put in risk the life of workers that manipulate radiation sources, patient that are exposed to this under some medical treatment, as well as materials that undergo intentionally to radiation. Also, the UV radiation that arrives to the earth can cause some damages, to the one to weaken the protector layer of ozone the UV radiation increases that arrives to the earth surface being able to affect the alive beings and the materials. By this so much the development of new materials able to take a census of in a more accurate way, fields of gamma and UV radiation is becoming necessary. In this sense, this work presents the obtained results when quantifying radiation fields, through the analysis in the thermoluminescent behavior (TL) induced by the gamma and UV radiation in the zirconium dioxide synthesized by the sol gel method and doped with nanoparticles of Pd, Au and Ag. It is necessary to mention that in reported works in this respect its mention that the zircon has good thermoluminescent sensitivity induced by these radiation types, however it has shown high thermoluminescent instability that is translated in an important lost of the information after the irradiation. For that through the incorporation of the metallic nanoparticles it was intended to stabilize the TL behavior of zircon. The results showed that the doped zircon has a high sensitivity to the gamma and UV radiation. These also show that the ionizing and non ionizing radiation induce a thermoluminescent curve consisting of two TL peaks with maxima located around 65 C and 145 C and that the intensity is increased with the dose, following a lineal behavior in certain interval of dose exposure that is influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles

  16. Computer simulation of the structure of liquid metal halides RbBr, CuCl, CuBr, CuI, and AgBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belashchenko, D.K.; Ostrovskij, O.I.

    2003-01-01

    The computerized models of the RbBr, AgBr, CuCl, CuBr and CuI liquid ion systems of 498 ions dimension are simulated at the temperatures of 753-960 K on the basis of the known diffraction data through the BELION algorithm. Good agreement of diffraction and model partial pair correlation functions (PPCF), excluding the PPCF first peaks heights, is obtained in all the cases. The simulation is carried out by the varied ion charges (the atomization energy values, close to the real ones, are obtained by ion charges ±1.00 for the RbBr, ±1.15 for AgBr, ±1.20 for CuCl, ±1.48 for CuBr and ±1.367 for CuI). The noncoulomb contributions in the interparticle potentials are calculated [ru

  17. Immobilization of Ag(i) into a metal-organic framework with -SO3H sites for highly selective olefin-paraffin separation at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ganggang; Huang, Minhui; Su, Ye; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong; Bao, Zongbi; Chen, Banglin

    2015-02-18

    Introduction of Ag(i) ions into a sulfonic acid functionalized MOF ((Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H) significantly enhances its interactions with olefin double bonds, leading to its much higher selectivities for the separation of C2H4-C2H6 and C3H6-C3H8 at room temperature over the original (Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H and other adsorbents at room temperature.

  18. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  19. Anisotropic Mg Electrodeposition and Alloying with Ag-based Anodes from Non-Coordinating Mixed-Metal Borohydride Electrolytes for Mg Hybrid Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2017-01-01

    A highly anisotropic electrodeposition was observed using the hybrid battery electrolyte Mg(BH 4 ) 2 with LiBH 4 in diglyme. At low overpotentials high aspect ratio platelet morphologies are observed with a strong fiber texture composed of a {10-10} and a {11-20} component, the first evidence of behavior of this kind in magnesium battery electrolytes. At high overpotentials the deposit aspect ratio is indistinguishable but the texture is shown to be primarily composed of a {11-20} fiber texture. The kinetic parameters relative to the relevant crystallographic faces are extracted from electron microscopy images and compared with the observed bulk rate extracted from the electrochemical data. The use of polycrystalline Ag foil substrates with little preferred orientation at the surface allowed highly polycrystalline nucleation at lower overpotentials than that of platinum, likely due to Ag alloying with Mg. Characterization using focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sections with Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) elemental analysis confirm that the deposits are primarily Mg although Mg‐Ag alloys of various compositions were observed. It is proposed that the orientation at slow rates of growth is due to the underlying kinetics of adatom diffusion on Mg and that higher rates diminish the phenomenon due to decreased time for adatom diffusion and instead are governed by the rates of adatom formation or more specifically the adatom vacancy formation on the different low-index planes of Mg.

  20. Oyonite, Ag3Mn2Pb4Sb7As4S24, a New Member of the Lillianite Homologous Series from the Uchucchacua Base-Metal Deposit, Oyon District, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bindi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The new mineral species oyonite, ideally Ag3Mn2Pb4Sb7As4S24, has been discovered in the Uchucchacua base-metal deposit, Oyon district, Catajambo, Lima Department, Peru, as very rare black metallic subhedral to anhedral crystals, up to 100 μm in length, associated with orpiment, tennantite/tetrahedrite, menchettiite, and other unnamed minerals of the system Pb-Ag-Sb-Mn-As-S, in calcite matrix. Its Vickers hardness (VHN100 is 137 kg/mm2 (range 132–147. In reflected light, oyonite is weakly to moderately bireflectant and weakly pleochroic from dark grey to a dark green. Internal reflections are absent. Reflectance values for the four COM wavelengths [Rmin, Rmax (% (λ in nm] are: 33.9, 40.2 (471.1; 32.5, 38.9 (548.3, 31.6, 38.0 (586.6; and 29.8, 36.5 (652.3. Electron microprobe analysis gave (in wt %, average of 5 spot analyses: Cu 0.76 (2, Ag 8.39 (10, Mn 3.02 (7, Pb 24.70 (25, As 9.54 (12, Sb 28.87 (21, S 24.30 (18, total 99.58 (23. Based on 20 cations per formula unit, the chemical formula of oyonite is Cu0.38Ag2.48Mn1.75Pb3.79Sb7.55As4.05S24.12. The main diffraction lines are (d in Å, hkl and relative intensity: 3.34 (−312; 40, 3.29 (−520; 100, 2.920 (−132; 40, 2.821 (−232; 70, 2.045 (004; 50. The crystal structure study revealed oyonite to be monoclinic, space group P21/n, with unit-cell parameters a = 19.1806 (18, b = 12.7755 (14, c = 8.1789 (10 Å, β = 90.471 (11°, V = 2004.1 (4 Å3, Z = 2. The crystal structure was refined to a final R1 = 0.032 for 6272 independent reflections. Oyonite belongs to the Sb-rich members of the andorite homeotypic sub-series within the lillianite homologous series. The name oyonite is after the Oyon district, Lima Department, Peru, the district where the type locality (Uchucchacua mine is located.

  1. Digestive cell lysosomes as main targets for Ag accumulation and toxicity in marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed to maltose-stabilised Ag nanoparticles of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Romero, A; Bilbao, E; Izagirre, U; Cajaraville, M P; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2017-03-01

    Bioavailability and toxicity of maltose-stabilised AgNPs of different sizes (20, 40 and 100 nm) in mussels were compared with bulk and aqueous forms of the metal through a two-tier experimental approach. In the first tier, mussels were exposed for 3 d to a range of concentrations (0.75, 75, 750 μg Ag/l) in the form of Ag20-Mal, Ag40-Mal, Ag100-Mal, bulk Ag and aqueous Ag (as AgNO 3 ), as well as to the concentrations of maltose used in the formulation of NPs. Mortality, bioaccumulation, tissue and cell distribution and lysosomal responses were investigated. In the second tier, mussels were exposed for 21 d to Ag20-Mal, Ag100-Mal, bulk Ag and aqueous Ag at the lowest effective concentration selected after Tier 1 (0.75 μg Ag/l), biomarkers and toxicopathic effects were investigated. Aqueous Ag was lethal within 3 d at 75 μg Ag/l; Ag NPs or bulk Ag did not produce significant mortality at 750 μg Ag/l. Ag accumulation was limited and metallothionein gene transcription was not regulated although metal accumulation occurred in digestive, brown and stomach epithelial cells and in gut lumen after exposure to AgNPs and aqueous Ag starting at low concentrations after 1 d. Electrondense particles (lysosomes and residual bodies after exposure to AgNPs contained Ag and S (X-ray). Intralysosomal metal accumulation and lysosomal membrane destabilisation were enhanced after exposure to all the forms of Ag and more marked after exposure to Ag20-Mal than to larger NPs. 21 d exposure to AgNPs provoked digestive cell loss and loss of digestive gland integrity, resulting in atrophy-necrosis in digestive alveoli and oedema/hyperplasia in gills (Ag NP), vacuolisation in digestive cells (aqueous Ag) and haemocyte infiltration of connective tissue (all treatments). Intralysosomal metal accumulation, lysosomal responses and toxicopathic effects are enhanced at decreasing sizes and appear to be caused by Ag +  ions released from NPs, although the metal was not substantially

  2. Synthesis and characterization of novel plasmonic Ag/AgX-CNTs (X = Cl, Br, I) nanocomposite photocatalysts and synergetic degradation of organic pollutant under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huixian; Chen, Jiangyao; Li, Guiying; Nie, Xin; Zhao, Huijun; Wong, Po-Keung; An, Taicheng

    2013-08-14

    A series of novel well-defined Ag/AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) loaded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite photocatalysts (Ag/AgX-CNTs) were fabricated for the first time via a facile ultrasonic assistant deposition-precipitation method at the room temperature (25 ± 1 °C). X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectra analysis were used to characterize the structure, morphology, and optical properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts. Results confirmed the existence of the direct interfacial contact between Ag/AgX nanoparticles and CNTs, and Ag/AgX-CNTs nanocomposites exhibit superior absorbance in the visible light (VL) region owing to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles. The fabricated composite photocatalysts were employed to remove 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) in aqueous phase. A remarkably enhanced VL photocatalytic degradation efficiency of Ag/AgX-CNTs nanocomposites was observed when compared to that of pure AgX or CNTs. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of Ag/AgX-CNTs was due to the effective electron transfer from photoexcited AgX and plasmon-excited Ag(0) nanoparticles to CNTs. This can effectively decrease the recombination of electron-hole pairs, lead to a prolonged lifetime of the photoholes that promotes the degradation efficiency.

  3. Study of Ag and Au Nanoparticles Synthesized by Arc Discharge in Deionized Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Chi Tien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of Ag and Au nanofluids synthesized by the arc discharge method (ADM in deionized water. The metallic Ag nanoparticle (Ag0 and ionic Ag (Ag+ have played an important role in the battle against germs which are becoming more drug-resistant every year. Our study indicates that Ag nanoparticle suspension (SNPS fabricated by using ADM without added surfactants exclusively contains the metallic Ag nanoparticle and ionic Ag. Besides that, the ADM in deionized water has also been employed for the fabrication process of Au nanoparticles. The experimental results indicate that the prepared Ag nanoparticles can react with the dissolved H2CO3 in deionized water, leading to the formation of Ag2CO3. Significantly different to Ag, the prepared Au nanoparticles with their surfaces bonded by oxygen are suspended in deionized water by the formation of hydrogen bonded with the neighboring water molecules.

  4. First-principles theory of short-range order in size-mismatched metal alloys: Cu-Au, Cu-Ag, and Ni-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.; Ozolins, V.; Zunger, A.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a first-principles technique for calculating the short-range order (SRO) in disordered alloys, even in the presence of large anharmonic atomic relaxations. The technique is applied to several alloys possessing large size mismatch: Cu-Au, Cu-Ag, Ni-Au, and Cu-Pd. We find the following: (i) The calculated SRO in Cu-Au alloys peaks at (or near) the left-angle 100 right-angle point for all compositions studied, in agreement with diffuse scattering measurements. (ii) A fourfold splitting of the X-point SRO exists in both Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 and Cu 0.70 Pd 0.30 , although qualitative differences in the calculated energetics for these two alloys demonstrate that the splitting in Cu 0.70 Pd 0.30 may be accounted for by T=0 K energetics while T≠0 K configurational entropy is necessary to account for the splitting in Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 . Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 shows a significant temperature dependence of the splitting, in agreement with recent in situ measurements, while the splitting in Cu 0.70 Pd 0.30 is predicted to have a much smaller temperature dependence. (iii) Although no measurements exist, the SRO of Cu-Ag alloys is predicted to be of clustering type with peaks at the left-angle 000 right-angle point. Streaking of the SRO peaks in the left-angle 100 right-angle and left-angle 1 (1) /(2) 0 right-angle directions for Ag- and Cu-rich compositions, respectively, is correlated with the elastically soft directions for these compositions. (iv) Even though Ni-Au phase separates at low temperatures, the calculated SRO pattern in Ni 0.4 Au 0.6 , like the measured data, shows a peak along the left-angle ζ00 right-angle direction, away from the typical clustering-type left-angle 000 right-angle point. (v) The explicit effect of atomic relaxation on SRO is investigated and it is found that atomic relaxation can produce significant qualitative changes in the SRO pattern, changing the pattern from ordering to clustering type, as in the case of Cu-Ag. copyright 1998 The American

  5. Properties of uranium and thorium in host rocks of multi-metal (Ag, Pb, U, Cu, Bi, Z, F) Big Kanimansur deposit (Tajikistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayziev, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-metal Big Kanimansur Deposit host rocks contain high averages of uranium and thorium which are more than clark averages by 7 and 2.5 times accordingly. The second property of radio-active elements distribution are low ratio of thorium to uranium. That criteria can be used as prospecting sings for flanks and depth of know ore fields as well as for new squares of multi-metal mineralisation

  6. Mechanical alloying of the FeNi-Ag system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Ibarra, D.; Ochoa, J.; Villalba, R.; Sagarzazu, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Fe-Ni-Ag system is of particular interest for its potential applications as soft magnetic granular material with small magnetic grains embedded in a non-magnetic metal matrix. Under equilibrium conditions: Fe-Ag and Ni-Ag are immiscible and Fe-Ni shows complete solubility. These materials are particularly important for magnetoresistivity properties. The properties of these alloys are closely related to their microstructure; therefore, a detailed study of the transformations occurring during milling was undertaken using pre-alloyed Fe x Ni 100-x (x = 30, 50 and 70) further milled with different Ag content to give the following alloys compositions (Fe x -Ni 100-x ) 100-y Ag y (y = 5, 20, 60). Consolidation of the mechanically alloyed powders by sintering at 950 o C was performed. Morphological and structural characterization of the sintered powders was carried out by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe 30 Ni 70 and Fe 50 Ni 50 formed ordered FeNi 3 compound. Fe 70 Ni 30 showed the formation of a mixture of γ-(Fe,Ni) and α-Fe(Ni) solid solutions. The mixture of these systems with Ag showed the metal solid solutions surrounded by Ag islands of Fe x Ni y -Ag, There was also evidence of Ag diffusing into the γ-(Fe,Ni). High Ag content (60%) shows formation of islands of FeNi surrounded by Ag. Sintering is always improved with the Ag content

  7. Ag/AgCl Loaded Bi2WO6 Composite: A Plasmonic Z-Scheme Visible Light-Responsive Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical flower-like Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized by facile hydrothermal method at low pH. And Ag/AgCl was loaded by photoreduction on its surface. As-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by various techniques. Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized at a size of 2-3 μm. Depositing Ag/AgCl did not destroy the crystal structure, and both Ag+ and metallic Ag0 were found. The band gap of the composite was 2.57 eV, which indicates that visible light could be the activating irradiation. In the photocatalytic activity test, the composite with 10 wt% Ag/AgCl boasted the highest removal efficiency (almost 100% in 45 min. The significant enhancement can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect and the establishment of heterostructures between Ag/AgCl and Bi2WO6. A possible mechanism of photocatalytic oxidation in the presence of Ag/AgCl-Bi2WO6 was proposed. This work sheds light on the potential applications of plasmonic metals in photocatalysis to enhance their activities.

  8. Chlorobenzene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride adsorption on undoped and metal-doped sol-gel substrates (SiO{sub 2}, Ag/SiO{sub 2}, Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Fe/SiO{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.A. [Postgrado de Ciencias Ambientales and Departamento de Investigacion en Zeolitas, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Edificio 76, Complejo de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 72570 Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: mighern@siu.buap.mx; Gonzalez, A.I.; Corona, L.; Hernandez, F. [Postgrado de Ciencias Ambientales and Departamento de Investigacion en Zeolitas, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Edificio 76, Complejo de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Rojas, F.; Asomoza, M.; Solis, S. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Portillo, R.; Salgado, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    Adsorption isotherms of chlorobenzene, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride vapors on undoped SiO{sub 2}, and metal-doped Ag/SiO{sub 2}, Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Fe/SiO{sub 2} substrates were measured in the temperature range of 398-593 K. These substrates were prepared from a typical sol-gel technique in the presence of metal dopants that rendered an assortment of microporous-mesoporous solids. The relevant characteristic of these materials was the different porosities and micropore to mesopore volume ratios that were displayed; this was due to the effect that the cationic metal valence exerts on the size of the sol-gel globules that compose the porous solid. The texture of these SiO{sub 2} materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, and diverse adsorption methods. The pore-size distributions of the adsorbents confirmed the existence of mesopores and supermicropores, while ultramicropores were absent. The Freundlich adsorption model approximately fitted the chlorinated compounds adsorption data on the silica substrates by reason of a heterogeneous energy distribution of adsorption sites. The intensity of the interaction between these organic vapors and the surface of the SiO{sub 2} samples was analyzed through evaluation of the isosteric heat of adsorption and standard adsorption energy; from these last results it was evident that the presence of metal species within the silica structure greatly affected the values of both the amounts adsorbed as well as of the isosteric heats of adsorption.

  9. Effect of cysteine and humic acids on bioavailability of Ag from Ag nanoparticles to a freshwater snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Tasha Stoiber,; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Isabelle Romer,; Ruth Merrifeild,; Lead, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Metal-based engineered nanoparticles (NPs) will undergo transformations that will affect their bioavailability, toxicity and ecological risk when released to the environment, including interactions with dissolved organic material. The purpose of this paper is to determine how interactions with two different types of organic material affect the bioavailability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Silver uptake rates by the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were determined after exposure to 25 nmol l-1 of Ag as PVP AgNPs, PEG AgNPs or AgNO3, in the presence of either Suwannee River humic acid or cysteine, a high-affinity thiol-rich organic ligand. Total uptake rate of Ag from the two NPs was either increased or not strongly affected in the presence of 1 – 10 mg 1-1 humic acid. Humic substances contain relatively few strong ligands for Ag explaining their limited effects on Ag uptake rate. In contrast, Ag uptake rate was substantially reduced by cysteine. Three components of uptake from the AgNPs were quantified in the presence of cysteine using a biodynamic modeling approach: uptake of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs, uptake of a polymer or large (>3kD) Ag-cysteine complex and uptake of the nanoparticle itself. Addition of 1:1 Ag:cysteine reduced concentrations of dissolved Ag, which contributed to, but did not fully explain the reductions in uptake. A bioavailable Ag-cysteine complex (> 3kD) appeared to be the dominant avenue of uptake from both PVP AgNPs and PEG AgNPs in the presence of cysteine. Quantifying the different avenues of uptake sets the stage for studies to assess toxicity unique to NPs.

  10. Oxygen influence on ceramics wettability by liquid metals: Ag/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muolo, M.L.; Valenza, F. [Institute for Energetics and Interphases - IENI CNR, via de Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Passerone, A. [Institute for Energetics and Interphases - IENI CNR, via de Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: a.passerone@ge.ieni.cnr.it; Passerone, D. [Swiss Federal Lab. for Mater. Testing and Res. (EMPA) - Uberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    A renewed interest in the effects of oxygen on the wetting of solid oxides has recently risen in connection to the development of the technique of 'air brazing' which makes use of the strong effect of oxygen to increase the wettability of oxides by means of processes running in air or in atmospheres with high oxygen content. Adsorption of oxygen not only at the liquid-vapour surface but also at the solid-liquid interface has been postulated by many previous researches, mainly on the basis of thermodynamic considerations. Along the same line, new results of the wetting behaviour in the system Ag/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a function of oxygen partial pressure are presented, with the simultaneous measurement of the liquid surface tension. These results are compared with the existing ones, and discussed on the basis of thermodynamic principles. The resulting work of adhesion is compared with the 'work of separation' computed by the density functional theory (DFT) approach. DFT calculations are also employed, at variance with previous models, to investigate the structures that are formed at the interface upon addition of oxygen in different sites energetics, atomic and electronic properties of this oxygen-rich interface are discussed together with the connection with experiments.

  11. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  12. A biodynamic understanding of dietborne and waterborne Ag uptake from Ag NPs in the sediment-dwelling oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe; Selck, Henriette; Croteau, Marie-Noele

    2018-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles (Me-NPs) are increasingly used in various products, such as inks and cosmetics, enhancing the likelihood of their release into aquatic environments. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling their bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity in aquatic biota will help support environmental risk assessment. Here we characterized unidirectional parameters for uptake and elimination of silver (Ag) in the sediment-dwelling oligochaete Tubifex tubifex after waterborne (0.01–47 nmol Ag/L) and dietborne (0.4–482 nmol Ag/g dw sed.) exposures to Ag NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Worms accumulated Ag from AgNO3more efficiently than from Ag NPs during waterborne exposure. The Ag uptake rate constants from water were 8.2 L/g/d for AgNO3 and 0.34 L/g/d for Ag NPs. Silver accumulated from both forms was efficiently retained in tissues, as no significant loss of Ag was detected after up to 20 days of depuration in clean media. High mortality (~50%) during depuration (i.e. after 17 days) was only observed for worms exposed to waterborne AgNO3 (3 nmol/L). Sediment exposures to both Ag forms resulted in low accumulation, i.e., the uptake rate constants were 0.002 and 0.005 g/g/d for AgNO3 and Ag NPs, respectively. Avoidance was only observed for worms exposed to sediment amended with AgNO3. Incorporation of the estimated rate constants into a biodynamic model predicted that sediment is likely the most important route of uptake for Ag in both forms in ecologically relevant aquatic environments. However, inference of bioavailability from our estimations of Ag assimilation efficiencies (AE) suggests that Ag (AE: 3–12% for AgNO3 and 0.1–0.8% for Ag NPs) is weakly bioavailable from sediment for this species. Thus, Ag amended to sediment as NPs might not pose greater problems than 'conventional' Ag for benthic organisms such as T. tubifex.

  13. Plasmonic properties of Ag nanoclusters in various polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takele, H; Greve, H; Pochstein, C; Zaporojtchenko, V; Faupel, F

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposite films containing Ag nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix of Teflon AF, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Nylon 6 were prepared by vapour phase co-deposition in high vacuum. A large variation of the particle plasmon resonance frequency in the visible region was obtained by increasing the Ag volume fraction from 4-80%. The metal volume fraction was measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and the film thickness was measured by surface profilometry. The position, width and strength of the plasmon resonance depend strongly on the metal filling factor, cluster size and interparticle distance. The microstructure of the nanocomposites (shape, size, size distribution and interparticle separation of metal clusters) was determined by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of the surrounding dielectric medium on the optical properties of nanocomposites was investigated by comparing the Teflon AF/Ag, PMMA/Ag and Nylon/Ag composites

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Ag-containing calcium phosphates with various Ca/P ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokcekaya, Ozkan, E-mail: gokcekaya@dc.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Materials Processing, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki [Department of Materials Processing, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Ergun, Celaletdin [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 65 Inonu Street, Gumussuyu, Istanbul 34437 (Turkey)

    2015-08-01

    Ag-containing calcium phosphate (CaP) powders were synthesized by a precipitation method using aqueous solutions of calcium nitrate, silver nitrate, and ammonium phosphate. The powders were sintered at temperatures ranging from 1173 to 1473 K. The charged atomic ratios of (Ca + Ag)/P and Ag/(Ca + Ag) in solution were varied from 1.33 to 1.67 and from 0 to 0.30, respectively. The Ag content in the as-precipitated CaP powders increased with the charged Ag/(Ca + Ag) atomic ratio in solution and was lower than the charged Ag/(Ca + Ag) value. The as-precipitated CaP powders consisted of hydroxyapatite (HA) as the main phase. Ag nanoparticles were observed on the as-precipitated HA particles under all conditions of Ag addition. After the sintering, HA, β-TCP (tricalcium phosphate), α-TCP, and β-CPP (calcium pyrophosphate) were mainly detected as CaPs on the basis of the Ca/P atomic ratio of the as-precipitated powders. The addition of Ag stabilized the β-TCP phase, and the distribution of Ag in β-TCP was homogeneous. A metallic Ag phase coexisted with HA. The solubility of Ag in HA was estimated to be 0.0019–0.0061 (Ag/(Ca + Ag)) atomic ratio, which was lower than that in β-TCP (higher than 0.0536) and higher than that of β-CPP (below the detection limit of analyses). - Highlights: • The HA powders with Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method. • Metallic Ag particles were detected with the HA phase after sintering. • The distribution of Ag in β-TCP was homogeneous after sintering. • The addition of Ag stabilized the β-ΤCP phase. • β-TCP exhibited higher solubility of Ag than HA and β-CPP.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Ag-containing calcium phosphates with various Ca/P ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcekaya, Ozkan; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki; Ergun, Celaletdin

    2015-01-01

    Ag-containing calcium phosphate (CaP) powders were synthesized by a precipitation method using aqueous solutions of calcium nitrate, silver nitrate, and ammonium phosphate. The powders were sintered at temperatures ranging from 1173 to 1473 K. The charged atomic ratios of (Ca + Ag)/P and Ag/(Ca + Ag) in solution were varied from 1.33 to 1.67 and from 0 to 0.30, respectively. The Ag content in the as-precipitated CaP powders increased with the charged Ag/(Ca + Ag) atomic ratio in solution and was lower than the charged Ag/(Ca + Ag) value. The as-precipitated CaP powders consisted of hydroxyapatite (HA) as the main phase. Ag nanoparticles were observed on the as-precipitated HA particles under all conditions of Ag addition. After the sintering, HA, β-TCP (tricalcium phosphate), α-TCP, and β-CPP (calcium pyrophosphate) were mainly detected as CaPs on the basis of the Ca/P atomic ratio of the as-precipitated powders. The addition of Ag stabilized the β-TCP phase, and the distribution of Ag in β-TCP was homogeneous. A metallic Ag phase coexisted with HA. The solubility of Ag in HA was estimated to be 0.0019–0.0061 (Ag/(Ca + Ag)) atomic ratio, which was lower than that in β-TCP (higher than 0.0536) and higher than that of β-CPP (below the detection limit of analyses). - Highlights: • The HA powders with Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method. • Metallic Ag particles were detected with the HA phase after sintering. • The distribution of Ag in β-TCP was homogeneous after sintering. • The addition of Ag stabilized the β-ΤCP phase. • β-TCP exhibited higher solubility of Ag than HA and β-CPP

  16. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  17. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  18. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  19. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here

  20. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments ≥ FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments

  1. Direct measurement of time dependent diffusion for Ag and Au under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Pil Sun; Jo, Han Yeol; Kim, Tae Kyeong [Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Time-dependent diffusion for Ag and Au metal atoms was measured using the scanning tunneling microscope break-junction technique in ambient conditions. We observed that Ag contacts do not form long single-atomic chains compared to Au contacts during the elongation of each metal electrode, and Ag atoms diffuse more quickly than Au atoms after metal contact rupture. This is consistent with previous results of molecular dynamic simulations. Further, we found a correlation between diffusion length and the evolution time on an atomic scale to reveal the time-dependent diffusion for Ag and Au metal atoms.

  2. Nano Ag@AgBr surface-sensitized Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst: oil-in-water synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shuanglong; Liu, Li; Hu, Jinshan; Liang, Yinghua, E-mail: liangyh@heuu.edu.cn; Cui, Wenquan, E-mail: wkcui@163.com

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The plasmatic Ag@AgBr surface-sensitized Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composite photocatalysts. • Ag@AgBr greatly increased visible-light absorption for Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • The plasmonic photocatalysts exhibited enhanced activity for the degradation of MB, phenol and salicylic acid. - Abstract: Nano Ag@AgBr decorated on the surface of flower-like Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} (hereafter designated Ag@AgBr/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}) were prepared via a facile oil-in-water self-assembly method. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The characterization results indicated that nano Ag@AgBr was observed to be evenly dispersed on the surface of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, and was approximately 20 nm in size. Ag@AgBr/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites exhibited excellent UV–vis absorption, due to quantum dimension effect of Ag@AgBr, the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles and the special flower-like structure of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The photoelectrochemical measurement verified that the suitable band potential of Ag@AgBr and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and the existence of metal Ag resulted in the high efficiency in charge separation of the composite. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag@AgBr/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} samples were examined under visible-light irradiation for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The composite presented excellent photocatalytic activity due to the synergetic effect of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, AgBr, and Ag nanoparticles. The Ag@AgBr(20 wt.%)/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} sample exhibited the best photocatalytic activity, degrading 95.03% MB after irradiation for 2 h, which was respectively 1.29 times and 1.28 times higher than that of Ag@AgBr and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst. Meanwhile, phenol and salicylic acid were degraded to further prove the degradation ability of Ag@AgBr/Bi{sub 2

  3. Removal of Ag+ from water environment using a novel magnetic thiourea-chitosan imprinted Ag+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lulu; Luo, Chuannan; Lv, Zhen; Lu, Fuguang; Qiu, Huamin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Coating modified chitosan on magnetic fluids, which were using Ag(I) as imprinted ions, is a new method to expand function of the chitosan. → The method can improve the surface area for adsorption of Ag + and reduce the required dosage for the adsorption of Ag(I). → The imprinted magnetic chitosan can be used effectively and selectively to remove Ag(I) ions from aqueous solutions. → It shows the facile, fast separation process of magnetic chitosan during the experiments. The absorbent has a good application prospect. - Abstract: A novel, thiourea-chitosan coating on the surface of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) (Ag-TCM) was successfully synthesized using Ag(I) as imprinted ions for adsorption and removal of Ag(I) ions from aqueous solutions. The thermal stability, chemical structure and magnetic property of the Ag-TCM were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption conditions, selectivity and reusability. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was 4.93 mmol/g, observed at pH 5 and temperature 30 o C. Equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 50 min. The kinetic data, obtained at the optimum pH 5, could be fitted with a pseudo-second order equation. Adsorption process could be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherms and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir equation was 5.29 mmol/g. The selectivity coefficient of Ag(I) ions and other metal cations onto Ag-TCM indicated an overall preference for Ag(I) ions, which was much higher than non-imprinted thiourea-chitosan beads. Moreover, the sorbent was stable and easily recovered, the adsorption capacity was about 90% of the initial saturation adsorption capacity after being used five times.

  4. The decomposition of mixed oxide Ag2Cu2O3: Structural features and the catalytic properties in CO and C2H4 oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svintsitskiy, Dmitry A.; Kardash, Tatyana Yu.; Slavinskaya, Elena M.; Stonkus, Olga A.; Koscheev, Sergei V.; Boronin, Andrei I.

    2018-01-01

    The mixed silver-copper oxide Ag2Cu2O3 with a paramelaconite crystal structure is a promising material for catalytic applications. The as-prepared sample of Ag2Cu2O3 consisted of brick-like particles extended along the [001] direction. A combination of physicochemical techniques such as TEM, XPS and XRD was applied to investigate the structural features of this mixed silver-copper oxide. The thermal stability of Ag2Cu2O3 was investigated using in situ XRD under different reaction conditions, including a catalytic CO + O2 mixture. The first step of Ag2Cu2O3 decomposition was accompanied by the appearance of ensembles consisting of silver nanoparticles with sizes of 5-15 nm. Silver nanoparticles were strongly oriented to each other and to the surface of the initial Ag2Cu2O3 bricks. Based on the XRD data, it was shown that the release of silver occurred along the a and b axes of the paramelaconite structure. Partial decomposition of Ag2Cu2O3 accompanied by the formation of silver nanoparticles was observed during prolonged air storage under ambient conditions. The high reactivity is discussed as a reason for spontaneous decomposition during Ag2Cu2O3 storage. The full decomposition of the mixed oxide into metallic silver and copper (II) oxide took place at temperatures higher than 300 °C regardless of the nature of the reaction medium (helium, air, CO + O2). Catalytic properties of partially and fully decomposed samples of mixed silver-copper oxide were measured in low-temperature CO oxidation and C2H4 epoxidation reactions.

  5. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Metal-Ion- (Ag-, Co-, Ni-, and Pd- Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterisation, and Visible Light Degradation of Rhodamine B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mphilisi M. Mahlambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-ion- (Ag, Co, Ni and Pd doped titania nanocatalysts were successfully deposited on glass slides by layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly technique using a poly(styrene sulfonate sodium salt (PSS and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH polyelectrolyte system. Solid diffuse reflectance (SDR studies showed a linear increase in absorbance at 416 nm with increase in the number of m-TiO2 thin films. The LbL assembled thin films were tested for their photocatalytic activity through the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light illumination. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM, the thin films had a porous morphology and the atomic force microscope (AFM studies showed “rough” surfaces. The porous and rough surface morphology resulted in high surface areas hence the high photocatalytic degradation (up to 97% over a 6.5 h irradiation period using visible-light observed. Increasing the number of multilayers deposited on the glass slides resulted in increased film thickness and an increased rate of photodegradation due to increase in the availability of more nanocatalysts (more sites for photodegradation. The LbL assembled thin films had strong adhesion properties which made them highly stable thus displaying the same efficiencies after five (5 reusability cycles.

  6. Quantification of the free volume in Zr45.0Cu39.3Al7.0Ag8.7 bulk metallic glasses subjected to plastic deformation by calorimetric and dilatometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue; Hahn, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Zr 45.0 Cu 39.3 Al 7.0 Ag 8.7 bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were prepared using suction casting technique. Plastic deformations were carried out by cold rolling and high-pressure torsion (HPT). The absolute contents of free volume in the as-cast, preheated and deformed samples were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dilatometry using the free volume model (FVM). The parameters required in the FVM are experimentally determined to be b = 0.107, β = 642.1 kJ/mol, D * = 10.3 and T 0 = 496.9 K, respectively. The equilibrium free volume determined by these parameters is in good agreement with that calculated from previous enthalpy relaxation experiments, showing the reliability of the values of the parameters. It is found that the content of free volume in the as-cast sample is 0.533% with respect to the atomic volume of the BMG. The free volume in the HPT deformed sample is determined to be 0.672%, which is the largest among all the samples. The excess free volume introduced by cold rolling is found to increase with the deformation strain and show weak strain rate dependent behavior. Finally, attempts are made to simulate the experimental DSC curve using a bimolecular kinetics in the flow defect model. However, the result shows that the kinetics of free volume may be more complicated than as described as a bimolecular process.

  7. Nanosilver-Silica Composite: Prolonged Antibacterial Effects and Bacterial Interaction Mechanisms for Wound Dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselhy, Dina A; Granbohm, Henrika; Hynönen, Ulla; Ge, Yanling; Palva, Airi; Nordström, Katrina; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2017-09-06

    Infected superficial wounds were traditionally controlled by topical antibiotics until the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Silver (Ag) is a kernel for alternative antibacterial agents to fight this resistance quandary. The present study demonstrates a method for immobilizing small-sized (~5 nm) silver nanoparticles on silica matrix to form a nanosilver-silica (Ag-SiO₂) composite and shows the prolonged antibacterial effects of the composite in vitro. The composite exhibited a rapid initial Ag release after 24 h and a slower leaching after 48 and 72 h and was effective against both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ( E . coli ). Ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation was superior to filter-sterilization in retaining the antibacterial effects of the composite, through the higher remaining Ag concentration. A gauze, impregnated with the Ag-SiO₂ composite, showed higher antibacterial effects against MRSA and E . coli than a commercial Ag-containing dressing, indicating a potential for the management and infection control of superficial wounds. Transmission and scanning transmission electron microscope analyses of the composite-treated MRSA revealed an interaction of the released silver ions with the bacterial cytoplasmic constituents, causing ultimately the loss of bacterial membranes. The present results indicate that the Ag-SiO₂ composite, with prolonged antibacterial effects, is a promising candidate for wound dressing applications.

