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Sample records for prolonged maternal separation

  1. Few long-term consequences after prolonged maternal separation in female Wistar rats.

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    Stina Lundberg

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during the early-life period are known to have long-term consequences for the adult phenotype. An intimate interplay between genes and environment shape the individual and may affect vulnerability for psychopathology in a sex-dependent manner. A rodent maternal separation model was here used to study the long-term effects of different early-life rearing conditions on adult behavior, HPA axis activity and long-term voluntary alcohol intake in female rats. Litters were subjected to 15 min (MS15 or 360 min (MS360 of daily maternal separation during postnatal day 1-21. In adulthood, the behavioral profiles were investigated using the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF test or examined for HPA axis reactivity by cat-odor exposure with subsequent characterization of voluntary alcohol intake and associated changes in HPA axis activity. Adult female MS360 offspring showed mostly no, or only minor, effects on behavior, HPA axis reactivity and long-term alcohol intake relative to MS15. Instead, more pronounced effects were found dependent on changes in the natural hormonal cycle or by the choice of animal supplier. However, changes were revealed in corticosterone load after long-term alcohol access, as females subjected to MS360 had higher concentrations of fecal corticosterone. The present findings are in line with and expand on previous studies on the long-term effects of maternal separation in female rats with regard to behavior, HPA axis activity and voluntary alcohol intake. It can also be a window into further studies detailing how early-life experiences interact with other risk and protective factors to impact the adult phenotype and how possible sex differences play a role.

  2. Complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest.

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    Selden, B S; Burke, T J

    1988-04-01

    A case of complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest from massive lidocaine overdose is presented. A 27-year-old woman at 15 weeks gestation had a complete neurologic recovery after 22 minutes of CPR, including 19 minutes of electromechanical dissociation and asystole, with normal fetal heart function and fetal motion confirmed by ultrasound immediately after resuscitation. The patient delivered a healthy and neurologically normal infant at 40 weeks gestation. This is the longest cardiac arrest in early pregnancy reported in the medical literature with normal maternal and fetal outcome.

  3. Early repeated maternal separation induces alterations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These findings suggest that the long-term effects of MS on the expression levels of hippocampal reelin mRNA and protein depends on the age at which the stressed rats' brains were collected; reelin had important implications for the maternal-neonate interaction needed for normal brain development. In conclusion ...

  4. Maternal anti-M induced hemolytic disease of newborn followed by prolonged anemia in newborn twins.

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    Arora, Satyam; Doda, Veena; Maria, Arti; Kotwal, Urvershi; Goyal, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Allo-anti-M often has an immunoglobulin G (IgG) component but is rarely clinically significant. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn along with prolonged anemia in newborn twins that persisted for up to 70 days postbirth. The aim was to diagnose and successfully manage hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) due to maternal alloimmunization. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT), antigen typing, irregular antibody screening and identification were done by polyspecific antihuman globulin cards and standard tube method. At presentation, the newborn twins (T1, T2) had HDN with resultant low reticulocyte count and prolonged anemia, which continued for up to 70 days of life. Blood group of the twins and the mother was O RhD positive. DAT of the both newborns at birth was negative. Anti-M was detected in mothers as well as newborns. Type of antibody in mother was IgG and IgM type whereas in twins it was IgG type only. M antigen negative blood was transfused thrice to twin-1 and twice to twin-2. Recurring reduction of the hematocrit along with low reticulocyte count and normal other cell line indicated a pure red cell aplastic state. Anti-M is capable of causing HDN as well as prolonged anemia (red cell aplasia) due to its ability to destroy the erythroid precursor cells. Newborns with anemia should be evaluated for all the possible causes to establish a diagnosis and its efficient management. Mother should be closely monitored for future pregnancies as well.

  5. Maternal anti-M induced hemolytic disease of newborn followed by prolonged anemia in newborn twins

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    Satyam Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allo-anti-M often has an immunoglobulin G (IgG component but is rarely clinically significant. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn along with prolonged anemia in newborn twins that persisted for up to 70 days postbirth. The aim was to diagnose and successfully manage hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN due to maternal alloimmunization. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT, antigen typing, irregular antibody screening and identification were done by polyspecific antihuman globulin cards and standard tube method. At presentation, the newborn twins (T1, T2 had HDN with resultant low reticulocyte count and prolonged anemia, which continued for up to 70 days of life. Blood group of the twins and the mother was O RhD positive. DAT of the both newborns at birth was negative. Anti-M was detected in mothers as well as newborns. Type of antibody in mother was IgG and IgM type whereas in twins it was IgG type only. M antigen negative blood was transfused thrice to twin-1 and twice to twin-2. Recurring reduction of the hematocrit along with low reticulocyte count and normal other cell line indicated a pure red cell aplastic state. Anti-M is capable of causing HDN as well as prolonged anemia (red cell aplasia due to its ability to destroy the erythroid precursor cells. Newborns with anemia should be evaluated for all the possible causes to establish a diagnosis and its efficient management. Mother should be closely monitored for future pregnancies as well.

  6. BDNF expression in the hippocampus of maternally separated rats: does Bifidobacterium breve 6330 alter BDNF levels?

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    O'Sullivan, E; Barrett, E; Grenham, S; Fitzgerald, P; Stanton, C; Ross, R P; Quigley, E M M; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G

    2011-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is of interest because of its putative role in stress and psychiatric disorders. Maternal separation is used as an animal model of early-life stress and of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Animals exposed to the paradigm show altered gut function together with heightened levels of arousal and corticosterone. Some probiotic organisms have been shown to be of benefit in IBS and influence the brain-gut axis. Our objective was to investigate the effects of maternal separation on BDNF under basal conditions and in response to the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve 6330. The study implemented the maternal separation model which we have previously described. Polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation were performed to measure the effect of maternal separation on both BDNF total variants and BDNF splice variant (exon) IV in the hippocampus. Maternally separated and non-separated rats were treated with B. breve 6330, to investigate the effect of this probiotic on BDNF total variant and BDNF exon IV expression. Maternal separation increased BDNF total variants (Pbreve 6330 increased BDNF total variants (Pbreve 6330 did not alter BDNF levels in the maternally separated rats. Maternal separation caused a marked increase in BDNF in the hippocampus. While B. breve 6330 influenced BDNF in normal animals, it had no significant effect on BDNF in those which were maternally separated. We have demonstrated that an orally administered probiotic can influence hippocampal BDNF.

  7. Maternal behavior of the mouse dam toward pups: implications for maternal separation model of early life stress.

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    Orso, Rodrigo; Wearick-Silva, Luis Eduardo; Creutzberg, Kerstin Camile; Centeno-Silva, Anderson; Glusman Roithmann, Laura; Pazzin, Rafaelly; Tractenberg, Saulo Gantes; Benetti, Fernando; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    Maternal care is essential for an adequate pup development, as well as for the health of the dam. Exposure to stress in early stages of life can disrupt this dam-pup relationship promoting altered neurobiological and behavioral phenotypes. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on the pattern of maternal behavior. The aim of this study is to compare the patterns of maternal behavior between mice exposed to MS and controls. BALB/c mice were subjected to MS for a period of 180 min/day from postnatal day 2-7 (n = 17) or designated to be standard animal facility reared (AFR) controls (n = 19). Maternal behaviors were computed as frequency of nursing, licking pups and contact with pups, and nonmaternal behaviors were computed as frequency of actions without interaction with pups and eating/drinking. A total of 18 daily observations of maternal behavior were conducted during these six days, and considering the proportion of maternal and nonmaternal behaviors, an index was calculated. There was no difference when comparing the global index of maternal behavior between the AFR and MS animals by the end of the observed period. However, the pattern of maternal behavior between groups was significantly different. While MS dams presented low frequency of maternal behavior within the first couple days of the stress protocol, but increasing over time, AFR dams showed higher maternal behavior at the beginning, reducing over time. Together, our results indicate that MS alters the maternal behavior of the dams toward pups throughout the first week of the stress protocol and provoked some anxiety-related traits in the dams. The inversion of maternal behavior pattern could possibly be an attempt to compensate the low levels of maternal care observed in the first days of MS.

  8. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study

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    Womersley Jacqueline S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1 in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100 was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of

  9. Few long-term consequences after prolonged maternal separation in female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Stina; Abelson, Klas S P; Nylander, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    showed mostly no, or only minor, effects on behavior, HPA axis reactivity and long-term alcohol intake relative to MS15. Instead, more pronounced effects were found dependent on changes in the natural hormonal cycle or by the choice of animal supplier. However, changes were revealed in corticosterone...

  10. Effects of maternal separation on the neurobehavioral development of newborn Wistar rats.

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    Farkas, Jozsef; Reglodi, Dora; Gaszner, Balazs; Szogyi, Donat; Horvath, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Tamas, Andrea; Frank, Falko; Besirevic, Dario; Kiss, Peter

    2009-05-29

    Animal models of neonatal stress, like maternal separation, may provide important correlation with human stress-related disorders. Early maternal deprivation has been shown to cause several short- and long-term neurochemical and behavioral deficits. Little is known about the early neurobehavioral development after postnatal stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of reflexes and motor coordination in male and female pups subjected to maternal deprivation. Pups were removed from their mothers from postnatal day 1-14, for 3h daily. Somatic development (weight gain, eye opening, ear unfolding, incisor eruption) and reflex development was tested during the first 3 weeks. The appearance of the following reflexes was investigated: crossed extensor, grasping, placing, gait, righting and sensory reflexes, and negative geotaxis. Timely performance of negative geotaxis, righting and gait were also tested daily during the first 3 weeks. Motor coordination and open-field tests were performed on postnatal weeks 3-5 (rotarod, elevated grid-walk, footfault, rope suspension, inclined board and walk initiation tests). The results revealed that a 3-h-long daily maternal separation did not lead to a marked delay or enhancement in reflex development and motor coordination. A subtle enhancement was observed in the appearance of hindlimb grasp and gait reflexes, and a better performance in footfault test in male rats suffering from maternal deprivation. In contrast, female maternally deprived (MD) rats displayed a slight delay in forelimb grasp and air righting reflex appearance, and surface righting performance. Open-field activity was not changed in maternally deprived rats. In summary, our present observations indicate that maternal deprivation does not induce drastic changes in early neurodevelopment, therefore, further research is needed to determine the onset of behavioral alterations in subject with maternal deprivation history. Gender differences

  11. Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner

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    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

  12. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Rodriguez, Diego Armando; Duenas Gomez, Zulma Janeth

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  13. Comparison of two rodent models of maternal separation on juvenile social behavior

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    Betty eZimmerberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood deprivation is associated with an increased risk of attachment disorders and psychopathology. The neural consequences of exposure to stress early in life have used two major rodent models to provide important tools for translational research. Although both models have been termed Maternal Separation, the paradigms differ in ways that clearly shift the focus of stress between maternal and offspring units. The first model, here called Early Deprivation (ED, isolates pups individually while the dam is left not alone, but with a subset of littermates in the home nest (Stay-at-homes. The other model, here called Maternal Separation (MS, isolates the dam in a novel cage while the pups are separated together. In this study, these two early stress models were directly compared for their effects on social behaviors in male and female juvenile offspring. Although both models altered play behavior compared to controls, patterns of prosocial behaviors versus submissive behaviors differed by model and sex. Additionally, there were main effects of sex, with female ED subjects exhibited masculinizing effects of early stress during play sessions. Maternal behavior upon reunion with the isolated subjects was significantly increased in the MS condition compared to both ED and control conditions, which also differed but by a lesser magnitude. Stay-at-homes were tested since some laboratories use them for controls rather than undisturbed litters; they displayed significantly different sex-dependent play compared to undisturbed subjects. These results indicate that early stress effects vary by paradigm of separation. We suggest that MS produces greater stress on the dam and thus greater maternal mediation, while ED causes greater stress on the neonates, resulting in different behavioral sequela that warrant attention when using these models for translational research.

  14. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...... was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next.......024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after birth. Additionally, the separation-induced calling in dams decreased with increasing litter size (P = 0.022). Thus in addition to litter age, the size of the litter is important for the maternal...

  15. Maternal Separations During the Reentry Years for 100 Infants Raised in a Prison Nursery

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    Byrne, Mary W.; Goshin, Lorie; Blanchard-Lewis, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Prison nurseries prevent maternal separations related to incarceration for the small subset of children whose pregnant mothers are incarcerated in states with such programs. For a cohort of 100 children accepted by corrections into one prison nursery, subsequent separation patterns are analyzed. The largest numbers are caused by corrections’ removal of infants from the nursery and infants reaching a one-year age limit. Criminal recidivism and substance abuse relapse threaten continued mothering during reentry. Focused and coordinated services are needed during prison stay and reentry years to sustain mothering for women and children accepted into prison nursery programs. PMID:22328865

  16. Postpartum maternal separation anxiety, overprotective parenting, and children's social-emotional well-being: longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

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    Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Crawford, Sharinne; Nicholson, Jan M

    2013-08-01

    Postpartum maternal separation anxiety refers to a mothers' experience of worry and concern about leaving her child for short-term separations. The long-term effects of high maternal separation anxiety on maternal parenting behaviors and child outcomes have been not been established empirically. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prospective relationships between maternal separation anxiety during the child's first year of life, and overprotective parenting and children's social and emotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Structural equation modeling with a large representative cohort of Australian mother-child dyads (N = 3,103) indicated that high maternal separation anxiety was associated with more overprotective parenting behaviors and poorer child socioemotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Findings suggest women with high postpartum maternal separation anxiety may sustain this vigilance across the first years following birth, promoting overprotective behaviors, and resulting in increased behavior problems in their children. Support for women around negotiating separation from their children early in parenthood may prevent the establishment of a repertoire of parenting behaviors that includes unnecessarily high vigilance, monitoring, and anxiety about separation. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  17. Maternal separation modulates short-term behavioral and physiological indices of the stress response.

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    Litvin, Yoav; Tovote, Philip; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Zeyda, Thomas; King, Lanikea B; Vasconcellos, Amy J; Dunlap, Christopher; Spiess, Joachim; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2010-07-01

    Early-life stress produces an anxiogenic profile in adulthood, presumably by activating the otherwise quiescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during the vulnerable 'stress hyporesponsive period'. While the long-term effects of such early-life manipulations have been extensively characterized, little is known of the short-term effects. Here, we compared the short-term effects of two durations of maternal separation stress and one unseparated group (US) on behavioral and physiological indices of the stress response in rat pups. Separations included 3h on each of 12days, from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 13 (MS2-13) and 3days of daily, 6-h separation from PND11-13 (MS11-13). On PND14 (Experiment 1), both MS2-13 and MS11-13 produced marked reductions in freezing toward an adult male conspecific along with reduced levels of glucocorticoid type 2 (GR) and CRF type-1 (CRF(1)) receptor mRNA in the hippocampus. Group MS2-13 but not MS11-13 produced deficits in stressor-induced corticosterone secretion, accompanied by reductions in body weight. Our results suggest that GR and/or CRF(1) levels, not solely the magnitude of corticosterone secretion, may be involved in the modulation of freezing. In a second experiment, we aimed to extend these findings by testing male and female separated and unseparated pups' unconditioned defensive behaviors to cat odor on PND26, and subsequent cue+context conditioning and extinction throughout postnatal days 27-32. Our results show that maternal separation produced reductions in unconditioned freezing on PND26, with MS2-13 showing stronger deficits than MS11-13. However, separation did not affect any other defensive behaviors. Furthermore, separated rats failed to show conditioned freezing, although they did avoid the no-odor block conditioned cue. There were no sex differences other than weight. We suggest that maternal separation may have produced these changes by disrupting normal development of hippocampal regions involved in

  18. Maternal Anxiety and Separation Anxiety in Children Aged Between 3 and 6 Years: The Mediating Role of Parenting Style.

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    Orgilés, Mireia; Penosa, Patricia; Morales, Alexandra; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Espada, José P

    2018-06-04

    Maternal anxiety is known to be associated with childhood separation anxiety. However, there is little research on the mediating factors of this relationship, despite the possible consequences separation anxiety might have for children's development and autonomy. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible mediating effects of 4 parenting styles (overprotective, assertive, punitive, and inhibited) on the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety. Participants were 235 mothers with children aged 3 to 6 years, recruited from 6 preschools in the southeast of Spain. Maternal trait anxiety, maternal parenting style, and child separation anxiety were evaluated. A parallel multiple-mediation analysis revealed that the overprotective parenting style was a significant mediator of the relationship between maternal trait anxiety and child separation anxiety. In addition, mothers with higher trait anxiety scores exhibited a greater likelihood of using an overprotective, punitive, or less assertive parenting style. Younger mothers were more likely to use an overprotective parenting style, and compared with girls, boys were more exposed to the assertive style. This study provides initial evidence that parenting style acts as a mediator of the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety.

  19. Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect

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    Elwafi Hani M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects. Maternal separation is a commonly used model of early life neglect, but has led to inconsistent results in the mouse. Results In an effort to develop a mouse model of early life neglect with long-lasting behavioral effects in C57BL/6 mice, we designed a new maternal separation paradigm that we call Maternal Separation with Early Weaning (MSEW. We tested the effects of MSEW on C57BL/6 mice as well as the genetically distinct DBA/2 strain and found significant MSEW effects on several behavioral tasks (i.e., the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swim test when assessed more than two months following the MSEW procedure. Our findings are consistent with MSEW causing effects within multiple behavioral domains in both strains, and suggest increased anxiety, hyperactivity, and behavioral despair in the MSEW offspring. Analysis of pup weights and metabolic parameters showed no evidence for malnutrition in the MSEW pups. Additionally, strain differences in many of the behavioral tests suggest a role for genetic factors in the response to early life neglect. Conclusions These results suggest that MSEW may serve as a useful model to examine the complex behavioral abnormalities often apparent in individuals with histories of early life neglect, and may lead to greater understanding of these later life outcomes and offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies.

  20. Highly Palatable Food during Adolescence Improves Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Rats that Experienced Neonatal Maternal Separation

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    Jong-Ho Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study was conducted to examine the effects of ad libitum consumption of highly palatable food (HPF during adolescence on the adverse behavioral outcome of neonatal maternal separation.MethodsMale Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 hours daily during the first 2 weeks of birth (maternal separation, MS or left undisturbed (nonhandled, NH. Half of MS pups received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28 (MS+HPF. Pups were subjected to behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to stress challenge was analyzed by radioimmunoassay.ResultsDaily caloric intake and body weight gain did not differ among the experimental groups. Ambulatory activities were decreased defecation activity and rostral grooming were increased in MS controls (fed with chow only compared with NH rats. MS controls spent less time in open arms, and more time in closed arms during the elevated plus maze test, than NH rats. Immobility duration during the forced swim test was increased in MS controls compared with NH rats. Cookie access normalized the behavioral scores of ambulatory and defecation activities and grooming, but not the scores during the elevated plus maze and swim tests in MS rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was blunted in MS rats fed with chow only, and cookie access normalized it.ConclusionProlonged access to HPF during adolescence and youth partly improves anxiety-related, but not depressive, symptoms in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, possibly in relation with improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis.

  1. Early maternal separation induces preference for sucrose and aspartame associated with increased blood glucose and hyperactivity.

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    Aya-Ramos, L; Contreras-Vargas, C; Rico, J L; Dueñas, Z

    2017-07-19

    Early life stress and exposure to sweeteners lead to physiological and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Nevertheless, many genetic and environmental factors as well as the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of these disorders are not fully understood. Similarly, evidence about the long-term metabolic effects of exposure to sweeteners in early life is limited and inconsistent. This study used an animal model of maternal separation during breastfeeding (MS) to analyze the effects of early life stress on consumption of sweeteners, weight gain, blood glucose and locomotion. Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7:00 h) with ad libitum access to water and food. In the MS protocol, MS pups were separated from the dam for 6 h per day in two periods of 180 minutes (7:00-10:00 and 13:00-16:00 h) during the dark phase of postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 21. Non-separated (NS) pups served as controls. On PND 22 rats were grouped by sex and treatment. From PND 26 to PND 50 sucrose and aspartame were provided to rats, and sweetener intake, body weight and blood glucose-related measures were scored. On PND 50, both male and female rats were exposed to the open field test to obtain locomotion and anxiety-related measures. Results showed that both early maternal separation and sweetener intake during adolescence resulted in increased blood glucose and hyperactivity in male rats but not in female rats. Data suggest that the combination of early stress and exposure to sucrose and aspartame could be a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes, as well as for behavioral alterations.

  2. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next......The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is, however, known about dam stress...... and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...

  3. Repeated Three-Hour Maternal Separation Induces Depression-Like Behavior and Affects the Expression of Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins in C57BL/6N Mice

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    Yaoyao Bian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse early life experiences can negatively affect behaviors later in life. Maternal separation (MS has been extensively investigated in animal models in the adult phase of MS. The study aimed to explore the mechanism by which MS negatively affects C57BL/6N mice, especially the effects caused by MS in the early phase. Early life adversity especially can alter plasticity functions. To determine whether adverse early life experiences induce changes in plasticity in the brain hippocampus, we established an MS paradigm. In this research, the mice were treated with mild (15 min, MS15 or prolonged (180 min, MS180 maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 21. The mice underwent a forced swimming test, a tail suspension test, and an open field test, respectively. Afterward, the mice were sacrificed on postnatal day 31 to determine the effects of MS on early life stages. Results implied that MS induces depression-like behavior and the effects may be mediated partly by interfering with the hippocampal GSK-3β-CREB signaling pathway and by reducing the levels of some plasticity-related proteins.

  4. Maternal separation as a model of brain-gut axis dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2011-03-01

    Early life stress has been implicated in many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Maternal separation in rodents is a well-studied model of early life stress. However, stress during this critical period also induces alterations in many systems throughout the body. Thus, a variety of other disorders that are associated with adverse early life events are often comorbid with psychiatric illnesses, suggesting a common underlying aetiology. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is thought to involve a dysfunctional interaction between the brain and the gut. Essential aspects of the brain-gut axis include spinal pathways, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, the immune system, as well as the enteric microbiota. Accumulating evidence suggest that stress, especially in early life, is a predisposing factor to IBS.

  5. The impact of maternal separation on adult mouse behaviour and on the total neuron number in the mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, K.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    , the number of errors made by the MS24 mice compared to controls and in total distance moved. The mice were subsequently sacrificed and the total number of neurons estimated in the hippocampus using the optical fractionator. We found a significant loss of neurons in the dentate gyrus in MS mice compared...... to controls. Apparently a single maternal separation can impact the number of neurons in mouse hippocampus either by a decrease of neurogenesis or as an increase in neuron apoptosis. This study is the first to assess the result of maternal separation combining behaviour and stereology Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  6. Neonatal maternal separation up-regulates protein signalling for cell survival in rat hypothalamus.

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    Irles, Claudine; Nava-Kopp, Alicia T; Morán, Julio; Zhang, Limei

    2014-05-01

    We have previously reported that in response to early life stress, such as maternal hyperthyroidism and maternal separation (MS), the rat hypothalamic vasopressinergic system becomes up-regulated, showing enlarged nuclear volume and cell number, with stress hyperresponsivity and high anxiety during adulthood. The detailed signaling pathways involving cell death/survival, modified by adverse experiences in this developmental window remains unknown. Here, we report the effects of MS on cellular density and time-dependent fluctuations of the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic factors during the development of the hypothalamus. Neonatal male rats were exposed to 3 h-daily MS from postnatal days 2 to 15 (PND 2-15). Cellular density was assessed in the hypothalamus at PND 21 using methylene blue staining, and neuronal nuclear specific protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining at PND 36. Expression of factors related to apoptosis and cell survival in the hypothalamus was examined at PND 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 43 by Western blot. Rats subjected to MS exhibited greater cell-density and increased neuronal density in all hypothalamic regions assessed. The time course of protein expression in the postnatal brain showed: (1) decreased expression of active caspase 3; (2) increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio; (3) increased activation of ERK1/2, Akt and inactivation of Bad; PND 15 and PND 20 were the most prominent time-points. These data indicate that MS can induce hypothalamic structural reorganization by promoting survival, suppressing cell death pathways, increasing cellular density which may alter the contribution of these modified regions to homeostasis.

  7. Dietary choline during periadolescence attenuates cognitive damage caused by neonatal maternal separation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Gudiño, Hayarelis; Carías Picón, Diamela; de Brugada Sauras, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Choline (Ch) is an essential nutrient that acts as a cognitive facilitator when administered during perinatal periods, and it has been recognised as a 'pharmacological' agent that can ease cognitive dysfunctions provoked by exposure to damaging stimuli during early developmental stages. The aim of the present work is to determine whether providing a diet rich in Ch would reduce the severity of the memory deficit provoked by a neonatal stress episode in male adult rats. The effect of Ch on memory was measured using memory tasks such as object and place recognition. Ontogenetic manipulations were conducted during two sensitive developmental periods. During the first post-natal (PN) 14 days, only the male rat pups were selected and half of them were separated from the mother, group maternal separation (MS). Subsequently, during periadolescence (PN 21-60), the rats were exposed to a deficient (DEF = 0 g/kg Ch chloride), sufficient (CON = 1.1 g/kg Ch chloride), or supplemented (SUP = 5 g/kg Ch chloride) diets for this nutrient. The results indicated that for group MS, only rats fed with the SUP diet were able to recognise the familiar object and place that had been experienced 24 hours before, unlike groups DEF and CON. In addition, whereas rats in the non-separated group (No-MS) recognised the object independently of the diet, only rats that received a DEF diet failed to recognise the place, showing that a Ch deficit affects spatial memory tasks. These results show that Ch supplementation during periadolescence can attenuate the memory deficit provoked by extended neonatal stress.

  8. Maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes as potential moderators of the relation between maternal history of care and maternal cortisol secretion in the context of mother-infant separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Jamieson, Brittany; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Kennedy, James; Villani, Vanessa; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo S; Atkinson, Leslie

    2017-10-01

    A mother's cortisol secretion is importantly associated with her own mental health and her infant's cortisol secretion. This study investigated the influences of maternal history of care and maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes on maternal cortisol in the context of infant stress. A community sample of 296 mother-infant dyads completed a maternal separation at infant age 17 months. Maternal salivary cortisol, buccal cells, and self-reported history of care were collected. Multilevel models revealed that history of care had a greater influence on maternal baseline cortisol (but not cortisol trajectory) for mothers with more plasticity alleles of SLC6A3 (10R) and OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer or no plasticity alleles. Findings indicate that a mother's history of care is related to her cortisol secretion in anticipation of infant stress, but that this relation depends on her genetic characteristics. Findings are discussed in relation to the maternal protective system and anticipatory cortisol secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Cognitive Deficit and Improves Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in Adult Rat with Neonatal Maternal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse early-life events is thought to be the risk factors for the development of psychiatric and altered cognitive function in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA treatment in young adult rat would improve impaired cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in adult rat with neonatal maternal separation (MS. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, MS group, MS with EA treatment (MS + EA group, and MS with Sham-EA treatment (MS + Sham-EA group. We evaluated the cognitive function by using Morris water maze and fear conditioning tests. Electrophysiology experiment used in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapses was detected to assess extent of synaptic plasticity. Repeated EA stimulation at Baihui (GV 20 and Yintang (GV 29 during postnatal 9 to 11 weeks was identified to significantly ameliorate poor performance in behavior tests and improve the impaired LTP induction detected at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapse in hippocampus. Collectively, the findings suggested that early-life stress due to MS may induce adult cognitive deficit associated with hippocampus, and EA in young adult demonstrated that its therapeutic efficacy may be via ameliorating deficit of hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  10. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  11. Neonatal maternal separation increases susceptibility to experimental colitis and acute stress exposure in male mice

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    Isabella M. Fuentes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing early life stress can result in maladjusted stress response via dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serves as a risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain disorders. We investigated whether neonatal maternal separation (NMS would increase susceptibility to experimental colitis or exposure to acute or chronic stress. Male mice underwent NMS from postnatal day 1–21 and as adults were assessed for open field behavior, hindpaw sensitivity, and visceromotor response (VMR to colorectal distension (CRD. VMR was also measured before and after treatment with intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS or exposure to acute or chronic water avoidance stress (WAS. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, proinflammatory gene and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF receptor expression were measured in distal colon. Baseline VMR was not affected by NMS, but undergoing CRD increased anxiety-like behaviors and mechanical hindpaw sensitivity of NMS mice. Treatment with TNBS dose-dependently decreased body weight and survival only in NMS mice. Following TNBS treatment, IL-6 and artemin mRNA levels were decreased in the distal colon of NMS mice, despite increased MPO activity. A single WAS exposure increased VMR during CRD in NMS mice and increased IL-6 mRNA and CRF2 protein levels in the distal colon of naïve mice, whereas CRF2 protein levels were heightened in NMS colon both at baseline and post-WAS exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that NMS in mice disrupts inflammatory- and stress-induced gene expression in the colon, potentially contributing towards an exaggerated response to specific stressors later in life.

  12. The behavioral and immunological impact of maternal separation: a matter of timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eRoque

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal separation (MS, an early life stressful event, has been demonstrated to trigger neuropsychiatric disorders later in life, in particular depression. Experiments using rodents subjected to MS protocols have been very informative for the establishment of this association. However, the mechanism by which MS leads to neuropsychiatric disorders is far from being understood. This is probably associated with the multifactorial nature of depression but also with the fact that different research MS protocols have been used (that vary on temporal windows and time of exposure to MS. In the present study MS was induced in rats in two developmental periods: for 6 h per day for 14 days between postnatal days 2-15 (MS2-15 and 7-20 (MS7-20. These two periods, were defined to differ essentially on the almost complete (MS2-15 or partial (MS7-20 overlap with the stress hypo-responsive period. Behavioral, immunological and endocrine parameters, frequently associated with depressive-like behavior, were analyzed in adulthood. Irrespectively from the temporal window, both MS exposure periods led to increased sera corticosterone levels. However, only MS2-15 animals displayed depressive and anxious-like behaviors. Moreover, MS2-15 was also the only group presenting alterations in the immune system, displaying decreased percentage of CD8+ T cells, increased spleen T cell CD4/CD8 ratio, and thymocytes with increased resistance to dexamethasone-induced cell death. A linear regression model performed to predict depressive-like behavior showed that both corticosterone levels and T cell CD4/CD8 ratio explained 37% of the variance observed in depressive-like behavior. Overall, these findings highlight the existence of critical periods for early life stressful events to exert programming effects on both central and peripheral systems, which are of relevance for distinct patterns of susceptibility to emotional disorders later in life.

  13. Maternal Daily Diary Report in the Assessment of Childhood Separation Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of separation anxiety, the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD). Mother and child participants consisted of three groups: 96 children (aged 4-15 years) with separation anxiety disorder, 49 children with "other" anxiety disorders, and 43 healthy controls. The SADD…

  14. Long-lasting effects of maternal separation on an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: effects on memory and hippocampal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Luisa A; Alvares, Lucas O; Noschang, Cristie; Engelke, Douglas; Andreazza, Ana C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-04-01

    Adverse early life events, such as periodic maternal separation, may alter the normal pattern of brain development and subsequently the vulnerability to a variety of mental disorders in adulthood. Patients with a history of early adversities show higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation of pups from dams would affect memory and oxidative stress parameters after exposure to an animal model of PTSD. Nests of Wistar rats were divided into intact and subjected to maternal separation (incubator at 32°C, 3 h/day) during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, the animals were subdivided into exposed or not to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. One month after exposure to the shock, the animals were exposed to a memory task (Morris water maze) and another month later animals were sacrificed and DNA breaks and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured in the hippocampus. Rats exposed to shock or maternal separation plus shock showed long-lasting effects on spatial memory, spending more time in the opposite quadrant of the water maze. This effect was higher in animals subjected to both maternal separation and shock. Both shock and maternal separation induced a higher score of DNA breaks in the hippocampus. No differences were observed on antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, periodic maternal separation may increase the susceptibility to the effects of a stressor applied in adulthood on performance in the water maze. Increased DNA breaks in hippocampus was induced by both, maternal separation and exposure to shock.

  15. Differences in behavior associated to anxiety in male and Female rats exposed to a chronic stress protocol: Early maternal separation

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    Duenas Gómez, Zulma Janeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During the first stages of life, the environment and maternal interactions are essential for normal mammalian neuronal maturity and behavior. In fact, it has been demonstrated that disruption of mother-pup interaction during early life exert long-lasting effects on the development of central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and behavioral responses. The principal aim of our work was to study the consequences of early maternal separation (EMS on adult male and female anxiety. The behaviors was evaluated using the Elavated Plus-Maze (EPM. Separation procedure was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21 twice daily: three hours in the morning and three hours in the afternoon. As a control group we used animals that stayed with the mother but were manipulated daily for one minute in the morning and in the afternoon. In postnatal day 22, animals were distributed by sex and then kept in standard lab conditions. Behavioral testing in the EPM was performed at 90/95 days of age. All subjects were videotaped. Records included number of entries, time spent in each arm, and the frequency and time stretching, deeping, rearing, and grooming. Our results showed that separated females have more open arm entries and spent more time there, and exhibit more deeping and less grooming compared to females in the control group and males of the experimental and control group. Thus, based on the anxiolytic profile that female rat shows in the EPM, these data suggest that EMS affects differentially male and female adult rats

  16. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9) microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (pbreve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (pbreve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (pbreve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats significantly modified the palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents in tissues. The effect was not observed in non-separated animals.

