WorldWideScience

Sample records for prolonged limited light

  1. Limits on light Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental limits on light Higgs bosons (M/sub H/ < 5 GeV) are examined. Particular attention is paid to the process K → πH. It is shown that there may be an allowed window for light Higgs bosons between about 100 and 210 MeV. 13 refs., 2 figs

  2. Mechanisms limiting glycogen storage in muscle during prolonged insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Hansen, S A; Hansen, B F

    1988-01-01

    increased muscle glycogen concentrations to maximal values 2, 3, and 3.5 times above normal fed levels in fast-twitch white, slow-twitch red, and fast-twitch red fibers, respectively. Glucose uptake decreased (mean +/- SE) from 34.9 +/- 1.2 mumol.g-1.h-1 at 0 h to 7.5 +/- 0.7 after 7 h of perfusion. During...... compared with initial values. Total muscle water concentration decreased during glycogen loading of the muscles. Mechanisms limiting glycogen storage under maximal insulin stimulation include impaired insulin-stimulated membrane transport of glucose as well as impaired intracellular glucose disposal....

  3. Mechanisms limiting glycogen storage in muscle during prolonged insulin stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.A.; Hansen, S.A.; Hansen, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    The extent to which muscle glycogen concentrations can be increased during exposure to maximal insulin concentrations and abundant glucose was investigated in the isolated perfused rat hindquarter preparation. Perfusion for 7 h in the presence of 20,000 μU/ml insulin and 11-13 mM glucose increased muscle glycogen concentrations to maximal values 2, 3, and 3.5 times above normal fed levels in fast-twitch white, slow-twitch red, and fast-twitch red fibers, respectively. Glucose uptake decreased from 34.9 μmol·g -1 ·h -1 at 0 h to 7.5 after 7 h of perfusion. During the perfusion muscle glycogen synthase activity decreased and free intracellular glucose and glucose 6-phosphate increased indicating that glucose disposal was impaired. However, glucose transport as measured by the uptake of 3-O-[ 14 C]methyl-D-glucose was also markedly decreased after 5 and 7 h of perfusion compared with initial values. Total muscle water concentration decreased during glycogen loading of the muscles. Mechanisms limiting glycogen storage under maximal insulin stimulation include impaired insulin-stimulated membrane transport of glucose as well as impaired intracellular glucose disposal

  4. High frequency components of tracheal sound are emphasized during prolonged flow limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenhunen, M; Huupponen, E; Saastamoinen, A; Kulkas, A; Himanen, S-L; Rauhala, E

    2009-01-01

    A nasal pressure transducer, which is used to study nocturnal airflow, also provides information about the inspiratory flow waveform. A round flow shape is presented during normal breathing. A flattened, non-round shape is found during hypopneas and it can also appear in prolonged episodes. The significance of this prolonged flow limitation is still not established. A tracheal sound spectrum has been analyzed further in order to achieve additional information about breathing during sleep. Increased sound frequencies over 500 Hz have been connected to obstruction of the upper airway. The aim of the present study was to examine the tracheal sound signal content of prolonged flow limitation and to find out whether prolonged flow limitation would consist of abundant high frequency activity. Sleep recordings of 36 consecutive patients were examined. The tracheal sound spectral analysis was performed on 10 min episodes of prolonged flow limitation, normal breathing and periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing. The highest total spectral amplitude, implicating loudest sounds, occurred during flow-limited breathing which also presented loudest sounds in all frequency bands above 100 Hz. In addition, the tracheal sound signal during flow-limited breathing constituted proportionally more high frequency activities compared to normal breathing and even periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing

  5. Prolonged ultraviolet light-induced erythema and the cutaneous carcinoma phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanenbaum, L.; Parrish, J.A.; Haynes, H.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B.; Pathak, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A considerable amount of evidence exists in support of the role of ultraviolet radiation as a major etiologic factor in human skin cancer, both melanoma and carcinoma types. On the basis of epidemiologic studies a phenotype has been described which helps to identify the persons who are more susceptible to skin cancer. In an attempt to further define this population, patients with cutaneous carcinoma and a normal control group were exposed to artificial ultraviolet light (UVL) and the erythema and tanning responses of each group were measured over a 21-day period. UVL-induced erythema was prolonged in a significantly higher percentage of patients with skin cancer than in control patients, lasting two to three weeks after single exposures to 6 and 8 times the patient's minimal erythema dose. The presence of prolonged erythema correlated with this history of previous skin cancer but did not correlate with other established risk factors for cutaneous carcinoma, i.e., fair skin, light hair and light eyes, easy sunburning and poor tanning, and Celtic ancestry. Prolonged erythema following UVL radiation may therefore represent an additional risk factor and help to identify the skin cancer-susceptible population

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acquires Limited Genetic Diversity in Prolonged Infections, Reactivations and Transmissions Involving Multiple Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Herranz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB has limited ability to acquire variability. Analysis of its microevolution might help us to evaluate the pathways followed to acquire greater infective success. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS in the analysis of the transmission of MTB has elucidated the magnitude of variability in MTB. Analysis of transmission currently depends on the identification of clusters, according to the threshold of variability (<5 SNPs between isolates.Objective: We evaluated whether the acquisition of variability in MTB, was more frequent in situations which could favor it, namely intrapatient, prolonged infections or reactivations and interpatient transmissions involving multiple sequential hosts.Methods: We used WGS to analyze the accumulation of variability in sequential isolates from prolonged infections or translations from latency to reactivation. We then measured microevolution in transmission clusters with prolonged transmission time, high number of involved cases, simultaneous involvement of latency and active transmission.Results: Intrapatient and interpatient acquisition of variability was limited, within the ranges expected according to the thresholds of variability proposed, even though bursts of variability were observed.Conclusions: The thresholds of variability proposed for MTB seem to be valid in most circumstances, including those theoretically favoring acquisition of variability. Our data point to multifactorial modulation of microevolution, although further studies are necessary to elucidate the factors underlying this modulation.

  7. Previous Repeated Exposure to Food Limitation Enables Rats to Spare Lipid Stores during Prolonged Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Albach, Audrey; Salazar, Giovanni

    The risk of food limitation and, ultimately, starvation dates back to the dawn of heterotrophy in animals, yet starvation remains a major factor in the regulation of modern animal populations. Researchers studying starvation more than a century ago suggested that animals subjected to sublethal periods of food limitation are somehow more tolerant of subsequent starvation events. This possibility has received little attention over the past decades, yet it is highly relevant to modern science for two reasons. First, animals in natural populations are likely to be exposed to bouts of food limitation once or more before they face prolonged starvation, during which the risk of mortality becomes imminent. Second, our current approach to studying starvation physiology in the laboratory focuses on nourished animals with no previous exposure to nutritional stress. We examined the relationship between previous exposure to food limitation and potentially adaptive physiological responses to starvation in adult rats and found several significant differences. On two occasions, rats were fasted until they lost 20% of their body mass maintained lower body temperatures, and had presumably lower energy requirements when subjected to prolonged starvation than their naive cohort that never experienced food limitation. These rats that were trained in starvation also had lower plasma glucose set -points and reduced their reliance on endogenous lipid oxidation. These findings underscore (1) the need for biologists to revisit the classic hypothesis that animals can become habituated to starvation, using a modern set of research tools; and (2) the need to design controlled experiments of starvation physiology that more closely resemble the dynamic nature of food availability.

  8. Limits of computational white-light holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, Sebastian; Kozacki, Tomasz; Tompkin, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, computational holograms are being used in applications, where previously conventional holograms were applied. Compared to conventional holography, computational holography is based on imaging of virtual objects instead of real objects, which renders them somewhat more flexibility. Here, computational holograms are calculated based on the superposition of point sources, which are placed at the mesh vertices of arbitrary 3D models. The computed holograms have full parallax and exhibit a problem in viewing that we have called g hosting , which is linked to the viewing of computational holograms based on 3D models close to the image plane. Experimental white-light reconstruction of these holograms showed significant blurring, which is explained here based on simulations of the lateral as well as the axial resolution of a point image with respect to the source spectrum and image distance. In accordance with these simulations, an upper limit of the distance to the image plane is determined, which ensures high quality imaging.

  9. Ultraviolet light immunomodulation of canine islets for prolongation of allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, N.S.; Strasser, S.; Alejandro, R.

    1990-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light treatment of donor islets has been shown to be effective for the prolongation of islet allograft survival in rodent models. This study evaluated UV as an immunomodulator of canine islets. The effects of UV irradiation on islet secretory function in vitro revealed a trend of increasing basal insulin release with increasing doses of UV and a corresponding significant decrease in glucose-mediated insulin release (expressed as percentage of basal fractional insulin release) beginning at UV light exposures of 200-300 J/m2 (n = 3, P less than 0.05). Proliferative responses to UV-irradiated allogeneic peripheral blood leukocytes and islets were significantly decreased by 53-112% (P less than 0.05) in 27 of 29 mixed-lymphocyte cultures and by 35-74% (P less than 0.05) in 4 of 5 mixed-lymphocyte islet culture experiments, respectively, beginning at 200-600 J/m2. Autotransplantation of nonirradiated (n = 8) and irradiated islets (600 J/m2, n = 6) resulted in a 1-mo graft survival rate of 75% for the control group and 50% for the irradiated group. Allotransplantation of irradiated islets (600 J/m2) into either nonimmunosuppressed recipients (1 donor to 1 recipient, n = 8) or recipients of subimmunosuppressive doses of cyclosporin (2 donors to 1 recipient, n = 4) resulted in 100% rejection by day 10. In contrast, when islets were cultured for 24 h postirradiation and transplanted into cyclosporin-treated pancreatectomized recipients (2 donors to 1 recipient), 3 of 7 grafts were prolonged beyond day 10 to days 16, 26, and greater than 100

  10. Limits of colour vision in dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Almut; Lind, Olle

    2010-09-01

    Humans and most vertebrates have duplex retinae with multiple cone types for colour vision in bright light, and one single rod type for achromatic vision in dim light. Instead of comparing signals from multiple spectral types of photoreceptors, such species use one highly sensitive receptor type thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio at night. However, the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor, the nocturnal bee Xylocopa tranquebarica and the nocturnal gecko Tarentola chazaliae can discriminate colours at extremely dim light intensities. To be able to do so, they sacrifice spatial and temporal resolution in favour of colour vision. We review what is known about colour vision in dim light, and compare colour vision thresholds with the optical sensitivity of the photoreceptors in selected animal species with lens and compound eyes. © 2010 The Authors, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Population dynamics of light-limited phytoplankton : Microcosm experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jef

    This paper investigates the extent to which the predictions of an elementary model for light-limited growth are matched by laboratory experiments with light-limited phytoplankton. The model and experiments link the population dynamics of phytoplankton species with changes in the light gradient

  12. Prolonged limitation of tree growth due to warmer spring in semi-arid mountain forests of Tianshan, northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiuchen; Liu Hongyan; Wang Yufu; Deng Minghua

    2013-01-01

    Based on radial tree growth measurements in nine plots of area 625 m 2 (369 trees in total) and climate data, we explored the possibly changing effects of climate on regional tree growth in the temperate continental semi-arid mountain forests in the Tianshan Mountains in northwest China during 1933–2005. Tree growth in our study region is generally limited by the soil water content of pre- and early growing season (February–July). Remarkably, moving correlation functions identified a clear temporal change in the relationship between tree growth and mean April temperature. Tree growth showed a significant (p < 0.05) and negative relationship to mean April temperature since approximately the beginning of the 1970s, which indicated that the semi-arid mountain forests are suffering a prolonged growth limitation in recent years accompanying spring warming. This prolonged limitation of tree growth was attributed to the effects of soil water limitation in early spring (March–April) caused by the rapid spring warming. Warming-induced prolonged drought stress contributes, to a large part, to the marked reduction of regional basal area increment (BAI) in recent years and a much slower growth rate in young trees. Our results highlight that the increasing water limitation induced by spring warming on tree growth most likely aggravated the marked reduction in tree growth. This work provides a better understanding of the effects of spring warming on tree growth in temperate continental semi-arid forests. (letter)

  13. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  14. Light Obscuration Particle Counter Fuel Contamination Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-08

    two methods for measuring particulate contamination by gravimetric analysis: ASTM D2276 - Standard Test Method for Particulate Contaminant in Aviation...problems with the gravimetric methods is the poor repeatability and reproducibility of the methods , ASTM D2276 has a repeatability of 0.25 mg/L and...collected failing either the particle count or the gravimetric limit, 314 of which failed both methods . 245 false negatives were recorded where the

  15. Limits of slow light in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2008-01-01

    in the group velocity acquiring a finite value above zero at the band-gap edges while attaining uperluminal values within the band gap. Simple scalings of the minimum and maximum group velocities with the imaginary part of the dielectric function or, equivalently, the linewidth of the broadened states......While ideal photonic crystals would support modes with a vanishing group velocity, state-of-the-art structures have still only provided a slow down by roughly two orders of magnitude. We find that the induced density of states caused by lifetime broadening of the electromagnetic modes results...... are presented. The results obtained are entirely general and may be applied to any effect which results in a broadening of the electromagnetic states, such as loss, disorder, and finite-size effects. This significantly limits the reduction in group velocity attainable via photonic crystals....

  16. Slow light enhancement and limitations in periodic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure

    in the vicinity of the band edge. The minimum attainable group velocity will depend on the amount of imperfections. Since imperfections are inherited as part of any periodic structure it is necessary to take them into account when we are interested in slow light applications. Slowly propagating light gives rise......Properties of periodic dielectric media have attracted a big interest in the last two decades due to numerous exciting physical phenomena that cannot occur in homogeneous media. Due to their strong dispersive properties, the speed of light can be significantly slowed down in periodic structures....... When light velocity is much smaller than the speed of light in a vacuum, we describe this phenomena as slow light. In this thesis, we analyze important properties of slow light enhancement and limitations in periodic structures. We analyze quantitatively and qualitatively different technologies...

  17. Buoyancy Limitation of Filamentous Cyanobacteria under Prolonged Pressure due to the Gas Vesicles Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeynayaka, Helayaye Damitha Lakmali; Asaeda, Takashi; Kaneko, Yasuko

    2017-08-01

    Freshwater cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena galeata were cultured in chambers under artificially generated pressures, which correspond to the hydrostatic pressures at deep water. Variations occurred in gas vesicles volume, and buoyancy state of cells under those conditions were analyzed at different time intervals (5 min, 1 day, and 5 days). Variations in gas vesicles morphology of cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy images. Settling velocity (Vs) of cells which governs the buoyancy was observed with the aid of a modified optical microscope. Moreover, effects of the prolonged pressure on cell ballast composition (protein and polysaccharides) were examined. Elevated pressure conditions reduced the cell ballast and caused a complete disappearance of gas vesicles in Pseudanabaena galeata cells. Hence cyanobacteria cells were not able to float within the study period. Observations and findings of the study indicate the potential application of hydrostatic pressure, which naturally occurred in hypolimnion of lakes, to inhibit the re-suspension of cyanobacteria cells.

  18. Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zongfu

    2010-08-11

    We use a rigorous electromagnetic approach to analyze the fundamental limit of light-trapping enhancement in grating structures. This limit can exceed the bulk limit of 4n 2, but has significant angular dependency. We explicitly show that 2D gratings provide more enhancement than 1D gratings. We also show the effects of the grating profile’s symmetry on the absorption enhancement limit. Numerical simulations are applied to support the theory. Our findings provide general guidance for the design of grating structures for light-trapping solar cells.

  19. Work-related limitations and return-to-work experiences in prolonged fatigue: workers' perspectives before and after vocational treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment. Six months after treatment, work-related limitations and employed VR strategies at work before treatment were explored. Next, VR treatment experiences regarding return-to-work (RTW) were explored. Two researchers performed partially independent, qualitative analyses that revealed topics, discussed by the project team, and organised into domains, categories and sub-categories. Work-related limitations were: symptoms of prolonged fatigue, personal limitations (e.g. lack of self-reflection on individual capacity and limitations), interpersonal factors, activities and conditions at work and life/work imbalance. Before the treatment, VR strategies such as work adaptations, well-intentioned advice and support, and/or referral to psychological or physical care were employed. VR treatment experiences on RTW were: personal challenges (e.g. gained awareness and coping skills), improved activities during work, work adaptations and unresolved problems (e.g. remaining fatigue symptoms and sickness absence). New information about work experiences before and after multi-component VR treatments in workers with prolonged fatigue may help employers, occupational physicians and other caregivers to develop VR strategies that better meet individuals' needs.

  20. Fundamental Limit of Nanophotonic Light-trapping in Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2010-01-01

    Establishing the fundamental limit of nanophotonic light-trapping schemes is of paramount importance and is becoming increasingly urgent for current solar cell research. The standard theory of light trapping demonstrated that absorption enhancement in a medium cannot exceed a factor of 4n^2/ sin^2(\\theta), where n is the refractive index of the active layer, and \\theta is the angle of the emission cone in the medium surrounding the cell. This theory, however, is not applicable in the nanophot...

  1. Thresholds and noise limitations of colour vision in dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Almut; Yovanovich, Carola; Olsson, Peter

    2017-04-05

    Colour discrimination is based on opponent photoreceptor interactions, and limited by receptor noise. In dim light, photon shot noise impairs colour vision, and in vertebrates, the absolute threshold of colour vision is set by dark noise in cones. Nocturnal insects (e.g. moths and nocturnal bees) and vertebrates lacking rods (geckos) have adaptations to reduce receptor noise and use chromatic vision even in very dim light. In contrast, vertebrates with duplex retinae use colour-blind rod vision when noisy cone signals become unreliable, and their transition from cone- to rod-based vision is marked by the Purkinje shift. Rod-cone interactions have not been shown to improve colour vision in dim light, but may contribute to colour vision in mesopic light intensities. Frogs and toads that have two types of rods use opponent signals from these rods to control phototaxis even at their visual threshold. However, for tasks such as prey or mate choice, their colour discrimination abilities fail at brighter light intensities, similar to other vertebrates, probably limited by the dark noise in cones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2010-10-12

    Establishing the fundamental limit of nanophotonic light-trapping schemes is of paramount importance and is becoming increasingly urgent for current solar cell research. The standard theory of light trapping demonstrated that absorption enhancement in a medium cannot exceed a factor of 4n(2)/sin(2)θ, where n is the refractive index of the active layer, and θ is the angle of the emission cone in the medium surrounding the cell. This theory, however, is not applicable in the nanophotonic regime. Here we develop a statistical temporal coupled-mode theory of light trapping based on a rigorous electromagnetic approach. Our theory reveals that the conventional limit can be substantially surpassed when optical modes exhibit deep-subwavelength-scale field confinement, opening new avenues for highly efficient next-generation solar cells.

  3. The effect of prolonged light intensity exercise in the heat on executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah M; Erin, Jennifer R; Pryor, Riana R; Khorana, Priya; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Frank X; Reis, Steven E; Hostler, David

    2013-09-01

    When people are involved in outdoor activities, it is important to be able to assess a situation and make rational decisions. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of 90 minutes of light-intensity exercise in a hot environment on executive functioning capabilities of healthy individuals. In this prospective laboratory study, 40 healthy male and female subjects 18 to 45 years of age performed treadmill exercise while wearing athletic clothing and a backpack in either a hot or temperate environment. Vital signs, core and skin temperature, and perceptual measures (thermal sensation, sweating, comfort, and perceived exertion) were measured before, during, and after the treadmill test. Cognitive function was measured before and after the treadmill test using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and a Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT). Subjects in the hot condition reached a similar core temp of 38.2° ± 0.5°C vs 37.7° ± 0.3°C (P = .325) in the temperate group but had a higher heart rate (P affect executive function or vigilance. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PREFACE: Diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources: pushing the limits Diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources: pushing the limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissis, Georges; Haverlag, Marco

    2010-06-01

    high to low pressure and dielectric barrier lamps, from breakdown to acoustic resonance. Especially in the domain of high pressure lamps, J J Curry shows how coherent and incoherent x-ray scattering can be used as an imaging technique adapted to lamps. J Hirsch et al treat the acoustic resonance phenomenon that seriously limits the frequency domain for high pressure lamp operation. M Jinno et al illustrate a method that allows for measuring Xe buffer gas pressure in Hg-free metal halide lamps for automotive applications. In the domain of low pressure lamps, M Gendre et al investigate the breakdown phase by means of optical and electrical diagnostic tools. The similarity rules used a long time ago for simulating plasma behaviour based on invariants are now serving as diagnostic tools, as shown in the paper by D Michael et al. N Dagang et al show how impurities can be detected in Hg-free electrodeless lamps and more particularly in dielectric barrier discharges emitting excimer radiation. The quality of light is illustrated by a final example by R Kozakov et al on how to qualify the light output from the lamp with respect to biological effects on humans.

  5. Blood pulsation measurement using cameras operating in visible light: limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-10-03

    The paper presents an automatic method for analysis and processing of images from a camera operating in visible light. This analysis applies to images containing the human facial area (body) and enables to measure the blood pulse rate. Special attention was paid to the limitations of this measurement method taking into account the possibility of using consumer cameras in real conditions (different types of lighting, different camera resolution, camera movement). The proposed new method of image analysis and processing was associated with three stages: (1) image pre-processing-allowing for the image filtration and stabilization (object location tracking); (2) main image processing-allowing for segmentation of human skin areas, acquisition of brightness changes; (3) signal analysis-filtration, FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) analysis, pulse calculation. The presented algorithm and method for measuring the pulse rate has the following advantages: (1) it allows for non-contact and non-invasive measurement; (2) it can be carried out using almost any camera, including webcams; (3) it enables to track the object on the stage, which allows for the measurement of the heart rate when the patient is moving; (4) for a minimum of 40,000 pixels, it provides a measurement error of less than ±2 beats per minute for p lighting; (5) analysis of a single image takes about 40 ms in Matlab Version 7.11.0.584 (R2010b) with Image Processing Toolbox Version 7.1 (R2010b).

  6. Benefits for Type 2 Diabetes of Interrupting Prolonged Sitting With Brief Bouts of Light Walking or Simple Resistance Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Larsen, Robyn N; Sethi, Parneet; Sacre, Julian W; Straznicky, Nora E; Cohen, Neale D; Cerin, Ester; Lambert, Gavin W; Owen, Neville; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Dunstan, David W

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of light-intensity walking (LW) or simple resistance activities (SRA) improves postprandial cardiometabolic risk markers in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a randomized crossover trial, 24 inactive overweight/obese adults with T2D (14 men 62 ± 6 years old) underwent the following 8-h conditions on three separate days (with 6-14 days washout): uninterrupted sitting (control) (SIT), sitting plus 3-min bouts of LW (3.2 km · h(-1)) every 30 min, and sitting plus 3-min bouts of SRA (half-squats, calf raises, gluteal contractions, and knee raises) every 30 min. Standardized meals were consumed during each condition. Incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and triglycerides were compared between conditions. Compared with SIT, both activity-break conditions significantly attenuated iAUCs for glucose (SIT mean 24.2 mmol · h · L(-1) [95% CI 20.4-28.0] vs. LW 14.8 [11.0-18.6] and SRA 14.7 [10.9-18.5]), insulin (SIT 3,293 pmol · h · L(-1) [2,887-3,700] vs. LW 2,104 [1,696-2,511] and SRA 2,066 [1,660-2,473]), and C-peptide (SIT 15,641 pmol · h · L(-1) [14,353-16,929] vs. LW 11,504 [10,209-12,799] and SRA 11,012 [9,723-12,301]) (all P triglycerides was significantly attenuated for SRA (P triglyceride responses in adults with T2D. With poor adherence to structured exercise, this approach is potentially beneficial and practical. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. Diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources : pushing the limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zissis, G.; Haverlag, M.