  8. Synthesis and photoactivity of the highly efficient Ag species/TiO2 nanoflakes photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Hu Juncheng; Li Jinlin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Highly efficient Ag species-TiO 2 nanoflakes catalyst was prepared. → The variety and relative amount of Ag species in TiO 2 can be well tuned. → The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the Ag species. - Abstract: Ag species/TiO 2 nanoflakes photocatalysts with different relative contents (Ag + , Ag 2+ , Ag 0 ) have been successfully synthesized by a simple template-free synthetic strategy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that the dopant ions (Ag + or Ag 2+ ) were partly incorporated into the titanium dioxide nanoflakes. Meanwhile, part of the silver ions migrated to the surface after the subsequent calcination and aggregated into ultra-small metallic Ag nanoclusters (NCs) (1-2 nm), which are well dispersed on the surface of TiO 2 nanoflakes. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag species/TiO 2 materials obtained were evaluated by testing the photodegradation of the azo dye reactive brilliant X-3B (X-3B) under near UV irradiation. Interestingly, it was found that the maximum photocatalytic efficiency was observed when Ag species coexisted in three valence states (Ag + , Ag 2+ , Ag 0 NCs), which was higher than that of Degussa P25. The high photocatalytic activity of the Ag species/TiO 2 can be attributed to the synergy effect of the three Ag species.

  9. A ternary functional Ag@GO@Au sandwiched hybrid as an ultrasensitive and stable surface enhanced Raman scattering platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong-yun; Hao, Rui; Zhao, Bin; Hao, Yao-wu; Liu, Ya-qing

    2017-07-01

    The graphene-mediated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by virtues of plasmonic metal nanostructures and graphene or its derivatives have attracted tremendous interests which are expected to make up the deficiency of traditional plasmonic metal substrates. Herein, we designed and fabricated a novel ternary Ag@GO@Au sandwich hybrid wherein the ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) films were seamlessly wrapped around the hierarchical flower-like Ag particle core and meanwhile provided two-dimensional anchoring scaffold for the coating of Au nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coverage density of loading Au NPs could be readily controlled by tuning the dosage amount of Au particle solutions. These features endowed the sandwiched structures high enrichment capability for analytes such as aromatic molecules and astonishing SERS performance. The Raman signals were enormously enhanced with an ultrasensitive detection limit of rhodamine-6G (R6G) as low as 10-13 M based on the chemical enhancement from GO and multi-dimensional plasmonic coupling between the metal nanoparticles. In addition, the GO interlayer as an isolating shell could effectively prevent the metal-molecule direct interaction and suppress the oxidation of Ag after exposure at ambient condition which enabled the substrates excellent reproducibility with less than 6% signal variations and prolonged life-time. To evaluate the feasibility and the practical application for SERS detection in real-world samples based on GO sandwiched hybrid as SERS-active substrate, three different prohibited colorants with a series of concentrations were measured with a minimum detected concentration down to 10-9 M. Furthermore, the prepared GO sandwiched nanostructures can be used to identify different types of colorants existing in red wine, implying the great potential applications for single-particle SERS sensing of biotechnology and on-site monitoring in food security.

  10. Ag-ZnO nanostructure for ANTA explosive molecule detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Sangani, L. D. Varma [Centre for Advanced Studies in Electronics Science and Technology, School of Physics, University of Hyderabad (India); Gaur, Anshu [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive9, Trento (Italy); Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad, E-mail: ahamed.vza@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology Andhra Pradesh, Tadepalliguem 534101, AP, India Phone : (+) 91-40-23134382, FAX: (+) 91-40-23010227 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Centre for Advanced Studies in Electronics Science and Technology, School of Physics, University of Hyderabad (India); National Institute of Technology Andhra Pradesh, Tadepalliguem 534101, AP, India Phone : (+) 91-40-23134382, FAX: (+) 91-40-23010227 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Ag/ZnO nanostructure for surface enhanced Raman scattering application in the detection of ANTA explosive molecule is demonstrated. A highly rough ZnO microstructure was achieved by rapid thermal annealing of metallic Zn film. Different thickness Ag nanostructures are decorated over these ZnO microstructures by ion beam sputtering technique. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies carried out over Ag/ZnO substrates have shown three orders higher enhancement compared to bare Ag nanostructure deposited on the same substrate. The reasons behind such huge enhancement are discussed based on the morphology of the sample.

  11. ''Uranium for Moscow''. Highlights of the history of Wismut AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsch, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The Wismut AG was the worldwide largest mining operation for the promotion of uranium ores and the production of chemical uranium concentrates. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the historical aspects of Wismut AG. In May 1947, Wismut AG was founded as a branch of the State Soviet stock company of the nonferrous metal industry. This branch resided at first in Aue (Saxony, Federal Republic of Germany) and from 1949 in Chemnitz (Saxony, Federal Republic of Germany). By means of the company name Wismut, the actual business purpose should not be disclosed. Until after the end of the Cold War historians could deal with the history of the Wismut AG.

  12. Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua

    2000-01-01

    An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

  13. The role of Ag precipitates in Cu-12 wt% Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, D.W.; Song, L.N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road No.38, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Dong, A.P.; Wang, L.T. [China Railway Construction Electrification Bureau Group Co.,Ltd., Beijing 100036 (China); Zhang, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Meng, L., E-mail: mengliang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road No.38, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The Cu-12 wt% Ag was prepared to investigate the role of Ag precipitates on the properties of the alloy. Two kinds of heat treatment procedures were adopted to produce different amount of Ag precipitates in the Cu-12 wt% Ag. The microstructure of Ag precipitates was systematically observed by optical microscopy and electron microscopy. The Cu-12 wt% Ag with more Ag precipitates exhibits higher strength and lower electrical conductivity. More Ag precipitates results in more phase interface and less Ag atoms dissolved in Cu matrix. By comparing the strengthening effect and electron scattering effect of phase interface and dissolved Ag atoms, it is conclude that the interface between Cu matrix and Ag precipitates could significantly block dislocation movement and enhance electron scattering in Cu-Ag alloys.

  14. Transformation from Ag@Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to Ag@Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4} hybrid at room temperature: preparation and its visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ting; Gao, Shanmin, E-mail: gaosm@ustc.edu; Wang, Qingyao; Xu, Hui [Ludong University, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao, E-mail: bbhuang@sdu.edu.cn; Dai, Ying [Shandong University, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials (China)

    2017-02-15

    In the present study, Ag/Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4} hybrid photocatalysts were obtained via a facile redox–precipitation reaction approach by using Ag@Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanocomposite as the precursor and KMnO{sub 4} as the oxidant. Multiple techniques, such as X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), were applied to investigate the structures, morphologies, optical, and electronic properties of as-prepared samples. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photodegradation of organic rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. It was found that pure Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4} can partially transform into metallic Ag during the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, but the Ag/Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4} hybrids can maintain its structure stability and show enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity because of the surface plasma resonance effect of the metallic Ag.

  15. Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 nanoroasted rice beads with photocatalytic, antibacterial and anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamani, Muthamizh; Krishnamoorthy, Giribabu; Ramadoss, Manigandan; Sivakumar, Praveen Kumar; Settu, Munusamy; Ranganathan, Suresh; Vengidusamy, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing resistance of pathogens and cancer cell line towards antibiotics and anticancer agents has caused serious health problems in the past decades. Due to these problems in recent years, researchers have tried to combine nanotechnology with material science to have intrinsic antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The metals and metal oxides were investigated with respect to their antimicrobial and anticancer effects towards bacteria and cancer cell line. In the present work metal@metal tungstate (Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 nanoroasted rice beads) is investigated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using Mueller-Hinton broth and the anticancer activity against B16F10 cell line was studied. Silver decorated silver tungstate (Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6) was synthesized by the microwave irradiation method using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB). Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 was characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. The phase and crystalline nature were analyzed by using XRD. The morphological analysis was carried out using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectral analysis were carried out in order to ascertain the presence of functional groups in Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6. The optical property was investigated using Diffuse Reflectance Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy (DRS-UV–Vis) and the band gap was found to be 3.08 eV. Surface area of the synthesized Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 wasanalyzed by BET analysis and Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 was utilized for the degradation of organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B. The morphology of the Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 resembles roasted rice beads with breath and length in nm range. The oxidation state of tungsten (W) and silver (Ag) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 nanoroasted rice beads using

  16. A comparative study about electronic structures at rubrene/Ag and Ag/rubrene interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumona Sinha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contact between the electrode and the organic semiconductor is one of the most crucial factors in determining the organic device performance. The development and production technology of different organic devices require the understanding of different types of metal/organic semiconducting thin film interfaces. Comparisons about the electronic structures at Rubrene/Ag and Ag/Rubrene interfaces have been studied using photoemission spectroscopy. The Ag on rubrene interfaces is found to show more interesting and complex natures than its counterpart. The vacuum level (VL was shifted about 0.51 eV from push back effect for deposition of 5 Å rubrene onto Ag film whereas the electronic features of silver was only suppressed and no energy shift was resulted. While the deposition of 5 Å Ag onto rubrene film leads to the diffusion of the Ag atoms, as a cluster with quantum size effect, inside the film. Angle dependent XPS measurement indicates that diffused metal clusters were present at entire probed depth of the film. Moreover these clusters dope the uppermost surface of the rubrene film which consequences a shift of the electronic states of thick organic film towards higher binding energy. The VL was found to shift about 0.31 eV toward higher binding energy whereas the shift was around 0.21 eV for the electronic states of rubrene layer.

  17. A comparative study about electronic structures at rubrene/Ag and Ag/rubrene interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Sumona, E-mail: sumona.net.09@gmail.com; Mukherjee, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-10-15

    The contact between the electrode and the organic semiconductor is one of the most crucial factors in determining the organic device performance. The development and production technology of different organic devices require the understanding of different types of metal/organic semiconducting thin film interfaces. Comparisons about the electronic structures at Rubrene/Ag and Ag/Rubrene interfaces have been studied using photoemission spectroscopy. The Ag on rubrene interfaces is found to show more interesting and complex natures than its counterpart. The vacuum level (VL) was shifted about 0.51 eV from push back effect for deposition of 5 Å rubrene onto Ag film whereas the electronic features of silver was only suppressed and no energy shift was resulted. While the deposition of 5 Å Ag onto rubrene film leads to the diffusion of the Ag atoms, as a cluster with quantum size effect, inside the film. Angle dependent XPS measurement indicates that diffused metal clusters were present at entire probed depth of the film. Moreover these clusters dope the uppermost surface of the rubrene film which consequences a shift of the electronic states of thick organic film towards higher binding energy. The VL was found to shift about 0.31 eV toward higher binding energy whereas the shift was around 0.21 eV for the electronic states of rubrene layer.

  18. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomi, Pandi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh, E-mail: hgprabu2010@gmail.com [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Manisankar, Paramasivam [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravikumar, Sundaram [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Area Studies, School of Marine Sciences, Alagappa University, Thondi Campus 623 409, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New method of synthesizing PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite. • Surface Plasmon resonance and formation of composite at nano level were analyzed. • HR-TEM study revealed uniform distribution of nanoparticles. • PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  19. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkalec, Ziva Pipan; Drobne, Damjana; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Strus, Jasna; Pelicon, Primoz; Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa; Remskar, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  20. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  1. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  2. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition

  3. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  4. Improvement of photocatalytic activities of Ag/P25 hybrid systems by controlled morphology of Ag nanoprisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ti; Chao, Bo-Kai; Kuo, Yu-Lin; Hsueh, Chun-Hway

    2017-01-01

    Constructing hybrid systems with noble metal nanostructures is one known way to improve the poor photocatalysis efficiency of TiO_2 under visible light. In our study, two different Ag nanostructures were prepared: (1) Ag nanospheres synthesized by chemical reduction method, and (2) Ag nanoprisms transformed from nanospheres with an additional photo-conversion process. Both Ag-TiO_2 hybrid systems were prepared by mixing various concentrations of Ag solutions with commercial TiO_2 powder (P25), and they were then utilized as photocatalysts for the photodecolorization test of methyl blue under various light sources (fluorescent, UV light and red LED lamps) irradiations. Results of the photodecolorization tests showed that Ag nanostructures could evidently enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO_2 under different light sources, while an optimal composition of 0.432 wt% Ag nanoprisms/TiO_2 displayed superior photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiations (fluorescent and red LED lamps). The enhanced photocatalytic activities could be mainly attributed to the mechanisms of hot electrons injection and resonant energy transfer by the localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanostructures and the electronic states favorable of charge separation at the interface between metals and semiconductors. - Highlights: • We used Ag nanostructures to improve photocatalysis efficiency of TiO_2. • Ag nanoprisms were more efficient than Ag nanospheres under visible light. • Ag nanoprisms/P25 is about 7 times more efficient than P25 under fluorescent lamp. • Mechanisms rely on hot electrons injection and resonant energy transfer by LSPR.

  5. Improvement of photocatalytic activities of Ag/P25 hybrid systems by controlled morphology of Ag nanoprisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ti, E-mail: r01527017@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chao, Bo-Kai, E-mail: d98527007@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Yu-Lin, E-mail: ylkuo@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Chun-Hway, E-mail: hsuehc@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-01

    Constructing hybrid systems with noble metal nanostructures is one known way to improve the poor photocatalysis efficiency of TiO{sub 2} under visible light. In our study, two different Ag nanostructures were prepared: (1) Ag nanospheres synthesized by chemical reduction method, and (2) Ag nanoprisms transformed from nanospheres with an additional photo-conversion process. Both Ag-TiO{sub 2} hybrid systems were prepared by mixing various concentrations of Ag solutions with commercial TiO{sub 2} powder (P25), and they were then utilized as photocatalysts for the photodecolorization test of methyl blue under various light sources (fluorescent, UV light and red LED lamps) irradiations. Results of the photodecolorization tests showed that Ag nanostructures could evidently enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} under different light sources, while an optimal composition of 0.432 wt% Ag nanoprisms/TiO{sub 2} displayed superior photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiations (fluorescent and red LED lamps). The enhanced photocatalytic activities could be mainly attributed to the mechanisms of hot electrons injection and resonant energy transfer by the localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanostructures and the electronic states favorable of charge separation at the interface between metals and semiconductors. - Highlights: • We used Ag nanostructures to improve photocatalysis efficiency of TiO{sub 2}. • Ag nanoprisms were more efficient than Ag nanospheres under visible light. • Ag nanoprisms/P25 is about 7 times more efficient than P25 under fluorescent lamp. • Mechanisms rely on hot electrons injection and resonant energy transfer by LSPR.

  6. AGS intensity upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four

  7. Facile synthesis of Ag@CeO{sub 2} core–shell plasmonic photocatalysts with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Linen; Fang, Siman [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, College of Science, China University of Petroleum Beijing, No. 18 Fuxue Rd., Beijing 102249 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science, China University of Petroleum Beijing, No. 18 Fuxue Rd., Beijing 102249 (China); Ge, Lei, E-mail: gelei08@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, College of Science, China University of Petroleum Beijing, No. 18 Fuxue Rd., Beijing 102249 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science, China University of Petroleum Beijing, No. 18 Fuxue Rd., Beijing 102249 (China); Han, Changcun; Qiu, Ping; Xin, Yongji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science, China University of Petroleum Beijing, No. 18 Fuxue Rd., Beijing 102249 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Novel Ag@CeO{sub 2} core–shell nanostructures with well-controlled shape and shell thickness were successfully synthesized. • The Ag@CeO{sub 2} showed dramatic photocatalytic activity than pure CeO{sub 2}. • Improving activity is from a combination of SPR effect and hybrid effects. • The mechanism was proposed and confirmed by ESR and PL results. - Abstract: Novel Ag@CeO{sub 2} core–shell nanostructures with well-controlled shape and shell thickness were successfully synthesized via a green and facile template-free approach in aqueous solution. As-prepared samples were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), electron spin resonance (ESR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The structures with different core shapes and controllable shell thickness exhibited unique optical properties. It is found that the nanoscale Ag@CeO{sub 2} core–shell photocatalysts exhibit significantly enhanced photocatalytic activities in the O{sub 2} evolution and MB dye degradation compared to pure CeO{sub 2} nanoparticals. The enhancement in photocatalytic activities can be ascribed to the localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag cores. Moreover, larger active interfacial areas and contact between metal/semiconductor in the core–shell structure facilitate transfer of charge carriers and prolong lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. It is expected that the Ag@CeO{sub 2} core–shell structure may have great potential in a wider range of light-harvesting applications.

  8. On interface dipole layers between C60 and Ag or Au

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Sjoerd; Heeres, A.; Hadziioannou, G.; Sawatzky, G.A.; Jonkman, H.T.

    2002-01-01

    C60 layers on polycrystalline Ag and Au are studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. At these metal/C60 interfaces an electron transfer occurs from the metal to the lowest unoccupied orbital of C60. We found in the case of the polycrystalline Ag/C60 interface a dipolar layer with its associated

  9. Metal ion displacements in noncentrosymmetric chalcogenides La{sub 3}Ga{sub 1.67}S{sub 7}, La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.6}GaCh{sub 7} (Ch=S, Se), and La{sub 3}MGaSe{sub 7} (M=Zn, Cd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Abishek K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2G2 (Canada); Yin, Wenlong [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2G2 (Canada); Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Rudyk, Brent W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2G2 (Canada); Lin, Xinsong [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2G2 (Canada); Centre for Oil Sands Sustainability, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N1E5 (Canada); Nilges, Tom [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, 85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2G2 (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    The quaternary Ga-containing chalcogenides La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.6}GaS{sub 7}, La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.6}GaSe{sub 7}, La{sub 3}ZnGaSe{sub 7}, and La{sub 3}CdGaSe{sub 7}, as well as the related ternary chalcogenide La{sub 3}Ga{sub 1.67}S{sub 7}, were prepared by reactions of the elements at 950 °C. They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures (space group P6{sub 3}, Z=2) with cell parameters (a=10.2 Å, c=6.1 Å for the sulfides; a=10.6 Å, c=6.4 Å for the selenides) that are largely controlled by the geometrical requirements of one-dimensional stacks of Ga-centered tetrahedra separated by the La atoms. Among these compounds, which share the common formulation La{sub 3}M{sub 1–x}GaCh{sub 7} (M=Ga, Ag, Zn, Cd; Ch=S, Se), the M atoms occupy sites within a stacking of trigonal antiprisms formed by Ch atoms. The location of the M site varies between extremes with trigonal antiprismatic (CN6) and trigonal planar (CN3) geometry. Partial occupation of these sites and intermediate ones accounts for the considerable versatility of these structures and the occurrence of large metal displacement parameters. The site occupations can be understood in a simple way as being driven by the need to satisfy appropriate bond valence sums for both the M and Ch atoms. Band structure calculations rationalize the substoichiometry observed in the Ag-containing compounds (La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.6}GaS{sub 7}, La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.6}GaSe{sub 7}) as a response to overbonding. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy supports the presence of monovalent Ag atoms in these compounds, which are not charge-balanced. - Graphical abstract: Partial occupation of metal atoms in multiple sites accounts for versatility in Ga-containing chalcogenides La{sub 3}M{sub 1–x}GaCh{sub 7} with noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures. - Highlights: • La{sub 3}M{sub 1–x}GaCh{sub 7} (M =Ga, Ag, Zn, Cd; Ch =S, Se) adopt related hexagonal structures. • Large displacements of M atoms originate from partial occupation of multiple

  10. AgSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    AgSTAR promotes biogas recovery projects, which generate renewable energy and other beneficial products from the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure and organic wastes while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector.

  11. AGS intensity record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1994-01-01

    As flashed in the September issue, this summer the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) reached a proton beam intensity of 4.05 x 10 13 protons per puise, claimed as the highest intensity ever achieved in a proton synchrotron. It is, however, only two-thirds of the way to its final goal of 6 x 10 13 . The achievement is the resuit of many years of effort. The Report of the AGS II Task Force, issued in February 1984, laid out a comprehensive programme largely based on a careful analysis of the PS experience at CERN. The AGS plan had two essential components: the construction of a new booster, and major upgrades to the AGS itself.

  12. RD50 Prolongation Request 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    With this document, we request the prolongation of the CERN RD50 research program for 5 years. A very brief historical review of the RD50 research program since the RD50 project approval by the Research Board in the year 2002 is presented and the biggest RD50 achievements are highlighted. The present composition of the collaboration, its organizational structure, and the research methodology are described. The role of RD50 in the present various upgrade and research programs of the LHC Experiments community is given and the overall work plan explained. Finally, a detailed 5-years work program with precise milestones and deliverables for the various research activities is presented. We conclude with our prolongation request towards the LHCC.

  13. Inhibitory effect of Ti-Ag alloy on artificial biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Kazuko; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo; Okuno, Osamu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Titanium-silver (Ti-Ag) alloy has been improved for machinability and mechanical properties, but its anti-biofilm properties have not been elucidated yet. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ti-Ag alloy on biofilm formation and bacterial viability in comparison with pure Ti, pure Ag and silver-palladium (Ag-Pd) alloy. Biofilm formation on the metal plates was evaluated by growing Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in the presence of metal plates. Bactericidal activity was evaluated using a film contact method. There were no significant differences in biofilm formation between pure Ti, pure Ag and Ag-Pd alloy, while biofilm amounts on Ti-20% Ag and Ti-25% Ag alloys were significantly lower (p<0.05). In addition, Ti-Ag alloys and pure Ti were not bactericidal, although pure Ag and Ag-Pd alloy killed bacteria. These results suggest that Ti-20% Ag and Ti-25% Ag alloys are suitable for dental material that suppresses biofilm formation without disturbing healthy oral microflora.

  14. The irradiation influence on the properties of silver sulfide (Ag2S) colloidal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, S. V.; Kuznetsova, Yu. V.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Rempel', A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The aqueous solutions of different stability containing silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanoparticles are studied. The stable, transparent, and turbid solutions have been subjected to daylight for 7 months, to ultraviolet and laser irradiation, as well as to an electron beam. Solar radiation is found to favor the Ag2S reduction to Ag and/or the formation of Ag2S/Ag hybrid nanoparticles in the solution. At a high amount of hybrid nanoparticles, the exciton-plasmon interaction causes asymmetry in the absorption spectra. The exposure of Ag2S particles precipitated from the solution with the electron beam leads to the reversible growth of Ag threads. The possible exciton-plasmon interplay mechanisms in Ag2S/Ag hybrid nanoparticles are considered. The physical mechanisms of the changing Ag2S stoichiometry, the formation of metallic Ag and Ag2S/Ag hybrid nanoparticles are the generation of hot carriers and the energy transfer (exciton-plasmon interaction) in a metal-semiconductor hybrid nanosystem are elucidated, as well.

  15. Plasma-induced formation of flower-like Ag2O nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zen-Hung; Ho, Chun-Hsien; Lee, Szetsen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Flower-like Ag 2 O nanostructures. - Highlights: • Flower-like Ag 2 O nanostructures were synthesized from Ag colloids using plasma. • XPS was used to monitor plasma treatment effect on Ag colloids. • SERS of methyl orange was used to monitor the plasma oxidation–reduction processes. • Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was performed using Ag 2 O. • Ag 2 O is a more efficient visible light photocatalyst than Ag colloids. - Abstract: Plasma treatment effect on Ag colloids was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) techniques. XPS showed that O 2 plasma was critical in removing organic residues in Ag colloids synthesized using citric acid as a reducing agent. With O 2 plasma treatment, Ag colloids were also oxidized to form flower-like Ag 2 O nanostructures. The formation mechanism is proposed. The SERS spectral intensity of methyl orange (MO) adsorbed on Ag surface became deteriorated with O 2 plasma treatment. Followed by H 2 plasma treatment, the SERS intensity of MO on Ag regained, which indicated that Ag 2 O has been reduced to Ag. Nonetheless, the reduction by H 2 plasma could not bring Ag back to the original as-synthesized nanoparticle morphology. The flower-like nanostructure morphology still remained. The photocatalytic degradation reactions of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solutions were carried out using Ag colloids and Ag 2 O nanostructures. The results show that Ag 2 O is more efficient than Ag colloids and many other metal oxides for the photocatalytic degradation of MB in solution when utilizing visible light

  16. Plasma-induced formation of flower-like Ag{sub 2}O nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zen-Hung; Ho, Chun-Hsien; Lee, Szetsen, E-mail: slee@cycu.edu.tw

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Flower-like Ag{sub 2}O nanostructures. - Highlights: • Flower-like Ag{sub 2}O nanostructures were synthesized from Ag colloids using plasma. • XPS was used to monitor plasma treatment effect on Ag colloids. • SERS of methyl orange was used to monitor the plasma oxidation–reduction processes. • Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was performed using Ag{sub 2}O. • Ag{sub 2}O is a more efficient visible light photocatalyst than Ag colloids. - Abstract: Plasma treatment effect on Ag colloids was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) techniques. XPS showed that O{sub 2} plasma was critical in removing organic residues in Ag colloids synthesized using citric acid as a reducing agent. With O{sub 2} plasma treatment, Ag colloids were also oxidized to form flower-like Ag{sub 2}O nanostructures. The formation mechanism is proposed. The SERS spectral intensity of methyl orange (MO) adsorbed on Ag surface became deteriorated with O{sub 2} plasma treatment. Followed by H{sub 2} plasma treatment, the SERS intensity of MO on Ag regained, which indicated that Ag{sub 2}O has been reduced to Ag. Nonetheless, the reduction by H{sub 2} plasma could not bring Ag back to the original as-synthesized nanoparticle morphology. The flower-like nanostructure morphology still remained. The photocatalytic degradation reactions of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solutions were carried out using Ag colloids and Ag{sub 2}O nanostructures. The results show that Ag{sub 2}O is more efficient than Ag colloids and many other metal oxides for the photocatalytic degradation of MB in solution when utilizing visible light.

  17. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system — A field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.kaegi@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zuleeg, Steffen [KUSTER + HAGER Group, Oberstrasse 222, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Siegrist, Hansruedi [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt, Michael [HSR University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Process Engineering (UMTEC), Oberseestrasse 10, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~ 85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72–95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag{sub 2}S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters < 100 nm. During the 800 m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~ 30 min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag{sub 2}S. Ag{sub 2}S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (> 95%). - Highlights: • First field study on the transformation of AgCl nanoparticles released from a point source into the municipal sewer system. • Transformation of AgCl-NP into Ag{sub 2}S already occurred during 30-min transport in the

  18. The Effect of Ag and Ag+N Ion Implantation on Cell Attachment Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urkac, Emel Sokullu; Oztarhan, Ahmet; Gurhan, Ismet Deliloglu; Iz, Sultan Gulce; Tihminlioglu, Funda; Oks, Efim; Nikolaev, Alexey; Ila, Daryush

    2009-01-01

    Implanted biomedical prosthetic devices are intended to perform safely, reliably and effectively in the human body thus the materials used for orthopedic devices should have good biocompatibility. Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene (UHMWPE) has been commonly used for total hip joint replacement because of its very good properties. In this work, UHMWPE samples were Ag and Ag+N ion implanted by using the Metal-Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implantation technique. Samples were implanted with a fluency of 1017 ion/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used for surface studies. RBS showed the presence of Ag and N on the surface. Cell attachment properties investigated with model cell lines (L929 mouse fibroblasts) to demonstrate that the effect of Ag and Ag+N ion implantation can favorably influence the surface of UHMWPE for biomedical applications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to demonstrate the cell attachment on the surface. Study has shown that Ag+N ion implantation represents more effective cell attachment properties on the UHMWPE surfaces.

  19. In situ growth of Ag nanoparticles on α-Ag2WO4 under electron irradiation: probing the physical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Miguel, Miguel A.; da Silva, Edison Z.; Zannetti, Sonia M.; Cilense, Mario; Fabbro, Maria T.; Gracia, Lourdes; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2016-06-01

    Exploiting the plasmonic behavior of Ag nanoparticles grown on α-Ag2WO4 is a widely employed strategy to produce efficient photocatalysts, ozone sensors, and bactericides. However, a description of the atomic and electronic structure of the semiconductor sites irradiated by electrons is still not available. Such a description is of great importance to understand the mechanisms underlying these physical processes and to improve the design of silver nanoparticles to enhance their activities. Motivated by this, we studied the growth of silver nanoparticles to investigate this novel class of phenomena using both transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. A theoretical framework based on density functional theory calculations (DFT), together with experimental analysis and measurements, were developed to examine the changes in the local geometrical and electronic structure of the materials. The physical principles for the formation of Ag nanoparticles on α-Ag2WO4 by electron beam irradiation are described. Quantum mechanical calculations based on DFT show that the (001) of α-Ag2WO4 displays Ag atoms with different coordination numbers. Some of them are able to diffuse out of the surface with a very low energy barrier (less than 0.1 eV), thus, initiating the growth of metallic Ag nanostructures and leaving Ag vacancies in the bulk material. These processes increase the structural disorder of α-Ag2WO4 as well as its electrical resistance as observed in the experimental measurements.

  20. Elucidating the real-time Ag nanoparticle growth on α-Ag2WO4 during electron beam irradiation: experimental evidence and theoretical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wyllamanney da Silva; Andrés, Juan; Gracia, Lourdes; San-Miguel, Miguel A; da Silva, Edison Z; Longo, Elson; Longo, Valeria M

    2015-02-21

    Why and how Ag is formed when electron beam irradiation takes place on α-Ag2WO4 in a vacuum transmission electron microscopy chamber? To find an answer, the atomic-scale mechanisms underlying the formation and growth of Ag on α-Ag2WO4 have been investigated by detailed in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) studies, density functional theory based calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The growth process at different times, chemical composition, size distribution and element distribution were analyzed in depth at the nanoscale level using FE-SEM, operated at different voltages (5, 10, 15, and 20 kV), and TEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) characterization. The size of Ag nanoparticles covers a wide range of values. Most of the Ag particles are in the 20-40 nm range. The nucleation and formation of Ag on α-Ag2WO4 is a result of structural and electronic changes in the AgOx (x = 2,4, 6, and 7) clusters used as constituent building blocks of this material, consistent with metallic Ag formation. First principle calculations point out that Ag-3 and Ag-4-fold coordinated centers, located in the sub-surface of the (100) surface, are the most energetically favorable to undergo the diffusion process to form metallic Ag. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and the nudged elastic band (NEB) method were used to investigate the minimum energy pathways of these Ag atoms from positions in the first slab layer to outward sites on the (100) surface of α-Ag2WO4. The results point out that the injection of electrons decreases the activation barrier for this diffusion step and this unusual behavior results from the presence of a lower energy barrier process.

  1. Bimetallic Ag-Pt Sub-nanometer Supported Clusters as Highly Efficient and Robust Oxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negreiros, Fabio R. [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Halder, Avik [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Yin, Chunrong [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Singh, Akansha [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Barcaro, Giovanni [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Sementa, Luca [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Tyo, Eric C. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Bartling, Stephan [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Seifert, Sönke [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Sen, Prasenjit [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Nigam, Sandeep [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Majumder, Chiranjib [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Fukui, Nobuyuki [East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc., Ichikawa Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Yasumatsu, Hisato [Cluster Research Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute: in, East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc. Ichikawa, Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Vajda, Stefan [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL USA; Fortunelli, Alessandro [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA

    2017-12-29

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of Ag-Pt sub-nanometer clusters as heterogeneous catalysts in the CO -> CO2 reaction (COox) is presented. Ag9Pt2 and Ag9Pt3 clusters are size-selected in the gas phase, deposited on an ultrathin amorphous alumina support, and tested as catalysts experimentally under realistic conditions and by first-principles simulations at realistic coverage. Insitu GISAXS/TPRx demonstrates that the clusters do not sinter or deactivate even after prolonged exposure to reactants at high temperature, and present comparable, extremely high COox catalytic efficiency. Such high activity and stability are ascribed to a synergic role of Ag and Pt in ultranano-aggregates, in which Pt anchors the clusters to the support and binds and activates two CO molecules, while Ag binds and activates O-2, and Ag/Pt surface proximity disfavors poisoning by CO or oxidized species.

  2. Origin of Activity and Stability Enhancement for Ag3PO4 Photocatalyst after Calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pristine Ag3PO4 microspheres were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, followed by being calcined at different temperatures to obtain a series of calcined Ag3PO4 photocatalysts. This work aims to investigate the origin of activity and stability enhancement for Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination based on the systematical analyses of the structures, morphologies, chemical states of elements, oxygen defects, optical absorption properties, separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and active species. The results indicate that oxygen vacancies (VO˙˙ are created and metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are formed by the reaction of partial Ag+ in Ag3PO4 semiconductor with the thermally excited electrons from Ag3PO4 and then deposited on the surface of Ag3PO4 microspheres during the calcination process. Among the calcined Ag3PO4 samples, the Ag3PO4-200 sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity and greatly enhanced photocatalytic stability for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB solution under visible light irradiation. Oxygen vacancies play a significantly positive role in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity, while metallic Ag has a very important effect on improving the photocatalytic stability. Overall, the present work provides some powerful evidences and a deep understanding on the origin of activity and stability enhancement for the Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination.

  3. Tunneling-recombination luminescence between Ag0 and Ag2+ in KCl:AgCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, C.J.; Dexter, D.L.; Yuster, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Appropriate treatment of a KCl:AgCl crystal results in the trapping of electrons as silver atoms, Ag 0 , and positive holes as AgCl 4 2- , Ag 2+ , centers. Optical excitation of Ag 0 in such a crystal at T 0 and Ag 2+ pairs, similar to the Ag 0 -Cl 2 - tunneling-recombination studies we previously reported. We have shown that Ag 2+ centers are involved in the emission process by preferentially orienting the anisotropic Ag 2+ at 6 K by excitation with polarized light and observing that the afterglow is polarized. Upon warming to 50 K, where the preferentially oriented Ag 2+ can change orientation, a strong reversal in the degree of polarization occurs which finally decays to zero. The characteristics of this luminescence can be understood if we assume: (i) a tunneling-recombination mechanism in which the orientation of the electric vector of the emitted radiation depends on the position of the Ag 0 relative to the Ag 2+ and (ii) the tunneling is anisotropic and depends on the location of the Ag 0 relative to the anisotropic Ag 2+ . The latter assumption is based on the tetragonal (d-like) symmetry of the Ag 2+ complex. Good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained on the decay kinetics, the degree of polarization, and the polarization reversal

  4. Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuewei; Yuan Zhihao

    2010-01-01

    Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  5. Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Wei; Yuan, Zhi Hao

    2010-05-01

    Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  6. Generation and oxidation of aerosol deposited PdAg nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, S.; Gustafson, J.; Martin, N. M.; Messing, M. E.; Deppert, K.; Liu, Z.; Chang, R.; Fernandes, V. R.; Borg, A.; Grönbeck, H.; Lundgren, E.

    2013-10-01

    PdAg nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm have been generated by an aerosol particle method, and supported on a silica substrate. By using a combination of X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy it is shown that the size distribution of the particles is narrow and that the two metals form an alloy with a mixture of 75% Pd and 25% Ag. Under oxidizing conditions, Pd is found to segregate to the surface and a thin PdO like oxide is formed similar to the surface oxide previously reported on extended PdAg and pure Pd surfaces.

  7. Sn-In-Ag phase equilibria and Sn-In-(Ag)/Ag interfacial reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sinnwen; Lee Wanyu; Hsu Chiaming; Yang Chingfeng; Hsu Hsinyun; Wu Hsinjay

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thermodynamic models of Sn-In and Sn-In-Ag are developed using the CALPHAD approach. → Reaction layer in the Sn-In-(Ag)/Ag couples at 100 deg. C is thinner than those at 25 deg. C, 50 deg. C, and 75 deg. C. → Reactions in the Sn-20 wt%In-2.8 wt%Ag/Ag couples are faster than those in the Sn-20 wt%In/Ag couples. - Abstract: Experimental verifications of the Sn-In and Sn-In-Ag phase equilibria have been conducted. The experimental measurements of phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties are used for thermodynamic modeling by the CALPHAD approach. The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental results. Interfacial reactions in the Sn-In-(Ag)/Ag couples have been examined. Both Ag 2 In and AgIn 2 phases are formed in the Sn-51.0 wt%In/Ag couples reacted at 100 and 150 deg. C, and only the Ag 2 In phase is formed when reacted at 25, 50 and 75 deg. C. Due to the different growth rates of different reaction phases, the reaction layer at 100 deg. C is thinner than those at 25 deg. C, 50 deg. C, and 75 deg. C. In the Sn-20.0 wt%In/Ag couples, the ζ phase is formed at 250 deg. C and ζ/AgIn 2 phases are formed at 125 deg. C. Compared with the Sn-20 wt%In/Ag couples, faster interfacial reactions are observed in the Sn-20.0 wt%In-2.8 wt%Ag/Ag couples, and minor Ag addition to Sn-20 wt%In solder increases the growth rates of the reaction phases.