  17. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  18. Cardiac oxidative stress following maternal separation stress was mitigated following adolescent voluntary exercise in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahafi, Ehtramolsadat; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Azarbyjani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known as a risk factor for the development of depression and its associated comorbidities, such as cardiomyopathy in depressed patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of depression and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence indicates that regular physical activity has therapeutic effects on both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, the voluntary running wheel exercise (RW) during adolescence may be able to attenuate the negative impact of maternal separation stress (MS) as a valid animal model of depression on the behavior and cardiac mitochondrial function of adult rats. To do this, we applied MS to rat pups by separating them from their mothers for 180min during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 14. Next, the animals were randomly divided into different treatment groups (fluoxetine [FLX] and RW) and received the treatments during adolescence, between PND 28 to PND 60. Then, we evaluated the effects of MS on the rat behaviors test, and finally, we assessed reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial glutathione, ATP and cytochrome c release in the cardiac tissue of animals. Our results showed that depressive-like behaviors following MS in adult male rats were associated with oxidative stress in cardiac tissue. Further, we found that treating animals with chronic FLX or RW during adolescence improved animal's behavior as well as cardiac mitochondrial function. The results of this study highlight the importance of adolescence as a period during which treating animals with non-pharmacological agents has significant protective effects against the negative influence of ELS on mood and cardiac energy hemostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of propolis extract on ovarian tissue and oxidative stress in rats with maternal separation stress

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    Atefeh Arabameri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Stress in infancy has dramatic effects on different systems, including the nervous system, endocrine, immune, reproductive and etc. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of extract of Iranian propolis (EIP on ovarian tissue and oxidative stress in rats with maternal separation stress. Materials and Methods: 48 immature female rats were divided randomly into six groups. 1 Control group, 2 Control group+saline, 3 Stress group, includes infants that were separated from their mothers 6 hr/day, the 4th, 5th and 6th groups consisted of infants who in addition to daily stress received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of EIP, respectively. Then serum corticosterone, 17-beta-estradiol, malondialdehyde, total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and ferric reducing antioxidant power levels were measured. The ovarian sections were stained by H&E, PAS, and TUNEL methods and were studied with optical microscopy. Results: Stress increased the blood serum corticosterone levels and 17-beta-estradiol reduced significantly (p<0.001 and EIP prevented from this changes (p<0.01. EIP significantly increased the number of ovarian follicles, oocytes and oocytes diameter in neonatal rat following stress (p<0.01. EIP also significantly decreased the number of atretic follicles, TUNEL+granulosa cells, malondialdehyde levels and increased ferric reducing antioxidant power, total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase serum levels in neonatal rats following stress. The dose of 200 mg/kg EIP was more effective. Conclusion: This Study showed that the Iranian Propolis significantly could prevent oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the ovary of the neonatal rat the following stress.

  20. Maternal separation diminishes α-adrenergic receptor density and function in renal vasculature from male Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Analia S; Osborn, Jeffrey L

    2017-07-01

    Adult rats exposed to maternal separation (MatSep) are normotensive but display lower glomerular filtration rate and increased renal neuroadrenergic drive. The aim of this study was to determine the renal α-adrenergic receptor density and the renal vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation in male rats exposed to MatSep. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity was assessed to determine a component of neural control of the vasculature. Using tissue collected from 4-mo-old MatSep and control rats, α 1 -adrenergic receptors (α 1 -ARs) were measured in renal cortex and isolated renal vasculature using receptor binding assay, and the α-AR subtype gene expression was determined by RT-PCR. Renal cortical α 1 -AR density was similar between MatSep and control tissues (B max = 44 ± 1 vs. 42 ± 2 fmol/mg protein, respectively); however, MatSep reduced α 1 -AR density in renal vasculature (B max = 47 ± 4 vs. 62 ± 4 fmol/mg protein, P adrenergic receptor expression and function in the renal vasculature could develop secondary to MatSep-induced overactivation of the renal neuroadrenergic tone. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the amygdala influences visceral sensitivity via glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in male maternal separation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X-P; Sha, J; Huang, L; Li, T-N; Zhang, R-R; Tang, M-D; Lin, L; Li, X-L

    2016-10-01

    Nesfatin-1, a recently identified satiety molecule derived from nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), is associated with visceral hypersensitivity in rats and is expressed in the amygdala. We tested the hypothesis that nesfatin-1 expression in the amygdala is involved in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) visceral hypersensitivity. An animal model of IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity was established using maternal separation (MS) during postnatal days 2-16. The role of nesfatin-1 in the amygdala on visceral sensitivity was evaluated. Rats subjected to MS showed a significantly increased mean abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score and electromyographic (EMG) activity at 40, 60, and 80 mmHg colorectal distension. Plasma concentrations of nesfatin-1 and corticosterone were significantly higher than in non-handled (NH) rats. mRNA and protein expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the amygdala were increased in MS rats, but not in NH rats. In MS rats, AWR scores and EMG activity were significantly decreased after anti-nesfatin-1/NUCB2 injection. In normal rats, mean AWR score, EMG activity, and corticosterone expression were significantly increased after nesfatin-1 injection into the amygdala. Nesfatin-1-induced visceral hypersensitivity was abolished following application of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists. Elevated expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the amygdala in MS rats suggests a potential role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, which could potentially take place via activation of GR and MR signaling pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin Barrett

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15 were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9 microorganisms/day alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05 compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01 and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05, and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001. B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated

  4. Methylation of NR3C1 is related to maternal PTSD, parenting stress and maternal medial prefrontal cortical activity in response to child separation among mothers with histories of violence exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Moser, Dominik A.; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Stenz, Ludwig; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Aue, Tatjana; Adouan, Wafae; Cordero, María I.; Suardi, Francesca; Manini, Aurelia; Sancho Rossignol, Ana; Merminod, Gaëlle; Ansermet, Francois; Dayer, Alexandre G.; Rusconi Serpa, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that mothers with Interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) report greater difficulty in parenting their toddlers. Relative to their frequent early exposure to violence and maltreatment, these mothers display dysregulation of their hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis), characterized by hypocortisolism. Considering methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 as a marker for HPA-axis functioning, with less methylation likely being associated with less circulating cortisol, the present study tested the hypothesis that the degree of methylation of this gene would be negatively correlated with maternal IPV-PTSD severity and parenting stress, and positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) activity in response to video-stimuli of stressful versus non-stressful mother–child interactions. Following a mental health assessment, 45 mothers and their children (ages 12–42 months) participated in a behavioral protocol involving free-play and laboratory stressors such as mother–child separation. Maternal DNA was extracted from saliva. Interactive behavior was rated on the CARE-Index. During subsequent fMRI scanning, mothers were shown films of free-play and separation drawn from this protocol. Maternal PTSD severity and parenting stress were negatively correlated with the mean percentage of methylation of NR3C1. Maternal mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of mother–child separation versus play correlated positively to NR3C1 methylation, and negatively to maternal IPV-PTSD and parenting stress. Among interactive behavior variables, child cooperativeness in play was positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation. Thus, the present study is the first published report to our knowledge, suggesting convergence of behavioral, epigenetic, and neuroimaging data that form a psychobiological signature of parenting-risk in the context of early life stress and PTSD

  5. Methylation of NR3C1 is related to maternal PTSD, parenting stress and maternal medial prefrontal cortical activity in response to child separation among mothers with histories of violence exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scott Schechter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that mothers with Interpersonal Violence-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (IPV-PTSD report greater difficulty in parenting their toddlers. Relative to their frequent early exposure to violence and maltreatment, these mothers display dysregulation of their hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis, characterized by hypocortisolism. Considering methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 as a marker for HPA-axis functioning, with less methylation likely being associated with less circulating cortisol, the present study tested the hypothesis that the degree of methylation of this gene would be negatively correlated with maternal IPV-PTSD severity and parenting stress, and positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of stressful versus non-stressful mother-child interactions. Following a mental health assessment, 45 mothers and their children (ages 12-42 months participated in a behavioral protocol involving free-play and laboratory stressors such as mother-child separation. Maternal DNA was extracted from saliva. Interactive behavior was rated on the CARE-Index. During subsequent fMRI scanning, mothers were shown films of free-play and separation drawn from this protocol. Maternal PTSD severity and parenting stress were negatively correlated with the mean percentage of methylation of NR3C1. Maternal mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of mother-child separation versus play correlated positively to NR3C1 methylation, and negatively to maternal IPV-PTSD and parenting stress. Among interactive behavior variables, child cooperativeness in play was positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation. Thus, the present study is the first published report to our knowledge, suggesting convergence of behavioral, epigenetic, and neuroimaging data that form a psychobiological signature of parenting-risk in the context of early life stress

  6. A prospective population-based study of maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes in the setting of prolonged labor, obstructed labor and failure to progress in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Margo S; Ali, Sumera; Pasha, Omrana; Saleem, Sarah; Althabe, Fernando; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Chomba, Elwyn; Carlo, Waldemar A; Garces, Ana; Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Dhaded, S M; Kodkany, Bhala; Derman, Richard J; Patel, Archana; Hibberd, Patricia L; Esamai, Fabian; Liechty, Edward A; Moore, Janet L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    This population-based study sought to quantify maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries associated with obstructed labor, prolonged labor and failure to progress (OL/PL/FTP). A prospective, population-based observational study of pregnancy outcomes was performed at seven sites in Argentina, Guatemala, India (2 sites, Belgaum and Nagpur), Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia. Women were enrolled in pregnancy and delivery and 6-week follow-up obtained to evaluate rates of OL/PL/FTP and outcomes resulting from OL/PL/FTP, including: maternal and delivery characteristics, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and stillbirth. Between 2010 and 2013, 266,723 of 267,270 records (99.8%) included data on OL/PL/FTP with an overall rate of 110.4/1000 deliveries that ranged from 41.6 in Zambia to 200.1 in Pakistan. OL/PL/FTP was more common in women aged 3500g, and women with a BMI >25 (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3 - 1.5), with the suggestion of OL/PL/FTP being less common in preterm deliveries. Protective characteristics included parity of ≥3, having an infant birth vaginally were more likely to become infected, to have an infected neonate, to hemorrhage in the antepartum and postpartum period, and to die, have a stillbirth, or have a neonatal demise. Women with OL/PL/FTP were far more likely to deliver in a facility and be attended by a physician or other skilled provider than women without this diagnosis. Women with OL/PL/FTP in the communities studied were more likely to be primiparous, younger than age 20, overweight, and of higher education, with an infant with birthweight of >3500g. Women with this diagnosis were more likely to experience a maternal, fetal, or neonatal death, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, and maternal and neonatal infection. They were also more likely to deliver in a facility with a skilled provider. CS may decrease the risk of poor outcomes (as in the case of antepartum hemorrhage), but unassisted vaginal

  7. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children’s externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2% males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children’s externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children’s externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. PMID:25037461

  8. Impairment of decision making and disruption of synchrony between basolateral amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex in the maternally separated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Xiangwei; Poon, David Chun-Hei; Jelfs, Beth; Chan, Rosa H M; Wu, Justin Che-Yuen; Li, Ying

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable evidence to suggest early life experiences, such as maternal separation (MS), play a role in the prevalence of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairment. At the same time, optimal decision making requires functional integrity between the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and any dysfunction of this system is believed to induce decision-making deficits. However, the impact of MS on decision-making behavior and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been thoroughly studied. As such, we consider the impact of MS on the emotional and cognitive functions of rats by employing the open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and rat gambling task (RGT). Using multi-channel recordings from freely behaving rats, we assessed the effects of MS on the large scale synchrony between the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the ACC; while also characterizing the relationship between neural spiking activity and the ongoing oscillations in theta frequency band across the BLA and ACC. The results indicated that the MS rats demonstrated anxiety-like behavior. While the RGT showed a decrease in the percentage of good decision-makers, and an increase in the percentage of poor decision-makers. Electrophysiological data revealed an increase in the total power in the theta band of the LFP in the BLA and a decrease in theta power in the ACC in MS rats. MS was also found to disrupt the spike-field coherence of the ACC single unit spiking activity to the ongoing theta oscillations in the BLA and interrupt the synchrony in the BLA-ACC pathway. We provide specific evidence that MS leads to decision-making deficits that are accompanied by alteration of the theta band LFP in the BLA-ACC circuitries and disruption of the neural network integrity. These observations may help revise fundamental notions regarding neurophysiological biomarkers to treat cognitive impairment induced by early life stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Maternal separation induces hippocampal changes in cadherin-1 (CDH-1) mRNA and recognition memory impairment in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo, Lucas Araújo; Wearick-Silva, Luis Eduardo; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Tractenberg, Saulo Gantes; Centeno-Silva, Anderson; Orso, Rodrigo; Schröder, Nadja; Bredy, Timothy William; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2017-05-01

    In rodents, disruption of mother-infant attachment induced by maternal separation (MS) is associated with recognition memory impairment and long-term neurobiological consequences. Particularly stress-induced modifications have been associated to disruption of cadherin (CDH) adhesion function, which plays an important role in remodeling of neuronal connection and synaptic plasticity. This study investigated the sex-dependent effect of MS on recognition memory and mRNA levels of classical type I and type II CDH and the related β -catenin (β -Cat) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of late adolescent mice. We provided evidence that the BALB/c mice exposed to MS present deficit in recognition memory, especially females. Postnatal MS induced higher hippocampal CDH-2 and CDH-8 mRNA levels, as well as an upregulation of CDH-1 in the prefrontal cortex in both males and females. MS-reared female mice presented lower CDH-1 mRNA levels in the hippocampus. In addition, hippocampal CDH-1 mRNA levels were positively correlated with recognition memory performance in females. MS-reared male mice exhibited higher β -Cat mRNA levels in the hippocampus. Considering sex-specific effects on CDH mRNA levels, it has been demonstrated mRNA changes in CDH-1, β -Cat, and CDH-6 in the hippocampus, as well as CDH-1, CDH-8 and CDH-11 in the prefrontal cortex. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay among MS, CDH mRNA expression, and sex differences in the PFC and hippocampus of adolescent mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unstable maternal environment, separation anxiety, and heightened CO2 sensitivity induced by gene-by-environment interplay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca R D'Amato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In man, many different events implying childhood separation from caregivers/unstable parental environment are associated with heightened risk for panic disorder in adulthood. Twin data show that the occurrence of such events in childhood contributes to explaining the covariation between separation anxiety disorder, panic, and the related psychobiological trait of CO(2 hypersensitivity. We hypothesized that early interference with infant-mother interaction could moderate the interspecific trait of response to CO(2 through genetic control of sensitivity to the environment.Having spent the first 24 hours after birth with their biological mother, outbred NMRI mice were cross-fostered to adoptive mothers for the following 4 post-natal days. They were successively compared to normally-reared individuals for: number of ultrasonic vocalizations during isolation, respiratory physiology responses to normal air (20%O(2, CO(2-enriched air (6% CO(2, hypoxic air (10%O(2, and avoidance of CO(2-enriched environments.Cross-fostered pups showed significantly more ultrasonic vocalizations, more pronounced hyperventilatory responses (larger tidal volume and minute volume increments to CO(2-enriched air and heightened aversion towards CO(2-enriched environments, than normally-reared individuals. Enhanced tidal volume increment response to 6%CO(2 was present at 16-20, and 75-90 postnatal days, implying the trait's stability. Quantitative genetic analyses of unrelated individuals, sibs and half-sibs, showed that the genetic variance for tidal volume increment during 6%CO(2 breathing was significantly higher (Bartlett χ = 8.3, p = 0.004 among the cross-fostered than the normally-reared individuals, yielding heritability of 0.37 and 0.21 respectively. These results support a stress-diathesis model whereby the genetic influences underlying the response to 6%CO(2 increase their contribution in the presence of an environmental adversity. Maternal grooming

  11. The Effects of Maternal Separation on Adult Methamphetamine Self-Administration, Extinction, Reinstatement, and MeCP2 Immunoreactivity in the Nucleus Accumbens

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Candace R.; Staudinger, Kelsey; Scheck, Lena; Olive, M. Foster

    2013-01-01

    The maternal separation (MS) paradigm is an animal model of early life stress. Animals subjected to MS during the first two weeks of life display altered behavioral and neuroendocrinological stress responses as adults. MS also produces altered responsiveness to and self-administration (SA) of various drugs of abuse including cocaine, ethanol, opioids, and amphetamine. Methamphetamine (METH) causes great harm to both the individual user and to society; yet, no studies have examined the effects...

  12. Daily maternal separations during stress hyporesponsive period decrease the thresholds of panic-like behaviors to electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray of the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-Aguiar, Ana Cristina; Schauffer, Luana Zanoni; de Kloet, Edo Ronald; Schenberg, Luiz Carlos

    2018-05-15

    The present study examined whether early life maternal separation (MS), a model of childhood separation anxiety, predisposes to panic at adulthood. For this purpose, male pups were submitted to 3-h daily maternal separations along postnatal (PN) days of either the 'stress hyporesponsive period' (SHRP) from PN4 to PN14 (MS11) or throughout lactation from PN2 to PN21 (MS20). Pups were further reunited to conscious (CM) or anesthetized (AM) mothers to assess the effect of mother-pup interaction upon reunion. Controls were subjected to brief handling (15 s) once a day throughout lactation (BH20). As adults (PN60), rats were tested for the thresholds to evoke panic-like behaviors upon electrical stimulation of dorsal periaqueductal gray matter and exposed to an elevated plus-maze, an open-field, a forced swim and a sucrose preference test. A factor analysis was also performed to gain insight into the meaning of behavioral tests. MS11-CM rather than MS20-CM rats showed enhanced panic responses and reductions in both swimming and sucrose preference. Panic facilitations were less intense in mother-neglected rats. Although MS did not affect anxiety, MS11-AM showed robust reductions of defecation in an open-field. Factor analysis singled out anxiety, hedonia, exploration, coping and gut activity. Although sucrose preference and coping loaded on separate factors, appetite (adult weight) correlated with active coping in both forced swim and open-field (central area exploration). Concluding, whereas 3h-daily maternal separations during SHRP increased rat's susceptibility to experimental panic attacks, separations throughout lactation had no effects on panic and enhanced active coping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of β3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Takanori; Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Shingo; Kusaka, Takashi; Warita, Katsuhiko; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Jamal, Mostofa; Ueki, Masaaki; Yakura, Tomiko; Tamai, Motoki; Sumitani, Kazunori; Hosomi, Naohisa; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved by separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life

  14. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of β3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Takanori, E-mail: mikit@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Shingo [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Kusaka, Takashi [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Warita, Katsuhiko [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Yokoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Bioresource and Agrobiosciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan); Jamal, Mostofa [Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Ueki, Masaaki [Department of Anesthesia, Nishiwaki Municipal Hospital (Japan); Yakura, Tomiko; Tamai, Motoki [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Sumitani, Kazunori [Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Hosomi, Naohisa [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Japan); Takeuchi, Yoshiki [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved by separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.

  15. Between Mexico and New York City: Mexican Maternal Migration's Influences on Separated Siblings' Social and Educational Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    There are negative consequences for children and youth when a primary caregiver leaves to migrate. However there are unforeseen experiences related to schooling. I compare how Mexican maternal migration has influenced the education experiences of the children left behind in Mexico and their siblings living in the United States. These microcontexts…

  16. Rank acquisition in rhesus macaque yearlings following permanent maternal separation: The importance of the social and physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooddell, Lauren J; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Murphy, Ashley M; Suomi, Stephen J; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2017-11-01

    Rank acquisition is a developmental milestone for young primates, but the processes by which primate yearlings attain social rank in the absence of the mother remain unclear. We studied 18 maternally reared yearling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that differed in their social and physical rearing environments. We found that early social experience and maternal rank, but not individual traits (weight, sex, age), predicted dominance acquisition in the new peer-only social group. Yearlings also used coalitions to reinforce the hierarchy, and social affiliation (play and grooming) was likely a product, rather than a determinant, of rank acquisition. Following relocation to a familiar environment, significant rank changes occurred indicating that familiarity with a physical environment was salient in rank acquisition. Our results add to the growing body of literature emphasizing the role of the social and physical environment on behavioral development, namely social asymmetries among peers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. How does early maternal separation and chronic stress in adult rats affect the immunoreactivity of serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollano, Antonella; Trujillo, Verónica; Suárez, Marta M

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h between postnatal days (PND) 1-21, or to animal facility rearing (AFR). Between (PND) days 50-74, rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress and were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. We found an interaction between the effects of MS and chronic unpredictable stress on Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells at mid-caudal level of the DR. MS-chronically stressed rats showed an increase of Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells compared with AFR-chronically stressed rats. The ventrolateral (DRL/VLPAG) and dorsal (DRD) subdivisions of the DR were significantly more active than the ventral part (DRV). At the rostral level of the DR, tianeptine decreased the number of Fos-5HT cells in DR in the AFR groups, both unstressed and stressed. Overall, our results support the idea of a match in phenotype exhibited when the early and the adult environment correspond.

  18. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  19. Prolonged pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1......) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner and social conditions (IV). The National Birth Cohort provided data for the study on prenatal risk indicators of prolonged pregnancy in a follow-up design (V). The self-reported gestational ages from this database...

  20. Adolescence fluoxetine increases serotonergic activity in the raphe-hippocampus axis and improves depression-like behaviors in female rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang Bae; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Vitaly; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine if fluoxetine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, would reverse adverse behavioral effects of neonatal maternal separation in female rats. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 3h during postnatal day (PND) 1-14 (maternal separation; MS) or left undisturbed (non-handled; NH). Female NH and MS pups received intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) or vehicle daily from PND 35 until the end of the whole experimental period. Rats were either subjected to behavioral tests during PND 44-54, or sacrificed for neurochemical analyses during PND 43-45. Daily food intake and weight gain of both NH and MS pups were suppressed by fluoxetine, with greater effects in MS pups. MS experience increased immobility and decrease swimming in forced swim test. Swimming was increased, although immobility was not significantly decreased, in MS females by adolescence fluoxetine. However, adolescence fluoxetine increased immobility during forced swim test and decreased time spent in open arms during elevated plus maze test in NH females. Fluoxetine normalized MS-induced decrease of the raphe 5-HT levels and increased 5-HT metabolism in the hippocampus in MS females, and increased the hypothalamic 5-HT both in NH and MS. Fluoxetine decreased the raphe 5-HT and increased the plasma corticosterone in NH females. Results suggest that decreased 5-HTergic activity in the raphe nucleus is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression-like behaviors, and increased 5-HTergic activities in the raphe-hippocampus axis may be a part of anti-depressant efficacy of fluoxetine, in MS females. Also, an extra-hypothalamic 5-HTergic activity may contribute to the increased anorectic efficacy of fluoxetine in MS females. Additionally, decreased 5-HT in the raphe and elevated plasma corticosterone may be related with fluoxetine-induced depression- and/or anxiety-like behaviors in NH females. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Maternal Separation during Breastfeeding Induces Gender-Dependent Changes in Anxiety and the GABA-A Receptor Alpha-Subunit in Adult Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armando León Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Different models of rodent maternal separation (MS have been used to investigate long-term neurobiological and behavioral changes, associated with early stress. However, few studies have involved the analysis of sex-related differences in central anxiety modulation. This study investigated whether MS during breastfeeding affected adult males and females in terms of anxiety and brain GABA-A receptor-alpha-subunit immunoreactivity. The brain areas analyzed were the amygdale (AM, hippocampus (HP, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, medial preoptic area (POA and paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7∶00 h with access to water and food ad libitum. Animals underwent MS twice daily during the dark cycle from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 21. Behavior was tested when rats were 65-70 days old using the elevated plus maze and after brains were treated for immunohistochemistry. We found that separated females spent more time in the open arms and showed more head dipping behavior compared with controls. The separated males spent more time in the center of the maze and engaged in more stretching behavior than the controls. Immunohistochemistry showed that separated females had less immunostained cells in the HP, mPFC, PVN and POA, while separated males had fewer immunolabeled cells in the PFC, PVN and AM. These results could indicate that MS has gender-specific effects on anxiety behaviors and that these effects are likely related to developmental alterations involving GABA-A neurotransmission.

  2. Maternal separation exacerbates Alzheimer's disease-like behavioral and pathological changes in adult APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jianjun; Feng, Gaifeng; Zheng, Caifeng; Jin, Hui; Jia, Ning

    2017-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder that gradually destroys memory and cognitive abilities in the elderly, makes a huge emotional and economic burden on the patients and their families. The presence of senile plaques and the loss of cholinergic neurons in the brain are two neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Maternal separation (MS) is an animal paradigm designed to make early life stress. Studies on wild type rodents showed that MS could induce AD-like cognitive deficit and pathological changes. However, the effects of MS on AD susceptible population or AD animal models are still unclear. In the present study, male APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were separated from dam and pups 3h per day from postnatal day 2 to day 21. After weaning, all animals were housed under normal conditions (4 mice per cage). At 9-month age, MWM tests were performed to evaluate the learning and memory abilities. Then the pathological changes in the brain were measured by histology staining. The results showed MS mice had more severe deficit of learning and memory. Compared to the control, there were more senile plaques in cortex and hippocampus, fewer cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis of Meynert in MS mice. These results indicate that MS exacerbates Alzheimer's disease-like behavioral and pathological changes in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Maternal Separation on Adult Methamphetamine Self-Administration, Extinction, Reinstatement, and MeCP2 Immunoreactivity in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace R. Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The maternal separation (MS paradigm is an animal model of early life stress. Animals subjected to MS during the first two weeks of life display altered behavioral and neuroendocrinological stress responses as adults. MS also produces altered responsiveness to and self-administration (SA of various drugs of abuse including cocaine, ethanol, opioids, and amphetamine. Methamphetamine (METH causes great harm to both the individual user and to society; yet, no studies have examined the effects of MS on METH SA. This study was performed to examine the effects of MS on the acquisition of METH SA, extinction, and reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior in adulthood. Given the known influence of early life stress and drug exposure on epigenetic processes, group differences in levels of the epigenetic marker methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc core were also investigated. Long-Evans pups and dams were separated on postnatal days (PND 2-14 for either 180 (MS180 or 15 min (MS15. Male offspring were allowed to acquire METH SA (0.05 mg/kg/infusion in 15 2-hr daily sessions starting at PND67, followed by extinction training and cue-induced reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior. Rats were then assessed for MeCP2 levels in the NAc core by immunohistochemistry. The MS180 group self-administered significantly more METH and acquired SA earlier than the MS15 group. No group differences in extinction or cue-induced reinstatement were observed. MS15 rats had significantly elevated MeCP2-immunoreactive cells in the NAc core as compared to MS180 rats. Together, these data suggest that MS has lasting influences on METH SA as well as epigenetic processes in the brain reward circuitry.

  4. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal separation in early life modifies anxious behavior and Fos and glucocorticoid receptor expression in limbic neurons after chronic stress in rats: effects of tianeptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Verónica; Durando, Patricia E; Suárez, Marta M

    2016-01-01

    Early-life adversity can lead to long-term consequence persisting into adulthood. Here, we assess the implications of an adverse early environment on vulnerability to stress during adulthood. We hypothesized that the interplay between early and late stress would result in a differential phenotype regarding the number of neurons immunoreactive for glucocorticoid receptor (GR-ir) and neuronal activity as assessed by Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in brain areas related to stress responses and anxiety-like behavior. We also expected that the antidepressant tianeptine could correct some of the alterations induced in our model. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h during the first 3 weeks of life. As adults, the rats were exposed to chronic stress for 24 d and they were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal) or vehicle (isotonic saline). Fos-ir was increased by MS in all structures analyzed. Chronic stress reduced Fos-ir in the hippocampus, but increased it in the paraventricular nucleus. Furthermore, chronic stress increased GR-ir in hippocampus (CA1) and amygdala in control non-MS rats. By contrast, when MS and chronic stress were combined, GR-ir was decreased in these structures. Additionally, whereas tianeptine did not affect Fos-ir, it regulated GR-ir in a region-dependent manner, in hippocampus and amygdala opposing in some cases the stress or MS effects. Furthermore, tianeptine reversed the MS- or stress-induced anxious behavior. The interplay between MS and chronic stress observed indicates that MS rats have a modified phenotype, which is expressed when they are challenged by stress in later life.

  6. Maternal separation decreases adult hippocampal cell proliferation and impairs cognitive performance but has little effect on stress sensitivity and anxiety in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Henriëtte J; Novati, Arianna; Sgoifo, Andrea; Luiten, Paul G M; den Boer, Johan A; Meerlo, Peter

    2011-01-20

    Stressful events during childhood are thought to increase the risk for the development of adult psychopathology. A widely used animal model for early life stress is maternal separation (MS), which is thought to affect development and cause alterations in neuroendocrine stress reactivity and emotionality lasting into adulthood. However, results obtained with this paradigm are inconsistent. Here we investigated whether this variation may be related to the type of stressor or the tests used to assess adult stress sensitivity and behavioral performance. Rat pups were exposed to a 3h daily MS protocol during postnatal weeks 1-2. In adulthood, animals were subjected to a wide variety of stressors and tests to obtain a better view on the effects of MS on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, anxiety-like behavior, social interaction and cognition. Also, the influence of MS on adult hippocampal neurogenesis was studied because it might underlie changes in neuroendocrine regulation and behavioral performance. The results show that, independent of the nature of the stressor, MS did not affect the neuroendocrine response. MS did not influence anxiety-like behavior, explorative behavior and social interaction, but did affect cognitive function in an object recognition task. The amount of new born cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly decreased in MS animals; yet, cell differentiation and survival were not altered. In conclusion, while interfering with the mother-infant relationship early in life did affect some aspects of adult neuroplasticity and cognitive function, it did not lead to permanent changes in stress sensitivity and emotionality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of maternal separation on dynamics of urocortin 1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaszner, Balázs; Jensen, Kai-Ole; Farkas, József; Reglodi, Dóra; Csernus, Valér; Roubos, Eric W; Kozicz, Tamás

    2009-08-01

    Although mood disorders are frequently genetically determined and to some degree gender-dependent, the concept of early life 'programming', implying a relation between perinatal environmental events and adult mood disorders, has recently gained considerable attention. In particular, maternal separation (MS) markedly affects various stress-sensitive brain centers. Therefore, MS is considered as a suitable experimental paradigm to study how early life events affect brain plasticity and, hence, cause psychopathologies like major depression. In adult mammals, the classical hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis and the urocortin 1 (Ucn1)-containing non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) respond in opposite ways to chronic stressors. This raises the hypothesis that MS, which is known to increase vulnerability for adult mood disorders via the dysregulation of the HPA-axis, will affect npEW dynamics as well. We have tested this hypothesis and, moreover, studied a possible role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in such npEW plasticity. By triple immunocytochemistry we show that BDNF and Ucn1 coexist in rat npEW-neurons that are c-Fos-positive upon acute stress. Quantitative immunocytochemistry revealed that MS increases the contents of Ucn1 and BDNF in these cells. Furthermore, in males and females, the c-Fos response of npEW-Ucn1 neurons upon restraint stress was blunted in animals with MS history, a phenomenon that was concomitant with dampening of the HPA corticosterone response in females but not in males. Based on these data we suggest that the BDNF-containing npEW-Ucn1 system might be affected by MS in a sex-specific manner. This supports the idea that the npEW would play a role in the appearance of sex differences in the pathogenesis of stress-induced mood disorders.

  8. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  9. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  10. Maternal separation increases later immobility during forced swim in guinea pig pups: evidence for sensitization of a depressive-like state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Schreibeis, Amanda D; Schiml, Patricia A; Deak, Terrence

    2017-01-01

    Early-life stress is thought to increase later vulnerability for developing depressive illness by sensitizing underlying stress-responsive systems. Guinea pig pups separated from their mother and isolated in a novel cage for 3 hr exhibit a sensitized depressive-like behavioral response when separated again the following day as well as weeks later. The behavioral response and its sensitization appear to be mediated by inflammatory factors. To determine if this sensitization is specific to the separation response or if it reflects a broader underlying depressive-like state, guinea pig pups that had either been separated for 3 hr or remained with their mothers were observed in the forced swim test the following 3 days. Earlier separation was found to increase the duration of immobility, a measure sensitive to antidepressant treatment. These results support the use of the guinea pig as a model for examining mechanisms of inflammatory-mediated sensitization of depression following stress in early life. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Differential ultrasonic indices of separation distress in the presence and absence of maternal cues in infant rats bred for high and low positive social affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Paolo; Colonnello, Valentina; Fuchs, Thomas; D'Antuono, Laura; Panksepp, Jaak

    2013-10-01

    Preclinical models of human mood disorders commonly focus on the study of negative affectivity, without comparably stressing the role of positive affects and their ability to promote resilient coping styles. We evaluated the role of background constitutional affect of rats by studying the separation and reunion responses of infants from low and high positive affect genetic lines (i.e., differentially selected for High and Low 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs). Infants from Low and High 50 kHz USV breeding lines were isolated from mothers and exposed to either social (familiar or unfamiliar bedding) or neutral (clean bedding) odour cues between two short isolation periods, and tested in homeothermic and hypothermic ambient temperatures. Negative affect was estimated by monitoring separation distress calls (35-45 kHz USVs). Low Line pups called at higher rates than High Line, and their rates were stable regardless of odour cue. In contrast, High Line pups increased vocalisations during the second compared with the first isolation periods and during exposure to both familiar and unfamiliar odour cues, but not to neutral odour. Furthermore, the greatest increase in USV emission was seen in the second isolation period following exposure to the unfamiliar odour. However, both lines showed comparable elevated distress USVs to the thermal stressor. High Line animals, selected for a positive affective phenotype (50 kHz USVs), exhibited reduced separation anxiety responses in infancy, making this a promising animal model for the role of constitutional affective states in emotional responsivity and potential resilience against emotional disorders.

  12. Risk Factors of Prolonged Hospitalization in Patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Onur Topcu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Number of vomiting per day and maternal serum TSH levels could help physicians to estimate the risk of prolonged hospitalization; however further investigations are needed in large population studies. Identifying the high risk patients is important both for prevention of HEG and beginning appropriate antiemetic treatment to avoid complications to reduce the economic costs. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 113-118

  13. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  14. Maternal mortality following caesarean sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, K; Kundu, S; Mandal, G S

    1979-08-01

    A study of 26 maternal deaths following 3647 caesarean sections was conducted in Eden Hospital from 1974-1977. During the time period there were 35,544 births and 308 total maternal deaths (8.74/1000). Indications for Caesarean sections included: 1) abnormal presentation; 2) cephalopelvic disproportion; 3) toxemia; 4) prolonged labor; 5) fetal distress; and 6) post-caesarean pregnancies. Highest mortality rates were among cephalopelvic disproportion, toxemia, and prolonged labor patients. 38.4% of the patients died due to septicaemia and peritonitis, but other deaths were due to preclampsia, shock, and hemorrhage. Proper antenatal care may have prevented anemia and preclampsia and treated other pre-existing or superimposed diseases.