    2010-01-01

    Light sources play an indispensable role in the daily life of any human being. Quality of life, health and urban security related to traffic and crime prevention depend on light and on its quality. In fact, every day approximately 30 billion electric light sources operate worldwide. These electric

  8. New age- and sex-specific criteria for QT prolongation based on rate correction formulas that minimize bias at the upper normal limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautaharju, Pentti M; Mason, Jay W; Akiyama, Toshio

    2014-07-01

    Existing formulas for rate-corrected QT (QTc) commonly fail to properly adjust the upper normal limits which are more critical than the mean QTc for evaluation of prolonged QT. Age- and sex-related differences in QTc are also often overlooked. Our goal was to establish criteria for prolonged QTc using formulas that minimize QTc bias at the upper normal limits. Strict criteria were used in selecting a study group of 57,595 persons aged 5 to 89 years (54% women) and to exclude electrocardiograms (ECG) with possible disease-associated changes. Two QT rate adjustment formulas were identified which both minimized rate-dependency in the 98 th percentile limits: QTcmod, based on an electrophysiological model (QTcMod = QTx(120 + HR)/180)), and QTcLogLin, a power function of the RR interval with exponents 0.37 for men and 0.38 for women. QTc shortened in men during adolescence and QTcMod became 13 ms shorter than in women at age 20-29 years. The sex difference was maintained through adulthood although decreasing with age. The criteria established for prolonged QTc were: Age < 40 years, men 430 ms, women 440 ms; Age 40 to 69, men 440 ms, women 450 ms; Age ≥ 70 years, men 455 ms, and women 460 ms. Sex difference in QTc originates from shortened QT in adolescent males. Upper normal limits for QTc vary substantially by age and sex, and it is essential to use age- and sex-specific criteria for evaluation of QT prolongation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Light-limited growth and competition for light in well-mixed aquatic environments : An elementary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jef; Weissing, F.J.

    Light is never distributed homogeneously since it forms a gradient over biomass. As a consequence, the common theories on nutrient competition are not applicable to competition for light. In this paper, we investigate a model for light-limited growth and competition among phytoplankton species in a

  10. A tumor-targeting p53 nanodelivery system limits chemoresistance to temozolomide prolonging survival in a mouse model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Soo; Rait, Antonina; Kim, Eric; Pirollo, Kathleen F; Chang, Esther H

    2015-02-01

    Development of temozolomide (TMZ) resistance contributes to the poor prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. It was previously demonstrated that delivery of exogenous wild-type tumor suppressor gene p53 via a tumor-targeted nanocomplex (SGT-53) which crosses the blood-brain barrier could sensitize highly TMZ-resistant GBM tumors to TMZ. Here we assessed whether SGT-53 could inhibit development of TMZ resistance. SGT-53 significantly chemosensitized TMZ-sensitive human GBM cell lines (U87 and U251), in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, in an intracranial GBM tumor model, two cycles of concurrent treatment with systemically administered SGT-53 and TMZ inhibited tumor growth, increased apoptosis and most importantly, significantly prolonged median survival. In contrast TMZ alone had no significant effect on median survival compared to a single cycle of TMZ. These results suggest that combining SGT-53 with TMZ appears to limit development of TMZ resistance, prolonging its anti-tumor effect and could be a more effective therapy for GBM. Using human glioblastoma multiforma cell lines, this research team demonstrated that the delivery of exogenous wild-type tumor suppressor gene p53 via a tumor-targeted nanocomplex limited the development of temozolomide resistance and prolonged its anti-tumor effect, which may enable future human application of this or similar techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prolonging life and delaying death: The role of physicians in the context of limited intensive care resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagshaw Sean M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Critical care is in an emerging crisis of conflict between what individuals expect and the economic burden society and government are prepared to provide. The goal of critical care support is to prevent suffering and premature death by intensive therapy of reversible illnesses within a reasonable timeframe. Recently, it has become apparent that early support in an intensive care environment can improve patient outcomes. However, life support technology has advanced, allowing physicians to prolong life (and postpone death in circumstances that were not possible in the recent past. This has been recognized by not only the medical community, but also by society at large. One corollary may be that expectations for recovery from critical illness have also become extremely high. In addition, greater numbers of patients are dying in intensive care units after having receiving prolonged durations of life-sustaining therapy. Herein lies the emerging crisis – critical care therapy must be available in a timely fashion for those who require it urgently, yet its provision is largely dependent on a finite availability of both capital and human resources. Physicians are often placed in a troubling conflict of interest by pressures to use health resources prudently while also promoting the equitable and timely access to critical care therapy. In this commentary, these issues are broadly discussed from the perspective of the individual clinician as well as that of society as a whole. The intent is to generate dialogue on the dynamic between individual clinicians navigating the complexities of how and when to use critical care support in the context of end-of-life issues, the increasing demands placed on finite critical care capacity, and the reasonable expectations of society.

  12. The anabolic potential of dietary protein intake on skeletal muscle is prolonged by prior light-load exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Dideriksen, Kasper; Reitelseder, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Hyperaminoacidemia stimulates myofibrillar fractional synthesis rate (myoFSR) transiently in resting skeletal muscle. We investigated whether light-load resistance exercise can extent this responsiveness....

  13. Performance of injection-limited polymer light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, P.W.M.; Woudenberg, T.V.; Huiberts, H.; Jabbour, GE; Carter, SA; Kido, J; Lee, ST; Sariciftci, NS

    2002-01-01

    The electro-optical characteristics of a polymer light emitting diode (PLED) with a strongly reduced hole injection have been investigated. The device consists of a poly-p-phenylene vinylene semiconductor with a Ag hole injecting contact, which has an injection barrier of about 1 eV. It is observed

  14. Improved symptoms, physical limitation, and self-efficacy after resynchronization in a patient with heart failure and a prolonged QRS duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Darcy G; Sullivan, Robbie; McCullough, Peter A

    2004-01-01

    This report examines the impact of resynchronization therapy in a patient with class IV heart failure and a prolonged QRS duration on electrocardiogram. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess the patient's health status prior to, immediately after, and 2 months after placement of a biventricular pacemaker. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) values and electrocardiogram QRS duration were recorded to further document clinical status. Our patient experienced statistically significant improvements in 7 of 10 KCCQ domains after resynchronization. QRS duration narrowed following the procedure and BNP values decreased. Resynchronization therapy improved this patient's symptoms, physical limitations, and self-efficacy when maximal medical therapy failed.

  15. Interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of light walking or simple resistance activities reduces resting blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Sacre, Julian W; Larsen, Robyn N; Straznicky, Nora E; Sethi, Parneet; Cohen, Neale D; Cerin, Ester; Lambert, Gavin W; Owen, Neville; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Dunstan, David W

    2016-12-01

    Prolonged sitting is increasingly recognized as a ubiquitous cardiometabolic risk factor, possibly distinct from lack of physical exercise. We examined whether interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of light-intensity activity reduced blood pressure (BP) and plasma noradrenaline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a randomized crossover trial, 24 inactive overweight/obese adults with T2D (14 men; mean ± SD; 62 ± 6 years) consumed standardized meals during 3 × 8 h conditions: uninterrupted sitting (SIT); sitting + half-hourly bouts of walking (3.2 km/h for 3-min) (light-intensity walking); and sitting + half-hourly bouts of simple resistance activities for 3 min (SRAs), each separated by 6-14 days washout. Resting seated BP was measured hourly (mean of three recordings, ≥20-min postactivity). Plasma noradrenaline was measured at 30-min intervals for the first hour after meals and hourly thereafter. Compared with SIT, mean resting SBP and DBP were significantly reduced (P light-intensity walking (mean ± SEM; -14 ± 1/-8 ± 1 mmHg) and SRA (-16 ± 1/-10 ± 1 mmHg), with a more pronounced effect for SRA (P light-intensity walking). Similarly, mean plasma noradrenaline was significantly reduced for both light-intensity walking (-0.3 ± 0.1 nmol/l) and SRA (-0.6 ± 0.1 nmol/l) versus SIT, with SRA lower than light-intensity walking (P light-intensity walking (-3 ± 1 bpm; P light-intensity walking or SRA reduces resting BP and plasma noradrenaline in adults with T2D, with SRA being more effective. Given the ubiquity of sedentary behaviors and poor adherence to structured exercise, this approach may have important implications for BP management in patients with T2D.

  16. Signal-to-noise limitations in white light holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribak, E; Roddier, C; Roddier, F; Breckinridge, J B

    1988-03-15

    A simple derivation is given for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in images reconstructed from incoherent holograms. Dependence is shown to be on the hologram SNR, object complexity, and the number of pixels in the detector. Reconstruction of involved objects becomes possible with high dynamic range detectors such as charge coupled devices. We have produced such white light holograms by means of a rotational shear interferometer combined with a chromatic corrector. A digital inverse transform recreated the object.

  17. Signal-to-noise limitations in white light holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribak, Erez; Breckinridge, James B.; Roddier, Claude; Roddier, Francois

    1988-01-01

    A simple derivation is given for the SNR in images reconstructed from incoherent holograms. Dependence is shown to be on the hologram SNR, object complexity, and the number of pixels in the detector. Reconstruction of involved objects becomes possible with high-dynamic-range detectors such as CCDs. White-light holograms have been produced by means of a rotational shear interferometer combined with a chromatic corrector. A digital inverse transform recreated the object.

  18. Operational limitations of light water reactors relating to fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.

    1976-07-01

    General aspects of fuel performance for typical Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactors are presented. Emphasis is placed on fuel failures in order to make clear important operational limitations. A discussion of fuel element designs is first given to provide the background information for the subsequent discussion of several fuel failure modes that have been identified. Fuel failure experiences through December 31, 1974, are summarized. The operational limitations that are required to mitigate the effects of fuel failures are discussed

  19. Group-index limitations in slow-light photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui

    2010-01-01

    radiation, and in-plane leakage. Often, the different mechanisms are playing in concert, leading to attenuation and scattering of electromagnetic modes. The very same broadening mechanisms also limit the attainable slow-down which we mimic by including a small imaginary part to the otherwise real...

  20. The potential and limitations of third generation light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormes, Josef

    2011-01-01

    To date, 3rd generation Light Sources, i.e. electron storage rings where mainly radiation from insertion devices (wigglers and undulators) is used for synchrotron radiation experiments are the 'workhorses' for basic and applied VUV/X-ray research. Several machine parameters. i.e. the energy of the electrons, the emittance and the circumference of the machine, together with the specification of the corresponding insertion devices determine the 'quality' of a facility and a specific beamline. In this talk, several of these aspects are discussed mainly from a users' point of view, i.e. what are the required specifications to carry out 'state-of-the-art' experiments in various areas, e.g. protein crystallography, Resonant Elastic and Inelastic X-ray Scattering (REIXS), Micro-/nanospectroscopy, and time resolved experiments in the femtosecond time domain. (author)

  1. Transcriptional Orchestration of the Global Cellular Response of a Model Pennate Diatom to Diel Light Cycling under Iron Limitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Smith

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental fluctuations affect distribution, growth and abundance of diatoms in nature, with iron (Fe availability playing a central role. Studies on the response of diatoms to low Fe have either utilized continuous (24 hr illumination or sampled a single time of day, missing any temporal dynamics. We profiled the physiology, metabolite composition, and global transcripts of the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum during steady-state growth at low, intermediate, and high levels of dissolved Fe over light:dark cycles, to better understand fundamental aspects of genetic control of physiological acclimation to growth under Fe-limitation. We greatly expand the catalog of genes involved in the low Fe response, highlighting the importance of intracellular trafficking in Fe-limited diatoms. P. tricornutum exhibited transcriptomic hallmarks of slowed growth leading to prolonged periods of cell division/silica deposition, which could impact biogeochemical carbon sequestration in Fe-limited regions. Light harvesting and ribosome biogenesis transcripts were generally reduced under low Fe while transcript levels for genes putatively involved in the acquisition and recycling of Fe were increased. We also noted shifts in expression towards increased synthesis and catabolism of branched chain amino acids in P. tricornutum grown at low Fe whereas expression of genes involved in central core metabolism were relatively unaffected, indicating that essential cellular function is protected. Beyond the response of P. tricornutum to low Fe, we observed major coordinated shifts in transcript control of primary and intermediate metabolism over light:dark cycles which contribute to a new view of the significance of distinctive diatom pathways, such as mitochondrial glycolysis and the ornithine-urea cycle. This study provides new insight into transcriptional modulation of diatom physiology and metabolism across light:dark cycles in response to Fe availability

  2. Limitation of life-sustaining treatment in patients with prolonged admission to the ICU. Current situation in Spain as seen from the EPIPUSE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Tejedor, A; Martín Delgado, M C; Cabré Pericas, L; Algora Weber, A

    2015-10-01

    Limitation of life-sustaining treatment (LLST) is a recommended practice in certain circumstances. Limitation practices are varied, and their application differs from one center to another. The present study evaluates the current situation of LLST practices in patients with prolonged admission to the ICU who suffer worsening of their condition. A prospective, observational cohort study was carried out. Seventy-five Spanish ICUs. A total of 589 patients suffering 777 complications or adverse events with organ function impairment after day 7 of admission, during a three-month recruitment period. The timing of limitation, the subject proposing LLST, the degree of agreement within the team, the influence of LLST upon the doctor-patient-family relationship, and the way in which LLST is implemented. LLST was proposed in 34.3% of the patients presenting prolonged admission to the ICU with severe complications. The incidence was higher in patients with moderate to severe lung disease, cancer, immunosuppressive treatment or dependence for basic activities of daily living. LLST was finally implemented in 97% of the cases in which it was proposed. The decision within the medical team was unanimous in 87.9% of the cases. The doctor-patient-family relationship usually does not change or even improves in this situation. LLST in ICUs is usually carried out under unanimous decision of the medical team, is performed more frequently in patients with severe comorbidity, and usually does not have a negative impact upon the relationship with the patients and their families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, V.V. [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT (Brazil); Lobato, N.S.; Filgueira, F.P. [Curso de Medicina, Setor de Fisiologia Humana, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Jataí, GO (Brazil); Webb, R.C. [Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (United States); Tostes, R.C. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Giachini, F.R. [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2±2 vs 7.9±1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4±2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3±2 vs 7.5±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1±2 vs 7.4±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction.

  4. Exploring the Limits of Crop Productivity: High Light Studies with Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    USU Crop Physiology Lab

    2015-01-01

    There are many different leaf lettuce cultivars and they range in color from light green and yellow to deep green as a result of higher concentrations of chlorophyll in the leaves. We tested four cultivars in high light to explore the limits of lettuce productivity.

  5. Maximizing the information transfer in a quantum-limited light-scattering system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    1990-01-01

    A quantum-limited light-scattering system is considered. The spatial configuration that maximizes a given figure of merit is investigated, assuming that the emitted light has Poisson photon statistics. A specific system for measuring the velocity of a small particle is considered as an example. A...

  6. Design and Optimisation Strategies of Nonlinear Dynamics for Diffraction Limited Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the most recent achievements in the control of nonlinear dynamics in electron synchrotron light sources, with special attention to diffraction limited storage rings. Guidelines for the design and optimization of the magnetic lattice are reviewed and discussed.

  7. A theory of an oscillating, periodic, speed-of-light as a possible limiting value converging to an average limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.W. Mason

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to adopt and solve the wave-equation for the radial propagation of light in three dimensions from the moment of the Big-Bang and during Earth-based experiments. The primary purpose is to model a propagating beam of light emitted from the singularity, outwards, and to show that its velocity is sinusoidal, meaning that its speed oscillates periodically, and is therefore variable rather than constant. It is additionally shown, by calculating an appropriate solution to the wave-equation, that the velocity of light is not only negatively damped according to the inverse radial law, 1/r, throughout its journey over space and time, but that this latter feature also exhibits amplitude convergence from a very large initial value to a value that is very close to what is now defined to be a constant, namely the current value denoted by c=299792458m/s. The possibility that such observations may also vary depending upon the inertial frame in which a measurement is carried out is similarly considered, along with a discussion of the related nature of mass and energy, and how the possible variability of the speed-of-light and the fabric of the space-time continuum may affect each other. Keywords: Wave-equation, Transverse, Electromagnetic-wave, Radial motion, Eigen-function, Radial-solution, Redshift-drift, Speed-of-light, Displacement, Variable-velocity, Periodic, Oscillation, Convergence, Limit, Big-bang, Space-time, Neutrinos, CERN, Gran Sasso, Experiment

  8. Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Elvidge, Christopher D; Keith, David M; Haim, Abraham

    2011-10-01

    Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this "residual light pollution", cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment

  9. Are there really any experimental limits on a light Higgs boson?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raby, S.; West, G.B.; Hoffman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental evidence regarding a light Higgs boson is reviewed. It is shown that a light Higgs boson with almost any mass between 14 MeV/c 2 and 1 GeV/c 2 is still allowed by existing data. The only limit in this range comes from B decay data which, for sufficiently large values of the top quark mass, excludes a Higgs boson with a mass between 2m/sub μ/ and /approximately/700 MeV/c 2 . Discussions of light Higgs boson emission in the decays of K, π, μ, /tau/, /eta/', and Γ are also given. 29 refs., 2 figs

  10. Structured Light-Based Motion Tracking in the Limited View of an MR Head Coil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikshøj, M.; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Conradsen, Knut

    2013-01-01

    A markerless motion tracking (MT) system developed for use in PET brain imaging has been tested in the limited field of view (FOV) of the MR head coil from the Siemens Biograph mMR. The system is a 3D surface scanner that uses structured light (SL) to create point cloud reconstructions of the fac......A markerless motion tracking (MT) system developed for use in PET brain imaging has been tested in the limited field of view (FOV) of the MR head coil from the Siemens Biograph mMR. The system is a 3D surface scanner that uses structured light (SL) to create point cloud reconstructions...

  11. The influence of light on copper-limited growth of an oceanic diatom, Thalassiosira oceanica (Coscinodiscophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Woo; Price, Neil M

    2017-10-01

    Thalassiosira oceanica (CCMP 1005) was grown over a range of copper concentrations at saturating and subsaturating irradiance to test the hypothesis that Cu and light were interacting essential resources. Growth was a hyperbolic function of irradiance in Cu-replete medium (263 fmol Cu' · L -1 ) with maximum rates achieved at 200 μmol photons · m -2  · s -1 . Lowering the Cu concentration at this irradiance to 30.8 fmol Cu' · L -1 decreased cellular Cu quota by 7-fold and reduced growth rate by 50%. Copper-deficient cells had significantly slower (P light, low-Cu concentration was no longer limiting to growth: Cu concentration and light interacted strongly to affect growth rate of T. oceanica (P light-dependent, suggesting that faster growth of T. oceanica under high light and low Cu was a result of light-stimulated Cu uptake. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  12. Extreme field limits in the interaction of laser light with ultrarelativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Hayashi, Y.; Kando, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Koga, J.; Kondo, K.; Kotaki, H.; Pirozhkov, A.; Bulanov, S. S.; Zhidkov, A.; Chen, P.; Neely, D.; Kato, Y.; Narozhny, N. B.; Korn, G. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University), Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching 85748 (Germany) and ELI Beamline Facility, Institute of Physics, CAS, Prague 18221 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-11

    The critical electric field of quantum electrodynamics is so strong that it produces electron-positron pairs from vacuum, converting the energy of light into matter. This field has become feasible through the construction of extremely high power lasers or/and with the sophisticated use of nonlinear processes in relativistic plasmas. A feasibility of the experiments on the collision of laser light and high intensity electromagnetic pulses, generated by relativistic flying mirrors, with relativistic electrons for the studying of extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves is discussed.

  13. Branched-Chain Amino Acids Are the Primary Limiting Amino Acids in the Diets of Endurance-Trained Men after a Bout of Prolonged Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Katsuya; Bannai, Makoto; Moore, Daniel R

    2018-05-09

    The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method estimates the protein intake required to maximize whole-body protein synthesis and identify the daily protein requirement in a variety of populations. However, it is unclear whether the greater requirements for endurance athletes previously determined by the IAAO reflect an increased demand for all or only some amino acids. The aim of this study was to determine the primary rate-limiting amino acids in endurance-trained athletes after prolonged exercise, by measuring the oxidation of ingested [1-13C]phenylalanine in response to variable amino acid intake. Five endurance-trained men (means ± SDs: age, 26 ± 7 y; body weight, 66.9 ± 9.5 kg; maximal oxygen consumption, 63.3 ± 4.3 mL · kg-1 · min-1) performed 5 trials that involved 2 d of controlled diet (1.4 g protein · kg-1 · d-1) and running (10 km on day 1 and 5 km on day 2) prior to performing an acute bout of endurance exercise (20-km treadmill run) on day 3. During recovery on day 3, participants consumed test diets as 8 isocaloric hourly meals providing sufficient energy and carbohydrate but a variable amino acid intake. The test diets, consumed in random order, were deficient (BASE: 0.8 g · kg-1 · d-1) and sufficient (SUF; 1.75 g · kg-1 · d-1) amino acid diets modeled after egg protein, and BASE supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA diet; 1.03 g · kg-1 · d-1), essential amino acids (EAA diet; 1.23 g · kg-1 · d-1), or nonessential amino acids (NEAA diet; 1.75 g · kg-1 · d-1). Whole-body phenylalanine flux (Q), 13CO2 excretion (F13CO2), and phenylalanine oxidation (OX) were determined according to standard IAAO methodology. There was no effect of amino acid intake on Q (P = 0.43). F13CO2 was significantly (all P amino acids in the greater daily protein requirement of endurance trained men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrial.gov as NCT02628249.

  14. Body size limits dim-light foraging activity in stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streinzer, Martin; Huber, Werner; Spaethe, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Stingless bees constitute a species-rich tribe of tropical and subtropical eusocial Apidae that act as important pollinators for flowering plants. Many foraging tasks rely on vision, e.g. spatial orientation and detection of food sources and nest entrances. Meliponini workers are usually small, which sets limits on eye morphology and thus quality of vision. Limitations are expected both on acuity, and thus on the ability to detect objects from a distance, as well as on sensitivity, and thus on the foraging time window at dusk and dawn. In this study, we determined light intensity thresholds for flight under dim light conditions in eight stingless bee species in relation to body size in a Neotropical lowland rainforest. Species varied in body size (0.8-1.7 mm thorax-width), and we found a strong negative correlation with light intensity thresholds (0.1-79 lx). Further, we measured eye size, ocelli diameter, ommatidia number, and facet diameter. All parameters significantly correlated with body size. A disproportionately low light intensity threshold in the minute Trigonisca pipioli, together with a large eye parameter P eye suggests specific adaptations to circumvent the optical constraints imposed by the small body size. We discuss the implications of body size in bees on foraging behavior.

  15. Self-compression of spatially limited laser pulses in a system of coupled light-guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakin, A. A.; Litvak, A. G.; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A.

    2018-04-01

    The self-action features of wave packets propagating in a 2D system of equidistantly arranged fibers are studied analytically and numerically on the basis of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Self-consistent equations for the characteristic scales of a Gaussian wave packet are derived on the basis of the variational approach, which are proved numerically for powers P beams become filamented, and their amplitude is limited due to the nonlinear breaking of the interaction between neighboring light-guides. This makes it impossible to collect a powerful wave beam in a single light-guide. Variational analysis shows the possibility of the adiabatic self-compression of soliton-like laser pulses in the process of 3D self-focusing on the central light-guide. However, further increase of the field amplitude during self-compression leads to the development of longitudinal modulation instability and the formation of a set of light bullets in the central fiber. In the regime of hollow wave beams, filamentation instability becomes predominant. As a result, it becomes possible to form a set of light bullets in optical fibers located on the ring.

  16. Survey of potential light water reactor fuel rod failure mechanisms and damage limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtright, E.L.

    1979-07-01

    The findings and conclusions are presented of a survey to evaluate current information applicable to the development of fuel rod damage and failure limits for light water reactor fuel elements. The survey includes a review of past fuel failures, and identifies potential damage and failure mechanisms for both steady state operating conditions and postulated accident events. Possible relationships between the various damage and failure mechanisms are also proposed. The report identifies limiting criteria where possible, but concludes that sufficient data are not currently available in many important areas

  17. Pump-beam-instability limits to Raman-gain-doublet ''fast-light'' pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, Michael D.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of a system for generating ''fast-light'' pulses in which a bichromatic Raman pumping beam is used to generate optical gain at two frequencies and a region of anomalous dispersion between them. It is expected that increasing the gain will increase the pulse advancement. However, as the gain increases, the pumping field becomes increasingly distorted, effectively limiting the pulse advancement. We observe as much as 12% of the input pump power converted to orthogonal polarization, broadening of the initially bichromatic pump field (25 MHz initial frequency separation) to more than 2.5 GHz, and a temporal collapse of the pump beam into an erratic train of sub-500-ps pulses. The instability is attributed to the combined effects of the cross modulation instability and stimulated Raman scattering. Extreme distortion of an injected pulse that should (absent the instability) experience an advancement of 21% of its width is observed. We conclude that the fast-light pulse advancement is limited to just a few percent of the pulse width using this pulse advancement technique. The limitation imposed by the instability is important because careful study of the information velocity in fast-light pulses requires that pulse advancement be large enough to distinguish the velocities of different pulse features. Possible methods for achieving pulse advancement by avoiding the distortion caused by the instability are discussed

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 564 - Information To Be Submitted for Long Life Replaceable Light Sources of Limited Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—Information To Be Submitted for Long Life Replaceable Light Sources of Limited Definition I. Filament or... Source that Operates With a Ballast and Rated Life of the Light Source/Ballast Combination. A. Maximum power (in watts). B. Luminous Flux (in lumens). C. Rated laboratory life of the light source/ballast...