  8. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg{sup 0} using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Anchao, E-mail: aczhang@qq.com [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, 454000 (China); Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, 454000 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids were employed for Hg{sup 0} removal under fluorescent light. • Superoxide radical (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) played a key role in Hg{sup 0} removal. • NO exhibited a significant effect on Hg{sup 0} removal in comparison to SO{sub 2}. • The mechanism for enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal over Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was proposed. - Abstract: A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg{sup 0} removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg{sup 0} removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg{sup 0} removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg{sup 0} removal in comparison to SO{sub 2}. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the highest Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag{sup 0} NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) may play a key role in Hg{sup 0} removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  9. Ag induced suppression of irradiation response in YBCO/Ag composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, D.; Mohanty, T.; Mohanta, D.; Patnaik, K.; Mishra, N.C.; Senapati, L.; Kanjilal, D.; Mehta, G.K.; Pinto, R.

    1999-01-01

    Practical application of cuprate superconductors in radiation environment demands that these systems remain insensitive to the irradiation induced defects. The cuprate superconductors however are many orders of magnitude more sensitive than the conventional low T c superconductors. To suppress the irradiation sensitivity of cuprates we consider a crystal engineering approach where metal ions as Ag is made to occupy inter and intra-granular sites of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin films. We show that superconducting and normal state properties of YBCO/Ag composite thin films prepared by laser ablation remain unchanged under 140 MeV Si ion irradiation up to fluence of 8 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . The inter- and intra-granular occupancy of Ag is shown to induce microstructural modifications and rigidity to the CuO chains respectively which in turn lead to the radiation insensitivity of the composite films. (author)

  10. First-principles investigation of mechanical and electronic properties of LaAg5 Laves phase under pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高恩强; 黄福祥; 陈志谦; 王兰兰; 张照超

    2016-01-01

    The effects of applied pressure on the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of LaAg5 compound were investi-gated employing the first-principles method based on the density functional theory. The mechanical results demonstrated that bulk modulus, shear modulus and Young’s modulus presented the linearly increasing dependences on the external pressure; theB/G and Poisson’s ratio indicated that LaAg5 compound was a ductile material with central forces in interatomic under pressure from 0 to 40 GPa; the universal anisotropic index was performed to investigate the elastic anisotropic of LaAg5. Additionally, the pressure de-pendence of the density of states and Mulliken charge were also discussed. The bonding characterization in LaAg5 was composed of metallic, covalent and ionic. The metallic component was derived from free-electron transferring from Ag-s and Ag-d to Ag-p, and from La-s to La-d. The ionic component was due to the charge movement from La to Ag. The covalent was owing to Ag-p-La-d bonding hybridization and Ag-s-Ag-p in the Ag atomic chains. The covalent and ionic bonds were stronger under pressure but there was no significant change in metallic nature.

  11. AGS slow extraction improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, J.W.; Smith, G.A.; Sandberg, J.N.; Repeta, L.; Weisberg, H.

    1979-01-01

    Improvement of the straightness of the F5 copper septum increased the AGS slow extraction efficiency from approx. 80% to approx. 90%. Installation of an electrostatic septum at H2O, 24 betatron wavelengths upstream of F5, further improved the extraction efficiency to approx. 97%

  12. AGS Booster prototype magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-03-19

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10/sup 0/. The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz.

  13. AGS booster prototype magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10 0 . The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of the Rubidium Thiophosphate Rb 6 (PS 5 )(P 2 S 10 ) and the Rubidium Silver Thiophosphates Rb 2 AgPS 4 , RbAg 5 (PS 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 Ag 9 (PS 4 ) 4

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.; Davaasuren, Bambar; Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The metal thiophosphates Rb2AgPS4 (2), RbAg5(PS4)2 (3), and Rb3Ag9(PS4)4 (4) were synthesized by stoichiometric reactions, whereas Rb6(PS5)(P2S10) (1) was prepared with excess amount of sulfur. The compounds crystallize as follows: 1 monoclinic, P21

  15. Tailoring the surface chemical bond states of the NbN films by doping Ag: Achieving hard hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ping; Zhang, Kan; Du, Suxuan [Department of Materials Science, State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, and Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, MOE, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Meng, Qingnan [College of Construction Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130026 (China); He, Xin [Department of Materials Science, State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, and Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, MOE, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Wang, Shuo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wen, Mao, E-mail: wenmao225@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, and Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, MOE, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Zheng, Weitao, E-mail: WTZheng@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, and Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, MOE, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Intrinsically hydrophilic NbN films can transfer to hydrophobic Nb-Ag-N films by doping Ag atoms into NbN sublattice. • Solute Ag can promote that the hydrophobic Ag{sub 2}O groups formed on the Nb-Ag-N film surface through self-oxidation. • The present work may provide a straightforward approach for the production of robust hydrophobic ceramic surfaces. - Abstract: Robust hydrophobic surfaces based on ceramics capable of withstanding harsh conditions such as abrasion, erosion and high temperature, are required in a broad range of applications. The metal cations with coordinative saturation or low electronegativity are commonly chosen to achieve the intrinsically hydrophobic ceramic by reducing Lewis acidity, and thus the ceramic systems are limited. In this work, we present a different picture that robust hydrophobic surface with high hardness (≥20 GPa) can be fabricated through doping Ag atoms into intrinsically hydrophilic ceramic film NbN by reactive co-sputtering. The transition of wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic of Nb-Ag-N films induced by Ag doping results from the appearance of Ag{sub 2}O groups on the films surfaces through self-oxidation, because Ag cations (Ag{sup +}) in Ag{sub 2}O are the filled-shell (4d{sup 10}5S{sup 0}) electronic structure with coordinative saturation that have no tendency to interact with water. The results show that surface Ag{sub 2}O benefited for hydrophobicity comes from the solute Ag atoms rather than precipitate metal Ag, in which the more Ag atoms incorporated into Nb-sublattice are able to further improve the hydrophobicity, whereas the precipitation of Ag nanoclusters would worsen it. The present work opens a window for fabricating robust hydrophobic surface through tailoring surface chemical bond states by doping Ag into transition metal nitrides.

  16. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Controllable Charge Transfer in Ag-TiO2 Composite Structure for SERS Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The nanocaps array of TiO2/Ag bilayer with different Ag thicknesses and co-sputtering TiO2-Ag monolayer with different TiO2 contents were fabricated on a two-dimensional colloidal array substrate for the investigation of Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS properties. For the TiO2/Ag bilayer, when the Ag thickness increased, SERS intensity decreased. Meanwhile, a significant enhancement was observed when the sublayer Ag was 10 nm compared to the pure Ag monolayer, which was ascribed to the metal-semiconductor synergistic effect that electromagnetic mechanism (EM provided by roughness surface and charge-transfer (CT enhancement mechanism from TiO2-Ag composite components. In comparison to the TiO2/Ag bilayer, the co-sputtered TiO2-Ag monolayer decreased the aggregation of Ag particles and led to the formation of small Ag particles, which showed that TiO2 could effectively inhibit the aggregation and growth of Ag nanoparticles.

  18. Fire-through Ag contact formation for crystalline Si solar cells using single-step inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Gang; Cho, Sung-Bin; Chung, Bo-Mook; Huh, Joo-Youl; Yoon, Sam S

    2012-04-01

    Inkjet-printed Ag metallization is a promising method of forming front-side contacts on Si solar cells due to its non-contact printing nature and fine grid resolution. However, conventional Ag inks are unable to punch through the SiN(x) anti-reflection coating (ARC) layer on emitter Si surfaces. In this study, a novel formulation of Ag ink is examined for the formation of fire-through contacts on a SiN(x)-coated Si substrate using the single-step printing of Ag ink, followed by rapid thermal annealing at 800 degrees C. In order to formulate Ag inks with fire-through contact formation capabilities, a liquid etching agent was first formulated by dissolving metal nitrates in an organic solvent and then mixing the resulting solution with a commercial Ag nanoparticle ink at various volume ratios. During the firing process, the dissolved metal nitrates decomposed into metal oxides and acted in a similar manner to the glass frit contained in Ag pastes for screen-printed Ag metallization. The newly formulated ink with a 1 wt% loading ratio of metal oxides to Ag formed finely distributed Ag crystallites on the Si substrate after firing at 800 degrees C for 1 min.

  19. RRR and thermal conductivity of Ag and Ag0.2wt%Mg alloy in Ag/Bi-2212 wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pei [Fermilab; Ye, L. [North Carolina State U.; Jiang. J., Jiang. J. [Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.; Shen, T. [Fermilab

    2015-08-19

    The residual resistivity ratio (RRR) and thermal conductivity of metal matrix in metal/superconductor composite wires are important parameters for designing superconducting magnets. However, the resistivity of silver in reacted Ag/Bi-2212 wires has yet to be determined over temperature range from 4.2 K to 80 K because Bi-2212 filaments have a critical transition temperature Tc of ~ 80 K, and because it is unknown whether the RRR of Ag/Bi-2212 degrades with Cu diffusing from Bi-2212 filaments into silver sheathes at elevated temperatures and to what degree it varies with heat treatment. We measured the resistivity of stand-alone Ag and AgMg (Ag-0.2wt%Mg) wires as well as the resistivity of Ag and Ag- 0.2wt%Mg in the state-of-the-art Ag/Bi-2212 round wires reacted in 1 bar oxygen at 890 °C for 1, 8, 24 and 48 hours and quickly cooled to room temperature. The heat treatment was designed to reduce the critical current Ic of Bi-2212 wires to nearly zero while allowing Cu loss to fully manifest itself. We determined that pure silver exhibits a RRR of ~ 220 while the oxide-dispersion strengthened AgMg exhibits a RRR of ~ 5 in stand-alone samples. A surprising result is that the RRR of silver in the composite round wires doesn’t degrade with extended time at 890 °C for up to 48 hours. This surprising result may be explained by our observation that the Cu that diffuses into the silver tends to form Cu2O precipitates in oxidizing atmosphere, instead of forming Ag-Cu solution alloy. We also measured the thermal conductivity and the magneto-resistivity of pure Ag and Ag-0.2 wt%Mg from 4.2 K to 300 K in magnetic fields up to 14.8 T and summarized them using a Kohler plot.

  20. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Ag nanostructures for enhanced SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anju K.; Kala, M. S.; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-04-01

    Graphene - metal nanoparticle hybrids have received great attention due to their unique electronic properties, large specific surface area, very high conductivity and more charge transfer. Thus, it is extremely advantages to develop a simple and efficient process to disperse metal nanostructures over the surface of graphene sheets. Herein, we report a hydrothermal assisted strategy for developing reduced graphene oxide /Ag nanomorphotypes (cube, wire) for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications, considering the advantages of synergistic effect of graphene and plasmonic properties of Ag nanomorphotypes.

  1. The interactive influence of water chemistry and nanoparticle characteristics in determining the environmental fate of metal-based nanoparticles: a case of nAg and nZnO

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thwala, M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available . The NP concentration (number/mL) in 100HM remained relatively higher than in 50HM, more so for nAg. Such an observation suggested a stabilising effect in high ionic strength (IS) 100HM, such an effect was confirmed by lower dissolution in 100HM relative...

  2. Structure and decomposition of the silver formate Ag(HCO{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzan, Anna N., E-mail: anna_puzan@mail.ru; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Mateychenko, Pavel V.

    2017-02-15

    Crystal structure of the silver formate Ag(HCO{sub 2}) has been determined (orthorhombic, sp.gr. Pccn, a=7.1199(5), b=10.3737(4), c=6.4701(3)Å, V=477.88(4) Å{sup 3}, Z=8). The structure contains isolated formate ions and the pairs Ag{sub 2}{sup 2+} which form the layers in (001) planes (the shortest Ag–Ag distances is 2.919 in the pair and 3.421 and 3.716 Å between the nearest Ag atoms of adjacent pairs). Silver formate is unstable compound which decompose spontaneously vs time. Decomposition was studied using Rietveld analysis of the powder diffraction patterns. It was concluded that the diffusion of Ag atoms leads to the formation of plate-like metal particles as nuclei in the (100) planes which settle parallel to (001) planes of the silver formate matrix. - Highlights: • Silver formate Ag(HCO{sub 2}) was synthesized and characterized. • Layered packing of Ag-Ag pairs in the structure was found. • Decomposition of Ag(HCO{sub 2}) and formation of metal phase were studied. • Rietveld-refined micro-structural characteristics during decomposition reveal the space relationship between the matrix structure and forming Ag phase REPLACE with: Space relationship between the matrix structure and forming Ag phase.

  3. Structure and decomposition of the silver formate Ag(HCO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzan, Anna N.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Mateychenko, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structure of the silver formate Ag(HCO 2 ) has been determined (orthorhombic, sp.gr. Pccn, a=7.1199(5), b=10.3737(4), c=6.4701(3)Å, V=477.88(4) Å 3 , Z=8). The structure contains isolated formate ions and the pairs Ag 2 2+ which form the layers in (001) planes (the shortest Ag–Ag distances is 2.919 in the pair and 3.421 and 3.716 Å between the nearest Ag atoms of adjacent pairs). Silver formate is unstable compound which decompose spontaneously vs time. Decomposition was studied using Rietveld analysis of the powder diffraction patterns. It was concluded that the diffusion of Ag atoms leads to the formation of plate-like metal particles as nuclei in the (100) planes which settle parallel to (001) planes of the silver formate matrix. - Highlights: • Silver formate Ag(HCO 2 ) was synthesized and characterized. • Layered packing of Ag-Ag pairs in the structure was found. • Decomposition of Ag(HCO 2 ) and formation of metal phase were studied. • Rietveld-refined micro-structural characteristics during decomposition reveal the space relationship between the matrix structure and forming Ag phase REPLACE with: Space relationship between the matrix structure and forming Ag phase.

  4. Activated Carbon Fibers "Thickly Overgrown" by Ag Nanohair Through Self-Assembly and Rapid Thermal Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuefeng; Xu, Sijun; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong

    2017-11-01

    Anisotropic nanomaterial-modified carbon fibers attract increasing attention because of their superior properties over traditional ones. In this study, activated carbon fibers (ACFs) "thickly overgrown" by Ag nanohair were prepared through self-assembly and rapid thermal annealing. Viscose fibers with well-dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on surfaces were first prepared through self-assembly of hyperbranched poly(amino-amine) (HBPAA)-capped AgNPs on viscose surfaces. HBPAA endowed the AgNP surfaces with negative charges and abundant amino groups, allowing AgNPs to monodispersively self-assemble to fiber surfaces. Ag nanohair-grown ACFs were prepared by sequential pre-oxidation and carbonization. Because the carbonization furnace was open-ended, ACFs are immediately transferrable to the outside of the furnace. Therefore, the Ag liquid adsorbed by ACF pores squeezed out to form Ag nanowires through thermal contraction. FESEM characterization indicated that Ag nanohairs stood on ACF surface and grew from ACF caps. XPS and XRD characterization showed that Ag successfully assembled to fiber surfaces and retained its metallic state even after high-temperature carbonization. TG analysis suggested that Ag nanohair-grown ACFs maintained their excellent thermal stabilities. Finally, the fabricated ACFs showed excellent and durable antibacterial activities, and the developed method may provide a potential strategy for preparing metal nanowire-grown ACFs.

  5. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters

  6. Prolonged pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1......) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner and social conditions (IV). The National Birth Cohort provided data for the study on prenatal risk indicators of prolonged pregnancy in a follow-up design (V). The self-reported gestational ages from this database...

  7. Mid-IR and far-IR investigation of AgI-doped silver diborate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudgens, J.J.; Martin, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of xAgI+(1-x)Ag 2 O·2B 2 O 3 glasses, where 0.2≤x≤0.6, have been investigated using mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy. The mid-IR spectra revealed that in those glasses prepared using AgNO 3 as the starting material for Ag 2 O, the BO 4 - /BO 3 ratio is constant with increasing amounts of AgI as would be expected form the proposed behavior of AgI in these glasses. However, a survey of the literature revealed those glasses prepared from pure Ag 2 O show a strong linear dependence of the BO 4 - /BO 3 ratio on AgI content. Most probably, in those glasses prepared with Ag 2 O the Ag 2 O/B 2 O 3 ratio changes with AgI content due to the decomposition of Ag 2 O during melting. This different behavior is associated with AgNO 3 decomposing to Ag 2 O with heating followed by incorporation into the glassy network. For Ag 2 O used directly, it is proposed that it decomposes to Ag metal and O 2 (gas) with heating before it can be incorporated into the borate network. This latter behavior decreases with increasing AgI in the batch composition because AgI lowers the liquidus temperature of the melt considerably. The far-IR analysis of the AgI-doped silver diborate glasses suggests that there are three coordination environments for the Ag + ions; one with iodide anions and the other two with oxygen ions. It is proposed that the separate oxygen coordination environments for the Ag + ions arise from one with bridging oxygens of BO 4 - units, and the other with nonbridging oxygens on BO 3 - units. Furthermore, it is proposed that the Ag + ions in the iodide-ion environments progressively agglomerate into disordered regions of AgI, but do not form structures similar to α-AgI. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Fabrication, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Ag/AgI/BiOI heteronanostructures supported on rectorite via a cation-exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yunfang [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Fang, Jianzhang, E-mail: fangjzh@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lu, Shaoyou [Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wu, Yan; Chen, Dazhi; Huang, Liyan [Institute of Engineering Technology of Guangdong Province, Key Laboratory of Water Environmental Pollution Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510440 (China); Xu, Weicheng; Zhu, Ximiao [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Fang, Zhanqiang [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite was prepared by twice cation-exchange process. • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite photocatalyst possessed SPR and adsorption capacity. • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite exhibited highly photocatalytic activity. • Trapped holes and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} were formed active species in the photocatalytic system. - Abstract: In this work, a new plasmonic photocatalyst Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite was prepared via a cation exchange process. The photocatalyst had been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, nitrogen sorption (BET), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity, which was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, was enhanced significantly by loading Ag/AgI/BiOI nanoparticles onto rectorite. The photogenerated holes and superoxide radical (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) were both formed as active species for the photocatalytic reactions under visible light irradiation. The existence of metallic Ag particles, which possess the surface plasmon resonance effect, acted as an indispensable role in the photocatalytic reaction.

  9. Symbiotic star AG Dra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatov, A.P.; Yudin, B.F.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1986-01-01

    The results obtained from photometric (in the UBVRJHKLM system) and spectrophotometric (in the range 0.33-0.75 μm) observations of symbiotic star AG Dra are presented. The cool component of this star is a red giant with approximately constant brightness (ΔJ ≤ 0 m .3) classified as K4-K5. This red giant fills it's Roche loble and probably is on the assymptotic giant branch of the HR diagramm. The presence of IR excess in 5 μm associated with radiation of the gaseous envelope with the mass of M≅ 10 -6 M sun have been detected. Observations of AG Dra indicate that growing of the bolometric flux of a hot component is accompanied with decreasing effective temperature. The hot component of the system is probably an accerting red dwarf with the mass M≅ 0.4 M sun and disk accretion of matter of cool star with the rate M >or ∼ 10 -4 M sun year in equatorial region. Increase of accretion rate during the outburst of AG Dra leads to the increase of stellar wind from the red dwarf surface and the decrease of it's effective temperature. The hot component of AG Dra may also be considered as a white Dwarf with luminosity L 3 L sun and R eff >or approx. 0.2 R sun . In this case gravitational energy of accreting matter M > or ∼ 10 -6 M sun / year would be the source of the hot component outbursts. The luminosity between outbursts is determined by energy generation from the burning hydrogen layer source

  10. Photoelectron spectroscopy study of thin Ag films deposited on to amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Se Jun [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Jaeyoon; Ha, Taekyun; Park, Chong Do [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun-Joon, E-mail: shj001@postech.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, JaeGwan; Lee, Jaecheol [A E Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, GyeingGi-Do 449-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-03

    Ag was thermally evaporated onto amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O (a-IGZO) thin film, and the Ag-thickness (< 0.3 nm)-dependent chemical states of the Ag-deposited a-IGZO thin-film surfaces were investigated by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As Ag layer thickness increased, Ag 3d shifted towards the lower binding energy (BE) side and In 3d developed a lower-BE component; however, O 1s, Ga 3d, and Zn 3d showed much smaller spectral feature changes than Ag 3d or In 3d. The analysis suggests that Ag atoms preferentially interact and share electrons with In atoms. The Ag 4d split feature at the valence band and the metallic states near the Fermi edge were noticeably visible when the Ag thickness was greater than 0.1 nm. - Highlights: • Ag was deposited on a-IGZO thin film using thermal evaporation method. • Chemical state changes of Ag-deposited a-IGZO were investigated by XPS. • As Ag layer thickness increased, In 3d developed a lower-BE component. • As Ag layer thickness increased, Ag 3d shifted towards the lower BE side. • Ag atoms preferentially interact and share electrons with In atoms.

  11. Ag@Ag{sub 8}W{sub 4}O{sub 16} nanoroasted rice beads with photocatalytic, antibacterial and anticancer activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamani, Muthamizh; Krishnamoorthy, Giribabu; Ramadoss, Manigandan; Sivakumar, Praveen Kumar; Settu, Munusamy [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, 600 025 (India); Ranganathan, Suresh [Department of Chemistry, SRM University, Ramapuram Campus, Chennai, 600 089 (India); Vengidusamy, Narayanan, E-mail: vnnara@yahoo.co.in [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, 600 025 (India)

    2016-03-01

    Increasing resistance of pathogens and cancer cell line towards antibiotics and anticancer agents has caused serious health problems in the past decades. Due to these problems in recent years, researchers have tried to combine nanotechnology with material science to have intrinsic antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The metals and metal oxides were investigated with respect to their antimicrobial and anticancer effects towards bacteria and cancer cell line. In the present work metal@metal tungstate (Ag@Ag{sub 8}W{sub 4}O{sub 16} nanoroasted rice beads) is investigated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using Mueller-Hinton broth and the anticancer activity against B16F10 cell line was studied. Silver decorated silver tungstate (Ag@Ag{sub 8}W{sub 4}O{sub 16}) was synthesized by the microwave irradiation method using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB). Ag@Ag{sub 8}W{sub 4}O{sub 16} was characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. The phase and crystalline nature were analyzed by using XRD. The morphological analysis was carried out using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectral analysis were carried out in order to ascertain the presence of functional groups in Ag@Ag{sub 8}W{sub 4}O{sub 16}. The optical property was investigated using Diffuse Reflectance Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy (DRS-UV–Vis) and the band gap was found to be 3.08 eV. Surface area of the synthesized Ag@Ag{sub 8}W{sub 4}O{sub 16} wasanalyzed by BET analysis and Ag@Ag{sub 8}W{sub 4}O{sub 16} was utilized for the degradation of organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B. The morphology of the Ag@Ag{sub 8}W{sub 4}O{sub 16} resembles roasted rice beads with breath and length in nm range. The oxidation state of tungsten (W) and silver (Ag) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron

  12. Single-molecule conductance with nitrile and amino contacts with Ag or Cu electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dong-Fang; Mao, Jin-Chuan; Chen, De-Li; Chen, Fang; Ze-Wen, Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Ya-Hao; Zhou, Xiao-Shun; Niu, Zhen-Jiang; Maisonhaute, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The single-molecule conductance of 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB), 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA) and 4,4'-biphenyldicarbonitrile (BPDC) with Ag and/or Cu electrodes is measured by electrochemical jump-to-contact STM-break junction. All single-molecule junctions present three sets of conductance values revealing different contact geometries. We observe that the single-molecule conductance of Ag-BDA-Ag junction is larger that of Ag-DCB-Ag junction, and DCB with Ag contacts are more conductive than that with Cu ones. This is related to a different electronic coupling between the molecules and the electrodes. Tunneling decay constants of 1.70 and 1.68 per phenyl group were found for Ag and Cu electrodes, respectively. The present study therefore shows that nitrile and amino groups can also be used as effective anchors for other metals than gold

  13. XPS and Ag L3-edge XANES characterization of silver and silver-gold sulfoselenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri L.; Pal'yanova, Galina A.; Tomashevich, Yevgeny V.; Vishnyakova, Elena A.; Vorobyev, Sergey A.; Kokh, Konstantin A.

    2018-05-01

    Gold and silver sulfoselenides are of interest as materials with high ionic conductivity and promising magnetoresistive, thermoelectric, optical, and other physico-chemical properties, which are strongly dependent on composition and structure. Here, we applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Ag L3 X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) to study the electronic structures of low-temperature compounds and solid solutions Ag2SxSe1-x (0 compounds; in particular, the Ag L3-edge peak is about 35% lower for AgAuS relative to Ag2S. At the same time, the Au 4f binding energy and, therefore, charge at Au(I) sites increase with increasing S content due to the transfer of electron density from Au to Ag atoms. It was concluded that the effects mainly originate from shortening of the metal-chalcogen and especially the Ausbnd Ag interatomic distances in substances having similar coordination geometry.

  14. Rapid versus delayed stimulation of feeding by the endogenously released AgRP neuron mediators GABA, NPY, and AgRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashes, Michael J; Shah, Bhavik P; Koda, Shuichi; Lowell, Bradford B

    2013-10-01

    Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons of the hypothalamus release a fast transmitter (GABA) in addition to neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y [NPY] and Agouti-related peptide [AgRP]). This raises questions as to their respective functions. The acute activation of AgRP neurons robustly promotes food intake, while central injections of AgRP, NPY, or GABA agonist results in the marked escalation of food consumption with temporal variance. Given the orexigenic capability of all three of these neuroactive substances in conjunction with their coexpression in AgRP neurons, we looked to unravel their relative temporal role in driving food intake. After the acute stimulation of AgRP neurons with DREADD technology, we found that either GABA or NPY is required for the rapid stimulation of feeding, and the neuropeptide AgRP, through action on MC4 receptors, is sufficient to induce feeding over a delayed yet prolonged period. These studies help to elucidate the neurochemical mechanisms of AgRP neurons in controlling temporally distinct phases of eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sol-gel preparation of Ag-silica nanocomposite with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Jiang, Yuwei; Xiao, Huisi; Jiang, Bofan; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Mingying; Dong, Guoping; Yu, Xiang; Yang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Sol-gel derived noble-metal-silica nanocomposites are very useful in many applications. Due to relatively low price, higher conductivity, and higher chemical stability of silver (Ag) compared with copper (Cu), Ag-silica has gained much more research interest. However, it remains a significant challenge to realize high loading of Ag content in sol-gel Ag-silica composite with high structural controllability and nanoparticles' dispersity. Different from previous works by using multifunctional silicon alkoxide to anchor metal ions, here we report the synthesis of Ag-silica nanocomposite with high loading of Ag nanoparticles by employing acetonitrile bi-functionally as solvent and metal ions stabilizer. The electrical conductivity of the Ag-silica nanocomposite reached higher than 6800 S/cm. In addition, the Ag-silica nanocomposite could simultaneously possess high electrical conductivity and positive conductivity-temperature coefficient by properly controlling the loading content of Ag. Such behavior is potentially advantageous for high-temperature devices (like phosphoric acid fuel cells) and inhibiting the thermal-induced increase of devices' internal resistance. The strategy proposed here is also compatible with block-copolymer directed self-assembly of mesoporous material, spin-coating of film and electrospinning of nanofiber, making it more charming in various practical applications.

  16. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  17. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  18. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  19. Optical Properties of Plasmon Resonances with Ag/SiO2/Ag Multi-Layer Composite Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye-Wan, Ma; Li-Hua, Zhang; Zhao-Wang, Wu; Jie, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Optical properties of plasmon resonance with Ag/SiO 2 /Ag multi-layer nanoparticles are studied by numerical simulation based on Green's function theory. The results show that compared with single-layer Ag nanoparticles, the multi-layer nanoparticles exhibit several distinctive optical properties, e.g. with increasing the numbers of the multi-layer nanoparticles, the scattering efficiency red shifts, and the intensity of scattering enhances accordingly. It is interesting to find out that slicing an Ag-layer into multi-layers leads to stronger scattering intensity and more 'hot spots' or regions of stronger field enhancement. This property of plasmon resonance of surface Raman scattering has greatly broadened the application scope of Raman spectroscopy. The study of metal surface plasmon resonance characteristics is critical to the further understanding of surface enhanced Raman scattering as well as its applications. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  20. Synthesis of Ag or Pt Nanoparticles by Hydrolysis of Either Ag2Na or PtNa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabin Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag and Pt nanoparticles have successfully been synthesized by hydrolysis of either Ag2Na or PtNa at room temperature. The oxidation of sodium in the Pt-Na pellets was much faster than that in the Ag-Na pellets since Pt is a catalyst for H2O formation reaction from hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. The hydrolysis byproduct, NaOH, has a high solubility and easily is removed. This method offers a simple method of preparing transition metal nanoparticles. The Ag and Pt nanoparticles prepared by this method were crystalline in nature, and spherical in shape with a mean size of around 10 nm.

  1. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  2. Ag(I)-bovine serum albumin hydrosol-mediated formation of Ag3PO4/reduced graphene oxide composites for visible-light degradation of Rhodamine B solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peiyan; Chen, Anliang; Wu, Yan; Fu, Zhengyi; Kong, Wei; Che, Liyuan; Ma, Ruifang

    2014-03-01

    A cost-effective Ag(I)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) supramolecular hydrosol strategy was utilized to assemble Ag3PO4 nanospheres onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The obtained composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compared with the pure Ag3PO4 crystals and Ag3PO4 particles prepared with Ag(I)-BSA hydrosol as precursor, the Ag3PO4/rGO composites obtained with different content of graphene oxide indicated improved visible-light-driven photocatalysis activity for the decomposition of Rhodamine B aqueous solution. The results pointed to the possibility of synthesizing graphene-based photocatalysts by metal ion-BSA hydrosol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  4. AGS experiments - 1995, 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments

  5. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  6. AGS superconducting bending magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.; McInturff, A.D.; Dahl, P.F.; Abbatiello, F.; Aggus, J.; Bamberger, J.; Brown, D.; Damm, R.; Kassner, D.; Lasky, C.; Schlafke, A.

    1976-01-01

    Four large aperture superconducting bending magnets are being built for use in the experimental beams at the AGS. Each of these magnets is 2.5 m long and has a room temperature aperture of 20 cm. The magnets are similar in design to the dipoles being developed for ISABELLE and employ a low temperature iron core. Results are presented on the ''training'' behavior of the magnets and a comparison will be made with the smaller aperture versions of this design. The magnet field measurements include end fields and leakage fields as well as the harmonic components of the straight section of the magnet

  7. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO3 and Ag/AgVO3 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anamika; Dutta, Dimple P.; Ballal, A.; Tyagi, A.K.; Fulekar, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO 3 and pure AgVO 3 nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO 3 within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO 3 demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO 3 nanowires and AgVO 3 nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO 3 nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO 3 nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO 3 nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the β-AgVO 3 nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO 3 nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO 3 support

  8. Anomalous growth of Ba on Ag(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodoro, O.M.N.D.; Los, J.; Moutinho, A.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Electropositive elements are often adsorbed on metals to produce a well-known decrease in the surface work function. During deposition, the work function drops steeply and reaches a minimum at coverage lower than one monolayer. Then, it increases slightly and the work function converges to the value of the deposited element. In this work, we report anomalous behavior found during the deposition of barium on a Ag(111) surface. After a minimum of about 2.4 eV the work function did not increase up to 2.7 eV, the bulk barium work function, no matter what amount of barium was deposited. Auger electron spectroscopy corroborated these results in which we measured a permanent and constant intensity of the Ag MNN peak for high barium coverage. To explain this anomalous growth of barium on Ag(111) we propose an explanation based on the diffusion of silver atoms into the barium film. Further experiments showed that coadsorption of oxygen before a second deposition of barium blocked the diffusion thus allowing the work function to reach 2.7 eV

  9. Prolonged CT urography in duplex kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghan; Gao, Lei; Dai, Xi-Jian; Zhou, Fuqing; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Xianjun; Jiang, Jian; He, Laichang

    2016-05-13

    Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) and has been suggested to considerably aid in the duplex kidney diagnosi. Unfortunately, regarding duplex kidney with prolonged dilatation, the affected parenchyma and tortuous ureters demonstrate a lack of or delayed excretory opacification. We used prolonged-delay CTU, which consists of another prolonged-delay phase (1- to 72-h delay; mean delay: 24 h) to opacify the duplicated ureters and affected parenchyma. Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5-56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with duplex kidney were included in this study. Unenhanced scans did not find typical characteristics of duplex kidney, except for irregular perirenal morphology. Duplex kidney could not be confirmed on typical four-phase CTU, whereas it could be easily diagnosed in axial and CT-3D reconstruction using prolonged CTU (prolonged-delay phase). Between January 2005 and October 2010, in this review board-approved study (with waived informed consent), 17 patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5 ~ 56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with suspicious duplex kidney underwent prolonged CTU to opacify the duplicated ureters and confirm the diagnosis. Our results suggest the validity of prolonged CTU to aid in the evaluation of the function of the affected parenchyma and in the demonstration of urinary tract malformations.

  10. Determine Minimum Silver Flake Addition to GCM for Iodine Loaded AgZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2014-04-01

    The minimum amount of silver flake required to prevent loss of I{sub 2} during sintering in air for a SNL Glass Composite Material (GCM) Waste Form containing AgI-MOR (ORNL, 8.7 wt%) was determined to be 1.1 wt% Ag. The final GCM composition prior to sintering was 20 wt% AgI-MOR, 1.1 wt% Ag, and 80 wt% Bi-Si oxide glass. The amount of silver flake needed to suppress iodine loss was determined using thermo gravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopic off-gas analysis. These studies found that the ratio of silver to AgI-MOR required is lower in the presence of the glass than without it. Therefore an additional benefit of the GCM is that it serves to inhibit some iodine loss during processing. Alternatively, heating the AgI-MOR in inert atmosphere instead of air allowed for densified GCM formation without I{sub 2} loss, and no necessity for the addition of Ag. The cause of this behavior is found to be related to the oxidation of the metallic Ag to Ag{sup +} when heated to above ~300{degrees}C in air. Heating rate, iodine loading levels and atmosphere are the important variables that determine AgI migration and results suggest that AgI may be completely incorporated into the mordenite structure by the 550{degrees}C sintering temperature.

  11. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  12. Ag(I), Pb(II) and Hg(II) binding to biomolecules studied by Perturbed Angular Correlation of $\\gamma$-rays (PAC) spectroscopy: Function and toxicity of metal ions in biological systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Metal ions display diverse functions in biological systems and are essential components in both protein structure and function, and in control of biochemical reaction paths and signaling. Similarly, metal ions may be used to control structure and function of synthetic biomolecules, and thus be a tool in the design of molecules with a desired function. In this project we address a variety of questions concerning both the function of metal ions in natural systems, in synthetic biomolecules, and the toxic effect of some metal ions. All projects involve other experimental techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, UV-Vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopies providing complementary data, as well as interpretation of the experimental data by quantum mechanical calculations of spectroscopic properties.

  13. Effect of Ag nanoparticles on resistive switching of polyfluorene-based organic non-volatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Hye-Jung; Wang, Gun-Uk; Kim, Dong-Yu; Hwang, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Tak-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Ag nanoparticles on the switching behavior of polyfluorene-based organic nonvolatile memory devices were investigated. Polyfluorene-derivatives (WPF-oxy-F) with and without Ag nanoparticles were synthesized, and the presence of Ag nanoparticles in Ag-WPF-oxy-F was identified by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The Ag-nanoparticles did not significantly affect the basic switching performances, such as the current-voltage characteristics, the distribution of on/off resistance, and the retention. The pulse switching time of Ag-WPF-oxy-F was faster than that of WPF-oxy-F. Ag-WPF-oxy-F memory devices showed an area dependence in the high resistance state, implying that formation of a Ag metallic channel for current conduction.