  15. Analgesic effect of paeoniflorin in rats with neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral hyperalgesia is mediated through adenosine A(1) receptor by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Hong-Li; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Xu, Hong-Xi; Sung, Joseph J Y; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2009-11-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF), a chief active ingredient in the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall (family Ranunculaceae), is effective in relieving colorectal distention (CRD)-induced visceral pain in rats with visceral hyperalgesia induced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS). This study aimed at exploring the underlying mechanisms of PF's analgesic effect on CRD-evoked nociceptive signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) and investigating whether the adenosine A(1) receptor is involved in PF's anti-nociception. CRD-induced visceral pain as well as phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) and phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) expression in the CNS structures of NMS rats were suppressed by NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) and ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U0126. PF could similarly inhibit CRD-evoked p-ERK and c-Fos expression in laminae I-II of the lumbosacral dorsal horn and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). PF could also reverse the CRD-evoked increased glutamate concentration by CRD as shown by dynamic microdialysis monitoring in ACC, whereas, DPCPX, an antagonist of adenosine A(1) receptor, significantly blocked the analgesic effect of PF and PF's inhibition on CRD-induced p-ERK and p-CREB expression. These results suggest that PF's analgesic effect is possibly mediated by adenosine A(1) receptor by inhibiting CRD-evoked glutamate release and the NMDA receptor dependent ERK signaling.

  16. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  17. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  18. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  19. Plotting Maternity in Three Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Amber E.

    2012-01-01

    This performance text examines complexities of personal and maternal identity in family life. Speaking in first, second, and third person voices, the author offers autoethnographic accounts of the tensions between separateness and connectedness, normative and subjective motherhood, and novice and seasoned perspectives. The piece functions as a…

  20. RD50 Prolongation Request 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    With this document, we request the prolongation of the CERN RD50 research program for 5 years. A very brief historical review of the RD50 research program since the RD50 project approval by the Research Board in the year 2002 is presented and the biggest RD50 achievements are highlighted. The present composition of the collaboration, its organizational structure, and the research methodology are described. The role of RD50 in the present various upgrade and research programs of the LHC Experiments community is given and the overall work plan explained. Finally, a detailed 5-years work program with precise milestones and deliverables for the various research activities is presented. We conclude with our prolongation request towards the LHCC.

  1. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  2. Maternal immunocompetence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of distribution patterns of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes in pregnant mice were designed to explore the effect of pregnancy on the immunologic behaviour of the intact pregnant animal rather than on the isolated maternal lymphocyte. The distribution pattern of 51 Cr-labelled syngenic and semiallogenic lymphocytes was studied in intact primigravida mice, and there was no difference between interstrain and intrastrain pregnant mice, and there was no evidence of immunologically specific 'trapping' in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the interstrain pregnant uterus. There is little evidence that the primigravida animal is even immunologically aware of the 'foreignness'of a semiallogenic fetus. (JIW)

  3. Survey of Umbilical Cord care and Separation time in Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The interval between delivery and umbilical cord separation varies worldwide. Some maternal, foetal and perinatal factors including cord care practices are known to affect this interval. Objectives: To establish the mean umbilical cord separation time and the effect of maternal and infant characteristics, perinatal ...

  4. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Breastfeeding Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilanawala, Afshin

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Although maternal employment rates have increased in the last decade in the UK, there is very little research investigating the linkages between maternal nonstandard work schedules (i.e., work schedules outside of the Monday through Friday, 9-5 schedule) and breastfeeding initiation and duration, especially given the wide literature citing the health advantages of breastfeeding for mothers and children. Methods This paper uses a population-based, UK cohort study, the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,397), to investigate the association between types of maternal nonstandard work (evening, night, away from home overnight, and weekends) and breastfeeding behaviors. Results In unadjusted models, exposure to evening shifts was associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation (OR 1.71, CI 1.50-1.94) and greater odds of short (OR 1.55, CI 1.32-1.81), intermediate (OR 2.01, CI 1.64-2.47), prolonged partial duration (OR 2.20, CI 1.78-2.72), and prolonged exclusive duration (OR 1.53, CI 1.29-1.82), compared with mothers who were unemployed and those who work other types of nonstandard shifts. Socioeconomic advantage of mothers working evening schedules largely explained the higher odds of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Conclusions Socioeconomic characteristics explain more breastfeeding behaviors among mothers working evening shifts. Policy interventions to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration should consider the timing of maternal work schedules.

  6. Paradoxes of maternal mourning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, C W

    1991-02-01

    It has been customary to conceptualize mourning as a phasic or stage phenomenon (Lindemann 1944; Parkes 1972; Bowlby 1980; Knapp 1986). Such a conceptualization has proved to be of tremendous didactic value, especially in terms of succinctly organizing and communicating the major affects, behaviors, and reactions of mourning. It is, however, my belief, based upon clinical experience with many forms of bereavement, that the phenomenon of mourning is not comprised of clearly delineated stages and phases. I have come to conceptualize the phenomenon of mourning the death of a loved person as involving the bereaved's struggle with a series of more or less unresolvable paradoxes rather than as a progression through stages that possess relatively distinct and predictable beginning and ending points. The specific paradoxes encountered by a bereaved person differ, of course, in accordance with the relationship that was lost (mother, father, spouse, child, or sibling), the developmental stage of the bereaved (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, or maturity), the type of death (sudden or prolonged), and the cause of death (illness, murder, suicide, or accident). In this paper, I will address those paradoxes that seem specific to maternal mourning - that is, to mothers who are mourning the death of a child.

  7. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  8. Doubts and Concerns about Isolated Maternal Hypothyroxinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacarla Moleti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia may have detrimental effects on both mother and foetus. Nonetheless, this condition is still far from being universally accepted as a separate thyroid disease, and a standard definition of this state of mild thyroid underfunction is still lacking. We will review the biochemical criteria used to define isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia, together with current methodological issues related to FT4 assays. We will also discuss its epidemiological impact in both iodine-deficient and-sufficient areas, and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis on maternal thyroid function and neuropsychomotor development in offspring.

  9. Mothers' Mobility after Separation : Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Marjolijn; de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  10. Mothers' Mobility after Separation: Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Merz, E.-M.

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  11. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  12. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  13. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  14. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  15. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  16. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  17. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  18. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  19. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  20. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  1. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  2. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  3. Coexistence of Ureaplasma and chorioamnionitis is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Euiseok; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Su Yeong; Sung, Tae-Jung; Kim, Haeryoung; Park, Kyoung Un; Kim, Han-Suk; Kim, Beyong Il; Choi, Jung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Both histologic chorioamnionitis (HCAM) and Ureaplasma infection are considered important contributors to perinatal lung injury. We tested the hypothesis that coexistence of maternal HCAM and perinatal Ureaplasma exposure increases the risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation in extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants. A retrospective cohort study was carried out of all ELBW infants born between January 2008 and December 2013 at a single academic center. Placental pathology and gastric fluid Ureaplasma data were available for all infants. Culture and polymerase chain reaction were used to detect Ureaplasma in gastric fluid. Prolonged mechanical ventilation was defined as mechanical ventilation that began within 28 days after birth and continued. Of 111 ELBW infants enrolled, 84 survived beyond 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) and were included in the analysis. Eighteen infants (21.4%) had both HCAM and Ureaplasma exposure. Seven infants (8.3%) required mechanical ventilation beyond 36 weeks of PMA. Coexistence of HCAM and Ureaplasma in gastric fluid was significantly associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation after adjustment for gestational age, sex, mode of delivery, and use of macrolide antibiotics (OR, 8.7; 95%CI: 1.1-67.2). Coexistence of maternal HCAM and perinatal Ureaplasma exposure significantly increases the risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation in ELBW infants. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. The role of the anterodorsal thalami nuclei in the regulation of adrenal medullary function, beta-adrenergic cardiac receptors and anxiety responses in maternally deprived rats under stressful conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M M; Rivarola, M A; Molina, S M; Levin, G M; Enders, J; Paglini, P

    2004-09-01

    Maternal separation can interfere with growth and development of the brain and represents a significant risk factor for adult psychopathology. In rodents, prolonged separation from the mother affects the behavioral and endocrine responses to stress for the lifetime of the animal. Limbic structures such as the anterodorsal thalamic nuclei (ADTN) play an important role in the control of neuroendocrine and sympathetic-adrenal function. In view of these findings we hypothesized that the function of the ADTN may be affected in an animal model of maternal deprivation. To test this hypothesis female rats were isolated 4.5 h daily, during the first 3 weeks of life and tested as adults. We evaluated plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE), cardiac adrenoreceptors and anxiety responses after maternal deprivation and variable chronic stress (VCS) in ADTN-lesioned rats. Thirty days after ADTN lesion, in non-maternally deprived rats basal plasma NE concentration was greater and cardiac beta-adrenoreceptor density was lower than that in the sham-lesioned group. Maternal deprivation induced a significant increase in basal plasma NE concentration, which was greater in lesioned rats, and cardiac beta-adrenoreceptor density was decreased in lesioned rats. After VCS plasma catecholamine concentration was much greater in non-maternally deprived rats than in maternally-deprived rats; cardiac beta-adrenoreceptor density was decreased by VCS in both maternally-deprived and non-deprived rats, but more so in non-deprived rats, and further decreased by the ADTN lesion. In the plus maze test, the number of open arm entries was greater in the maternally deprived and in the stressed rats. Thus, sympathetic-adrenal medullary activation produced by VCS was much greater in non-deprived rats, and was linked to a down regulation of myocardial beta-adrenoceptors. The ADTN are not responsible for the reduced catecholamine responses to stress in maternally-deprived rats. Maternal deprivation or

  5. [Family planning can reduce maternal mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1987-01-01

    Although the maternal mortality rate receives no newspaper headlines, the number of mothers dying throughout the world is equivalent to a full jumbo jet crashing every 5 hours. Population surveys carried out between 1981-83 by Family Health International indicated maternal mortality rates of 1.9/1000 live births in Menoufia, Egypt, and 7.2/1000 in Bali, Indonesia. 20-25% of all deaths in women aged 15-49 were directly related to pregnancy and delivery, compared to 1% in western countries where there is better prenatal care, medical assistance in almost all deliveries, and elimination of most high risk pregnancies through voluntary fertility control. Maternal mortality could be controlled by teaching traditional midwives to identify high risk patients at the beginning of their pregnancies and to refer them to appropriate health services. Maternal survival would also be improved if all women were in good health at the beginning of pregnancy. Families should be taught to seek medical care for the mother in cases of prolonged labor; many women arrive at hospitals beyond hope of recovery after hours or days of futile labor. Health policy makers should set new priorities. Sri Lanka, for example, has a lower per capita income than Pakistan, but also a lower maternal mortality rate because of better use of family planning services, more emphasis on prenatal care, and a tradition of care and attention on the part of the public health services.

  6. Maternity Care Update: Postpartum Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Barr, Wendy B; Bassett-Novoa, Erin; LeFevre, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    Family physicians are uniquely situated to play a major role in postpartum care. Postpartum issues that should be monitored and addressed include reproductive and contraceptive planning, breastfeeding counseling and support, and maternal mental health. All women should be screened for postpartum depression using a validated tool at the postpartum visit and/or at well-child visits. Patients with positive screening results should be offered support and treatment. Women are more likely to breastfeed if they are provided with breastfeeding support and counseling routinely during the prenatal and postpartum periods. All women should be asked about their reproductive life plans, counseled about potential risks associated with short and prolonged interpregnancy intervals, and offered contraception. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  7. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  8. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  9. Prolonged CT urography in duplex kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghan; Gao, Lei; Dai, Xi-Jian; Zhou, Fuqing; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Xianjun; Jiang, Jian; He, Laichang

    2016-05-13

    Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) and has been suggested to considerably aid in the duplex kidney diagnosi. Unfortunately, regarding duplex kidney with prolonged dilatation, the affected parenchyma and tortuous ureters demonstrate a lack of or delayed excretory opacification. We used prolonged-delay CTU, which consists of another prolonged-delay phase (1- to 72-h delay; mean delay: 24 h) to opacify the duplicated ureters and affected parenchyma. Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5-56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with duplex kidney were included in this study. Unenhanced scans did not find typical characteristics of duplex kidney, except for irregular perirenal morphology. Duplex kidney could not be confirmed on typical four-phase CTU, whereas it could be easily diagnosed in axial and CT-3D reconstruction using prolonged CTU (prolonged-delay phase). Between January 2005 and October 2010, in this review board-approved study (with waived informed consent), 17 patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5 ~ 56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with suspicious duplex kidney underwent prolonged CTU to opacify the duplicated ureters and confirm the diagnosis. Our results suggest the validity of prolonged CTU to aid in the evaluation of the function of the affected parenchyma and in the demonstration of urinary tract malformations.

  10. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  11. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  12. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  13. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  14. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety

  15. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  16. Dynamics of heterogeneous liners with prolonged plasma creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Branitskii, A.V.; Volkov, G.S.; Grabovskii, E.V.; Zurin, M.V.; Nedoseev, S.L.; Oleinik, G.M.; Samokhin, A.A.; Smirnov, V.P.; Fedulov, M.V.; Frolov, I.N.; Sasorov, P.V.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged plasma creation in heterogeneous liners, in which the liner substance is separated into two phase states (a hot plasma and a cold skeleton), is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. This situation is typical of multiwire, foam, and even gas liners in high-current high-voltage facilities. The main mechanisms governing the rate at which the plasma is created are investigated, and the simplest estimates of the creation rate are presented. It is found that, during prolonged plasma creation, the electric current flows through the entire cross section of the produced plasma shell, whose thickness is comparable with the liner radius; in other words, a current skin layer does not form. During compression, such a shell is fairly stable because of its relatively high resilience. It is shown that, under certain conditions, even a thick plasma shell can be highly compressed toward the discharge axis. A simplified numerical simulation of the compression of a plasma shell in a liner with prolonged plasma creation is employed in order to determine the conditions for achieving regimes of fairly compact and relatively stable radial compression of the shell

  17. Maternity Protection at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  18. Prolonged delirium misdiagnosed as a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium can be conceptualized as an acute decline in cognitive function that typically lasts from hours to a few days. Prolonged delirium can also affect patients with multiple predisposing and/or precipitating factors. In clinical practice, prolonged delirium is often unrecognized, and can be misdiagnosed as other psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that was first misdiagnosed as a mood disorder in a general hospital setting. After prolonged delirium due to multiple factors was confirmed, the patient was treated accordingly with symptomatic management. He evolved with progressive improvement of his clinical status. Early diagnosis and management of prolonged delirium are important to improve patient prognosis and avoid iatrogenic measures.

  19. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Kulairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  20. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  1. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    ) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... an ultrasound scan in the first or second trimester, or menstrual history was best at predicting the day of delivery; 5) to study the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner, social status and municipality; and 6) to detect prenatal risk indicators of prolonged...... of perinatal and obstetrical complications was high in post-term delivery compared to term delivery (OR between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death (OR=1.36 (1.08-1.72)) was also higher in the post-term group (I). The self-reported gestational ages in the National Birth Cohort correlated well with data...

  2. Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy results in transient fetal and placental growth retardation in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Paidi, Maya Devi; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Recently, we reported that preferential maternal-fetal vitamin C (vitC) transport across the placenta is likely to be impaired by prolonged maternal vitC deficiency. Maintenance of a basal maternal vitC supply at the expense of the fetus may impair fetal development; however, the knowled......, the present data suggest that vitC plays a role in early fetal development. Low maternal vitC intake during pregnancy may compromise maternal weight gain, placental function and intrauterine development....

  3. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  4. Influences of maternal overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Lipscombe, P

    1981-04-01

    While maternal overprotection appears associated with several neurotic and psychotic disorders, little is known about determinants of such a parental characteristic. Several hypotheses have been tested in a large nonclinical sample. Maternal and cultural factors seemed of greater relevance than characteristics in the child. Overprotective mothers gave evidence of marked maternal preoccupations before having children, of showing a capacity to be overprotective after the active stage of mothering, and of having personality characteristics of high anxiety, obsessionality and a need to control. Maternal overprotection appears associated with low, rather than with high maternal care. This has important primary prevention and treatment implications.

  5. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    This dissertation constitutes a reflection on two initiatives seeking to reconfigure maternity care. One initiative sought to digitalise maternity records and included a pilot run of an electronic maternity record in a Danish county. The other consisted of a collaboration between a maternity ward...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... experimental designs are constructed. The consequences and the politics of the proposed changes are engaged with in laboratory manner through collaborative development of the designs and through exposing them to members of field of maternity care...

  6. Maternal Mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Sonia; Archer, Natalie P; Ruggiero, Karen; Hall, Manda; Stagg, Julie; Interis, Evelyn Coronado; Vega, Rachelle; Delgado, Evelyn; Hellerstedt, John; Hankins, Gary; Hollier, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    A commentary on maternal mortality in Texas is provided in response to a 2016 article in Obstetrics & Gynecology by MacDorman et al. While the Texas Department of State Health Services and the Texas Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force agree that maternal mortality increased sharply from 2010 to 2011, the percentage change or the magnitude of the increase in the maternal mortality rate in Texas differs depending on the statistical methods used to compute and display it. Methodologic challenges in identifying maternal death are also discussed, as well as risk factors and causes of maternal death in Texas. Finally, several state efforts currently underway to address maternal mortality in Texas are described. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information regarding QT-prolongation in the drug label may vary between products. This could lead to suboptimal risk minimization strategies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the variation in the extent and content of information on QT prolongation in the summary of product......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...

  8. Maternal deprivation decelerates postnatal morphological lung development of F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupa, Katharina Luise; Schmiedl, Andreas; Pabst, Reinhard; Von Hörsten, Stephan; Stephan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Intensive medical care at premature born infants is often associated with separation of neonates from their mothers. Here, early artificial prolonged separation of rat pups from their dams (Maternal Deprivation, MD) was used to study potential impact on morphological lung maturation. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of an endogenous deficiency of the neuropeptide-cleaving dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), since the effects of MD are known to be partly mediated via neuropeptidergic effects, hypothesizing that MD will lead to a retardation of postnatal lung development, DPP4-dependendly. We used wild type and CD26/DPP4 deficient rats. For MD, the dam was placed each day into a separate cage for 2 h, while the pups remained in the nest on their own. Morphological lung maturation and cell proliferation at the postnatal days 7, 10, 14, and 21 were determined morphometrically. Maternally deprived wild types showed a retarded postnatal lung development compared with untreated controls in both substrains. During alveolarization, an increased thickness of alveolar septa and a decreased surface of septa about 50% were found. At the end of the morphological lung maturation, the surface of the alveolar septa was decreased at about 25% and the septal thickness remained increased about 20%. The proliferation rate was also decreased about 50% on day 14. However, the MD induced effects were less pronounced in DPP4-deficient rats, due to a significant deceleration already induced by DPP4-deficiency. Thus, MD as a model for postnatal stress experience influences remarkably postnatal development of rats, which is significantly modulated by the DPP4-system. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  10. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  11. Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid diagnostic tool for evaluating maternal care. L Cochet, R.C. Pattinson, A.P. Macdonald. Abstract. Objective. To analyse severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal mortality in the Pretoria region over a 2-year period (2000 - 2001). Setting.

  12. Parto inducido por embarazo prolongado Induced delivery in prolonged gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Peña Abraham

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, explicativo y longitudinal sobre el comportamiento de la inducción del parto por embarazo prolongado en el Hospital Gineco-Obstétrico "Justo Legón Padilla", en el período comprendido entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2005.El universo estuvo constituido por la totalidad de los nacimientos por embarazo prolongado que se produjeron en el período, donde el grupo estudio estaba exclusivamente formado por las gestantes con trabajo de parto inducido (n=104; se estudiaron variables de la madre, del nacimiento y del producto de la concepción y a los datos obtenidos se les aplicó porcentaje. La edad materna más frecuente fue la del grupo de 20 - 35 años (65,5%; predominaron las nulíparas (40,4%, la vía del parto que predominó fue la transpelviana (42,3%; todos con un índice de Bishop >7 puntos La causa más frecuente de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo (23%; el embarazo prolongado no constituyó una causa importante de Apgar Bajo, en el parto distócico fue donde ocurrió el mayor número de morbilidad materna y neonatal (9,5%, no se encontró valor significativo en la macrosomía fetal y predominó el sexo femenino en los recién nacidos (65,3%.A retrospective, descriptive, explicative and longitudinal study about the behavior of the induction of labor in prolonged pregnancy was conducted at "Justo Legón Padilla" Gyneco-Obstetric Hospital during the period of January 2004 to December 2005. The whole sample was constituted by the totality of births in prolongad pregnancy during the period where the study group was exclusively formed by pregnants who underwent induced labor (n = 104.Variables of mother, birth and conception product were taken, and percentage method was applied to data collected. The group of most frequent maternal age was 20 - 35 (65,5%, prevailing nulliparous (40,4% and transpelvic labor (42,3%, having a Bishop index = 7. The most frequent cause of cesarean section

  13. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  14. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  15. Anti-M Antibody Induced Prolonged Anemia Following Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Due to Erythropoietic Suppression in 2 Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Negishi, Yutaka; Tsuiki, Hideki; Arakawa, Takeshi; Yagi, Yoshihito; Uchimura, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Toru; Ohashi, Wataru; Takamoto, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) arising from MNSs incompatibility is rare, with few reports of prolonged anemia and reticulocytopenia following HDN. We report the younger of 2 male siblings, both of whom had anti-M-induced HDN and anemia persisting for over a month. Peripheral reticulocytes remained inappropriately low for the degree of anemia, and they needed multiple red cell transfusions. Viral infections were ruled out. Corticosteroids were given for suspected pure red cell aplasia. Anemia and reticulocytopenia subsequently improved. Colony-forming unit erythroid assay revealed erythropoietic suppression of M antigen-positive erythroid precursor cells cultured with maternal or infant sera containing anti-M. In conclusion, maternal anti-M caused HDN and prolonged anemia by erythropoietic suppression in 2 siblings.

  16. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  17. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  18. Prolonged Cholestatic Jaundice Associated With Flurbiprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Serkan; Celikbilek, Mehmet; Demirkan, Kutay; Yilmaz, Semih; Deniz, Kemal; Gursoy, Sebnem; Yucesoy, Mehmet

    2014-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed drugs throughout the world for pain relief. Although the adverse effects of NSAIDs to the liver are well known, flurbiprofen-induced liver cholestasis is extremely rare. Herein, we present a patient with prolonged icterus that is associated with the use of flurbiprofen without causing ductopenia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  20. Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Complicating Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of transient right ventricular dysfunction associated with prolonged cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of uncertain etiology. We believe that in this case dynamic coronary flow restriction resulted in ischemic injury and stunning of the right ventricle. Other possible causes are briefly reviewed. Right ...

  1. Prolonged QRS Widening After Aripiprazole Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Porter, Robert; Dewey, Kayla

    2018-05-05

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with a long half-life. Overdose can result in protracted somnolence and cardiac disturbances, particularly QT interval prolongation. This is a single case report of a 14-year-old boy who took an overdose of aripiprazole and developed QRS widening. A 14-year-old boy intentionally ingested 20 tablets of aripiprazole (5 mg). He was brought to the emergency department when his ingestion was discovered. The patient's vital signs were as follows: temperature, 37.7°C; heart rate, 108 beats/min; blood pressure, 138/98 mm Hg; and respirations, 16 breaths/min. Activated charcoal was administered within 90 minutes of ingestion. Initial electrocardiogram (EKG) showed sinus tachycardia, with a QRS of 138 ms and QT interval of 444 ms. QRS duration was 90 ms on an EKG performed 3 months earlier. A bolus of sodium bicarbonate was administered, and the patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. Repeat EKG demonstrated a QRS of 156 ms, and a sodium bicarbonate infusion was initiated. The patient continued to have QRS prolongation for the next 8 days, reaching a peak of 172 ms 3 days postingestion. Despite aggressive treatment with sodium bicarbonate, there was persistent QRS prolongation; however, the patient did not have any dysrhythmias and remained hemodynamically stable. The patient was discharged 9 days postingestion when the QRS duration normalized to 82 ms. Genetic testing revealed that the patient was a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. This case suggests that aripiprazole toxicity may possibly be associated with QRS prolongation without associated dysrhythmias or cardiovascular compromise. In addition, toxicity may be prolonged in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

  2. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants; Les prolongations de licence des centrales nucleaires americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  3. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  4. Maternal sensitivity: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjeong; Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Seomun, Gyeong-Ae

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a concept analysis of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity is a broad concept encompassing a variety of interrelated affective and behavioural caregiving attributes. It is used interchangeably with the terms maternal responsiveness or maternal competency, with no consistency of use. There is a need to clarify the concept of maternal sensitivity for research and practice. A search was performed on the CINAHL and Ovid MEDLINE databases using 'maternal sensitivity', 'maternal responsiveness' and 'sensitive mothering' as key words. The searches yielded 54 records for the years 1981-2007. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyse the material. Four critical attributes of maternal sensitivity were identified: (a) dynamic process involving maternal abilities; (b) reciprocal give-and-take with the infant; (c) contingency on the infant's behaviour and (d) quality of maternal behaviours. Maternal identity and infant's needs and cues are antecedents for these attributes. The consequences are infant's comfort, mother-infant attachment and infant development. In addition, three positive affecting factors (social support, maternal-foetal attachment and high self-esteem) and three negative affecting factors (maternal depression, maternal stress and maternal anxiety) were identified. A clear understanding of the concept of maternal sensitivity could be useful for developing ways to enhance maternal sensitivity and to maximize the developmental potential of infants. Knowledge of the attributes of maternal sensitivity identified in this concept analysis may be helpful for constructing measuring items or dimensions.

  5. Trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the first 12 months postpartum and child externalizing and internalizing behavior at three years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler, Heather; Austin, Marie-Paule; Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Wajid, Abdul; Vermeyden, Lydia; Benzies, Karen; Brown, Stephanie; Stuart, Scott; Giallo, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    persistent high depressive symptoms, followed by mothers with moderate symptoms (early postpartum and subclinical trajectories) and lowest for minimal symptoms. After accounting for demographic, child and psychosocial factors, the relationships between depression trajectories and child hyperactivity/inattention, physical aggression (subclinical trajectory only) and separation anxiety symptoms remained significant. Conclusion These findings suggest both externalizing and internalizing children’s behaviors are associated with prolonged maternal depressive symptoms. There is a good case for the need to move beyond overly simplistic clinical cutoff approaches of depressed/not depressed in screening for perinatal depression. Women with elevated depressive symptoms at clinical and subclinical levels need to be identified, provided with evidence-based treatment, and monitored with repeat screening to improve maternal mental health outcomes and reduce the risk of associated negative outcomes on children’s early social-emotional and behavior development. PMID:29652937

  6. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  7. Reducing Maternal Mortality by Strengthening Community Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    translated from Hausa to English language. Using a pre-determined coding framework, coding and thematic analyses were carried out on the qualitative data collected from the baseline. LGA. Community. Estimated. Community. Population. Community maternal support systems established. Community savings. Emergency.

  8. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  9. Variation in Definition of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McGinlay, Michael; Amin, Reshma; Burns, Karen Ea; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Jouvet, Philippe; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; McAuley, Danny F; Schultz, Marcus J; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-10-01

    Consistency of definitional criteria for terminology applied to describe subject cohorts receiving mechanical ventilation within ICU and post-acute care settings is important for understanding prevalence, risk stratification, effectiveness of interventions, and projections for resource allocation. Our objective was to quantify the application and definition of terms for prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a scoping review of studies (all designs except single-case study) reporting a study population (adult and pediatric) using the term prolonged mechanical ventilation or a synonym. We screened 5,331 references, reviewed 539 full-text references, and excluded 120. Of the 419 studies (representing 38 countries) meeting inclusion criteria, 297 (71%) reported data on a heterogeneous subject cohort, and 66 (16%) included surgical subjects only (46 of those 66, 70% cardiac surgery). Other studies described COPD (16, 4%), trauma (22, 5%), neuromuscular (17, 4%), and sepsis (1, 0.2%) cohorts. A total of 741 terms were used to refer to the 419 study cohorts. The most common terms were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (253, 60%), admission to specialized unit (107, 26%), and long-term mechanical ventilation (79, 19%). Some authors (282, 67%) defined their cohorts based on duration of mechanical ventilation, with 154 studies (55%) using this as the sole criterion. We identified 37 different durations of ventilation ranging from 5 h to 1 y, with > 21 d being the most common (28 of 282, 7%). For studies describing a surgical cohort, minimum ventilation duration required for inclusion was ≥ 24 h for 20 of 66 studies (30%). More than half of all studies (237, 57%) did not provide a reason/rationale for definitional criteria used, with only 28 studies (7%) referring to a consensus definition. We conclude that substantial variation exists in the terminology and definitional criteria for cohorts of subjects receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Standardization of

  10. Prolonged Exposure: a Rapid Treatment for Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. P.; Gaind, R.; Marks, I. M.

    1971-01-01

    Ten adult patients with long-standing specific phobias were treated by prolonged continuous exposure to their phobic objects in fantasy and reality without avoidance. All patients were greatly helped by four to five hours' treatment in two or three sessions, and all improved more after practice than after imaginal sessions. The treatment method is more economical and efficient than other methods described so far. PMID:5539135

  11. [Maternity leave and experience of working mothers in Lebanon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé, N; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of 802 Lebanese mothers to evaluate effect of rapid return to work on their health and that of their child. Breastfeeding practices were also assessed. The duration of maternity leave was insufficient for 72.8% of the women. Rapid return to work could cause physical and psychological problems depending on the type of work. The average length of breastfeeding was 4.7 months and while the average desired length was 10.9 months. Breastfeeding depended on the duration of the maternity leave, the possibility of breaks for breastfeeding and the presence of nurseries at work. Urgent interventions are necessary to prolong maternity leave and promote breastfeeding among working women.

  12. [Maternal death: unequal risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality

  13. Prolonged labour as indication for emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Sorensen, B L; Onesmo, R

    2012-01-01

    To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour.......To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour....

  14. Time and nature of the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.

    1989-01-01

    A vital link in a complex of physiological processes occurring during early pregnancy is the so-called maternal recognition of pregnancy: the prolongation of ovarian luteal function for continuation of progesterone secretion by an anti-luteolytic action of the developing embryos.

  15. The prolongation of somatic support in a pregnant woman with brain-death: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Eliana

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical literature has increasingly reported cases of maternal brain death during pregnancy. This is a rare situation which demands the decision and, depending on the gestational age, the implementation of a set of measures to prolong the homeostasis of the human body after brain death for the purpose of maintaining the foetus alive until its viability. Case presentation A 40 year old woman suffered an intracranial haemorrhage during the 25th week of pregnancy. Despite neurosurgical drainage of a gross intraparenchymatous haematoma, the patient developed brain death. Upon confirmation of this diagnosis, she received full ventilatory and nutritional support, vasoactive drugs, maintenance of normothermia, hormone replacement and other supportive measures required to prolong gestation and improve the survival prognosis of her foetus. All decisions regarding the patient's treatment were taken in consensus with her family. She also received corticosteroids to accelerate foetal lung maturity. During the twenty-five days of somatic support, the woman's condition remained stable; however, during the last seven days the foetus developed oligohydramnios and brain-sparring, which led the medical team to take the decision to perform a Caesarean section at that moment. After delivery, the patient's organs were removed for donation. The male infant was born weighing 815 g, with an Apgar score of 9 and 10 at the first and fifth minutes, respectively. The infant was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, but did not require mechanical ventilation and had no major complications. He was discharged at 40 days of life, with no sequelae and weighing 1850 g. Conclusion These results are in accordance with findings from previous studies and case reports suggesting the appropriateness and safety of extended somatic support during pregnancy under certain circumstances. They also suggest the need for prompt diagnosis of brain death before the

  16. Laryngotracheal Injury following Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mehdizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation

  17. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. The Effect of Prolonged Culture of Chromosomally Abnormal Human Embryos on The Rate of Diploid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Bazrgar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A decrease in aneuploidy rate following a prolonged co-culture of human blastocysts has been reported. As co-culture is not routinely used in assisted reproductive technology, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the prolonged single culture on the rate of diploid cells in human embryos with aneuploidies. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to reanalyze surplus blastocysts undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD on day 3 postfertilization. They were randomly studied on days 6 or 7 following fertilization. Results: Of the 30 analyzed blastocysts, mosaicism was observed in 26(86.6%, while 2(6.7% were diploid, and 2(6.7% were triploid. Of those with mosaicism, 23(88.5% were determined to be diploid-aneuploid and 3(11.5% were aneuploid mosaic. The total frequency of embryos with more than 50% diploid cells was 33.3% that was lower on day 7 in comparison with the related value on day 6 (P<0.05; however, there were no differences when the embryos were classified according to maternal age, blastocyst developmental stage, total cell number on day 3, and embryo quality. Conclusion: Although mosaicism is frequently observed in blastocysts, the prolonged single culture of blastocysts does not seem to increase the rate of normal cells.