  19. A new mechanistic understanding of light-limitation in the seagrass Zostera muelleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Peter A; Pernice, Mathieu; Ashworth, Justin; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Szabó, Milán; Dolferus, Rudy; Ralph, Peter J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of light-limitation (∼20 μmol photons m -2  s -1 ) on the southern hemisphere seagrass, Zostera muelleri. RNA sequencing, chlorophyll fluorometry and HPLC techniques were used to investigate how the leaf-specific transcriptome drives changes in photosynthesis and photo-pigments in Z. muelleri over 6 days. 1593 (7.51%) genes were differentially expressed on day 2 and 1481 (6.98%) genes were differentially expressed on day 6 of the experiment. Differential gene expression correlated with significant decreases in rETR Max , I k , an increase in Yi (initial photosynthetic quantum yield of photosystem II), and significant changes in pigment composition. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed along with evidence that abscisic acid may serve a role in the low-light response of this seagrass. This study provides a novel understanding of how Z. muelleri responds to light-limitation in the marine water column and provides potential molecular markers for future conservation monitoring efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A limit on the variation of the speed of light arising from quantum gravity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burgess, J M; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chaplin, V; Charles, E; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Finke, J; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Foschini, L; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Gibby, L; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Grupe, D; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hoversten, E A; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, S; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Mészáros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Preece, R; Rainò, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Stecker, F W; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Toma, K; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Uehara, T; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-11-19

    A cornerstone of Einstein's special relativity is Lorentz invariance-the postulate that all observers measure exactly the same speed of light in vacuum, independent of photon-energy. While special relativity assumes that there is no fundamental length-scale associated with such invariance, there is a fundamental scale (the Planck scale, l(Planck) approximately 1.62 x 10(-33) cm or E(Planck) = M(Planck)c(2) approximately 1.22 x 10(19) GeV), at which quantum effects are expected to strongly affect the nature of space-time. There is great interest in the (not yet validated) idea that Lorentz invariance might break near the Planck scale. A key test of such violation of Lorentz invariance is a possible variation of photon speed with energy. Even a tiny variation in photon speed, when accumulated over cosmological light-travel times, may be revealed by observing sharp features in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light-curves. Here we report the detection of emission up to approximately 31 GeV from the distant and short GRB 090510. We find no evidence for the violation of Lorentz invariance, and place a lower limit of 1.2E(Planck) on the scale of a linear energy dependence (or an inverse wavelength dependence), subject to reasonable assumptions about the emission (equivalently we have an upper limit of l(Planck)/1.2 on the length scale of the effect). Our results disfavour quantum-gravity theories in which the quantum nature of space-time on a very small scale linearly alters the speed of light.

  1. Nano-photonic light trapping near the Lambertian limit in organic solar cell architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rana; Timmons, Erik

    2013-09-09

    A critical step to achieving higher efficiency solar cells is the broad band harvesting of solar photons. Although considerable progress has recently been achieved in improving the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells, these cells still do not absorb upto ~50% of the solar spectrum. We have designed and developed an organic solar cell architecture that can boost the absorption of photons by 40% and the photo-current by 50% for organic P3HT-PCBM absorber layers of typical device thicknesses. Our solar cell architecture is based on all layers of the solar cell being patterned in a conformal two-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal architecture. This results in very strong diffraction of photons- that increases the photon path length in the absorber layer, and plasmonic light concentration near the patterned organic-metal cathode interface. The absorption approaches the Lambertian limit. The simulations utilize a rigorous scattering matrix approach and provide bounds of the fundamental limits of nano-photonic light absorption in periodically textured organic solar cells. This solar cell architecture has the potential to increase the power conversion efficiency to 10% for single band gap organic solar cells utilizing long-wavelength absorbers.

  2. Nutrient and Light Limitations on Grass Productivity in a Southern African Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, L. P.; Shugart, H. H.; Caylor, K. K.; Okin, G. S.; Kgope, B.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sub-tropical savannas throughout the earth, limitations of savanna productivity are understudied relative to other terrestrial systems. In particular, there has been little attention on the role of phosphorus (P) in savanna productivity and structure. This study examined the role of increased nitrogen (N) and P in grass productivity in a woodland savanna in Botswana. We added aqueous forms of N and P individually and together to selected grasses. During the following growing season we measured foliar nutrient concentrations, aboveground biomass productivity and photosynthetic response at various levels of incident photosynthetically active radiation to estimate the productivity response. As expected, we observed an increase in foliar P concentrations in P and N+P treatments. However, there was no increase in foliar N for any treatments. We also observed a significant increase in net carbon assimilation and Amax for all treatments relative to the control grasses. Despite a higher rate of leaf level carbon assimilation in the N treatment, the aboveground biomass production was smaller than that of the N+P treatment. These results suggest that the aboveground productivity of these woodland savanna grasses is limited by both N and P. Additionally, under constant CO2 availability, photosynthesis appears to be limited by nutrients for light levels greater than 500 μmol m-2s-1. This research will help broaden our understanding of the biogeochemical processes that govern savanna productivity. Ultimately, these data can be used to model canopy productivity and ecological succession of savannas under scenarios in which bush encroachment and desertification may alter light and nutrients availability.

  3. Fundamental limitations to gain enhancement in slow-light photonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure; Ott, Johan Raunkjar; Wang, Fengwen

    2012-01-01

    We present a non-perturbative analysis of light-matter interaction in active photonic crystal waveguides in the slow-light regime. Inclusion of gain is shown to modify the underlying dispersion law, thereby degrading the slow-light enhancement.......We present a non-perturbative analysis of light-matter interaction in active photonic crystal waveguides in the slow-light regime. Inclusion of gain is shown to modify the underlying dispersion law, thereby degrading the slow-light enhancement....

  4. Impact on geologic repository usage from limited actinide recycle in pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, Roald A.; Bauer, Theodore H.; Hill, Robert N.; Stillman, John A.

    2007-01-01

    A project has been conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative to evaluate the impact of limited actinide recycling in light water reactors on the utilization of a geologic repository where loading of the repository is constrained by the decay heat of the emplaced materials. In this study, it was assumed that spent PWR fuel was processed, removing the uranium, plutonium, americium, and neptunium, along with the fission products cesium and strontium. Previous work had demonstrated that these elements were responsible for limiting loading in the repository based on thermal constraints. The plutonium, americium, and neptunium were recycled in a PWR, with process waste and spent recycled fuel being sent to the repository. The cesium and strontium were placed in separate storage for 100-300 years to allow for decay prior to disposal. The study examined the effect of single and multiple recycles of the recovered plutonium, americium, and neptunium, as well as different processing delay times. The potential benefit to the repository was measured by the increase in utilization of repository space as indicated by the allowable linear loading in the repository drifts (tunnels). The results showed that limited recycling would provide only a small fraction of the benefit that could be achieved with repeated processing and recycling, as is possible in fast neutron reactors. (author)

  5. Virasoro vacuum block at next-to-leading order in the heavy-light limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica Ennio De Giorgi,Università del Salento & INFN, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    We consider the semiclassical limit of the vacuum Virasoro block describing the diagonal 4-point correlation functions on the sphere. At large central charge c, after exponentiation, it depends on two fixed ratios h{sub H}/c and h{sub L}/c, where h{sub H,L} are the conformal dimensions of the 4-point function operators. The semiclassical block may be expanded in powers of the light ratio h{sub L}/c and the leading non-trivial (linear) order is known in closed form as a function of h{sub H}/c. Recently, this contribution has been matched against AdS{sub 3} gravity calculations where heavy operators build up a classical geometry corresponding to a BTZ black hole, while the light operators are described by a geodesic in this background. Here, we compute for the first time the next-to-leading quadratic correction O((h{sub L}/c){sup 2}), again in closed form for generic heavy operator ratio h{sub H}/c. The result is a highly non-trivial extension of the leading order and may be relevant for further refined AdS{sub 3}/CFT{sub 2} tests. Applications to the two-interval Rényi entropy are also presented.

  6. Silicon coupled-ring resonator structures for slow light applications: potential, impairments and ultimate limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canciamilla, A; Torregiani, M; Ferrari, C; Morichetti, F; Melloni, A; De La Rue, R M; Samarelli, A; Sorel, M

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-ring resonator-based slow light structures are reported and discussed. By combining the advantages of high index contrast silicon-on-insulator technology with an efficient thermo-optical activation, they provide an on-chip solution with a bandwidth of up to 100 GHz and a slowdown factor of up to 16, as well as a continuous reconfiguration scheme and a fine tunability. The performance of these devices is investigated in detail for both static and dynamic operation, in order to evaluate their potential in optical signal processing applications at high bit rate. The main impairments imposed by fabrication imperfections are also discussed in relation to the slowdown factor. In particular, the analysis of the impact of backscatter, disorder and two-photon absorption on the device transfer function reveals the ultimate limits of these structures and provides valuable design rules for their optimization

  7. Light stop mass limits from Higgs rate measurements in the MSSM: is MSSM electroweak baryogenesis still alive after all?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebler, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim [Department of Physics and Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP),University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-22

    We investigate the implications of the Higgs rate measurements from Run 1 of the LHC for the mass of the light scalar top partner (stop) in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We focus on light stop masses, and we decouple the second, heavy stop and the gluino to the multi-TeV range in order to obtain a Higgs mass of ∼125 GeV. We derive lower mass limits for the light stop within various scenarios, taking into account the effects of a possibly light scalar tau partner (stau) or chargino on the Higgs rates, of additional Higgs decays to undetectable “new physics”, as well as of non-decoupling of the heavy Higgs sector. Under conservative assumptions, the stop can be as light as 123 GeV. Relaxing certain theoretical and experimental constraints, such as vacuum stability and model-dependent bounds on sparticle masses from LEP, we find that the light stop mass can be as light as 116 GeV. Our indirect limits are complementary to direct limits on the light stop mass from collider searches and have important implications for electroweak baryogenesis in the MSSM as a possible explanation for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.

  8. Light stop mass limits from Higgs rate measurements in the MSSM. Is MSSM electroweak baryogenesis still alive after all?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebler, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Santa Cruz Inst. for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the implications of the Higgs rate measurements from Run 1 of the LHC for the mass of the light scalar top partner (stop) in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We focus on light stop masses, and we decouple the second, heavy stop and the gluino to the multi-TeV range in order to obtain a Higgs mass of ∝125 GeV. We derive lower mass limits for the light stop within various scenarios, taking into account the effects of a possibly light scalar tau partner (stau) or chargino on the Higgs rates, of additional Higgs decays to undetectable new physics, as well as of non-decoupling of the heavy Higgs sector. Under conservative assumptions, the stop can be as light as 123 GeV. Relaxing certain theoretical and experimental constraints, such as vacuum stability and model-dependent bounds on sparticle masses from LEP, we find that the light stop mass can be as light as 116 GeV. Our indirect limits are complementary to direct limits on the light stop mass from collider searches and have important implications for electroweak baryogenesis in the MSSM as a possible explanation for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.

  9. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  10. Nonlinear light scattering in a two component medium: optical limiting application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudrier, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Scattering is a fundamental manifestation of the interaction between matter and radiation, resulting from inhomogeneities in the refractive index, which decrease transmission. This phenomenon is then especially attractive for sensor protection from laser light by optical limiting. One of the methods to induce scattering at high incident energy is to make use of the Kerr effect where the index of refraction is intensity dependent. Thus, the idea is to use a two component medium with a good index matching between the two components at low intensity, resulting in the medium transparency, and to modify it, at high intensity, due to the non linearity of one component making the medium highly scattering. Some of the experimental and theoretical investigations concerning a new material (here, a cell containing some liquid with small silica particles as inclusion in it) are presented in the visible domain (I=532 nm), for the nanosecond protection regime, beginning, with the chemical synthesis of the sample. The experimental results concerning the optical limiting process are presented, showing that nonlinear scattering is clearly the dominant mechanism in confrontation with other potential nonlinear effects. Several complementary experiments are then performed to complete the nonlinear scattering characterization, involving the measurement of the angular distribution of scattered energy and the integrating sphere measurement. Further information are also gained by studying the time response of the nonlinearities with a dual-beam (pulsed-pump, cw probe) technique. The previous experimental data is also analyzed with some simple theoretical models to evaluate the nonlinearity of the material from optical limiting, the angular scattering and the total scattering energy measurements. The good match between all the analytical results permits to delineate the physical mechanisms responsible for the nonlinear scattering effect and to direct the final conclusion. (author) [fr

  11. LIPID PRODUCTION BY DUNALIELLA SALINA IN BATCH CULTURE: EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LIMITATION AND LIGHT INTENSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldy, C.S.; Huesemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and may cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2°C to 4°C increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970s but large scale production has remained economically infeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential of the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequent biodiesel production. The lipid production rates under high light and low light as well as nitrogen suffi cient and nitrogen defi cient culture conditions were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  12. Physiological limit of the daily endogenous cholecalciferol synthesis from UV light in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, L.; Jensen, S. K.; Kaas, P.

    2017-01-01

    The link between UV light (sunlight) and endogenous cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) synthesis in the skin of humans has been known for more than a 100 years, since doctors for the first time successfully used UV light to cure rickets in children. Years later, it was shown that UV light also had...

  13. Excess Diffuse Light Absorption in Upper Mesophyll Limits CO2 Drawdown and Depresses Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Gilbert, Matthew E; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R

    2017-06-01

    In agricultural and natural systems, diffuse light can enhance plant primary productivity due to deeper penetration into and greater irradiance of the entire canopy. However, for individual sun-grown leaves from three species, photosynthesis is actually less efficient under diffuse compared with direct light. Despite its potential impact on canopy-level productivity, the mechanism for this leaf-level diffuse light photosynthetic depression effect is unknown. Here, we investigate if the spatial distribution of light absorption relative to electron transport capacity in sun- and shade-grown sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) leaves underlies its previously observed diffuse light photosynthetic depression. Using a new one-dimensional porous medium finite element gas-exchange model parameterized with light absorption profiles, we found that weaker penetration of diffuse versus direct light into the mesophyll of sun-grown sunflower leaves led to a more heterogenous saturation of electron transport capacity and lowered its CO 2 concentration drawdown capacity in the intercellular airspace and chloroplast stroma. This decoupling of light availability from photosynthetic capacity under diffuse light is sufficient to generate an 11% decline in photosynthesis in sun-grown but not shade-grown leaves, primarily because thin shade-grown leaves similarly distribute diffuse and direct light throughout the mesophyll. Finally, we illustrate how diffuse light photosynthetic depression could overcome enhancement in canopies with low light extinction coefficients and/or leaf area, pointing toward a novel direction for future research. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. 14 CFR 65.107 - Repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft): Eligibility, privileges, and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft... CREWMEMBERS Repairmen § 65.107 Repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft): Eligibility, privileges, and...-sport aircraft) and appropriate rating: To be eligible for You must (1) A repairman certificate (light...

  15. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed.

  16. Assessment of Core Failure Limits for Light Water Reactor Fuel under Reactivity Initiated Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernkvist, Lars Olof; Massih, Ali R.

    2004-12-01

    Core failure limits for high-burnup light water reactor UO 2 fuel rods, subjected to postulated reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs), are here assessed by use of best-estimate computational methods. The considered RIAs are the hot zero power rod ejection accident (HZP REA) in pressurized water reactors and the cold zero power control rod drop accident (CZP CRDA) in boiling water reactors. Burnup dependent core failure limits for these events are established by calculating the fuel radial average enthalpy connected with incipient fuel pellet melting for fuel burnups in the range of 30 to 70 MWd/kgU. The postulated HZP REA and CZP CRDA result in lower enthalpies for pellet melting than RIAs that take place at rated power. Consequently, the enthalpy thresholds presented here are lower bounds to RIAs at rated power. The calculations are performed with best-estimate models, which are applied in the FRAPCON-3.2 and SCANAIR-3.2 computer codes. Based on the results of three-dimensional core kinetics analyses, the considered power transients are simulated by a Gaussian pulse shape, with a fixed width of either 25 ms (REA) or 45 ms (CRDA). Notwithstanding the differences in postulated accident scenarios between the REA and the CRDA, the calculated core failure limits for these two events are similar. The calculated enthalpy thresholds for fuel pellet melting decrease gradually with fuel burnup, from approximately 960 J/gUO 2 at 30 MWd/kgU to 810 J/gUO 2 at 70 MWd/kgU. The decline is due to depression of the UO 2 melting temperature with increasing burnup, in combination with burnup related changes to the radial power distribution within the fuel pellets. The presented fuel enthalpy thresholds for incipient UO 2 melting provide best-estimate core failure limits for low- and intermediate-burnup fuel. However, pulse reactor tests on high-burnup fuel rods indicate that the accumulation of gaseous fission products within the pellets may lead to fuel dispersal into the coolant at

  17. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  18. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  19. A gravitational wave detector operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit: Squeezed light in application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel Roman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews our recent progress on the generation of squeezed light [1], and also the recent squeezed-light enhancement of the gravitational wave detector GEO 600 [2]. GEO 600 is currently the only GW observatory operated by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in its search for gravitational waves. With the help of squeezed states of light it now operates with its best ever sensitivity, which not only proves the qualification of squeezed light as a key technology for future gravitational wave astronomy but also the usefulness of quantum entanglement.

  20. Impacts of turbidity on corals: The relative importance of light limitation and suspended sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessell-Browne, Pia; Negri, Andrew P.; Fisher, Rebecca; Clode, Peta L.; Duckworth, Alan; Jones, Ross

    2017-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effects of water quality from dredging/natural resuspension on reefs, the effects of suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) (0, 30, 100 mg L −1 ) and light (~ 0, 1.1, 8.6 mol photons m −2 d −1 ) were examined alone and in combination, on the corals Acropora millepora, Montipora capricornis and Porites spp. over an extended (28 d) period. No effects were observed at any sediment concentrations when applied alone. All corals in the lowest light treatments lost chlorophyll a and discoloured (bleached) after a week. Coral mortality only occurred in the two lowest light treatments and was higher when simultaneously exposed to elevated SSCs. Compared to water quality data collected during large dredging programs and natural resuspension events (and in the absence of sediment deposition as a cause-effect pathway) these data suggest the light reduction associated with turbidity poses a proportionally greater risk than effects of elevated SSCs alone. - Highlights: • Exposure of corals to low light conditions results in reduced quantum yields followed by bleaching of tissue. • Suspended sediment concentrations, without a reduction in light, have no impact on coral health. • An interaction between elevated suspended sediment concentrations and reduced light result in partial mortality of corals. • Management of dredging should minimise exposure of corals to low light to avoid unnecessary stress and impacts upon health.

  1. Physiological limit of the daily endogenous cholecalciferol synthesis from UV light in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, L; Jensen, S K; Kaas, P; Jakobsen, J

    2017-04-01

    The link between UV light (sunlight) and endogenous cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ) synthesis in the skin of humans has been known for more than a 100 years, since doctors for the first time successfully used UV light to cure rickets in children. Years later, it was shown that UV light also had a significant effect on the cholecalciferol status in the body of cattle. The cholecalciferol status in the body is measured as the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, which in cattle and humans is the major circulating metabolite of cholecalciferol. Very little is, however, known about the quantitative efficiency of UV light as a source of cholecalciferol in cattle nutrition and physiology. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of using UV light for increasing the plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration in cholecalciferol-deprived cattle. Twelve cows deprived of cholecalciferol for 6 months were divided into three treatment groups and exposed to UV light for 30, 90 or 120 min/day during 28 days. UV-light wavelengths ranged from 280 to 415 nm and 30-min exposure to the UV light was equivalent to 60-min average summer-sunlight exposure at 56 °N. Blood samples were collected every 3-4 days and analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and cholecalciferol. Results showed that increasing the exposure time from 90-120 min/day did not change the slope of the daily increase in plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Hence, it appears that cholecalciferol-deprived dairy cattle are able to increase their plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration by a maximum of 1 ng/ml/day from UV-light exposure. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Neural Summation in the Hawkmoth Visual System Extends the Limits of Vision in Dim Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Anna Lisa; O'Carroll, David Charles; Warrant, Eric James

    2016-03-21

    Most of the world's animals are active in dim light and depend on good vision for the tasks of daily life. Many have evolved visual adaptations that permit a performance superior to that of manmade imaging devices [1]. In insects, a major model visual system, nocturnal species show impressive visual abilities ranging from flight control [2, 3], to color discrimination [4, 5], to navigation using visual landmarks [6-8] or dim celestial compass cues [9, 10]. In addition to optical adaptations that improve their sensitivity in dim light [11], neural summation of light in space and time-which enhances the coarser and slower features of the scene at the expense of noisier finer and faster features-has been suggested to improve sensitivity in theoretical [12-14], anatomical [15-17], and behavioral [18-20] studies. How these summation strategies function neurally is, however, presently unknown. Here, we quantified spatial and temporal summation in the motion vision pathway of a nocturnal hawkmoth. We show that spatial and temporal summation combine supralinearly to substantially increase contrast sensitivity and visual information rate over four decades of light intensity, enabling hawkmoths to see at light levels 100 times dimmer than without summation. Our results reveal how visual motion is calculated neurally in dim light and how spatial and temporal summation improve sensitivity while simultaneously maximizing spatial and temporal resolution, thus extending models of insect motion vision derived predominantly from diurnal flies. Moreover, the summation strategies we have revealed may benefit manmade vision systems optimized for variable light levels [21]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Light brick mortar with low thermal conductivity for stressed brickwork. Types, properties, limits of application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plank, A [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-03-01

    Between 40 and 50% of the total energy consumption are used for space heating. 40% of the total heat loss dissipate through external walls due to transmission. The heat insulation properties of a brickwork is decisively determined by the mortar joints. Using light brick mortars with low thermal conductivity an improvement of the total thermal insulation of nearly 20% can be reached in most of the cases. The mechanical properties of these mortars that differ from the common mortars decisively reduce the application of the light brick mortar in brick working and require special measures for stability which are described in detail.

  4. Metamaterials for light rays: ray optics without wave-optical analog in the ray-optics limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Alasdair C; Courtial, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Volumes of sub-wavelength electromagnetic elements can act like homogeneous materials: metamaterials. In analogy, sheets of optical elements such as prisms can act ray-optically like homogeneous sheet materials. In this sense, such sheets can be considered to be metamaterials for light rays (METATOYs). METATOYs realize new and unusual transformations of the directions of transmitted light rays. We study here, in the ray-optics and scalar-wave limits, the wave-optical analog of such transformations, and we show that such an analog does not always exist. Perhaps, this is the reason why many of the ray-optical possibilities offered by METATOYs have never before been considered.

  5. Light-optimized growth of cyanobacterial cultures: Growth phases and productivity of biomass and secreted molecules in light-limited batch growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ryan L; McGinley, Laura L; Purdy, Hugh M; Korosh, Travis C; Reed, Jennifer L; Root, Thatcher W; Pfleger, Brian F

    2018-03-27

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms whose metabolism can be modified through genetic engineering for production of a wide variety of molecules directly from CO 2 , light, and nutrients. Diverse molecules have been produced in small quantities by engineered cyanobacteria to demonstrate the feasibility of photosynthetic biorefineries. Consequently, there is interest in engineering these microorganisms to increase titer and productivity to meet industrial metrics. Unfortunately, differing experimental conditions and cultivation techniques confound comparisons of strains and metabolic engineering strategies. In this work, we discuss the factors governing photoautotrophic growth and demonstrate nutritionally replete conditions in which a model cyanobacterium can be grown to stationary phase with light as the sole limiting substrate. We introduce a mathematical framework for understanding the dynamics of growth and product secretion in light-limited cyanobacterial cultures. Using this framework, we demonstrate how cyanobacterial growth in differing experimental systems can be easily scaled by the volumetric photon delivery rate using the model organisms Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7002 and Synechococcus elongatus strain UTEX2973. We use this framework to predict scaled up growth and product secretion in 1L photobioreactors of two strains of Synechococcus PCC7002 engineered for production of l-lactate or L-lysine. The analytical framework developed in this work serves as a guide for future metabolic engineering studies of cyanobacteria to allow better comparison of experiments performed in different experimental systems and to further investigate the dynamics of growth and product secretion. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Excess diffuse light absorption in upper mesophyll limits CO2 drawdown and depresses photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-grown and shade-grown leaves of some species absorb direct and diffuse light differently. Sun-grown leaves can photosynthesize ~10-15% less under diffuse compared to direct irradiance, while shade-grown leaves do not exhibit this sensitivity. In this study, we investigate if the spatial differen...