  14. Prolonged delirium misdiagnosed as a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium can be conceptualized as an acute decline in cognitive function that typically lasts from hours to a few days. Prolonged delirium can also affect patients with multiple predisposing and/or precipitating factors. In clinical practice, prolonged delirium is often unrecognized, and can be misdiagnosed as other psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that was first misdiagnosed as a mood disorder in a general hospital setting. After prolonged delirium due to multiple factors was confirmed, the patient was treated accordingly with symptomatic management. He evolved with progressive improvement of his clinical status. Early diagnosis and management of prolonged delirium are important to improve patient prognosis and avoid iatrogenic measures.

  15. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Kulairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  16. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  17. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    ) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... an ultrasound scan in the first or second trimester, or menstrual history was best at predicting the day of delivery; 5) to study the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner, social status and municipality; and 6) to detect prenatal risk indicators of prolonged...... of perinatal and obstetrical complications was high in post-term delivery compared to term delivery (OR between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death (OR=1.36 (1.08-1.72)) was also higher in the post-term group (I). The self-reported gestational ages in the National Birth Cohort correlated well with data...

  18. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  19. Electron-transfer reactions of extremely small AgI colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucemilovic, M.I.; Micic, O.I.

    1988-01-01

    Small colloidal AgI particles (particle diameter 20-50 A) have been prepared in water and acetonitrile, and optical effects due to size quantization have been observed. Electron transfer reactions involving electron donors and electron acceptors with AgI have been studied by pulse radiolysis techniques. Both reduction and oxidation of the colloids led to transient bleaching of semiconductor absorption. The recovery of the bleaching has been attributed to corrosion processes. Electrons injected into AgI colloids produce metallic silver and hydrogen. Hydrogen evolution is catalyzed by metallic silver formation. (author)

  20. Particle growth mechanisms in Ag-ZrO2 and Au-ZrO2 granular films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinovic, Zorica; Muro, Montserrat Garcia del; Varela, Manuel; Batlle, Xavier; Labarta, AmIlcar

    2006-01-01

    Thin films consisting of Ag and Au nanoparticles embedded in amorphous ZrO 2 matrix were grown by pulsed laser deposition in a wide range of metal volume concentrations in the dielectric regime (0.08 Ag Au c (Ag)∼0.28 and x c (Au)∼0.52)

  1. BROOKHAVEN: AGS improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1994-01-01

    The new Booster - AGS Alternating Gradient Synchrotron complex is providing beam while machine development to enhance performance also progresses, so far on schedule. In 1991 the Booster turned on and performed as requested - attesting to a successful construction and quality control programme. In 1992 beam was provided to users while the Booster met most of its operational goals - falling slightly short of its proton intensity goal of 0.5 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp). This would have been inconsequential except that the Booster intensity seemed to be hitting a fairly solid brick wall of undetermined origin. Since the goal for 1993 called for a doubling of the intensity, the situation seemed serious enough to schedule three months (February - April 1993) for Booster development

  2. Slow positron studies on single crystals of Ag(100), Ag(111) and Cu(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.

    1979-01-01

    Monoenergetic positrons were employed to examine positronium formation as a function of sample temperature (300 to 1200 K) and incident energy (0 to 5 keV) on Ag(100), Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces with submonolayer contamination. In these metals at the higher temperatures, positronium formation becomes the dominant process. A one-dimensional diffusion model is fit to the data as a function of incident energy. Th positronium fraction is found to be an activated process and is identified as detrapping from a surface state and an estimate of the depth of this trap is extracted. The diffusion length is found to be temperature independent before the onset of vacancy trapping. At the higher temperatures vacancy trapping is observed by the decrease in the positron diffusion length at the higher incident voltages. A vacancy formation energy is extracted from the data and is generally lower than the accepted bulk values. 18 references

  3. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  4. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  5. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here

  6. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  7. Positron lifetime spectroscopy of internally oxidised Ag-In alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, D.; Lieb, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of In 2 O 3 precipitates on positron lifetimes after internal oxidation of α-Ag-In alloys have been investigated. A positron trap associated with the lifetime τ 205(3) ps was detected. On the basis of the experimental results obtained for different oxidation kinetics parameters, a trapping model is proposed according to which positrons thermalised in a dislocation field around oxide precipitates are trapped at the oxide/metal phase boundary. The transition from internal to external oxidation of Ag-In was also studied. The positron lifetime in In 2 O 3 was measured to be τ = 263(8) ps. (author)

  8. Chitosan/Carboxymethylcellulose/Ionic Liquid/Ag(0) Nanoparticles Form a Membrane with Antimicrobial Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, C.; Faria, V.W.; Scheeren, C.W.; Klein, M.P.; Hertz, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Silver metal nanoparticles were immobilized in chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose/BMI.BF4(1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid) (CS/CMC/IL) to form polymeric membrane with 20 μm thickness. The CS/CMC/IL polymeric membrane was prepared using a simple solution blending method. Irregularly shaped Ag(0) nanoparticles with monomodal size distributions of nm Ag(0) were immobilized in the membrane. The presence of small Ag(0) nanoparticles induced an augmentation in the CS/CMC/IL film surface areas. The CS/CMC/IL membrane containing Ag(0) showed increase antimicrobial activity the Ag(0) concentration increased up to saturation at 10 mg. CS/CMC/IL membrane that contains Ag(0) nanoparticles has enhanced durability of the membrane and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. Plasmonic Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on the Ag-CsPbBr3 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Bing; Wang, Weigao; Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Yuanjin; Chen, Shuming; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-02-08

    The enhanced luminescence through semiconductor-metal interactions suggests the great potential of device performance improvement via properly tailored plasmonic nanostructures. Surface plasmon enhanced electroluminescence in an all-inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite light-emitting diode (LED) is fabricated by decorating the hole transport layer with the synthesized Ag nanorods. An increase of 42% and 43.3% in the luminance and efficiency is demonstrated for devices incorporated with Ag nanorods. The device with Ag introduction indicates identical optoelectronic properties to the controlled device without Ag nanostructures. The increased spontaneous emission rate caused by the Ag-induced plasmonic near-field effect is responsible for the performance enhancement. Therefore, the plasmonic Ag-CsPbBr 3 nanostructure studied here provides a novel strategy on the road to the future development of perovskite LEDs.

  10. Nano-Ag complexes prepared by γ-radiolysis and their structures and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa-Jung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Park, Hae-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, nano-silver (nano-Ag) complexes showing different properties have been synthesized as follows. Polypyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized silver colloids (NAg), nano-Ag bound to silica (SiO 2 ) (NSS), and nano-Ag bound to a complex of SiO 2 and polyaniline (PANI) (NSSPAI) were prepared via γ-irradiation at room temperature. NAg and NSS used PVP as a colloidal stabilizer, while NSSPAI did not use PVP as a colloidal stabilizer. Interesting bonding properties occurred in the nano-Ag complex and anticipated structural changes were clearly shown through a surface analysis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphologies by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed that nano-Ag complexes have various particle sizes ranging from 10 to 30 nm. NSS (average, 10 nm) and NSSPAI (average, 30 nm) showed a uniformly spherical shape and size, while NAg did not. From the reflection peaks in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, surface crystallinity of the nano-Ag complexes was indicated to be in the same degree as that of NSSPAI>NSS>NAg. Also, in the contact angle (CA) determination, surface hydrophobicity of NSSPAI was stronger than those of NSS and NAg, relatively. The different nano-Ag complexes prepared by γ-irradiation can be applicable in various industry fields due to the increase in specific property. - Highlights: ► Nano-Ag complexes showing different properties have been synthesized via γ-irradiation. ► Nano-Ag colloid (NAg), nano-Ag bound to SiO 2 (NSS), nano-Ag bound to SiO 2 and PANI complex (NSSPAI). ► Nano-Ag complexes were the same based on Ag metal. ► Results clearly showed fascinating/different physical properties. ► Different nano-Ag complexes can be applicable in various industry fields.

  11. Tailoring the structural and optical properties of TiN thin films by Ag ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popović, M., E-mail: majap@vinca.rs; Novaković, M.; Rakočević, Z.; Bibić, N.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Changes in structural and optical properties of TiN films induced by Ag ions. • The formation of Ag metallic clusters inside of TiN layers was observed. • The SPR of Ag particles was confirmed by a broad band in the spectra. • As the Ag ions fluence increases the n also increase and k values decrease. • With increasing ion fluence the TiN film becomes more metallic. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films thickness of ∼260 nm prepared by dc reactive sputtering were irradiated with 200 keV silver (Ag) ions to the fluences ranging from 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 20 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation TiN layers were annealed 2 h at 700 °C in a vacuum. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural changes were examined by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while the surface topography was observed using atomic force microscopy. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to get insights on the optical and electronic properties of TiN films with respect to their microstructure. The results showed that the irradiations lead to deformation of the lattice, increasing disorder and formation of new Ag phase. The optical results demonstrate the contribution of surface plasmon resonace (SPR) of Ag particles. SPR position shifted in the range of 354.3–476.9 nm when Ag ion fluence varied from 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 20 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Shift in peak wavelength shows dependence on Ag particles concentration, suggesting that interaction between Ag particles dominate the surface plasmon resonance effect. Presence of Ag as second metal in the layer leads to overall decrease of optical resistivity of TiN.

  12. Ag/Pd core-shell nanoparticles by a successive method: Pulsed laser ablation of Ag in water and reduction reaction of PdCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghi, N. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbar, M., E-mail: ranjbar@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farrokhpour, H. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshouei, M. [Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Molecular Structural Biology, Am Klopferspitz 18, Martinsried 82152 (Germany); Khoshouei, A.; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabrizchi, M. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalilian-Nosrati, M. [Physics department, Central Azad University, Tehran 14676-86831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    In this study Ag/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) have been fabricated by a successive method; first, colloids of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared in water by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) method. Then PdCl{sub 2} solution (up to 0.2 g/l) were added to the as-prepared or aged colloidal Ag NPs. Characterizations were done using UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmissions electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Spectroscopy data showed that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of as-prepared Ag NPs at about λ = 400 nm were completely extinguished after addition of PdCl{sub 2} solution while this effect was not observed when aged Ag NPs are used. XRD and XPS results revealed that by addition of the PdCl{sub 2} solution into the as-prepared Ag NPs, metallic palladium, and silver chloride composition products are generated. TEM images revealed that as a result of this reaction, single and core-shell nanoparticles are obtained and their average sizes are 2.4 nm (Ag) and 3.2 nm (Ag/Pd). The calculated d-spacing values form XRD data with observations on high magnification TEM images were able to explain the chemical nature of different parts of Ag/Pd NPs.

  13. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information regarding QT-prolongation in the drug label may vary between products. This could lead to suboptimal risk minimization strategies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the variation in the extent and content of information on QT prolongation in the summary of product......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...

  14. Construction of Ag/AgCl nanostructures from Ag nanoparticles as high-performance visible-light photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Dongzhi; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Wei [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Hu, Wenping [Tianjin University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (China); Zhou, Xueqin, E-mail: zhouxueqin@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-11-15

    A combined strategy of in situ oxidation and assembly is developed to prepare Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes from Ag nanoparticles under room temperature. It is a new facile way to fabricate Ag/AgCl with small sizes and defined morphologies. Ag/AgCl nanospheres with an average size of 80 nm were achieved without any surfactants, while Ag/AgCl nanocubes with a mean edge length of 150 nm were obtained by introduction of N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate. The possible formation mechanism involves the self-assembly of AgCl nanoparticles, Ostwald ripening and photoreduction of Ag{sup +} into Ag{sup 0} by the room light. The as-prepared Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity and stability toward degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation. It is demonstrated that Ag/AgCl nanocubes display enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison with Ag/AgCl nanospheres due to the more efficient charge transfer. This work may pave an avenue to construct various functional materials via the assembly strategy using nanoparticles as versatile building blocks.

  15. Eu9Cd4-xCM2+x-y□ySb9: Ca9Mn4Bi9-type structure stuffed with coinage metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) and the challenges with classical valence theory in describing these possible zintl phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem, Nasrin; Hurtado, Antonio; Klobes, Benedikt; Hermann, Raphaël P; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2015-02-02

    The synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic properties, and europium Mössbauer spectroscopy of the new members of the 9-4-9 Zintl family of Eu(9)Cd(4-x)CM(2+x-y)□(y)Sb(9) (CM = coinage metal: Au, Ag, and Cu) are reported. These compounds crystallize in the Ca(9)Mn(4)Bi(9) structure type (9-4-9) with the 4g interstitial site almost half-occupied by coinage metals; these are the first members in the 9-4-9 family where the interstitial positions are occupied by a monovalent metal. All previously known compounds with this structure type include divalent interstitials where these interstitials are typically the same as the transition metals in the anionic framework. Single-crystal magnetic susceptibility data indicate paramagnetic behavior for all three compounds with antiferromagnetic ordering below 10 K (at 100 Oe) that shifts to lower temperature (x)CM(2+x-y)□(y)Sb(9) at 50 and 6.5 K in order to evaluate the valence of Eu cations. Although the Zintl formalism states that the five crystallographically distinct Eu sites in Eu(9)Cd(4-x)CM(2+x-y)□(y)Sb9 should bear Eu(2+), the Mössbauer spectral isomer shifts are clearly indicative of both 2+ and 3+ valence of the Eu cations with the Cu- and Au-containing compounds showing higher amounts of Eu(3+). This electronic configuration leads to an excess of negative charge in these compounds that contradicts the expected valence-precise requirement of Zintl phases. The spectra obtained at 6.5 K reveal magnetic ordering for both Eu(2+) and Eu(3+). The field dependence of Eu(2+) indicates two distinct magnetic sublattices, with higher and lower fields, and of a small field for Eu(3+). The site symmetry of the five Eu sites is not distinguishable from the Mössbauer data.

  16. Partial structures in molten AgBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Hiroki [Department of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-mail: ueno@gemini.rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tahara, Shuta [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Science, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Kawakita, Yukinobu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takeda, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)

    2009-02-21

    The structure of molten AgBr has been studied by means of neutron and X-ray diffractions with the aid of structural modeling. It is confirmed that the Ag-Ag correlation has a small but well-defined first peak in the partial pair distribution function whose tail penetrates into the Ag-Br nearest neighbor distribution. This feature on the Ag-Ag correlation is intermediate between that of molten AgCl (non-superionic melt) and that of molten AgI (superionic melt). The analysis of Br-Ag-Br bond angle reveals that molten AgBr preserves a rocksalt type local ordering in the solid phase, suggesting that molten AgBr is clarified as non-superionic melt like molten AgCl.

  17. Submonolayer nucleation and growth and the initial stage of multilayer kinetic roughening during Ag/Ag (100) homoepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.

    1996-08-01

    A comprehensive Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) study of submonolayer nucleation and growth of 2D islands in Ag/Ag(100) homoepitaxy for temperature between 295K and 370K is presented. The initial stages of multilayer kinetic roughening is also studied. Analysis of an appropriate model for metal (100) homoepitaxy, produces estimates of 350 meV for the terrace diffusion barrier, 400 meV for the adatom bond energy, and 25 meV for the additional Ehrlich-Schwoebel step-edge barrier.

  18. Direct in situ activation of Ag0 nanoparticles in synthesis of Ag/TiO2 and its photoactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, N.F.; Jalil, A.A.; Triwahyono, S.; Efendi, J.; Mukti, R.R.; Jusoh, R.; Jusoh, N.W.C.; Karim, A.H.; Salleh, N.F.M.; Suendo, V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag 0 loaded on TiO 2 was prepared by a direct in situ electrochemical method. • 5 wt% Ag–TiO 2 demonstrated the best photocatalytic degradation of 2-CP. • Isomorphous substitution of Ag with Ti occurred to form Ti−O−Ag bonds. • Ag 0 and oxygen vacancies trapped electrons to enhance e–H + separation. • Substitution of Ag in the TiO 2 structure decreased the number of oxygen vacancies. - Abstract: Metallic Ag nanoparticles (Ag 0 ) were successfully activated using a direct in situ electrochemical method before being supported on TiO 2 . Catalytic testing showed that 5 wt% Ag–TiO 2 gave the highest photodegradation (94%) of 50 mg L −1 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) at pH 5 using 0.375 g L −1 catalyst within 6 h, while under similar conditions, 1 wt% and 10 wt% Ag–TiO 2 only gave 75% and 78% degradation, respectively. Characterization results illustrated that the photoactivity was affected by the amount of Ag 0 and oxygen vacancies which act as an electrons trap to enhance the electron–hole separation. While, the Ag−O−Ti bonds formation reduced the photoactivity. The degradation followed a pseudo-first order Langmuir–Hinshelwood model where adsorption was the controlling step. Study on the effect of scavengers showed that the hole (H + ) and hydroxyl radical (OH·) play important roles in the photodegradation. The regenerated photocatalyst was still stable after five cycling runs

  19. A simple approach for facile synthesis of Ag, anisotropic Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles using cruciferous vegetable extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Jasmine; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and straightforward approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Ag, Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles by using cruciferous vegetable (green/red) extracts by simply adjusting the pH environment in the aqueous medium. The vegetable extracts act both as reducing and capping agents. The monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag and Au so obtained were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that red cabbage extract can be used for the preparation of anisotropic Au nanoparticles. The formation of Au anisotropic nanoparticles was found to depend on a number of environmental factors, such as the pH of the reaction medium, reaction time, and initial reactant concentrations. Additionally, it is shown that these extract-stabilized Au and Ag nanoparticles can be used as a seed for preparation of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. For bimetallic alloy nanoparticles the absorption peak was observed between the two maxima of the corresponding metallic particles. The surface plasmon absorption maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changed linearly with increasing Au mole ratio content in various alloy compositions. It has been shown that the formation of hollow Au spheres depends on the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of gold nanoparticles at pH 3.27 formed by red cabbage extract. Highlights: ► First report on the reactivity of the extracts toward metal ions using a spectrophotometric technique. ► Red cabbage extract has better reducing properties than green cabbage extract. ► Red cabbage extract can reduce metal ions at any pH. ► Reduction of metal ions can have important consequences in the study of soil chemistry.

  20. A simple approach for facile synthesis of Ag, anisotropic Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles using cruciferous vegetable extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Jasmine; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir, E-mail: sudhirk@barc.gov.in

    2012-10-01

    We present a simple and straightforward approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Ag, Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles by using cruciferous vegetable (green/red) extracts by simply adjusting the pH environment in the aqueous medium. The vegetable extracts act both as reducing and capping agents. The monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag and Au so obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that red cabbage extract can be used for the preparation of anisotropic Au nanoparticles. The formation of Au anisotropic nanoparticles was found to depend on a number of environmental factors, such as the pH of the reaction medium, reaction time, and initial reactant concentrations. Additionally, it is shown that these extract-stabilized Au and Ag nanoparticles can be used as a seed for preparation of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. For bimetallic alloy nanoparticles the absorption peak was observed between the two maxima of the corresponding metallic particles. The surface plasmon absorption maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changed linearly with increasing Au mole ratio content in various alloy compositions. It has been shown that the formation of hollow Au spheres depends on the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of gold nanoparticles at pH 3.27 formed by red cabbage extract. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report on the reactivity of the extracts toward metal ions using a spectrophotometric technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red cabbage extract has better reducing properties than green cabbage extract. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red cabbage extract can reduce metal ions at any pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of metal ions can have important consequences in the study of soil chemistry.

  1. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-13

    Colloidal metal nanocrystals with strong, stable, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) can be useful in a corrosive environment for many applications including field-enhanced spectroscopies, plasmon-mediated catalysis, etc. Here, a new synthetic strategy is reported that enables the epitaxial growth of a homogeneously alloyed AuAg shell on Au nanorod seeds, circumventing the phase segregation of Au and Ag encountered in conventional synthesis. The resulting core–shell structured bimetallic nanorods (AuNR@AuAg) have well-mixed Au and Ag atoms in their shell without discernible domains. This degree of mixing allows AuNR@AuAg to combine the high stability of Au with the superior plasmonic activity of Ag, thus outperforming seemingly similar nanostructures with monometallic shells (e.g., Ag-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Ag) and Au-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Au)). AuNR@AuAg is comparable to AuNR@Ag in plasmonic activity, but that it is markedly more stable toward oxidative treatment. Specifically, AuNR@AuAg and AuNR@Ag exhibit similarly strong signals in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that are some 30-fold higher than that of AuNR@Au. When incubated with a H2O2 solution (0.5 m), the plasmonic activity of AuNR@Ag immediately and severely decayed, whereas AuNR@AuAg retained its activity intact. Moreover, the longitudinal SPR frequency of AuNR@AuAg can be tuned throughout the red wavelengths (≈620–690 nm) by controlling the thickness of the AuAg alloy shell. The synthetic strategy is versatile to fabricate AuAg alloyed shells on different shaped Au, with prospects for new possibilities in the synthesis and application of plasmonic nanocrystals.

  2. The dissimilar brazing of Kovar alloy to SiCp/Al composites using silver-based filler metal foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Dongxia; Zhai, Yahong; Niu, Jitai

    2017-09-01

    Aluminum metal matrix composites with high SiC content (60 vol.% SiCp/Al MMCs) were surface metallized with a Ni-P alloy coating, and vacuum brazing between the composites and Kovar alloy were performed using rapidly cooled Ag-22.0Cu-15.9In-10.86Sn-1.84Ti (wt%) foil. The effects of Ni-P alloy coating and brazing parameters on the joint microstructures and properties were researched by SEM, EDS, and single lap shear test, respectively. Results show that Ag-Al intermetallic strips were formed in the 6063Al matrix and filler metal layer because of diffusion, and they were arranged regularly and accumulated gradually as the brazing temperature was increased ( T/°C = 550-600) or the soaking time was prolonged ( t/min = 10-50). However, excessive strips would destroy the uniformity of seams and lead to a reduced bonding strength (at most 70 MPa). Using a Ni-P alloy coating, void free joints without those strips were obtained at 560 °C after 20 min soaking time, and a higher shear strength of 90 MPa was achieved. The appropriate interface reaction ( 2 μm transition layer) that occurred along the Ni-P alloy coating/filler metal/Kovar alloy interfaces resulted in better metallurgical bonding. In this research, the developed Ag-based filler metal was suitable for brazing the dissimilar materials of Ni-P alloy-coated SiCp/Al MMCs and Kovar alloy, and capable welding parameters were also broadened.

  3. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum rind extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yang

    Full Text Available Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV–Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of NH2, OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism. Keywords: Pomegranate rind, Biosynthesis, Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites, Antibacterial activity

  4. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  5. Neutrino physics at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolsky, P.

    1978-01-01

    The AGS neutrino beam is the last low energy (1 to 2 GeV) neutrino beam left. As more work is done at higher energies and as the whole realm of new physics (whose threshold seems barely attainable at AGS ν energies) is explored in increasing detail, it is appropriate to ask what physics remains to be done here. To answer this question, current theory and experiment are confronted, not in an attempt to confirm or refute theoretical (or experimental) prejudices, but to ask if present experiments at low energies are good enough. In the process, the recent AGS neutrino experimental program are reviewed

  6. Improved Long-Term Stability of Transparent Conducting Electrodes Based on Double-Laminated Electrosprayed Antimony Tin Oxides and Ag Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo B.-R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated double-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes by spin-coating and electrospraying. Compared to pure Ag nanowire electrodes and single-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes, the double-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes had superior transparent conducting electrode performances with sheet resistance ~19.8 Ω/□ and optical transmittance ~81.9%; this was due to uniform distribution of the connected Ag nanowires because of double lamination of the metallic Ag nanowires without Ag aggregation despite subsequent microwave heating at 250°C. They also exhibited excellent and superior long-term chemical and thermal stabilities and adhesion to substrate because double-laminated antimony tin oxide thin films act as the protective layers between Ag nanowires, blocking Ag atoms penetration.

  7. One-pot Sonochemical Synthesis of Hg-Ag Alloy Microspheres from Liquid Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Villa Krishna; Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan; Gedanken, Aharon

    2018-01-01

    Metallic mercury has always attracted much attention in various fields because of its unique characteristic of forming amalgams. Here, different phases of pure crystalline Hg-Ag amalgam microspheres are synthesized by ultrasonically reacting liquid mercury with an aqueous solution of silver nitrate. Sonicating different molar ratios of liquid metallic Hg with AgNO 3 results in the formation of pure crystalline phases of solid silver amalgams with uniform morphology. The resulting Hg-Ag amalgams from various compositions after sonication are physically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The XRD of the amalgams obtained from the molar ratios of Hg:Ag (1:1.5) and Hg:Ag (1.5:1 and 2:1) match the Schachnerite and Moschellandbergite phases, respectively, whereas the Hg-Ag amalgam prepared from a 1:1Hg:Ag molar ratio results in a mixture of the Schachnerite and Moschellandbergite phases. The obtained amalgam microspheres are between 6 and 10µm in size. The detailed thermal and chemical behaviour of the Ag-Hg systems is also investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser fabrication of Ag-HA nanocomposites on Ti6Al4V implant for enhancing bioactivity and antibacterial capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangmei; Man, H.C., E-mail: mfhcman@polyu.edu.hk

    2017-01-01

    For titanium alloy implants, both surface bioactivity and antibacterial infection are the two critical factors in determining the success of clinical implantation of these metallic implants. In the present work, a novel nanocomposite layer of nano-silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) was prepared on the surface of biomedical Ti6Al4V by laser processing. Analysis using SEM, EDS and XRD shows the formation of an Ag-HA layer of about 200 μm fusion bonded to the substrate. Mineralization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite layer favors the deposition of apatite on the surface of the implants. Antibacterial tests confirmed that all Ag-HA nanocomposite layers can kill bacteria while a higher Ag content would lower the cytocompatibility of these coatings. Cell viability decreases when the Ag content reaches 5% in these coatings, due to the larger amount of Ag leached out, as confirmed by ion release evaluation. Our results reveal that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite coatings containing 2% Ag show both excellent cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability. - Highlights: • Silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) nanocomposite layer was fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser technique. • Both bioactivity and antibacterial capability were significantly enhanced compared with bare Ti6Al4V. • Ag-HA nanocomposite coatings containing 2% Ag show both excellent cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability.

  9. Mechanical properties and dual atmosphere tolerance of Ag-Al based braze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Scott Weil, K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the effects of aluminum on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and high temperature dual atmosphere tolerance of silver and silver-copper oxide filler metals were investigated. It was found that joints brazed with binary Ag-Al braze foils containing more than 2 at% Al retained a metallic form of aluminum within the metallic braze filler matrix after brazing at 1000 C in air. The bend strengths of these joints decreased with increasing aluminum content due to the formation of interfacial aluminum oxide. However, the existence of metallic aluminum in the braze filler matrix appeared to enhance the high-temperature dual atmosphere tolerance of the silver-based braze filler, which displayed measurably less porosity after 1000h of exposure at 800 C in a dual reducing/oxidizing atmosphere environment than unalloyed silver. A series of binary and ternary braze pastes based on the Ag-Al(-Cu) system were also formulated as potential pSOFC (planar solid oxide fuel cell) sealants. Model alumina joints brazed with these pastes exhibited an increase in bend strength with increasing copper content. However, unlike the binary Ag-Al filler metals, the ternary compositions often retained no protective metallic aluminum after brazing. Thus, while the addition of copper improves filler metal wettability and, therefore, joint strength in the Ag-Al alloys, it appears to reduce the dual atmosphere tolerance of these filler metals. (author)

  10. Coating of hydroxyapatite doped Ag on commercially pure titanium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Jonas de Oliveira; Vercik, Luci Cristina de Oliveira; Rigo, Eliana Cristina da Silva

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of bioactive coating on commercially pure titanium surface (CpTi) doped with Ag ions. The coating consists of 3 steps, in step 1- surface chemical treatment of the samples with NaOH, step 2 - immersing the substrate in question in a sodium silicate solution (SS) to the nucleation and step 3 - reimmersion these substrates in synthetic solution that simulates the blood serum for precipitation and growth of apatite layer. After the coating step the AgNO 3 substrates were immersed in solutions with concentrations of 20 ppm and 100 ppm at 37 ° C for 48h. The substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). By the results verified the formation of an apatite layer with aspects of cells, on the surface of CpTi. The increase in Ag concentration causes an increase in Ag amount doped in apatite layer. With the results we concluded that it is possible to obtain an apatite layer on a metal surface as the CpTi doped with Ag ions

  11. First principles study of the Ag nanoclusters adsorption effect on the photocatalytic properties of AgBr(1 1 0) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yuhua; Zhao, Lianming; Li, Xue; Zhu, Houyu; Guo, Wenyue

    2018-05-01

    The electronic structures and photocatalytic performance of Agn/AgBr(1 1 0)(n = 7-13) are studied using density functional theory (DFT). The adsorption of Agn (n = 7-13) nanoclusters on AgBr(1 1 0) surface induces a new metal-induced gap band (MIGB) located between the valence band (VB) and the conduction band (CB), the variety of the electronic characters of AgBr(1 1 0) favor the visible and infrared light absorption, which improves the sunlight utilization. The dominant localization of the photo-excited electrons on the Agn clusters of Agn/AgBr(1 1 0)(n = 7-13) facilitates the oxidation-reduction reactions occurring on the surface and also effectively reduces the photolysis of AgBr under the sunlight irradiation. The overpotentials of the CB and VB edges indicate that photocatalytic conversion of CO2 with H2O to methanol is possible on AgBr(1 1 0) deposited with the Agn nanoclusters, which has been realized experimentally (An et al., 2012). The substantial strengthening of visible and infrared light absorption and the free energy profiles for the conversion of CO2 with H2O to methanol indicate that Ag13/AgBr(1 1 0) surface can be expected to be the excellent photocatalysts.

  12. [Ag67(SPhMe2)32(PPh3)8]3+: Synthesis, Total Structure, and Optical Properties of a Large Box-Shaped Silver Nanocluster

    KAUST Repository

    Alhilaly, Mohammad J.; Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa; Joshi, Chakra Prasad; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Juarez-Mosqueda, Rosalba; Kaappa, Sami; Malola, Sami; Adil, Karim; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Hakkinen, Hannu; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Engineering the surface ligands of metal nanoparticles is critical in designing unique arrangements of metal atoms. Here, we report the synthesis and total structure determination of a large box-shaped Ag-67 nanocluster (NC) protected by a mixed shell of thiolate (2,4-dimethylbenzenethiolate, SPhMe2) and phosphine (triphenylphosphine, PPh3) ligands. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) revealed the cluster formula to be [Ag-67(SPhMe2)(32)(PPh3)(8)](3+). The crystal structure shows an Ag-23 metal core covered by a layer of Ag44S32P8 arranged in the shape of a box. The Ag-13, core was formed through an unprecedented centered cuboctahedron, i.e., Ag-13, unlike the common centered Ag-13 icosahedron geometry. Two types of ligand motifs, eight AgS3P and eight bridging thiols, were found to stabilize the whole cluster. The optical spectrum of this NC displayed highly structured multiple absorption peaks. The electronic structure and optical spectrum of Ag-67 were computed using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for both the full cluster [Ag-67(SPhMe2)(32)(PPh3)(8)](3+) and a reduced model [Ag-67(SH)(32)(PH3)(8)](3+). The lowest metal-to-metal transitions in the range 500-800 nm could be explained by considering the reduced model that shows almost identical electronic states to 32 free electrons in a jellium box. The successful synthesis of the large box-shaped Ag-67 NC facilitated by the combined use of phosphine and thiol paves the way for synthesizing other metal clusters with unprecedented shapes by judicious choice of thiols and phosphines.

  13. [Ag67(SPhMe2)32(PPh3)8]3+: Synthesis, Total Structure, and Optical Properties of a Large Box-Shaped Silver Nanocluster

    KAUST Repository

    Alhilaly, Mohammad J.

    2016-10-13

    Engineering the surface ligands of metal nanoparticles is critical in designing unique arrangements of metal atoms. Here, we report the synthesis and total structure determination of a large box-shaped Ag-67 nanocluster (NC) protected by a mixed shell of thiolate (2,4-dimethylbenzenethiolate, SPhMe2) and phosphine (triphenylphosphine, PPh3) ligands. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) revealed the cluster formula to be [Ag-67(SPhMe2)(32)(PPh3)(8)](3+). The crystal structure shows an Ag-23 metal core covered by a layer of Ag44S32P8 arranged in the shape of a box. The Ag-13, core was formed through an unprecedented centered cuboctahedron, i.e., Ag-13, unlike the common centered Ag-13 icosahedron geometry. Two types of ligand motifs, eight AgS3P and eight bridging thiols, were found to stabilize the whole cluster. The optical spectrum of this NC displayed highly structured multiple absorption peaks. The electronic structure and optical spectrum of Ag-67 were computed using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for both the full cluster [Ag-67(SPhMe2)(32)(PPh3)(8)](3+) and a reduced model [Ag-67(SH)(32)(PH3)(8)](3+). The lowest metal-to-metal transitions in the range 500-800 nm could be explained by considering the reduced model that shows almost identical electronic states to 32 free electrons in a jellium box. The successful synthesis of the large box-shaped Ag-67 NC facilitated by the combined use of phosphine and thiol paves the way for synthesizing other metal clusters with unprecedented shapes by judicious choice of thiols and phosphines.

  14. Prolonged reorganization of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kundu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged reorganization behaviour of mono-, di-, tri- and multi-layer films of Au nanoparticles prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett method on hydrophobic Si(001 substrates have been studied by using X-ray scattering techniques. Out-of-plane study shows that although at the initial stage the reorganization occurs through the compaction of the films keeping the layered structure unchanged but finally all layered structures modify to monolayer structure. Due to this reorganization the Au density increases within the nanometer thick films. In-plane study shows that inside the reorganized films Au nanoparticles are distributed randomly and the particle size modifies as the metallic core of Au nanoparticles coalesces.

  15. Soil type influence on Ag Nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the importance of soil type on the toxicity to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to earthworms, Eisenia fetida. Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly...... as antibacterial agents and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworm toxicity was strongly dependent on the soil type, with strongest effect in low organic matter soil. Studies on the organic...... matter content, clay and cation exchange capacity along with the metal solution activity will provide insight into the bioavailability of metals in different soils, hence For each of the soil type the fate of the AgNPs was also measured....

  16. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  17. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  18. Prolonged Cholestatic Jaundice Associated With Flurbiprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Serkan; Celikbilek, Mehmet; Demirkan, Kutay; Yilmaz, Semih; Deniz, Kemal; Gursoy, Sebnem; Yucesoy, Mehmet

    2014-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed drugs throughout the world for pain relief. Although the adverse effects of NSAIDs to the liver are well known, flurbiprofen-induced liver cholestasis is extremely rare. Herein, we present a patient with prolonged icterus that is associated with the use of flurbiprofen without causing ductopenia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  20. Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Complicating Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of transient right ventricular dysfunction associated with prolonged cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of uncertain etiology. We believe that in this case dynamic coronary flow restriction resulted in ischemic injury and stunning of the right ventricle. Other possible causes are briefly reviewed. Right ...

  1. Stability of Ag@SiO2 core–shell particles in conditions of photocatalytic overall water-splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun Young; Han, Kai; O'Neill, Devin B.; Mul, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Core–shell nanoparticles containing plasmonic metals (Ag or Au) have been frequently reported to enhance performance of photo-electrochemical (PEC) devices. However, the stability of these particles in water-splitting conditions is usually not addressed. In this study we demonstrate that Ag@SiO2

  2. Improvement in the properties of Ag-doped YBa2Cu3O7-x grain boundary Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, G.; Baca, E.; Osorio, J.; Prieto, P.