  19. Angiogenic Markers Predict Pregnancy Complications and Prolongation in Preeclampsia: Continuous Versus Cutoff Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Langeza; Vergouwe, Yvonne; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Verdonk, Koen; Russcher, Henk; Bremer, Henk A; Versendaal, Hans J; Steegers, Eric A P; Danser, A H Jan; Visser, Willy

    2017-11-01

    To assess the incremental value of a single determination of the serum levels of sFlt-1 (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1) and PlGF (placental growth factor) or their ratio, without using cutoff values, for the prediction of maternal and fetal/neonatal complications and pregnancy prolongation, 620 women with suspected/confirmed preeclampsia, aged 18 to 48 years, were included in a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study. Women had singleton pregnancies and a median pregnancy duration of 34 (range, 20-41) weeks. Complications occurred in 118 women and 248 fetuses. The median duration between admission and delivery was 12 days. To predict prolongation, PlGF showed the highest incremental value ( R 2 =0.72) on top of traditional predictors (gestational age at inclusion, diastolic blood pressure, proteinuria, creatinine, uric acid, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and platelets) compared with R 2 =0.53 for the traditional predictors only. sFlt-1 showed the highest value to discriminate women with and without maternal complications (C-index=0.83 versus 0.72 for the traditional predictors only), and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio showed the highest value to discriminate fetal/neonatal complications (C-index=0.86 versus 0.78 for the traditional predictors only). Applying previously suggested cutoff values for the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio yielded lower incremental values than applying continuous values. In conclusion, sFlt-1 and PlGF are strong and independent predictors for days until delivery along with maternal and fetal/neonatal complications on top of the traditional criteria. Their use as continuous variables (instead of applying cutoff values for different gestational ages) should now be tested in a prospective manner, making use of an algorithm calculating the risk of an individual woman with suspected/confirmed preeclampsia to develop complications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  1. Topical Drug Formulations for Prolonged Corneal Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tong, Rong; Ciolino, Joseph B.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular local anesthetics (OLA’s) currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect on the duration of corneal anesthesia of the site-1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), applied with either proparacaine or the chemical permeation enhancer OTAB. The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. Methods Solutions of TTX, proparacaine, and OTAB, singly or in combination were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo following corneal debridement. Results Combination of TTX and proparacaine resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8–10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, while OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed following co-administration of TTX and proparacaine. Conclusion Co-administration of TTX and proparacaine significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia but in view of delayed corneal re-epithelialization, caution is suggested in use of the combination. PMID:23615270

  2. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone ...

  3. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The steam-water separator connected downstream of a steam generator consists of a vertical centrifugal separator with swirl blades between two concentric pipes and a cyclone separator located above. The water separated in the cyclone separator is collected in the inner tube of the centrifugal separator which is closed at the bottom. This design allows the overall height of the separator to be reduced. (DG) [de

  4. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...

  5. [Maternal mortality: the demographic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, D

    1989-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined maternal mortality (MM) as a death following a delivery or during the 42 day period following a prolonged or complicated delivery. This definition is ambiguous because it does not take into account the institutional causes (deficiencies) that lead to MM in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) nor does it reflect all the reasons leading to MM because of the lack of nationwide health information systems and the lack of accurate statistics. While developed countries can depend on the state to provide accurate statistics, developing countries depend on hospitals, health training centers and special surveys to provide such data which often leads to 25-50% gross underestimations of MM. The most recent WHO data (1989) shows that SSA has the highest MM rates worldwide, ranging from 500- 700/100,000 as compared to Asia with 55-650; Latin America with 110-210 and the developed countries with 10-48. The data for SSA doesn't reflect the true situation in the rural areas where MM rates are over 1000/1000,000. MM is a symptom of poor countries where women contribute to their own deaths through repeated pregnancies, causing significant socioeconomic losses to society. UNICEF (1988) has categorized the demographic factors as high risk for women based on: 1) the age of the mother, and 2) the number of pregnancies. Family planning (FP) reduces MM by preventing illegal abortions; it reduces the number of unwanted pregnancies and increases the earnings of a community by reducing the number of pregnant women. The experience of developed countries demonstrates how women have avoided high-risk and unwanted pregnancies.

  6. Factors Associated with Young Children's Opportunities for Maintaining Family Relationships during Maternal Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Maes, Elizabeth; Hanneman, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    Children affected by maternal incarceration experience challenges maintaining continuous family relationships because of changes in caregivers, separation from siblings, and limited contact with mothers. In this mixed-method study, we investigated maternal and contextual factors associated with continuity in family relationships of children living…

  7. Maternal Mortality in a Nigerian Maternity Hospital | Olopade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite recent focus on maternal mortality in Nigeria, its rates remain unacceptably high in Nigeria. A retrospective case-control study was carried out at Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan between January 2003 and December 2004. This was to determine the maternal mortality ratio in a secondary health facility, to identify ...

  8. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of ...

  9. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gysel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  10. Prolonged toxicity from Kambo cleansing ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Horng, Howard; Lynch, Kara; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-04-02

    Kambo cleanse is a purification, cleansing ritual traditionally performed by South American shaman to confer luck and health to hunters. We report a patient who presented to the emergency department with prolonged symptoms of vomiting, flushing, facial swelling, altered mental status, and agitation requiring chemical restraints, 22 h after a Kambo cleanse. The patient was found with four small, circular, superficial burns to the ankle at the site where the resin was introduced. The cleanse consists of rubbing resin obtained from the secretions of the giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) into superficial wounds to produce intense gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a sensation of increased stamina and strength. The cleanse is now being increasingly performed in Europe and USA.

  11. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  12. Neurohumoral responses during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Blomstrand, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This study examined neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise with and without hyperthermia. The cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate uptake ratio (O2/CHO = arteriovenous oxygen difference divided by arteriovenous glucose difference plus one-half lactate), the cerebral balances of dopamine......, and the metabolic precursor of serotonin, tryptophan, were evaluated in eight endurance-trained subjects during exercise randomized to be with or without hyperthermia. The core temperature stabilized at 37.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) in the control trial, whereas it increased to 39.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C...... in the hyperthermic trial, with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P exercise trials. Both the arterial and jugular venous dopamine levels...

  13. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  14. Response of maternal immune cells of irradiation of mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, E.M.; Markovic, B.

    1988-01-01

    This work began as an attempt to explain the paradox of pregnancy - the survival and growth of the semi-allogenic embryo in an immunologically hostile environment. In 1982 and 1983 we reported the tracing of quinacrine labelled maternal leukocytes (WBC) in maternal, placental and embryonic mouse tissues by fluorescence microscopy. We found that cells in the placenta phagocytose labelled WBC, so that after 1-2 hours the labelled nuclear DNA is found as brightly fluorescing particles in the cytoplasm of the phagocytes with no evidence of it in the nuclei. Identical cells were observed in slide preparations of embryos which had been carefully separated from their placentas. We also found a small population of intact labelled lymphocytes, clearly maternal in origin, in the embryos. This seems to be another paradox - placental phagocytes are observed to be phagocytosing maternal WBC in the placenta and embryo, but there are also free maternal cells in the placenta and embryo. A theoretical explanation is that maternal lymphocytes alloreactive against the embryo will attempt to react with placental cells and in the process be phagocytosed, while other maternal cells will be able to enter the embryo where they could have a surveillance function, removing dead or mutant embryonic cells. To test this theory a series of experiments were carried out and are reported

  15. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  16. Prolonged pain and disability are common after rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of rib fractures to prolonged pain and disability may be underappreciated and undertreated. Clinicians are traditionally taught that the pain and disability of rib fractures resolves in 6 to 8 weeks. This study was a prospective observation of 203 patients with rib fractures at a level 1 trauma center. Chest wall pain was evaluated by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Prolonged pain was defined as a PRI of 8 or more at 2 months after injury. Prolonged disability was defined as a decrease in 1 or more levels of work or functional status at 2 months after injury. Predictors of prolonged pain and disability were determined by multivariate analysis. One hundred forty-five male patients and 58 female patients with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 20 (range, 1 to 59) had a mean of 5.4 rib fractures (range, 1 to 29). Forty-four (22%) patients had bilateral fractures, 15 (7%) had flail chest, and 92 (45%) had associated injury. One hundred eighty-seven patients were followed 2 months or more. One hundred ten (59%) patients had prolonged chest wall pain and 142 (76%) had prolonged disability. Among 111 patients with isolated rib fractures, 67 (64%) had prolonged chest wall pain and 69 (66%) had prolonged disability. MPQ PPI was predictive of prolonged pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.5), and prolonged disability (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4). The presence of significant associated injuries was predictive of prolonged disability (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29). Prolonged chest wall pain is common, and the contribution of rib fractures to disability is greater than traditionally expected. Further investigation into more effective therapies that prevent prolonged pain and disability after rib fractures is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism. Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health. Maternal health is a major health priority for international agencies and the Ethiopian. Government. Many low income countries including. Ethiopia, made substantial improvements in maternal health achieving ...

  18. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  19. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  20. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  1. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  2. Maternal lactation for preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, J

    2001-11-01

    In recent decades, neonatologists have made considerable progress in life support techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of respiratory disorders, which has led to a higher neonatal survival rate. Research into neonatal nutrition has also produced great benefits. It has been found that one of the key points regarding the improved survival rate of infants is the necessity for nutrition that is both adequate and as natural as possible. In this respect, it is necessary to achieve a better understanding of the process, protection, support and maintenance of maternal lactation in neonatal units. Humanization of perinatal attention during delivery, respect for the rights of parents and their children, protection of the mother and child bonding process, early skin contact with the mother and greater attention to individualized care are all key factors in the reinforcement of maternal lactation and are issues that must be addressed within the field of neonatology. Research activities need to concern themselves with: (1) acquiring greater knowledge concerning the common problems and difficulties that arise with mothers and their preterm babies; (2) training healthcare professionals in these aspects, for example in the extraction and storage of milk and in improving techniques of emotional and communicational skills; (3) by means of specific programmes such as the setting up of support groups, so that the effort made to encourage the initiation of breastfeeding is justified by its continuation for as long as possible. Thus, we hope to establish standards of care based on starting, encouraging and prolonging maternal lactation, in sufficient quantity and quality, always remembering that the fundamental goal of our research is the well-being of the child and its family.

  3. Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Does UTI cause prolonged jaundice in otherwise well infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tanzila; Kisat, Hamudi; Tullus, Kjell

    2015-07-01

    The symptoms of urinary tract infections in infants are very non-specific and have historically included prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia. We studied the results of routine urine samples in 319 infants with prolonged jaundice. Convincing findings of UTI was not found in any of these children even if one of them was treated with antibiotics after four consecutive urine cultures with different bacteria. A urine culture might thus not be an appropriate investigation in a child with prolonged jaundice without any other symptoms of UTI. • The symptoms of UTI in infancy are very non-specific. • Old studies suggest that prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia is one such symptom; more modern studies give more conflicting results. What is New: • Our study could not confirm that children with prolonged jaundice have an increased risk of UTI. • Routine urine testing is thus not needed in otherwise healthy infants with prolonged jaundice.

  5. Physiological Responses and Hedonics During Prolonged Physically Interactive Videogame Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio S; Barkley, Jacob E; Hafen, Paul S; Navalta, James

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to assess physiologic responses and hedonics (i.e., liking) during prolonged physically interactive videogame play. Participants (n = 24) completed three 30-minute videogame conditions on separate days in a random order. During two of the conditions participants played physically interactive videogames (Nintendo of America, Inc. [Redmond, WA] "Wii™ Fit" "Basic Run" and "Basic Step"). During the third condition participants played a traditional/sedentary game ("Tanks!"), which required minimal physical movement for gameplay. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was assessed using indirect calorimetry throughout each condition and averaged every 5 minutes. Liking was assessed via visual analog scale at the 15- and 30-minute time points during each condition. Mean VO2 was significantly (P videogame (5.39 ± 1.0 mL/kg/minute, 1.5 ± 0.1 METs). "Basic Step" was also greater (P videogame conditions. Furthermore, because liking was similar across all gaming conditions, participants may be willing to substitute the physically interactive videogames in place of the traditional/sedentary game.

  6. Expanding Our View on Separation in the Lives of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfo, Kofi; Goldman-Fraser, Jenifer; Fernandez, Mari T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors of this article suggest a number of areas worthy of further research regarding family disruptions that lead to children's separation from their primary caregivers. They survey the existing data and suggest questions for new research on the effects of marital divorce, maternal incarceration, maternal depression and substance…

  7. Prolonged response without prolonged chemotherapy: a lesson from PCV chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Ricard, Damien; Jouvet, Anne; Pallud, Johan; Mokhtari, Karima; Guyotat, Jacques; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Frappaz, Didier; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies with temozolomide suggest that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is important for treating low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating LGGs, but this therapy cannot be used for a prolonged period because of the cumulative toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line PCV chemotherapy on LGGs growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 21 LGGs was measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n=13), during, and after PCV onset (n=21). During PCV treatment, a decrease in the MTD was observed in all patients. After PCV discontinuation, an ongoing decrease in MTD was observed in 20 of the 21 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 3.4 years (range, 0.8–7.7) after PCV onset and 2.7 years (range, 0–7) after the end of PCV treatment with 60% of LGGs, demonstrating an ongoing and prolonged (>2 years) response despite chemotherapy no longer being administered. According to McDonald's criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 5% and 38% at the end of PCV but 38% and 42% at the time of maximal MTD decrease, which occurred after a median period of 3.4 years after PCV onset. These results challenge the idea that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is necessary for treating LGGs and raise the issue of understanding the mechanisms involved in the persistent tumor volume decrease once chemotherapy is terminated. PMID:20488959

  8. Fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory for supernonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jipeng; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superprincipal bundle and its associated superbundle. The super(nonlinear)connection on the superfiber bundle is constructed. Then by means of the connection theory, we establish the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory of the supernonlinear evolution equation. In this geometry theory, the fermionic covariant fundamental equations determining the prolongation structure are presented. As an example, the supernonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed in the framework of this fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We obtain its Lax pairs and Baecklund transformation.

  9. Gene expression profiling following maternal deprivation: Involvement of the brain renin-angiotensin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Liebl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The postnatal development of the mouse is characterized by a stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP, where basal corticosterone levels are low and responsiveness to mild stressors is reduced. Maternal separation is able to disrupt the SHRP and is widely used to model early trauma. In this study we aimed at identifying of brain systems involved in acute and possible long-term effects of maternal separation. We conducted a microarray-based gene expression analysis in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus after maternal separation, which revealed 52 differentially regulated genes compared to undisturbed controls, among them are 37 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated genes. One of the prominently up-regulated genes, angiotensinogen, was validated using in-situ hybridization. Angiotensinogen is the precursor of angiotensin II, the main effector of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS, which is known to be involved in stress system modulation in adult animals. Using the selective angiotensin type I receptor (AT(1 antagonist candesartan we found strong effects on CRH and GR mRNA expression in the brain a nd ACTH release following maternal separation. AT(1 receptor blockade appears to enhance central effects of maternal separation in the neonate, suggesting a suppressing function of brain RAS during the SHRP. Taken together, our results illustrate the molecular adaptations that occur in the paraventricular nucleus following maternal separation and contribute to identifying signaling cascades that control stress system activity in the neonate.

  10. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Fraser, Drora

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference Intakes), and searches of Medline for "maternal nutrition"/[specific nutrient of interest] and "birth/pregnancy outcomes," focusing mainly on the less extensively reviewed evidence from observational studies of maternal dietary intake and birth outcomes. The authors used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors (e.g., baseline maternal nutritional status, socioeconomic status of the study populations, timing and methods of assessing maternal nutritional variables) into account when interpreting study findings. The authors conclude that maternal nutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance that can be integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations.

  11. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  12. Prolonged disengagement from distractors near the hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Vatterott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Because items near our hands are often more important than items far from our hands, the brain processes visual items near our hands differently than items far from our hands. Multiple experiments have attributed this processing difference to spatial attention, but the exact mechanism behind how spatial attention near our hands changes is still under investigation. The current experiments sought to differentiate between two of the proposed mechanisms: a prioritization of the space near the hands and a prolonged disengagement of spatial attention near the hands. To differentiate between these two accounts, we used the additional singleton paradigm in which observers searched for a shape singleton among homogenously shaped distractors. On half the trials, one of the distractors was a different color. Both the prioritization and disengagement accounts predict differently colored distractors near the hands will slow target responses more than differently colored distractors far from the hands, but the prioritization account also predicts faster responses to targets near the hands than far from the hands. The disengagement account does not make this prediction, because attention does not need to be disengaged when the target appears near the hand. We found support for the disengagement account: Salient distractors near the hands slowed responses more than those far from the hands, yet observers did not respond faster to targets near the hands.

  13. New separation technique. Catalytically functionated separation membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgami, Tadashi [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1989-02-01

    This report introduces research examples, showing the fundamental principle of the membrane by separating the catalytically functionated separation membrane into enzyme fixing separation membrane, polymerized metal complex separation membrane and polymer catalyst separation membrane. This membrane can achieve both functions of separation and catalytic reaction simultaneously and has sufficient possibility to combine powerful functions. Enzyme fixing separation membrane is prepared by carrier combination method, bridging method or covering method and the enzyme fixing method with polymerized complex in which enzyme is controlled to prevent the activity lowering as much as possible and enzyme is fixed from an aqueous solution into polymer membrane. This membrane is applied to the continuous manufacturing of invert sugar from cane sugar and adsorption and removing of harmful substances from blood by utilizing both micro-capsuled urease and active carbon. Alginic acid-copper (II) complex membrane is used for the polymerized metal complex membrane and polystyrene sulfonate membrane is used for the polymer catalyst separation membrane. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  14. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  15. Preimplantation development of embryos in women of advanced maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chaplia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the influence of genetic component on the early embryo development, the retrospective study of morphokinetic characteristics of 717 embryos subjected to preimplantation genetic testing was conducted. Blastomere biopsy for FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening of 7 chromosomes was performed on the third day of culture, while embryo developmental potential and morphological features at the cleavage and blastulation stage were studied regarding maternal age particularly in the group of younger women and patients older than 36. Results of genetic testing revealed that euploid embryos rate gradually decreased with maternal age comprising 39.9% in young women group and 25.3% of specimen belonging to elder patients. At the cleavage stage, morphological characteristics of aneuploid and euploid embryos didn’t differ significantly regardless of the age of patients that could be accounted for the transcriptional silence of embryo genome till the third day of its development. However, in case of prolonged culture chromosomally balanced embryos rarely faced developmental arrest (in 7.9% and formed blastocysts half more frequently compared to aberrant embryos (respectively 75.6 versus 49.8%. Nevertheless, no substantial difference was found between blastocyst formation rate among embryos with similar genetic component regardless of the maternal age. Taking into consideration high rate of chromosomally unbalanced embryos specific to patients of advanced maternal age, the relative proportion of aneuplouid blastocysts was significantly higher in this group of embryos. Thus, without genetic screening there is a possibility of inaccurate selection of embryos for women of advanced reproductive age for transfer procedure even in case of prolonged culture. Consequently, increase of aneuploid embryos frequency associated with permanent preimplantation natural selection effectiveness along with the postimplantation natural selection failure

  16. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  17. Impact of chronic maternal stress during early gestation on maternal-fetal stress transfer and fetal stress sensitivity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiling, Michelle; Schiffner, Rene; Bischoff, Sabine; Rupprecht, Sven; Kroegel, Nasim; Schubert, Harald; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias; Rakers, Florian

    2018-01-01

    Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development. Six pregnant ewes underwent repeated isolation stress (CMS) between 30 and 100 days of gestation (dGA, term: 150 dGA) and seven pregnant ewes served as controls. At 110 dGA, ewes were chronically instrumented and underwent acute isolation stress. The acute stress decreased UBF by 19% in both the CMS and control groups (p stress-induced cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations indicating a hyperactive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Increased fetal norepinephrine is endogenous as maternal catecholamines do not cross the placenta. Cortisol in the control but not in the CMS fetuses was correlated with maternal cortisol blood concentrations; these findings indicate: (1) no increased maternal-fetal cortisol transfer with CMS, (2) cortisol production in CMS fetuses when the HPA-axis is normally inactive, due to early maturation of the fetal HPA-axis. CMS fetuses were better oxygenated, without shift towards acidosis compared to the controls, potentially reflecting adaptation to repeated stress. Hence, CMS enhances maternal-fetal stress transfer by prolonged reduction in UBF and increased fetal HPA responsiveness.

  18. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  19. UNDERSTANDING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN ATTACHMENT TRAUMA AND MATERNAL SELF-EFFICACY IN DEPRESSED MOTHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Natalie; Reisz, Samantha; Jacobvitz, Deborah; George, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy predicts sensitive and responsive caregiving. Low maternal self-efficacy is associated with a higher incidence of postpartum depression. Maternal self-efficacy and postpartum depression can both be buffered by social support. Maternal self-efficacy and postpartum depression have both been linked independently, albeit in separate studies, to the experience of violent trauma, childhood maltreatment, and spousal abuse. This study proposed a model in which postpartum depression mediates the relation between attachment trauma and maternal self-efficacy, with emotional support as a moderator. Participants were 278 first-time mothers of infants under 14 months. Cross-sectional data were collected online. Mothers completed questionnaires on attachment trauma, maternal self-efficacy, postpartum depression, and emotional support. A moderated mediation model was tested in a structural equation modeling framework using Mplus' estimate of indirect effects. Postpartum depression fully mediated the relation between trauma and maternal self-efficacy. Emotional support moderated only the pathway between postpartum depression and maternal self-efficacy. Attachment trauma's implications for maternal self-efficacy should be understood in the context of overall mental health. Mothers at the greatest risk for low maternal self-efficacy related to attachment trauma also are those suffering from postpartum depression. Emotional support buffered mothers from postpartum depression, though, which has implications for intervention and future research. © 2017 The Authors. Infant Mental Health Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. The effect of interruptions and prolonged treatment time in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Dora L.W.; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Chua, Daniel T.T.; Choy, Damon T.K.; Au, Gordon K.H.; Wu, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of interruptions and prolonged overall treatment time in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the significance of timing of interruption was investigated. Methods and Materials: Treatment records of 229 patients treated with continuous course (CC) and 567 patients treated with split course (SC) radiotherapy for nonmetastatic NPC were reviewed. Overall treatment time without inclusion of time for boost was calculated. Treatment that extended 1 week beyond scheduled time was considered prolonged. Outcome in patients who completed treatment 'per schedule' were compared with those who had 'prolonged' treatment. Because of known patient selection bias between CC and SC, patients on the two schedules were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis was performed for patients on SC. Total number of days of interruption, age, sex, T and N stage, and the use of boost were tested for the whole SC group. Analysis on the effect of timing of interruption was performed in a subgroup of 223 patients on SC who had a single unplanned interruption. Timing of interruption, either before or after the fourth week for the unplanned interruption, was tested in addition to the other variables in multivariate analysis for this subgroup of SC. Results: Twenty-seven (11.8%) patients on CC and 96 (16.9%) patients on SC had prolonged treatment. Patients on SC who had prolonged treatment had significantly poorer loco-regional control rate and disease free survival when compared with those who completed radiotherapy per schedule (p = 0.0063 and 0.001, respectively, with adjustment for stage). For CC, the effect of prolonged treatment on outcome was not significant. The small number of events for patients on CC probably account for the insignificant finding. The number of days of interruption was confirmed as prognostic factor, independent of T and N stages, for loco-regional control and disease-free survival in multivariate analysis for SC. The hazard rate for loco

  1. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  2. Maternal morbidities affect tens of millions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1994-02-01

    Various separate studies indicate maternal morbidity is more common than had been believed. A Safe Motherhood Survey was conducted in 1993 in the Philippines among 9000 women, as part of efforts to study women's language and perceptions about pregnancy and symptoms of morbidity. In El Salvador, interviews were conducted among 2000 women on morbidity issues. Preliminary results from a Family Health International (FHI) five-country survey of 16,000 women revealed that 7 out of every 10 women reported a health problem related to maternity or chronic conditions stemming from pregnancy or childbirth. Conditions ranged from obstructed labor, complications from unsafe abortions, and bacterial infections, to anemia, hemorrhage, and eclampsia. The quality of care determines whether the health problems are life threatening. Less serious morbidity cases involve fatigue or back pain, which is exacerbated by poor nutrition and hard physical labor. Other reproductive morbidities are sexually transmitted diseases, side effects from contraceptives, and general gynecological problems. The FHI results from Ghana, Indonesia, and Egypt showed 240-300 morbidities for every maternal death; maternal mortality worldwide is estimated at 500,000 annually. A study of fistula (an injury during labor to the vagina and bladder that results in urinary or fecal incontinence) found that Nigerian community norms and limited access to emergency health care were factors. The women reported costs, poor roads, and transportation problems. A study in Ethiopia found that, in an Addis Ababa hospital between 1983-88, 600 fistulas were repaired every year, of which almost 66% occurred at first delivery. A study in Cairo in 1988 found that nearly 6 out of every 10 women reported a prolapsed uterus. Women in the studies were able to talk openly and willingly about their problems, when concepts and language were appropriate and interviewers were trained. A small study in India confirmed the correlation between

  3. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  5. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  6. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  7. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  8. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  9. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  10. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  11. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  12. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  13. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  14. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...

  15. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-01-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  16. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  17. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth. Methods: One hundred and fifty three mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study using the ...

  18. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  19. Maternal Concern for Child Undereating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Pesch, Megan H; Perrin, Eliana M; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C

    To describe features of maternal concern for her child undereating; examine maternal and child correlates of maternal concern for undereating; and determine whether maternal concern for undereating is associated with feeding practices. This was a cross-sectional analysis of an observational study with 286 mother-child dyads (mean child age, 71 months). Maternal concern for undereating was assessed using a semistructured interview. Mothers completed questionnaires to assess picky eating, food neophobia, and feeding practices. Feeding practices were further assessed using videotaped mealtime observations. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of maternal and child characteristics with maternal concern for undereating. Regression was used to assess the association of maternal concern for undereating with feeding practices, controlling for covariates. Over a third of mothers (36.5%) expressed concern that their child does not eat enough. Correlates of concern for undereating included child body mass index z-score (BMIz; odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.77) and picky eating (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.26-4.59). Maternal concern for undereating was associated with greater reported pressure to eat (relative risk [RR] = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.55-2.50), greater observed bribery (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.50-4.60), and higher observed pressure (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.36) during mealtimes. Mothers of children who are picky eaters and have a lower BMIz are more likely to be concerned that their children do not eat enough, and maternal concern for undereating is associated with pressuring and bribing children to eat. Pediatricians might address maternal concern for undereating by advising feeding practices that do not involve pressure and bribery, particularly among healthy weight children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  1. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  2. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  3. Prolonged ventilation post cardiac surgery - tips and pitfalls of the prediction game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Piotr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few available models aim to identify patients at risk of prolonged ventilation after cardiac surgery. We compared prediction models developed in ICU in two adjacent periods of time, when significant changes were observed both in population characteristics and the perioperative management. Methods We performed a retrospective review of two cohorts of patients in our department in two subsequent time periods (July 2007 - December 2008, n = 2165; January 2009 - July 2010, n = 2192. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee and the individual patient consent was not required. Patients were divided with regard to ventilation time of more or less than 48 hours. Preoperative and procedure-related variables for prolonged ventilation were identified and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each cohort. Results Most recent patients were older, with more co-morbidities, more frequently undergoing off-pump surgery. At the beginning of 2009 we also changed the technique of postoperative ventilation. Percentage of patients with prolonged ventilation decreased from 5.7% to 2.4% (p Conclusions Prediction models for postoperative ventilation should be regularly updated, particularly when major changes are noted in patients' demographics and surgical or anaesthetic technique.

  4. Ambiguity in the Manifestation of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder Occurring in Complex Anxiety Presentations: Two Clinical Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate

    2009-01-01

    Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…

  5. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4

  6. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  7. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)

  8. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J.M.; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The

  9. Predictive factors associated with prolonged chest drain production after esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, S. M.; Omloo, J. M. T.; Ubbink, D. T.; Busch, O. R. C.; Obertop, H.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2007-01-01

    After esophagectomy, pleural drainage is performed to ensure complete drainage of the pleural cavities. The aim of this study was to detect predisposing factors for prolonged drainage. Patients who underwent transhiatal or extended transthoracic esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of the distal

  10. Prolongation of rapacuronium neuromuscular blockade by clindamycin and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Paul A; Rasul, Mazhar

    2002-01-01

    We report a prolonged neuromuscular block with the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rapacuronium in the presence of clindamycin. Even when using "short-acting" muscle relaxants, the anesthesiologist must routinely monitor the neuromuscular function.

  11. A new approach to maternal mortality: the role of HIV in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorman SE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sara E GormanDepartment of Epidemiology, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: As 2015 quickly approaches, we have been made increasingly aware of our progress toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. However, one MDG has been particularly recalcitrant to progress: MDG 5, namely, improving maternal health. Few countries are on track to achieve the first part of MDG 5's goals, reducing maternal mortality by 75%. This article addresses the key priority issues of maternal health as part of sexual and reproductive health issues and maternal health and communicable diseases. It argues that only an integrative approach to the twin challenges of HIV and maternal mortality can help reduce devastatingly high rates of maternal deaths worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The article reenvisions the MDGs not as separate, independent tasks, but as related, cohesive issues for which a holistic approach is needed. New causes of the relationship between HIV and maternal mortality are considered, and possible solutions are broached.Keywords: HIV, maternal mortality, Millennium Development Goals, integrated approach to maternal health

  12. Ways to Optimize Therapy of Prolonged Conjugation Jaundice in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shadrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the optimization of the treatment of prolonged conjugation jaundice. Inclusion of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of neonatal prolonged conjugation jaundice in a dose of 15–20 mg/kg of body mass per day increases the terms of regression of clinical and paraclinical signs of jaundice as much as 2 times and leads to cytolysis normalization. The preparation has a sufficient level of safety, there were not revealed side effects whilst its application.

  13. MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN ABRUPTIO PLACENTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Janakiram

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Antepartum Haemorrhage (APH is the leading cause of vaginal bleeding. It is also the important cause of maternal morbidity as well as perinatal morbidity. APH is defined as bleeding per vagina occurring after 28 weeks of gestation and before the birth of the baby. Among APH, abruptio placenta and placenta previa are the leading cause that endanger the life of the mother and a great risk to high unfavourable perinatal outcome. Placental abruption is the bleeding from the premature separation of the normally implanted placenta after 20 weeks of gestations and prior to the birth of the foetus/foetuses. It is the major contribution of obstetric haemorrhage and complicates 0.8 to 1% of pregnancies worldwide. Placental abruption is the premature separation of implanted placenta before the delivery of foetus/foetuses. The aim of the study is to analyse the risk factors associated with abruption and hence methods can be formulated to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study is a retrospective study and was done in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology from July to December, 2016, for a period of 6 months in the year 2016 at Government K.A.P.V. Medical College, Trichy, South India. RESULTS The total number of abruption placenta cases reported during the study period- June 2016 to November 2016 were 40. The total number of livebirth during same period was 5,348. The stillbirth rate was 42.5% and neonatal death rate was 22.5%. Clinical information were collected, maternal age, parity, gestational age at parity, prior history of abruption, clinical presentation like pain, bleeding, type of abruption like concealed or revealed amount of retroplacental clots and its size and degree of abruption associated with hypertensive disorders, mode of delivery, abruption-delivery interval, maternal complications, requirement of blood transfusions and immediate neonatal outcome. The results of studies were

  14. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  15. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how various approaches to modelling the separation margin a¤ect the ability of the Mortensen-Pissarides job matching model to explain key facts about the aggregate labor market. Allowing for realistic time variation in the separation rate, whether exogenous or endogenous, greatly in- creases the unemployment variability generated by the model. Speci…cations with exogenous separation rates, whether constant or time-varying, fail to pro- duce realistic volatility and prod...

  16. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  17. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  18. Entrainment separator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Leith, D.

    1976-01-01

    Clean and dust-loaded ACS entrainment separators mounted upstream of HEPA filters were exposed to a combination of fine water mist and steam at about 70 0 C from one to four hours. In every trial, the ACS entrainment separator prevented measurable deterioration of performance in the following HEPA filter. Droplet size-efficiency evaluation of the ACS entrainment separators showed that, within the accuracy of the measurements, they meet all service requirements and are fully equal to the best separator units available for service on pressurized water reactors

  19. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  20. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  1. Pup retrieval and maternal attraction to canine amniotic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, I; Ranson, E; Buehler, M

    1981-10-01

    Three purebred female beagles were observed with both their first and second litters. Dams were given three separate simultaneous-choice retrieval tests: In addition, the maternal response to amniotic fluids was observed when one pup in the litter was treated with amniotic fluids and all other pups were treated with water. There was no evidence to suggest that pups were retrieved preferentially on the basis of their sex. One female retrieved her own but not alien pups, whereas another female made no such discrimination and readily retrieved alien pups in addition to her own. Retrieval behavior developed at the time of each whelping and normally lasted until the pups were about 5 days old, although a bitch would retrieve younger (alien) pups up to 14 days post partum. Maternal bitches were strongly attracted towards amniotic fluids: they investigated pups daubed with amniotic fluids to a significantly greater extent than control pups treated with water. The attraction of maternal females towards amniotic fluids developed at the time of each whelping and persisted for up to 30 days, well beyond the time that a whelping bitch would normally be exposed to her own fetal fluids. A possible role for amniotic fluids in the development of maternal behaviour and the establishment of the maternal/puppy bond is discussed. Copyright © 1981. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  3. Length of maternity leave and health of mother and child--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Katharina; Bertea, Paola Coda; Stutz, Elisabeth Zemp

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of the literature on the length of maternity leaves and health of mothers and children; evaluation of the Swiss situation in view of the maternity leave policy implemented in 2005. Review of thirteen original studies identified by PubMed using topic-related terms. A positive association was shown between the length of maternity leave and mother's mental health and duration of breastfeeding. Extended maternity leaves were also associated with lower perinatal, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates as well as lower child mortality; however, results are obtained in ecological studies. There is less evidence regarding other health outcomes. The new policy in Switzerland extends maternity leave for a considerable number of women to 14 weeks. With this prolongation, fewer depressive symptoms and longer breastfeeding duration can be expected, while benefits regarding other health outcomes would warrant longer leaves. Longer maternity leaves are likely to produce health benefits. The new policy in Switzerland will probably improve the situation of those women, who previously were granted only minimal leave and/or mothers with additional social risk factors.

  4. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  5. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Mukaida, Naofumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hori, Osamu; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Hirao, Atsushi; Kato, Yukio; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Kato, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Cherepanov, Stanislav M; Salmina, Alla B; Hirai, Hirokazu; Asano, Masahide; Brown, David A; Nagano, Isamu; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone stimulation. Without these signals or in the absence of maternal mates, the sires do not retrieve their pups within 5 min. These results show that, in mice, the maternal parent communicates to the paternal parent to encourage pup care. This new paradigm may be useful in the analysis of the parental brain during paternal care induced by interactive communication.