  7. Out of the shadows : multiple nutrient limitations drive relationships among biomass, light and plant diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harpole, W. Stanley; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Lind, Eric M.; Firn, Jennifer; Adler, Peter B.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Chase, Jonathan; Fay Jennifer Firn, Philip A.; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cadotte, Marc W; Chaneton, Enrique J; Chu, Chengjin; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.

    2017-01-01

    The paradigmatic hypothesis for the effect of fertilisation on plant diversity represents a one-dimensional trade-off for plants competing for below-ground nutrients (generically) and above-ground light: fertilisation reduces competition for nutrients while increasing biomass and thereby shifts

  8. Dynamic diffraction-limited light-coupling of 3D-maneuvered wave-guided optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villangca, Mark; Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2014-07-28

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). As the WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through the waveguides within their operating volume. We propose the use of dynamic diffractive techniques to create diffraction-limited spots that will track and couple to the WOWs during operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking and coupling for both lateral and axial displacements.

  9. Dynamic diffraction-limited light-coupling of 3D-maneuvered wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). As the WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through the waveguides within their operating volume. We propose the use...... of dynamic diffractive techniques to create diffraction-limited spots that will track and couple to the WOWs during operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested...... for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking and coupling for both lateral and axial displacements....

  10. Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Himchan; Jeong, Su-Hun; Park, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Sadhanala, Aditya; Myoung, NoSoung; Yoo, Seunghyup; Im, Sang Hyuk; Friend, Richard H.; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2015-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are emerging low-cost emitters with very high color purity, but their low luminescent efficiency is a critical drawback. We boosted the current efficiency (CE) of perovskite light-emitting diodes with a simple bilayer structure to 42.9 candela per ampere, similar to the CE of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes, with two modifications: We prevented the formation of metallic lead (Pb) atoms that cause strong exciton quenching through a small increase in methylammonium bromide (MABr) molar proportion, and we spatially confined the exciton in uniform MAPbBr3 nanograins (average diameter = 99.7 nanometers) formed by a nanocrystal pinning process and concomitant reduction of exciton diffusion length to 67 nanometers. These changes caused substantial increases in steady-state photoluminescence intensity and efficiency of MAPbBr3 nanograin layers.

  11. Protein Redox Dynamics During Light-to-Dark Transitions in Cyanobacteria and Impacts Due to Nutrient Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T Wright

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein redox chemistry constitutes a major void in knowledge pertaining to photoautotrophic system regulation and signaling processes. We have employed a chemical biology approach to analyze redox sensitive proteins in live Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 cells in both light and dark periods, and to understand how cellular redox balance is disrupted during nutrient perturbation. The present work identified 300 putative redox-sensitive proteins that are involved in the generation of reductant, macromolecule synthesis, and carbon flux through central metabolic pathways, and may be involved in cell signaling and response mechanisms. Furthermore, our research suggests that dynamic redox changes in response to specific nutrient limitations, including carbon and nitrogen limitations, contribute to the regulatory changes driven by a shift from light to dark. Taken together, these results contribute to a high-level understanding of post-translational mechanisms regulating flux distributions and suggest potential metabolic engineering targets for redirecting carbon towards biofuel precursors.

  12. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  13. Overcoming the limitations of silver nanowire electrodes for light emitting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dustin Yuan

    The global lighting market is projected to exceed 100 billion dollars by 2020, undergoing rapid transitions driven by technological advancements. In conjunction with increased demand for new technology, global regulations have become increasingly stringent, mandating the development and implementation of more fuel-efficient light sources. As prior generations of lighting technology such as incandescent bulbs and florescent lighting progressively become phased out, newer technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have become progressively popular and commonplace. Though they still lag behind LEDs in terms of market penetration, OLEDs have garnered increasing amounts of attention in recent years due to unique attributes such as their exotic and large scale form factors, mechanical flexibility, and potential for high volume, low-cost manufacturing. Unfortunately, the costs for OLED manufacturing are currently still prohibitively high for several applications, with the anode and substrate representing 20-25 percent of this total cost. Significant technical and processing improvements for OLED substrates are of utmost necessity for fiscal cost reduction and commercialization of OLED technology. Silver nanowires have gained traction as a potential replacement for the current status quo, indium tin oxide (ITO) due to attributes such as flexibility, low cost processing, and high optoelectronic properties. However, due to nanoscale size effects, the integration of silver nanowires in both process flows and operational use has proven to be problematic. This work makes several key contributions towards enabling the use of silver nanowires for practical and commercial applications within the lighting industry. First, a novel method for the fabrication of a high temperature-stable, flexible substrate with surface roughness (Ra) traditional process flows, and validity for use in extreme processing conditions. Secondly, the

  14. Gluon structure function of a color dipole in the light-cone limit of lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, D.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Pirner, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the gluon structure function of a color dipole in near-light-cone SU(2) lattice QCD as a function of x B . The quark and antiquark are external nondynamical degrees of freedom which act as sources of the gluon string configuration defining the dipole. We compute the color dipole matrix element of transversal chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic field operators separated along a direction close to the light cone, the Fourier transform of which is the gluon structure function. As vacuum state in the pure glue sector, we use a variational ground state of the near-light-cone Hamiltonian. We derive a recursion relation for the gluon structure function on the lattice similar to the perturbative Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation. It depends on the number of transversal links assembling the Schwinger string of the dipole. Fixing the mean momentum fraction of the gluons to the 'experimental value' in a proton, we compare our gluon structure function for a dipole state with four links with the next-to-leading-order MRST 2002 and the CTEQ AB-0 parametrizations at Q 2 =1.5 GeV 2 . Within the systematic uncertainty we find rather good agreement. We also discuss the low x B behavior of the gluon structure function in our model calculation.

  15. Threshold effect under nonlinear limitation of the intensity of high-power light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, S A; Podgaetskii, V M; Gerasimenko, A Yu; Savel'ev, M S

    2015-01-01

    A model is proposed to describe the properties of limiters of high-power laser radiation, which takes into account the threshold character of nonlinear interaction of radiation with the working medium of the limiter. The generally accepted non-threshold model is a particular case of the threshold model if the threshold radiation intensity is zero. Experimental z-scan data are used to determine the nonlinear optical characteristics of media with carbon nanotubes, polymethine and pyran dyes, zinc selenide, porphyrin-graphene and fullerene-graphene. A threshold effect of nonlinear interaction between laser radiation and some of investigated working media of limiters is revealed. It is shown that the threshold model more adequately describes experimental z-scan data. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. ''Anomalous'' air showers from point sources: Mass limits and light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domokos, G.; Elliott, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a method to obtain upper limits on the mass of the primaries of air showers associated with point sources. One also obtains the UHE pulse shape of a pulsar if its period is observed in the signal. As an example, we analyze the data obtained during a recent burst of Hercules-X1

  17. Image processing of muscle striations below the resolution limit of the light microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.H.; Holdren, D.N.; Periasamy, A.; Everts, W.C.; Pollack, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    We describe the use of digital deconvolution in the study of muscle striations below the resolution imposed by the optical diffraction of our video light microscope. To use deconvolution procedures on muscle images, the transfer function of the optical system is first characterized. This is accomplished by imaging a step object and fitting the image with the combination of a first order Bessel and Guassian function using a non-linear least squares approach. Due to the ill-conditioned nature of deconvolution, however, ambiguity in the reconstruction is sometimes found. To allow better estimation of the true object, separate deconvolution approaches are used and the reconstructions compared. In this manner, the fine structure of muscle striations is determined

  18. Formation of a dinuclear complex in collisions between light nuclei and entrance channel limitations to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, D.; Shivakumar, B.; Ayik, S.; Harmon, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    A model for fusion of light nuclei has been proposed recently wherein fusion progresses through nucleus-nucleus capture via a dinuclear stage which acts as a doorway to fusion. While this model accounts for the fusion cross sections, it makes no attempt at predicting observables associated with the non-fusion part of the captured flux. A study of products from the decay of the dinuclear complex into non-fusion channels can provide a stringent test for such a model. In this contribution a model which addresses both the binary decay and the fusion of a dinuclear complex formed in the collision is described and model predictions are compared with data. Accompanying contributions discuss the formalism which is used to describe the evolution of the dinuclear complex and present new data which provide information that helps justify the approximations made in applying this model

  19. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  20. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  1. Boosting the Visible-Light Photoactivity of BiOCl/BiVO4/N-GQD Ternary Heterojunctions Based on Internal Z-Scheme Charge Transfer of N-GQDs: Simultaneous Band Gap Narrowing and Carrier Lifetime Prolonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Liu, Qian; Chen, Wei; Yin, Yuanyuan; Ge, Lan; Li, Henan; Wang, Kun

    2017-11-08

    The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in photoactive materials is highly desired, allowing their transfer to specific sites for undergoing redox reaction in various applications. The construction of ternary heterojunctions is a practical strategy to enhance the migration of photogenerated electron that realizes the synergistic effect of multicomponents rather than the simple overlay of single component. Here, we demonstrate an available way to fabricate new BiOCl/BiVO 4 /nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot (N-GQD) ternary heterojunctions that exhibit higher efficiency in charge separation than any binary heterojunction or pure material under visible-light irradiation. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy demonstrated that the proposed BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions possess the narrower band gap energy. More importantly, the ternary heterojunctions reveal the prolonged lifetime of photogenerated charges and enhanced the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which may be ascribed to sensitization based on an internal Z-scheme charge transfer at the interface of N-GQDs with oxygen functional groups. Furthermore, we examine the photoactive performance of proposed ternary heterojunctions in aqueous solution by using the photodegradation of bisphenol A as a model system and BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions also display a dramatically enhanced photodegradation rate. The proposed charge separation and transfer process of BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions for the enhanced photoactivity were deduced by electrochemical measurements, photoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. The results demonstrate that a Z-scheme charge process was formed between BiOCl/BiVO 4 binary heterojunctions and N-GQDs, leading to an efficient charge carrier separation and strong photocatalytic ability. Notably, this work may assist in a better understanding of the role of N-GQDs in kinds of heterojunctions

  2. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  3. Dynamic Control of Light Emission Faster than the Lifetime Limit Using VO2 Phase-Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-22

    2D colour plot of the calculated modulation amplitude of the MD contribution to Er3þ emission at 1.5mm upon the VO2 phase-change, as a function of TiO2...metallic state. Experimental spectra are shown in shaded red and blue colour , respectively, whereas theoretically predicted spectra are shown as black...model in Rakić et al.31. References 1. Loke, D. et al. Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory . Science 336, 1566–1569 (2012). 2. Cavalleri

  4. Light limitation of phytoplankton biomass and macronutrient utilization in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, B.G.; Brody, E.A.; Holm-Hansen, O.; McClain, C.; Bishop, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is unique in that it has continually high concentrations of major plant nutrients but low phytoplankton biomass. This enigmatic phenomenon is the focus of significant speculation that trace nutrients, including Fe, may limit phytoplankton crop size. Global climatologies indicate that the ACC is a region with low surface temperatures, weak density stratification, little summertime surface solar irradiance, and strong wind stress. These physical phenomena act to limit growth rates of the phytoplankton community. Using a photo-physiological description of phytoplankton growth in a simple one-dimensional ecosystem model forced by observations or climatologies of mixing depth and surface irradiance, the authors make an evaluation of the potential for massive, nutrient-exhausting, phytoplankton blooms forming in the ACC. The ACC has persistent mixed layers in excess of 50 m. Literature values and model optimization indicate that the minimal aggregate specific loss rate and typical physical conditions of stratification and surface irradiance, the model predicts that phytoplankton in the ACC would not utilize >10% of the available macronutrients. Without a mechanism for increasing the strength of stratification, the authors predict that massive Fe additions to the Southern Ocean would fail to significantly mitigate the atmospheric CO 2 derived from fossil fuel

  5. Efficient generation of 3.9 W of diffraction-limited green light with spectrally combined tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.

    We propose an efficient concept increasing the power of diode laser systems in the visible spectral range. In comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation enhances the available power significantly. Combining two...... 1060 nm tapered diode lasers, we achieve a 2.5-3.2 fold increase of green light with a maximum power of 3.9 Watts in a diffraction-limited beam. At this level, diode lasers have a high application potential, for example, within the biomedical field. In order to enhance the power even further, our...

  6. Beyond the Lambertian limit: Novel low-symmetry gratings for ultimate light trapping enhancement in next-generation photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, Robert [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Hu, Juejun [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Richardson, Kathleen [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL)

    2016-05-20

    This project aims at addressing the efficiency limit and high fabrication cost of current light trapping methods by developing novel low-symmetry gratings (LSG) for next-generation thin c-Si photovoltaic (PV) cells. The LSG design achieves light trapping enhancement exceeding the 4n2 Lambertian limit and can be fabricated over large areas using low-cost, single-step nanoimprint techniques. We further explored the use of deposited high-refractive-index glass materials for low-temperature LSG processing, which enables direct imprint sculpting of even complex grating geometries in glass without requiring an additional pattern transfer step, which minimizes processing cost and surface damage to PV cells. In the project, we have demonstrated fabrication and integration of sub-wavelength LSG with thin c-Si wafers and bifacial solar cells with low defect density. Optical absorption measurements indicate that LSGs demonstrated superior absorption enhancement compared to their traditional symmetric counterparts as predicted by our simulations. Efficiency enhancement was observed in solar cells integrated with LSGs although fabrication yield of the LSG-integrated cells remains a challenge

  7. Breaking the Carnot limit without violating the second law: A thermodynamic analysis of off-resonant quantum light generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukobza, E.; Ritsch, H.

    2013-06-01

    The Carnot limit, formulated in 1824, represents the maximal efficiency of a classical heat engine. In this work we present a thermodynamical analysis of a light amplifier based on a three-level atom coupled off-resonantly to a single quantized cavity mode and to two heat reservoirs with positive temperatures. Based on standard work and heat flow equilibrium, we show that for a cavity blue-detuned with respect to the atomic resonance, the system can surpass the Carnot limit. Nevertheless, the second law of thermodynamics is still obeyed, as the total entropy always increases. By analyzing a semiclassical version of the model, we derive a formula for the critical frequency for which the Carnot limit is broken and a formula for the amplifier efficiency which agrees with its quantum counterpart. In the semiclassical regime, however, the second law is not satisfied and hence it does not offer a physically acceptable description of the system. Finally, we show that breaking the Carnot limit occurs also in a blue-detuned quantum amplifier with output coupling, which represents a realistic model of a laser or maser.

  8. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  9. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  10. What prolongs a butterfly's life?: Trade-offs between dormancy, fecundity and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Haeler

    Full Text Available In butterflies, life span often increases only at the expense of fecundity. Prolonged life span, on the other hand, provides more opportunities for oviposition. Here, we studied the association between life span and summer dormancy in two closely related species of Palearctic Meadow Brown butterflies, the endemic Maniola nurag and the widespread M. jurtina, from two climatic provenances, a Mediterranean and a Central European site, and tested the relationships between longevity, body size and fecundity. We experimentally induced summer dormancy and hence prolonged the butterflies' life in order to study the effects of such a prolonged life. We were able to modulate longevity only in Mediterranean females by rearing them under summer photoperiodic conditions (light 16 h : dark 8 h, thereby more than doubling their natural life span, to up to 246 days. Central European individuals kept their natural average live span under all treatments, as did Mediterranean individuals under autumn treatment (light 11: dark 13. Body size only had a significant effect in the smaller species, M. nurag, where it affected the duration of dormancy and lifetime fecundity. In the larger species, M. jurtina, a prolonged adult life span did, surprisingly, not convey any fecundity loss. In M. nurag, which generally deposited fewer eggs, extended life had a fecundity cost. We conclude that Mediterranen M. jurtina butterflies have an extraordinary plasticity in aging which allows them to extend life span in response to adverse environmental conditions and relieve the time limitation on egg-laying while maintaining egg production at equal levels.

  11. Modeling and verification of the diffraction-limited visible light telescope aboard the solar observing satellite HINODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Ichimoto, K.; Shimizu, T.

    2011-09-01

    HINODE, Japanese for "sunrise", is a spacecraft dedicated for observations of the Sun, and was launched in 2006 to study the Sun's magnetic fields and how their explosive energies propagate through the different atmospheric layers. The spacecraft carries the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), which has a 50 cm diameter clear aperture and provides a continuous series of diffraction-limited visible light images from space. The telescope was developed through international collaboration between Japan and US. In order to achieve the diffraction-limited performance, thermal and structural modeling of the telescope was extensively used in its development phase to predict how the optical performance changes dependent on the thermal condition in orbit. Not only the modeling, we devoted many efforts to verify the optical performance in ground tests before the launch. The verification in the ground tests helped us to find many issues, such as temperature dependent focus shifts, which were not identified only through the thermal-structural modeling. Another critical issue was micro-vibrations induced by internal disturbances of mechanical gyroscopes and momentum wheels for attitude control of the spacecraft. Because the structural modeling was not accurate enough to predict how much the image quality was degraded by the micro-vibrations, we measured their transmission in a spacecraft-level test.

  12. Concerted changes in gene expression and cell physiology of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 during transitions between nitrogen and light-limited growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aquirre von Wobeser, E.; Ibelings, B.W.; Bok, J.M.; Krasikov, V.; Huisman, J.; Matthijs, H.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological adaptation and genome-wide expression profiles of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in response to gradual transitions between nitrogen-limited and light-limited growth conditions were measured in continuous cultures. Transitions induced changes in pigment

  13. Short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light during work at night : Limited melatonin suppression without substantial decline of alertness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Giménez, Marina C; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    Exposure to light at night increases alertness, but light at night (especially short-wavelength light) also disrupts nocturnal physiology. Such disruption is thought to underlie medical problems for which shiftworkers have increased risk. In 33 male subjects we investigated whether short-wavelength

  14. Pulsed vs. CW low level light therapy on osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barolet, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) was formerly known as CREST syndrome in reference to the associated clinical features: Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, Esophageal dysfunction, Sclerodactyly, and Telangiectasias. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has been identified has a major player in the pathogenic process, while low level light therapy (LLLT) has been shown to modulate this cytokine superfamily. This case study was conducted to assess the efficacy of 940nm using microsecond domain pulsing and continuous wave mode (CW) on osteoarticular signs and symptoms associated with lcSSc. The patient was treated two to three times a week for 13 weeks, using a sequential pulsing mode on one elbow, and a CW mode on the other. Efficacy assessments included inflammation, symptoms, pain, and health scales, patient satisfaction, clinical global impression, and adverse effects monitoring. Significant functional and morphologic improvements were observed after LLLT, with best results seen with the pulsing mode. No significant adverse effects were noted. Two mechanisms of action may be at play. The 940nm wavelength provides inside-out heating possibly vasodilating capillaries which in turn increases catabolic processes leading to a reduction of in situ calcinosis. LLLT may also improve symptoms by triggering a cascade of cellular reactions, including the modulation of inflammatory mediators.

  15. Violaxanthin de-epoxidase is rate-limiting for non-photochemical quenching under subsaturating light or during chilling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Gallie, Daniel R

    2012-09-01

    In response to conditions of excess light energy, plants induce non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) as a protective mechanism to prevent over reduction of photosystem II and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The xanthophyll cycle, which contributes significantly to reversible NPQ to thermally dissipate excess absorbed light energy, involves de-epoxidation of violaxanthin and antheraxanthin to zeaxanthin in response to excess light energy. The activation of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which catalyzes the de-epoxidation reaction, requires the generation of a light-induced, transthylakoid pH gradient. In this work, we overexpressed or repressed the expression of VDE in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to examine whether VDE is rate-limiting for the induction of NPQ. Increasing VDE expression increased the de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments, the rate of NPQ induction, and the level of NPQ achieved under subsaturating light. In saturating light, however, overexpression of VDE did not increase the xanthophyll pigment de-epoxidation state, the level of NPQ achieved following its initial induction, or substantially improve tolerance to high light. Only under chilling, which reduces VDE activity, did an increase in VDE expression provide slightly greater phototolerance. Repression of VDE expression impaired violaxanthin de-epoxidation, reduced the generation of NPQ, and lowered the level of NPQ achieved while increasing photosensitivity. These results demonstrate that the endogenous level of VDE is rate-limiting for NPQ in Arabidopsis under subsaturating but not saturating light and can become rate-limiting under chilling conditions. These results also show that increasing VDE expression confers greater phototolerance mainly under conditions which limit endogenous VDE activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Where should the safe limits of alcohol consumption stand in light of liver enzyme abnormalities in alcohol consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onni Niemelä

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for abnormal liver enzymes in a large age- and gender stratified population-based sample of apparently healthy individuals with or without alcohol consumption and other health-related risk factors (adiposity, physical inactivity, smoking.Data on alcohol use, smoking, diet and physical activity were recorded using structured questionnaires from 13,976 subjects (6513 men, 7463 women, aged 25-74 years in the national FINRISK studies. Alcohol data was used to categorize the participants into abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities were measured using standard kinetic methods.Male light drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers showed significantly higher relative risks of abnormal GGT than abstainers: 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.71, p < 0.01, 2.72 (2.08 to 3.56, p < 0.0005, and 6.10 (4.55 to 7.17, p < 0.0005, respectively. Corresponding values for women were 1.22 (0.99 to 1.51, p = 0.065, 1.90 (1.44 to 2.51, p < 0.0005, and 5.91 (3.80 to 9.17, p < 0.0005. Estimated threshold doses for a significant GGT elevation was 14 standard weekly alcohol doses for men and 7 for women. Excess body weight and age over 40 years modulated the thresholds towards smaller quantities of alcohol. The risk of abnormal GGT was also significantly influenced by physical inactivity and smoking. The relative risks of abnormal ALT activities were increased in male heavy drinkers, especially in those presenting with adiposity and sedentary lifestyle.Alcohol use markedly increases the risk for abnormal liver enzyme activities in those presenting with age over 40 years, obesity, smoking or sedentary lifestyle. The data should be considered in public health recommendations and in the definitions of safe limits of alcohol use.

  17. Electro-optical properties of a polymer light-emitting diode with an injection-limited hole contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, T; Blom, PWM; Huiberts, JN

    2003-01-01

    The electro-optical characteristics of a polymer light-emitting diode with a strongly reduced hole injection have been investigated. A silver contact on poly-dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene decreases the hole injection by five orders of magnitude, resulting in both a highly reduced light output and

  18. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  19. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  20. Phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging of light and heavy atoms at the limit of contrast and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücelen, Emrah; Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G T

    2018-02-08

    Using state of the art scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) it is nowadays possible to directly image single atomic columns at sub-Å resolution. In standard (high angle) annular dark field STEM ((HA)ADF-STEM), however, light elements are usually invisible when imaged together with heavier elements in one image. Here we demonstrate the capability of the recently introduced Integrated Differential Phase Contrast STEM (iDPC-STEM) technique to image both light and heavy atoms in a thin sample at sub-Å resolution. We use the technique to resolve both the Gallium and Nitrogen dumbbells in a GaN crystal in [[Formula: see text

  1. Could natural selection change the geographic range limits of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Morey; Robert C. Venette; William D. Hutchison

    2013-01-01

    We artificially selected for increased freeze tolerance in the invasive light brown apple moth. Our results suggest that, by not accounting for adaptation to cold, current models of potential geographic distributions could underestimate the areas at risk of exposure to this species.

  2. Capabilities and limitations of fracture mechanics methods in the assessment of integrity of light water reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdekin, F M

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with fracture mechanics methods used for the assessment of Light Water Reactor (LWR) components. The background to analysis methods using elastic plastic parameters is described. Several results obtained with these methods are presented as well as results of reliability analysis methods. (TEC). 27 refs.