    2000-01-01

    Ag-doped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thin films using 5 to 20 wt% Ag-doped YBCO targets have been grown by a DC sputtering technique on SrTiO 3 bicrystals. Critical currents of 4 to 5 x 10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K were measured in YBCO films doped with 5 wt% Ag which has been found to be higher than the value of 1 x 10 6 A/cm 2 measured in undoped samples. The normal resistivity decreases by a doping of 5 wt% Ag and increases for higher Ag concentrations. The critical temperature, T c , of the Ag-YBCO films remained unchanged at 92 K as in the undoped YBCO samples. An I c R n product of 170 μV at 77 K was found in grain boundary Josephson junctions (GBJJs) with 5 wt% Ag, compared with the value of 100 μV measured in undoped samples at the same temperature. Current-voltage characteristics were measured in GBJJs, showing Shapiro steps under microwave radiation and Fraunhofer patterns with an external magnetic field. The improvement in the normal and superconducting properties of Ag-doped YBCO films has been interpreted using the De Genes model to establish that YBCO containing metallic Ag addition shows a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (S-N-S) behavior, thereby the Ag-doping enhances the weak link behavior and is, therefore, appropriate for electronic applications. (orig.)

  3. Prolonged QRS Widening After Aripiprazole Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Porter, Robert; Dewey, Kayla

    2018-05-05

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with a long half-life. Overdose can result in protracted somnolence and cardiac disturbances, particularly QT interval prolongation. This is a single case report of a 14-year-old boy who took an overdose of aripiprazole and developed QRS widening. A 14-year-old boy intentionally ingested 20 tablets of aripiprazole (5 mg). He was brought to the emergency department when his ingestion was discovered. The patient's vital signs were as follows: temperature, 37.7°C; heart rate, 108 beats/min; blood pressure, 138/98 mm Hg; and respirations, 16 breaths/min. Activated charcoal was administered within 90 minutes of ingestion. Initial electrocardiogram (EKG) showed sinus tachycardia, with a QRS of 138 ms and QT interval of 444 ms. QRS duration was 90 ms on an EKG performed 3 months earlier. A bolus of sodium bicarbonate was administered, and the patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. Repeat EKG demonstrated a QRS of 156 ms, and a sodium bicarbonate infusion was initiated. The patient continued to have QRS prolongation for the next 8 days, reaching a peak of 172 ms 3 days postingestion. Despite aggressive treatment with sodium bicarbonate, there was persistent QRS prolongation; however, the patient did not have any dysrhythmias and remained hemodynamically stable. The patient was discharged 9 days postingestion when the QRS duration normalized to 82 ms. Genetic testing revealed that the patient was a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. This case suggests that aripiprazole toxicity may possibly be associated with QRS prolongation without associated dysrhythmias or cardiovascular compromise. In addition, toxicity may be prolonged in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

  4. Photoreduction of Ag{sup +} in Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Au memristor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, N.I.; Tabib-Azar, M., E-mail: azar.m@utah.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Au memristors is studied • Illumination decreased the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreased the turn-off voltages dramatically from −0.8 V to −0.25 V. • Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag{sub 2}S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset. • Illumination changed sulfur's valency and modified its oxidation/reduction potential. - Abstract: Silver halides and chalcogenides are excellent memristor materials that have been extensively used in the past as photosensitive layers in photography. Here we examine the effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Au memristors using a green laser (473–523 nm). Our results indicate that illumination decreases the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreases the turn-off voltages dramatically from −0.8 V to −0.25 V that we attribute to the change in sulfur valency and a photo-induced change in its oxidation/reduction potential. Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag{sub 2}S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset.

  5. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants; Les prolongations de licence des centrales nucleaires americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  6. Microstructure and tribological properties of NbN-Ag composite films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hongbo; Xu, Junhua, E-mail: jhxu@just.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • NbN-Ag films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • The fcc-NbN, hcp-NbN and fcc-Ag coexisted in NbN-Ag films. • The incorporation of Ag into NbN matrix led to the decrease of hardness. • The films (9.2–13.5 at.% Ag) were found to be optimized for wear resistance tools. - Abstract: Recently, the chameleon thin films were developed with the purpose of adjusting their chemistry at self-mating interfaces in response to environmental changes at a wide temperature range. However, very few studies have focused on what state the lubricious noble metal exists in the films and the tribological properties at room temperature (RT). Composite NbN-Ag films with various Ag content (Ag/(Nb + Ag)) were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering to investigate the crystal structure, mechanical and tribological properties. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses showed that face-centered cubic (fcc) NbN, hexagonal close-packed (hcp) NbN and fcc silver coexisted in NbN-Ag films. The incorporation of soft Ag into NbN matrix led to the hardness decrease from 29.6 GPa at 0 at.% Ag to 11.3 GPa at 19.9 at.% Ag. Tribological properties of NbN-Ag films performed using dry pin-on-disc wear tests against Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} depended on Ag content to a large extent. The average friction coefficient and wear rate of NbN-Ag films decreased as Ag content increased from 4.0 to 9.2 at.%. With a further increase of Ag content, the average friction coefficient further decreased, while the wear rate increased gradually. The optimal Ag content was found to be 9.2–13.5 at.%, which showed low average friction coefficient values of 0.46–0.40 and wear rate values of 1.1 × 10{sup −8} to 1.7 × 10{sup −8} mm{sup 3}/(mm N). 3D Profiler and Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the lubricant tribo-film AgNbO{sub 3} detected on the surface of the

  7. Bioaccumulation of Zn and Ag Nanoparticles in the Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Lee Seung; Sung-Dae, Kim; Yi, Yang Song; Byeong-Gweon, Lee

    2014-05-01

    Many studies are carried out to evaluate environmental effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Most of the previous studies primarily focused on the effects of nanoparticles into the aquatic environment and human. Model studies predict that ENPs released into environment would transferred primarily to the soil of the terrestrial environment. Despite this prediction, biogeochemical behavior of ENPs in soil environment as well as bioavailability of ENPs to soil-dwelling organisms such as earthworm, springtail, isopod and nematodes are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to compare the bioaccumulation factor (BAFs) and subcellular partitioning of nanoparticles in the soil-dwelling earthworm (Eisenia fetida) from ENP (ZnO and Ag nanoparticles) or ionic metal (Zn2+, Ag+) contaminated soil. And the sequential extraction was also used to determine the mobility of metals in soil which could be used as to predict bioavailability and compare that with bioaccumulation factor. The radiotracer method was employed to trace the transfer of ENPs and ionic metal among different environmental media and animals. Radiolabeled 65ZnO, 110mAgNPs coated with PVP or citrate were synthesized in the laboratory and their chemical and biological behavior was compared to ionic 65Zn and 110mAg. The BAFs of Zn and Ag in the earthworms were determined after animals exposed to the contaminated soils. After the 7 days of elimination phase, subcellular partitioning of metals were also obtained. BAF for ZnO(0.06) was 31 times lower than that for Zn ion (1.86), suggesting that ZnO was less bioavailable than its ionic form from contaminated soil. On the other hands, BAFs for AgNPs coated with PVP (0.12) or with citrate (0.11) were comparable to those for Ag ion (0.17), indicating that Ag from contaminated soil was bioavailable in a similar rate regardless of chemical forms. The subcellular partitioning results showed that bioaccumulated Zn from Zn ion and ZnO contaminated soil were

  8. Ruhrgas AG. Business report 2000; Ruhrgas AG. Geschaeftsbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A detailed account of the situation of the international gas market provides the basis of the status report of Ruhrgas AG and the group of affiliated companies. Emphasis is placed on gas procurement aspects, sales volumes, the construction and operation of natural gas distribution systems, and on development, utilization and application aspects. The activities and situation of major Ruhrgas AG holding companies are described, and the annual financial statements are documented. (orig.) [German] Ausgehend von einer eingehenden Beschreibung des internationalen Gasmarktes wird ein Lagebericht des Konzerns sowie der Ruhrgas AG gegeben. Dabei wird insbesondere auf Fragen der Gasbeschaffung, des Gasabsatzes, des Baus und Betriebs von Erdgasverteilungsnetzen, sowie der Entwicklung und der Anwendungstechnik eingegangen. Ferner wird ueber den Geschaeftsverlauf wesentlicher Ruhrgas-Beteiligungsgesellschaften berichtet. Abschliessend wird der Jahresabschluss dokumentiert. (orig.)

  9. Enhancement of light absorption in polyazomethines due to plasmon excitation on randomly distributed metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, P.; Antosiewicz, T. J.; Stefaniuk, T.; Ciesielski, A.; Iwan, A.; Wronkowska, A. A.; Wronkowski, A.; Szoplik, T.

    2015-05-01

    In photovoltaic devices, metal nanoparticles embedded in a semiconductor layer allow the enhancement of solar-toelectric energy conversion efficiency due to enhanced light absorption via a prolonged optical path, enhanced electric fields near the metallic inclusions, direct injection of hot electrons, or local heating. Here we pursue the first two avenues. In the first, light scattered at an angle beyond the critical angle for reflection is coupled into the semiconductor layer and confined within such planar waveguide up to possible exciton generation. In the second, light is trapped by the excitation of localized surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles leading to enhanced near-field plasmon-exciton coupling at the peak of the plasmon resonance. We report on results of a numerical experiment on light absorption in polymer- (fullerene derivative) blends, using the 3D FDTD method, where exact optical parameters of the materials involved are taken from our recent measurements. In simulations we investigate light absorption in randomly distributed metal nanoparticles dispersed in polyazomethine-(fullerene derivative) blends, which serve as active layers in bulkheterojunction polymer solar cells. In the study Ag and Al nanoparticles of different diameters and fill factors are diffused in two air-stable aromatic polyazomethines with different chemical structures (abbreviated S9POF and S15POF) mixed with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). The mixtures are spin coated on a 100 nm thick Al layer deposited on a fused silica substrate. Optical constants of the active layers are taken from spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectance measurements using a rotating analyzer type ellipsometer with auto-retarder performed in the wavelength range from 225 nm to 2200 nm. The permittivities of Ag and Al particles of diameters from 20 to 60 nm are assumed to be equal to those measured on 100 to 200 nm thick metal films.

  10. Atomic nature of the Schottky barrier height formation of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface: An in-situ synchrotron radiation photoemission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Chen, Wan-Sin; Lin, Keng-Yung; Wei, Guo-Jhen; Cheng, Yi-Ting; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Wan, Hsien-Wen; Pi, Tun-Wen; Tung, Raymond T.; Kwo, Jueinai; Hong, Minghwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction of Ag on a p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 surface has been studied. • The dipole formation mechanism of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface is proposed. • Determination of the SBH prior to metal formation is found. • Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining the SBH is evident. - Abstract: The Interface of Ag with p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 has been studied to further understand the formation mechanism of the Schottky barrier height (SBH). In the initial phase of Ag deposition, high-resolution core-level data show that Ag adatoms effectively passivate the surface As-As dimers without breaking them apart. The Ag(+)-As(−) dipoles are thus generated with a maximal potential energy of 0.26 eV; a SBH of 0.38 eV was measured. Greater Ag coverage causes elemental segregation of As/Ga atoms, reversing the direction of the net dipole. The band bending effect near the interface shows a downward shift of 0.08 eV, and the final SBH is similar to the value as measured at the initial Ag deposition. Both parameters are secured at 0.25 Å of Ag thickness prior to the observation of metallic behavior of Ag. Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining SBH is evident.

  11. Atomic nature of the Schottky barrier height formation of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface: An in-situ synchrotron radiation photoemission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping, E-mail: cpcheng@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 60004, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Wan-Sin [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 60004, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Keng-Yung [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wei, Guo-Jhen; Cheng, Yi-Ting [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 60004, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yen-Hsun; Wan, Hsien-Wen [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pi, Tun-Wen, E-mail: pi@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tung, Raymond T. [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College, CUNY, NY 11210 (United States); Kwo, Jueinai, E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hong, Minghwei, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • The interaction of Ag on a p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 surface has been studied. • The dipole formation mechanism of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface is proposed. • Determination of the SBH prior to metal formation is found. • Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining the SBH is evident. - Abstract: The Interface of Ag with p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 has been studied to further understand the formation mechanism of the Schottky barrier height (SBH). In the initial phase of Ag deposition, high-resolution core-level data show that Ag adatoms effectively passivate the surface As-As dimers without breaking them apart. The Ag(+)-As(−) dipoles are thus generated with a maximal potential energy of 0.26 eV; a SBH of 0.38 eV was measured. Greater Ag coverage causes elemental segregation of As/Ga atoms, reversing the direction of the net dipole. The band bending effect near the interface shows a downward shift of 0.08 eV, and the final SBH is similar to the value as measured at the initial Ag deposition. Both parameters are secured at 0.25 Å of Ag thickness prior to the observation of metallic behavior of Ag. Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining SBH is evident.

  12. The role of Pd in the transport of Ag in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, E.J.; Neethling, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results in support of a newly proposed transport mechanism to account for the release of Ag from intact TRISO particles during HTR reactor operation. The study reveals that the migration of Ag in polycrystalline SiC can occur in association with Pd, a relatively high yield metallic fission product. The migration takes place primarily along grain boundary routes, seen in the form of distinct Pd, Ag and Si containing nodules. Pd is known to rapidly migrate to the SiC and iPyC interface within TRISO particles during operation. It has been shown to chemically corrode the SiC to form palladium silicides. These palladium silicides are found present along SiC grain boundaries in nodule like form. It is suggested that Ag penetrates these nodules together with the palladium silicide, to form a Pd, Ag and Si solution capable of migrating along SiC grain boundaries over time.

  13. The role of Pd in the transport of Ag in SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, E.J., E-mail: jolivier@nmmu.ac.za [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Neethling, J.H. [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents results in support of a newly proposed transport mechanism to account for the release of Ag from intact TRISO particles during HTR reactor operation. The study reveals that the migration of Ag in polycrystalline SiC can occur in association with Pd, a relatively high yield metallic fission product. The migration takes place primarily along grain boundary routes, seen in the form of distinct Pd, Ag and Si containing nodules. Pd is known to rapidly migrate to the SiC and iPyC interface within TRISO particles during operation. It has been shown to chemically corrode the SiC to form palladium silicides. These palladium silicides are found present along SiC grain boundaries in nodule like form. It is suggested that Ag penetrates these nodules together with the palladium silicide, to form a Pd, Ag and Si solution capable of migrating along SiC grain boundaries over time.

  14. Synthesis of unidirectional structures of SiO2-Ag using Au nanoparticles as nucleation centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa S, G.; Mendoza A, D.; Gutierrez W, C.; Perez H, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a method to synthesize Ag unidirectional structures covered with SiO 2 by sol-gel technique using Au nanoparticles as nucleation centers of the unidirectional structures. In the first phase unidirectional structures of SiO 2 -Ag CI are obtained by sol-gel, using TEOS as a precursor of metallic structures (Ag) and the incorporation of Au nanoparticles as nucleation centers for growth of unidirectional structures. In the second stage, one-way systems are subjected to thermal treatment in H 2 atmosphere for obtain AG 0 particles through mechanisms that diffusion and coalescence of silver to form structures that have a thin cover of SiO 2 . Analysis by scanning electron microscopy, transmission and atomic force microscopy allowed to determine the chemical composition and microstructural properties of unidirectional systems SiO 2 -Ag. (Author)

  15. Synthesis of a ternary Ag/RGO/ZnO nanocomposite via microwave irradiation and its application for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Divya Kollikkara; Xavier, Marilyn Mary; Viswanathan, Vandana Parakkal; Mathew, Suresh

    2017-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide supporting plasmonic photocatalyst (Ag) on ZnO has been synthesized via a facile two-step microwave synthesis using RGO/ZnO and AgNO 3 . First step involves fabrication of RGO/ZnO via microwave irradiation. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Ag/RGO/ZnO shows enhanced photoactivity under visible light for the degradation of Rhodamine B. Enhanced charge separation and migration have been assigned using UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical impedance spectra, and TCSPC analysis. The improved photoactivity of Ag/RGO/ZnO can be ascribed to the prolonged lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and effective interfacial hybridization between RGO and Ag with ZnO nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles can absorb visible light via surface plasmon resonance to enhance photocatalytic activity.

  16. Asymmetric interfaces in Fe/Ag and Ag/Fe bilayers prepared by molecular beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunyogi, A. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: tunyogi@rmki.kfki.hu; Paszti, F. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Osvath, Z. [MTA Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Tancziko, F. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Major, M. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2006-08-15

    Single layers of Fe and Ag, as well as Fe/Ag (iron deposited first) and Ag/Fe bilayers were prepared by molecular beam evaporation onto Si. The samples were investigated with backscattering spectrometry (BS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). BS spectra of Fe/Ag and Ag/Fe indicate a significant difference at the interface. In the case of Fe/Ag the Ag peak has a long tail at the interface, while for Ag/Fe the interface is abrupt. The tail in the Fe/Ag spectrum is too large to be caused by double or plural scattering. According to AFM, the effect of surface roughness is also negligible. In spite of the fact that Fe and Ag are completely immiscible in equilibrium, this tail, however, suggests that some Ag is located in the Fe layer. After annealing, both samples show mixing between the two layers; this is much larger again for Fe/Ag.

  17. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  18. Analysis of the residual strain change of Bi2212, Ag alloy and Ag during the heating and cooling process in Bi2212/Ag/Ag alloy composite wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J K; Ochiai, S; Okuda, H; Mukai, Y; Sugano, M; Sato, M; Oh, S S; Ha, D W; Kim, S C

    2008-01-01

    The residual strain change of Bi2212 and Ag during the cooling and heating process in the Bi2212/Ag/Ag alloy composite superconductor was studied. First, the residual strain of Bi2212 filaments at room temperature was measured by the x-ray diffraction method. Then, the Young's moduli of the constituents (Bi2212 filaments, Ag and Ag alloy) and yield strains of Ag and Ag alloy were estimated from the analysis of the measured stress-strain curve, based on the rule of mixtures. Also, the coefficient of thermal expansion of the Bi2212 filaments was estimated from the analysis of the measured thermal expansion curve of the composite wire. From the modeling analysis using the estimated property values and the residual strain of Bi2212 filaments, the changes of residual strain of Bi2212, Ag alloy and Ag with temperature during the cooling and heating process were revealed

  19. A new Schiff base based on vanillin and naphthalimide as a fluorescent probe for Ag+ in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanmei; Zhou, Hua; Ma, Tongsen; Zhang, Junli; Niu, Jingyang

    2012-03-01

    A new Schiff base based on vanillin and naphthalimide was designed and synthesized as fluorescent probe. The probe showed high selectivity for Ag+ over other metal ions such as Pb2+, Na+, K+, Cd2+, Ba2+, Cr3+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Al3+ and Mg2+ in aqueous solution. A new fluorescence emission was observed at 682 nm in the presence of Ag+ ion. The fluorescence intensity quenched with increasing the concentration of Ag+ at 682 nm. The method of job's plot confirmed the 1:2 complex between Ag+ and probe, and the mechanism was proposed.

  20. Effect of Ag Doping on the Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of ZnO(0001 Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principle calculations, the geometrical structure, the electronic and optical properties of Ag-doped ZnO(0001 surface have been investigated. We found that Ag-doped ZnO(0001 surface is more easily formed on the first layer. On the other hand, the doped surface has gradually become an equipotential body, showing obvious metallic characteristics. We found that a new peak appeared in the low energy region after Ag doping, which was mainly due to the electron transition between the two orbital levels of Ag-4d and O-2p.

  1. Temperature-agile and structure-tunable optical properties of VO2/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.R.; Hu, X.; Wang, W.; Zhao, Y.; Reinhardt, K.; Knize, R.J.; Lu, Yalin

    2012-01-01

    By integrating together VO 2 's unique near-room-temperature (RT) semiconductor-metal (S-M) phase transition with a thin silver (Ag) layer's plasmonic properties, VO 2 /Ag multilayers could present a much enhanced optical transmission change when increasing the temperature from RT to over VO 2 's S-M phase-transition temperature. Changing VO 2 and Ag layer thicknesses can also significantly tune their transmission and absorption properties, which could lead to a few useful designs in optoelectronic and energy-saving industries. (orig.)

  2. Study of the tungsten bronze Ag0.01WO3 using positron annihilation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, J.; Dryzek, E.; Placzek, A.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the positron annihilation and the Seebeck effect was performed on silver doped tungsten trioxide of composition Ag 0.01 WO 3 and the tungsten trioxide phase: WO 2.90 (W 20 O 58 ). Both methods point out that there are some clusters of Ag + ions in the first compound and oxygen vacancies in the second case. The clusters have some internal substructure. The measurements of the Seebeck effect showed that Ag 0.01 WO 3 is normal n-type semiconductor whereas WO 2.90 exhibits metal-like properties

  3. Tuning the giant Rashba effect on a BiAg2 surface alloy: Two different approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; Crepaldi, A.; Pons, S.; Kern, K.; Grioni, M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss two different approaches for tuning the giant spin-orbit splitting of a BiAg 2 surface alloy. The first approach consists of electron doping by alkaline metal deposition in order to shift the energy position of the spin-split surface states, while the second is based on the novel Si(1 1 1)-Ag-BiAg 2 trilayer system. In both cases the spin-polarized structure near the Fermi level can be controlled by an external parameter, while the second approach permits coupling the concept of giant spin-splitting with a semiconducting substrate.

  4. Variation in Definition of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McGinlay, Michael; Amin, Reshma; Burns, Karen Ea; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Jouvet, Philippe; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; McAuley, Danny F; Schultz, Marcus J; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-10-01

    Consistency of definitional criteria for terminology applied to describe subject cohorts receiving mechanical ventilation within ICU and post-acute care settings is important for understanding prevalence, risk stratification, effectiveness of interventions, and projections for resource allocation. Our objective was to quantify the application and definition of terms for prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a scoping review of studies (all designs except single-case study) reporting a study population (adult and pediatric) using the term prolonged mechanical ventilation or a synonym. We screened 5,331 references, reviewed 539 full-text references, and excluded 120. Of the 419 studies (representing 38 countries) meeting inclusion criteria, 297 (71%) reported data on a heterogeneous subject cohort, and 66 (16%) included surgical subjects only (46 of those 66, 70% cardiac surgery). Other studies described COPD (16, 4%), trauma (22, 5%), neuromuscular (17, 4%), and sepsis (1, 0.2%) cohorts. A total of 741 terms were used to refer to the 419 study cohorts. The most common terms were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (253, 60%), admission to specialized unit (107, 26%), and long-term mechanical ventilation (79, 19%). Some authors (282, 67%) defined their cohorts based on duration of mechanical ventilation, with 154 studies (55%) using this as the sole criterion. We identified 37 different durations of ventilation ranging from 5 h to 1 y, with > 21 d being the most common (28 of 282, 7%). For studies describing a surgical cohort, minimum ventilation duration required for inclusion was ≥ 24 h for 20 of 66 studies (30%). More than half of all studies (237, 57%) did not provide a reason/rationale for definitional criteria used, with only 28 studies (7%) referring to a consensus definition. We conclude that substantial variation exists in the terminology and definitional criteria for cohorts of subjects receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Standardization of

  5. Prolonged Exposure: a Rapid Treatment for Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. P.; Gaind, R.; Marks, I. M.

    1971-01-01

    Ten adult patients with long-standing specific phobias were treated by prolonged continuous exposure to their phobic objects in fantasy and reality without avoidance. All patients were greatly helped by four to five hours' treatment in two or three sessions, and all improved more after practice than after imaginal sessions. The treatment method is more economical and efficient than other methods described so far. PMID:5539135

  6. Method of bonding metals to ceramics and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; DeWald, A.P.; Chienping Ju; Rigsbee, J.M.

    1993-01-05

    A composite and method of forming same wherein the composite has a non-metallic portion and an alloy portion wherein the alloy comprises an alkali metal and a metal which is an electrical conductor such as Cu, Ag, Al, Sn or Au and forms an alloy with the alkali metal. A cable of superconductors and composite is also disclosed.

  7. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi, Kalavathy [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Department of Physics, Women’s Christian College, Chennai 600006 (India); Kumarsan, Dhanapal [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Vengidusamy, Naryanan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Arumainathan, Stephen, E-mail: stephen_arum@hotmail.com [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Co alloy has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Wide range of Ag composition in the alloy was obtained. • XPS measurement evident the Ag and Co in metallic nature. • The electrodeposition method develop dendrite like morphology. • Detailed analysis of magnetic behaviour is carried out. - Abstract: Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  8. Transition voltages of vacuum-spaced and molecular junctions with Ag and Pt electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Kunlin

    2014-07-07

    The transition voltage of vacuum-spaced and molecular junctions constructed with Ag and Pt electrodes is investigated by non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that, similarly to the case of Au-vacuum-Au previously studied, the transition voltages of Ag and Pt metal-vacuum-metal junctions with atomic protrusions on the electrode surface are determined by the local density of states of the p-type atomic orbitals of the protrusion. Since the energy position of the Pt 6p atomic orbitals is higher than that of the 5p/6p of Ag and Au, the transition voltage of Pt-vacuum-Pt junctions is larger than that of both Ag-vacuum-Ag and Au-vacuum-Au junctions. When one moves to analyzing asymmetric molecular junctions constructed with biphenyl thiol as central molecule, then the transition voltage is found to depend on the specific bonding site for the sulfur atom in the thiol group. In particular agreement with experiments, where the largest transition voltage is found for Ag and the smallest for Pt, is obtained when one assumes S binding at the hollow-bridge site on the Ag/Au(111) surface and at the adatom site on the Pt(111) one. This demonstrates the critical role played by the linker-electrode binding geometry in determining the transition voltage of devices made of conjugated thiol molecules. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  9. Physicochemical and antibacterial characterization of ionocity Ag/Cu powder nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, A., E-mail: ana.maria.nowak@gmail.com [A. Chełkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Szade, J. [A. Chełkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Talik, E. [A. Chełkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zubko, M. [Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Institute of Material Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41-500 Chórzow (Poland); Wasilkowski, D. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Silesia, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice (Poland); Dulski, M. [Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Institute of Material Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41-500 Chórzow (Poland); Balin, K. [A. Chełkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); and others

    2016-07-15

    Metal ion in bimetallic nanoparticles has shown vast potential in a variety of applications. In this paper we show the results of physical and chemical investigations of powder Ag/Cu nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiment indicated the presence of bimetallic nanoparticles in the agglomerated form. The average size of silver and copper nanoparticles is 17.1(4) nm (Ag) and 28.9(2) nm (Cu) basing on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Raman spectroscopies revealed the existence of metallic silver and copper as well as Cu{sub 2}O and CuO being a part of the nanoparticles. Moreover, UV–Vis spectroscopy showed surface alloy of Ag and Cu while Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) showed heterogeneously distributed Ag structures placed on spherical Cu nanoparticles. The tests of antibacterial activity show promising killing/inhibiting growth behaviour for Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Ag/Cu nanoparticles were obtained in the powder form. • The average size of nanoparticles is 17.1(4) nm (Ag) and 28.9(2) nm (Cu). • Ag/Cu powder nanoparticle shows promising antibacterial properties.

  10. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhi, Kalavathy; Kumarsan, Dhanapal; Vengidusamy, Naryanan; Arumainathan, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Co alloy has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Wide range of Ag composition in the alloy was obtained. • XPS measurement evident the Ag and Co in metallic nature. • The electrodeposition method develop dendrite like morphology. • Detailed analysis of magnetic behaviour is carried out. - Abstract: Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  11. The AGS Booster control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.; Auerbach, E.; Culwick, B.; Clifford, T.; Mandell, S.; Mariotti, R.; Salwen, C.; Schumburg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Although moderate in size, the Booster construction project requires a comprehensive control system. There are three operational modes: as a high intensity proton injector for the AGS, as a heavy ion accelerator and injector supporting a wide range of ions and as a polarized proton storage injector. These requirements are met using a workstation based extension of the existing AGS control system. Since the Booster is joining a complex of existing accelerators, the new system will be capable of supporting multiuser operational scenarios. A short discussion of this system is discussed in this paper

  12. One-pot synthesis of Ag-SiO2-Ag sandwich nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaorong; Mei Jie; Li Shuwen; Lu Nianpeng; Wang Lina; Chen Benyong; Dong Wenjun

    2010-01-01

    Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich nanostructures were prepared by a facile one-pot synthesis method. The Ag core, SiO 2 shell and Ag nanoparticle shell were all synthesized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, catalysed by ammonia, in the one-pot reaction. The polyvinylpyrrolidone, acting as a smart reducing agent, reduced the Ag + to Ag cores and Ag shells separately. Furthermore, the polyvinylpyrrolidone served as a protective agent to prevent the silver cores from aggregating. The SiO 2 shell and outer layer Ag nanoparticles were obtained when tetraethyl orthosilicate and ammonia were added to the silver core solution. Ammonia, acting as the catalyst, accelerated the hydrolysis of the tetraethyl orthosilicate to SiO 2 , which coated the silver cores. Furthermore, Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + ions were formed when aqueous ammonia was added to the solution, which increased the reduction capability. Then the polyvinylpyrrolidone reduced the Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + ions to small Ag nanoparticles on the surface of the Ag-SiO 2 and formed Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich structures with a standard deviation of less than 4%. This structure effectively prevented the Ag nanoparticles on the silica surface from aggregating. Furthermore, the Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich structures showed good catalysis properties due to the large surface area/volume value and activity of surface atoms of Ag particles.

  13. Facile synthesis of dispersed Ag nanoparticles on chitosan-TiO2 composites as recyclable nanocatalysts for 4-nitrophenol reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Gang; Zhao, Yilin; Li, Linghui; Pratt, Jonathan O.; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a facile, rapid, and controllable procedure for the recovery of trace Ag+ ions and in situ assembly of well dispersed Ag nanoparticles on chitosan-TiO2 composites through bioaffinity adsorption followed by photocatalytic reduction. The prepared Ag nanoparticles are proven to be efficient and recyclable nanocatalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4. Well dispersed quasi-spherical Ag NPs are synthesized in 20 min in the designed inner-irradiated photocatalytic system under a wide range of Ag+ concentrations (50-200 mg l-1), temperatures (10 °C-25 °C) conditions, and UV or visible light irradiation. The synthesized Ag NPs can catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by NaBH4 at 100% conversion in 120 min and preserve the catalytic activity in five successive cycles. This procedure for trace Ag+ ions recovery and Ag NPs assembly has the potential to be scaled up for the mass production of recyclable Ag nanocatalysts. The present work provides a green and efficient procedure for the conversion of hazardous 4-nitrophenol to industrially important 4-aminophenol and also sheds a light on designing scaled-up procedures for treating high volumes of wastewater with dilute heavy metals to produce recyclable metallic nanocatalysts in aqueous systems.

  14. A facile fabrication of plasmonic g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/Ag ternary heterojunction visible-light photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Kai, E-mail: daikai940@chnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Lv, Jiali [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Lu, Luhua, E-mail: lhlu@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Liang, Changhao [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Geng, Lei; Zhu, Guangping [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China)

    2016-07-01

    It's important to reduce recombination of electrons and holes and enhance charge transfer through fine controlled interfacial structure. In this work, novel graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/Ag ternary photocatalyst has been synthesized by deposition of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} onto g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} template and followed by sun light reduction of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} into Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/Ag. As-prepared g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/Ag presented significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance in degrading methylene blue (MB) under 410 nm LED light irradiation. Metallic Ag{sup 0} is used as plasmonic hot spots to generate high energy charge carriers. Optimal g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} content has been confirmed to be 40 wt%, corresponding to apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant kapp of 0.0298 min{sup −1}, which is 3.3 times and 37.3 times more than that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}, respectively. This novel ternary g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/Ag structure material is an ideal candidate in environmental treatment and purifying applications. - Graphical abstract: A high efficient plasmonic graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/Ag ternary nanocomposite photocatalyst was synthesized. - Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/Ag ternary nanocomposite photocatalyst was prepared. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/Ag showed high photocatalytic activity. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/Ag showed long reusable life.

  15. Analysis of NPP pipes and equipment damage in life time prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.V.; Zheltukhin, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Paper describes a procedure to calculate the probability of pipes and equipment failure taking account of both the service records of the structures under various conditions and their aging. The parameters characterizing applied loads, failures, as well as metal strength, mechanical and thermal properties serve as the arbitrary values used in the described procedure. Paper presents an example of the probability calculation of failure of the RBMK emergency feed pump recirculation pipes when their service life is prolonged [ru

  16. Halloysite Nanotubes Supported Ag and ZnO Nanoparticles with Synergistically Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Novel antimicrobial nanocomposite incorporating halloysite nanotubes (HNTs and silver (Ag into zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles is prepared by integrating HNTs and decorating Ag nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs and Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs with a size of about 100 and 8 nm, respectively, are dispersively anchored onto HNTs. The synergistic effects of ZnO NPs, Ag NPs, and HNTs led to the superior antibacterial activity of the Ag-ZnO/HNTs antibacterial nanocomposites. HNTs facilitated the dispersion and stability of ZnO NPs and brought them in close contact with bacteria, while Ag NPs could promote the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and enhanced the antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs. The close contact with cell membrane enabled the nanoparticles to produce the increased concentration of reactive oxygen species and the metal ions to permeate into the cytoplasm, thus induced quick death of bacteria, indicating that Ag-ZnO/HNTs antibacterial nanocomposite is a promising candidate in the antibacterial fields.

  17. Halloysite Nanotubes Supported Ag and ZnO Nanoparticles with Synergistically Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhan; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Qian; Yang, Huaming

    2017-02-01

    Novel antimicrobial nanocomposite incorporating halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and silver (Ag) into zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is prepared by integrating HNTs and decorating Ag nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with a size of about 100 and 8 nm, respectively, are dispersively anchored onto HNTs. The synergistic effects of ZnO NPs, Ag NPs, and HNTs led to the superior antibacterial activity of the Ag-ZnO/HNTs antibacterial nanocomposites. HNTs facilitated the dispersion and stability of ZnO NPs and brought them in close contact with bacteria, while Ag NPs could promote the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and enhanced the antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs. The close contact with cell membrane enabled the nanoparticles to produce the increased concentration of reactive oxygen species and the metal ions to permeate into the cytoplasm, thus induced quick death of bacteria, indicating that Ag-ZnO/HNTs antibacterial nanocomposite is a promising candidate in the antibacterial fields.

  18. Target-triggered signal turn-on detection of prostate specific antigen based on metal-enhanced fluorescence of Ag@SiO2@SiO2-RuBpy composite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-Liang; Xu, Dang-Dang; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

    2017-02-01

    A three-layer core-shell nanostructure consisting of a silver core, a silica spacer, and a fluorescent dye RuBpy-doped outer silica layer was fabricated, and the optimal metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) distance was explored through adjusting the thickness of the silica spacer. The results show that the optimal distance is ˜10.4 nm with the maximum fluorescence enhancement factor 2.12. Then a new target-triggered MEF ‘turn-on’ strategy based on the optimized composite nanoparticles was successfully constructed for quantitative detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA), by using RuBpy as the energy donor and BHQ-2 as the acceptor. The hybridization of the complementary DNA of PSA-aptamer immobilized on the surface of the MEF nanoparticles with PSA-aptamer modified with BHQ-2, brought BHQ-2 in close proximity to RuBpy-doped silica shell and resulted in the decrease of fluorescence. In the presence of target PSA molecules, the BHQ-PSA aptamer is dissociated from the surface of the nanoparticles with the fluorescence switched on. Therefore, the assay of PSA was achieved by measuring the varying fluorescence intensity. The results show that PSA can be detected in the range of 1-100 ng ml-1 with a detection limit of 0.20 ng ml-1 (6.1 pM), which is 6.7-fold increase of that using hollow RuBpy-doped silica nanoparticles. Moreover, satisfactory results were obtained when PSA was detected in 1% serum.

  19. Polarized protons at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of the project of modifying the Brookhaven AGS for the production of polarized proton beams are discussed. It is observed that pure spin state cross sections are of great importance in many investigations since differences between spin states are frequently significant. Financial and technical aspects of the modification of the Brookhaven accelerator are also discussed

  20. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

  1. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  2. AGS experiments---1987, 1988, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report contains: Experimental Areas Layout; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Experiment Long Range Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS experiments; and List of experimenters

  3. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987

  4. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters

  5. Disruption of crystalline structure of Sn3.5Ag induced by electric current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Han-Chie; Lin, Kwang-Lung, E-mail: matkllin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wu, Albert T. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-21

    This study presented the disruption of the Sn and Ag{sub 3}Sn lattice structures of Sn3.5Ag solder induced by electric current at 5–7 × 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} with a high resolution transmission electron microscope investigation and electron diffraction analysis. The electric current stressing induced a high degree of strain on the alloy, as estimated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak shift of the current stressed specimen. The XRD peak intensity of the Sn matrix and the Ag{sub 3}Sn intermetallic compound diminished to nearly undetectable after 2 h of current stressing. The electric current stressing gave rise to a high dislocation density of up to 10{sup 17}/m{sup 2}. The grain morphology of the Sn matrix became invisible after prolonged current stressing as a result of the coalescence of dislocations.