  6. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  7. Context of Latino Students' Family Separation during and after Immigration: Perspectives, Challenges, and Opportunities for Collaborative Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jeremiah J.; Kula, Stacy M.; González, Verónica V.; Paik, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges and consequences of family separation and reunification during immigration from Latin America to the U.S. The historical pattern of paternal immigration as well as the recent rise in maternal immigration are discussed. The article addresses the impact of length of separation and how separation impacts family…

  8. Lavender Oil Aromatherapy on Infantile Colic and Maternal Mood: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Vaziri

    2018-03-01

    disappears in a few weeks, however, it can be irritating for the parents, leading to maternal depression or exhaustion, and stress in the parents. The study evaluated the effect of lavender oil inhalation on duration of daily crying in the infants who suffered infantile colic. Methods: In this double blind randomized clinical trial, the main inclusion criteria were: healthy infants, no consumption of any drugs for infantile colic, healthy mothers, having one crying episode ≥ 2 hours per day (prolonged crying. The intervention group received inhalation of lavender oil and the control group received sweet almond oil for seven days. Duration of crying in the four parts of a day (morning, afternoon, evening, and night was gathered by phone call. Also, maternal mood score was assessed at baseline and 7th day of intervention by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale. Results: At baseline, the two groups were not different in relation to infant’s crying duration. However, they were significantly different after intervention in all seven days of the study (p<0.001. Also, using repeated measures analysis, the difference between the two groups was significant (p<0.001. After intervention, there was fewer prolonged crying in the lavender group compared to the control group. In lavender group, maternal mood score was significantly lower than the control group on the 7th day of intervention (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results suggest that a 1% concentration of the lavender oil can alleviate the colic symptoms and results in maternal mood improvement.

  9. Parental Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and College Student Adjustment: A Structural Equation Analysis of Mediational Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Brand, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    Secure parental attachment and healthy levels of separation-individuation have been consistently linked to greater college student adjustment. The present study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and college adjustment is mediated by healthy separation-individuation. The authors gathered data on maternal and paternal…

  10. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female’s lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female’s lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals. PMID:25500107

  11. Associations of Maternal and Infant Testosterone and Cortisol Levels With Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Infant Socioemotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of testosterone and cortisol levels with maternal depressive symptoms and infant socioemotional (SE) problems that are influenced by infant gender. A total of 62 mothers and their very-low-birth weight (VLBW) infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary medical center in the southeast United States. Data were collected at three time points (before 40 weeks’ postmenstrual age [PMA] and at 3 months and 6 months of age corrected for prematurity). Measures included infant medical record review, maternal interview, biochemical assays of salivary hormone levels in mother-VLBWinfant pairs, and standard questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations with separate analyses for boys and girls showed that maternal testosterone level was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of boys, whereas infant testosterone level was negatively associated with maternal report of infant SE problems in girls after controlling for characteristics of mothers and infants and number of days post birth of saliva collection. Not surprisingly, the SE problems were positively associated with a number of medical complications. Mothers with more depressive symptoms reported that their infants had more SE problems. Mothers with higher testosterone levels reported that girls, but not boys, had fewer SE problems. In summary, high levels of testosterone could have a protective role for maternal depressive symptoms and infant SE problems. Future research need to be directed toward clinical application of these preliminary results. PMID:25954021

  12. Pharmacometabolomic approach to predict QT prolongation in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyeon Park

    Full Text Available Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP, a life-threatening arrhythmia associated with prolongation of the QT interval, has been a significant reason for withdrawal of several medicines from the market. Prolongation of the QT interval is considered as the best biomarker for predicting the torsadogenic risk of a new chemical entity. Because of the difficulty assessing the risk for TdP during drug development, we evaluated the metabolic phenotype for predicting QT prolongation induced by sparfloxacin, and elucidated the metabolic pathway related to the QT prolongation. We performed electrocardiography analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of plasma samples obtained from 15 guinea pigs after administration of sparfloxacin at doses of 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg. Principal component analysis and partial least squares modelling were conducted to select the metabolites that substantially contributed to the prediction of QT prolongation. QTc increased significantly with increasing dose (r = 0.93. From the PLS analysis, the key metabolites that showed the highest variable importance in the projection values (>1.5 were selected, identified, and used to determine the metabolic network. In particular, cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP, deoxycorticosterone, L-aspartic acid and stearic acid were found to be final metabolomic phenotypes for the prediction of QT prolongation. Metabolomic phenotypes for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation of sparfloxacin were developed and can be applied to cardiac toxicity screening of other drugs. In addition, this integrative pharmacometabolomic approach would serve as a good tool for predicting pharmacodynamic or toxicological effects caused by changes in dose.

  13. Separation of ionic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 44 papers of which 19 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these is the use of solvent extraction or emulsion membrane extraction for separation of fission products, rare earth compounds and actinide compunds; the sorption of radionuclides; and the use of adsorbents and chelating agents in separation processes. (J.P.)

  14. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  15. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  16. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  17. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  18. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  19. The effect of badger culling on breakdown prolongation and recurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Karolemeas

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in cattle herds in Great Britain, with a substantial economic impact. A reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis within the Eurasian badger (Meles meles population is thought to have hindered disease control. Cattle herd incidents, termed breakdowns, that are either 'prolonged' (lasting ≥ 240 days or 'recurrent' (with another breakdown within a specified time period may be important foci for onward spread of infection. They drain veterinary resources and can be demoralising for farmers. Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT data were re-analysed to examine the effects of two culling strategies on breakdown prolongation and recurrence, during and after culling, using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Separate effect estimates were obtained for the 'core' trial areas (where culling occurred and the 'buffer' zones (up to 2 km outside of the core areas. For breakdowns that started during the culling period, 'reactive' (localised culling was associated with marginally increased odds of prolongation, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.7 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.1-2.4 within the core areas. This effect was not present after the culling ceased. There was no notable effect of 'proactive' culling on prolongation. In contrast, reactive culling had no effect on breakdown recurrence, though there was evidence of a reduced risk of recurrence in proactive core areas during the culling period (ORs and 95% CIs: 0.82 (0.64-1.0 and 0.69 (0.54-0.86 for 24- and 36-month recurrence respectively. Again these effects were not present after the culling ceased. There seemed to be no effect of culling on breakdown prolongation or recurrence in the buffer zones. These results suggest that the RBCT badger culling strategies are unlikely to reduce either the prolongation or recurrence of breakdowns in the long term, and that reactive strategies (such as employed during the RBCT are, if anything, likely to impact detrimentally on breakdown persistence.

  20. PPO.02 Severe maternal morbidity in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, E.; Lutomski, J.E.; O'Connor, L.; Corcoran, P.; Greene, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and examine associated factors in Ireland. METHODS: In 2011, 67,806 maternities were reported from 19 maternity units, representing 93% of maternities in Ireland. SMM was classified as the presence of one or more of 15 categories

  1. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, J.P.; Schutte, J.M.; Poeran, J.J.; van Roosmalen, J.; Bonsel, G.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide. Population A total of 3 108 235 live births and 337 maternal deaths. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period

  2. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, J. M.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Schuitemaker, N. W. E.; Santema, J. G.; de Boer, K.; Pel, M.; Vermeulen, G.; Visser, W.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Nationwide in the Netherlands. 2,557,208 live births. Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period 1993-2005. Maternal mortality.

  3. Relationship Between Advanced Maternal Age, Hiesho (Sensitivity to Cold) and Abnormal Delivery in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sachiyo; Horiuchi, Shigeko

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Japan, the proportion of women aged 35 and older giving birth has greatly increased in recent years, and maternal age is continuing to increase. Advanced maternal age is a risk factor for abnormal delivery, as is hiesho (sensitivity to cold). Research Question: This study aimed to assess whether advanced maternal age and hiesho precipitate premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, weak labor pains, prolonged labor and atonic bleeding. Method: The study design was a descriptive comparative study with a retrospective cohort group design. Subjects in this study were 2,810 Japanese women in hospital after childbirth. The research methods employed were a paper questionnaire and extraction of data from medical records. Results: Comparing the rate of occurrence of abnormal delivery among women aged 35 to 39 according to whether or not they had hiesho, results were premature delivery OR: 3.51 (95% CI: 1.66-7.43), premature rupture of membranes OR: 1.25 (95% CI: 0.90-1.74), weak labor pains OR: 2.94 (95% CI: 1.65-5.24), prolonged labor OR: 2.56 (95% CI: 1.23-5.26), and atonic bleeding, OR: 1.65 (95% CI: 0.14-2.40) when hiesho was present. Among women aged 40 and over, results were premature delivery OR: 5.09 (95% CI: 1.16-22.20), premature rupture of membranes OR: 1.60 (95% CI: 0.73-3.46), weak labor pains OR: 7.02 (95% CI: 1.56-31.55), prolonged labor OR:7.19 (95% CI: 1.49-34.60) and atonic bleeding OR: 2.00 (95% CI: 0.64-6.23). Conclusions: Regardless of maternal age, the presence of hiesho is a risk factor that can precipitate premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, weak labor pains, prolonged labor and atonic bleeding. Furthermore, hiesho coupled with advanced maternal age increases the incidence of premature delivery, weak labor pains and prolonged labor. PMID:24062862

  4. Maternal life course socio-economic position and offspring body composition at birth in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne Karen; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Vangen, Siri; Holme, Ingar M; Birkeland, Kåre I; Nakstad, Britt

    2014-09-01

    Size and body composition at birth may affect long-term health. Mean birthweight and body composition differ between ethnic groups living in Europe. We wanted to explore if this relates to differences in socio-economic conditions in country of origin and over the maternal life course. This is a population-based cohort study of healthy pregnant women living in Oslo, Norway. Data on maternal early life and present socio-economic position (SEP) were collected in early gestation, and SEP scores were extracted through two separate principal components analyses. The associations between maternal present SEP and four different offspring anthropometric measures at birth were assessed separately, stratified by maternal early life SEP (dichotomised score) and Human Development Index (HDI, a country-level socio-economic indicator) in the country of origin [high HDI (Reference), n = 287 and low HDI, n = 250]. A strong positive association between maternal present SEP and offspring birthweight was observed if maternal early life SEP was high, but not if maternal early life SEP was low (P countries had smaller abdominal circumference, possibly indicating less fat-free mass, regardless of maternal life course SEP. Our results suggest that there are transgenerational effects of maternal past socio-economic conditions on offspring size and body composition at birth that modify the associations with present socio-economic factors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystedt, Astrid; Högberg, Ulf; Lundman, Berit

    2008-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour. The negativity associated with a complicated labour such as prolonged labour can lead to a struggle to become a healthy mother and could restrict the process of becoming a mother. Interviews were conducted in 2004 with 10 mothers who had been through a prolonged labour with assisted vaginal or caesarean delivery 1-3 months previously. Thematic content analysis was used. Three themes were formulated, describing women's experiences as fumbling in the dark, struggling for motherhood and achieving confidence in being a mother. The difficulties and suffering involved in becoming a mother after a prolonged labour were interpreted to be like 'fumbling in the dark'. Women experienced bodily fatigue, accompanied by feelings of illness and detachment from the child. Having the child when in this condition entailed a struggle to become a mother. In spite of these experiences and the desire to achieve confidence in being a mother, the reassurance of these women regarding their capacity for motherhood was crucial: it was central to their happiness as mothers, encouraged interaction and relationship with the child, and contributed to their adaptation to motherhood. Women experiencing prolonged labour may be comparable with the experience of and recovery from illness, which could contribute to difficulties transitioning to motherhood and limit a woman's ability to be emotionally available for the child.

  6. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  7. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.

  8. Maternity leave in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean

    2011-08-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

  9. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige, E-mail: tkawakami@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport.

  10. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport

  11. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  12. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  13. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  14. Magnetic separations in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, L; Azevedo, A M; Roque, A C A; Aires-Barros, M R

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic separations are probably one of the most versatile separation processes in biotechnology as they are able to purify cells, viruses, proteins and nucleic acids directly from crude samples. The fast and gentle process in combination with its easy scale-up and automation provide unique advantages over other separation techniques. In the midst of this process are the magnetic adsorbents tailored for the envisioned target and whose complex synthesis spans over multiple fields of science. In this context, this article reviews both the synthesis and tailoring of magnetic adsorbents for bioseparations as well as their ultimate application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Separation of fission strontium from nuclear fuels by ammonium molybdatophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, A.

    1984-01-01

    The separation of fission strontium from solutions of prolonged cooled nuclear fuel has been performed using ammoniummolybdatophosphate (AMP) columns. The sorption mechanism of bivalent ions of AMP has been investigated by column and batch experiments. A pure ion exchange of Sr 2+ for two H + or NH 4 + ions has been established. Conditions for the sepasorption and elution of fission strontium and other fission products on AMP columns are described. (author)

  16. The tripartite immune conflict in placentals and a hypothesis on fetal-->maternal microchimerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apari, Péter; Rózsa, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    There is a two-way traffic of immune cells through the placenta; and fetal immune cells are often present in the maternal body even long after giving birth. We present an adaptationist theory to interpret fetal-->maternal microchimerism and the diverse set of concomitant medical phenomena. We handle fetal, maternal, and paternal adaptive interests separately and in interaction with one another. Fetuses may benefit from immunological information gathered by migrant cells in the maternal body, and also from improved maternal defence. However, they may be jeopardized by a selfish maternal usage of fetal-->maternal microchimerism - i.e., some mothers get pregnant only to improve their immune system and then to abort. The use of microchimeric cells by the maternal immune system may contribute to the adaptive benefits of female choosiness and polyandry. While fathers may enjoy an indirect benefit from enhanced fetal and maternal health, they also face the risk of wasting sexual efforts due to selfish pregnancies of cheating females. Paternal alleles acting via clones of microchimeric cells in the maternal body could launch an immunological attack against the non-kin sperm in the female genitalia, or against the non-kin fetus in the womb. Furthermore, an intraspecific version of Zahavi's Mafia Hypothesis could explain a potential interaction between the abortion of fetuses and a subsequent rise of an autoimmune disease. We suggest that males may be capable to provoke microchimerism-induced autoimmune-like diseases in the mother in revenge of selfish pregnancies. This hypothetic paternal threat could increase the maternal costs associated to selfish pregnancies. From a medical point of view, we propose new interpretations for autoimmune-like diseases, infertility, miscarriage, and also for the prevailing connections among them. Specifically, we argue that miscarriages may cause autoimmune diseases, a reversed causality as compared to the currently accepted one.

  17. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  18. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  19. Prolonged social withdrawal disorder: a hikikomori case in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, Santiago; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; de León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    The Japanese term hikikomori means literally 'to be confined'. Social withdrawal can be present in severe psychiatric disorders; however, in Japan, hikikomori is a defined nosologic entity. There have been only a few reported cases in occidental culture. We present a case report of a Spanish man with prolonged social withdrawal lasting for 4 years. This is a case of prolonged social withdrawal not bound to culture, as well as the second case of hikikomori reported in Spain. We propose prolonged social withdrawal disorder as a disorder not linked to culture, in contrast to hikikomori. Further documentation of this disorder is still needed to encompass all cases reported in Japan and around the world. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Left Ventricular Function After Prolonged Exercise in Equine Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional speckle tracking. Correlation between echocardiographic variables and cardiac troponin I was evaluated. Results: Early diastolic myocardial velocities decreased significantly in longitudinal (baseline: −17.4 ± 2.4cm/s; end of ride: −15.8 ± 3.2cm/s (P = .013); morning......Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...... and diastolic function in horses. Animals: Twenty-six horses competing in 120–160 km endurance rides. Methods: Cross-sectional field study. Echocardiography was performed before and after rides, and the following morning, and included two-dimensional echocardiography, anatomical M-mode, pulsed-wave tissue...

  1. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Silfver, Karl Ågren; Stenqvist, Amelie; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking. We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring. Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008-2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated. In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64%) in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively) if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen. Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.

  2. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Axelsson

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking.We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring.Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008-2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated.In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64% in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen.Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.

  3. Does pedagogical documentation support maternal reminiscing conversations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Fleck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother–child dyads reminisced two separate times about preschool lessons, one time with documentation available to them and one time without. Transcripts were coded extracting variables indicative of high and low maternal reminiscing styles. Results indicate that mother and child conversation characteristics were more highly elaborative when documentation was present than when it was not. In addition, children added more information to the conversation supporting the notion that such conversations enhanced memory for lessons. Documentation could be used as a support tool for conversations and children’s memory about lessons learned in school.

  4. Separations by centrifugal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The technical information presented herein emphasizes the uniqueness of the centrifugal separations methodology and pertinent theory for various kinds of centrifugation. The topics are arranged according to gas, liquid, and solid phases, in the order of increasing densities. Much space is devoted to liquid centrifugation because of the importance of this technique in chemical and biological laboratories. Many separational and characterizational examples are illustrated in detail. The material has been divided into 7 chapters entitled: 1) Introduction, 2) Basic Theory of Centrifugation, 3) Gas Centrifuges, 4) Preparative Liquid Centrifuges, 5) Analytical Liquid Centrifuges, 6) Liquid Centrifuges in Practice, and 7) Mechanical Separations by Centrifuges. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each chapter except the introduction

  5. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  6. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  7. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND SPECTRO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four different fractions having colours yellow, grey, orange and ... Two different dyes vis a vis: methylene blue and malachite green dyes have been separated .... hydrogen carbonate of alkaline and alkaline earth metals in the samples.

  8. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  9. UWIS isotope separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtasiewicz, A. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Nuclear Physics Div., Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1995 the University of Warsaw Isotope Separator group has participated in the ISOL/IGISOL project at the Heavy Ion Cyclotron. This project consists in installation of an isotope separator (on line with cyclotron heavy ion beam) with a hot plasma ion source (ISOL system) and/or with an ion guide source (IGISOL system). In the report the short description of the present status of the project is presented. 2 figs, 10 refs.

  10. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  11. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K.; Steensberg, Adam

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral...... blood flow; n = 5) and the ammonia concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 8) at rest and immediately following prolonged exercise either with or without glucose supplementation. There was a net balance of ammonia across the brain at rest and at 30 min of exercise, whereas 3 h of exercise...... exercise with glucose, and further to 16.1 ± 3.3 µM after the placebo trial (P

  12. On separable Pauli equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhalij, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A 0 (t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field

  13. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Public stigma of prolonged grief disorder : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.

    Prolonged grief disorder (PGD), characterized by severe, persistent and disabling grief, is being considered for inclusion in the International Classification of Diseases’ 11 (ICD-11) and a related disorder, Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD), is included for further investigation in the

  15. Prolonged use of indwelling urinary catheter following acute urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.O. Bello

    prolonged use of urinary catheters following acute urinary retention secondary to benign prostate enlarge- ment (BPE) and urethral ... indwelling urinary catheter for >3 months following acute urinary retention due to BPE or USD. The study .... the major health-care financing strategy in Nigeria and accounts for more than ...

  16. Assessing QT interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Graff, Claus; Kanters, Jørgen K.

    2011-01-01

    markers for TdP have been developed but none of them is clinically implemented yet and QT interval prolongation is still considered the most valid surrogate marker. Although automated QT interval determination may offer some assistance, QT interval determination is best performed by a cardiologist skilled...

  17. MRI findings of prolonged post-traumatic sternal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Anderson, Suzanne; Steinbach, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the different causes of prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma with involvement of the sternum and to define criteria for sternal nonunion diagnosis using MRI. Five patients with abnormalities of the sternum were evaluated for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma using MRI. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. The patients were selected from the radiology database, which included 8 patients with post-traumatic prolonged sternal pain. Two patients (n = 2) revealed a sternal nonunion after sternal fracture. One patient had a sternal fracture with delayed union and minor displacement of the sternal halves. Abnormal signal intensity alterations adjacent to and within the manubrio-sternal joint were evident in 2 patients and considered due to trauma-related changes in the manubrio-sternal joint. The 3 patients who were not included in the study had no abnormalities of the sternum: 1 of them proved to have a well-healed sternal fracture and nonunion of a rib fracture, 1 had subtle Tietze's syndrome, and 1 patient revealed no pathological findings on imaging. Various factors may be responsible for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma, and these can be viewed with MRI. In cases of sternal nonunion there was common fluid-like signal in the fracture interspace between the bony edges, and the bone marrow adjacent to the nonunion showed altered signal intensity. MRI identified sternal nonunion and other trauma-related abnormalities of the sternum following chest trauma. (orig.)

  18. Diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation for prolonged fasting arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated δ(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: δ(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes.

  19. Prolonged Intrauterine Retention of Foetal Bones after Midtrimester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged retention of foetal bones in the uterus is a rare complication of induced abortion. We present the case of a 37 year old nullipara with retained foetal bones following a second trimester induced abortion. Accurate diagnosis and removal of the bony fragments led to restoration of fertility and subsequent delivery of a ...

  20. QTc-prolonging drugs and hospitalizations for cardiac arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruin, ML; Hoes, AW; Leufkens, HGM

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia as an adverse effect of noncardiac drugs has been an issue of growing importance during the past few years. In this population-based study, we evaluated the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmias during the use of several noncardiac QTc-prolonging drugs in day-to-day practice, and

  1. The Prolonged Neonatal Admission: Implications for our National Children's Hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGlacken-Byrne, SM

    2016-06-01

    A significant number of neonates are admitted to tertiary paediatric units for prolonged stays annually, despite limited availability of neonatal beds. As the three Dublin paediatric hospitals merge, this pressure will be transferred to our new National Children’s Hospital.\\r\

  2. The Importance of Prolonged Provocation in Drug Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Sara; Mosbech, Holger; Kappel, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug provocation is the "Gold Standard" in drug allergy investigation. Recent studies suggest that a negative drug provocation on first dose should be followed by a prolonged provocation over several days. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate drug allergy investigations on the basis of drug...

  3. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, J.A. van der; Warle, M.C.; Cheung, C.L.; Teerenstra, S.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    van der Vliet JA, Warle MC, Cheung CLS, Teerenstra S, Hoitsma AJ. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation. Clin Transplant 2011: 25: E612-E616. (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Aim: To determine to what extent current cold ischemia times (CITs) affect the results of

  4. The impact of obesity on physiological responses during prolonged exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Veltmeijer, M.T.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Poelkens, F.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise training is routinely prescribed to subjects with obesity. In the general population, this type of exercise can lead to fluid and sodium imbalance. However, little is known whether obesity alters the risk of fluid and sodium imbalances.Objective:This

  5. Physiological response of rabbit bucks to prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four (64) weanling rabbit bucks, 5 to 6 weeks old, were involved in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment to evaluate the effects of prolonged feeding of cottonseed cake (CSC) – based diets with or without vitamin E supplementation on the physiological response of the bucks. There were eight treatment combinations comprising ...

  6. Single Prolonged Stress Disrupts Retention of Extinguished Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress…

  7. Internalized stigma in adults with early phase versus prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; Luther, Lauren; Yanos, Philip T; Leonhardt, Bethany; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2018-03-30

    Although internalized stigma is associated with negative outcomes among those with prolonged psychosis, surprisingly little work has focused on when in the course of one's illness stigma is internalized and the impact of internalization on symptoms or social functioning over the course of the illness. Therefore, this study investigated whether (1) internalized stigma is greater among those later in the course of psychosis and (2) whether internalized stigma has a stronger negative relationship with social functioning or symptoms among those with prolonged compared to early phase psychosis. Individuals with early phase (n = 40) and prolonged psychosis (n = 71) who were receiving outpatient services at an early-intervention clinic and a VA medical center, respectively, completed self-report measures of internalized stigma and interview-rated measures of symptoms and social functioning. Controlling for education, race and sex differences, internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with prolonged psychosis compared to early phase. Internalized stigma was negatively related to social functioning and positively related to symptoms in both groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive symptoms and internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with early phase. Stereotype endorsement, discrimination experiences and social withdrawal also differentially related to symptoms and social functioning across the 2 samples. Findings suggest that internalized stigma is an important variable to incorporate into models of early psychosis. Furthermore, internalized stigma may be a possible treatment target among those with early phase psychosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil; Hyldig, Tino; Bidstrup, F.

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4...... min of exercise; P

  9. Streptococcus suis meningitis can require a prolonged treatment course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dejace

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of recrudescent Streptococcus suis meningitis requiring a prolonged treatment course. A few similar cases can be found in the burgeoning literature on what remains a relatively uncommon disease in humans, and these patients should be monitored carefully upon completion of therapy. Keywords: Meningitis, Relapse, Duration, Streptococcus suis

  10. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  11. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic Significance Of QT Interval Prolongation In Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prognostic survival studies for heart-rate corrected QT interval in patients with chronic heart failure are few; although these patients are known to have a high risk of sudden cardiac death. This study was aimed at determining the mortality risk associated with prolonged QTc in Nigerians with heart failure. Ninety-six ...

  13. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  14. Prolonged multifocal electroretinographic implicit times in the ocular ischemic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    .4 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, respectively. Summed mfERG implicit times (N1, P1, N2) were prolonged in eyes with OIS, by 7.6%, 6.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, compared with fellow eyes (P macula, whereas the assessment of responses from...

  15. Prolongation Structure of Semi-discrete Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yongqiang; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong; Guo Hanying

    2007-01-01

    Based on noncommutative differential calculus, we present a theory of prolongation structure for semi-discrete nonlinear evolution equations. As an illustrative example, a semi-discrete model of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is discussed in terms of this theory and the corresponding Lax pairs are also given.

  16. Inclusion rate and physiological effects of prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of incluusion of cocoa bean cake (CBC) on productive performance and physiological response of Isa Brown pullets to prolonged feeding of CBC were investigated. Dietary Inclusions or CBC (0, 50, 100 and 200g/ kg-1 diet) were monitored in typical poultry diets from day old to 51 weeks of age. Sexual maturity ...

  17. Preferences for Prolonging Life: A Prospect Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Laraine; Lawton, M. Powell; Ruckdeschel, Katy

    2003-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect theory was tested as a model of preferences for prolonging life under various hypothetical health statuses. A sample of 384 elderly people living in congregate housing (263 healthy, 131 frail) indicated how long (if at all) they would want to live under each of nine hypothetical health conditions (e.g.,…

  18. Identifying Molecular Targets For PTSD Treatment Using Single Prolonged Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder that can...SPS animals. Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is associated with neurocognitive impairments that have been attributed to functional deficits...and resilience. 2. KEYWORDS Post - traumatic stress disorder , Single Prolonged Stress , Neurobiological Mechanisms 5 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  19. Effect Of Prolonged Monocular Occlusion On Latent Nystagms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe authors recorded nystagmus during seeing with one eye in eight patients with latent nystagmus (LN) before and after two or three days of prolonged occlusion of the better eye (POBE). Before POBE, the slow-phase speed of the nystagmus (SPS) was usually higher when the better eye was

  20. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  1. Brain mapping after prolonged cycling and during recovery in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Marusic, Uros; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Knaepen, Kristel; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prolonged intensive cycling and postexercise recovery in the heat on brain sources of altered brain oscillations. After a max test and familiarization trial, nine trained male subjects (23 ± 3 yr; maximal oxygen uptake = 62.1 ± 5.3 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed three experimental trials in the heat (30°C; relative humidity 43.7 ± 5.6%). Each trial consisted of two exercise tasks separated by 1 h. The first was a 60-min constant-load trial, followed by a 30-min simulated time trial (TT1). The second comprised a 12-min simulated time trial (TT2). After TT1, active recovery (AR), passive rest (PR), or cold water immersion (CWI) was applied for 15 min. Electroencephalography was measured at baseline and during postexercise recovery. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied to accurately pinpoint and localize altered electrical neuronal activity. After CWI, PR and AR subjects completed TT2 in 761 ± 42, 791 ± 76, and 794 ± 62 s, respectively. A prolonged intensive cycling performance in the heat decreased β activity across the whole brain. Postexercise AR and PR elicited no significant electrocortical differences, whereas CWI induced significantly increased β3 activity in Brodmann areas (BA) 13 (posterior margin of insular cortex) and BA 40 (supramarginal gyrus). Self-paced prolonged exercise in the heat seems to decrease β activity, hence representing decreased arousal. Postexercise CWI increased β3 activity at BA 13 and 40, brain areas involved in somatosensory information processing.

  2. Ceria Based Composite Membranes for Oxygen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurauskis, Jonas; Ovtar, Simona; Kaiser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mixed ionic-electronic conducting membranes for oxygen gas separation are attracting a lot of interest due to their promising potential for the pure oxygen and the syngas production. Apart from the need for a sufficiently high oxygen permeation fluxes, the prolonged stability of these membranes...... under the large oxygen potential gradients at elevated temperatures is decisive for the future applications. The gadolinium doped cerium oxide (CGO) based composite membranes are considered as promising candidates due to inherent stability of CGO phase. The CGO matrix is a main oxygen ion transporter......; meanwhile the primary role of a secondary phase in this membrane is to compensate the low electronic conductivity of matrix at intended functioning conditions. In this work thin film (15-20 μm) composite membranes based on CGO matrix and LSF electronic conducting phase were fabricated and evaluated...

  3. Maternal and littermate deprivation disrupts maternal behavior and social-learning of food preference in adulthood: tactile stimulation, nest odor, and social rearing prevent these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Angel I; Lovic, Vedran; Gonzalez, Andrea; Madden, Melissa; Sinopoli, Katia; Fleming, Alison S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal and littermate (social) separation, through artificial rearing (AR), disrupts the development of subsequent maternal behavior and social learning in rats. The addition of maternal-licking-like stimulation during AR, partially reverses some of these effects. However, little is know about the role of social stimuli from littermates and nest odors during the preweaning period, in the development of the adult maternal behavior and social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer- and peer-and-odor rearing on the development of maternal behavior and social learning in rats. Female pups were reared with mothers (mother reared-MR) or without mothers (AR) from postnatal day (PND) 3. AR rats received three different treatments: (1) AR-CONTROL group received minimal tactile stimulation, (2) AR-ODOR females received exposure to maternal nest material inside the AR-isolation-cup environment, (3) AR-SOCIAL group was reared in the cup with maternal nest material and a conspecific of the same-age and same-sex and received additional tactile stimulation. MR females were reared by their mothers in the nest and with conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were tested for maternal behavior towards their own pups and in a social learning task. Results confirm our previous report that AR impairs performance of maternal behavior and the development of a social food preference. Furthermore, social cues from a littermate, in combination with tactile stimulation and the nest odor, reversed the negative effects of complete isolation (AR-CONTROL) on some of the above behaviors. Exposure to the odor alone also had effects on some of these olfactory-mediated behaviors. These studies indicate that social stimulation from littermates during the preweaning period, in combination with odor from the nest and tactile stimulation, contributes to the development of affiliative behaviors. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Traditional birth attendants in rural Nepal: knowledge, attitudes and practices about maternal and newborn health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, N; Mullany, L C; Khatry, S K; Katz, J; Tielsch, J M; Darmstadt, G L

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to formalise the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programmes have had limited success. TBAs' continued attendance at home deliveries suggests the potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty-one trained and untrained TBAs participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews about antenatal care, delivery practices, maternal complications and newborn care. Antenatal care included advice about nutrition and tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation, but did not include planning ahead for transport in cases of complications. Clean delivery practices were observed by most TBAs, though hand-washing practices differed by training status. There was no standard practice to identify maternal complications, such as excessive bleeding, prolonged labour, or retained placenta, and most referred outside in the event of such complications. Newborn care practices included breastfeeding with supplemental feeds, thermal care after bathing, and mustard seed oil massage. TBAs reported high job satisfaction and desire to improve their skills. Despite uncertainty regarding the role of TBAs to manage maternal complications, TBAs may be strategically placed to make potential contributions to newborn survival.

  5. Role of catecholamines in maternal-fetal stress transfer in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakers, Florian; Bischoff, Sabine; Schiffner, Rene; Haase, Michelle; Rupprecht, Sven; Kiehntopf, Michael; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Schubert, Harald; Witte, Otto W; Nijland, Mark J; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Schwab, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    We sought to evaluate whether in addition to cortisol, catecholamines also transfer psychosocial stress indirectly to the fetus by decreasing uterine blood flow (UBF) and increasing fetal anaerobic metabolism and stress hormones. Seven pregnant sheep chronically instrumented with uterine ultrasound flow probes and catheters at 0.77 gestation underwent 2 hours of psychosocial stress by isolation. We used adrenergic blockade with labetalol to examine whether decreased UBF is catecholamine mediated and to determine to what extent stress transfer from mother to fetus is catecholamine dependent. Stress induced transient increases in maternal cortisol and norepinephrine (NE). Maximum fetal plasma cortisol concentrations were 8.1 ± 2.1% of those in the mother suggesting its maternal origin. In parallel to the maternal NE increase, UBF decreased by maximum 22% for 30 minutes (P Fetal NE remained elevated for >2 hours accompanied by a prolonged blood pressure increase (P fetal NE and blood pressure increase and the shift toward anaerobic metabolism. We conclude that catecholamine-induced decrease of UBF is a mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer. It may explain the influence of maternal stress on fetal development and on programming of adverse health outcomes in later life especially during early pregnancy when fetal glucocorticoid receptor expression is limited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal Behavior and Physiological Stress Levels in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Margaret A; Heintz, Matthew R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Santymire, Rachel M; Lipende, Iddi; Murray, Carson M

    2015-06-01

    Individual differences in maternal behavior toward, and investment in, offspring can have lasting consequences, particularly among primate taxa characterized by prolonged periods of development over which mothers can exert substantial influence. Given the role of the neuroendocrine system in the expression of behavior, researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the hormonal correlates of maternal behavior. Here, we examined the relationship between maternal behavior and physiological stress levels, as quantified by fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations, in lactating chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii , at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. After accounting for temporal variation in FGM concentrations, we found that mothers interacted socially (groomed and played) with and nursed their infants more on days when FGM concentrations were elevated compared to days when FGM concentrations were within the range expected given the time of year. However, the proportion of time mothers and infants spent in contact did not differ based on FGM concentrations. These results generally agree with the suggestion that elevated GC concentrations are related to maternal motivation and responsivity to infant cues and are the first evidence of a hormonal correlate of maternal behavior in a wild great ape.