  3. Controls on dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation in a headwater stream: the influence of photochemical and hydrological conditions in determining light-limitation or substrate-limitation of photo-degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, R. M.; Harrold, K. H.; Neilson, B. T.; Kling, G. W.

    2015-11-01

    -degradation is "light-limited" or "substrate-limited". We suggest that degradation of DOM in CDOM-rich streams or ponds similar to Imnavait is typically light-limited under most flow conditions. Thus, export of DOM from this stream will be less under conditions that increase the light available for DOM photo-degradation (i.e., low flows, sunny days).

  4. Decision Making Models in the Financial Market: A Study in the Light of Prospect Theory and Limited Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Diego Souza Queiroz; Marilia Oliveira dos Reis; Joseilton Silveira da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the decision-making models present in Prospect Theory and the theory of limited rationality could help managers of financial institutions identify and control the emotions and rational limitations involved in the credit granting process in the financial market. To this end, a study was carried out with 17 bank managers as experimental group and 31 other managers from different areas as control group. Adopting a quantitative approach to rese...

  5. Drugs’ maximal residual limits determination methodology and waiting period’s establishing, in the light of E.U. regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina , T. Romeo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Communitary concept’s related to the drug residues assumption is essential to Romania’s full integration amongst the countries where alimentary security and human consumer’s security have had become national policy. In this respect a concise enumeration of E.U. basic legislative notions, with the specific terminology and of technicalpremises presentation, it is proposed in the aim of Communitary veterinary medicinal product’s residues evaluation as well the MRL’s determination phases in the light of 2377/90 EU Regulation’s understanding.

  6. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  7. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  8. Proposed new regulations for the limitation of releases of radioactive substances from nuclear power stations with light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    In this publication the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection presents a proposed version of new regulations concerning the way in which the release of radioactive substances from nuclear power stations is to be limited. The regulations come into force on 1st January 1976. (Auth.)

  9. Growth of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in light- and nutrient-limited batch reactors: relevance for the BIOSOPE deep ecological niche of coccolithophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Laura; Probert, Ian; Langer, Gerald; Aloisi, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Coccolithophores are unicellular calcifying marine algae that play an important role in the oceanic carbon cycle via their cellular processes of photosynthesis (a CO2 sink) and calcification (a CO2 source). In contrast to the well-studied, surface-water coccolithophore blooms visible from satellites, the lower photic zone is a poorly known but potentially important ecological niche for coccolithophores in terms of primary production and carbon export to the deep ocean. In this study, the physiological responses of an Emiliania huxleyi strain to conditions simulating the deep niche in the oligotrophic gyres along the BIOSOPE transect in the South Pacific Gyre were investigated. We carried out batch culture experiments with an E. huxleyi strain isolated from the BIOSOPE transect, reproducing the in situ conditions of light and nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) limitation. By simulating coccolithophore growth using an internal stores (Droop) model, we were able to constrain fundamental physiological parameters for this E. huxleyi strain. We show that simple batch experiments, in conjunction with physiological modelling, can provide reliable estimates of fundamental physiological parameters for E. huxleyi that are usually obtained experimentally in more time-consuming and costly chemostat experiments. The combination of culture experiments, physiological modelling and in situ data from the BIOSOPE cruise show that E. huxleyi growth in the deep BIOSOPE niche is limited by availability of light and nitrate. This study contributes more widely to the understanding of E. huxleyi physiology and behaviour in a low-light and oligotrophic environment of the ocean.

  10. Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing a dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noise-limited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantum-noise-limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of non-interacting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.

  11. Decision Making Models in the Financial Market: A Study in the Light of Prospect Theory and Limited Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Diego Souza Queiroz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether the decision-making models present in Prospect Theory and the theory of limited rationality could help managers of financial institutions identify and control the emotions and rational limitations involved in the credit granting process in the financial market. To this end, a study was carried out with 17 bank managers as experimental group and 31 other managers from different areas as control group. Adopting a quantitative approach to research, questionnaires were sent electronically to a number of bank branches. Five scenarios were presented, seeking to identify the influence of behavioral factors on decisions in situations of risk. In addition, emotional triggers were included in some questions in order to verify the influence of this component on responses. Results were treated with SPSS software, using descriptive analysis of data and the statistical test Chi-square (χ². Results observed for the five scenarios indicated that emotions and limited rationality in complex environments tend to influence managers in their decision-making process. The study evidence suggests differences in decision-making in accordance with how the problem is presented.

  12. First Limit on the Direct Detection of Lightly Ionizing Particles for Electric Charge as Low as e /1000 with the Majorana Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis, S. I.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, C. J.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, T. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Haufe, C. R.; Hehn, L.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howe, M. A.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Lopez, A. M.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Myslik, J.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Othman, G.; Pettus, W.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Reine, A. L.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ruof, N. W.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhu, B. X.; Majorana Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultralow-background experiment searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The heavily shielded array of germanium detectors, placed nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, also allows searches for new exotic physics. Free, relativistic, lightly ionizing particles with an electrical charge less than e are forbidden by the standard model but predicted by some of its extensions. If such particles exist, they might be detected in the Majorana Demonstrator by searching for multiple-detector events with individual-detector energy depositions down to 1 keV. This search is background-free, and no candidate events have been found in 285 days of data taking. New direct-detection limits are set for the flux of lightly ionizing particles for charges as low as e /1000 .

  13. Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity-Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing an intracavity dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noiselimited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantumnoise- limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of noninteracting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.

  14. THE LOWER LIMIT OF THE RIGHT TO LIFE OF THE PERSON IN THE LIGHT OF THE NEW CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA (ROTARU MOISE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The right to life is one of the fundamental human rights both nationally and internationally, being provided and guaranteed by a series of legal acts. In the Romanian law, the right to life of the person as guaranteed by the article 22 paragraph (1 of the Constitution is also protected by criminal law. In judicial practice in this matter there was an important and interesting issue regarding the limits of the right to life of people or accurately determining the starting and ending of a person’s life. On this aspect, there were several points of view in the law literature, each grounded on its own way. In the current criminal law, the two aspects that I have mentioned above are linked, on the one hand, for instance to the issue of the legal classification of the fetal injury during birth until the cut of the umbilical cord and, on the other hand, to the thesis of tissue and organs for transplantation. The new Criminal Code is inspired by the European legislation. In relation to the criminal offences against the person it brings news to us by introducing a new offence, namely fetal injury, referred to in the article 202. Analyzing the legal content of this offence it is impossible not to call into question the situation of the lower limit of the right to life of the person.

  15. RD50 Prolongation Request 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    With this document, we request the prolongation of the CERN RD50 research program for 5 years. A very brief historical review of the RD50 research program since the RD50 project approval by the Research Board in the year 2002 is presented and the biggest RD50 achievements are highlighted. The present composition of the collaboration, its organizational structure, and the research methodology are described. The role of RD50 in the present various upgrade and research programs of the LHC Experiments community is given and the overall work plan explained. Finally, a detailed 5-years work program with precise milestones and deliverables for the various research activities is presented. We conclude with our prolongation request towards the LHCC.

  16. 3.5 W of diffraction-limited green light at 515 nm from SHG of a single-frequency tapered diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Müller, André

    2017-01-01

    Multi-Watt efficient compact green laser sources are required for a number of applications e.g. within biophotonics, laser pumping and laser displays. We present generation of 3.5 W of diffraction-limited green light at 515 nm by second harmonic generation (SHG) of a tapered diode laser, itself...... yielding more than 9 W at 1030 nm. SHG is performed in single pass through a cascade of two nonlinear crystals with re-focusing and dispersion compensating optics between the two nonlinear crystals. The laser is single-frequency and the output power is stabilized to better than ±0.4%....

  17. New Forming Limits For Light Alloys By Means Of Electromagnetic Forming And Numerical Simulation Of The Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimbert, P.; Fernandez, J. I.; Eguia, I.; Gutierrez, M.; Ulacia, I.; Hurtado, I.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that one of the main advantages of the high speed forming (HSF) processes is the improvement in the forming limits of the used materials.Using the Electromagnetic Forming (EMF) technology two materials have been tested with different mechanical and physical properties: the AA5754 aluminium and the AZ31B magnesium alloys.The EMF process principle can be described as follows: A significant amount of electrical energy is stored in a bank of capacitors which are suddenly discharged releasing all the stored energy. This electric discharge runs through a coil which generates an intense transient magnetic field. At the same time transient Eddy currents are induced in the electrically conductive part placed some millimetres far from the coil. Another intense magnetic field is generated due to those Eddy currents but on the opposite direction as the one generated by the coil. A big magnetic repulsion force is created between the part and the coil. This magnetic repulsion between both fields is used to launch the blank with no physical contact and obtain the desired deformation on it.The Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) obtained in the EMF experiments were them compared to the ones obtained with the 'Nakazima' method at conventional deformation speed for both alloys. In parallel to these physical experiments, some simulations were carried out. But trying to simulate this process by FEM is a though work. There are several physics and many factors to take into account in a few microseconds deformation process. And all these factors are tightly related with each other, that is why to this date there is no commercial software able to simulate the EMF process accurately.From LABEIN-Tecnalia we are working with to different softwares to simulate the whole process: Maxwell 3D for the electromagnetic part and PAM-STAMP2G for the mechanical part of the problem

  18. A case of mydriatic fixed pupil with diabetes mellitus, about limited resolution capacity of computed tomography and twin light reflex (Nozaki)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hisashi; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Okamoto, Toshiko; Awaya, Shinobu.

    1982-01-01

    A 56 year old house wife with a ten history of diabetes mellitus was admitted with visual impairment of both eyes. The pupil of the right eye larger than that of the lefteye, and did not react to light. Examination revealed diabetic retinopathy of both eyes with the right dilatedandfixed pupil and ocular movements were not abnormal except convergence. Computed Tomography did not show abnormal findings. It is necessary, however, to keep in mind that normal apperance of CT-scan does not always mean normal conditions, because of it's limited resolution capacity. From clinical signs and symptoms, the mydriatic fixed pupil might be diagnosed as diabetic origin. Thus, despite of outstanding technical advances such as a CT-scan, it should be emphasized that the most important diagnostic procedure is clinical signs, symptoms, accurate history, and clinical examinations. It seems to be a useful procedure that twin light reflex is applied to the fixed pupil with retina or optic nerve involvement as well as direct, consensual light reaction, and swing flashlight test. (author)

  19. The Prolonged Neonatal Admission: Implications for our National Children's Hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGlacken-Byrne, SM

    2016-06-01

    A significant number of neonates are admitted to tertiary paediatric units for prolonged stays annually, despite limited availability of neonatal beds. As the three Dublin paediatric hospitals merge, this pressure will be transferred to our new National Children’s Hospital.\\r\

  20. Experimental study on the 4H-SiC-based VDMOSFETs with lightly doped P-well field-limiting rings termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan Jing; Lv, Hong Liang; Tang, Xiao Yan; Song, Qing Wen; Zhang, Yi Meng; Han, Chao; Zhang, Yi Men; Zhang, Yu Ming

    2017-03-01

    A lightly doped P-well field-limiting rings (FLRs) termination on 4H-SiC vertical double-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (VDMOSFETs) has been investigated. Based on the simulation, the proposed termination applied to 4H-SiC VDMOSFET could achieve an almost same breakdown voltage (BV) and have the advantage of lower ion-implantation damage comparing with P+ FLRs termination. Meanwhile, this kind of termination also reduces the difficulty and consumption of fabrication process. 4H-SiC VDMOSFETs with lightly doped P-well (FLRs) termination have been fabricated on 10 μm thick epi-layer with nitrogen doping concentration of 6.2 × 1015 cm-3. The maximum breakdown voltage of the 4H-SiC VDMOSFETs has achieved as high as 1610 V at a current of 15 μA, which is very close to the simulated result of 1643 V and about 90% of the plane parallel breakdown voltage of 1780 V. It is considered that P-well FLRs termination is an effective, robust and process-tolerant termination structure suitable for 4H-SiC VDMOSFET.

  1. Limits on light WIMPs with a 1 kg-scale germanium detector at 160 eVee physics threshold at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Hau-Bin; Yue, Qian; Kang, Ke-Jun; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Li, Yuan-Jing; Tsz-King Wong, Henry; Aǧartioǧlu, M.; An, Hai-Peng; Chang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Jing-Han; Chen, Yun-Hua; Deng, Zhi; Du, Qiang; Gong, Hui; He, Li; Hu, Jin-Wei; Hu, Qing-Dong; Huang, Han-Xiong; Jia, Li-Ping; Jiang, Hao; Li, Hong; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Jin; Li, Xia; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yu-Lan; Lin, Fong-Kay; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, Shu-Kui; Liu, Zhong-Zhi; Ma, Hao; Ma, Jing-Lu; Pan, Hui; Ren, Jie; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Sevda, B.; Sharma, Vivek; Shen, Man-Bin; Singh, Lakhwinder; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Tang, Chang-Jian; Tang, Wei-You; Tian, Yang; Wang, Ji-Min; Wang, Li; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yi; Wu, Shi-Yong; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Xing, Hao-Yang; Xu, Yin; Xue, Tao; Yang, Song-Wei; Yi, Nan; Yu, Chun-Xu; Yu, Hai-Jun; Yue, Jian-Feng; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Ming; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Yun-Hua; Zhao, Ming-Gang; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Ji-Fang; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Zhu, Zhong-Hua; CDEX Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We report results of a search for light weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter from the CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL). Constraints on WIMP-nucleon spin-independent (SI) and spin-dependent (SD) couplings are derived with a physics threshold of 160 eVee, from an exposure of 737.1 kg-days. The SI and SD limits extend the lower reach of light WIMPs to 2 GeV and improve over our earlier bounds at WIMP mass less than 6 GeV. Supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0402200, 2017YFA0402201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175099, 11275107, 11475117, 11475099, 11475092, 11675088), the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (2010CB833006). We thank the support of grants from the Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (20121088494, 20151080354) and the Academia Sinica Investigator Award 2011-15, contracts 103-2112-M-001-024 and 104-2112-M-001-038-MY3 from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan.

  2. Efficient concept for generation of diffraction-limited green light by sum-frequency generation of spectrally combined tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hasler, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the power of visible diode laser systems in an efficient manner, we propose spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation. We show that this approach, in comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, can enhance the available power signific......In order to increase the power of visible diode laser systems in an efficient manner, we propose spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation. We show that this approach, in comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, can enhance the available power...... significantly. By combining two distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode lasers we achieve a 2.5–3.2 fold increase in power and a maximum of 3.9 W of diffraction-limited green light. At this power level, green diode laser systems have a high application potential, e.g., within the biomedical field. Our concept...

  3. Generation of 3.5 W of diffraction-limited green light from SHG of a single tapered diode laser in a cascade of nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Sumpf, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Many applications, e.g., within biomedicine stand to benefit greatly from the development of diode laser-based multi- Watt efficient compact green laser sources. The low power of existing diode lasers in the green area (about 100 mW) means that the most promising approach remains nonlinear...... frequency conversion of infrared tapered diode lasers. Here, we describe the generation of 3.5 W of diffraction-limited green light from SHG of a single tapered diode laser, itself yielding 10 W at 1063 nm. This SHG is performed in single pass through a cascade of two PPMgO:LN crystals with re...... power of 3.5 W corresponds to a power enhancement greater than 2 compared to SHG in each of the crystals individually and is the highest visible output power generated by frequency conversion of a single diode laser. Such laser sources provide the necessary pump power for biophotonics applications...

  4. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystedt, Astrid; Högberg, Ulf; Lundman, Berit

    2008-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour. The negativity associated with a complicated labour such as prolonged labour can lead to a struggle to become a healthy mother and could restrict the process of becoming a mother. Interviews were conducted in 2004 with 10 mothers who had been through a prolonged labour with assisted vaginal or caesarean delivery 1-3 months previously. Thematic content analysis was used. Three themes were formulated, describing women's experiences as fumbling in the dark, struggling for motherhood and achieving confidence in being a mother. The difficulties and suffering involved in becoming a mother after a prolonged labour were interpreted to be like 'fumbling in the dark'. Women experienced bodily fatigue, accompanied by feelings of illness and detachment from the child. Having the child when in this condition entailed a struggle to become a mother. In spite of these experiences and the desire to achieve confidence in being a mother, the reassurance of these women regarding their capacity for motherhood was crucial: it was central to their happiness as mothers, encouraged interaction and relationship with the child, and contributed to their adaptation to motherhood. Women experiencing prolonged labour may be comparable with the experience of and recovery from illness, which could contribute to difficulties transitioning to motherhood and limit a woman's ability to be emotionally available for the child.

  6. Pulsed versus continuous wave low-level light therapy on osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome): a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barolet, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) was formerly known as CREST syndrome in reference to the associated clinical features: calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasias. The transforming growth factor beta has been identified as a major player in the pathogenic process, where low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been shown to modulate this cytokine superfamily. This case study was conducted to assess the efficacy of 940 nm using millisecond pulsing and continuous wave (CW) modes on osteoarticular signs and symptoms associated with lcSSc. The patient was treated two to three times a week for 13 weeks using a sequential pulsing mode on one elbow and a CW mode on the other. Efficacy assessments included inflammation, symptoms, pain, health scales, patient satisfaction, clinical global impression, and adverse effects monitoring. Considerable functional and morphologic improvements were observed after LLLT, with the best results seen with the pulsing mode. No adverse effects were noted. Pulsed LLLT represents a treatment alternative for osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome).

  7. Prolonged pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1......) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner and social conditions (IV). The National Birth Cohort provided data for the study on prenatal risk indicators of prolonged pregnancy in a follow-up design (V). The self-reported gestational ages from this database...

  8. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  9. Twisted intramolecular charge transfer investigation of semi organic L-Glutamic acid hydrochloride single crystal for organic light-emitting and optical limiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Lija K.; George, Merin; Alex, Javeesh; Aravind, Arun; Sajan, D.; Vinitha, G.

    2018-03-01

    Single crystals of L-Glutamic acid hydrochloride (LGHCl) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique and good crystalline perfection was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction studies. The complete vibrational studies of the compound were analyzed by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectra combined with Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology and density functional theory (DFT). Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) occurs due to the presence of strong ionic intra-molecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding was confirmed by Hirshfeld Surface analysis. The existence of intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds due to the interaction between the lone pair of oxygen with the antibonding orbital was established by NBO analysis. The Z-scan result indicated that the title molecule exhibits saturable absorption behavior. The attractive third-order nonlinear properties suggest that LGHCl can be a promising candidate for the design and development devices for optical limiting applications. LGHCL exhibits distinct emission in the blue region of the fluorescence lifetime which proves to be a potential candidate for blue- Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabrication.

  10. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  11. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  12. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  13. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  14. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  15. Diagnostic utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in prolonged and chronic cough according to atopic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Asano

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Although high FeNO levels suggested the existence of AC, lower FeNO levels had limited diagnostic significance. Atopic status affects the utility of FeNO levels in the differential diagnosis of prolonged and chronic cough.

  16. Prolonged CT urography in duplex kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghan; Gao, Lei; Dai, Xi-Jian; Zhou, Fuqing; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Xianjun; Jiang, Jian; He, Laichang

    2016-05-13

    Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) and has been suggested to considerably aid in the duplex kidney diagnosi. Unfortunately, regarding duplex kidney with prolonged dilatation, the affected parenchyma and tortuous ureters demonstrate a lack of or delayed excretory opacification. We used prolonged-delay CTU, which consists of another prolonged-delay phase (1- to 72-h delay; mean delay: 24 h) to opacify the duplicated ureters and affected parenchyma. Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5-56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with duplex kidney were included in this study. Unenhanced scans did not find typical characteristics of duplex kidney, except for irregular perirenal morphology. Duplex kidney could not be confirmed on typical four-phase CTU, whereas it could be easily diagnosed in axial and CT-3D reconstruction using prolonged CTU (prolonged-delay phase). Between January 2005 and October 2010, in this review board-approved study (with waived informed consent), 17 patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5 ~ 56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with suspicious duplex kidney underwent prolonged CTU to opacify the duplicated ureters and confirm the diagnosis. Our results suggest the validity of prolonged CTU to aid in the evaluation of the function of the affected parenchyma and in the demonstration of urinary tract malformations.

  17. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  18. Limited evidence for affective and diurnal rhythm responses to dim light-at-night in male and female C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary-Gaffney, Michael; Coogan, Andrew N

    2018-05-15

    Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a range of behavioural, physiological and molecular parameters that display periods of near 24 h, and are underpinned by an endogenous biological timekeeping system. Circadian clocks are increasingly recognised as being key for health. Environmental light is the key stimulus that synchronises the internal circadian system with the external time cues. There are emergent health concerns regarding increasing worldwide prevalence of electric lighting, especially man-made light-at-night, and light's impact on the circadian system may be central to these effects. A number of previous studies have demonstrated increased depression-like behaviour in various rodent experimental models exposed to dim light-at-night. In this study we set out to study the impact of dim light-at-night on circadian and affective behaviours in C57Bl/6 mice. We set out specifically to examine the impact of sex on light at night's effects, as well as the impact of housing conditions. We report minimal impact of light-at-night on circadian and affective behaviours, as measured by the tail suspension test, the forced swim test, the sucrose preference test and the elevated plus maze. Light-at-night was also not associated with an increase in body weight, but was associated with a decrease in the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 in the dentate gyrus. In summary, we conclude that experimental contextual factors, such as model species or strain, may be considerable importance in the investigation of the impact of light at night on mood-related parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prolonged delirium misdiagnosed as a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium can be conceptualized as an acute decline in cognitive function that typically lasts from hours to a few days. Prolonged delirium can also affect patients with multiple predisposing and/or precipitating factors. In clinical practice, prolonged delirium is often unrecognized, and can be misdiagnosed as other psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that was first misdiagnosed as a mood disorder in a general hospital setting. After prolonged delirium due to multiple factors was confirmed, the patient was treated accordingly with symptomatic management. He evolved with progressive improvement of his clinical status. Early diagnosis and management of prolonged delirium are important to improve patient prognosis and avoid iatrogenic measures.

  20. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Kulairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  1. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  2. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    ) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... an ultrasound scan in the first or second trimester, or menstrual history was best at predicting the day of delivery; 5) to study the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner, social status and municipality; and 6) to detect prenatal risk indicators of prolonged...... of perinatal and obstetrical complications was high in post-term delivery compared to term delivery (OR between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death (OR=1.36 (1.08-1.72)) was also higher in the post-term group (I). The self-reported gestational ages in the National Birth Cohort correlated well with data...

  3. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information regarding QT-prolongation in the drug label may vary between products. This could lead to suboptimal risk minimization strategies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the variation in the extent and content of information on QT prolongation in the summary of product......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...

  4. Generation of more than 300 mW diffraction-limited light at 405 nm by second-harmonic generation of a tapered diode laser with external cavity feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Holm, J.; Sumpf, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have constructed a blue laser source consisting of a single-frequency tapered diode laser with external cavity feedback that is frequency doubled by a quasi-phase matched KTP (PPKTP) in a bowtie ring cavity and extract more than 360 mW of power at 405 nm. The conversion efficiency from...... fundamental laser power to second harmonic power is 35 %, while it is 64 % from coupled fundamental power to extracted blue light. Thermal effects and gray tracking set an upper limit on the amount of generated blue light....

  5. Growing Escherichia coli mutants deficient in riboflavin biosynthesis with non-limiting riboflavin results in sensitization to inactivation by broad-spectrum near-ultraviolet light (320-400 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.; Rinkenberger, J.L.; Hug, B.A.; Tuveson, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two mutants of Escherichia coli unable to synthesize riboflavin were grown with limiting (2 μg ml -1 ) and non-limiting (10 μg ml -1 ) concentrations of riboflavin. These riboflavin auxotrophs when grown to exponential phase with non-limiting riboflavin are more sensitive to broad spectrum near-ultraviolet light (NUV, 320-400 nm) inactivation than when they are grown with limiting riboflavin. Exponential phase cells of the riboflavin auxotrophs grown with limiting riboflavin are sensitized when irradiated in saline supplemented with riboflavin. This suggests that extracellular riboflavin is important as a NUV sensitizer when intracellular levels of riboflavin are reduced. The concentration of riboflavin in crude extracts from exponentially growing cells correlates well with the sensitivity of these mutants to NUV inactivation. The level of riboflavin supplementation has little effect on the NUV sensitivity of the parental strain. (author)

  6. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum disease with prolonged pulmonary involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsche, Cecilie Blenstrup; Svensson, Erik; Wejse, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium celatum is a rare cause of human infection, causing disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Infections localized to the lungs and the lymph nodes have also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The existing literature on the subject is limited as are experiences...... with treatment regimens and durations. In the case presented herein, two different treatment regimens were applied to an immunocompromised HIV-negative patient with primary skin involvement and extensive pulmonary involvement due to suspected relapse on isoniazid, ethambutol, and clarithromycin treatment....... The treatment regimen was changed to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and pyrazinamide and the treatment duration was prolonged to a total of 24 months, with good effect....