  6. Disruption of crystalline structure of Sn3.5Ag induced by electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Han-Chie; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2016-01-01

    This study presented the disruption of the Sn and Ag_3Sn lattice structures of Sn3.5Ag solder induced by electric current at 5–7 × 10"3 A/cm"2 with a high resolution transmission electron microscope investigation and electron diffraction analysis. The electric current stressing induced a high degree of strain on the alloy, as estimated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak shift of the current stressed specimen. The XRD peak intensity of the Sn matrix and the Ag_3Sn intermetallic compound diminished to nearly undetectable after 2 h of current stressing. The electric current stressing gave rise to a high dislocation density of up to 10"1"7/m"2. The grain morphology of the Sn matrix became invisible after prolonged current stressing as a result of the coalescence of dislocations.

  7. Thin silica shell coated Ag assembled nanostructures for expanding generality of SERS analytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Geun Cha

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS provides a unique non-destructive spectroscopic fingerprint for chemical detection. However, intrinsic differences in affinity of analyte molecules to metal surface hinder SERS as a universal quantitative detection tool for various analyte molecules simultaneously. This must be overcome while keeping close proximity of analyte molecules to the metal surface. Moreover, assembled metal nanoparticles (NPs structures might be beneficial for sensitive and reliable detection of chemicals than single NP structures. For this purpose, here we introduce thin silica-coated and assembled Ag NPs (SiO2@Ag@SiO2 NPs for simultaneous and quantitative detection of chemicals that have different intrinsic affinities to silver metal. These SiO2@Ag@SiO2 NPs could detect each SERS peak of aniline or 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP from the mixture with limits of detection (LOD of 93 ppm and 54 ppb, respectively. E-field distribution based on interparticle distance was simulated using discrete dipole approximation (DDA calculation to gain insight into enhanced scattering of these thin silica coated Ag NP assemblies. These NPs were successfully applied to detect aniline in river water and tap water. Results suggest that SiO2@Ag@SiO2 NP-based SERS detection systems can be used as a simple and universal detection tool for environment pollutants and food safety.

  8. Battery Relevant Electrochemistry of Ag7Fe3(P2O7)4 : Contrasting Contributions from the Redox Chemistries of Ag+ and Fe3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yiman; Marschilok, Amy C.; Stony Brook University, NY; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2016-01-01

    Ag 7 Fe 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 4 is an example of an electrochemical displacement material which contains two different electrochemically active metal cations, where one cation (Ag + ) forms metallic silver nanoparticles external to the crystals of Ag 7 Fe 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 4 via an electrochemical reduction displacement reaction, while the other cation (Fe +3 ) is electrochemically reduced with the retention of iron cations within the anion structural framework concomitant with lithium insertion. These contrasting redox chemistries within one pure cathode material enable high rate capability and reversibility when Ag 7 Fe 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 4 is employed as cathode material in a lithium ion battery (LIB). Further, pyrophosphate materials are thermally and electrically stable, desirable attributes for cathode materials in LIBs. In this article, a bimetallic pyrophosphate material Ag 7 Fe 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 4 is synthesized and confirmed to be a single phase by Rietveld refinement. Electrochemistry of Ag 7 Fe 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 4 is reported for the first time in the context of lithium based batteries using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge–charge cycling. The reduction displacement reaction and the lithium (de)insertion processes are investigated using ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction of electrochemically reduced and oxidized Ag 7 Fe 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 4 . Ag 7 Fe 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 4 exhibits good reversibility at the iron centers indicated by ~80% capacity retention over 100 cycles following the initial formation cycle and excellent rate capability exhibited by ~70% capacity retention upon a 4-fold increase in current.

  9. Excellent selector performance in engineered Ag/ZrO2:Ag/Pt structure for high-density bipolar RRAM applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance selector with bidirectional threshold switching (TS characteristics of Ag/ZrO2/Pt structure was prepared by incorporating metallic Ag into the ZrO2 matrix. The bidirectional TS device exhibited excellent switching uniformity, forming-free behavior, ultra-low off current of <1 nA and adjustable selectivity (from 102 to 107. The experiment results confirmed that metallic Ag clusters were penetrated into the ZrO2 matrix during the annealing process, which would function as an effective active source responsible for the bidirectional TS. The volatile behavior could be explained by the self-dissolution of unstable filaments caused by minimization of the interfacial energy and thermal effect. Furthermore, a bipolar-type one selector-one resistor (1S-1R memory device was successfully fabricated and exhibited significant suppression of the undesired sneak current, indicating the great potential as selector in a cross-point array.

  10. Excellent selector performance in engineered Ag/ZrO2:Ag/Pt structure for high-density bipolar RRAM applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Song, Bing; Zeng, Zhongming

    2017-12-01

    A high-performance selector with bidirectional threshold switching (TS) characteristics of Ag/ZrO2/Pt structure was prepared by incorporating metallic Ag into the ZrO2 matrix. The bidirectional TS device exhibited excellent switching uniformity, forming-free behavior, ultra-low off current of selectivity (from 102 to 107). The experiment results confirmed that metallic Ag clusters were penetrated into the ZrO2 matrix during the annealing process, which would function as an effective active source responsible for the bidirectional TS. The volatile behavior could be explained by the self-dissolution of unstable filaments caused by minimization of the interfacial energy and thermal effect. Furthermore, a bipolar-type one selector-one resistor (1S-1R) memory device was successfully fabricated and exhibited significant suppression of the undesired sneak current, indicating the great potential as selector in a cross-point array.

  11. Prolonged labour as indication for emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Sorensen, B L; Onesmo, R

    2012-01-01

    To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour.......To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour....

  12. Magnetic-property changes in epitaxial metal-film sandwiches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, M.B.

    1982-08-01

    Epitaxial metal-film sandwiches (EMFS) containing Pd or Cr, have been prepared between single-crystal Ag or Au. The modified Pd/Cr show major changes in physical properties. Pd has a stretched lattice parameter in Au-Pd-Au, which combines with a tetragonal distortion to cause exchange enhancements up to 28,000 and spin-fluctuation temperatures of 1 to 10 K. In Au-Cr-Au, Cr takes up the fcc structure, leading to superconductivity due to a high N(E/sub F/). These results are contrasted to data for Ag-Pd-Ag and Ag-Cr-Ag EMFS

  13. Studies on L-histidine capped Ag and Au nanoparticles for dopamine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivedhini Iswarya, Chandrasekaran; Kiruba Daniel, S.C.G. [Division of Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University-BIT Campus, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Sivakumar, Muthusamy, E-mail: muthusiva@gmail.com [Division of Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University-BIT Campus, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Department of Chemistry, Anna University-BIT Campus, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India)

    2017-06-01

    This work demonstrates the effective surface functionalization of Ag, Au and bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles using L-histidine for colorimetric detection of dopamine (DA) which plays majorly in recognizing the neurological disorder. L-Histidine (L-His) capped Ag, Au, and bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles are characterized using physico-chemical techniques. The optical behaviour of nanoparticles has been analysed at various time intervals using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. FT-IR results provide the evidence of chemical bonding between L-histidine and metal nanoparticles. Its structure with the capping of L-His was clearly shown in HR-TEM images. The average size of nanoparticles has calculated from TEM image fringes are 11 nm, 5 nm and 6.5 nm respectively, matches with crystals size calculated from X-ray diffraction pattern. Enhanced optical nature of nanoparticles provides the best platform to develop a colorimetric-based biosensor for DA detection. After addition of DA, a rapid colour change has been noted in colloids of nanoparticles. The substantial changes in absorbance and λ{sub max} in metal nanoparticles respect to DA concentration have been observed and formulated. This is one of the successive methods for trace level determination of DA and will be going to a significant material for designing biosensor to determine DA in real extracellular body fluids. - Highlights: • L-His functionalized Ag, Au and bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles were prepared and its properties were studied. • L-His based Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles have characterized by spectroscopy, XRD and microscopic studies. • Enhanced optical nature of nanoparticles delivers the best platform to develop a biosensor for DA detection. • For qualitative determination of dopamine, SPR of metal nanoparticles plays a major role in dopamine determination. • This basic finding can be utilized for further identification of imbalanced DA concentration in body fluids.

  14. Ion assisted deposition of thermally evaporated Ag and Al films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Lingg, L.J.; Lehan, J.P.; Macleod, H.A.; Makous, J.L.; Kim, S.Y.; University of Arizona, Physics Department, Tucson, Arizona 85721; Aju University, Physics Department, Suwon, Korea)

    1989-01-01

    Optical, electrical, and microstructural effects of Ar ion bombardment and Ar incorporation on thermally evaporated Ag and Al thin films are investigated. The results show that as the momentum supplied to the growing films by the bombarding ions per arriving metal atom increases, the refractive index at 632.8 nm increases and the extinction coefficient decreases, lattice spacing expands, grain size decreases, electrical resistivity increases, and trapped Ar increases slightly. In Ag films, stress reverses from tensile to compressive and in Al films compressive stress increases. In the Al films the change in optical constants can be explained by the variation in void volume. The reversal of stress from tensile to compressive in Ag films requires a threshold level of momentum. The increase in electrical resistivity is related to the decrease in grain size and increase in trapped Ar in both types of film. Many of these properties correlate well with the momentum transferred, suggesting that the momentum is an important physical parameter in describing the influence of ion beam on growing thin films and determining the characteristics of thin metal films prepared by ion assisted deposition

  15. Growth of ultra-thin Ag films on Ni(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Axel; Flege, Jan Ingo; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Senanayake, Sanjaya [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Alamgir, Faisal [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The physical and chemical properties of ultra-thin metal films on metallic substrates strongly depend on their morphology and the structure of the buried interface. Hence, detailed knowledge of the growth mechanisms is essential for the creation of new functional materials with novel characteristics. In this contribution, we present a comprehensive structural study of the growth and properties of epitaxial Ag films on Ni(111) by in-situ low energy electron microscopy (LEEM). For lower temperatures, the growth of the Ag film proceeds in a Stranski-Krastanov mode after completion of the wetting layer, while for higher temperatures layer-by-layer growth is observed. Quantitative information about the film structure were obtained by analyzing the intensity-voltage (I-V) dependence of the local electron reflectivity (IV-LEEM). The corresponding I(V) spectra showed intensity oscillations depending on local thickness of the Ag film due to the quantum size effect (QSE). Modeling of the I(V) spectra was performed both within the framework of a one-dimensional Kronig-Penney model and multiple scattering IV-LEED calculations. The results of both approaches concerning the variation of the layer spacings and interface characteristics for different temperatures and film thicknesses will be discussed.

  16. Ag doped silicon nitride nanocomposites for embedded plasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C., E-mail: bonafos@cemes.fr; Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Pécassou, B.; Carles, R. [CEMES-CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse, Cedex 04 (France); Khomenkova, L.; Gourbilleau, F. [CIMAP, CNRS/CEA/ENSICAEN/UCBN, 6 Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen, Cedex 4 (France)

    2015-09-07

    The localized surface plasmon-polariton resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is widely exploited for enhanced optical spectroscopies of molecules, nonlinear optics, photothermal therapy, photovoltaics, or more recently in plasmoelectronics and photocatalysis. The LSPR frequency depends not only of the noble metal NP material, shape, and size but also of its environment, i.e., of the embedding matrix. In this paper, Ag-NPs have been fabricated by low energy ion beam synthesis in silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) matrices. By coupling the high refractive index of SiN{sub x} to the relevant choice of dielectric thickness in a SiN{sub x}/Si bilayer for an optimum antireflective effect, a very sharp plasmonic optical interference is obtained in mid-range of the visible spectrum (2.6 eV). The diffusion barrier property of the host SiN{sub x} matrix allows for the introduction of a high amount of Ag and the formation of a high density of Ag-NPs that nucleate during the implantation process. Under specific implantation conditions, in-plane self-organization effects are obtained in this matrix that could be the result of a metastable coarsening regime.

  17. Laryngotracheal Injury following Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mehdizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation

  18. Topological description of mechanical behavior of Cu, Ag and Au: A first-principle study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saghayezhian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Mechanical properties and stress-strain curves of Cu, Ag and Au single crystals are calculated using ab initio methods. Elastic and Plastic regions are scrutinized. Yield stress and slope of these curves can shed light on brittlenesss and ductility of these metals that prove Cu, despite its high ultimate tensile strength, is less ductile than Au and Ag. Analysis of topology of charge density along with stress-strain curves shows that the elastic-plastic transition accompanies topological transition and for these metals, both transitions occur in the same strain. Some charactristics of critical point, especially bond points, are inspected.

  19. Silver vanadium diphosphate Ag2VP2O8: Electrochemistry and characterization of reduced material providing mechanistic insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Esther S.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Cheng, Po-Jen; Menard, Melissa C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Silver vanadium phosphorous oxides (Ag w V x P y O z ) are notable battery cathode materials due to their high energy density and demonstrated ability to form in-situ Ag metal nanostructured electrically conductive networks within the cathode. While analogous silver vanadium diphosphate materials have been prepared, electrochemical evaluations of these diphosphate based materials have been limited. We report here the first electrochemical study of a silver vanadium diphosphate, Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 , where the structural differences associated with phosphorous oxides versus diphosphates profoundly affect the associated electrochemistry. Reminiscent of Ag 2 VO 2 PO 4 reduction, in-situ formation of silver metal nanoparticles was observed with reduction of Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 . However, counter to Ag 2 VO 2 PO 4 reduction, Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 demonstrates a significant decrease in conductivity upon continued electrochemical reduction. Structural analysis contrasting the crystallography of the parent Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 with that of the proposed Li 2 VP 2 O 8 reduction product is employed to gain insight into the observed electrochemical reduction behavior, where the structural rigidity associated with the diphosphate anion may be associated with the observed particle fracturing upon deep electrochemical reduction. Further, the diphosphate anion structure may be associated with the high thermal stability of the partially reduced Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 materials, which bodes well for enhanced safety of batteries incorporating this material. - Graphical abstract: Structure and galvanostatic intermittent titration-type test data for silver vanadium diphosphate, Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 . Highlights: ► First electrochemical study of a silver vanadium diphosphate, Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 . ► In-situ formation of Ag 0 nanoparticles was observed upon electrochemical reduction. ► Structural analysis used to provide insight of the electrochemical behavior

  20. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles study by first principle: The structural, magnetic and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Xia [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xiao-Xu [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Computing Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Hu, Yao-Wen [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Hong-Quan; Huo, Jin-Rong; Li, Lu [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Qian, Ping, E-mail: ustbqianp@163.com [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Song, Yu-Jun [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been investigated by the density functional theory, revealing proving for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibits a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell in agreement with the other studies in literatures. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a ferromagnetic spin polarized state, and the magnetism mainly stems from the spin splitting of 2p electrons of O atoms. In addition, the total and partial DOS of Ag@ZnO indicate that the nanostructure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. Furthermore, the optical properties calculations show that the absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and good photocatalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO. These results of the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure obtain a well agreement with the experimental measurement. - Graphical abstract: Geometric structure of (a) Ag@ZnO core-shell nanostructure; (b) the core of Ag; (c) the shell of ZnO The core-shell nanoparticle Ag@ZnO contains Ag inner core of radius of 4 Å and ZnO outer shell with thickness of 2 Å. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been proved for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibit a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. The absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and get good photo-catalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO.

  1. The optical and mechanical properties of PVA-Ag nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shamy, A.G.; Attia, W.; Abd El-Kader, K.M., E-mail: kamalmarei@yahoo.com

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • We prepared PVA -Ag composite films which used in different filed of applications. • The XRD results showed Ag nanoparticles entering the polymer PVA matrix. • Optical band gap as a result of doping has been found to be reduced significantly. • Young's modulus increases while the strain decreases due to increasing Ag content. -- Abstract: Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) loaded silver (Ag) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by chemical reduction methods. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using UV–visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The contents of the inorganic phase in the nanocomposites were determined by using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for silver, and were found to be 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.5 wt.%. Optical absorption studies in the wavelength range 190–900 nm showed additional peak at 420 nm for differently doped films, in addition to the peak at 200 nm for undoped PVA film. There is observable change in the absorbed intensity at 420 nm with filling levels. This is due to the link between the Ag metal ion and the polymer OH- groups. The indirect energy gaps were calculated. It was found that Young’s modulus and the strength at the break increase, while the energy gaps and the strain decrease as the concentration of Ag content is increased. The XRD results showed that the Ag nanoparticles entering the polymer PVA matrix and the crystallinity was strongly influenced by the amount of Ag nanoparticles. The electron diffraction image for the highest concentration sample shows the crystalline nature of the silver metal nanoparticles. TEM of the nanocomposite films revealed the presence of Ag particles with average diameter of 12 nm.

  2. The Gd14Ag51 structure type and its relation to some complex amalgam structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambornino, Frank; Sappl, Jonathan; Hoch, Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type has been revisited on the basis of single crystal diffraction data. • Symmetry analysis from electron density and TEM shows the space group P6/m to be true. • Gd 14 Ag 51 shows good metallic behaviour. • Structure relations to alkali, alkaline-earth and rare-earth metal amalgams can be established. • Complexity values for the RE 14 Ag 51 structure family were calculated. - Abstract: A plethora of binary and ternary intermetallic compounds has been assigned to the Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type, crystallising in the hexagonal system (space group P6/m, a = 1264.30(18) pm, c = 933.58(11) pm for Gd 14 Ag 51 ). Starting in the late 1960s, much work has been invested in the structural elucidation of these crystal structures. However, reliable single crystal data are scarce, and most structure type assignments have been performed merely on the basis of powder data. We have redetermined four representatives of the binary RE 14 Ag 51 structure type (RE = Y, Ce, Gd, Tb) with modern high-precision single crystal X-ray methods. The assignment of the Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type to space group P6/m was additionally verified by careful analysis of high resolution transmission electron micrographs. We emphasise the close relation of the Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type to the structures of some recently described amalgams of similar composition focussing on disorder phenomena and structural complexity. Furthermore, we provide detailed information on synthesis as well as electrical and magnetic properties for Gd 14 Ag 51 , the parent compound of this structure family

  3. 105Ag and 107Ag with the (p, t) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Vecchio, R.M.; Oelrich, I.C.; Naumann, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The 107 , 109 Ag(p, t) 105 , 107 Ag reactions have been studied at 30 MeV bombarding energy. Tritons were detected with a 60 cm position-sensitive wire proportional counter backed by a plastic scintillator in the focal plane of a quadrupole-dipole-dipole-dipole (QDDD) spectrograph. Multiplet structure, interpretable as the coupling of a 2p 1 / 2 proton to vibrational core states, was observed in both nuclei. In addition, some 50 levels in each nucleus were seen below about 3 MeV of excitation with a resolution of 10 keV. DWBA calculations with simple two particle configurations worked rather well and permitted the determination of L transfers. A considerable amount of (p, t) strength in the region from 2-3 MeV of excitation in each nucleus was observed, not all of which could be associated with expected weak coupling to the 3 - core state

  4. Flexible IZO/Ag/IZO/Ag multilayer electrode grown on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate using roll-to-roll sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the optical, electrical, structural, and surface properties of roll-to-roll [R2R] sputter-grown flexible IZO/Ag/IZO/Ag [IAIA] multilayer films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates as a function of the top indium zinc oxide [IZO] thickness. It was found that the optical transmittance of the IAIA multilayer was significantly influenced by the top IZO layer thickness, which was grown on identical AIA multilayers. However, the sheet resistance of the IAIA multilayer was maintained between the range 5.01 to 5.1 Ω/square regardless of the top IZO thickness because the sheet resistance of the IAIA multilayer was mainly dependent on the thickness of the Ag layers. Notably, the optimized IAIA multilayer had a constant resistance change (ΔR/R0) under repeated outer bending tests with a radius of 10 mm. The mechanical integrity of the R2R-sputtered IAIA multilayer indicated that hybridization of an IZO and Ag metal layer is a promising flexible electrode scheme for the next-generation flexible optoelectronics. PMID:22222144

  5. Strontium (Sr) and silver (Ag) loaded nanotubular structures with combined osteoinductive and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Xiong, Wei; Fang, Zhong; Guan, Hanfeng; Wu, Wei; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yong; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Xu, Jiangwen; Xu, Na; Zhang, Chengcheng; Fu, Jijiang; Khademhosseini, Ali; Li, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Two frequent problems are associated with the titanium surfaces of bone/dental implants: lack of native tissue integration and associated infection. These problems have prompted a significant body of research regarding the modification of these surfaces. The present study describes a hydrothermal treatment for the fabrication of strontium (Sr) and silver (Ag) loaded nanotubular structures with different tube diameters on titanium surfaces. The Sr loading from a Sr(OH)2 solution was regulated by the size of the inner diameter of the titanium nanotubes (NT) (30nm or 80nm, formed at 10V or 40V, respectively). The quantity of Ag was adjusted by immersing the samples in 1.5 or 2.0M AgNO3 solutions. Sr and Ag were released in a controllable and prolonged matter from the NT-Ag.Sr samples, with negligible cytotoxicity. Prominent antibacterial activity was observed due to the release of Ag. Sr incorporation enhanced the initial cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation of preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Sr release also up-regulated the expression of osteogenic genes and induced mineralization, as suggested by the presence of more mineralized calcium nodules in cells cultured on NT-Ag.Sr surfaces. In vivo experiments showed that the Sr-loaded samples accelerated the formation of new bone in both osteoporosis and bone defect models, as confirmed by X-ray, Micro-CT evaluation, and histomorphometric analysis of rats implanted with NT-Ag.Sr samples. The antibacterial activity and outstanding osteogenic properties of NT-Ag.Sr samples highlight their excellent potential for use in clinical applications. Two frequent problems associated with Ti surfaces, widely used in orthopedic and dental arenas, are their lack of native tissue integration and risk of infection. We describe a novel approach for the fabrication of strontium (Sr) and silver (Ag) loaded nanotubular structures on titanium surfaces. A relevant aspect of this work is the demonstration of long-lasting and controllable

  6. Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijenburg, A. Wouter; Rodijk, Eddy J.B.; Maas, Michiel G.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytically active nanostructures require a large specific surface area with the presence of many catalytically active sites for the oxidation and reduction half reactions, and fast electron (hole) diffusion and charge separation. Nanowires present suitable architectures to meet these requirements. Axially segmented Ag|ZnO and radially segmented (coaxial) TiO2-Ag nanowires with a diameter of 200 nm and a length of 6-20 µm were made by templated electrodeposition within the pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) or anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, respectively. In the photocatalytic experiments, the ZnO and TiO2 phases acted as photoanodes, and Ag as cathode. No external circuit is needed to connect both electrodes, which is a key advantage over conventional photo-electrochemical cells. For making segmented Ag|ZnO nanowires, the Ag salt electrolyte was replaced after formation of the Ag segment to form a ZnO segment attached to the Ag segment. For making coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires, a TiO2 gel was first formed by the electrochemically induced sol-gel method. Drying and thermal annealing of the as-formed TiO2 gel resulted in the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanotubes. A subsequent Ag electrodeposition step inside the TiO2 nanotubes resulted in formation of coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires. Due to the combination of an n-type semiconductor (ZnO or TiO2) and a metal (Ag) within the same nanowire, a Schottky barrier was created at the interface between the phases. To demonstrate the photocatalytic activity of these nanowires, the Ag|ZnO nanowires were used in a photocatalytic experiment in which H2 gas was detected upon UV illumination of the nanowires dispersed in a methanol/water mixture. After 17 min of illumination, approximately 0.2 vol% H2 gas was detected from a suspension of ~0.1 g of Ag|ZnO nanowires in a 50 ml 80 vol% aqueous methanol solution. PMID:24837535

  7. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992. Ninth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ``as run``; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters.

  8. Structural energetics of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujibur Rahman, S.M.

    1982-06-01

    Structural energetics of the noble metals, namely Cu, Ag, and Au are investigated by employing a single-parameter pseudopotential. The calculations show that the lowest energy for all of these metals corresponds to FCC - their observed crystal structure. The one-electron contribution to the free energy is found to dominate the structural prediction for these metals. The present investigation strongly emphasizes that the effects due to band hybridization and core-core exchange play a significant role on the structural stability of the noble metals. (author)

  9. The negative temperature coefficient resistivities of Ag2S-Ag core–shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mingming; Liu, Dongzhi; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xueqin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the conductivity of silver nanoparticle films protected by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (Ag/MPA) has been investigated. When the nanoparticles were annealed in air at 200 °C, they converted to stable Ag 2 S-Ag core–shell structures. The mechanism for the formation of the Ag 2 S-Ag core–shell structures along with the compositional changes and the microstructural evolution of the Ag/MPA nanoparticles during the annealing process are discussed. It is proposed that the Ag 2 S-Ag core–shell structure was formed through a solid-state reduction reaction, in which the Ag + ions coming from Ag 2 S were reduced by sulfonate species and sulfur ions. The final Ag 2 S-Ag films display an exponentially decreased resistivity with increasing temperature from 25 to 170 °C. The negative temperature coefficient resistivity of Ag 2 S-Ag films can be adjusted by changing the S/Ag molar ratio used for the synthesis of the Ag/MPA nanoparticles, paving the way for the preparation of negative temperature-coefficient thermistors via printing technology for use in the electronics.

  10. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin; Hu, Jiangyong; Zeng, Huachun

    2010-01-01

    of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under

  11. Photoinduced formation of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of As2S3/Ag thin bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binu, S; Khan, Pritam; Barik, A R; Sharma, Rituraj; Adarsh, K V; Golovchak, R; Jain, H

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the combined effect of photodoping and photoinduced-surface deposition in a bilayer of chalcogenide glass (ChG) and Ag as an alternative method to optically synthesize Ag nanoparticles (AgNP) on the surface of ChG. In our experiment, AgNP formation occurs through two distinct stages: In the first stage, Ag is transported through the As 2 S 3 layer as Ag + ions, and in the second stage Ag + ions are photo-deposited as AgNP. The ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and AFM observations show photoinduced Ag mass transport and the formation of AgNP. (paper)

  12. Topical Drug Formulations for Prolonged Corneal Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tong, Rong; Ciolino, Joseph B.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular local anesthetics (OLA’s) currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect on the duration of corneal anesthesia of the site-1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), applied with either proparacaine or the chemical permeation enhancer OTAB. The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. Methods Solutions of TTX, proparacaine, and OTAB, singly or in combination were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo following corneal debridement. Results Combination of TTX and proparacaine resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8–10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, while OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed following co-administration of TTX and proparacaine. Conclusion Co-administration of TTX and proparacaine significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia but in view of delayed corneal re-epithelialization, caution is suggested in use of the combination. PMID:23615270

  13. Silver contents and Cu/Ag ratios in Martian meteorites and the implications for planetary differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaicong; Becker, Harry

    2017-11-01

    Silver and Cu show very similar partitioning behavior in sulfide melt-silicate melt and metal-silicate systems at low and high pressure-temperature (P-T) experimental conditions, implying that mantle melting, fractional crystallization and core-mantle differentiation have at most modest (within a factor of 3) effects on Cu/Ag ratios. For this reason, it is likely that Cu/Ag ratios in mantle-derived magmatic products of planetary bodies reflect that of the mantle and, in some circumstances, also the bulk planet composition. To test this hypothesis, new Ag mass fractions and Cu/Ag ratios in different groups of Martian meteorites are presented and compared with data from chondrites and samples from the Earth's mantle. Silver contents in lherzolitic, olivine-phyric and basaltic shergottites and nakhlites range between 1.9 and 12.3 ng/g. The data display a negative trend with MgO content and correlate positively with Cu contents. In spite of displaying variable initial Ɛ143Nd values and representing a diverse spectrum of magmatic evolution and physiochemical conditions, shergottites and nakhlites display limited variations of Cu/Ag ratios (1080 ± 320, 1 s, n = 14). The relatively constant Cu/Ag suggests limited fractionation of Ag from Cu during the formation and evolution of the parent magmas, irrespectively of whether sulfide saturation was attained or not. The mean Cu/Ag ratio of Martian meteorites thus reflects that of the Martian mantle and constrains its Ag content to 1.9 ± 0.7 ng/g (1 s). Carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites display a limited range of Cu/Ag ratios of mostly 500-2400. Ordinary chondrites show a larger scatter of Cu/Ag up to 4500, which may have been caused by Ag redistribution during parent body metamorphism. The majority of chondrites have Cu/Ag ratios indistinguishable from the Martian mantle value, indicating that Martian core formation strongly depleted Cu and Ag contents, but probably did not significantly change the Cu/Ag ratio of the

  14. Green synthesis of graphene/Ag nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenhui; Gu Yejian; Li Li

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A facile and green approach to synthesis of GNS/AgNPs is reported by employing sodium citrate as reductant, and this study represents the use of biocompounds for nontoxic and scalable production of GNS/AgNPs under a suitable concentration of silver ions and the prepared GNS/AgNPs can be used in the field of disinfection. Highlights: ► Graphene/Ag nanocomposites were prepared by a green and facile strategy based on sodium citrate. ► The influence of AgNO 3 amount on particle size and size range of AgNPs was studied. ► The surface plasmon resonance properties of AgNPs on graphene was investigated. ► The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was retained in the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Graphene/Ag nanocomposites (GNS/AgNPs) were fabricated via a green and facile method, employing graphite oxide (GO) as a precursor of graphene, AgNO 3 as a precursor of Ag nanoparticles, and sodium citrate as an environmentally friendly reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized GNS/AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectra (RS), respectively. The results indicated that graphite oxide was completely reduced to graphene, and the silver ion was reduced by sodium citrate simultaneously. Under a suitable dosage of silver ions, well-dispersed AgNPs on the graphene sheets mostly centralized at 20–25 nm. The surface plasmon resonance property of AgNPs on graphene showed that there was a interaction between AgNPs and graphene supports. In addition, antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was retained in the nanocomposites, suggesting that they can be potentially used as a graphene-based biomaterial.

  15. Interfacial potential approach for Ag/ZnO (0001) interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Hong-Quan; Shen Jiang; Qian Ping; Chen Nan-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Systematic approaches are presented to extract the interfacial potentials from the ab initio adhesive energy of the interface system by using the Chen—Möbius inversion method. We focus on the interface structure of the metal (111)/ZnO (0001) in this work. The interfacial potentials of Ag—Zn and Ag—O are obtained. These potentials can be used to solve some problems about Ag/ZnO interfacial structure. Three metastable interfacial structures are investigated in order to check these potentials. Using the interfacial potentials we study the procedure of interface fracture in the Ag/ZnO (0001) interface and discuss the change of the energy, stress, and atomic structures in tensile process. The result indicates that the exact misfit dislocation reduces the total energy and softens the fracture process. Meanwhile, the formation and mobility of the vacancy near the interface are observed. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  16. Spectroscopic observations of AG Dra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Chun, H.

    1982-01-01

    During summer 1981, spectroscopic observations of AG Dra were performed at the Haute-Provence Observatory using the Marly spectrograph with a dispersion of 80 A mm -1 at the 120 cm telescope and using the Coude spectrograph of the 193 cm telescope with a dispersion of 40 A mm -1 . The actual outlook of the spectrum of AG Dra is very different from what it was in 1966 in the sense that only a few intense absorption lines remain, the heavy emission continuum masking the absorption spectrum, while on the 1966 plate, about 140 absorption lines have been measured. Numerous emission lines have been measured, most of them, present in 1981, could also be detected in 1966. They are due to H, HeI and HeII. (Auth.)

  17. Antibacterial properties of Ag-exchanged Philippine natural zeolite-chitosan composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taaca, Kathrina Lois M.; Olegario, Eleanor M.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R.

    2017-12-01

    Zeolites are microporous minerals composed of silicon, aluminum and oxygen. These aluminosilicates consist of tetrahedral units which produce open framework structures to generate a system of pores and cavities of molecular dimensions. Zeolites are naturally abundant and can be mined in most parts of the world. In this study, natural zeolites (NaZ) which are locally-sourced here in the Philippines were investigated to determine its properties. An ion-exchange process was utilized, using the zeolite to silver (Ag) solution ratio of 1:20 (w/v), to incorporate Ag into the zeolite framework. Characterizations such as XRD, AAS, and Agar diffusion assay were used to evaluate the properties of the synthesized Ag-exchanged zeolites (AgZ). X-ray diffraction revealed that both NaZ and AgZ have peaks mostly corresponding to the clinoptilolite structure, with some trace peaks of the mordenite and quartz. Absorption spectroscopy revealed that the ion exchange process added about 0.61188g of silver into the zeolite structure. This Ag content was seen to be enough to make the AgZ sample exhibit an antibacterial effect where clearing zones against E. coli and S. aureus were observed in the agar diffusion assay, respectively. The AgZ sample was also tested as ceramic filler to a polymer matrix-chitosan. The diffusion assay revealed presence of antibacterial activity to the polymer composite with AgZ fillers. These results indicate that the Philippine natural zeolite, incorporated with metals such as Ag, can be used as an antibacterial agent and can be developed as a ceramic filler to improve the antibacterial property of composite materials for biomedical application.

  18. Facile preparation of Ag-Cu bifunctional electrocatalysts for zinc-air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yachao; Chen, Fuyi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Cu dendrites are observed for the first time to exhibit high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. • Ag-Cu dendrites are directly synthesized through galvanic displacement on the current collector layer made of Ni foams. • A bifunctional air cathode is fabricated using Ag-Cu dendrites as a carbon-free, binder-free catalyst layer. • Both the primary and rechargeable zinc–air batteries fabricated by Ag-Cu catalysts exhibit excellent performance. - ABSTRACT: An inexpensive, facile galvanic displacement reaction for the direct growth of silver–copper (Ag-Cu) catalysts on nickel foams is developed for the first time. The resulting Ag-Cu catalysts exhibit dendritic morphologies. Ag and Cu atoms are in their metallic state while the presence of CuO and Cu 2 O are limited on the surface of catalyst. The catalysts demonstrate high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution, as evaluated by both linear scanning voltammetry and rotating disk electrode polarization measurements. The ORR catalysed by Ag-Cu catalyst in alkaline solution proceeds through a four-electron pathway. An air cathode is fabricated using Ag-Cu catalyst as a carbon-free, binder-free catalyst layer. Using this Ag-Cu catalyst based air cathode, both the primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries show excellent battery performance. The specific capacity of the primary zinc-air battery is 572 mAh g −1 . Especially, the rechargeable zinc-air battery shows high round-trip efficiency, appealing stability at a long charge-discharge cycle period

  19. Tunable fluorescence emission of ternary nonstoichiometric Ag-In-S alloyed nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jian, E-mail: dhjfeng@ciac.jl.cn; Yang Xiurong, E-mail: xryang@ciac.jl.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-08-15

    Low toxic, nonstoichiometric colloidal Ag-In-S ternary quantum dots with different Ag content were synthesized by a one-pot hot-injection method based on the reaction of metal acetylacetonates with sulfur dissolved in octadecene. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to characterize the size, structure, and morphology of these samples. ICP-MS was employed to analyze the compositions of Ag-In-S nanocrystals. The optical properties were characterized by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. Varying the fraction of cationic and capping agents, the compositions of Ag-In-S nanocrystals were precisely controlled. XRD and HRTEM results indicate the compositional homogeneity of Ag-In-S. The emission spectra across the different compositions exhibiting a single bandgap feature further confirm the formation of Ag-In-S alloy NCs, rather than phase separated Ag{sub 2}S and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Composition-dependent tunable PL emissions have been observed. The relative PL quantum yield is up to 16 %, which exhibited substantially enhanced comparing with the stoichiometric AgInS{sub 2} semiconductor core QDs reported in previous literature. The PL decay curve of Ag-In-S has a biexponential characteristic, which indicates that the recombination of an electron and a hole is dominated by the surface defect and the recombination process associated with internal traps is reduced significantly. The large Stokes shift between the absorption peaks and their emissions should inhibit the reabsorption and Foerster energy transfer between Ag-In-S nanocrystals, which provides the alternative in the further applications where high-concentrations of nanocrystals are needed.