  7. Determinants of maternal mortality: a hospital based study from south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, P; Agrawal, A; Swain, S

    1995-01-01

    During 1981-1986, 86 maternal deaths transpired at the obstetrics department of the Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research in Pondicherry, India. The maternal mortality rate stood at 5.8/1000 births. 31.4% were primigravidae. The percentage of maternal deaths characterized as gravidae 2-4, 5, and multigravidae was 42.9%, 9.3%, and 16.4%, respectively. The leading causes of death were sepsis (41.9%), especially septic abortion (30.2%); eclampsia-severe preeclampsia (10.5%); ruptured uterus (9.3%); and hemorrhage and prolonged labor (8.1% each). Direct obstetric causes of death accounted for 81.4% of all maternal deaths. Indirect obstetric causes of death were hepatitis (5.8%), heart disease (4.7%), and severe anemia (2.3%). Most of the women who died were illiterate (97.6%), poor (98.8%), and had received no prenatal care (94.2%). 47.7% traveled more than 60 km to the hospital. Quacks or untrained traditional birth attendants had excessively interfered with about 33% before they reached the hospital, especially the septic induced abortion, obstructed labor, and ruptured uterus cases. Among the 48 women who delivered before dying, there were 24 live births (5 of whom died during the early neonatal period) and 24 still births. These findings indicate a need for a cooperative effort to improve and expand maternal and child health care in the community.

  8. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions to reproductive, maternal, and size-related traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Maurer, R R

    1991-03-01

    Brown Swiss-Hereford (BS-H) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to BS and H recipient cows and Red Poll-Angus (RP-A) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to RP and A recipient cows to estimate the relative contributions of ovum cytoplasm and uterine influences to prenatal maternal effects. Calves resulting from embryo transfers (ET) were weaned early (3 to 5 d). Reciprocal cross mating also were made by natural service (NS) between BS and H and between RP and A breeds; part of the offspring were weaned at 3 to 5 d, and the remainder nursed their dams to an age of 150 to 180 d. This was done to estimate breed differences in prenatal and postnatal effects combined and to separate the effects of prenatal maternal influences from postnatal maternal influences of these breeds. Females produced in both ET and NS parts of the experiment were retained to produce three calf crops to an age of about 4.5 yr. The following traits were analyzed: percentage of conception rate; percentage of calf survival; percentage of calves produced per cow exposed; birth and weaning weights of calves produced; and periodic weights, heights, and condition scores of females to an age of 4.5 yr. Neither breed of donor (cytoplasmic influence) nor breed of recipient (uterine influence) had consistently important effects on the traits evaluated. In NS matings, differences between reciprocal crosses were small for most of the traits evaluated. Method of rearing (nursed vs weaned at 3 to 5 d) had no effect on reproductive and maternal traits for RP-A reciprocal cross females, but females that nursed generally were heavier, were taller, and had higher condition scores at most ages than early-weaned females. For the BS-H reciprocal cross, early-weaned females were favored over females reared by their dams in percentage of calves produced per cow exposed, but the method of rearing did not affect other reproductive or maternal traits. BS-H reciprocal cross females that nursed their dams were

  9. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  10. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 15 claims, 1 figure

  11. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The instant invention relates to an improved process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same element in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than non-excited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  12. Separable quadratic stochastic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozikov, U.A.; Nazir, S.

    2009-04-01

    We consider quadratic stochastic operators, which are separable as a product of two linear operators. Depending on properties of these linear operators we classify the set of the separable quadratic stochastic operators: first class of constant operators, second class of linear and third class of nonlinear (separable) quadratic stochastic operators. Since the properties of operators from the first and second classes are well known, we mainly study the properties of the operators of the third class. We describe some Lyapunov functions of the operators and apply them to study ω-limit sets of the trajectories generated by the operators. We also compare our results with known results of the theory of quadratic operators and give some open problems. (author)

  13. Immunoassay separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A method for effecting the immunoassay of a multiplicity of samples, each possibly containing an antigen or an antibody to be assayed, is discussed. Each sample is incubated with a solution containing a detectable antigen or antibody to form a multiplicity of mixtures, each mixture containing as components antigen-antibody, non-complexed antigen and non-complexed antibody. At least one of the components of the said mixture is separated by adsorption. There after, quantity of detectable antigen or antibody is detected in one of the non-adsorbed portions of the mixture. An improvement, compared to other techniques, is the continuous and sequential separation of at least one component, which is intended to be separated from each said multiplicity of mixtures

  14. The efficacy of antipsychotics for prolonged delirium with renal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asano S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Satoko Asano, Yasuto Kunii, Hiroshi Hoshino, Yusuke Osakabe, Tetsuya Shiga, Shuntaro Itagaki, Itaru Miura, Hirooki Yabe Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan Aim: Delirium is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. To identify predictors influencing outcomes, we retrospectively examined the characteristics of inpatients with delirium who required psychiatric medication during hospitalization.Methods: We extracted all new inpatients (n=523 consulted for psychiatric symptoms at Fukushima Medical University Hospital between October 2011 and September 2013. We selected 203 inpatients with delirium diagnosed by psychiatrists. We analyzed data from 177 inpatients with delirium who received psychiatric medication. We defined an “early improvement group” in which delirium resolved in ≤3 days after starting psychiatric medication, and a “prolonged group” with delirium lasting for >3 days. Among the 83 inpatients with renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, we defined an “early improvement group with renal dysfunction” in which delirium resolved in ≤3 days after starting psychiatric medication and a “prolonged group with renal dysfunction” with delirium lasting for >3 days. We then examined differences between groups for different categorical variables.Results: Dose of antipsychotic medication at end point was significantly lower in the prolonged group with renal dysfunction than in the early improvement group with renal dysfunction.Conclusion: The results suggest that maintaining a sufficient dose of antipsychotics from an early stage may prevent prolongation of delirium even in inpatients with renal dysfunction. Keywords: antipsychotic, prolonged delirium, chronic kidney disease, pharmacokinetics 

  15. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Loeffler, I. Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20–30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates. PMID:26587250

  16. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G; Burchmore, Richard J S; Loeffler, I Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-10-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20-30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates.

  17. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  18. Maternal filicide in a cohort of English Serious Case Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Peter; Retzer, Ameeta

    2018-03-02

    A national mixed-methods study of English Serious Case Reviews (SCRs) was carried out to better understand the characteristics and circumstances of maternally perpetrated filicides, to compare these with paternally perpetrated cases, and to identify learning points for mental health professionals. Published reports for all SCRs of children in England dying as a result of abuse or neglect from 2011 to 2014 were subject to qualitative analysis using a system of layered reading and inductive thematic analysis, along with descriptive and comparative quantitative analysis. There were 86 deaths directly attributable to child maltreatment within the immediate family. The mother was the suspected perpetrator in 20. Twelve of the mother perpetrators were victims of domestic violence, while 15 of the father perpetrators were known to be perpetrators of domestic violence. Those deaths resulting from impulsive violence or severe, persistent cruelty are almost exclusively perpetrated by males, while those with an apparent intent to kill the child are slightly more likely to be perpetrated by mothers. Four key themes were identified through the qualitative analysis: domestic violence, maternal mental illness, separation and maternal isolation, and the invisibility of the child. These findings highlight the important role of domestic violence and its interaction with maternal mental health. Professionals working with mothers with mental health problems need to adopt a supportive but professionally curious stance, to be alert to signs of escalating stress or worsening mental ill-health, and to provide supportive and accessible structures for at-risk families.

  19. Maternal propensity for infections and risk of childhood asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Sevelsted, Astrid; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    between maternal use of antibiotics and the risk of childhood asthma. METHODS: According to national registries, during the observation period (1997-2010), 910,301 children were born in Denmark and were included in the analysis. From these registries, data for cases of childhood asthma were obtained based...... that maternal use of antibiotics in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma: the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) was 1·24 (95% CI 1·18-1·30) for inpatient admission, 1·22 (1·18-1·26) for outpatient attendance, and 1·18 (1·15-1·20) for inhaled corticosteroid use. A similar...... and independent association was also recorded for maternal antibiotic use in the 80 weeks before and after the pregnancy. A dose-related association occurred between the risk of childhood asthma and the number of maternal antibiotic treatments and was recorded separately for antibiotic treatment for respiratory...

  20. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  1. Prehospital maternity care in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenberg, Signe; Puntervoll, Stein Atle; Øian, Pål

    2011-11-29

    Out-of-hospital maternity care in Norway is randomly organised and not properly formalized. We wished to examine the extent, organisation and quality of this service. We obtained information from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry on all unplanned out-of-hospital births in 2008. A questionnaire was sent to all maternity institutions, municipalities and emergency dispatch centres, with questions regarding the practical and formal organisation of the service using figures from 2008. 430 children, all above 22 weeks gestation, were born unplanned outside of hospitals in Norway in 2008. Of these, 194 were born unplanned at home, 189 while being transported and 47 in other locations (doctor's offices, infirmaries, unknown). Five out of 53 maternity institutions (9 %) confirmed they had a formal midwife service agreement for out-of-hospital births. 247 municipalities (79 %) claimed to have no such assistance. Of these, 33 are located at least 90 minutes away from the nearest maternity ward. Half of the emergency dispatch centres had no registration identifying formal agreements on assistance by midwives for out-of-hospital births. There is an urgent need to put in place formal agreements between the regional health authorities and the municipalities on out-of-hospital midwife services. A distance of 90 minutes' journey time to a maternity ward to fulfil the right to qualified assistance is not well-founded.

  2. Unity Through Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Hans B.

    This PhD thesis asks how we can conceptualize the current separation doctrine of religion and politics in a country like Denmark, where the structure of the established church and peoplehood overlap. In order to answer this question, Hans Bruun Dabelsteen maps the current discussion of secularism...... into the principle of treating everybody equally (with religious freedom, equality and Danish peoplehood as the most important principles adjacent to secularism). In a study of the historical roots of the separation doctrine and two current policy cases (same-sex marriage and reforms of church governance...

  3. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  4. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  5. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  6. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for separating a given material into two or more parts, in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in the said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase UF 6 by infrared photon absorption followed by selective reaction of said excited UF 6 with atomic chlorine, bromine, or iodine to form a product which may be separated by means known in the art

  7. SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.

  8. Radiation gradient isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for transporting, separating and storing charged particles, charged antiparticles and fully or partially ionized isotopes of any element comprising a laser beam generator, laser beam intensity profiler, a laser beam variable intensity attenuator, and means for injecting charged particles, charged antiparticles and ionized isotopes into the beam and extracting them from the system as required. The invention is particularly useful for channelling electrons and ions used for fuel pellet compression in inertial fusion systems, for separating the isotopes of elements and for the confinement of charged antiparticles and particle/antiparticle plasmas

  9. Organic separations with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of present and emerging applications of membrane technology for the separation and purification of organic materials. This technology is highly relevant for programs aimed at minimizing waste in processing and in the treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents. Application of membranes for organic separation is growing rapidly in the petrochemical industry to simplify processing and in the treatment of effluents, and it is expected that this technology will be useful in numerous other industries including the processing of nuclear waste materials

  10. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by selective dissociation of said excited molecules by the absorption of a single photon of visible or ultraviolet light. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 11 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  11. Prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts in the primate with total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Els, D.; Du Toit, L.B.; Weideman, A.; Davids, H.; van der Merwe, E.

    1987-09-01

    The prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts (PDA) by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) was assessed in a well established total pancreatectomy, diabetic, primate transplantation model. Pancreatic transplantation was performed in 119 pancreatectomized baboons (Papio ursinus). Of a total of 109 allografts performed, 71 were segmental allografts (open duct drainage) and 38 PDA. Of 119 graft recipients, 10 received segmental pancreatic autografts. TLI and CsA administered separately to segmental allograft recipients resulted in modest allograft survival and indefinite graft survival was not observed. 8 of 17 (47%) segmental allograft recipients that received TLI and CsA had graft survival beyond 100 days, indicating highly significant pancreatic allograft survival. All long-term segmental allograft recipients were rendered normoglycemic (plasma glucose less than 8 mmol/L) by this immunosuppressive regimen. In contrast, poor results were observed in PDA recipients treated with TLI and CsA. Mean survival in 18 treated PDA recipients was 23.8 days, 8 survived longer than 20 days (44.4%), and 1 greater than 100 days (5.5%). Despite treatment, early rejection of the duodenum in PDA recipients frequently resulted in necrosis and perforation and contributed to a high morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that, in contrast to the significant prolongation of segmental allografts by TLI and CsA, poor immunosuppression was achieved by this regimen in PDA recipients and was associated with a high morbidity and mortality caused by early rejection of the duodenum.

  12. Prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts in the primate with total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.

    1987-01-01

    The prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts (PDA) by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) was assessed in a well established total pancreatectomy, diabetic, primate transplantation model. Pancreatic transplantation was performed in 119 pancreatectomized baboons (Papio ursinus). Of a total of 109 allografts performed, 71 were segmental allografts (open duct drainage) and 38 PDA. Of 119 graft recipients, 10 received segmental pancreatic autografts. TLI and CsA administered separately to segmental allograft recipients resulted in modest allograft survival and indefinite graft survival was not observed. 8 of 17 (47%) segmental allograft recipients that received TLI and CsA had graft survival beyond 100 days, indicating highly significant pancreatic allograft survival. All long-term segmental allograft recipients were rendered normoglycemic (plasma glucose less than 8 mmol/L) by this immunosuppressive regimen. In contrast, poor results were observed in PDA recipients treated with TLI and CsA. Mean survival in 18 treated PDA recipients was 23.8 days, 8 survived longer than 20 days (44.4%), and 1 greater than 100 days (5.5%). Despite treatment, early rejection of the duodenum in PDA recipients frequently resulted in necrosis and perforation and contributed to a high morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that, in contrast to the significant prolongation of segmental allografts by TLI and CsA, poor immunosuppression was achieved by this regimen in PDA recipients and was associated with a high morbidity and mortality caused by early rejection of the duodenum

  13. Defining an abnormal first stage of labor based on maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lorie M.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Roehl, Kimberly A.; Odibo, Anthony O.; Cahill, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine the threshold for defining abnormal labor that is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN This study consisted of a retrospective cohort of all consecutive women admitted at a gestation of 37.0 weeks or longer from 2004 to 2008 who reached the second stage of labor. The 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles for progress in the first stage of labor were determined specific for parity and labor onset. Women with a first stage above and below each centile were compared. Maternal outcomes were cesarean delivery in the second stage, operative delivery, prolonged second stage, postpartum hemorrhage, and maternal fever. Neonatal outcomes were a composite of the following: admission to level 2 or 3 nursery, 5 minute Apgar less than 3, shoulder dystocia, arterial cord pH of less than 7.0, and a cord base excess of −12 or less. RESULTS Of the 5030 women, 4534 experienced first stage of less than the 90th percentile, 251 between the 90th and 94th percentiles, 102 between the 95th and 96th percentiles, and 143 at the 97th percentile or greater. Longer labors were associated with an increased risk of a prolonged second stage, maternal fever, the composite neonatal outcome, shoulder dystocia, and admission to a level 2 or 3 nursery (P dystocia. CONCLUSION Although women who experience labor dystocia may ultimately deliver vaginally, a longer first stage of labor is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, in particular shoulder dystocia. This risk must be balanced against the risks of cesarean delivery for labor arrest. PMID:24361789

  14. Clinical handover practices in maternity services in Ireland: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fealy, Gerard; Munroe, Deirdre; Riordan, Fiona; Croke, Eilish; Conroy, Celine; McNamara, Martin; Shannon, Michael

    2016-08-01

    the objective was to examine and describe clinical handover practices in Irish maternity services. the study design incorporated interviews and focus group discussions with a purposive sample of healthcare practitioners working in Irish maternity services. five maternity hospitals and fourteen co-located maternity units. midwives, obstetricians and other healthcare professionals, specifically physiotherapists and radiologists, midwifery students and health care assistants working in maternity services. the study participants provided nuanced and differentiated accounts of clinical handover practices, which indicated a general absence of formal policy and training on clinical handover and the practice of midwifery and medical teams holding separate clinical handovers based on their separate, respective needs for transferring information and clinical responsibility. Participants spoke of barriers to effective clinical handover, including unsuitable environments, lack of dedicated time and fatigue during duty shift clinical handover, lack of supportive information technology (IT) infrastructure, and resistance of some staff to the adoption of new technologies to support clinical handover. whether internal and external to clinical handover events, the barriers to effective clinical handover represent threats to patient safety and quality of care, since effective clinical handover is essential to the provision of safe quality care. clear and effective communication between collaborating professionals within maternity teams is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prolonged Corrosion Stability of a Microchip Sensor Implant during In Vivo Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Glogener

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A microelectronic biosensor was subjected to in vivo exposure by implanting it in the vicinity of m. trapezii (Trapezius muscle from cattle. The implant is intended for the continuous monitoring of glucose levels, and the study aimed at evaluating the biostability of exposed semiconductor surfaces. The sensor chip was a microelectromechanical system (MEMS prepared using 0.25 µm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor CMOS/BiCMOS technology. Sensing is based on the principle of affinity viscometry with a sensoric assay, which is separated by a semipermeable membrane from the tissue. Outer dimensions of the otherwise hermetically sealed biosensor system were 39 × 49 × 16 mm. The test system was implanted into cattle in a subcutaneous position without running it. After 17 months, the device was explanted and analyzed by comparing it with unexposed chips and systems. Investigations focused on the MEMS chip using SEM, TEM, and elemental analysis by EDX mapping. The sensor chip turned out to be uncorroded and no diminishing of the topmost passivation layer could be determined, which contrasts remarkably with previous results on CMOS biosensors. The negligible corrosive attack is understood to be a side effect of the semipermeable membrane separating the assay from the tissue. It is concluded that the separation has enabled a prolonged biostability of the chip, which will be of relevance for biosensor implants in general.

  16. Fathering After Marital Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Harry Finkelstein; Rosenthal, Kristine M.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with experiences of a group of separated or divorced fathers who chose to remain fully involved in the upbringing of their children. As they underwent transition from married parenthood to single fatherhood, these men learned that meeting demands of child care contributed to personal stability and growth. (Author)

  17. Isotope separator laoratory development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Significant improvements in the capability for collection of mass-separated ions are described. These improvements centered on the fabrication and installation of a more versatile collection-beam viewing system and the design, fabrication, installation and testing of a retardation lens. A summary description of this capability development is presented

  18. Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The dimensions of the separation of powers principle are explored through three lessons in the subject areas of U.S. history, U.S. government, and world history. In 1748, a French nobleman, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a book called "The Spirit of the Laws," in which he argued that there could be no liberty when all government power was…

  19. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  20. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  1. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi

    1996-01-01

    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  2. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, W.; Ehrfeld, U.

    1977-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium enrichment is not a principal problem of technological feasibility. Several processes exist for producing LWR fuel and the enrichment method can be selected in consideration of economical, environmental, and political aspects. To date, the gaseous diffusion process constitutes the major part of enrichment capacity. This process has been well demonstrated for over 30 years and, as a matter of fact, no major technological and economical progress is to be expected in the future. Because of their comparatively high development potential, the centrifuge and the separation nozzle method may become increasingly favorable in economics. The development of the centrifuge process which is superior by its low specific energy consumption aims at technological improvements. In the separation nozzle process which offers the advantage of a comparatively simple technology a further reduction of the specific energy consumption is to be expected because of the thermodynamically favorable separation mechanism of this process. Laser isotope separation methods are still on the laboratory scale, although large financial funds have been spent. (orig.) [de

  3. Oily Bilgewater Separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    11 3.3.4 Flotation ...Flocculation, • Flotation , and • Ultrafiltration . EPA evaluated the effectiveness of bilge separators by their ability to achieve low effluent oil...parameters, suspended solids), metals (arsenic, copper , cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc) and organics (benzene, chloroform

  4. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002 ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219061313500025

  5. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  6. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  7. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P statistical offices appeared to attribute fewer deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were...

  8. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  9. Maternal mortality in the rural Gambia, a qualitative study on access to emergency obstetric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundby Johanne

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is the vital indicator with the greatest disparity between developed and developing countries. The challenging nature of measuring maternal mortality has made it necessary to perform an action-oriented means of gathering information on where, how and why deaths are occurring; what kinds of action are needed and have been taken. A maternal death review is an in-depth investigation of the causes and circumstances surrounding maternal deaths. The objectives of the present study were to describe the socio-cultural and health service factors associated with maternal deaths in rural Gambia. Methods We reviewed the cases of 42 maternal deaths of women who actually tried to reach or have reached health care services. A verbal autopsy technique was applied for 32 of the cases. Key people who had witnessed any stage during the process leading to death were interviewed. Health care staff who participated in the provision of care to the deceased was also interviewed. All interviews were tape recorded and analyzed by using a grounded theory approach. The standard WHO definition of maternal deaths was used. Results The length of time in delay within each phase of the model was estimated from the moment the woman, her family or health care providers realized that there was a complication until the decision to seeking or implementing care was made. The following items evolved as important: underestimation of the severity of the complication, bad experience with the health care system, delay in reaching an appropriate medical facility, lack of transportation, prolonged transportation, seeking care at more than one medical facility and delay in receiving prompt and appropriate care after reaching the hospital. Conclusion Women do seek access to care for obstetric emergencies, but because of a variety of problems encountered, appropriate care is often delayed. Disorganized health care with lack of prompt response to

  10. A DRD4 Gene by Maternal Sensitivity Interaction Predicts Risk for Overweight or Obesity in Two Independent Cohorts of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Robert D.; Jansen, Pauline; Wendland, Barbara; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Silveira, Patricia P.; Kennedy, James L.; Atkinson, Leslie; Fleming, Alison; Sokolowski, Marla; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Dubé, Laurette; Hamilton, Jill; Moss, Ellen; Wazana, Ashley; Meaney, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to low maternal sensitivity is a risk factor for obesity in children and adolescents. A separate line of study shows that the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) increases susceptibility to environmental factors including maternal sensitivity. The current study…

  11. Separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Sauer, N.; Chamberlin, R.M.; Gottesfeld, S.; Mattes, B.R.; Li, D.Q.; Swanson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO 2 thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO 2 films in reaction with chlorophenol

  12. Maternal Depression and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomatology: Severity and Chronicity of Past Maternal Depression and Current Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Erin E.; Langer, David A.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal depression is a well-documented risk factor for youth depression, and taking into account its severity and chronicity may provide important insight into the degree of risk conferred. This study explored the degree to which the severity/chronicity of maternal depression history explained variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms above and beyond current maternal depressive symptoms among 171 youth (58% male) ages 8 to 12 over a span of three years. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression and current maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of parent-reported youth internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, as well as youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression did not account for additional variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at Time 1 beyond what was accounted for by maternal depressive symptoms at Time 1. Longitudinal growth curve modeling indicated that prior severity/chronicity of maternal depression predicted levels of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each time point when controlling for current maternal depressive symptoms at each time point. Chronicity of maternal depression, apart from severity, also predicted rate of change in youth externalizing symptoms over time. These findings highlight the importance of screening and assessing for current maternal depressive symptoms, as well as the nature of past depressive episodes. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between severity/chronicity of maternal depression and youth outcomes, such as residual effects from depressive history on mother–child interactions, are discussed. PMID:27401880

  13. Maternal Mortality – A Challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital G. Sonone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The current maternal mortality rate (MMR in Maharashtra is 104/100000 live births, ranking 3rd in India. There is scope for reducing it as majority of the causes of MMR are preventable and curable. Aims and Objectives: To study the sociodemographic profile and causes of maternal deaths at Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur. Material and Methods: The study population included all deliveries i.e. women admitted in the hospital during pregnancy, child-birth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated due to pregnancy during the period of 2 years from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. IPD case records and autopsy reports of all maternal deaths were taken and various variables were studied. The present study is prospective study of maternal mortality conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. V. M. Medical College Solapur. Cases were distributed ac-cording to their age, literacy rate, residence,socioeconomic status, ante-natal care, gestational age, gravida/parity, place of referral, pregnancy outcome, and place of delivery, perinatal outcome and etiological factors. This study also suggests the measures to reduce maternal mortality. Results: The total number of live births during the study period were 13,188 and total number of maternal deaths were 63 and MMR was 477 per 1, 00,000 live births. In the maternal deaths studied, 1/3rd of the women were illiterate, half of the women belonged to urban slum areas and of lower socioeconomic class.1/3rd of the deaths occurred in primigravida,within 24 hrs from admission, 58.73% of the patients were referred from outside. Out of that 86.49% of women were sent from private hospital and died in post partum period, having poor perinatal outcome. Haemorrhage (28.57% and hypertension (12.69% are two direct causes and severe anemia (33.33% is most common in direct cause of maternal death in our study.

  14. Prolonged whole-body cold water immersion: fluid and ion shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, P A; Smith, D J; Smoak, B L; Montgomery, L C; Singh, A; Doubt, T J

    1989-01-01

    To characterize fluid and ion shifts during prolonged whole-body immersion, 16 divers wearing dry suits completed four whole-body immersions in 5 degrees C water during each of two 5-day air saturation dives at 6.1 msw. One immersion was conducted at 1000 (AM) and one at 2200 (PM) so that diurnal variations could be evaluated. Fifty-four hours separated the immersions, which lasted up to 6 h; 9 days separated each air saturation dive. Blood was collected before and after immersion; urine was collected for 12 h before, during, and after immersion for a total of 24 h. Plasma volume decreased significantly and to the same extent (approximately 17%) during both AM and PM immersions. Urine flow increased by 236.1 +/- 38.7 and 296.3 +/- 52.0%, urinary excretion of Na increased by 290.4 +/- 89.0 and 329.5 +/- 77.0%, K by 245.0 +/- 73.4 and 215.5 +/- 44.6%, Ca by 211.0 +/- 31.4 and 241.1 +/- 50.4%, Mg by 201.4 +/- 45.9 and 165.3 +/- 287%, and Zn by 427.8 +/- 93.7 and 301.9 +/- 75.4% during AM and PM immersions, respectively, compared with preimmersion. Urine flow and K excretion were significantly higher during the AM than PM. In summary, when subjects are immersed in cold water for prolonged periods, combined with a slow rate of body cooling afforded by thermal protection and enforced intermittent exercise, there is diuresis, decreased plasma volume, and increased excretions of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Zn.

  15. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services KidsHealth / For Parents / Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services What's in this article? Giving Birth at ...

  16. Maternal death and near miss measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    2008-05-26

    May 26, 2008 ... Maternal health services need to be accountable more than ever ... of maternal death and near miss audit, surveillance and review is ..... (d) A fundamental principle of these ..... quality assurance in obstetrics in Nigeria - a.

  17. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  18. Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal Health Services ... the state of maternal health in the country reflects poorly on public health priorities. ... A number of international agencies and civil society organizations are ...

  19. Partner support and maternal depression in the context of the Iowa floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Hart, Kimberly J; McCabe, Jennifer E; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from 145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences.

  20. Maternity waiting homes: A panacea for maternal/neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women to inadequately equipped delivery settings 4,5. Eritrea has made some ... Maternity waiting homes were introduced in Eritrea in 2007 as a strategy to mitigate .... 24(4):472-8. 5. Chandramohan D, Cutts F, Millard P The effect of stay in.

  1. Maternal employment and child socio-emotional behaviour in the UK: longitudinal evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn, Anne; Kelly, Yvonne; Cable, Noriko; Bartley, Mel

    2012-07-01

    Mothers of young children are increasingly combining paid work with childrearing. Empirical evidence on the effects of maternal employment on children is contradictory and little work has considered the impact of maternal employment within the context of the employment patterns of both parents. Data on parental employment across three sweeps (when children were in infancy, age 3 and age 5 y) of the Millennium Cohort Study, a large nationally representative prospective birth cohort study, were used to investigate the relation between parental employment and child socio-emotional behaviour at age 5 years independent of maternal education, maternal depression or household income. The cumulative effect of maternal employment across the early years was investigated. The impact of maternal employment in the first year of life was separately examined as a potentially 'sensitive period'. There was no evidence of detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years on subsequent child socio-emotional behaviour. There were significant gender differences in the effects of parental employment on behavioural outcomes. The most beneficial working arrangement for both girls and boys was that in which both mothers and fathers were present in the household and in paid work independent of maternal educational attainment and household income. No detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years were seen. There were important gender differences in relationships between parental working arrangements and child socio-emotional outcomes.

  2. Effects of maternal confidence and competence on maternal parenting stress in newborn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Po; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of maternal confidence and maternal competence to maternal parenting stress during newborn care. Maternal role development is a cognitive and social process influenced by cultural and family contexts and mother and child characteristics. Most knowledge about maternal role development comes from western society. However, perceptions of the maternal role in contemporary Taiwanese society may be affected by contextual and environmental factors. A prospective correlational design was used to recruit 372 postpartum Taiwanese women and their infants from well-child clinics at 16 health centres in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria for mothers were gestational age >37 weeks, ≥18 years old, and healthy, with infants maternal confidence, maternal competence and self-perceived maternal parenting stress. After controlling for maternal parity and infant temperament, high maternal confidence and competence were associated with low maternal parenting stress. Maternal confidence influenced maternal parenting stress both directly and indirectly via maternal competence. To assist postpartum women in infant care programmes achieve positive outcomes, nurses should evaluate and bolster mothers' belief in their own abilities. Likewise, nurses should not only consider mothers' infant care skills, but also mothers' parity and infant temperament. Finally, it is crucial for nurses and researchers to recognize that infant care programmes should be tailored to mothers' specific maternal characteristics. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the

  4. Problems of contemporary maternity: psychological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Puz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.

  5. [Maternal and perinatal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary

  6. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  7. QTc-prolonging drugs and hospitalizations for cardiac arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Hoes, Arno W; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia as an adverse effect of noncardiac drugs has been an issue of growing importance during the past few years. In this population-based study, we evaluated the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmias during the use of several noncardiac QTc-prolonging drugs in day-to-day practice......, and subsequently focused on several specific groups of patients who could be extremely vulnerable for drug-induced arrhythmias. We performed a case-control study in which patients (cases), hospitalized for nonatrial cardiac arrhythmias from 1987 to 1998, were compared with their matched controls regarding current...... use of QTc-prolonging drugs. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Data were obtained from the PHARMO record linkage system. We identified 501 cases, 39 of whom used QTc...

  8. Prolonged Remission in Neuromyelitis Optica Following Cessation of Rituximab Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinfurtner, Kelley; Graves, Jennifer; Ness, Jayne; Krupp, Lauren; Milazzo, Maria; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune disease characterized by acute episodes of transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Several small, open-label studies suggest rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, prevents relapses in neuromyelitis optica; however, there is little consensus on timing or duration of treatment. Here we report four patients with severe relapsing neuromyelitis optica who were stabilized on rituximab and, after discontinuing treatment, continued to experience prolonged remission of their disease. Remission ranged from 4.5 to 10.5 years total, including 3 to 9 years off all therapies. The patients had sustained clinical responses despite normal B-lymphocyte levels and, in at least 2 patients, continued seropositivity for aquaporin-4 antibodies. These cases suggest that rituximab may induce prolonged remission in certain neuromyelitis optica patients, and they highlight the need for further elucidation of rituximab's mechanism in neuromyelitis optica. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Prolonged radioprotective activity of WR-2721 linked to dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenig, H.; Konermann, G.; Oehlert, W.

    1990-01-01

    The radioprotective agent WR-2721 was linked to dextran and poly(glutamic acid) respectively, to obtain a prolonged radioprotective ability. Male mice were administered these water soluble polymer conjugates one to 72 hours prior to a whole body irradiation with X-rays. A prolongation of radioprotective efficiency was achieved with two dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugates. For a period of 24 hours between administration, and irradiation dose reduction factors of 1.14±0.04 and 1.10±0.03 respectively were found. After 72 hours, no protective effect was observed. Histopathological investigations of the liver for formation of tumors 200 to 600 days after irradiation seems to indicate that a protective effect is not produced by the dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugats. (orig.) [de

  10. Smoking prolongs the infectivity of patients with tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siddiqui, U A

    2010-10-01

    We sought to establish if smokers on anti-tuberculosis treatment are more likely to have a prolonged period of infectivity, compared to non-smoking tuberculosis patients, in a low tuberculosis prevalence country. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study in Ireland that recruited 53 microbiologically confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The age-sex adjusted odds ratios (AOR) suggest that the infectivity status of PTB on treatment was four times more likely to be prolonged beyond 6-8 weeks, if the cases had a smoking history (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.23; 15.9). Smoking was associated with delayed sputum smear conversion in PTB patients on treatment.

  11. Atraumatic femoral neck fracture secondary to prolonged lactation induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.

  12. Separation of UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, M.M.

    1962-01-01

    This report deals with theoretical approach to separation process and describes the constructed separator with liquid medium. The separator was calibrated and tested with Al 3 O 3 and UO 2 . it has been concluded that it can be used for separation of powders with sufficient accuracy if the separation is performed for a longer period of time. The separated fractions were characterised by microscopic method and the UO 2 fraction additionally by sedimentation method

  13. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.; Rabinowitz, P.

    1979-01-01

    A method of separating the isotopes of an element is described, which comprises the steps of (i) subjecting molecules of a gaseous compound of the element simultaneously to two infrared radiations of different wavelengths, the first radiation having a wavelength which corresponds to an absorption band of the compound, which in turn corresponds to a mode of molecular motion in which there is participation by atoms of the element, and the second radiation having a power density greater than 10 6 watts per cm 2 , thereby exciting molecules of the compound in an isotopically selective manner, this step being conducted in such manner that the excited molecules either receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by unimolecular decomposition or receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by reaction with molecules of another gas present for that purpose; and (ii) separating and recovering converted molecules from unconverted molecules. (author)

  14. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emile, B.F.M.