  7. Kinetic modeling of light limitation and sulfur deprivation effects in the induction of hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Part I. Model development and parameter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchard, Swanny; Pruvost, Jérémy; Degrenne, Benoit; Titica, Mariana; Legrand, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a green microalga capable of turning its metabolism towards H2 production under specific conditions. However this H2 production, narrowly linked to the photosynthetic process, results from complex metabolic reactions highly dependent on the environmental conditions of the cells. A kinetic model has been developed to relate culture evolution from standard photosynthetic growth to H2 producing cells. It represents transition in sulfur-deprived conditions, known to lead to H2 production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the two main processes then induced which are an over-accumulation of intracellular starch and a progressive reduction of PSII activity for anoxia achievement. Because these phenomena are directly linked to the photosynthetic growth, two kinetic models were associated, the first (one) introducing light dependency (Haldane type model associated to a radiative light transfer model), the second (one) making growth a function of available sulfur amount under extracellular and intracellular forms (Droop formulation). The model parameters identification was realized from experimental data obtained with especially designed experiments and a sensitivity analysis of the model to its parameters was also conducted. Model behavior was finally studied showing interdependency between light transfer conditions, photosynthetic growth, sulfate uptake, photosynthetic activity and O2 release, during transition from oxygenic growth to anoxic H2 production conditions.

  8. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  9. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  10. Prolonged Cholestatic Jaundice Associated With Flurbiprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Serkan; Celikbilek, Mehmet; Demirkan, Kutay; Yilmaz, Semih; Deniz, Kemal; Gursoy, Sebnem; Yucesoy, Mehmet

    2014-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed drugs throughout the world for pain relief. Although the adverse effects of NSAIDs to the liver are well known, flurbiprofen-induced liver cholestasis is extremely rare. Herein, we present a patient with prolonged icterus that is associated with the use of flurbiprofen without causing ductopenia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  12. Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Complicating Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of transient right ventricular dysfunction associated with prolonged cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of uncertain etiology. We believe that in this case dynamic coronary flow restriction resulted in ischemic injury and stunning of the right ventricle. Other possible causes are briefly reviewed. Right ...

  13. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Andreas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM [Gilbert et al., Journal of the

  14. Prolonged QRS Widening After Aripiprazole Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Porter, Robert; Dewey, Kayla

    2018-05-05

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with a long half-life. Overdose can result in protracted somnolence and cardiac disturbances, particularly QT interval prolongation. This is a single case report of a 14-year-old boy who took an overdose of aripiprazole and developed QRS widening. A 14-year-old boy intentionally ingested 20 tablets of aripiprazole (5 mg). He was brought to the emergency department when his ingestion was discovered. The patient's vital signs were as follows: temperature, 37.7°C; heart rate, 108 beats/min; blood pressure, 138/98 mm Hg; and respirations, 16 breaths/min. Activated charcoal was administered within 90 minutes of ingestion. Initial electrocardiogram (EKG) showed sinus tachycardia, with a QRS of 138 ms and QT interval of 444 ms. QRS duration was 90 ms on an EKG performed 3 months earlier. A bolus of sodium bicarbonate was administered, and the patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. Repeat EKG demonstrated a QRS of 156 ms, and a sodium bicarbonate infusion was initiated. The patient continued to have QRS prolongation for the next 8 days, reaching a peak of 172 ms 3 days postingestion. Despite aggressive treatment with sodium bicarbonate, there was persistent QRS prolongation; however, the patient did not have any dysrhythmias and remained hemodynamically stable. The patient was discharged 9 days postingestion when the QRS duration normalized to 82 ms. Genetic testing revealed that the patient was a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. This case suggests that aripiprazole toxicity may possibly be associated with QRS prolongation without associated dysrhythmias or cardiovascular compromise. In addition, toxicity may be prolonged in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

  15. Psychotropic Pharmacotherapy Associated With QT Prolongation Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Eileen M; Zeber, John E; McNeal, Catherine J; Banchs, Javier E; Copeland, Laurel A

    2018-04-01

    In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration issued Drug Safety Communications on several drugs associated with QT prolongation and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Among these was citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) approved for depression and commonly used for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Evaluation of the risk for QT prolongation among other psychotropic drugs for individuals with PTSD remains limited. Explore psychotropic drugs associated with QT prolongation among veterans with PTSD. Patients in the Veterans Health Administration in 2006-2009 with PTSD and QT prolongation (176 cases) were matched 1:4 on age, gender, visit date and setting, and physical comorbidity. Classification trees assessed QT prolongation risk among prescribed medications (n=880). Receipt of any drug with known risk of QT prolongation varied by group (23% QT cases vs 15% control, prisks included ziprasidone (3% vs 1%, p=0.02) and buspirone (6% vs 2%, p=0.01). Increased risk was not observed for the SSRIs, citalopram and fluoxetine. Classification trees found that sotalol and amitriptyline carried greater risk among cardiac patients and methadone, especially if prescribed with quetiapine, among noncardiac patients. Per adjusted survival model, patients with QT prolongation were at increased risk for death (hazard ratio=1.60; 95% CI=1.04-2.44). Decision models are particularly advantageous when exploring nonlinear relationships or nonadditive interactions. These findings may potentially affect clinical decision-making concerning treatment for PTSD. For patients at higher risk of QT prolongation, antidepressants other than amitriptyline should be considered. Medications for comorbid conditions should also be closely monitored for heightened QT prolongation risk.

  16. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants; Les prolongations de licence des centrales nucleaires americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  17. Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S

    2015-07-14

    A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage

  18. Hydroelectrolytic and hormonal modifications related to prolonged bedrest in antiorthostatic position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güell, A.; Dupui, Ph.; Fanjaud, G.; Bes, A.; Moatti, J. P.; Gharrib, Cl.

    The effects of prolonged bedrest in antiorthostatic position (-4° head down) on electrolyte balance were studied in 4 young volunteers. An increase was noted in sodium excretion during the first 4 days. Plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone varied in parallel manner during the same period. Potassium balance and creatinine clearance were not significantly modified. In light of these data we feel that prolonged bedrest in antiorthostatic position constitutes an effective way to simulate on earth metabolic and hormonal modifications occurring in man under weightlessness conditions.

  19. Detection of nanoplastics in food by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering: possibilities, challenges and analytical limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Manuel; Löschner, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    We tested the suitability of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for detection of nanoplastics in fish. A homogenized fish sample was spiked with 100 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) (1.3 mg/g fish). Two sample preparation strategies...... were tested: acid digestion and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K. Both procedures were found suitable for degradation of the organic matrix. However, acid digestion resulted in large PSNPs aggregates/agglomerates (> 1 μm). The presence of large particulates was not observed after enzymatic...

  20. Next Generation Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    Light Robotics is a new field of research where ingredients from photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology are put together in new ways to realize light-driven robotics at the smallest scales to solve major challenges primarily within the nanobio-domain but not limited hereto. Exploring the full...... potential of this new ‘drone-like’ light-printed, light-driven, light-actuated micro- and nano-robotics in challenging geometries requires a versatile and real-time reconfigurable light addressing that can dynamically track a plurality of tiny tools in 3D to ensure real-time continuous light...

  1. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  2. Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Sunghun; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-07-16

    A high-efficiency blue-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) approaching theoretical efficiency using an exciplex-forming co-host composed of N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) and bis-4,6-(3,5-di-3-pyridylphenyl)- 2-methylpyrimidine (B3PYMPM) is fabricated. Iridium(III)bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)- pyridinato-N,C2']picolinate (FIrpic) is used as the emitter, which turns out to have a preferred horizontal dipole orientation in the emitting layer. The OLED shows a maximum external quantum efficiency of 29.5% (a maximum current efficiency of 62.2 cd A(-1) ), which is in perfect agreement with the theoretical prediction. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Limits of Thought in the Light of Nature and Divinity. A Return to Ancient Thought or the Quest for the Being of Primordial Thinking in the Later Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Okorokov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Question about the essence of thought itself may be formulated in two ways: is it a manifestation of the existential presence or a habit to considerate a Universe as a representation of its rational core? Among various methods of inquiry of essential nature of thought, I would emphasize a Martin Heidegger’s approach, which was represented in his late papers. I mean, widely accepted in oriental culture but almost forgotten in European intellectual tradition approach which considers thought as luminous and light-bearing logos – the fundamental origin and principle of the Universe. The problem of logos appearance in primordial chaos and discovery of the thought origins, on Heidegger’s opinion, becomes the crucial matter of his “fundamental ontology”. Heidegger is confident that the problem of transformation of primordial chaos into well-ordered (by “logos” Universe was the most significant topic which the ancient philosophers (Anaximander, Heraclitus, and Parmenides were focused on. My research, represented in this article, discovers European philosopher’s acceptation and reception of the ancient interpretation of primordial thought as a “divine light”. My conclusion is that all classical European philosophical ontological theories (since the first philosophers to Plato, Aristotle, post-Aristotelian thinkers, and to the contemporary philosophers may be considered as the different varieties of interpretation of the primordial (given by gods luminous thinking itself and became a simulation of the primordial nature of thought. Another conclusion is, that origins of mentioned above ancient philosophical inquiries on the divine-light essence of primordial thinking, may be found in earlier, than Heidegger thinks, texts composed by Homer, Hesiod, and perhaps even in the religious philosophical texts of the Orient heritage (India, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient states, created before the sixth century BC.

  4. Variation in Definition of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McGinlay, Michael; Amin, Reshma; Burns, Karen Ea; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Jouvet, Philippe; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; McAuley, Danny F; Schultz, Marcus J; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-10-01

    Consistency of definitional criteria for terminology applied to describe subject cohorts receiving mechanical ventilation within ICU and post-acute care settings is important for understanding prevalence, risk stratification, effectiveness of interventions, and projections for resource allocation. Our objective was to quantify the application and definition of terms for prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a scoping review of studies (all designs except single-case study) reporting a study population (adult and pediatric) using the term prolonged mechanical ventilation or a synonym. We screened 5,331 references, reviewed 539 full-text references, and excluded 120. Of the 419 studies (representing 38 countries) meeting inclusion criteria, 297 (71%) reported data on a heterogeneous subject cohort, and 66 (16%) included surgical subjects only (46 of those 66, 70% cardiac surgery). Other studies described COPD (16, 4%), trauma (22, 5%), neuromuscular (17, 4%), and sepsis (1, 0.2%) cohorts. A total of 741 terms were used to refer to the 419 study cohorts. The most common terms were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (253, 60%), admission to specialized unit (107, 26%), and long-term mechanical ventilation (79, 19%). Some authors (282, 67%) defined their cohorts based on duration of mechanical ventilation, with 154 studies (55%) using this as the sole criterion. We identified 37 different durations of ventilation ranging from 5 h to 1 y, with > 21 d being the most common (28 of 282, 7%). For studies describing a surgical cohort, minimum ventilation duration required for inclusion was ≥ 24 h for 20 of 66 studies (30%). More than half of all studies (237, 57%) did not provide a reason/rationale for definitional criteria used, with only 28 studies (7%) referring to a consensus definition. We conclude that substantial variation exists in the terminology and definitional criteria for cohorts of subjects receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Standardization of

  5. Prolonged Exposure: a Rapid Treatment for Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. P.; Gaind, R.; Marks, I. M.

    1971-01-01

    Ten adult patients with long-standing specific phobias were treated by prolonged continuous exposure to their phobic objects in fantasy and reality without avoidance. All patients were greatly helped by four to five hours' treatment in two or three sessions, and all improved more after practice than after imaginal sessions. The treatment method is more economical and efficient than other methods described so far. PMID:5539135

  6. Doping porous silicon with erbium: pores filling as a method to limit the Er-clustering effects and increasing its light emission

    KAUST Repository

    Mula, Guido; Printemps, Tony; Licitra, Christophe; Sogne, Elisa; D’ Acapito, Francesco; Gambacorti, Narciso; Sestu, Nicola; Saba, Michele; Pinna, Elisa; Chiriu, Daniele; Ricci, Pier Carlo; Casu, Alberto; Quochi, Francesco; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni; Falqui, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Er clustering plays a major role in hindering sufficient optical gain in Er-doped Si materials. For porous Si, the long-standing failure to govern the clustering has been attributed to insufficient knowledge of the several, concomitant and complex processes occurring during the electrochemical Er-doping. We propose here an alternative road to solve the issue: instead of looking for an equilibrium between Er content and light emission using 1-2% Er, we propose to significantly increase the electrochemical doping level to reach the filling the porous silicon pores with luminescent Er-rich material. To better understand the intricate and superposing phenomena of this process, we exploit an original approach based on needle electron tomography, EXAFS and photoluminescence. Needle electron tomography surprisingly shows a heterogeneous distribution of Er content in the silicon thin pores that until now couldn't be revealed by the sole use of scanning electron microscopy compositional mapping. Besides, while showing that pore filling leads to enhanced photoluminescence emission, we demonstrate that the latter is originated from both erbium oxide and silicate. These results give a much deeper understanding of the photoluminescence origin down to nanoscale and could lead to novel approaches focused on noteworthy enhancement of Er-related photoluminescence in porous silicon.

  7. Doping porous silicon with erbium: pores filling as a method to limit the Er-clustering effects and increasing its light emission

    KAUST Repository

    Mula, Guido

    2017-07-14

    Er clustering plays a major role in hindering sufficient optical gain in Er-doped Si materials. For porous Si, the long-standing failure to govern the clustering has been attributed to insufficient knowledge of the several, concomitant and complex processes occurring during the electrochemical Er-doping. We propose here an alternative road to solve the issue: instead of looking for an equilibrium between Er content and light emission using 1-2% Er, we propose to significantly increase the electrochemical doping level to reach the filling the porous silicon pores with luminescent Er-rich material. To better understand the intricate and superposing phenomena of this process, we exploit an original approach based on needle electron tomography, EXAFS and photoluminescence. Needle electron tomography surprisingly shows a heterogeneous distribution of Er content in the silicon thin pores that until now couldn\\'t be revealed by the sole use of scanning electron microscopy compositional mapping. Besides, while showing that pore filling leads to enhanced photoluminescence emission, we demonstrate that the latter is originated from both erbium oxide and silicate. These results give a much deeper understanding of the photoluminescence origin down to nanoscale and could lead to novel approaches focused on noteworthy enhancement of Er-related photoluminescence in porous silicon.

  8. High Power Efficiency Solution-Processed Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Exciplex-Type Host with a Turn-on Voltage Approaching the Theoretical Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Xinxin; Sun, Kaiyong; Sun, Yueming; Huang, Bin; Ye, Shanghui; Yang, Min; Jiang, Wei

    2015-11-18

    Three solution-processable exciplex-type host materials were successfully designed and characterized by equal molar blending hole transporting molecules with a newly synthesized electron transporting material, which possesses high thermal stability and good film-forming ability through a spin-coating technique. The excited-state dynamics and the structure-property relationships were systematically investigated. By gradually deepening the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of electron-donating components, the triplet energy of exciplex hosts were increased from 2.64 to 3.10 eV. Low temperature phosphorescence spectra demonstrated that the excessively high triplet energy of exciplex would induce a serious energy leakage from the complex state to the constituting molecule. Furthermore, the low energy electromer state, which only exists under the electroexcitation, was found as another possible channel for energy loss in exciplex-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In particular, as quenching of the exciplex-state and the triplet exciton were largely eliminated, solution-processed blue phosphorescence OLEDs using the exciplex-type host achieved an extremely low turn-on voltage of 2.7 eV and record-high power efficiency of 22.5 lm W(-1), which were among the highest values in the devices with identical structure.

  9. Small-scale (flash) flood early warning in the light of operational requirements: opportunities and limits with regard to user demands, driving data, and hydrologic modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Andy; Kerl, Florian; Büttner, Uwe; Metzkes, Christine; Singer, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the Free State of Saxony (Eastern Germany) was repeatedly hit by both extensive riverine flooding, as well as flash flood events, emerging foremost from convective heavy rainfall. Especially after a couple of small-scale, yet disastrous events in 2010, preconditions, drivers, and methods for deriving flash flood related early warning products are investigated. This is to clarify the feasibility and the limits of envisaged early warning procedures for small catchments, hit by flashy heavy rain events. Early warning about potentially flash flood prone situations (i.e., with a suitable lead time with regard to required reaction-time needs of the stakeholders involved in flood risk management) needs to take into account not only hydrological, but also meteorological, as well as communication issues. Therefore, we propose a threefold methodology to identify potential benefits and limitations in a real-world warning/reaction context. First, the user demands (with respect to desired/required warning products, preparation times, etc.) are investigated. Second, focusing on small catchments of some hundred square kilometers, two quantitative precipitation forecasts are verified. Third, considering the user needs, as well as the input parameter uncertainty (i.e., foremost emerging from an uncertain QPF), a feasible, yet robust hydrological modeling approach is proposed on the basis of pilot studies, employing deterministic, data-driven, and simple scoring methods.

  10. Prolonged labour as indication for emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Sorensen, B L; Onesmo, R

    2012-01-01

    To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour.......To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour....

  11. Mitigating prolonged QT interval in cancer nanodrug development for accelerated clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Amalendu P; Mukerjee, Anindita; Helson, Lawrence; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2013-12-14

    Cardiac toxicity is the foremost reason for drug discontinuation from development to clinical evaluation and post market surveillance [Fung 35:293-317, 2001; Piccini 158:317-326 2009]. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has rejected many potential pharmaceutical agents due to QT prolongation effects. Since drug development and FDA approval takes an enormous amount of time, money and effort with high failure rates, there is an increased focus on rescuing drugs that cause QT prolongation. If these otherwise safe and potent drugs were formulated in a unique way so as to mitigate the QT prolongation associated with them, these potent drugs may get FDA approval for clinical use. Rescuing these compounds not only benefit the patients who need them but also require much less time and money thus leading to faster clinical translation. In this study, we chose curcumin as our drug of choice since it has been shown to posses anti-tumor properties against various cancers with limited toxicity. The major limitations with this pharmacologically active drug are (a) its ability to prolong QT by inhibiting the hERG channel and (b) its low bioavailability. In our previous studies, we found that lipids have protective actions against hERG channel inhibition and therefore QT prolongation. Results of the manual patch clamp assay of HEK 293 cells clearly illustrated that our hybrid nanocurcumin formulation prevented the curcumin induced inhibition of hERG K+ channel at concentrations higher than the therapeutic concentrations of curcumin. Comparing the percent inhibition, the hybrid nanocurcumin limited inhibition to 24.8% at a high curcumin equivalent concentration of 18 μM. Liposomal curcumin could only decrease this inhibition upto 30% only at lower curcumin concentration of 6 μM but not at 18 μM concentration. Here we show a curcumin encapsulated lipopolymeric hybrid nanoparticle formulation which could protect against QT prolongation and also render increased

  12. The concession contractual quantity limit agreements in the light of energy law and cartel law; Konzessionsvertragliche Mengengrenzvereinbarungen im Lichte von Energierecht und Kartellrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoech, Thomas; Kalwa, Feh [Kanzlei Hoech und Partner, Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In the year 2009, the Federal Cartel Office (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reached to two decisions on the cartel legal validity of quantity limit agreements in franchise agreements and on their handling with the survey and calculation of concession deliveries. In both cases, the Federal Cartel Office proceeds from an offence against paragraph 19 sect. 1 GWB (law against the restriction of competition) and paragraph 19 sect. 2 GWB. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on different legal questions. The question arises whether paragraph 19 GWB is applicable to the decided facts at all, or whether the exclusion regulation paragraph 111 sect. 1 of the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) intervenes. The authors describe the right of concession delivery and the two resolutions of the Federal Cartel Office. Afterwards, these resolutions are appreciated regarding to the raised legal questions.

  13. Laryngotracheal Injury following Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mehdizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation

  14. Inhibition of barley grain germination by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth-Bejerano, N.; Meulen, R.M. van der; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    Intact grains of barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Triumph) germinated rapidly in the dark or when exposed to brief daily light breaks in the temperature range 15-25°C, although germination proceeded less rapidly at low temperatures. Prolonged illumination (16 h/day) or continuous light inhibited

  15. Topical Drug Formulations for Prolonged Corneal Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tong, Rong; Ciolino, Joseph B.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular local anesthetics (OLA’s) currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect on the duration of corneal anesthesia of the site-1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), applied with either proparacaine or the chemical permeation enhancer OTAB. The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. Methods Solutions of TTX, proparacaine, and OTAB, singly or in combination were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo following corneal debridement. Results Combination of TTX and proparacaine resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8–10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, while OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed following co-administration of TTX and proparacaine. Conclusion Co-administration of TTX and proparacaine significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia but in view of delayed corneal re-epithelialization, caution is suggested in use of the combination. PMID:23615270

  16. QT Interval Prolongation as a Biomarker for Torsades de Pointes and Sudden Death in Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Sides

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolongation of the QT interval on the surface 12-lead electrocardiogram is widely accepted as a biomarker for the potential of a drug to produce torsades de pointes and/or sudden death. Detection of drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval in animals and man is frequently confounded by extrinsic and intrinsic factors that limit the ability to detect a true drug effect. In particular drugs that increase heart rate show an apparent increase in QT interval that confounds assessment of a true drug effect on cardiac ventricular repolarization. The basis for the use of the QT interval as a biomarker will be examined.

  17. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gysel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  18. Prolonged toxicity from Kambo cleansing ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Horng, Howard; Lynch, Kara; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-04-02

    Kambo cleanse is a purification, cleansing ritual traditionally performed by South American shaman to confer luck and health to hunters. We report a patient who presented to the emergency department with prolonged symptoms of vomiting, flushing, facial swelling, altered mental status, and agitation requiring chemical restraints, 22 h after a Kambo cleanse. The patient was found with four small, circular, superficial burns to the ankle at the site where the resin was introduced. The cleanse consists of rubbing resin obtained from the secretions of the giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) into superficial wounds to produce intense gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a sensation of increased stamina and strength. The cleanse is now being increasingly performed in Europe and USA.

  19. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  20. Neurohumoral responses during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Blomstrand, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This study examined neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise with and without hyperthermia. The cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate uptake ratio (O2/CHO = arteriovenous oxygen difference divided by arteriovenous glucose difference plus one-half lactate), the cerebral balances of dopamine......, and the metabolic precursor of serotonin, tryptophan, were evaluated in eight endurance-trained subjects during exercise randomized to be with or without hyperthermia. The core temperature stabilized at 37.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) in the control trial, whereas it increased to 39.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C...... in the hyperthermic trial, with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P exercise trials. Both the arterial and jugular venous dopamine levels...

  1. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  2. Prolonged pain and disability are common after rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of rib fractures to prolonged pain and disability may be underappreciated and undertreated. Clinicians are traditionally taught that the pain and disability of rib fractures resolves in 6 to 8 weeks. This study was a prospective observation of 203 patients with rib fractures at a level 1 trauma center. Chest wall pain was evaluated by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Prolonged pain was defined as a PRI of 8 or more at 2 months after injury. Prolonged disability was defined as a decrease in 1 or more levels of work or functional status at 2 months after injury. Predictors of prolonged pain and disability were determined by multivariate analysis. One hundred forty-five male patients and 58 female patients with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 20 (range, 1 to 59) had a mean of 5.4 rib fractures (range, 1 to 29). Forty-four (22%) patients had bilateral fractures, 15 (7%) had flail chest, and 92 (45%) had associated injury. One hundred eighty-seven patients were followed 2 months or more. One hundred ten (59%) patients had prolonged chest wall pain and 142 (76%) had prolonged disability. Among 111 patients with isolated rib fractures, 67 (64%) had prolonged chest wall pain and 69 (66%) had prolonged disability. MPQ PPI was predictive of prolonged pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.5), and prolonged disability (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4). The presence of significant associated injuries was predictive of prolonged disability (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29). Prolonged chest wall pain is common, and the contribution of rib fractures to disability is greater than traditionally expected. Further investigation into more effective therapies that prevent prolonged pain and disability after rib fractures is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does UTI cause prolonged jaundice in otherwise well infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tanzila; Kisat, Hamudi; Tullus, Kjell

    2015-07-01

    The symptoms of urinary tract infections in infants are very non-specific and have historically included prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia. We studied the results of routine urine samples in 319 infants with prolonged jaundice. Convincing findings of UTI was not found in any of these children even if one of them was treated with antibiotics after four consecutive urine cultures with different bacteria. A urine culture might thus not be an appropriate investigation in a child with prolonged jaundice without any other symptoms of UTI. • The symptoms of UTI in infancy are very non-specific. • Old studies suggest that prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia is one such symptom; more modern studies give more conflicting results. What is New: • Our study could not confirm that children with prolonged jaundice have an increased risk of UTI. • Routine urine testing is thus not needed in otherwise healthy infants with prolonged jaundice.