  20. Band structure in 104Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Banerjee, P.; Basu, P.; Bhattacharya, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, M.L.; Sen, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.

    1995-01-01

    The level structure of 104 Ag has been studied through the 103 Rh(α,3nγ) reaction at E α =40 and 45 MeV. The principal features of the proposed level scheme are in agreement with those obtained earlier through heavy ion reaction. A two-quasiparticle-plus-rotor model calculation has been performed, and the results are compared with experimental data. (orig.)

  1. Chain formation of metal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of formation of single-atomic chains by manipulation of nanocontacts is studied for a selection of metals (Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au). Molecular dynamics simulations show that the tendency for chain formation is strongest for Au and Pt. Density functional theory calculations indicate...... that the metals which form chains exhibit pronounced many-atom interactions with strong bonding in low coordinated systems....

  2. Antimicrobial activity of TiO{sub 2}:Ag nanocrystalline heterostructures: Experimental and theoretical insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    André, Rafaela S. [UFSCar – Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Department of Chemistry, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zamperini, Camila A. [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Química, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Mima, Ewerton G. [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Escola de Odontologia de Araraquara, Departamento de Materias Odontológicos e Próteses Dentárias, 14801-903 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Longo, Valéria M., E-mail: valeria.longo@liec.ufscar.br [USP – Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, Anderson R. [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Grupo de Modelagem e Simulação Molecular, P.O. Box 477, CEP 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sertão Pernambucano, IFSetão-PE, 56400-000 Floresta, PE (Brazil); Sambrano, Júlio R. [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Grupo de Modelagem e Simulação Molecular, P.O. Box 477, CEP 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); and others

    2015-09-28

    Highlights: • Greener hydrothermal process to obtain nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} anatase with Ag nanoparticles. • Antifungal effect against planktonic cells of C. albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. • DFT calculations of anatase TiO{sub 2} and metallic Ag. • Mechanism for the formation of reactive species at surface. - Abstract: We report the synthesis and characterization of silver-decorated titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}:Ag) nanoparticles, as well as a discussion of their antimicrobial activity. This material was synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment and characterized by complementary techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration of TiO{sub 2}:Ag nanoparticles against planktonic and biofilm-forming strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Candida species (spp.) and the total biofilm mass were determined. The basis of the biological activity of TiO{sub 2}:Ag was investigated by electronic analysis of the material using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. In the proposed mechanism of action, the impregnated semiconductor donates electrons to the forbidden band gaps in the metal, generating point defects, with partially located electrons and holes at the surface, initiating a radical process involving the solvent and biological target. Our results suggest that this TiO{sub 2}:Ag nanomaterial has potential for use in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  3. Ag-Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles Prepared by Microemulsion Method as Catalyst for Epoxidation of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kui Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag/Cu bimetallic nanocatalysts supported on reticulate-like γ-alumina were prepared by a microemulsion method using N2H4·H2O as the reducing agent. The catalysts were activated by calcination followed with hydrogen reduction at 873K, and the properties were confirmed using various characterization techniques. Compared with metal oxides particles, Ag-Cu particles exhibited smaller sizes (<5 nm after calcination in H2 at 873K. XPS results indicated that the binding energies changed with the Ag/Cu ratios, suggesting that increasing the copper content gave both metals a greater tendency to lose electrons. Furthermore, Ag-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles supported on γ-alumina showed better catalytic activity on the epoxidation of styrene as compared with the corresponding monometallic silver or copper. The styrene oxide selectivity could reach 76.6% at Ag/Cu molar ratio of 3/1, while the maximum conversion (up to 94.6% appeared at Ag/Cu molar ratio of 1/1 because of the maximum interaction between silver and copper.

  4. Networks of ultra-fine Ag nanocrystals in a Teflon AF (registered) matrix by vapour phase e-beam-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, A; Bayer, I S; Marken, B; Pounds, T D; Norton, M G

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated nanocomposite thin films comprising silver (Ag) nanoparticles dispersed in a Teflon AF (registered) polymer matrix using electron-beam-assisted physical vapour deposition. Four different Ag nanoparticle volume fillings (20%, 35%, 70% and 75%) were achieved by varying the relative metal-polymer evaporation rates with the formation of highly crystalline Ag nanoparticles regardless of the filling ratio. The present fabrication technique allowed full control over dispersion uniformity of nanoparticles in the polymer network. At 20% and 35% metal volume fillings, the nanocomposite film morphology consists of a uniformly dispersed assembly of equiaxed isolated Ag nanoparticles. At higher metal volume fractions the nanocomposite structures displayed two different and unique Ag nanoparticle arrangements within the polymer matrix. In particular, at 70% metal filling, the formation of irregularly shaped clusters of individually assembled nanocrystals was observed. At a slightly higher volume filling (75%), larger irregularly shaped Ag nanocrystals that appeared to be the result of coalescence and grain growth were observed. Finally, a composite theory developed by Tandon and Weng was used to estimate various elastic properties of the nanocomposite films. At high metal filling, the reinforcing effect of the Ag nanoparticles was reflected as approximately a sixfold increase in the elastic modulus compared to the virgin polymer film. Possible applications of such ultra-fine metal nanoparticles networks are discussed

  5. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction of sputter deposited mixed metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, L.C.; Holzheuter, I.B.; Nucara, M.C.; Dignam, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Sputter-deposited films of silver with lead, manganese and nickel have been studied as possible oxygen reduction electrocatalysts using cyclic voltammetry, rotating disc studies, steady-state polarization and Auger analysis. In general, the Ag-Pb and Ag-Mn films display superior electrocatalytic activity for O 2 reduction, while the Ag-Ni films' performance is inferior to that of pure Ag. For the Ag-Pb films, which show the highest electrocatalytic activity, the mixed metal films display oxidation-reduction behavior which is not simply a superposition of that of the separate metals, and suggests a mechanism for the improved behavior

  6. A study on the resistance switching of Ag2Se and Ta2O5 heterojunctions using structural engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Sung; Lee, Nam Joo; Abbas, Haider; Hu, Quanli; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hyun Ho; Le Shim, Ee; Kang, Chi Jung

    2018-01-01

    The resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices with heterostuctures have been investigated due to cycling stability, nonlinear switching, complementary resistive switching and self-compliance. The heterostructured devices can modulate the resistive switching (RS) behavior appropriately by bilayer structure with a variety of materials. In this study, the bipolar resistive switching characteristics of the bilayer structures composed of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se, which are transition-metal oxide (TMO) and silver chalcogenide, were investigated. The bilayer devices of Ta2O5 deposited on Ag2Se (Ta2O5/Ag2Se) and Ag2Se deposited on Ta2O5 (Ag2Se/Ta2O5) were fabricated for investigation of the RS characteristics by stacking sequence of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se. All operating voltages were applied to the Ag top electrode with the Pt bottom electrode grounded. The Ta2O5/Ag2Se device showed that a negative voltage sweep switched the device from high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (LRS) and a positive voltage sweep switched the device from LRS to HRS. On the contrary, for the Ag2Se/Ta2O5 device a positive voltage sweep switched the device from HRS to LRS, and a negative voltage sweep switched it from LRS to HRS. The polarity dependence of RS was attributed to the stacking sequence of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se. In addition, the combined heterostructured device of both bilayer stacks, Ta2O5/Ag2Se and Ag2Se/Ta2O5, exhibited the complementary switching characteristics. By using threshold switching devices, sneak path leakage can be reduced without additional selectors. The bilayer heterostructures of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se have various advantages such as self-compliance, reproducibility and forming-free stable RS. It confirms the possible applications of TMO and silver chalcogenide heterostructures in RRAM.

  7. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of nanostructures ZrO2:AG against staphylococcus aureus by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nova, C.V.; Reis, K.H.; Galico, D.A.; Venturini, J.; Pontes, F.M.L.; Pinheiro, A.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil); Longo, E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Nanostructures of zirconia (ZrO2) has shown great prominence in the area of advanced materials and shows excellent properties such as chemical stability, mechanical strength, electrical and optical properties. When certain metals are supported on the compound, such as Fe, Ag, Au and Al, a potentiation of some properties, such as bactericide and fungicide can occur. Thus, this work deals with the synthesis and characterization of ZrO2 and ZrO2:Ag (1% and 10 % of Ag) nanostructures and the study of the influence of the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. X-ray powder diffractograms of the zirconia and silver with zirconia shown the formation of well defined peaks of tetragonal zirconia in all the samples. Although the ZrO2:Ag (10 % of Ag) shown the characteristics peaks of cubic silver, these peaks do not appear in ZrO2:Ag (1 % of Ag) due to the small amount of silver in comparison with zirconium. The crystal size was estimated by the Scherrer equation and the calculated values for zirconia were 12.84, 12.27 and 12.61 nm for ZrO2, ZrO2 : Ag (1%) and ZrO2 : Ag (10%) respectively and the silver crystal size was 8,09 nm. Diffuse reflectance of the silver particles shown a broad plasmon band at 405 and 424 nm for the ZrO2 : Ag (1%) and ZrO2 : Ag (10%). Antimicrobial assay demonstrated that ZrO2 showed a bacteriostatic effect (61 %) and the inclusion of the silver in the ZrO2 matrix enhanced this effect to 65-72 %. Both particles with different silver content shown similar effect {[ZrO2:Ag 1%] = [ZrO2:Ag 10%]>[ZrO2]}.(author)

  8. Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of AgBr and Ag Nanoparticles (NPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60–70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120–130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends – the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains. PMID:25781988

  9. Development of a novel resin-based dental material with dual biocidal modes and sustained release of Ag+ ions based on photocurable core-shell AgBr/cationic polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weiwei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xi; Chen, Yinyan; Li, Qiang; Xing, Xiaodong; Xiao, Yuhong; Peng, Xuefeng; Ye, Zhiwen

    2017-07-01

    Research on the incorporation of cutting-edge nano-antibacterial agent for designing dental materials with potent and long-lasting antibacterial property is demanding and provoking work. In this study, a novel resin-based dental material containing photocurable core-shell AgBr/cationic polymer nanocomposite (AgBr/BHPVP) was designed and developed. The shell of polymerizable cationic polymer not only provided non-releasing antibacterial capability for dental resins, but also had the potential to polymerize with other methacrylate monomers and prevented nanoparticles from aggregating in the resin matrix. As a result, incorporation of AgBr/BHPVP nanocomposites did not adversely affect the flexural strength and modulus but greatly increased the Vicker's hardness of resin disks. By continuing to release Ag + ions without the impact of anaerobic environment, resins containing AgBr/BHPVP nanoparticles are particularly suitable to combat anaerobic cariogenic bacteria. By reason of the combined bactericidal effect of the contact-killing cationic polymers and the releasing-killing Ag + ions, AgBr/BHPVP-containing resin disks had potent bactericidal activity against S. mutans. The long-lasting antibacterial activity was also achieved through the sustained release of Ag + ions due to the core-shell structure of the nanocomposites. The results of macrophage cytotoxicity showed that the cell viability of dental resins loading less than 1.0 wt% AgBr/BHPVP was close to that of neat resins. The AgBr/BHPVP-containing dental resin with dual bactericidal capability and long term antimicrobial effect is a promising material aimed at preventing second caries and prolonging the longevity of resin composite restorations.

  10. Influence of reactive sulfide (AVS) and supplementary food on Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-S.; Lee, B.-G.; Yoo, H.; Koh, C.-H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay determined the relative contribution of various pathways of Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to moderately contaminated sediments. Juvenile worms were exposed for 25 d to experimental sediments containing 5 different reactive sulfide (acid volatile sulfides, AVS) concentrations (1 to 30 ??mol g-1), but with constant Ag, Cd, and Zn concentrations of 0.1, 0.1 and 7 ??mol g-1, respectively. The sediments were supplemented with contaminated food (TetraMin??) containing 3 levels of Ag-Cd-Zn (uncontaminated, 1?? or 5??1 metal concentrations in the contaminated sediment). The results suggest that bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn in the worms occurred predominantly from ingestion of contaminated sediments and contaminated supplementary food. AVS or dissolved metals (in porewater and overlying water) had a minor effect on bioaccumulation of the 3 metals in most of the treatments. The contribution to uptake from the dissolved source was most important in the most oxic sediments, with maximum contributions of 8% for Ag, 30% for Cd and 20% for Zn bioaccumulation. Sediment bioassays where uncontaminated supplemental food is added could seriously underestimate metal exposures in an equilibrated system; N. arenaceodentata feeding on uncontaminated food would be exposed to 40-60% less metal than if the food source was equilibrated (as occurs in nature). Overall, the results show that pathways of metal exposure are dynamically linked in contaminated sediments and shift as external geochemical characteristics and internal biological attributes vary.

  11. Metal and elastomer seal tests for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.; McIntyre, G.T.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Skelton, R.; Pate, D.J.; Gill, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The vacuum system of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has more than a thousand metal vacuum seals. Also, numerous elastomer seals are used throughout the AGS to seal large beam component chambers. An accelerator upgrade program is being implemented to reduce the AGS operating pressure by x100 and improve the reliability of the vacuum system. This paper describes work in progress on metal and elastomer vacuum seals to help meet those two objectives. Tests are reported on the sealing properties of a variety of metal seals used on different sealing surfaces. Results are also given on reversible sorption properties of certain elastomers. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  12. In situ solid-state fabrication of hybrid AgCl/AgI/AgIO3 with improved UV-to-visible photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Cao, Yali; Jia, Dianzeng; Li, Yizhao; Wang, Kun; Xu, Hui

    2017-09-28

    The AgCl/AgI/AgIO 3 composites were synthesized through a one-pot room-temperature in situ solid-state approach with the feature of convenient and eco-friendly. The as-prepared composites exhibit superior photocatalytic performance than pure AgIO 3 for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under both UV and visible light irradiation. The photodegradation rate toward MO of the AgCl/AgI/AgIO 3 photocatalyst can reach 100% after 12 min irradiation under UV light, or 85.4% after 50 min irradiation under visible light, being significantly higher than AgCl, AgI, AgIO 3 and AgI/AgIO 3 . In addition, the AgCl/AgI/AgIO 3 photocatalyst possesses strong photooxidation ability for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), phenol, bisphenol A (BPA) and tetracycline hydrochloride under visible light irradiation. The reactive species capture experiments confirmed that the h + and •O 2- play an essential role during the photocatalytic process under UV light or visible light irradiation. The enhanced effect may be beneficial from the enhanced light adsorption in full spectrum and increased separation efficiency of photogenerated hole-electron pairs, which can be ascribed to the synergistic effect among AgCl, AgI and AgIO 3 nanoplates in AgCl/AgI/AgIO 3 composites.

  13. Replacement of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) by Thiols: A Systematic Study of Ag Nanocube Functionalization by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Christine H.; Rycenga, Matthew; Zhang, Qiang; Xia, Younan

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we used surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to monitor the replacement of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) on Ag nanocubes by cysteamine, thiol-terminated PEG, and benzenedithiol. PVP is widely used as a colloidal stabilizer and capping agent to control the shape of Ag (as well as many other noble metals) nanocrystals during synthesis, and to stabilize the final colloidal suspension. However, the surface chemistry of Ag nanocrystals often needs to be tailored for specific appl...

  14. Behavior of PET implanted by Ti, Ag, Si and C ion using MEVVA implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Yanwen; Zhang Huixing; Zhang Xiaoji; Zhou Gu

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalane (PET) has been modified with Ti, Ag, Si and C ions from a metal vapor arc source (MEVVA). Ti, Ag, Si and C ions were implanted with acceleration voltage 40 kV to fluences ranging from 1x10 16 to 2x10 17 cm -2 . The surface of implanted PET darkened with increasing ion dose, when the metal ion dose was greater than 1x10 17 cm -2 the color changed to metallic bright. The surface resistance decreases by 5-6 orders of magnitude with increasing dose. The resistivity is stable after long-term storage. The depth of Ti- and Ag-implanted layer is approximately 150 and 80 nm measured by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), respectively. TEM photos revealed the presence of Ti and Ag nano-meter particles on the surface resulting from the high-dose implantation. Ti and Ag ion implantations improved conductivity and wear resistance significantly. The phase and structural changes were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It can be seen that nano-meter particles of Ti precipitation, TiO 2 and Ti-carbides have been formed in implanted layer. Nano-hardness of implanted PET has been measured by a nano-indenter. The results show that the surface hardness, modulus and wear resistance could be increased

  15. A study on the correlation between the dewetting temperature of Ag film and SERS intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jiamin; Zhang, Jie; Qi, Xueqiang; Li, Junying; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yong

    2017-11-07

    The thermally dewetted metal nano-islands have been actively investigated as cost-effective SERS-active substrates with a large area, good reproducibility and repeatability via simple fabrication process. However, the correlation between the dewetting temperature of metal film and SERS intensity hasn't been systematically studied. In this work, taking Ag nano-islands (AgNIs) as an example, we reported a strategy to investigate the correlation between the dewetting temperature of metal film and SERS intensity. We described the morphology evolution of AgNIs on the SiO 2 planar substrate in different temperatures and got the quantitative information in surface-limited diffusion process (SLDP) as a function of annealing temperature via classical mean-field nucleation theory. Those functions were further used in the simulation of electromagnetic field to obtain the correlation between the dewetting temperature of Ag film and theoretical analysis. In addition, Raman mapping was done on samples annealed at different temperatures, with R6G as an analyte, to accomplish the analysis of the correlation between the dewetting temperature of Ag film and SERS intensity, which is consistent with the theoretical analysis. For SLDP, we used the morphological characterization of five samples prepared by different annealing temperatures to successfully illustrate the change in SERS intensity with the temperature fluctuation, obtaining a small deviation between the experimental results and theoretic prediction.

  16. Diffusion and aggrigation of implanted Ag and Au in a lithia-alumina-silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.; Borders, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Optical extinction and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) techniques have been employed to obtain information on the size and spatial distribution of Au and Ag colloids in implanted (Au + ,Ag + )lithia-alumina-silica glass. The formation of metallic aggregates (colloids), necessary for preparation of a glass-ceramic surface layer, proceeds readily with annealing temperature for Au-implanted samples but not for Ag-implanted material. The optical and RBS spectra show that the particle size and spatial distribution in Ag-implanted samples are sensitive to sample temperature and ion-beam heating effects, while these parameters for Au-implanted samples are relatively insensitive to temperature and beam current. It is suggested that this behaviour is related to differences in the dissolution energies of Ag and Au aggregates. A two-peaked spatial distribution for Ag implanted at room temperature at a dose rate of approximately 1 μA cm -2 is observed which may result from the trappings of Ag in the ion displacement damage region of the glass during implantation. (author)

  17. Facile synthesis of hollow dendritic Ag/Pt alloy nanoparticles for enhanced methanol oxidation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Ning; Wang, Ke; Shan, Xinyao; Bai, Qiang; Wang, Lina; Xiao, Hailian; Liu, Manhong; Colvin, Vicki L; Yu, William W

    2017-11-14

    Hollow dendritic Ag/Pt alloy nanoparticles were synthesized by a double template method: Ag nanoparticles as the hard template to obtain hollow spheres by a galvanic replacement reaction between PtCl 6 2- and metallic Ag and surfactant micelles (Brij58) as the soft template to generate porous dendrites. The formation of a Ag/Pt alloy phase was confirmed by XRD and HRTEM. Elemental mapping and line scanning revealed the formation of the hollow architecture. We studied the effects of the Ag/Pt ratio, surfactant and reaction temperature on the morphology. In addition, we explored the formation process of hollow dendritic Ag/Pt nanoparticles by tracking the morphologies of the nanostructures formed at different stages. In order to improve the electrocatalytic property, we controlled the size of the nanoparticles and the thickness of the shell by adjusting the amount of the precursor. We found that these Ag/Pt alloy nanoparticles exhibited high activity (440 mA mg -1 ) and stability as an electrocatalyst for catalyzing methanol oxidation.

  18. In-situ synthesis of Ag nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Jiangfeng; Liu, Hongwei; Jiang, Yuwen; Yang, Shaoguang; Liao, Xiaozhou; Liu, Zongwen; Ringer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by electron beam irradiation in the transmission electron microscope chamber at room temperature and the growth mechanism was explored in detail. The sizes of the Ag nanoparticles are controlled by the electron beam current density. Two nanoparticle growth stages were identified. The first growth stage was dominated by the discharging effect, while the second stage was controlled by the heating effect. The nanoparticle synthesis method should be applicable to the synthesis of other metallic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by electron beam irradiation in the transmission electron microscope chamber. • The sizes of the Ag nanoparticles are controlled by the electron beam current density. • The growth mechanism was studied, two growth stages were confirmed. • The first growth stage was dominated by the discharging effect, and the second stage was controlled by the heating effect.

  19. High-pressure x-ray diffraction of icosahedral Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-Ag quasicrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Saksl, Karel; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl

    2001-01-01

    temperature using synchrotron radiation. The icosahedral quasicrystal structure is retained up to the highest hydrostatic pressure used (approximately 28 GPa) and is reversible after decompression. The bulk modulus at zero pressure and its pressure derivative of the icosahedral Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-Ag quasicrystal......The effect of pressure on the structural stability of icosahedral Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-Ag quasicrystals forming from a Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass with a supercooled liquid region of 44 K has been investigated by in situ high-pressure angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction at ambient......-Al-Ni-Cu-Ag quasicrystals induced by pressure....

  20. Deformation of Ag clusters deposited on Au(111) - Experiment and molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miroslawski, Natalie; Groenhagen, Niklas; Hoevel, Heinz [TU Dortmund, Experimentelle Physik I (Germany); Issendorff, Bernd von [Universitaet Freiburg, Fakultaet Physik (Germany); Jaervi, Tommi [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg (Germany); Moseler, Michael [Universitaet Freiburg, Fakultaet Physik (Germany); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg (Germany); Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Mass selected clusters from Ag{sup +}{sub 55} to Ag{sup +}{sub 147{+-}}{sub 2} were deposited with different deposition energies at 77 K on Au(111) and imaged with STM at 77 K. We observed a deformation of the cluster shape due to the strong metallic interaction between the cluster and the substrate. The clusters became epitaxial and developed a structure composed of several Ag monolayers. The number of these monolayers depends on the number of atoms in the cluster and the deposition energy. The larger the cluster mass the more monolayers the cluster develops on Au(111) and the larger the deposition energy the fewer monolayers occur. These results were verified by molecular dynamic simulations. Additionally the behaviour of Ag{sub N} clusters on Au(111) after different annealing steps was investigated.

  1. Computational investigation of CO adsorbed on Aux, Agx and (AuAg)x nanoclusters (x = 1 - 5, 147) and monometallic Au and Ag low-energy surfaces*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Anna L.; Catlow, C. Richard A.; Logsdail, Andrew J.

    2018-02-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the use of CO as a probe molecule for the determination of the structure and composition of Au, Ag and AuAg nanoparticles. For very small nanoclusters (x = 1 - 5), the CO vibrational frequencies can be directly correlated to CO adsorption strength, whereas larger 147-atom nanoparticles show a strong energetic preference for CO adsorption at a vertex position but the highest wavenumbers are for the bridge positions. We also studied CO adsorption on Au and Ag (100) and (111) surfaces, for a 1 monolayer coverage, which proves to be energetically favourable on atop only and bridge positions for Au (100) and atop for Ag (100); vibrational frequencies of the CO molecules red-shift to lower wavenumbers as a result of increased metal coordination. We conclude that CO vibrational frequencies cannot be solely relied upon in order to obtain accurate compositional analysis, but we do propose that elemental rearrangement in the core@shell nanoclusters, from Ag@Au (or Au@Ag) to an alloy, would result in a shift in the CO vibrational frequencies that indicate changes in the surface composition. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Shaping Nanocatalysts", edited by Francesca Baletto, Roy L. Johnston, Jochen Blumberger and Alex Shluger.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-80280-7

  2. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gysel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  3. Prolonged toxicity from Kambo cleansing ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Horng, Howard; Lynch, Kara; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-04-02

    Kambo cleanse is a purification, cleansing ritual traditionally performed by South American shaman to confer luck and health to hunters. We report a patient who presented to the emergency department with prolonged symptoms of vomiting, flushing, facial swelling, altered mental status, and agitation requiring chemical restraints, 22 h after a Kambo cleanse. The patient was found with four small, circular, superficial burns to the ankle at the site where the resin was introduced. The cleanse consists of rubbing resin obtained from the secretions of the giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) into superficial wounds to produce intense gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a sensation of increased stamina and strength. The cleanse is now being increasingly performed in Europe and USA.

  4. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  5. Neurohumoral responses during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Blomstrand, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This study examined neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise with and without hyperthermia. The cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate uptake ratio (O2/CHO = arteriovenous oxygen difference divided by arteriovenous glucose difference plus one-half lactate), the cerebral balances of dopamine......, and the metabolic precursor of serotonin, tryptophan, were evaluated in eight endurance-trained subjects during exercise randomized to be with or without hyperthermia. The core temperature stabilized at 37.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) in the control trial, whereas it increased to 39.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C...... in the hyperthermic trial, with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P exercise trials. Both the arterial and jugular venous dopamine levels...

  6. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  7. Thermochemical properties of silver tellurides including empressite (AgTe) and phase diagrams for Ag-Te and Ag-Te-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Mikhail V.; Osadchii, Evgeniy G.; Brichkina, Ekaterina A.

    2017-10-01

    This study compiles original experimental and literature data on the thermodynamic properties (ΔfG°, S°, ΔfH°) of silver tellurides (α-Ag2Te, β-Ag2Te, Ag1.9Te, Ag5Te3, AgTe) obtained by the method of solid-state galvanic cell with the RbAg4I5 and AgI solid electrolytes. The thermodynamic data for empressite (AgTe, pure fraction from Empress Josephine Mine, Colorado USA) have been obtained for the first time by the electrochemical experiment with the virtual reaction Ag + Te = AgTe. The Ag-Te phase diagrams in the T - x and log fTe2 (gas) - 1/ T coordinates have been refined, and the ternary Ag-Te-O diagrams with Ag-Te-TeO2 (paratellurite) composition range have been calculated.

  8. Assessment of health status of oysters (Crassostreagigas) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of Ag and Cu in brackish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rementeria, Ane; Mikolaczyk, Mathilde; Peña, Ainhize; Lanceleur, Laurent; Blanc, Gérard; Soto, Manu; Schäfer, Jörg; Zaldibar, Beñat

    2017-12-01

    Human activities have altered estuarine environments leading to increased presence of different pollutants including metals. Although the implementation of new environmental policies has caused a considerable decrease in trace metal concentrations in estuaries around the Bay of Biscay, some elements such as copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) are still present in relatively high concentrations. Oysters have been widely used in environmental biomonitoring programs as sentinel organisms. Oysters Crassostrea gigas from an uncontaminated estuary were exposed to sublethal, environmentally relevant concentrations of Cu (2000 ng Cu/L) and Ag (500 ng Ag/L) during 14 days in brackish water (S = 18). A battery of cell and tissue level (exposure) biomarkers at different levels of biological complexity was applied and integrated into the Integrative Biological Response (IBR) index including: metallothionein contents, intralysosomal metal accumulation, digestive gland atrophy and digestive gland tissue integrity. Condition Index (CI) was incorporated into the IBR index as a complementary parameter that reflects the general physiological condition of oysters (organism level). Results indicated an increase in intralysosomal metal accumulation after 7 and 14 days of exposure to Ag together with an increase in the digestive epithelium atrophy and lipofuscin content after 7 days of exposure to Ag. The responses detected with the aid of biomarkers integrated in the IBR index showed higher toxicity in oysters exposed to Ag, inducing the clear onset of detoxification processes which also occurred, to a lower extent, in Cu-exposed oysters.

  9. Controlled preparation of M(Ag, Au)/TiO2 through sulfydryl-assisted method for enhanced photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongbo; Wu, Suli; Bi, Jiajie; Zhang, Shufen

    2017-11-01

    Here a simple and effective method was explored to fabricate M/TiO2 (M = Ag, Au) composites, which required neither pre-treatment of TiO2 nor any additives as reducing agent. Using amorphous TiO2 spheres functionalized with SH groups as starting materials, the noble metallic ions (Ag, Au) can be adsorbed by TiO2 due to their special affinity with SH groups, which is beneficial to the uniform dispersion of metallic ions on the surface of TiO2. Then the adsorbed ions were reduced to form noble metal nanoparticles by heating process (95 °C) directly without additive as reduction agent. Meanwhile, the amorphous TiO2 was transformed into anatase phase during the heating process. Thus, the transformation of TiO2 along with the reduction of noble metallic ions (Ag, Au) was simultaneously carried out by heating. The XRD patterns proved the formation of anatase TiO2 after heating. The characterizations of XPS and TEM proved the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles on the surface of TiO2. The element mapping indicated that Ag nanoparticles are dispersed uniformly on the surface of TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of the composites has been investigated by the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. The results showed that when Ag/TiO2 (2.8 wt%) was used as photocatalyst, about 98% of the MO molecules were degraded in 70 min.

  10. Facile synthesis of the flower-like ternary heterostructure of Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaohua [School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control (Ministry of Education), Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Engineering Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Su, Shuai; Wu, Guangli; Li, Caizhu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Qin, Zhe [School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control (Ministry of Education), Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Engineering Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Lou, Xiangdong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Zhou, Jianguo, E-mail: zhoujgwj@163.com [School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control (Ministry of Education), Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Engineering Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Flower-like Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres (Ag/ZnO@C) was synthesized. • A green facile synthesis method was used. • Ag/ZnO@C exhibited better photocatalytic performance than Ag/ZnO, ZnO@C, and ZnO. • Dye and metronidazole both can be decomposed by Ag/ZnO@C. - Abstract: To utilize sunlight more effectively in photocatalytic reactions, the flower-like ternary heterostructure of Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres (Ag/ZnO@C) was successfully synthesized by a green and facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The carbon spheres (CSs) were wrapped by ZnO nanosheets, forming flower-like microstructures, and Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were deposited on the surface of the ZnO nanosheets. The Ag/ZnO@C ternary heterostructure exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to those of Ag/ZnO, ZnO@C and pure ZnO for the degradation of Reactive Black GR and metronidazole under sunlight and visible light irradiation. This was attributed to the enhanced visible light absorption and effective charge separation based on the synergistic effect of ZnO, Ag NPs, and CSs. Due to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag NPs and surface photosensitizing effect of CSs, Ag/ZnO@C exhibited enhanced visible light absorption. Meanwhile, Ag NPs and CSs can both act as rapid electron transfer units to improve the separation of photogenerated charge carriers in Ag/ZnO@C. The primary active species were determined, and the photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. This work demonstrates an effective way to improve the photocatalytic performance of ZnO and provides information for the facile synthesis of noble metal/ZnO@C ternary heterostructure.

  11. Thermodynamic assessments of the Ag-Gd and Ag-Nd systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Wang, C.P.; Liu, X.J.; Ishida, K.

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties in the Ag-Re (Re: Gd, Nd) binary systems have been assessed by using the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method on the basis of the experimental data including the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. The Gibbs free energies of the liquid, bcc, fcc, dhcp and hcp phases were described by the subregular solution model with the Redlich-Kister equation, and those of the intermetallic compounds (Ag 51 Gd 14 , Ag 2 Gd, AgGd, Ag 51 Nd 14 , αAg 2 Nd, βAg 2 Nd and AgNd phases) in these two binary systems were described by the sublattice model. The thermodynamic parameters of each phase in the Ag-Re (Re: Gd, Nd) binary systems were obtained, and an agreement between the calculated results and experimental data was obtained in each binary system.

  12. Radiochemical synthesis of {sup 105g}Ag-labelled silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichedef, C., E-mail: cigdem_ch@yahoo.com; Simonelli, F.; Holzwarth, U. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Bagaria, J. Piella; Puntes, V. F. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia (ICN2) (Spain); Cotogno, G.; Gilliland, D.; Gibson, N. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission, Joint Research Centre (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    A method for synthesis of radiolabelled silver nanoparticles is reported. The method is based on proton activation of silver metal powder, enriched in {sup 107}Ag, with a 30.7 MeV proton beam. At this proton energy {sup 105g}Ag is efficiently created, mainly via the {sup 107}Ag(p,3n){sup 105}Cd → {sup 105g}Ag reaction. {sup 105g}Ag has a half-life of 41.29 days and emits easily detectable gamma radiation on decay to {sup 105}Pd. This makes it very useful as a tracing radionuclide for experiments over several weeks or months. Following activation and a period to allow short-lived radionuclides to decay, the powder was dissolved in concentrated nitric acid in order to form silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}), which was used to synthesise radiolabelled silver nanoparticles via the process of sodium borohydride reduction. For comparison, non-radioactive silver nanoparticles were synthesised using commercially supplied AgNO{sub 3} in order to check if the use of irradiated Ag powder as a starting material would alter in any way the final nanoparticle characteristics. Both nanoparticle types were characterised using dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential and X-ray diffraction measurements, while additionally the non-radioactive samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy and UV–Vis spectrometry. A hydrodynamic diameter of about 16 nm was determined for both radiolabelled and non-radioactive nanoparticles, while the electron microscopy on the non-radioactive samples indicated that the physical size of the metal NPs was (7.3 ± 1.4) nm.

  13. The green synthesis of Ag/ZnO in montmorillonite with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Seifi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO was loaded in MMT support by green synthesis method. • MMT support increased absorption of dye and separation of electron-hole in ZnO. • Ag nanoparticles improved photocatalytic properties of ZnO-MMT. • The particles size of Ag in ZnO-MMT was 2–4 nm. • In contrast ZnO-MMT, Ag/ZnO-MMT was a visible light driven photocatalyst. - Abstract: The Ag/ZnO-MMT nanocomposite was prepared using urtica dioica leaf extract. To improve the photocatalytic properties of ZnO-MMT nanocomposite, silver metal nanoparticles was deposited over nanocomposite. Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 , AgNO 3 and Urtica dioica leaf extract were used as a zinc, silver precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The powder X-ray diffraction showed that Ag/ZnO nanoparticles located on the surface MMT layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra of nanocomposite indicated a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band in the visible region, resulting from metallic Ag nanoparticles. TEM image demonstrated the presence of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 2–4 nm over both MMT and flower-shape ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite was studied for destructive reaction methylene blue dye under visible light. In addition, the effects of different parameters such as amount of nanocomposite, concentration of the dye and pH of the solution were studied. The results showed that modiffication of ZnO-MMT nanocomposite with silver nanoparticles increased the percentage of discoloration methylene blue (MB) from 38.95 to 91.95. MMT matrix showed an important role in the reduction of recombination of electron-hole in nanocomposite.

  14. The green synthesis of Ag/ZnO in montmorillonite with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh., E-mail: sohrabnezhad@guilan.ac.ir; Seifi, A.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO was loaded in MMT support by green synthesis method. • MMT support increased absorption of dye and separation of electron-hole in ZnO. • Ag nanoparticles improved photocatalytic properties of ZnO-MMT. • The particles size of Ag in ZnO-MMT was 2–4 nm. • In contrast ZnO-MMT, Ag/ZnO-MMT was a visible light driven photocatalyst. - Abstract: The Ag/ZnO-MMT nanocomposite was prepared using urtica dioica leaf extract. To improve the photocatalytic properties of ZnO-MMT nanocomposite, silver metal nanoparticles was deposited over nanocomposite. Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, AgNO{sub 3} and Urtica dioica leaf extract were used as a zinc, silver precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The powder X-ray diffraction showed that Ag/ZnO nanoparticles located on the surface MMT layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra of nanocomposite indicated a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band in the visible region, resulting from metallic Ag nanoparticles. TEM image demonstrated the presence of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 2–4 nm over both MMT and flower-shape ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite was studied for destructive reaction methylene blue dye under visible light. In addition, the effects of different parameters such as amount of nanocomposite, concentration of the dye and pH of the solution were studied. The results showed that modiffication of ZnO-MMT nanocomposite with silver nanoparticles increased the percentage of discoloration methylene blue (MB) from 38.95 to 91.95. MMT matrix showed an important role in the reduction of recombination of electron-hole in nanocomposite.