    1983-11-01

    A process is claimed for isotopic separation applied to isotopes of elements that can be placed in at least a physicochemical form in which the isotopic atoms or the molecules containing these atoms can be easily displaced and for which there are selective radiations preferentially absorbed by the isotopes of a certain type or by the molecules containing them, said absorption substantially increasing the probability of ionization of said atoms or molecules relative to the atoms or molecules that did not absorb the radiation. The process consists of placing the isotopic mixture in such a form, subjecting it in a separation zone to selective radiations and to an electrical field that produces migration of positive ions toward the negative electrodes and negative ions toward the positive electrodes, and withdrawing from certain such zones the fractions thus enriched in certain isotopes

  15. High gradient magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prothero, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    In a process in which magnetic material is trapped in a filter disposed in a magnetic field, and is unloaded by passing a fluid through the filter in the absence of the initial magnetic field, the magnetic field is first reduced to an intermediate value to allow unloading of the more weakly magnetic particles, the more strongly magnetic particles being retained and subsequently unloaded by further reduction of the magnetic field. Stage by stage reduction of the magnetic field during unloading allows separation of different species from the mixture. As an example the method can be applied to the separation of uranium compounds from mine ores. The uranium compounds are magnetic, while most of the other constituents of the ore are non-magnetic. The starting material is a suspension of the ore. Water is used for unloading. The filter material in this case is stainless steel balls. (author)

  16. Tetrodotoxin-Bupivacaine-Epinephrine Combinations for Prolonged Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bognet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently available local anesthetics have analgesic durations in humans generally less than 12 hours. Prolonged-duration local anesthetics will be useful for postoperative analgesia. Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. In those studies, epinephrine combined with TTX prolonged blocks more than 10-fold, while reducing systemic toxicity. TTX, formulated as Tectin, is in phase III clinical trials as an injectable systemic analgesic for chronic cancer pain. Here, we examine dose-duration relationships and sciatic nerve histology following local nerve blocks with combinations of Tectin with bupivacaine 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL solutions, with or without epinephrine 5 µg/mL (1:200,000 in rats. Percutaneous sciatic blockade was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats, and intensity and duration of sensory blockade was tested blindly with different Tectin-bupivacaine-epinephrine combinations. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Sidak tests. Nerves were examined blindly for signs of injury. Blocks containing bupivacaine 0.25% with Tectin 10 µM and epinephrine 5 µg/mL were prolonged by roughly 3-fold compared to blocks with bupivacaine 0.25% plain (P < 0.001 or bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL (P < 0.001. Nerve histology was benign for all groups. Combinations of Tectin in bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL appear promising for prolonged duration of local anesthesia.

  17. A Case of QT Prolongation Associated with Panhypopituitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Arpaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 37-year-old patient with panhypopituitarism who experienced symptoms and signs of hormonal insufficiency and QT prolongation on electrocardiogram without electrolyte disturbances. After hormonal (steroidal and thyroid replacement therapy electrocardiographic findings were normalized. Hormonal disorders should be considered as a cause of long QT intervals which may lead to torsade de pointes, even if plasma electrolyte levels are normal, because life-threatening arrhythmia is treatable by supplementation of the hormone that is lacking.

  18. MRI findings of prolonged post-traumatic sternal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize the different causes of prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma with involvement of the sternum and to define criteria for sternal nonunion diagnosis using MRI. Five patients with abnormalities of the sternum were evaluated for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma using MRI. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. The patients were selected from the radiology database, which included 8 patients with post-traumatic prolonged sternal pain. Two patients (n = 2) revealed a sternal nonunion after sternal fracture. One patient had a sternal fracture with delayed union and minor displacement of the sternal halves. Abnormal signal intensity alterations adjacent to and within the manubrio-sternal joint were evident in 2 patients and considered due to trauma-related changes in the manubrio-sternal joint. The 3 patients who were not included in the study had no abnormalities of the sternum: 1 of them proved to have a well-healed sternal fracture and nonunion of a rib fracture, 1 had subtle Tietze's syndrome, and 1 patient revealed no pathological findings on imaging. Various factors may be responsible for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma, and these can be viewed with MRI. In cases of sternal nonunion there was common fluid-like signal in the fracture interspace between the bony edges, and the bone marrow adjacent to the nonunion showed altered signal intensity. MRI identified sternal nonunion and other trauma-related abnormalities of the sternum following chest trauma. (orig.)

  19. Hormone supply of the organism in prolonged emotional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M. G.; Stulnikov, B. V.; Svirskaya, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged emotional stress of varying genesis on the hormonal function of the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal cortex was studied. The amount of the hormonal secretion was found to depend on the type of adaptation activity and its duration. High secretion of the hormones observed outside the adaptation activity was examined as an index of the phase transition of defense reactions to the phase of overstress.

  20. The effects of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Wu, Shih-Hao; Li, Wen-Cheng; Kuo, Chan-Wei; Chen, Shou-Yen; Chen, Jih-Chang

    2013-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (for >15 minutes). The retrospective cohort study consisted of adult patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with the diagnosis of cardiac arrest in 2009. Data were retrieved from the institutional database. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were treated (group1, n = 30) or not treated (group 2, n = 62) with sodium bicarbonate. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between groups. The median time interval between the administration of CPR and sodium bicarbonate injection was 36.0 minutes (IQR: 30.5-41.8 minutes). The median amount of bicarbonate injection was 100.2 mEq (IQR: 66.8-104.4). Patients who received a sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR had a higher percentage of return of spontaneous circulation, but not statistical significant (ROSC, 40.0% vs. 32.3%; P = .465). Sustained ROSC was achieved by 2 (6.7%) patients in the sodium bicarbonate treatment group, with no survival to discharge. No significant differences in vital signs after ROSC were detected between the 2 groups (heart rate, P = .124; systolic blood pressure, P = .094). Sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR was not associated with ROSC after adjust for variables by regression analysis (Table 3; P = .615; odds ratio, 1.270; 95% confidence interval: 0.501-3.219) The administration of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged CPR did not significantly improve the rate of ROSC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diclofenac prolongs repolarization in ventricular muscle with impaired repolarization reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kristóf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. METHODS: Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. RESULTS: Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM. The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl(2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg significantly lengthened the QT(c interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QT(c. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%. In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM decreased the amplitude of rapid (I(Kr and slow (I(Ks delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (I(Ca was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (I(to and inward rectifier (I(K1 potassium currents were not influenced. CONCLUSIONS: Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve.

  2. Diclofenac Prolongs Repolarization in Ventricular Muscle with Impaired Repolarization Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, Attila; Husti, Zoltán; Koncz, István; Kohajda, Zsófia; Szél, Tamás; Juhász, Viktor; Biliczki, Péter; Jost, Norbert; Baczkó, István; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Virág, László

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. Methods Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. Results Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM). The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg) did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg) significantly lengthened the QTc interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QTc. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP) while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%). In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM) decreased the amplitude of rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (ICa) was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (Ito) and inward rectifier (IK1) potassium currents were not influenced. Conclusions Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve. PMID:23300901

  3. Prolonged fever in peritoneal tuberculosis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, U.; Irwandi, S.; Habib, H.; Lim, H.; Pasha, M.; Janis, I.; Saragih, R. H.; Ginting, Y.; Effendy-Y S, R.

    2018-03-01

    Peritoneal tuberculosis may lead to delayed diagnosis because of the nonspecific features such as fever, abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, ascites, and weight loss. Here, wereported a case of prolonged fever and abdominal pain which was due to peritoneal tuberculosis. Initial examinations including acomplete blood test and serologic tests did not lead to the diagnosis. A final diagnosis was made by abdominal CT-scan and laparoscopy combined with histopathological studies. Antituberculous medications provided a good clinical response in this patient.

  4. The incidence of hyponatremia during prolonged ultraendurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, T D; Norman, R J; Buck, R H; Godlonton, J; Stevenson, K; Pittaway, D

    1990-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that potentially fatal hyponatremia can develop during prolonged exercise. To determine the incidence of hyponatremia in athletes competing in ultradistance events, we measured serum sodium levels in 315 of 626 (50%) runners who were treated for collapse after two 90 km ultramarathon footraces (total starters 20,335; total finishers 18,031) and in 101 of 147 (69%) finishers in a 186 km ultratriathlon. In both races the athletes drank fluids with low sodium chloride content (less than 6.8 mmol.l-1). Hyponatremia (serum sodium level less than 130 mmol.l-1) was identified in 27 of 315 (9%) collapsed runners in the 90 km races and in none of the triathletes. In response to diuretic therapy, the runner with the most severe hyponatremia (serum sodium level = 112 mmol.l-1) excreted in excess of 7.5 l dilute urine during the first 17 h of hospitalization. These data suggest that, although symptomatic hyponatremia occurs in less than 0.3% of competitors during prolonged exercise even when they ingest little sodium chloride, it is found in a significant proportion (9%) of collapsed runners. A regulated contraction of the extracellular fluid volume would explain why the majority of athletes maintain normal serum sodium levels even though they develop a significant sodium chloride deficit during prolonged exercise. Alternatively, sodium chloride losses during prolonged exercise may be substantially less than are currently believed. Physicians treating collapsed ultradistance athletes need to be aware that as many as 10% or more of such patients may be hyponatremic.

  5. Translating QT interval prolongation from conscious dogs to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vincent F S; Smania, Giovanni; Yu, Huixin; Graf, Ramona; Chain, Anne S Y; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    In spite of screening procedures in early drug development, uncertainty remains about the propensity of new chemical entities (NCEs) to prolong the QT/QTc interval. The evaluation of proarrhythmic activity using a comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay does not fully account for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) differences in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between drug-specific parameters describing QT interval prolongation in dogs and in humans. Using estimates of the drug-specific parameter, data on the slopes of the PKPD relationships of nine compounds with varying QT-prolonging effects (cisapride, sotalol, moxifloxacin, carabersat, GSK945237, SB237376 and GSK618334, and two anonymized NCEs) were analysed. Mean slope estimates varied between -0.98 ms μM -1 and 6.1 ms μM -1 in dogs and -10 ms μM -1 and 90 ms μM -1 in humans, indicating a wide range of effects on the QT interval. Linear regression techniques were then applied to characterize the correlation between the parameter estimates across species. For compounds without a mixed ion channel block, a correlation was observed between the drug-specific parameter in dogs and humans (y = -1.709 + 11.6x; R 2  = 0.989). These results show that per unit concentration, the drug effect on the QT interval in humans is 11.6-fold larger than in dogs. Together with information about the expected therapeutic exposure, the evidence of a correlation between the compound-specific parameter in dogs and in humans represents an opportunity for translating preclinical safety data before progression into the clinic. Whereas further investigation is required to establish the generalizability of our findings, this approach can be used with clinical trial simulations to predict the probability of QT prolongation in humans. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); W. Perng (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic

  7. Epidemiology of Maternal Mortality in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    live births. Causes and determinants of maternal mortal- ity. Global causes of maternal mortality. Across the globe the causes of maternal deaths are strik- ..... at home”. Findings from Thyolo, Mangochi and Chik- wawa were similar". Perceived qua/ity of care. Like anywhere in the world, the perceived quality of care in ...

  8. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  9. Materials separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This volume supplies information in 16 individual contributions on projects sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) with regard to the above mentioned topic, on the state of the art, on new technologies, and on international cooperation; two of the contributions have been recorded separately for the databases INIS and ENERGY. The contributions are supplemented by a survey of the projects sponsored and by a list of publications which have resulted from the sponsored projects. (EF) [de

  10. Laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re and Tc

  11. Laser isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re, and Tc. 9 claims, 1 drawing figure

  12. Eddy energy separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhutdinov, R.Kh.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An eddy energy separator is proposed which contains a chamber with nozzle input of compressed air and sleeves for cold and hot streams. In order to increase productivity, the chamber is cylindrical and the nozzle input is arranged along its axis. Coaxially to the input, there is an adaptor forming an annular channel with its end arranged in an angle to the axis of the chamber. The nozzle input and the adaptor are installed with the possibility of relative movement.

  13. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.

    1962-04-17

    A method of separating uranium oxides from PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and other actinide oxides is described. The oxide mixture is suspended in a fused salt melt and a chlorinating agent such as chlorine gas or phosgene is sparged through the suspension. Uranium oxides are selectively chlorinated and dissolve in the melt, which may then be filtered to remove the unchlorinated oxides of the other actinides. (AEC)

  14. Adolescent obesity and maternal and paternal sensitivity and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal Davis, R; Ashba, Jacqueline; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Corwyn, Robert F; Bradley, Robert H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2011-06-01

    To determine if adolescent obesity is associated with parenting characterized by lower sensitivity and lower monitoring of adolescent activities. We used data from 744 adolescents in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Height and weight were measured at age 15½ years and obesity defined as body mass index ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex. Maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed by direct observation of a parent-adolescent interaction task. Maternal and paternal monitoring were assessed by parent report. Lower sensitivity and lower monitoring were each defined as the lowest quartiles. Two separate multivariate logistic regression models were created to evaluate, individually for mothers and fathers, associations of sensitivity and monitoring with adolescent obesity, controlling for adolescent sex and race, family income-to-needs ratio, and parental obesity. Fourteen percent of the adolescents were obese. Lower sensitivity was associated with adolescent obesity in the maternal parenting model (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-3.86, n = 709), but not paternal parenting model (AOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.38-1.63, n = 460). Neither maternal nor paternal monitoring was associated with adolescent obesity (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.63-1.68; AOR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.52-2.22, respectively). Lower maternal sensitivity, measured by direct observation of parent-adolescent interactions, was associated with adolescent obesity. Efforts to prevent and treat childhood obesity, both at the practitioner level and the community level, may be enhanced by educating parents that their reactions to their children's behaviors may have consequences related to obesity.

  15. Secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratna, R; Dissanayake, D; Silva, F H D S; Dassanayake, M; de Silva, H J

    2015-03-01

    Although dengue management guidelines do not advice on use of antibiotics in dengue shock syndrome, unrecognised bactraemia is likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality. To assess the occurance of secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever. A prospective study was conducted recruiting patients with confirmed acute dengue infection who had prolonged fever (>5 days). Two sets of blood cultures were taken in such patients prior to institution of antibiotic therapy. Demographic, clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Development of ascites and pleural effusions were detected using ultrasonography. Fourty patients (52.5% males) with a mean age of 29.8 years (SD 13.6) were studied. The average duration of fever was 7.9 days (SD 1.8). Ten patients (25%) had bacterial isolates in their blood cultures; Staphylococcus aureus (n=2), coliforms (n=3), pseudomonas (n=1) and 4 had mixed growths. The culture positive group had severe body aches at admission and higher fever, third space fluid accumulation, a significant drop in platelets and a higher CRP. A quarter of dengue patients with prolonged fever had a bacterial isolate. Culture positive patients appeared more ill with body aches and had higher degrees of fever during the latter part of the illness. Increased vascular permeability may predispose to bacterial seepage into blood. Although white cell count is not helpful in detecting bacteraemia, low platelet count and elevation of CRP seem to be helpful.

  16. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 98-104

  17. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇİGİL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies.

  18. Cardiovascular drugs inducing QT prolongation: facts and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Carlos A; Opezzo, Javier A W; Mayer, Marcos A; Höcht, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Acquired QT syndrome is mainly caused by the administration of drugs that prolong ventricular repolarization. On the other hand, the risk of drug-induced torsades de pointes is increased by numerous predisposing factors, such as genetic predisposition, female sex, hypokalemia and cardiac dysfunction. This adverse reaction is induced by different chemical compounds used for the treatment of a variety of pathologies, including arrhythmias. As it is known, antiarrhythmic agents and other cardiovascular drugs can prolong the QT interval, causing this adverse reaction. Of the 20 most commonly reported drugs, 10 were cardiovascular agents and these appeared in 348 of the reports (46%). Class Ia antiarrhythmic agents have frequently been linked to inducing arrhythmia, including torsades de pointes. Sotalol and amiodarone, class III antiarrhythmics, are known to prolong the QT interval by blocking I(Kr). Due to the severity of events caused by the therapeutic use of these drugs, in this work of revision the cardiovascular drugs that present this property and the factors and evidence will be mentioned.

  19. Innovative Separations Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Tripp; N. Soelberg; R. Wigeland

    2011-05-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  20. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  1. Separation of gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the separation of a gaseous plasma mixture into components in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, comprising: a source for converting the gaseous mixture into a train of plasma packets; an open-ended vessel with a main section and at least one branch section, adapted to enclose along predetermined tracks the original plasma packets in the main section, and the separated plasma components in the branch sections; drive means for generating travelling magnetic waves along the predetermined tracks with the magnetic flux vector of the waves transverse to each of the tracks; and means for maintaining phase coherence between the plasma packets and the magnetic waves at a value needed for accelerating the components of the packets to different velocities and in such different directions that the plasma of each packet is divided into distinctly separate packets in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, and which plasma packets are collected from the branch sections of the vessels. (author)

  2. Innovative Separations Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Soelberg, N.; Wigeland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  3. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, A; Fujii, O; Nakamoto, H

    1970-03-09

    Counter currents in the rotary drum of a centrifugal gas separator are produced by providing, at either end of the drum in the vicinity of the circumferential and central positions, respectively, outflow and inflow holes with a communicating passage external to the drum there between whereby gaseous counter currents are caused to flow within the drum and travel through the passage which is provided with gas flow adjustment means. Furthermore, the space defined by the stationary portion of the passage and the rotor drum is additionally provided with a screw pump or throttling device at either its stationary side or drum side or both in order to produce a radially directed gas flow therewithin. A gas mixture is axially admitted into the drum while centrifugal force and a cooling element provided therebelow cause an increase in gas pressure along and a gaseous flow toward the wall member, whereupon the comparatively high pressured circumferentially distributed gas is extracted from the outlet holes, flows through the external gas passage and back into the lower pressured drum core through the inlet holes, thus producing the desired counter currents. The gases thus separated are withdrawn along axially provided discharge pipes. Accordingly, this invention permits heating elements which were formerly used to produce thermal convection currents to be disposed of and allows the length of the rotor drum to be more efficiently utilized to enhance separation efficiency.

  4. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Separation of contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiewicz, J.L.; Reymer, A.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Separating the contaminated parts from the non-contaminated parts from decommissioned nuclear facilities may strongly reduce the amount of contaminated concrete. The reduction in volume of the radioactive contaminated concrete is dependent on how much cementstone is in the concrete. This research program shows that the radioactive contamination is mostly in the cementstone. However the choice that the cementstone parts, (or better said the radioactive parts) are smaller than 1 mm may not always be true. Normally the cementstone takes about 30% of the total concrete volume. A separation procedure composed by a combination of milling and thermal shock has been assessed. Both the cold and hot thermal shock in combination with milling are not able to separate the cementstone from the larger aggregates completely. However, the cementstone from the concrete with a low nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination cold thermal shock/milling, while the cementstone from the concrete with a high nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination hot thermal shock/milling. After both methods a layer of cementstone was still visible on the aggregates. Washing followed by a nitric acid treatment removed each 2 wt% of cementstone

  6. Method of isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, R K

    1975-05-22

    Isotopes of a gaseous compound can be separated by multi-infrared photoabsorption which follows a selective dissociation of the excited molecules by single photon absorption of photons of visible or UV radiation. The process involves three steps. Firstly, the molecules to be separated are irradiated with a high-energy IR laser, whereby the molecules of the compound containing the lighter isotopes are preferably excited. They are then irradiated by a second laser with UV or visible light whose frequency of radiation brings the excited molecules into a form in which they can be separated from the non-excited molecules. The third step is the reformation of the substances according to known methods. A power density of at least 10/sup 4/ watt/cm/sup 2/ per torr gas pressure with an irradiation time of 10/sup -10/ to 5 x 10/sup -5/ seconds in the presence of a second gas with at least 5 times higher partial pressure is necessary for the IR radiation. The method may be used for UF/sub 6/ for which an example is given here.

  7. Intergenerational Attitudes toward Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Catherine P.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen

    Intergenerational attitudes toward child care were examined among college-age students and their parents through the use of questionnaires, the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment Scale (BACMEC), and the Bias in Attitudes toward Women Scale (BIAS). Findings indicated that traditional attitudes were more prevalent in males of both…

  8. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  9. Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metts, Brian S.; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Scott, David E.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Hopkins, William A.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced bioavailability of trace elements in aged CCW. Most importantly, maternal exposure to contaminants coupled with larval exposure to fresh CCW interacted to reduce survival to metamorphosis by 85% compared to reference conditions. Our study yields further evidence that disposal of CCW in aquatic basins potentially creates ecological traps for some amphibian populations. - Highlights: ► The interaction of maternal exposure and larval exposure to CCW reduced survival. ► Previous maternal exposure to CCW had a latent effect on survival to metamorphosis. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW experienced prolonged larval periods. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced growth rates. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced mass at metamorphosis. - Maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes interact to decrease survival in larval amphibians.

  10. Development of Separation Materials Containing Palladium for Hydrogen Isotopes Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaojun; Luo Deli; Qian Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    Displacement chromatography (DC) is a ascendant technique for hydrogen isotopes separation. The performance of separation materials is a key factor to determine the separation effect of DC. At present,kinds of materials are researched, including palladium materials and non-palladium materials. It is hardly replaceable because of its excellent separation performance, although palladium is expensive. The theory of hydrogen isotopes separation using DC was introduced at a brief manner, while several palladium separation materials were expatiated in detail(Pd/K, Pd-Al 2 O 3 , Pd-Pt alloy). Development direction of separation materials for DC was forecasted elementarily. (authors)

  11. Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S

    2015-07-14

    A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage

  12. Maternal and perinatal outcomes during expectant management of 239 severe preeclamptic women between 24 and 33 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Bassam; Deis, Stéphanie; Goffinet, François; Paniel, Bernard J; Cabrol, Dominique; Siba, Baha M

    2004-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes after expectant management of severe preeclampsia between 24 and 33 weeks' gestation. A prospective observational study of 239 women with severe preeclamptic and undelivered after antenatal steroid prophylaxis was performed. Pregnancy prolongation and maternal and perinatal morbidities were analyzed according to the gestational age at time of expectant management: 24 to 28, 29 to 31, and 32 to 33 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test and chi(2) test. The days of pregnancy prolongation were significantly higher among those managed at less than 29 weeks (6) compared with the other groups (4). There were 13 perinatal deaths: 12 in those managed at less than 29 weeks and 1 in those managed at 29 to 31 weeks. Neonatal morbidities were significantly higher among those managed at less than 29 weeks compared with the other groups. There were no instances of maternal death or eclampsia. Maternal morbidities were similar among the groups. Expectant management of severe preeclampsia at 24 to 33 weeks in a tertiary care center is associated with good perinatal outcome with a minimal risk for the mother.

  13. Hypoglycaemia and QT interval prolongation in type 1 diabetes - bridging the gap between clamp studies and spontaneous episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke F.; Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Tarnow, Lise

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We propose a study design with controlled hypoglycaemia induced by subcutaneous injection of insulin and matched control episodes to bridge the gap between clamp studies and studies of spontaneous hypoglycaemia. The observed prolongation of the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) during...... hypoglycaemia varies greatly between studies. METHODS: We studied ten adults with type 1 diabetes (age 41±15years) without cardiovascular disease or neuropathy. Single-blinded hypoglycaemia was induced by a subcutaneous insulin bolus followed by a control episode on two occasions separated by 4weeks. QT...

  14. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  15. ITER isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busigin, A.; Sood, S.K.; Kveton, O.K.; Sherman, R.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1990-09-01

    This document presents the results of a study that examined the technical operating and economic viability of an alternative Isotope Separation System (ISS) design based on the distributed design concept. In the distributed design, the ISS is broken up into local independently operable subsystems matched to local processing requirements. The distributed design accepts the same feeds and produces essentially the same products as the reference design. The distributed design consists of two separate, independent subsystems. The first, called ISS-H, receives only protium-dominated streams and waste water from tritium extraction. It has two cryogenic distillation columns and can produce a 50 percent D, 50 percent T product since it lacks D/T separation capability. A final 80 percent T 2 concentration product can be obtained by blending the 50 percent T 2 stream from ISS-H with the more than 99 percent T 2 stream from the second subsystem, ISS-D. The second subsystem receives only deuterium-dominated feeds, which also contain some protium. ISS-D is as complex as the reference design, but smaller. Although each subsystem has some advantages, such as only two cryogenic distillation columns in ISS-H and better than 99 percent steady state T 2 product in ISS-D, the combined subsystems do not offer any real advantage compared to the reference IISS. The entire distributed ISS design has been simulated using Ontario Hydro's FLOSHEET steady state process simulator. Dynamic analysis has not been done for the distributed design. (10 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.)

  16. Method to separate isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, H.; Neuschuetz, D.

    1980-01-01

    An extraction by means of supercritical pure gases (e.g. CD 2 ) or gas mixtures is proposed to separate isotopes, especially H/D, Li-6/Li-7, and U-235/U-238, and water or benzol is used as entrainer. The extraction shall be carried out at pressure rates of about 350 bar above the critical pressure with the temperature being by up to 100 0 C above the critical temperature. A NaCl-solution and the change of the isotopic ratio Cl-35/Cl-37 are investigated for example purpose. (UWI) [de

  17. Why Recruits Separate Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  18. Separation of chemical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzepis, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Isotopic separation is accomplished by (1) a second photon irradiation step for selective ionization of a first isotopic species and (2) selective precipitation of a generally immiscible liquid from the saturating vapor phase on the ionized species. The first photon corresponds with a sharply defined spectral portion of the irradiation which exclusively excites the first species to a vibrational level. The second photon further excites this species to its ionization level. Selective precipitation is by coulombic attraction between the ionized species and the vapor. The procedure is applicable to any vapor phase ionizable material

  19. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  20. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Kaldor, A.

    1977-01-01

    In a method for the separation of isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , the UF 6 is subjected to ir radiation at a predetermined wavelength or set of wavelengths for less than 10 -3 sec in such a manner that at least 0.1% of the 235 UF 6 molecules absorb an energy of more than 2000 cm -1 . The excited UF 6 is then reacted with a gaseous reagent, F 2 , Cl 2 , or Br 2 , to produce a product which is then recovered by means known in the art

  1. Advanced Separations at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.C.

    1998-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams which are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials which must be treated to remove the radioactivity (Cs, Sr, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (polychlorinated biphenyls, cyanide, metal ions). This task provides test beds for ESP-developed separations materials and technologies using actual SRS waste streams. The work includes different SRS waste streams; high level waste solutions presently stored in underground tanks onsite, water recycled from the waste vitrification plant, and reactor basin water in excess facilities

  2. Propensity score method for analyzing the effect of labor induction in prolonged pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyykönen, Aura; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Gissler, Mika; Haukka, Jari; Petäjä, Jari; Lehtonen, Lasse

    2018-04-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the optimal time of labor induction to reduce the risks associated with prolonged pregnancy. Registry-based study of 212 716 term, singleton cephalic deliveries between 2006 and 2012 in Finland comparing the outcomes of labor induction with those of expectant management in five, three-day gestational age periods between 40 and 42 weeks (group 1: 40 +0 -40 +2 ; group 2: 40 +3 -40 +5 ; group 3: 40 +6 -41 +1 ; group 4: 41 +2 -41 +4 ; group 5: 41 +5 -42 +0 ). Using Poisson regression, induced deliveries in each of the gestational age periods were compared with all ongoing pregnancies. Propensity score matching was applied to reduce confounding by indication. In the gestational age groups 1 and 2, labor induction significantly decreased the risk of meconium aspiration syndrome [relative risk (RR) 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.91 (group 1), RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.91 (group 2)] but increased the risk for prolonged hospitalization of a neonate [RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.10-1.54 (group 1) and RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.47 (group 2)]. In groups 3 and 4, labor induction significantly increased the risk for emergency cesarean section [RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.28 (group 3) and RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.29 (group 4)] but still reduced the risk for meconium aspiration syndrome. In group 5, labor induction did not affect the risk for any of the studied outcomes (operative delivery, obstetric trauma, neonatal mortality, respirator treatment, Apgar <7). Propensity score matching is a novel approach to studying the effect of labor induction. It highlighted the conflicting maternal and neonatal risks and benefits of the intervention, and supported expectant management as a valid option, at least until close to 42 weeks. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  4. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  5. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  6. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  7. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A diffuser separator apparatus is described which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage. Each of said channels has an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports. At least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels is a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels is a different cross sectional area. Means are provided for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series. Also provided are a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area

  8. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, Sol; Young, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Description is given of method for separating a specific isotope from a mixture of isotopes of an actinide element present as MF 6 , wherein M is the actinide element. It comprises: preparing a feed gas mixture of MF 6 in a propellant gas; passing the feed gas mixture under pressure through an expansion nozzle while heating the mixture to about 600 0 C; releasing the heated gas mixture from the nozzle into an exhaust chamber having a reduced pressure, whereby a gas jet of MF 6 molecules, MF 6 molecular clusters and propellant gas molecules is formed, the MF 6 molecules having a translational energy of about 3 eV; converting the MF 6 molecules to MF 6 ions by passing the jet through a cross jet of electron donor atoms so that an electron transfer takes place between the MF 6 - molecules and the electron donor atoms whereby the jet is now quasi-neutral, containing negative MF 6 - ions and positive donor ions; passing the quasi-neutral jet through a radiofrequency mass filter tuned to separate the MF 6 ions containing the specific isotope from the MF 6 - ions of the other isotopes and neutralizing and collecting the MF 6 molecules of the specific isotope [fr

  9. Separation of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.G.

    1980-01-01

    A process for separating gaseous mixtures of molecules of different mass comprises the steps of: causing a rotational nozzle to eject a contiguous plurality of successive groups of molecules into an evacuated space, the groups mutually overlapping to form a continuous stream of the mixture in the form of an Archimedean spiral, allowing the molecules of each group of molecules to move in accordance with their thermal velocities for a predetermined period of time following ejection, thereby to allow each group of molecules to form a generally spherical configuration the outer portion of which will be enriched, in molecules of lighter mass, relative to the inner portion thereof, using a deflector means co-rotating with the rotating nozzle to deflect molecules, which have been allowed to move for the predetermined period of time in accordance with their thermal velocities, from at least one desired portion of the stream and using a stationary collector means to collect the deflected molecules. The process is described with reference to the separation of isotopes of uranium hexafluoride. (author)

  10. Use of Facebook in the maternal grief process: An exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perluxo, Diana; Francisco, Rita

    2018-02-01

    This study seeks to explore the potential implications of Facebook use in the process of maternal grief. The participants were 11 women who had lost their children due to accidents or prolonged illness. Semistructured interviews were conducted and subjected to thematic analysis. The participants stated that they used Facebook to receive support, to identify with other mothers, to remember the child who died, to access the child's information, to honor him/her, and to express their feelings. The use of Facebook can play a very important role in the initial phase of grieving due to the functions of this social network.

  11. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. PR Interval Prolongation and Cryptogenic Stroke: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Mayra; Tadi, Prasanna; Merkler, Alexander; Gialdini, Gino; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Navalkele, Digvijaya; Samai, Alyana; Nouh, Amre; Hussain, Mohammad; Goldblatt, Steven; Hemendinger, Morgan; Chu, Antony; Song, Christopher; Kamel, Hooman; Furie, Karen L; Yaghi, Shadi

    2017-10-01

    Atrial dysfunction or "cardiopathy" has been recently proposed as a mechanism in cryptogenic stroke. A prolonged PR interval may reflect impaired atrial conduction and thus may be a biomarker of atrial cardiopathy. We aim to compare the prevalence of PR interval prolongation in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) when compared with known non-cryptogenic non-cardioembolic stroke (NCNCS) subtypes. We used prospective ischemic stroke databases of 3 comprehensive stroke centers to identify patients 18 years or older with a discharge diagnosis of ischemic non-cardioembolic stroke between December 1, 2013 and August 31, 2015. The main outcome was ischemic stroke subtype (CS versus NCNCS). We compared PR intervals as a continuous and categorical variable (PR interval prolongation and CS. We identified 644 patients with ischemic non-cardioembolic stroke (224 CS and 420 NCNCS). Patients with CS were more likely to have a PR of 200 milliseconds or greater when compared with those with NCNCS (23.2% versus 13.8%, P = .009). After adjusting for factors that were significant in univariate analyses, a PR of 200 milliseconds or greater was independently associated with CS (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% CI 1.08-2.70). The association was more pronounced when excluding patients on atrioventricular nodal blocking agents (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.44-4.83). A PR of 200 milliseconds or greater is associated with CS and may be a biomarker of atrial cardiopathy in the absence of atrial fibrillation. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this association. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictive factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia after prolonged orotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Carolina Martins de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Salomão, Marina Silva; Bougo, Graziela Chamarelli; Vicente, Laélia Cristina Caseiro

    2017-09-13

    Lesions in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx due to endotracheal intubation can cause reduction in the local motility and sensitivity, impairing the swallowing process, resulting in oropharyngeal dysphagia. To verify the predictive factors for the development of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the risk of aspiration in patients with prolonged orotracheal intubation admitted to an intensive care unit. This is an observational, analytical, cross-sectional and retrospective data collection study of 181 electronic medical records of patients submitted to prolonged orotracheal intubation. Data on age; gender; underlying disease; associated comorbidities; time and reason for orotracheal intubation; Glasgow scale on the day of the Speech Therapist assessment; comprehension; vocal quality; presence and severity of dysphagia; risk of bronchoaspiration; and the suggested oral route were collected. The data were analyzed through logistic regression. The level of significance was set at 5%, with a 95% Confidence Interval. The prevalence of dysphagia in this study was 35.9% and the risk of aspiration was 24.9%. As the age increased, the altered vocal quality and the degree of voice impairment increased the risk of the presence of dysphagia by 5-; 45.4- and 6.7-fold, respectively, and of aspiration by 6-; 36.4- and 4.8-fold. The increase in the time of orotracheal intubation increased the risk of aspiration by 5.5-fold. Patients submitted to prolonged intubation who have risk factors associated with dysphagia and aspiration should be submitted to an early speech-language/audiology assessment and receive appropriate and timely treatment. The recognition of these predictive factors by the entire multidisciplinary team can minimize the possibility of clinical complications inherent to the risk of dysphagia and aspiration in extubated patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. Depressive disorders during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubran, Amal; Lawm, Gerald; Kelly, Joanne; Duffner, Lisa A; Gungor, Gokay; Collins, Eileen G; Lanuza, Dorothy M; Hoffman, Leslie A; Tobin, Martin J

    2010-05-01

    Patients who require mechanical ventilation are at risk of emotional stress because of total dependence on a machine for breathing. The stress may negatively impact ventilator weaning and survival. The purpose of this study was to determine whether depressive disorders in patients being weaned from prolonged mechanical ventilation are linked to weaning failure and decreased survival. A prospective study of 478 consecutive patients transferred to a long-term acute care hospital for weaning from prolonged ventilation was undertaken. A clinical psychologist conducted a psychiatric interview to assess for the presence of depressive disorders. Of the 478 patients, 142 had persistent coma or delirium and were unable to be evaluated for depressive disorders. Of the remaining 336 patients, 142 (42%) were diagnosed with depressive disorders. In multivariate analysis, co-morbidity score [odds ratio (OR), 1.23; P = 0.007], functional dependence before the acute illness (OR, 1.70, P = 0.03) and history of psychiatric disorders (OR, 3.04, P = 0.0001) were independent predictors of depressive disorders. The rate of weaning failure was higher in patients with depressive disorders than in those without such disorders (61 vs. 33%, P = 0.0001), as was mortality (24 vs. 10%, P = 0.0008). The presence of depressive disorders was independently associated with mortality (OR, 4.3; P = 0.0002); age (OR, 1.06; P = 0.001) and co-morbidity score (OR, 1.24; P = 0.02) also predicted mortality. Depressive disorders were diagnosed in 42% of patients who were being weaned from prolonged ventilation. Patients with depressive disorders were more likely to experience weaning failure and death.