  4. Prolonged response without prolonged chemotherapy: a lesson from PCV chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Ricard, Damien; Jouvet, Anne; Pallud, Johan; Mokhtari, Karima; Guyotat, Jacques; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Frappaz, Didier; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies with temozolomide suggest that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is important for treating low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating LGGs, but this therapy cannot be used for a prolonged period because of the cumulative toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line PCV chemotherapy on LGGs growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 21 LGGs was measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n=13), during, and after PCV onset (n=21). During PCV treatment, a decrease in the MTD was observed in all patients. After PCV discontinuation, an ongoing decrease in MTD was observed in 20 of the 21 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 3.4 years (range, 0.8–7.7) after PCV onset and 2.7 years (range, 0–7) after the end of PCV treatment with 60% of LGGs, demonstrating an ongoing and prolonged (>2 years) response despite chemotherapy no longer being administered. According to McDonald's criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 5% and 38% at the end of PCV but 38% and 42% at the time of maximal MTD decrease, which occurred after a median period of 3.4 years after PCV onset. These results challenge the idea that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is necessary for treating LGGs and raise the issue of understanding the mechanisms involved in the persistent tumor volume decrease once chemotherapy is terminated. PMID:20488959

  5. Fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory for supernonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jipeng; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superprincipal bundle and its associated superbundle. The super(nonlinear)connection on the superfiber bundle is constructed. Then by means of the connection theory, we establish the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory of the supernonlinear evolution equation. In this geometry theory, the fermionic covariant fundamental equations determining the prolongation structure are presented. As an example, the supernonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed in the framework of this fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We obtain its Lax pairs and Baecklund transformation.

  6. Prolonged disengagement from distractors near the hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Vatterott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Because items near our hands are often more important than items far from our hands, the brain processes visual items near our hands differently than items far from our hands. Multiple experiments have attributed this processing difference to spatial attention, but the exact mechanism behind how spatial attention near our hands changes is still under investigation. The current experiments sought to differentiate between two of the proposed mechanisms: a prioritization of the space near the hands and a prolonged disengagement of spatial attention near the hands. To differentiate between these two accounts, we used the additional singleton paradigm in which observers searched for a shape singleton among homogenously shaped distractors. On half the trials, one of the distractors was a different color. Both the prioritization and disengagement accounts predict differently colored distractors near the hands will slow target responses more than differently colored distractors far from the hands, but the prioritization account also predicts faster responses to targets near the hands than far from the hands. The disengagement account does not make this prediction, because attention does not need to be disengaged when the target appears near the hand. We found support for the disengagement account: Salient distractors near the hands slowed responses more than those far from the hands, yet observers did not respond faster to targets near the hands.

  7. Narrative reconstruction therapy for prolonged grief disorder—rationale and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvia Peri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged grief disorder (PGD is a potentially disabling condition affecting approximately 10% of bereaved people. It has been suggested that the impaired integration of the loss memory, as expressed in recurrent memories of the loss and disorganization of memory, is involved in the development of PGD. Narrative reconstruction (NR, originally designed for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in an integrative therapy module, and consisting of exposure to the loss memory, detailed written reconstruction of the loss memory narrative and an elaboration of the personal significance of that memory for the bereaved, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of intrusion symptoms. Objective: In light of findings that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, including cognitive restructuring and exposure, is effective in the treatment of PGD, we suggest the implementation of a somewhat novel therapy module, NR, for the treatment of intrusive phenomena in bereaved patients. Method: The rationale for the implementation of NR for PGD and a case study of the treatment of a woman suffering from PGD after the death of her father are presented. Therapy took place in a university outpatient training clinic. Results: Evaluations conducted before and after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up demonstrated the effectiveness of NR in reducing symptoms of PGD and depression. The analysis of spontaneous narratives recorded before and after treatment showed an increased organization of the narratives. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates an adaptation of NR for the treatment of PGD. The results provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of NR for PGD. The significance of the study and its limitations are discussed.

  8. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  9. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  10. Risk management of QTc-prolongation in patients receiving haloperidol: an epidemiological study in a University hospital in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandael, Eline; Vandenberk, Bert; Vandenberghe, Joris; Spriet, Isabel; Willems, Rik; Foulon, Veerle

    2016-04-01

    Many drugs, including haloperidol, are linked with a risk of QTc-prolongation, which can lead to Torsade de Pointes and sudden cardiac death. To investigate the prevalence of concomitant risk factors for QTc-prolongation in patients treated with haloperidol, and the use of safety measures to minimize this risk. University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium. Methods A retrospective epidemiological study was performed. On 15 consecutive Mondays, all patients with a prescription for haloperidol were included. A risk score for QTc-prolongation, inspired by the pro-QTc score of Haugaa et al., was calculated based on gender, comorbidities, lab results and concomitant QTc-prolonging drugs (each factor counting for one point). Available electrocardiograms before and during the treatment of haloperidol were registered. Management of the risk of QTc-prolongation. Two hundred twenty-two patients were included (59.0 % men, median age 77 years) of whom 26.6 % had a risk score of ≥4 (known to significantly increase the mortality). Overall, 24.3 % received haloperidol in combination with other drugs with a known risk of Torsade de Pointes. Half of the patients had an electrocardiogram in the week before the start of haloperidol; only in one-third a follow-up electrocardiogram during haloperidol treatment was performed. Of the patients with a moderately (n = 41) or severely (n = 14) prolonged QTc-interval before haloperidol, 48.8 % and 42.9 % respectively had a follow-up electrocardiogram. In patients with a risk score ≥4, significantly more electrocardiograms were taken before starting haloperidol (p = 0.020). Although many patients had risk factors for QTc-prolongation (including the use of other QTc-prolonging drugs) or had a prolonged QTc on a baseline electrocardiogram, follow-up safety measures were limited. Persistent efforts should be taken to develop decision support systems to manage this risk.

  11. Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy with Combined Exposure of External and Interstitial Light Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Sato, Kazuhide; Ogata, Fusa; Okuyama, Shuhei; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2018-02-21

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new target-cell-specific cancer treatment that induces highly selective necrotic/immunogenic cell death after systemic administration of a photoabsorber antibody conjugate and subsequent NIR light exposure. However, the depth of NIR light penetration in tissue (approximately 2 cm) with external light sources limits the therapeutic effects of NIR-PIT. Interstitial light exposure using cylindrical diffusing optical fibers can overcome this limitation. The purpose in this study was to compare three NIR light delivery methods for treating tumors with NIR-PIT using a NIR laser system at an identical light energy; external exposure alone, interstitial exposure alone, and the combination. Panitumumab conjugated with the photoabsorber IRDye-700DX (pan-IR700) was intravenously administered to mice with A431-luc xenografts which are epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive. One and 2 days later, NIR light was administered to the tumors using one of three methods. Interstitial exposure alone and in combination with external sources showed the greatest decrease in bioluminescence signal intensity. Additionally, the combination of external and interstitial NIR light exposure showed significantly greater tumor size reduction and prolonged survival after NIR-PIT compared to external exposure alone. This result suggested that the combination of external and interstitial NIR light exposure was more effective than externally applied light alone. Although external exposure is the least invasive means of delivering light, the combination of external and interstitial exposures produces superior therapeutic efficacy in tumors greater than 2 cm in depth from the tissue surface.

  12. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  13. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  14. Impacts of CO2 Enrichment on Productivity and Light Requirements of Eelgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R. C.; Kohrs, D. G.; Steller, D. L.; Alberte, R. S.

    1997-10-01

    Seagrasses, although well adapted for submerged existence, are CO2-limited and photosynthetically inefficient in seawater. This leads to high light requirements for growth and survival and makes seagrasses vulnerable to light limitation. We explored the long-term impact of increased CO2 availability on light requirements, productivity, and C allocation in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). Enrichment of seawater CO2 increased photosynthesis 3-fold, but had no long-term impact on respiration. By tripling the rate of light-saturated photosynthesis, CO2 enrichment reduced the daily period of irradiance-saturated photosynthesis (Hsat) that is required for the maintenance of positive whole-plant C balance from 7 to 2.7 h, allowing plants maintained under 4 h of Hsat to perform like plants growing in unenriched seawater with 12 h of Hsat. Eelgrass grown under 4 h of Hsat without added CO2 consumed internal C reserves as photosynthesis rates and chlorophyll levels dropped. Growth ceased after 30 d. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll, and sucrose-phosphate synthase activity of CO2-enriched plants showed no acclimation to prolonged enrichment. Thus, the CO2-stimulated improvement in photosynthesis reduced light requirements in the long term, suggesting that globally increasing CO2 may enhance seagrass survival in eutrophic coastal waters, where populations have been devastated by algal proliferation and reduced water-column light transparency.

  15. Effect of prolonged space flight on cardiac function and dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, W. L.; Epstein, S. E.; Griffith, J. M.; Goldstein, R. E.; Redwood, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Echocardiographic studies were performed preflight 5 days before launch and on recovery day and 1, 2, 4, 11, 31 and 68 days postflight. From these echocardiograms measurements were made. From these primary measurements, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were derived using the accepted assumptions. Findings in the Scientist Pilot and Pilot resemble those seen in trained distance runners. Wall thickness measurements were normal in all three crewmembers preflight. Postflight basal studies were unchanged in the Commander on recovery day through 68 days postflight in both the Scientist Pilot and Pilot, however, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were decreased slightly. Left ventricular function curves were constructed for the Commander and Pilot by plotting stroke volume versus end-diastolic volume. In both astronauts, preflight and postflight data fell on the same straight line demonstrating that no deterioration in cardiac function had occurred. These data indicate that the cardiovascular system adapts well to prolonged weightlessness and suggest that alterations in cardiac dimensions and function are unlikely to limit man's future in space.

  16. Prolonged stress induces adaptation of drosophila population to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, I. B.; Glushkova, I. V.; Aksyutik, T. V.

    2003-01-01

    We studied natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from radio-contaminated area (Vetka district of Gomel region with 24 Ci/km 2 of 137 Cs and 0.5 Cu/km 2 of 90 Sr) and from Berezynski Natural Reserve as a control area (region of Chernobyl catastrophe). Population samples were caught in 2000-2001 years. Natural insect populations from radio-contaminated areas are more resistant to additional irradiation than control populations. Keeping of natural populations under laboratory or vivarium conditions is a strong stress (limited space, overpopulation, other than in nature temperature and light conditions), which increases mutation process and induces unspecific adaptation. (authors)

  17. "Tangible Lights"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tor; Merritt, Timothy; Andersen, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    While there has been much focus on tangible lighting interfaces embedded in physical objects and smartphones as remote control, there has not been sufficient attention on how the expressivity of bodily movement can be used when designing interactions with light. Therefore, we investigate...... interaction with lighting technology beyond the smartphone and physical controllers. We examine the usefulness of the in-air gestural interaction style for lighting control. We bring forward "Tangible Lights", which serves as a novel interface for in-air interaction with lighting, drawing on existing...

  18. Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Haer, Roos; Böhmelt, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    While we know why rebels may recruit children for their cause, our understanding of the consequences of child soldiering by non-state armed groups remains limited. The following research contributes to addressing this by examining how rebels’ child recruitment practice affects the duration of internal armed conflicts. We advance the argument that child soldiering increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This, in turn, lowers the capability asymmetry between thes...

  19. Neonatal survival after prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes before 24 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Jane E; Colaizy, Tarah T; Nuangchamnong, Nina; O'Brien, Emily A; Fleener, Diedre K; Rijhsinghani, Asha; Klein, Jonathan M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate neonatal survival after prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in the era of antenatal corticosteroids, surfactant, and inhaled nitric oxide. A single-center retrospective cohort study of neonates born from 2002-2011 after prolonged (1 week or more) preterm (less than 24 weeks of gestation) rupture of membranes was performed. The primary outcome was survival to discharge. Neonates whose membranes ruptured less than 24 hours before delivery (n=116) were matched (2:1) on gestational age at birth, sex, and antenatal corticosteroid exposure with neonates whose membranes ruptured 1 week or more before delivery (n=58). Analysis used conditional logistic regression for categorical data and Wilcoxon signed rank test for continuous data. The prolonged preterm PROM exposed and unexposed cohorts had survival rates of 90% and 95%, respectively, although underpowered to assess the statistical significance (P=.313). Exposed neonates were more likely have pulmonary hypoplasia (26/58 exposed, 1/114 unexposed, Prupture (20.4 weeks exposed, 22.3 weeks unexposed, P=.189), length of rupture (3.7 weeks exposed, 6.4 weeks unexposed, P=.717), and lowest maximal vertical pocket before 24 weeks of gestation (0 cm exposed, 1.4 cm unexposed, P=.114) did not discriminate between survivors and nonsurvivors after exposure to prolonged preterm PROM. With antenatal steroid exposure and aggressive pulmonary management, survival to discharge after prolonged preterm PROM was 90%. Pulmonary morbidities were common. Of note, the data were limited to women who remained pregnant 1 week or longer after rupture of membranes.

  20. Defining futile life-prolonging treatments through Neo-Socratic Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Kuniko; Asai, Atsushi; Bito, Seiji

    2013-12-09

    , and benefits were more specifically discussed with the patient's intentions as the foremost consideration, rather than being limited to the terminal stage. This small study contributed to elucidating the conditions and current problems of futile life-prolonging treatment through NSD. They would suggest more substantial guidelines and improvements on the administration of the treatment.

  1. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J.M.; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The

  2. Predictive factors associated with prolonged chest drain production after esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, S. M.; Omloo, J. M. T.; Ubbink, D. T.; Busch, O. R. C.; Obertop, H.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2007-01-01

    After esophagectomy, pleural drainage is performed to ensure complete drainage of the pleural cavities. The aim of this study was to detect predisposing factors for prolonged drainage. Patients who underwent transhiatal or extended transthoracic esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of the distal

  3. Prolongation of rapacuronium neuromuscular blockade by clindamycin and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Paul A; Rasul, Mazhar

    2002-01-01

    We report a prolonged neuromuscular block with the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rapacuronium in the presence of clindamycin. Even when using "short-acting" muscle relaxants, the anesthesiologist must routinely monitor the neuromuscular function.

  4. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  5. Ways to Optimize Therapy of Prolonged Conjugation Jaundice in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shadrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the optimization of the treatment of prolonged conjugation jaundice. Inclusion of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of neonatal prolonged conjugation jaundice in a dose of 15–20 mg/kg of body mass per day increases the terms of regression of clinical and paraclinical signs of jaundice as much as 2 times and leads to cytolysis normalization. The preparation has a sufficient level of safety, there were not revealed side effects whilst its application.

  6. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  7. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  8. Donor dopamine treatment limits pulmonary oedema and inflammation in lung allografts subjected to prolonged hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanusch, Christine; Nowak, Kai; Toerlitz, Patrizia; Gill, Ishar S.; Song, Hui; Rafat, Neysan; Brinkkoetter, Paul T.; Leuvenink, Henri G.; Van Ackern, Klaus C.; Yard, Benito A.; Beck, Grietje C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Endothelial barrier dysfunction severely compromises organ function after reperfusion. Because dopamine pretreatment improves hypothermia mediated barrier dysfunction, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine treatment of lung allografts positively affects tissue damage associated with

  9. Maintenance of drug metabolism and transport functions in human precision-cut liver slices during prolonged incubation for 5 days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Vatakuti, Suresh; Schievink, Bauke; Merema, Marjolijn T.; Asplund, Annika; Synnergren, Jane; Aspegren, Anders; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    Human precision-cut liver slices (hPCLS) are a valuable ex vivo model that can be used in acute toxicity studies. However, a rapid decline in metabolic enzyme activity limits their use in studies that require a prolonged xenobiotic exposure. The aim of the study was to extend the viability and

  10. Common Variation in the NOS1AP Gene Is Associated With Drug-Induced QT Prolongation and Ventricular Arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, Yalda; Nolte, Ilja M.; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Zheng, Dongling; Johnson, Toby; Bastiaenen, Rachel; Ruddy, Suzanne; Talbott, Daniel; Norris, Kris J.; Snieder, Harold; George, Alfred L.; Marshall, Vanessa; Shakir, Saad; Kannankeril, Prince J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Camm, A. John; Jeffery, Steve; Roden, Dan M.; Behr, Elijah R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine whether variations in NOS1AP affect drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS). Background Use of antiarrhythmic drugs is limited by the high incidence of serious adverse events including QT prolongation and torsades de pointes. NOS1AP gene variants play a role in

  11. Optical Characterization of Light-Bending Mechanisms in Photonic Crystals with Simple Cubic Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Brian James

    For much of Earth's history, light was reputed to be an intangible, intractable, and transient quantity, but our understanding of light has since been revolutionized. The flow of electromagnetic energy through space can today be manipulated with a degree of precision and control once only dreamed of; rapidly developing technologies can create, guide, bend, and detect light to produce useful energy and information. One field where these technologies are most relevant is the field of light trapping, which concerns the harvesting of incident photons within a limited space by scattering, slowing, or otherwise prolonging and enhancing their interaction with matter. Over the past few decades, a class of materials, called photonic crystals (PCs), has emerged that is ideally suited for this task. This is because their wavelength-scale periodicity in one, two, or three dimensions can be designed to alter the dispersion relation and photonic density-of-states in a controllable manner. In this work, a TiO2 simple cubic PC with high dielectric contrast ( > 4:1) is fabricated with a lattice constant of 450 nm, and a newly discovered light-trapping mechanism is demonstrated, which bends light by 90 degrees and enhances optical absorption by one to two orders-of-magnitude over that in a reference film of the same thickness. It is shown that, for wavelengths from 450-950 nm, the achievable enhancement factor for this structure surpasses the theoretical limit of 4n2 derived under the assumption of ergodic system by multiple times. These results derive directly from the symmetry of the simple cubic lattice and are fundamental in nature, not depending on the material used or on the method of fabrication. The light trapping capability of these PCs has straight-forward applications that would be useful in a variety of areas where increased light-matter interaction is desirable, such as white-light generation, thin-film solar cells, photocatalytic pollutant degradation and hydrogen fuel

  12. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  13. Effects of Prolonged Silver Nanoparticle Exposure on the Contextual Cognition and Behavior of Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Antsiferova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles have been widely used in the lighting and food industries, in medicine, and in pharmaceutics as an antiseptic agent. Recent research demonstrates that, after prolonged oral administration, silver nanoparticles may cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain in rather high amounts. In ex vivo experiments, it has also been shown that silver nanoparticles demonstrate neurotoxicity. The objective of this work was to answer the questions whether silver nanoparticles change cognitive and behavioral functions of mammals after prolonged administration if silver nanoparticles have accumulated in the brain. C57Bl/6 male mice were orally exposed to PVP-coated silver nanoparticles daily for 30, 60, 120 and 180 days. Control mice were exposed to distilled water. After that they were tested in the Open Field, Elevated Plus Maze, Light-Dark Box and contextual fear conditioning task. The data have shown that the experimental mice went through three periods of switching in the behavior caused by adaptation to the toxic silver nanoparticles: anxiety, appearance of research instinct and impairment of long-term memory. This provides evidence of the hazardous effect of silver nanoparticles, which appears after long periods of silver nanoparticle oral administration.

  14. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  15. Pharmacometabolomic approach to predict QT prolongation in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyeon Park

    Full Text Available Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP, a life-threatening arrhythmia associated with prolongation of the QT interval, has been a significant reason for withdrawal of several medicines from the market. Prolongation of the QT interval is considered as the best biomarker for predicting the torsadogenic risk of a new chemical entity. Because of the difficulty assessing the risk for TdP during drug development, we evaluated the metabolic phenotype for predicting QT prolongation induced by sparfloxacin, and elucidated the metabolic pathway related to the QT prolongation. We performed electrocardiography analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of plasma samples obtained from 15 guinea pigs after administration of sparfloxacin at doses of 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg. Principal component analysis and partial least squares modelling were conducted to select the metabolites that substantially contributed to the prediction of QT prolongation. QTc increased significantly with increasing dose (r = 0.93. From the PLS analysis, the key metabolites that showed the highest variable importance in the projection values (>1.5 were selected, identified, and used to determine the metabolic network. In particular, cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP, deoxycorticosterone, L-aspartic acid and stearic acid were found to be final metabolomic phenotypes for the prediction of QT prolongation. Metabolomic phenotypes for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation of sparfloxacin were developed and can be applied to cardiac toxicity screening of other drugs. In addition, this integrative pharmacometabolomic approach would serve as a good tool for predicting pharmacodynamic or toxicological effects caused by changes in dose.

  16. Lighting. Eclairage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Increasing energy costs have led to a review of the high costs of lighting. The use of new energy-efficient lighting equipment, coupled with the use of the proper quantity and quality of lighting only where it is needed, creates a potential for cost reduction. A manual is provided to aid the process of adapting Canadian industrial, commercial, and institutional enterprises to these higher costs. An introductory review of lighting fundamentals is presented, providing a basic understanding of concepts such as illumination, light output measurements, power requirements, lighting quality, and energy audit methods. The currently available lighting equipment used to achieve cost savings is then reviewed, including energy saving lamps and ballasts, controls, and automatic energy control systems. A number of energy management opportunities are identified, such as modification of lighting usage patterns, calculation of the optimum number of lighting fixtures, replacement of existing lamps, and the application of task lighting. Examples are included to show the cost savings possible when applying some of the techniques suggested. 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  18. Nordic Lighting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2018-01-01

    The Danish designer Poul Henningsen wrote very elaborated theories of interior lighting from the mid-1920s on. He fought against the cold and reduced light quality of electric bulbs and tried to tame and cultivate this technology by design. He wanted a more rich light for domestic purpose...... worthwhile discussing than other design categories to interpret, whether experience of nature and climatic conditions play a role in Scandinavian Design, as repeatedly stated. This discussion contributes both to understanding of interior lighting and the historiographical critique of Scandinavian Design...... and shaped it through lamp design, colour reflections and differentiated use of several lamps in the room to make a more dim lighting, but with greater variation and softer contrasts. It was a ‘culture’ of lighting, he promoted, but he didn’t saw it as linked to the Nordic countries. His sensibility...

  19. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  20. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2012-10-01

    We are presenting so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) fabricated by two-photon polymerization and capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. By integrating optical waveguides into the structures we have created freestanding waveguides which can be positioned anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation. In a broader context, this research shows that optically trapped micro-fabricated structures can potentially help bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the sub-wavelength domain.

  1. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...

  2. Forced migration and mental health: prolonged internal displacement, return migration and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Stewart, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Forced internal displacement has been rising steadily, mainly due to conflict. Many internally displaced people (IDP) experience prolonged displacement. Global research evidence suggests that many of these IDP are at high risk for developing mental disorders, adding weight to the global burden of disease. However, individual and community resilience may act as protective factors. Return migration may be an option for some IDP populations, especially when conflicts end, although return migration may itself be associated with worse mental health. Limited evidence is available on effects of resettlement or return migration following prolonged forced internal displacement on mental health. Also, the role of resilience factors remains to be clarified following situations of prolonged displacement. The public health impact of internal displacement is not clearly understood. Epidemiological and interventional research in IDP mental health needs to look beyond medicalised models and encompass broader social and cultural aspects. The resilience factor should be integrated and explored more in mental health research among IDP and a clearly focused multidisciplinary approach is advocated.