  15. Ag- and Cu-doped multifunctional bioactive nanostructured TiCaPCON films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtansky, D.V., E-mail: shtansky@shs.misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospekt 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Batenina, I.V.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V.; Sheveyko, A.N.; Kuptsov, K.A. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospekt 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Zhitnyak, I.Y.; Anisimova, N.Yu.; Gloushankova, N.A. [N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center of RAMS, Kashirskoe shosse 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    A key property of multicomponent bioactive nanostructured Ti(C,N)-based films doped with Ca, P, and O (TiCaPCON) that can be improved further is their antibacterial effect that should be achieved without compromising the implant bioactivity and biocompatibility. The present work is focused on the study of structure, chemical, mechanical, tribological, and biological properties of Ag- and Cu-doped TiCaPCON films. The films with Ag (0.4–4 at.%) and Cu (13 at.%) contents were obtained by simultaneous sputtering of a TiC{sub 0.5}–Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} target and either an Ag or a Cu target. The film structure was studied using X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, and Raman-shift and IR spectroscopy. The films were characterized in terms of their hardness, elastic modulus, dynamic impact resistance, friction coefficient and wear rate (both in air and normal saline), surface wettability, electrochemical behavior and Ag or Cu ion release in normal saline. Particular attention was paid to the influence of inorganic bactericides (Ag and Cu ions) on the bactericidal activity against unicellular yeast fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae and gram-positive bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus, as well as on the attachment, spreading, actin cytoskeleton organization, focal adhesions, and early stages of osteoblastic cell differentiation. The obtained results show that the Ag-doped films are more suitable for the protection of metallic surfaces against bacterial infection compared with their Cu-doped counterpart. In particular, an excellent combination of mechanical, tribological, and biological properties makes Ag-doped TiCaPCON film with 1.2 at.% of Ag very attractive material for bioengineering and modification of load-bearing metal implant surfaces.

  16. Prolonged pain and disability are common after rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of rib fractures to prolonged pain and disability may be underappreciated and undertreated. Clinicians are traditionally taught that the pain and disability of rib fractures resolves in 6 to 8 weeks. This study was a prospective observation of 203 patients with rib fractures at a level 1 trauma center. Chest wall pain was evaluated by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Prolonged pain was defined as a PRI of 8 or more at 2 months after injury. Prolonged disability was defined as a decrease in 1 or more levels of work or functional status at 2 months after injury. Predictors of prolonged pain and disability were determined by multivariate analysis. One hundred forty-five male patients and 58 female patients with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 20 (range, 1 to 59) had a mean of 5.4 rib fractures (range, 1 to 29). Forty-four (22%) patients had bilateral fractures, 15 (7%) had flail chest, and 92 (45%) had associated injury. One hundred eighty-seven patients were followed 2 months or more. One hundred ten (59%) patients had prolonged chest wall pain and 142 (76%) had prolonged disability. Among 111 patients with isolated rib fractures, 67 (64%) had prolonged chest wall pain and 69 (66%) had prolonged disability. MPQ PPI was predictive of prolonged pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.5), and prolonged disability (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4). The presence of significant associated injuries was predictive of prolonged disability (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29). Prolonged chest wall pain is common, and the contribution of rib fractures to disability is greater than traditionally expected. Further investigation into more effective therapies that prevent prolonged pain and disability after rib fractures is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Ag Nanocubes with Different Corner Shape on the Absorption Enhancement in Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of corner shape of silver (Ag nanocubes (NCs on optical absorptions of organic solar cells (OSCs are theoretically investigated by finite element method (FEM calculations. The absorption of sun light in the active layer is calculated. Significant absorption enhancements have been demonstrated in metallic region with different shapes of Ag NCs, among them corner radius (R is zero result in the best light absorption performance of up to 55% enhancement with respect to bare OSCs. The origins of increased absorption are believed to be the effects of the huge electric field enhancement and increased scattering upon the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR. Apart from using R=0, we show that R=3, 6, and 11.29 of Ag NCs in metallic region of active layer may also result in the maximum comparable absorption enhancement of 49%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In addition, a significant effect of the period of NCs is observed.

  18. Interfacial electronic structure of electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles on iron oxide nanorice particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Ku [Dept. of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A bimetallic hybrid nanostructure of uni- formly electrodeposited Ag NPs on an Fe oxide nanorice particle template was developed. Figure 6 schematically illustrates uniform electrodeposition of Ag NPs on Fe oxide nanorice supported on a Si substrate. According to Ar + ion depth-probling XPS spectra, the electrodeposited Ag NPs are metallic, and the Fe oxide nanorice particles consist of a metallic shell covered by ultrathin FeOOH or Fe 2 O 3 shells. When the template was functionalized with 1,4-diisocyanobenzene, one terminal NC group was bridge- bonded as in the N C form on the Fe surface. The newly developed selective facial electrodeposition method will be very useful for facial fabrication of bimetallic hybrid systems for diverse application areas.

  19. A simple approach for large-area fabrication of Ag nanorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhihao; Zhou Wei; Duan Yueqin; Bie Lijian

    2008-01-01

    A simple and low-cost method based on a two-step heat treatment of AgNO 3 /SiO 2 film has been developed for fabricating metal Ag nanoring arrays. The as-prepared nanorings have an inner diameter of 70-250 nm and an average wall thickness (namely wire diameter) of approximately 30 nm with a number density of approximately 10 9 cm -2 on the surface of the SiO 2 matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that these nanorings exhibit a face-centered cubic crystal structure. Furthermore, a new growth mechanism, namely a molten metal bubble as a self-template, is tentatively proposed for Ag nanorings

  20. A simple approach for large-area fabrication of Ag nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Zhihao; Zhou Wei; Duan Yueqin; Bie Lijian [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Research Center, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China)], E-mail: zhyuan@tjut.edu.cn, E-mail: zhyuan@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2008-02-20

    A simple and low-cost method based on a two-step heat treatment of AgNO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} film has been developed for fabricating metal Ag nanoring arrays. The as-prepared nanorings have an inner diameter of 70-250 nm and an average wall thickness (namely wire diameter) of approximately 30 nm with a number density of approximately 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} on the surface of the SiO{sub 2} matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that these nanorings exhibit a face-centered cubic crystal structure. Furthermore, a new growth mechanism, namely a molten metal bubble as a self-template, is tentatively proposed for Ag nanorings.

  1. Plasmonic Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag composite: Excellent photocatalytic performance and possible photocatalytic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongliao [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Zhang, Jinfeng, E-mail: zjf_y2004@126.com [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Lv, Jiali [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Dai, Kai, E-mail: daikai940@chnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Liang, Changhao [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Novel Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag photocatalyst was prepared. • Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag showed high photocatalytic activity. • Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag showed long reusable life. - Abstract: Plasmonic Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag composite is fabricated by in-situ ion exchange and reduction methods at room temperature. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance (DRS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results show that butterfly-like Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} nanosheets served as the precursor, and Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag is formed in phase transformation with MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} displaced by Br{sup −}. The ternary Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag composite photocatalysts show greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation compared with AgBr and Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}. The pseudo-first-order rate constant k{sub app} of Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag is 0.602 min{sup −1}, which is 11.6 and 18.3 times as high as that of AgBr and Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}, respectively. Meanwhile, the efficiency of degradation still kept 90% after ten times cyclic experiments. Eventually, possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  2. Bromide (Br) - Based Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes with High-Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Wenhui; Xu, Zhongfeng; Li, Fuli

    2015-01-01

    The geometry of metal nanoparticles greatly affects the properties of the localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles with controllable geometry has thus attracted extensive attentions. In this work, we report a modified polyol synthesis approach of silver (Ag) nanocubes through tuning the concentration of bromide ions (Br? ions). We have systematically investigated the effect of Br? ions in the polyol process, and find that ...

  3. Ag diffusion in cubic silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader, David; Khalil, Sarah M.; Gerczak, Tyler; Allen, Todd R.; Heim, Andrew J.; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion of Ag impurities in bulk 3C-SiC is studied using ab initio methods based on density functional theory. This work is motivated by the desire to reduce transport of radioactive Ag isotopes through the SiC boundary layer in the Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) fuel pellet, which is a significant concern for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) nuclear reactor concept. The structure and stability of charged Ag and Ag-vacancy clusters in SiC are calculated. Relevant intrinsic SiC defect energies are also determined. The most stable state for the Ag impurity in SiC is found to be a Ag atom substituting on the Si sub-lattice and bound to a C vacancy. Bulk diffusion coefficients are estimated for different impurity states and values are all found to have very high activation energy. The impurity state with the lowest activation energy for diffusion is found to be the Ag interstitial, with an activation energy of approximately 7.9 eV. The high activation energies for Ag diffusion in bulk 3C-SiC cause Ag transport to be very slow in the bulk and suggests that observed Ag transport in this material is due to an alternative mechanism (e.g., grain boundary diffusion).

  4. Surface characterization of Ag/Titania adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander; Nair, Sachin; Duin, Evert C.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ag/Titania adsorbent for selective removal of the desulfurization-refractive polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) from liquid hydrocarbon fuels was prepared, its total and the Ag specific surface area were determined and the surface reaction sites in the sorbent that may be active in the adsorptive selective desulfurization were characterized by several spectroscopic and surface science techniques. The sorbent contains Ag, Ti, O and spurious C on its surface, as by the XPS measurements. Silver is present as an oxide, as judged by the XPS Auger parameter (AP). The complementary electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy confirms that the majority of Ag is present in the diamagnetic Ag 1+ form, with the minor concentration (∼0.1% of total Ag) present as Ag 2+ . The findings by XPS and ESR are confirmed by the XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy and thermodynamic considerations. The supported Ag is highly dispersed on the surface of the titania support, with the particle size of ∼30-60 A depending on Ag content, with an Ag specific surface area of ∼7-14 m 2 /g, vs. the total surface area of ∼114-58 m 2 /g.

  5. Electrodeposition of thin Pd-Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasler, P.; Allmendinger, T.

    1993-01-01

    Thin Pd-Ag layers were electroplated preferably on brass and on nickel substrates using a two-compartment cell separated by an anion exchange membrane. The weakly alkaline electrolyte contained glycine-glycinate as the major complexing agents. The plating experiments were usually carried out without stirring, at different potentials and temperatures and in the absence or in the presence of sodium benzaldehyde-2,4-disulphonate (BDS). The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Their compositions were determined analytically by the inductively coupled plasma technique. In addition, the film porosity was tested. Electrodeposition in almost limiting current conditions for both components and without simultaneous hydrogen evolution led to deposits with compositions being in good agreement with the molar metal ratio in the electrolyte (77:23). The best results were achieved between 0 and -50 mV with respect to a reversible hydrogen electrode at 0 C in the presence of BDS. These deposits were bright, had good adherence and exhibited no pores at a film thickness of 1.2 μm. At too negative potentials, the deposits became black and powdery. (orig.)

  6. Direct in situ activation of Ag{sup 0} nanoparticles in synthesis of Ag/TiO{sub 2} and its photoactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaafar, N.F. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Jalil, A.A., E-mail: aishah@cheme.utm.my [Institute of Hydrogen Economy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Triwahyono, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Efendi, J. [Department of Chemistry, Universitas Negeri Padang, Jl. Prof. Hamka, Air Tawar, Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Mukti, R.R. [Division of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Jusoh, R.; Jusoh, N.W.C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Karim, A.H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, N.F.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Suendo, V. [Division of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-05-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag{sup 0} loaded on TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a direct in situ electrochemical method. • 5 wt% Ag–TiO{sub 2} demonstrated the best photocatalytic degradation of 2-CP. • Isomorphous substitution of Ag with Ti occurred to form Ti−O−Ag bonds. • Ag{sup 0} and oxygen vacancies trapped electrons to enhance e–H{sup +} separation. • Substitution of Ag in the TiO{sub 2} structure decreased the number of oxygen vacancies. - Abstract: Metallic Ag nanoparticles (Ag{sup 0}) were successfully activated using a direct in situ electrochemical method before being supported on TiO{sub 2}. Catalytic testing showed that 5 wt% Ag–TiO{sub 2} gave the highest photodegradation (94%) of 50 mg L{sup −1} 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) at pH 5 using 0.375 g L{sup −1} catalyst within 6 h, while under similar conditions, 1 wt% and 10 wt% Ag–TiO{sub 2} only gave 75% and 78% degradation, respectively. Characterization results illustrated that the photoactivity was affected by the amount of Ag{sup 0} and oxygen vacancies which act as an electrons trap to enhance the electron–hole separation. While, the Ag−O−Ti bonds formation reduced the photoactivity. The degradation followed a pseudo-first order Langmuir–Hinshelwood model where adsorption was the controlling step. Study on the effect of scavengers showed that the hole (H{sup +}) and hydroxyl radical (OH·) play important roles in the photodegradation. The regenerated photocatalyst was still stable after five cycling runs.

  7. Transformation-Dissolution Reactions Partially Explain Adverse Effects of Metallic Silver Nanoparticles to Soil Nitrification in Different Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollyn, Jessica; Willaert, Bernd; Kerré, Bart; Moens, Claudia; Arijs, Katrien; Mertens, Jelle; Leverett, Dean; Oorts, Koen; Smolders, Erik

    2018-04-25

    Risk assessment of metallic nanoparticles (NP) is critically affected by the concern that toxicity goes beyond that of the metallic ion. This study addressed this concern for soils with silver (Ag)-NP using the Ag-sensitive nitrification assay. Three agricultural soils (A,B,C) were spiked with equivalent Ag doses of either Ag-NP (d = 13 nm) or AgNO 3 . Soil solution was isolated and monitored over 97 days with due attention to accurate Ag fractionation at low (∼10 µg L -1 ) Ag concentrations. Truly dissolved (soils decreased with reaction half-lives of 4 to 22 days depending on the soil, denoting important Ag-ageing reactions. In contrast, truly dissolved Ag in Ag-NP-amended soils first increased by dissolution and subsequently decreased by ageing; the concentration never exceeding that in the AgNO 3 -amended soils. The half-lives of Ag-NP transformation-dissolution were about 4 days (soils A&B) and 36 days (soil C). The Ag toxic thresholds (EC10, mg Ag kg -1 soil) of nitrification, either evaluated at 21 or 35 days after spiking, were similar between the two Ag forms (soils A&B) but were factors 3 to 8 lower for AgNO 3 than for Ag-NP (soil C), largely corroborating with dissolution differences. This fate and bio-assay showed that Ag-NPs are not more toxic than AgNO 3 at equivalent total soil Ag concentrations and that differences in Ag-dissolution at least partially explain toxicity differences between the forms and among soils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrodynamic chromatography coupled to single-particle ICP-MS for the simultaneous characterization of AgNPs and determination of dissolved Ag in plasma and blood of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mičetić, Ivan; Benetti, Federico; Manodori, Laura; Cairns, Warren R L

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in medical devices as innovative antibacterial agents, but no data are currently available on their chemical transformations and fate in vivo in the human body, particularly on their potential to reach the circulatory system. To study the processes involving AgNPs in human plasma and blood, we developed an analytical method based on hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in single-particle detection mode. An innovative algorithm was implemented to deconvolute the signals of dissolved Ag and AgNPs and to extrapolate a multiparametric characterization of the particles in the same chromatogram. From a single injection, the method provides the concentration of dissolved Ag and the distribution of AgNPs in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, mass-derived diameter, number and mass concentration. This analytical approach is robust and suitable to study quantitatively the dynamics and kinetics of AgNPs in complex biological fluids, including processes such as agglomeration, dissolution and formation of protein coronas. The method was applied to study the transformations of AgNP standards and an AgNP-coated dressing in human plasma, supported by micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μXANES) speciation analysis and imaging, and to investigate, for the first time, the possible presence of AgNPs in the blood of three burn patients treated with the same dressing. Together with our previous studies, the results strongly support the hypothesis that the systemic mobilization of the metal after topical administration of AgNPs is driven by their dissolution in situ. Graphical Abstract Simplified scheme of the combined analytical approach adopted for studying the chemical dynamics of AgNPs in human plasma/blood.

  9. Study of Ag+/PAA (polyacrylic acid) and Ag0/PAA aqueous system at equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keghouche, N.; Mostafavi, M.; Delcourt, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    When submitted to gamma radiation the system Ag + -PAA-water leads to clusters Ag 0 n /PAA (3 420 nm) interacting with the clusters. Potentiometric measurements carried out on Ag + solutions in the presence of PAA at various pH show that the deprotonated form (polyacrylate anion) is strongly bonded to Ag + , on the opposite of the protonated form of PAA. One of the oligomer clusters can be stabilized for more than one year. Studying it by infra-red spectrometry reveals important modifications in the vibration bands of the COO - group circa 1400 and 1600 cm -1 according to the bonding of PAA with Ag + or Ag 0 [fr

  10. Core–shell Au/Ag nanoparticles embedded in silicate sol–gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor S K Rangarajan. *For correspondence. Core–shell Au/Ag nanoparticles embedded in silicate sol–gel network for sensor .... An immediate colour change was observed for the mixed solution, indicating the dis- persion of metal nanoparticles in the MTMOS sol– gel matrix.

  11. Soft-lithographic patterning of room termperature-sintering Ag Nanoparticles on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Bat, E.; Voorthuijzen, W. Pim; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature-sintering, poly(acrylic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag-PAA NPs) were used in a wide range of nanofabrication methods to form metallic silver microstructures on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Silver wires on top of PET foil were patterned by

  12. Soft-lithographic patterning of room temperaturesintering Ag nanoparticles on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen,P.F.; Bat,E.; Voorthuijzen, W.P.; Huskens, J.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature-sintering, poly(acrylic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag-PAA NPs) were used in a wide range of nanofabrication methods to form metallic silver microstructures on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Silver wires on top of PET foil were patterned by

  13. Hg-II/Ag-I-mediated base pairs and their NMR spectroscopic studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dairaku, T.; Furuita, K.; Sato, H.; Šebera, Jakub; Nakashima, K.; Ono, A.; Sychrovský, Vladimír; Kojima, C.; Tanaka, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 452, Oct 1 (2016), s. 34-42 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0228 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR * Hg * Ag * metal-DNA Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  14. Ag2S deposited on oxidized polypropylene as composite material for solar light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krylovaa, V.; Milbrat, Alexander; Embrachts, A.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Thin film metal chalcogenides are superior solar light absorbers and can be combined into a functional material when deposited on polymeric substrates. Ag2S composite materials were synthesized on oxidized polypropylene using chemical bath deposition method and their properties were explored using

  15. Ag-Pd-Cu alloy inserted transparent indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki; Noh, Yong-Jin; Na, Seok-In

    2014-01-01

    The authors report on the characteristics of Ag-Pd-Cu (APC) alloy-inserted indium tin oxide (ITO) films sputtered on a glass substrate at room temperature for application as transparent anodes in organic solar cells (OSCs). The effect of the APC interlayer thickness on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer were investigated and compared to those of ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes. At the optimized APC thickness of 8 nm, the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer exhibited a resistivity of 8.55 × 10 −5 Ω cm, an optical transmittance of 82.63%, and a figure-of-merit value of 13.54 × 10 −3 Ω −1 , comparable to those of the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer. Unlike the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, agglomeration of the metal interlayer was effectively relieved with APC interlayer due to existence of Pd and Cu elements in the thin region of the APC interlayer. The OSCs fabricated on the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer showed higher power conversion efficiency than that of OSCs prepared on the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer below 10 nm due to the flatness of the APC layer. The improved performance of the OSCs with ITO/APC/ITO multilayer electrodes indicates that the APC alloy interlayer prevents the agglomeration of the Ag-based metal interlayer and can decrease the thickness of the metal interlayer in the oxide-metal-oxide multilayer of high-performance OSCs

  16. Scattering cross section of metal catalyst atoms in silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Rurali, R.; Cartoixa, X.

    2010-01-01

    A common technique to fabricate silicon nanowires is to use metal particles (e.g., Au, Ag, Cu, Al) to catalyze the growth reaction. As a consequence, the fabricated nanowires contain small concentrations of these metals as impurities. In this work we investigate the effect of the metallic impurit...

  17. Potential susceptibility inhibitory effect of Ag and ZnO engineered nanoparticles on bacterial strains: effect of pH and temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mboyi, A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic and social benefits of metallic silver (n-Ag) and zinc oxide (n-ZnO) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) applications in medical, technological, environmental remediation, consumer products, among other have widely been demonstrated...

  18. Polarization preservation in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The successful operation of a high energy polarized beam at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) with the concommitant development of depolarizing resonance correction techniques has led to the present project of commissioning such a beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A description of the project was presented at the 1981 National Accelerator Conference. I would like to now present a more detailed description of how we plan to preserve the polarization during acceleration, and to present our game plan for tuning through some 50 resonances and reaching our goal of a 26 GeV polarized proton beam with greater than 60% polarization

  19. Does UTI cause prolonged jaundice in otherwise well infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tanzila; Kisat, Hamudi; Tullus, Kjell

    2015-07-01

    The symptoms of urinary tract infections in infants are very non-specific and have historically included prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia. We studied the results of routine urine samples in 319 infants with prolonged jaundice. Convincing findings of UTI was not found in any of these children even if one of them was treated with antibiotics after four consecutive urine cultures with different bacteria. A urine culture might thus not be an appropriate investigation in a child with prolonged jaundice without any other symptoms of UTI. • The symptoms of UTI in infancy are very non-specific. • Old studies suggest that prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia is one such symptom; more modern studies give more conflicting results. What is New: • Our study could not confirm that children with prolonged jaundice have an increased risk of UTI. • Routine urine testing is thus not needed in otherwise healthy infants with prolonged jaundice.

  20. High efficient multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite nanowires for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yaling; Zhou, Hangyu; Zhu, Genxing; Shao, Changyu; Pan, Haihua; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires were synthesized via a facile in-situ precipitation method. • By optimizing the initial concentration of AgNO_3, the well-distributed Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites could be achieved. • The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites showed excellent photocatalytic performance for the decomposition of dyes under visible light irradiation. • The maximum absorption capacity of the Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites for Pb(II) was 250 mg/g, approximately three times as that of pure HAP. • The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites also exhibited excellent antibacterial activities even at relative low concentrations. - Abstract: Organic, inorganic, and biological pollutants are typical water contaminants and they seriously affect water quality. In this study, we suggested that a novel multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) material can remove the typical pollutants from water. The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites were synthesized facilely via in-situ precipitation of Ag_3PO_4 on the pre-existing HAP nanowires. By optimizing the composition of Ag_3PO_4 and HAP, the material could achieve an optimal photocatalytic activity to decompose rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiations with enhanced pH stability. Besides, the adsorption of Pb(II) on the Ag_3PO_4/HAP reached a maximum capacity of 250 mg/g and this value was approximately three times as that of pure HAP. Furthermore, the composite material exhibited excellent antibacterial activities towards gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacterium (Stphylococcus aureus). The results highlighted the cooperative effect between Ag_3PO_4 and hydroxyapatite (HAP). The simultaneous removals of dyes, toxic metal ions, and bacteria with a high efficiency followed an easy approach for the purification of contaminated water via the rationally designed material, in which the Ag_3PO_4/HAP composite might be developed

  1. High-value utilization of lignin to synthesize Ag nanoparticles with detection capacity for Hg²⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zuguang; Luo, Yuqiong; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xiaoying; Sun, Runcang

    2014-09-24

    This study reports the rapid preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Tollens' reagent under microwave irradiation. In the synthesis, lignin with reducing groups and spatial three-dimensional structure was used as reducing and stabilizing agents without other chemical reagents, and the effects of the ratio of lignin to Ag(+), reaction temperature, and heating time on the synthesis of AgNPs were investigated. The obtained AgNPs were further characterized by UV-vis, Malvern particle size, TEM, XRD, and XPS analyses. The structural changes of lignin before and after reaction were also studied by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and GC-MS. The results revealed that the obtained AgNPs were mostly spherical with diameters of around 24 nm. The optimum reaction conditions were a ratio 50 mg of lignin to 0.3 mM of Ag(+), a microwave irradiation temperature of 60 °C, and a heating time of 10 min. Moreover, AgNPs redispersed well in water and ethanol after centrifugation for the removal of lignin. During the formation of AgNPs, lignin was oxidized, and the side chains of lignin were partly disrupted into small molecules, such as hydrocarbon and alcohol. The resultant lignin-AgNPs showed highly selective sensing detection for Hg(2+), and the color of the lignin-AgNP solution containing Hg(2+) decreased gradually with increasing amounts of Hg(2+) within seconds, but the other 19 metal ions had little effect on the color and surface plasmon absorption band of the lignin-AgNPs. Also, there was a linear relationship between the absorbance and Hg(2+) concentration, with a limit of detection concentration of 23 nM. This study provides not only a new way to take advantage of agricultural and forestry residues, but also a green and rapid method for the synthesis of AgNPs to detect the toxic ion Hg(2+) selectively and sensitively.

  2. H2O2 rejuvenation-mediated synthesis of stable mixed-morphology Ag3PO4 photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Agbe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ag3PO4 photocatalyst has attracted interest of the scientific community in recent times due to its reported high efficiency for water oxidation and dye degradation. However, Ag3PO4 photo-corrodes if electron accepter such as AgNO3 is not used as scavenger. Synthesis of efficient Ag3PO4 followed by a simple protocol for regeneration of the photocatalyst is therefore a prerequisite for practical application. Herein, we present a facile method for the synthesis of a highly efficient Ag3PO4, whose photocatalytic efficiency was demonstrated using 3 different organic dyes: Methylene Blue (MB, Methyl orange (MO and Rhodamine B (RhB organic dyes for degradation tests. Approximately, 19 % of Ag3PO4 is converted to Ag0 after 4.30 hours of continuous UV-Vis irradiation in presence of MB organic dye. We have shown that the Ag/Ag3PO4 composite can be rejuvenated by a simple chemical oxidation step after several cycles of photocatalysis tests. At an optimal pH of 6.5, a mixture of cubic, rhombic dodecahedron, nanosphere and nanocrystals morphologies of the photocatalyst was formed. H2O2 served as the chemical oxidant to re-insert the surface metallic Ag into the Ag3PO4 photocatalyst but also as the agent that can control morphology of the regenerated as-prepared photocatalyst without the need for any other morphology controlling Agent (MCA. Surprisingly, the as- regenerated Ag3PO4 was found to have higher photocatalytic reactivity than the freshly made material and superior at least 17 times in comparison with the conventional Degussa TiO2, and some of TiO2 composites tested in this work. Keywords: Materials chemistry, Materials science, Engineering

  3. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  4. Prolonged response without prolonged chemotherapy: a lesson from PCV chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Ricard, Damien; Jouvet, Anne; Pallud, Johan; Mokhtari, Karima; Guyotat, Jacques; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Frappaz, Didier; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies with temozolomide suggest that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is important for treating low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating LGGs, but this therapy cannot be used for a prolonged period because of the cumulative toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line PCV chemotherapy on LGGs growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 21 LGGs was measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n=13), during, and after PCV onset (n=21). During PCV treatment, a decrease in the MTD was observed in all patients. After PCV discontinuation, an ongoing decrease in MTD was observed in 20 of the 21 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 3.4 years (range, 0.8–7.7) after PCV onset and 2.7 years (range, 0–7) after the end of PCV treatment with 60% of LGGs, demonstrating an ongoing and prolonged (>2 years) response despite chemotherapy no longer being administered. According to McDonald's criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 5% and 38% at the end of PCV but 38% and 42% at the time of maximal MTD decrease, which occurred after a median period of 3.4 years after PCV onset. These results challenge the idea that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is necessary for treating LGGs and raise the issue of understanding the mechanisms involved in the persistent tumor volume decrease once chemotherapy is terminated. PMID:20488959

  5. Fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory for supernonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jipeng; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superprincipal bundle and its associated superbundle. The super(nonlinear)connection on the superfiber bundle is constructed. Then by means of the connection theory, we establish the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory of the supernonlinear evolution equation. In this geometry theory, the fermionic covariant fundamental equations determining the prolongation structure are presented. As an example, the supernonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed in the framework of this fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We obtain its Lax pairs and Baecklund transformation.

  6. Flower-like Ag/AgCl microcrystals: Synthesis and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daupor, Hasan; Wongnawa, Sumpun

    2015-01-01

    Silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) composites with a novel flower-like morphology were prepared via a hot precipitation assisted by the vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) route. An aqueous solution of AlCl 3 was mixed with the vinyl acetate monomer and acetic acid before adding a AgNO 3 solution at a temperature of 100 °C. The octapod shaped flower-like Ag/AgCl particles (or “flower-like Ag/AgCl” hereinafter) has eight petals each of which was about 7–11 μm in length. The flower-like octapods were formed by preferential overgrowth along the <111> directions of the cubic seeds. Detailed studies of the growth process at different AlCl 3 concentrations revealed that the concave cube developed into a Rubik's cube where eight corners grew further into the flower-like structures. The VAM and acetic acid concentration strongly affected the growth of the Ag/AgCl to the flower-like structure and their optimum concentrations were determined. The morphologies of these particles were carefully examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystal structures and orientation relationship were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The flower-like Ag/AgCl microcrystals were tested for their photocatalytic degradation of orange G dye (OG) catalyzed by visible light. From comparative test runs, the flower-like Ag/AgCl exhibited better photocatalytic activity than simple and commercial Ag/AgCl particles. - Highlights: • Interesting transformation of microcrystals Ag/AgCl from concave cube via Rubik's cube to flower-like shape. • The first to use VAM as morphology control reagent. • High photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

  7. Evaluation of colloidal Ag and Ag-alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, Mohammed H.; Northwood, Derek O. [Mechanical, Auto, and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Gyenge, Elod L. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Colombia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    In this study, colloidal silver and silver-alloys (Ag-Pt, Ag-Au, Ag-Ir, and Ag-Pd) prepared by the Boenneman technique were evaluated as anode catalysts for sodium borohydride oxidation using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), chronopotentiometry (CP) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry. The CV results show that the colloidal Ag-alloys were electrochemically active towards borohydride oxidation with oxidation potentials ranging between -0.7 and 0.4 V vs. Hg/HgO (MOE). The most negative oxidation potential was recorded on Ag-Pt. CA results show that the steady state current density was highest on Ag-Pt, followed by Ag-Ir, Ag-Au, and Ag-Pd. The lowest overpotential was recorded on Ag-Ir for a current step change of 10mAcm{sup -2}. A significant temperature effect and a small rotation speed effect were found in the rotating disc voltammetry for all the investigated colloids. The highest peak current was recorded on Ag-Au, while the most negative peak potential was recorded on Ag-Ir. (author)

  8. Metallic complexes with glyphosate: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Cláudia F. B.; Mazo, Luiz Henrique

    2005-01-01

    We present studies involving metallic ions and the herbicide glyphosate. The metallic complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), Co(III), ammonium, sodium, Ag(I), alkaline earth metals and of some lanthanides ions are described. The complexes are discussed in terms of their synthesis, identification, stability and structural properties, based on data from the current literature.

  9. Metallic complexes with glyphosate: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, Claudia F.B.; Mazo, Luiz Henrique

    2005-01-01

    We present studies involving metallic ions and the herbicide glyphosate. The metallic complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), Co(III), ammonium, sodium, Ag(I), alkaline earth metals and of some lanthanides ions are described. The complexes are discussed in terms of their synthesis, identification, stability and structural properties, based on data from the current literature. (author)

  10. Machinability of an experimental Ti-Ag alloy in terms of tool life in a dental CAD/CAM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Ryoichi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Takada, Yukyo; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Titanium is difficult to machine because of its intrinsic properties. In a previous study, the machinability of titanium was improved by alloying with silver. This study aimed to evaluate the durability of tungsten carbide burs after the fabrication of frameworks using a Ti-20%Ag alloy and titanium with a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing system. There was a significant difference in attrition area ratio between the two metals. Compared with titanium, the ratio of the area of attrition of machining burs was significantly lower for the experimental Ti-20%Ag alloy. The difference in the area of attrition for titanium and Ti-20%Ag became remarkable with increasing number of machining operations. The results show that the same burs can be used for a longer time with Ti-20%Ag than with pure titanium. Therefore, in terms of tool life, the machinability of the Ti-20%Ag alloy is superior to that of titanium.

  11. 1-Hexadecylamine as both reducing agent and stabilizer to synthesize Au and Ag nanoparticles and their SERS application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiaomiao; Zhan, Xiaoling; Fang Yan; Chen Shutang; Li Na; Zhou Qi

    2011-01-01

    1-Hexadecylamine (HDA)-capped Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully prepared by a one-pot solution growth method. The HDA is used as both reducing agent and stabilizer in the synthetic process is favorable for investigating the capping mechanism of Au and Ag NPs’ surface. The growth process and characterization of Au and Ag NPs are determined by Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Experimental results demonstrate that the HDA-capped Au and Ag NPs are highly crystalline and have good optical properties. Furthermore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 2-thionaphthol are obtained on the Au and Ag NPs modified glass surface, respectively, indicating that the as-synthesized noble metal NPs have potentially high sensitive optical detection application.

  12. 1-Hexadecylamine as both reducing agent and stabilizer to synthesize Au and Ag nanoparticles and their SERS application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Xiaomiao; Zhan, Xiaoling, E-mail: zhangxl@bit.edu.cn [Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China); Fang Yan, E-mail: fangyan@mail.cnu.edu.cn [Capital Normal University, Beijing Key Lab for Nano-Photonics and Nano-Structure (NPNS), Department of Physics (China); Chen Shutang; Li Na; Zhou Qi [Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China)

    2011-05-15

    1-Hexadecylamine (HDA)-capped Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully prepared by a one-pot solution growth method. The HDA is used as both reducing agent and stabilizer in the synthetic process is favorable for investigating the capping mechanism of Au and Ag NPs' surface. The growth process and characterization of Au and Ag NPs are determined by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Experimental results demonstrate that the HDA-capped Au and Ag NPs are highly crystalline and have good optical properties. Furthermore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 2-thionaphthol are obtained on the Au and Ag NPs modified glass surface, respectively, indicating that the as-synthesized noble metal NPs have potentially high sensitive optical detection application.

  13. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  14. Prolonged disengagement from distractors near the hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Vatterott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Because items near our hands are often more important than items far from our hands, the brain processes visual items near our hands differently than items far from our hands. Multiple experiments have attributed this processing difference to spatial attention, but the exact mechanism behind how spatial attention near our hands changes is still under investigation. The current experiments sought to differentiate between two of the proposed mechanisms: a prioritization of the space near the hands and a prolonged disengagement of spatial attention near the hands. To differentiate between these two accounts, we used the additional singleton paradigm in which observers searched for a shape singleton among homogenously shaped distractors. On half the trials, one of the distractors was a different color. Both the prioritization and disengagement accounts predict differently colored distractors near the hands will slow target responses more than differently colored distractors far from the hands, but the prioritization account also predicts faster responses to targets near the hands than far from the hands. The disengagement account does not make this prediction, because attention does not need to be disengaged when the target appears near the hand. We found support for the disengagement account: Salient distractors near the hands slowed responses more than those far from the hands, yet observers did not respond faster to targets near the hands.

  15. Fabrication of Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film and its tunable energetics and tailorable optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijin Hong; Jialin Ji; Chunxian Tao; Daohua Zhang; Dawei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film was fabricated. The effects of graphene oxide (GO) and bimetal on the structure and optical properties of metal silver films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, and Raman intensity measurements, respectively. Compared to silver thin film, Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure composite thin films were observed with wider optical absorption peak and enhanced absorption intensity. The Raman signal for Rhodamine B ...