  15. Maternal Attachment Representation and Neurophysiological Processing during the Perception of Infants' Emotional Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Leyh

    Full Text Available The perception of infant emotions is an integral part of sensitive caregiving within the mother-child relationship, a maternal ability which develops in mothers during their own attachment history. In this study we address the association between maternal attachment representation and brain activity underlying the perception of infant emotions. Event related potentials (ERPs of 32 primiparous mothers were assessed during a three stimulus oddball task presenting negative, positive and neutral emotion expressions of infants as target, deviant or standard stimuli. Attachment representation was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview during pregnancy. Securely attached mothers recognized emotions of infants more accurately than insecurely attached mothers. ERPs yielded amplified N170 amplitudes for insecure mothers when focusing on negative infant emotions. Secure mothers showed enlarged P3 amplitudes to target emotion expressions of infants compared to insecure mothers, especially within conditions with frequent negative infant emotions. In these conditions, P3 latencies were prolonged in insecure mothers. In summary, maternal attachment representation was found associated with brain activity during the perception of infant emotions. This further clarifies psychological mechanisms contributing to maternal sensitivity.

  16. Transient impairments in single muscle fibre contractile function after prolonged cycling in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...... recovery on the contractile function of single muscle fibres obtained from elite athletes....

  17. Hemiplegic Migraine Presenting with Prolonged Somnolence: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Saleh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemiplegic migraine is a rare and complex disease, characterized by migraine with a reversible motor aura. Hemiplegic migraine can be easily misdiagnosed at its first presentation with an atypical severe form of migraine, a stroke, multiple sclerosis, metabolic disorders, conversion disorder or an epilepsy. We present the case of a young 24-year-old male patient, who since the age of 4 years had been having multiple episodes of migraine associated with hemiparesis, paraesthesia, prolonged somnolence, aphasia and confusion. We review the literature and discuss important diagnostic findings in hemiplegic migraine to help establishing a prompt diagnosis.

  18. Intestinal ultrastructure after prolonged use of an elemental diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The role of 3 diets (Purina, whole casein and hydrolyzed casein) on the morphological aspect of the intestinal mucosa has been studied in adult mice, irradiated with a single dose of 950 R or with 4 doses of 600 R. The experimental group receiving the hydrolyzed casein exhibited always the fastest recovery. 45 days after a single irradiation, some alterations of columnar cells were still noted in the other groups. The prolonged use of an hydrolyzed casein (6 months) did not alter the structure of the mucosal cells. (orig.) [de

  19. How long would SDH/SONET be prolonged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiyong; Mao, Qian

    2004-04-01

    As we all know, the increasing speed of data traffic is exceeding gradually from voice in today"s communication network. The main reason is the explosive of Internet. The controversy with IP over ATM/SDH/Optical becomes hotter and hotter, Many people in the telecommunication field are doubt: HOW LONG WOULD SDH/SONET BE PROLONGED? WHAT KIND OF SDH EQUIPMENTS COULD BE USED IN THE NETWORK? With the analysis from several aspects: services in the network, new development with SDH technology, market in transport equipment, This paper is considered that the SDH with some new features would be predominant transport technology in the recent years.

  20. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum disease with prolonged pulmonary involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsche, Cecilie Blenstrup; Svensson, Erik; Wejse, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium celatum is a rare cause of human infection, causing disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Infections localized to the lungs and the lymph nodes have also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The existing literature on the subject is limited as are experiences...... with treatment regimens and durations. In the case presented herein, two different treatment regimens were applied to an immunocompromised HIV-negative patient with primary skin involvement and extensive pulmonary involvement due to suspected relapse on isoniazid, ethambutol, and clarithromycin treatment....... The treatment regimen was changed to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and pyrazinamide and the treatment duration was prolonged to a total of 24 months, with good effect....

  1. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  2. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  4. Age affects the expression of maternal care and subsequent behavioural development of offspring in a precocial bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Pittet

    Full Text Available Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks' growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian

  5. Alcoholism and Timing of Separation in Parents: Findings in a Midwestern Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined history of alcoholism and occurrence and timing of separation in parents of a female twin cohort. Method: Parental separation (never-together; never-married cohabitants who separated; married who separated) was predicted from maternal and paternal alcoholism in 326 African ancestry (AA) and 1,849 European/other ancestry (EA) families. Broad (single-informant, reported in abstract) and narrow (self-report or two-informant) measures of alcoholism were compared. Results: Parental separation was more common in families with parental alcoholism: By the time twins were 18 years of age, parents had separated in only 24% of EA families in which neither parent was alcoholic, contrasted with 58% of families in which only the father was (father-only), 61% of families in which only the mother was (mother-only), and 75% in which both parents were alcoholic (two-parent); corresponding AA percentages were 59%, 71%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. Maternal alcoholism was more common in EA never-together couples (mother-only: odds ratio [OR] = 5.95; two parent: OR = 3.69). In ever-together couples, alcoholism in either parent predicted elevated risk of separation, with half of EA relationships ending in separation within 12 years of twins’ birth for father-only families, 9 years for mother-only families, and 4 years for both parents alcoholic; corresponding median survival times for AA couples were 9, 4, and 2 years, respectively. EA maternal alcoholism was especially strongly associated with separation in the early postnatal years (mother-only: birth—5 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.43; 6 years on, HR = 2.52; two-parent: HRs = 5.76, 3.68, respectively). Conclusions: Parental separation is a childhood environmental exposure that is more common in children of alcoholics, with timing of separation highly dependent on alcoholic parent gender. PMID:23384382

  6. Alcoholism and timing of separation in parents: findings in a midwestern birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    We examined history of alcoholism and occurrence and timing of separation in parents of a female twin cohort. Parental separation (never-together; never-married cohabitants who separated; married who separated) was predicted from maternal and paternal alcoholism in 326 African ancestry (AA) and 1,849 European/ other ancestry (EA) families. Broad (single-informant, reported in abstract) and narrow (self-report or two-informant) measures of alcoholism were compared. Parental separation was more common in families with parental alcoholism: By the time twins were 18 years of age, parents had separated in only 24% of EA families in which neither parent was alcoholic, contrasted with 58% of families in which only the father was (father-only), 61% of families in which only the mother was (mother-only), and 75% in which both parents were alcoholic (two-parent); corresponding AA percentages were 59%, 71%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. Maternal alcoholism was more common in EA nevertogether couples (mother-only: odds ratio [OR] = 5.95; two parent: OR = 3.69). In ever-together couples, alcoholism in either parent predicted elevated risk of separation, with half of EA relationships ending in separation within 12 years of twins' birth for father-only families, 9 years for mother-only families, and 4 years for both parents alcoholic; corresponding median survival times for AA couples were 9, 4, and 2 years, respectively. EA maternal alcoholism was especially strongly associated with separation in the early postnatal years (mother-only: birth-5 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.43; 6 years on, HR = 2.52; two-parent: HRs = 5.76, 3.68, respectively). Parental separation is a childhood environmental exposure that is more common in children of alcoholics, with timing of separation highly dependent on alcoholic parent gender.

  7. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.; Pontius, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes is described which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane

  8. Russian separation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A small contract signed in FY92 with the Khlopin Radium Institute marked the beginning of the Russian Separations program. Under this contract the Khlopin Radium Institute performed laboratory and dynamic hot-cell testing using cobalt dicarbollide technology on simulated radioactive wastes similar to those found at DOE sites in the United States. The current scope of investigation has been extended to identify prospective technologies for application to other United States needs. The Khlopin Radium Institute project served as a model for three other pilot scale technology development projects. The premise of the pilot scale projects is to enable Russian scientists to demonstrate their technology in the context of DOE needs, using Russian technical expertise has proven to be a cost-effective means of screening Russian technologies

  9. Nebulized therapy. SEPAR year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Casilda; Muñoz, Ana; Domenech, Adolfo

    2014-12-01

    Inhaled drugs are deposited directly in the respiratory tract. They therefore achieve higher concentrations with faster onset of action and fewer side effects than when used systemically. Nebulized drugs are mainly recommended for patients that require high doses of bronchodilators, when they need to inhale drugs that only exist in this form (antibiotics or dornase alfa) or when they are unable to use other inhalation devices. Technological development in recent years has led to new devices that optimize pulmonary deposits and reduce the time needed for treatment. In this review we focus solely on drugs currently used, or under investigation, for nebulization in adult patients; basically bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, antibiotics, antifungals, mucolytics and others such as anticoagulants, prostanoids and lidocaine. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Method of gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltner, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    In order to separate a mixture of gases having widely different partial pressures at a given temperature, a chamber is employed. A batch of gas mixture is passed into the chamber. The walls of the chamber are cooled by a refrigerant which passes through coils in heat exchange relationship with the walls. By this means the temperature of the chamber is cooled to a temperature (and held at such temperature until equilibrium is reached) at which all the components of the gas mixture have changed state, at least one being solidified and at least one liquefied. The liquid constituents are removed first. Then the chamber is warmed to facilitate removal of the previously solidified constituents. In an example, the gas mixture comprises nitrogen, argon, krypton and xenon, and the walls of the chamber are cooled by liquid nitrogen, the argon and nitrogen being liquefied and the xenon and krypton being solidified. (author)

  11. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon building so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered

  12. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-05-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon buildings so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered. (U.S.)

  13. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  14. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  15. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  16. Actinide separative chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.

    2004-01-01

    Actinide separative chemistry has focused very heavy work during the last decades. The main was nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: solvent extraction processes appeared quickly a suitable, an efficient way to recover major actinides (uranium and plutonium), and an extensive research, concerning both process chemistry and chemical engineering technologies, allowed the industrial development in this field. We can observe for about half a century a succession of Purex plants which, if based on the same initial discovery (i.e. the outstanding properties of a molecule, the famous TBP), present huge improvements at each step, for a large part due to an increased mastery of the mechanisms involved. And actinide separation should still focus R and D in the near future: there is a real, an important need for this, even if reprocessing may appear as a mature industry. We can present three main reasons for this. First, actinide recycling appear as a key-issue for future nuclear fuel cycles, both for waste management optimization and for conservation of natural resource; and the need concerns not only major actinide but also so-called minor ones, thus enlarging the scope of the investigation. Second, extraction processes are not well mastered at microscopic scale: there is a real, great lack in fundamental knowledge, useful or even necessary for process optimization (for instance, how to design the best extracting molecule, taken into account the several notifications and constraints, from selectivity to radiolytic resistivity?); and such a need for a real optimization is to be more accurate with the search of always cheaper, cleaner processes. And then, there is room too for exploratory research, on new concepts-perhaps for processing quite new fuels- which could appear attractive and justify further developments to be properly assessed: pyro-processes first, but also others, like chemistry in 'extreme' or 'unusual' conditions (supercritical solvents, sono-chemistry, could be

  17. Advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems

  18. Isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an isotope separation device comprising a system for converting into gaseous form a first and second isotope to be separated, a monochromatic excitation light source to excite the gaseous molecules of these two isotopes in a distinct manner, a first and second receiver to collect selectively the molecules of the first and second distinctly excited isotopes. The frequency FL of the excitation light is selected between a lower limit and a higher limit F2 + 1/2 LD, depending on the frequences F1 and F2 of two absorption lines near this first and second isotope. The difference DF between these two frequencies F1 and F2 is less than the Doppler width LD of each one of these lines and greater than the natural width LN of each of these two lines and also the width of line LR of the excitation light source. The probability that the molecules will be excited by this light depends on the direction of their displacement to a major and different extent for both isotopes. An ionising light source LI is set up to irradiate the seat of interaction between the excitation light and the gaseous molecules with an ionisation light able to ionise the excited molecules without ionising the molecules that are not excited. The receivers are able to collect selectively the ionised molecules. A sufficiently low gas pressure is selected for the distance between the place of interaction and the first receiver to be less than double the free mean travel of the molecules in the gas [fr

  19. Trajectories of parenting behavior and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azak, Schale; Raeder, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated trajectories of maternal parenting behavior across the infants' first 18 months of life in relation to maternal depression. Furthermore, predictors of the quality of the mother-infant relationship at 18 months were examined. Participants consisted of three types of mother-infant dyads: mothers with comorbid depression and anxiety (n=19), mothers with depression (n=7) and nondepressed mothers (n=24). Maternal behaviors and the quality of relationship were rated on a global scale (NICHD) from video-taped mother-infant interactions. Maternal behaviors rated at six, 12 and 18 months were collapsed into a composite variable maternal style. The quality of the relationship captured as dyadic mutuality was rated at 18 months. Comorbid and depressed mothers showed lower quality in maternal style compared with the nondepressed mothers at six months. Over the follow-up the comorbid mothers were lower in maternal style compared to the nondepressed mothers, but the comorbid mothers increased significantly in maternal style despite elevated depression symptoms. Mean maternal style and infant cognitive skills predicted the quality in relationship at 18 months suggesting that the mother-toddler relationship depends on contributions from the mother and the child. Higher growth in maternal style despite of depression symptoms among comorbid mothers was interpreted against the background that the majority of the comorbid mother-infant dyads received several treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  1. Effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on thyroid and reproductive function in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on (1) thyroid status and reproductive performance of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and (2) F1 embryo survival and early larval development. Using a static-renewal procedure, mixed sex populations of adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 10, and 100 mg/l nominal concentrations of waterborne perchlorate for 10 weeks. Thyroid histology was qualitatively assessed, and females and males were separated and further exposed to their respective treatments for six additional weeks. Eight females in each tank replicate (n = 3) were paired weekly with four males from the same respective treatment, and packed-egg (spawn) volume (PEV) was measured each of the last five weeks. At least once during weeks 14-16 of exposure, other end points measured included fertilization rate, fertilized egg diameter, hatching rate, standard length, and craniofacial development of 4-day-postfertilization larvae and thyroid hormone content of 3.5-h embryos and of exposed mothers. At 10 weeks of exposure, perchlorate at both concentrations caused thyroidal hypertrophy and colloid depletion. A marked reduction in PEV was observed toward the end of the 6-week spawning period, but fertilization and embryo hatching rates were unaffected. Fertilized egg diameter and larval length were increased by parental exposure to perchlorate. Larval head depth was unaffected but the forward protrusion of the lower jaw-associated cartilage complexes, Meckel's and ceratohyal, was decreased. Exposure to both concentrations of perchlorate inhibited whole-body thyroxine content in mothers and embryos, but triiodothyronine content was unchanged. In conclusion, prolonged exposure of adult zebrafish to perchlorate not only disrupts their thyroid endocrine system but also impairs reproduction and influences early F1 development. ?? 2007 Oxford University Press.

  2. Human amnion as a biological dressing used to prevent prolonged air leakage in thoracic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijewski, M.; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, I.; Piech, K.; Gogowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Prolonged air leakage lasting 7 days or more is one of the most common complications in thoracic surgery. This complication may result in increased morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. Amnion allografts have been used to minimise this complication. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of human amnion grafts in the treatment of air leakage following thoracic surgery. Deep-frozen, radiation-sterilized (35 kGy) human amnion grafts prepared at the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw (Poland) were used. Amnion allografts were applied to 69 patients who had surgery: 36 thoracotomies, and 33 rethoracotomies had been performed. During lung ventilation the air leakage sites were identified and covered by the amnion flap. Air leakage were evaluated during the postoperative period. Retrospectively we analysed air leakage duration in 170 thoracothomies and rethoracotomies without amnion transplantation. The separation of lung tissue and the liberation of pleural adhesions may be result in the lung and visceral pleura injury. Deep-frozen and radiation-sterilized human amnion is biocompatible, flexible, strong and airtight. It may be easily attached to the lung parenchyma and allows coverage of the area of the lung parenchyma deprived of the visceral pleura. The use of human amnion allografts is simple and safe. After treatment with amnion in 85% of the cases air leakage last less than 7 days, and only its traces were observed. Our results suggest that the human amnion grafts applied for the prevention of air leakage in lung surgery is a safe, simple and effective method. (Author)

  3. Maternal parenting style and adjustment in adolescents with type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jorie M; Skinner, Michelle; Gelfand, Donna; Berg, Cynthia A; Wiebe, Deborah J

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the cross-sectional relationship between maternal parenting style and indicators of well-being among adolescents with diabetes. Seventy-eight adolescents (ages 11.58-17.42 years, M = 14.21) with type 1 diabetes and their mothers separately reported perceptions of maternal parenting style. Adolescents reported their own depressed mood, self-efficacy for managing diabetes, and diabetes regimen adherence. Adolescents' perceptions of maternal psychological control were associated with greater depressed mood regardless of age and gender. Firm control was strongly associated with greater depressed mood and poorer self-efficacy among older adolescents, less strongly among younger adolescents. Adolescents' perceptions of maternal acceptance were associated with less depressed mood, particularly for girls and with better self-efficacy for diabetes management, particularly for older adolescents and girls. Maternal reports of acceptance were associated only with adherence. Maternal parenting style is associated with well-being in adolescents with diabetes, but this association is complex and moderated by age and gender.

  4. The Interplay between Maternal Nutrition and Stress during Pregnancy: Issues and Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Several studies about humans and animals have separately examined the effects of prenatal nutrition and stress on fetal development, pregnancy, and birth outcomes, and subsequent child health and disease risk. Although substantial evidence from non-pregnant literature supports the presence of bidirectional interactions between nutrition and stress at various psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels, such interaction effects have not yet been systematically examined in the context of pregnancy. This paper discusses the multifaceted and multilevel relationship between nutrition and stress. It then reviews the currently available observational and experimental evidence in animals and humans regarding the interplay between maternal psychosocial stress, dietary intake, and nutritional state during pregnancy, and implications for maternal and child health-related outcomes. Key Messages: During pregnancy, maternal psychosocial stress, dietary behavior, and nutritional state likely regulate and counter-regulate one another. Emerging evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may attenuate maternal psychosocial stress, and that high maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index exacerbates unhealthy dietary behaviors under high-stress conditions. Longitudinal studies are warranted in order to understand the interplay between prenatal psychosocial stress, diet, and stress- and nutrition-related biomarkers to obtain further insight and inform the development and design of future, more effective intervention trials for improved maternal and child health outcomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Maternal characteristics associated with vaccination of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luman, Elizabeth T; McCauley, Mary Mason; Shefer, Abigail; Chu, Susan Y

    2003-05-01

    Mothers can be instrumental in gaining access to vaccination services for their children. This study examines maternal characteristics associated with vaccination in US preschool children. We analyzed data from 21 212 children aged 19 to 35 months in the National Immunization Survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify maternal characteristics associated with completion of all recommended vaccinations in these children. Factors most strongly associated with undervaccination included having mothers who were black; had less than a high school education; were divorced, separated, or widowed; had multiple children; were eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) but not participating; or had incomes below 50% of the federal poverty level. Because most mothers play an important role in their children's vaccination, it is important to address maternal concerns and barriers when developing public health interventions for promoting childhood vaccinations. Encouraging eligible women and their children to participate in the WIC program and providing support and encouragement for immunization to mothers with multiple children may improve early childhood vaccination coverage.

  6. Exploring the relationship between population density and maternal health coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlon Michael

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivering health services to dense populations is more practical than to dispersed populations, other factors constant. This engenders the hypothesis that population density positively affects coverage rates of health services. This hypothesis has been tested indirectly for some services at a local level, but not at a national level. Methods We use cross-sectional data to conduct cross-country, OLS regressions at the national level to estimate the relationship between population density and maternal health coverage. We separately estimate the effect of two measures of density on three population-level coverage rates (6 tests in total. Our coverage indicators are the fraction of the maternal population completing four antenatal care visits and the utilization rates of both skilled birth attendants and in-facility delivery. The first density metric we use is the percentage of a population living in an urban area. The second metric, which we denote as a density score, is a relative ranking of countries by population density. The score’s calculation discounts a nation’s uninhabited territory under the assumption those areas are irrelevant to service delivery. Results We find significantly positive relationships between our maternal health indicators and density measures. On average, a one-unit increase in our density score is equivalent to a 0.2% increase in coverage rates. Conclusions Countries with dispersed populations face higher burdens to achieve multinational coverage targets such as the United Nations’ Millennial Development Goals.

  7. Fundamentals of affinity cell separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lyons, Veronica; Pappas, Dimitri

    2018-03-01

    Cell separations using affinity methods continue to be an enabling science for a wide variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of affinity separation, including the competing forces for cell capture and elution, cell-surface interactions, and models for cell adhesion. Factors affecting separation performance such as bond affinity, contact area, and temperature are presented. We also discuss and demonstrate the effects of nonspecific binding on separation performance. Metrics for evaluating cell separations are presented, along with methods of comparing separation techniques for cell isolation using affinity capture. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Liquid-phase separation with the rotational particle separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van H.P.; Mondt, E.; Hendriks, A.J.A.M.; Verbeek, P.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the rotational particle separator (RPS) was introduced as a new technique for separating solid and/or liquid particles of 0.1 m and larger from gases. In this patented technique the principles of centrifugation are exploited to enhance separation of small-sized phases and particulate

  9. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM AND PROLONGED FEVER ASSOCIATED TO SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimberti R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYSecondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the main deragements caused by chronic renal failure, and parathyroid hormone is considered one of the toxins of the uremic syndrome. Prolonged fever due to primary hyperparathyroidism have already been described in the literature but not yet as induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this case report a patient suffering from an erythema nodosum and prolonged fever associated to secondary hyperparathyroidism that disappeared through subtotal parathyroidectomy is presented.RESUMENEl hiperparatiroidismo secundario es uno de los principales disturbios causados por la insuficiencia renal crónica, y la paratohormona es considerada una de las toxinas del sindrome urémico. El sindrome febril prolongado secundario a hiperparatiroidismo primario ya ha sido descripto en la literatura, aunque no lo ha sido aun el inducido por hiperparatiroidismo secundario. En el presente reporte se presenta un caso de eritema nodoso y sindrome febril prolongado asociado a hiperparatiroidismo secundario y que resolvió luego de efectuada una paratiroidectomía subtotal.

  10. Risk Factors for Prolonged Treatment of Whiplash-Associated Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Oka

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD are the most common injuries that are associated with car collisions in Japan and many Western countries. However, there is no clear evidence regarding the potential risk factors for poor recovery from WAD. Therefore, we used an online survey of the Japanese population to examine the association between potential risk factors and the persistence of symptoms in individuals with WAD.An online survey was completed by 127,956 participants, including 4,164 participants who had been involved in a traffic collision. A random sample of the collision participants (n = 1,698 were provided with a secondary questionnaire. From among the 974 (57.4% respondents to the secondary questionnaire, we selected 183 cases (intractable neck pain that was treated over a period of 6 months and 333 controls (minor neck pain that was treated within 3 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential risk factors for prolonged treatment of WAD.Female sex, the severity of the collision, poor expectations of recovery, victim mentality, dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain were associated with a poor recovery from WAD.In the present study, the baseline symptoms (dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain had the strongest associations with prolonged treatment for WAD, although the psychological and behavioral factors were also important. These risk factors should be considered when evaluating patients who may have the potential for poor outcomes.

  11. Prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Shaseb, Elnaz; Ghaffary, Saba; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    Potential protective effects of prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with honey (1%, 2% and 4%) for 45 days then their hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia fallowed by 120 min reperfusion. Two important indexes of ischemia-induced damage (infarction size and arrhythmias) were determined by computerized planimetry and ECG analysis, respectively. Honey (1% and 2%) reduced infarct size from 23±3.1% (control) to 9.7±2.4 and 9.5±2.3%, respectively (Phoney (1%) significantly reduced (PHoney (1% and 2%) also significantly decreased number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). In addition, incidence and duration of reversible ventricular fibrillation (Rev VF) were lowered by honey 2% (Phoney produced significant reduction in the incidences of VT, total and Rev VF, duration and number of VT. The results showed cardioprotective effects of prolonged pre-treatment of rats with honey following myocardial infarction. Maybe, the existence of antioxidants and energy sources (glucose and fructose) in honey composition and improvement of hemodynamic functions may involve in those protective effects.

  12. Prolonged fasting impairs neural reactivity to visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, N; Wassenberg, A; Toygar, T; Kellermann, T; Weidenfeld, C; Berthold-Losleben, M; Chechko, N; Orfanos, S; Vocke, S; Laoutidis, Z G; Schneider, F; Karges, W; Habel, U

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has shown that hypoglycemia influences the intensity of the BOLD signal. A similar but smaller effect may also be elicited by low normal blood glucose levels in healthy individuals. This may not only confound the BOLD signal measured in fMRI, but also more generally interact with cognitive processing, and thus indirectly influence fMRI results. Here we show in a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study on 40 healthy subjects, that overnight fasting and low normal levels of glucose contrasted to an activated, elevated glucose condition have an impact on brain activation during basal visual stimulation. Additionally, functional connectivity of the visual cortex shows a strengthened association with higher-order attention-related brain areas in an elevated blood glucose condition compared to the fasting condition. In a fasting state visual brain areas show stronger coupling to the inferior temporal gyrus. Results demonstrate that prolonged overnight fasting leads to a diminished BOLD signal in higher-order occipital processing areas when compared to an elevated blood glucose condition. Additionally, functional connectivity patterns underscore the modulatory influence of fasting on visual brain networks. Patterns of brain activation and functional connectivity associated with a broad range of attentional processes are affected by maturation and aging and associated with psychiatric disease and intoxication. Thus, we conclude that prolonged fasting may decrease fMRI design sensitivity in any task involving attentional processes when fasting status or blood glucose is not controlled.

  13. Effect of prolonged exposure to low antigen concentration for sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Och, Francois M.M. van; Vandebriel, Rob J.; Jong, Wim H. de; Loveren, Henk van

    2003-01-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an assay in mice to identify potential allergens. Compounds that do not induce a stimulation index (SI)≥3 are not considered sensitizers. Of the chemicals that do, the SI of 3 is used as a benchmark, and indicates the sensitizing potency of a chemical. Compared to the exposure duration of the LLNA (3 days), real life exposure often lasts for months or years. We therefore investigated whether prolonged exposure to sensitizers at concentrations that do not induce a SI≥3 in the LLNA, were able to surpass this threshold. Mice were treated for 2 months at 7-day intervals with a range of concentrations of the known allergens ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine, BENZ), 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (TMTD). Both proliferative activity and cytokine production were established at day 60. Neither BENZ nor TMTD showed a significant increase in the proliferation rate compared to vehicle controls. Only DNCB at concentrations originally above the EC 3 a significant increase in proliferation was seen after prolonged exposure. No significant effect on IFN-γ and IL-4 production was observed for all three compounds compared. These findings indicate that for classification of sensitizers the shorter exposure period employed in the standard LLNA is sufficient, and longer periods of exposure have no bearing on this classification

  14. Survival without sequelae after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation after electric shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawea, Mohamad; Al-Kenany, Al-Sayed; Hosny, Mostafa; Aglan, Omar; Samy, Mohamad; Al-Abd, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    "Electrical shock is the physiological reaction or injury caused by electric current passing through the human body. It occurs upon contact of a human body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair causing undesirable effects ranging from simple burns to death." Ventricular fibrillation is believed to be the most common cause of death after electrical shock. "The ideal duration of cardiac resuscitation is unknown. Typically prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with poor neurologic outcomes and reduced long term survival. No consensus statement has been made and traditionally efforts are usually terminated after 15-30 minutes." The case under discussion seems worthy of the somewhat detailed description given. It is for a young man who survived after 65 minutes after electrical shock (ES) after prolonged high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), multiple defibrillations, and artificial ventilation without any sequelae. Early start of adequate chest compressions and close adherence to advanced cardiac life support protocols played a vital role in successful CPR.

  15. Paternal work stress and prolonged time to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung; Eum, Ki-Do; Siegrist, Johannes; Li, Jian; Lee, Hye-Eun; Cho, Sung-Il

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore an association between psychosocial stress at work in married men and their spouses' prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP). All married male workers of a large Korean petrochemical enterprise and their wives fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Main selection criteria were lack of use of contraceptives and experienced pregnancy in recent past. Data were available from 322 couples. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Prolonged TTP was measured by the "TTP questionnaire". After adjustment for confounding effects of demographic and life-style characteristics and benzene exposure, delayed TTP, defined by frequency of first-cycle pregnancy, was associated with one standard deviation (SD) increase of the effort-reward ratio in the chronically stressed group of married men (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.22-0.99) in logistic regression analysis. A similar, but somewhat weaker effect, was found for the overall group (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.47-0.94). Paternal stress at work, as measured by effort-reward imbalance, seemed to be associated with a decreased number of conceptions in the first menstrual cycle.

  16. Lumbosacral Plexus Injury and Brachial Plexus Injury Following Prolonged Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lan Kao

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who developed right upper and lower limb paralysis with sensory deficit after sedative drug overdose with prolonged immobilization. Due to the initial motor and sensory deficit pattern, brachial plexus injury or C8/T1 radiculopathy was suspected. Subsequent nerve conduction study/electromyography proved the lesion level to be brachial plexus. Painful swelling of the right buttock was suggestive of gluteal compartment syndrome. Elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase and urinary occult blood indicated rhabdomyolysis. The patient received medical treatment and rehabilitation; 2 years after the injury, her right upper and lower limb function had recovered nearly completely. As it is easy to develop complications such as muscle atrophy and joint contracture during the paralytic period of brachial plexopathy and lumbosacral plexopathy, early intervention with rehabilitation is necessary to ensure that the future limb function of the patient can be recovered. Our patient had suspected gluteal compartment syndrome that developed after prolonged compression, with the complication of concomitant lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury, which is rarely reported in the literature. A satisfactory outcome was achieved with nonsurgical management.

  17. Influence of a Prolonged Tennis Match Play on Serve Biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Martin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify kinematic, kinetic and performance changes that occur in the serve throughout a prolonged tennis match play. Serves of eight male advanced tennis players were recorded with a motion capture system before, at mid-match, and after a 3-hour tennis match. Before and after each match, electromyographic data of 8 upper limb muscles obtained during isometric maximal voluntary contraction were compared to determine the presence of muscular fatigue. Vertical ground reaction forces, rating of perceived exertion, ball speed, and ball impact height were measured. Kinematic and upper limb kinetic variables were computed. The results show decrease in mean power frequency values for several upper limb muscles that is an indicator of local muscular fatigue. Decreases in serve ball speed, ball impact height, maximal angular velocities and an increase in rating of perceived exertion were also observed between the beginning and the end of the match. With fatigue, the majority of the upper limb joint kinetics decreases at the end of the match. No change in timing of maximal angular velocities was observed between the beginning and the end of the match. A prolonged tennis match play may induce fatigue in upper limb muscles, which decrease performance and cause changes in serve maximal angular velocities and joint kinetics. The consistency in timing of maximal angular velocities suggests that advanced tennis players are able to maintain the temporal pattern of their serve technique, in spite of the muscular fatigue development.

  18. Evolution of perceived footwear comfort over a prolonged running session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzy, F; Cavagna, J; Horvais, N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the subjective perception of overall footwear comfort over a prolonged running session. Ten runners performed two similar sessions consisting of a 13-km trail run (5 laps of 2.6 km) as fast as possible. The overall footwear comfort was evaluated before running and at the end of each lap with a 150-mm visual analogic scale, as well as speed, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion. The results showed that both overall footwear comfort and speed decreased consistently during the run session, and significantly after 44 min of running (i.e. the 3rd lap). It could be hypothesized that the deterioration of overall footwear comfort was explained by mechanical and energetical parameter changes with time and/or fatigue occurring at the whole body, foot and footwear levels. These results justify the use of a prolonged running test for running footwear comfort evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  20. AVS-1357 inhibits melanogenesis via prolonged ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Seo-Hyoung; Chae, Chong Hak; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that a derivative of imidazole, AVS-1357, is a novel skin-whitening compound. AVS-1357 was found to significantly inhibit melanin production in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not directly inhibit tyrosinase. Furthermore, we found that AVS-1357 induced prolonged activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, while it downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. It has been reported that the activation of ERK and/or Akt is involved in melanogenesis. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVS-1357 on melanogenesis in the absence or presence of PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of the ERK pathway) and/or LY294002 (a specific inhibitor of the Akt pathway). PD98059 dramatically increased melanogenesis, whereas LY294002 had no effect. Furthermore, PD98059 attenuated AVS-1357 induced ERK activation, as well as the downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase. These findings suggest that the effects of AVS-1357 occur via downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which is caused by AVS-1357-induced prolonged ERK activation. Taken together, our results indicate that AVS-1357 has the potential as a new skin whitening agent.