  3. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  4. Prolonged social withdrawal disorder: a hikikomori case in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, Santiago; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; de León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    The Japanese term hikikomori means literally 'to be confined'. Social withdrawal can be present in severe psychiatric disorders; however, in Japan, hikikomori is a defined nosologic entity. There have been only a few reported cases in occidental culture. We present a case report of a Spanish man with prolonged social withdrawal lasting for 4 years. This is a case of prolonged social withdrawal not bound to culture, as well as the second case of hikikomori reported in Spain. We propose prolonged social withdrawal disorder as a disorder not linked to culture, in contrast to hikikomori. Further documentation of this disorder is still needed to encompass all cases reported in Japan and around the world. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Left Ventricular Function After Prolonged Exercise in Equine Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional speckle tracking. Correlation between echocardiographic variables and cardiac troponin I was evaluated. Results: Early diastolic myocardial velocities decreased significantly in longitudinal (baseline: −17.4 ± 2.4cm/s; end of ride: −15.8 ± 3.2cm/s (P = .013); morning......Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...... and diastolic function in horses. Animals: Twenty-six horses competing in 120–160 km endurance rides. Methods: Cross-sectional field study. Echocardiography was performed before and after rides, and the following morning, and included two-dimensional echocardiography, anatomical M-mode, pulsed-wave tissue...

  6. Effect of prolonging radiation delivery time on retention of gammaH2AX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Banáth, Judit P; Duzenli, Cheryl; Olive, Peggy L

    2008-01-01

    Compared to conventional external beam radiotherapy, IMRT requires significantly more time to deliver the dose. Prolonging dose delivery potentially increases DNA repair which would reduce the biological effect. We questioned whether retention of γH2AX, a measure of lack of repair of DNA damage, would decrease when dose delivery was protracted. Exponentially growing SiHa cervical carinoma cells were irradiated with 6 MV photons in a water tank using a VarianEX linear accelerator. Cells held at 37°C received 2 Gy in 0.5 min and 4 Gy in 1 min. To evaluate effect of dose delivery prolongation, 2 and 4 Gy were delivered in 30 and 60 min. After 24 h recovery, cells were analyzed for clonogenic survival and for residual γH2AX as measured using flow cytometry. Increasing the dose delivery time from 0.5 or 1 min to 30 or 60 min produced a signficant increase in cell survival from 0.45 to 0.48 after 2 Gy, and from 0.17 to 0.20 after 4 Gy. Expression of residual γH2AX decreased from 1.27 to 1.22 relative to background after 2 Gy and 1.46 to 1.39 relative to background after 4 Gy, but differences were not statistically significant. The relative differences in the slopes of residual γH2AX versus dose for acute versus prolonged irradiation bordered on significant (p = 0.055), and the magnitude of the change was consistent with the observed increase in surviving fraction. These results support the concept that DNA repair underlies the increase in survival observed when dose delivery is prolonged. They also help to establish the limits of sensitivity of residual γH2AX, as measured using flow cytometry, for detecting differences in response to irradiation

  7. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K.; Steensberg, Adam

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral...... blood flow; n = 5) and the ammonia concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 8) at rest and immediately following prolonged exercise either with or without glucose supplementation. There was a net balance of ammonia across the brain at rest and at 30 min of exercise, whereas 3 h of exercise...... exercise with glucose, and further to 16.1 ± 3.3 µM after the placebo trial (P

  8. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  9. Lightness functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campi, Stefano; Gardner, Richard; Gronchi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Variants of the brightness function of a convex body K in n-dimensional Euclidean are investigated. The Lambertian lightness function L(K; v , w ) gives the total reflected light resulting from illumination by a light source at infinity in the direction w that is visible when looking...... in the direction v . The partial brightness function R( K ; v , w ) gives the area of the projection orthogonal to v of the portion of the surface of K that is both illuminated by a light source from the direction w and visible when looking in the direction v . A class of functions called lightness functions...... is introduced that includes L(K;.) and R(K;.) as special cases. Much of the theory of the brightness function like uniqueness, stability, and the existence and properties of convex bodies of maximal and minimal volume with finitely many function values equal to those of a given convex body, is extended...

  10. Light sources and light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, G.

    2005-01-01

    From the dawn of mankind fire and light sources in general played an essential role in everyday life and protection over night. The development of new light sources went through many stages and is now an immense technological achievement, but also a threat for the wildlife at night, mainly because of the so-called light pollution. This paper discusses several very successful light sources connected with low pressure mercury and sodium vapour electric discharges. The luminous efficacy, colour rendering index and other lighting features cannot be always satisfactory, but at least some of the features can be much better than those met by the standard tungsten filament bulbs. High-pressure metal-vapour discharge lamps definitely have a good colour rendering index and a relatively high luminosity. Different light sources with burners at high pressure are discussed, paying special attention to their spectrum. The paper investigates new trends in development through a number of examples with non-toxic elements and pulsed electric discharge, which may be good news in terms of clean environment and energy savings. Light emitting diodes have recently appeared as worthy competitors to conventional light sources. White LEDs have approached 100 lumen/Watt efficacy in laboratories. This suggests that in some not very distant future they could completely replace high-pressure lamps, at least in indoor lighting. The article speculates on new developments which combine trends in nano technology and material science. The paper concludes with light pollution in view of several recent observations of plant and animal life at night in the vicinity of strong light sources. Photo-induced changes at the cell level may completely alter the normal life of plants and animals.(author)

  11. Effects of light pollution on tree phenology in the urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škvareninová Jana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on urban climates has been an important topic in recent years, given the growing number of city inhabitants and significant influences of climate on health. Nevertheless, far less research has focused on the impacts of light pollution, not only on humans, but also on plants and animals in the landscape. This paper reports a study measuring the intensity of light pollution and its impact on the autumn phenological phases of tree species in the town of Zvolen (Slovakia. The research was carried out at two housing estates and in the central part of the town in the period 2013–2016. The intensity of ambient nocturnal light at 18 measurement points was greater under cloudy weather than in clear weather conditions. Comparison with the ecological standard for Slovakia showed that average night light values in the town centre and in the housing estate with an older type of public lighting, exceeded the threshold value by 5 lux. Two tree species, sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina L., demonstrated sensitivity to light pollution. The average onset of the autumn phenophases in the crown parts situated next to the light sources was delayed by 13 to 22 days, and their duration was prolonged by 6 to 9 days. There are three major results: (i the effects of light pollution on organisms in the urban environment are documented; (ii the results provide support for a theoretical and practical basis for better urban planning policies to mitigate light pollution effects on organisms; and (iii some limits of the use of plant phenology as a bioindicator of climate change are presented.

  12. Correlates of prolonged television viewing time in older Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2013-03-09

    (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.65), overweight (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.00-2.24), and low MVPA (OR = 1.51. 95% CI: 1.05-2.17) were associated with prolonged TV time. These findings identify particular socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics related to TV time among Japanese older adults. It should be noted that correlates of prolonged TV time differed by gender. Women in living situations with limited transportation options tended to spend prolonged time watching TV. Health promotion initiatives for older adults, particularly for older women, may be more effective if they take these attributes into account.

  13. Advantages and limitations of the use of optogenetic approach in studying fast-scale spike encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Malyshev

    Full Text Available Understanding single-neuron computations and encoding performed by spike-generation mechanisms of cortical neurons is one of the central challenges for cell electrophysiology and computational neuroscience. An established paradigm to study spike encoding in controlled conditions in vitro uses intracellular injection of a mixture of signals with fluctuating currents that mimic in vivo-like background activity. However this technique has two serious limitations: it uses current injection, while synaptic activation leads to changes of conductance, and current injection is technically most feasible in the soma, while the vast majority of synaptic inputs are located on the dendrites. Recent progress in optogenetics provides an opportunity to circumvent these limitations. Transgenic expression of light-activated ionic channels, such as Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2, allows induction of controlled conductance changes even in thin distant dendrites. Here we show that photostimulation provides a useful extension of the tools to study neuronal encoding, but it has its own limitations. Optically induced fluctuating currents have a low cutoff (~70 Hz, thus limiting the dynamic range of frequency response of cortical neurons. This leads to severe underestimation of the ability of neurons to phase-lock their firing to high frequency components of the input. This limitation could be worked around by using short (2 ms light stimuli which produce membrane potential responses resembling EPSPs by their fast onset and prolonged decay kinetics. We show that combining application of short light stimuli to different parts of dendritic tree for mimicking distant EPSCs with somatic injection of fluctuating current that mimics fluctuations of membrane potential in vivo, allowed us to study fast encoding of artificial EPSPs photoinduced at different distances from the soma. We conclude that dendritic photostimulation of ChR2 with short light pulses provides a powerful tool to

  14. Public stigma of prolonged grief disorder : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.

    Prolonged grief disorder (PGD), characterized by severe, persistent and disabling grief, is being considered for inclusion in the International Classification of Diseases’ 11 (ICD-11) and a related disorder, Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD), is included for further investigation in the

  15. Prolonged use of indwelling urinary catheter following acute urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.O. Bello

    prolonged use of urinary catheters following acute urinary retention secondary to benign prostate enlarge- ment (BPE) and urethral ... indwelling urinary catheter for >3 months following acute urinary retention due to BPE or USD. The study .... the major health-care financing strategy in Nigeria and accounts for more than ...

  16. Assessing QT interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Graff, Claus; Kanters, Jørgen K.

    2011-01-01

    markers for TdP have been developed but none of them is clinically implemented yet and QT interval prolongation is still considered the most valid surrogate marker. Although automated QT interval determination may offer some assistance, QT interval determination is best performed by a cardiologist skilled...

  17. MRI findings of prolonged post-traumatic sternal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Anderson, Suzanne; Steinbach, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the different causes of prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma with involvement of the sternum and to define criteria for sternal nonunion diagnosis using MRI. Five patients with abnormalities of the sternum were evaluated for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma using MRI. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. The patients were selected from the radiology database, which included 8 patients with post-traumatic prolonged sternal pain. Two patients (n = 2) revealed a sternal nonunion after sternal fracture. One patient had a sternal fracture with delayed union and minor displacement of the sternal halves. Abnormal signal intensity alterations adjacent to and within the manubrio-sternal joint were evident in 2 patients and considered due to trauma-related changes in the manubrio-sternal joint. The 3 patients who were not included in the study had no abnormalities of the sternum: 1 of them proved to have a well-healed sternal fracture and nonunion of a rib fracture, 1 had subtle Tietze's syndrome, and 1 patient revealed no pathological findings on imaging. Various factors may be responsible for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma, and these can be viewed with MRI. In cases of sternal nonunion there was common fluid-like signal in the fracture interspace between the bony edges, and the bone marrow adjacent to the nonunion showed altered signal intensity. MRI identified sternal nonunion and other trauma-related abnormalities of the sternum following chest trauma. (orig.)

  18. Diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation for prolonged fasting arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated δ(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: δ(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes.

  19. Prolonged Intrauterine Retention of Foetal Bones after Midtrimester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged retention of foetal bones in the uterus is a rare complication of induced abortion. We present the case of a 37 year old nullipara with retained foetal bones following a second trimester induced abortion. Accurate diagnosis and removal of the bony fragments led to restoration of fertility and subsequent delivery of a ...

  20. QTc-prolonging drugs and hospitalizations for cardiac arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruin, ML; Hoes, AW; Leufkens, HGM

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia as an adverse effect of noncardiac drugs has been an issue of growing importance during the past few years. In this population-based study, we evaluated the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmias during the use of several noncardiac QTc-prolonging drugs in day-to-day practice, and

  1. The Importance of Prolonged Provocation in Drug Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Sara; Mosbech, Holger; Kappel, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug provocation is the "Gold Standard" in drug allergy investigation. Recent studies suggest that a negative drug provocation on first dose should be followed by a prolonged provocation over several days. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate drug allergy investigations on the basis of drug...

  2. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, J.A. van der; Warle, M.C.; Cheung, C.L.; Teerenstra, S.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    van der Vliet JA, Warle MC, Cheung CLS, Teerenstra S, Hoitsma AJ. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation. Clin Transplant 2011: 25: E612-E616. (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Aim: To determine to what extent current cold ischemia times (CITs) affect the results of

  3. The impact of obesity on physiological responses during prolonged exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Veltmeijer, M.T.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Poelkens, F.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise training is routinely prescribed to subjects with obesity. In the general population, this type of exercise can lead to fluid and sodium imbalance. However, little is known whether obesity alters the risk of fluid and sodium imbalances.Objective:This

  4. Physiological response of rabbit bucks to prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four (64) weanling rabbit bucks, 5 to 6 weeks old, were involved in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment to evaluate the effects of prolonged feeding of cottonseed cake (CSC) – based diets with or without vitamin E supplementation on the physiological response of the bucks. There were eight treatment combinations comprising ...

  5. Single Prolonged Stress Disrupts Retention of Extinguished Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress…

  6. Internalized stigma in adults with early phase versus prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; Luther, Lauren; Yanos, Philip T; Leonhardt, Bethany; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2018-03-30

    Although internalized stigma is associated with negative outcomes among those with prolonged psychosis, surprisingly little work has focused on when in the course of one's illness stigma is internalized and the impact of internalization on symptoms or social functioning over the course of the illness. Therefore, this study investigated whether (1) internalized stigma is greater among those later in the course of psychosis and (2) whether internalized stigma has a stronger negative relationship with social functioning or symptoms among those with prolonged compared to early phase psychosis. Individuals with early phase (n = 40) and prolonged psychosis (n = 71) who were receiving outpatient services at an early-intervention clinic and a VA medical center, respectively, completed self-report measures of internalized stigma and interview-rated measures of symptoms and social functioning. Controlling for education, race and sex differences, internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with prolonged psychosis compared to early phase. Internalized stigma was negatively related to social functioning and positively related to symptoms in both groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive symptoms and internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with early phase. Stereotype endorsement, discrimination experiences and social withdrawal also differentially related to symptoms and social functioning across the 2 samples. Findings suggest that internalized stigma is an important variable to incorporate into models of early psychosis. Furthermore, internalized stigma may be a possible treatment target among those with early phase psychosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil; Hyldig, Tino; Bidstrup, F.

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4...... min of exercise; P

  8. Streptococcus suis meningitis can require a prolonged treatment course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dejace

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of recrudescent Streptococcus suis meningitis requiring a prolonged treatment course. A few similar cases can be found in the burgeoning literature on what remains a relatively uncommon disease in humans, and these patients should be monitored carefully upon completion of therapy. Keywords: Meningitis, Relapse, Duration, Streptococcus suis

  9. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  10. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prognostic Significance Of QT Interval Prolongation In Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prognostic survival studies for heart-rate corrected QT interval in patients with chronic heart failure are few; although these patients are known to have a high risk of sudden cardiac death. This study was aimed at determining the mortality risk associated with prolonged QTc in Nigerians with heart failure. Ninety-six ...

  12. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  13. Prolonged multifocal electroretinographic implicit times in the ocular ischemic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    .4 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, respectively. Summed mfERG implicit times (N1, P1, N2) were prolonged in eyes with OIS, by 7.6%, 6.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, compared with fellow eyes (P macula, whereas the assessment of responses from...

  14. Prolongation Structure of Semi-discrete Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yongqiang; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong; Guo Hanying

    2007-01-01

    Based on noncommutative differential calculus, we present a theory of prolongation structure for semi-discrete nonlinear evolution equations. As an illustrative example, a semi-discrete model of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is discussed in terms of this theory and the corresponding Lax pairs are also given.

  15. Inclusion rate and physiological effects of prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of incluusion of cocoa bean cake (CBC) on productive performance and physiological response of Isa Brown pullets to prolonged feeding of CBC were investigated. Dietary Inclusions or CBC (0, 50, 100 and 200g/ kg-1 diet) were monitored in typical poultry diets from day old to 51 weeks of age. Sexual maturity ...

  16. Preferences for Prolonging Life: A Prospect Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Laraine; Lawton, M. Powell; Ruckdeschel, Katy

    2003-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect theory was tested as a model of preferences for prolonging life under various hypothetical health statuses. A sample of 384 elderly people living in congregate housing (263 healthy, 131 frail) indicated how long (if at all) they would want to live under each of nine hypothetical health conditions (e.g.,…

  17. Identifying Molecular Targets For PTSD Treatment Using Single Prolonged Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder that can...SPS animals. Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is associated with neurocognitive impairments that have been attributed to functional deficits...and resilience. 2. KEYWORDS Post - traumatic stress disorder , Single Prolonged Stress , Neurobiological Mechanisms 5 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  18. Effect Of Prolonged Monocular Occlusion On Latent Nystagms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe authors recorded nystagmus during seeing with one eye in eight patients with latent nystagmus (LN) before and after two or three days of prolonged occlusion of the better eye (POBE). Before POBE, the slow-phase speed of the nystagmus (SPS) was usually higher when the better eye was

  19. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  20. Evident cognitive impairments in seemingly recovered patients after midazolam-based light sedation during diagnostic endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsuan Hsu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Midazolam-based light sedation induced selective cognitive impairments and prolonged cognitive impairments occurred in patients with advanced age. A longer observation time and further screening were recommended for patients due to their at risk state.

  1. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Derrick J; Schei, Jennifer L; Rector, David M

    2013-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65 dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80 cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma.

  2. The efficacy of antipsychotics for prolonged delirium with renal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asano S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Satoko Asano, Yasuto Kunii, Hiroshi Hoshino, Yusuke Osakabe, Tetsuya Shiga, Shuntaro Itagaki, Itaru Miura, Hirooki Yabe Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan Aim: Delirium is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. To identify predictors influencing outcomes, we retrospectively examined the characteristics of inpatients with delirium who required psychiatric medication during hospitalization.Methods: We extracted all new inpatients (n=523 consulted for psychiatric symptoms at Fukushima Medical University Hospital between October 2011 and September 2013. We selected 203 inpatients with delirium diagnosed by psychiatrists. We analyzed data from 177 inpatients with delirium who received psychiatric medication. We defined an “early improvement group” in which delirium resolved in ≤3 days after starting psychiatric medication, and a “prolonged group” with delirium lasting for >3 days. Among the 83 inpatients with renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, we defined an “early improvement group with renal dysfunction” in which delirium resolved in ≤3 days after starting psychiatric medication and a “prolonged group with renal dysfunction” with delirium lasting for >3 days. We then examined differences between groups for different categorical variables.Results: Dose of antipsychotic medication at end point was significantly lower in the prolonged group with renal dysfunction than in the early improvement group with renal dysfunction.Conclusion: The results suggest that maintaining a sufficient dose of antipsychotics from an early stage may prevent prolongation of delirium even in inpatients with renal dysfunction. Keywords: antipsychotic, prolonged delirium, chronic kidney disease, pharmacokinetics 

  3. Dose limits for ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, D.

    1989-01-01

    Dose limits for exposure to ionising radiation are assessed to see if they give sufficient protection both for the occupationally exposed and for the general public. It is concluded that current limits give a level of safety that satisfies the necessary criteria in the light of present knowledge and further reductions would be unlikely to improve standards of safety. (author)

  4. Circadian light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierman Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper reflects a work in progress toward a definition of circadian light, one that should be informed by the thoughtful, century-old evolution of our present definition of light as a stimulus for the human visual system. This work in progress is based upon the functional relationship between optical radiation and its effects on nocturnal melatonin suppression, in large part because the basic data are available in the literature. Discussed here are the fundamental differences between responses by the visual and circadian systems to optical radiation. Brief reviews of photometry, colorimetry, and brightness perception are presented as a foundation for the discussion of circadian light. Finally, circadian light (CLA and circadian stimulus (CS calculation procedures based on a published mathematical model of human circadian phototransduction are presented with an example.

  5. Bili lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 things: Gestational age Bilirubin level in the blood Newborn's age (in hours) In severe cases of increased bilirubin, an exchange transfusion may be done instead. Alternative Names Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal ...

  6. Renal function after prolonged hypotensive anesthesia and surgery in dogs with reduced renal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E A; Rawlings, C A; Finco, D R; Crowell, W A

    1981-10-01

    The effect of prolonged hypotensive anesthesia and surgery on renal function was studied in 8 dogs with decreased renal mass. Renal mass was reduced by unilateral nephrectomy and ligation of 4 of the 6 terminal renal artery branches of the opposite kidney. One week after reduction in renal mass, the dogs were azotemic with a serum urea nitrogen (SUN) value of 65.8 +/- 11.5 mg/dl. Glomerular filtration rate, as estimated by 14C-inulin clearance, was 0.66 +/- 0.19 ml/kg of body weight/hour. A mean arterial pressure of less than 75 mm of Hg was maintained for 4 hours in dogs given 2.3 +/- 0.7% halothane. An exploratory laparotomy lasting 1 hour was performed. The day after the hypotensive episode, 3 dogs began vomiting, became dehydrated, and had SUN values greater than 100 mg/dl. The SUN values returned to base-line values after the dogs were rehydrated. Eight days after the hypotensive episode, 14C-inulin clearance decreased 15.2 +/- 8.2% (P less than 0.005) compared with base-line clearance values. Light microscopic and electron microscopic observations of the kidneys did not demonstrate acute renal failure. Prolonged hypotensive anesthesia can cause a decrease in renal function, and may cause prerenal uremia and/or acute renal failure.

  7. Lighting Efficiency Changes On Horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2017-04-03

    This article answers four questions posed by Facility Executive Magazine regarding the new 2016 edition of ASHRAE Standard 90.1. The discussion centers on new lighting power limits, lighting controls, and the new simulation based performance path in the standard.

  8. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwizdala, M.S.; Berera, R.; Kirilovsky, D.; van Grondelle, R.; Kruger, T.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within

  9. Hypoxic ventilatory sensitivity in men is not reduced by prolonged hyperoxia (Predictive Studies V and VI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, R.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Clark, J. M.; Hopkin, E.

    1998-01-01

    Potential adverse effects on the O2-sensing function of the carotid body when its cells are exposed to toxic O2 pressures were assessed during investigations of human organ tolerance to prolonged continuous and intermittent hyperoxia (Predictive Studies V and VI). Isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory responses (HVR) were determined at 1.0 ATA before and after severe hyperoxic exposures: 1) continuous O2 breathing at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 ATA for 17.7, 9.0, and 5.7 h and 2) intermittent O2 breathing at 2.0 ATA (30 min O2-30 min normoxia) for 14.3 O2 h within 30-h total time. Postexposure curvature of HVR hyperbolas was not reduced compared with preexposure controls. The hyperbolas were temporarily elevated to higher ventilations than controls due to increments in respiratory frequency that were proportional to O2 exposure time, not O2 pressure. In humans, prolonged hyperoxia does not attenuate the hypoxia-sensing function of the peripheral chemoreceptors, even after exposures that approach limits of human pulmonary and central nervous system O2 tolerance. Current applications of hyperoxia in hyperbaric O2 therapy and in subsea- and aerospace-related operations are guided by and are well within these exposure limits.

  10. Molecular and Photosynthetic Responses to Prolonged Darkness and Subsequent Acclimation to Re-Illumination in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymark, Marianne; Valle, Kristi Collier; Hancke, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    and immediately utilize the available energy in photosynthesis and growth. We have investigated both the response to prolonged darkness and the re-acclimation to moderate intensity white irradiance (E = 100 µmol m−2 s−1) in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, using an integrated approach involving global......-introduction of the cells to the initial light conditions revealed 5) distinct expression profiles for nuclear genes involved in photosynthesis and those involved in photoprotection, 6) rapid rise in photosynthetic parameters (α and rETRmax) within 0.5 h of re-exposure to light despite a very modest de novo synthesis......Photosynthetic diatoms that live suspended throughout the water column will constantly be swept up and down by vertical mixing. When returned to the photic zone after experiencing longer periods in darkness, mechanisms exist that enable the diatoms both to survive sudden light exposure...

  11. Characterizing prolonged heat effects on mortality in a sub-tropical high-density city, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hung Chak; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ren, Chao; Ng, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Extreme hot weather events are likely to increase under future climate change, and it is exacerbated in urban areas due to the complex urban settings. It causes excess mortality due to prolonged exposure to such extreme heat. However, there is lack of universal definition of prolonged heat or heat wave, which leads to inadequacies of associated risk preparedness. Previous studies focused on estimating temperature-mortality relationship based on temperature thresholds for assessing heat-related health risks but only several studies investigated the association between types of prolonged heat and excess mortality. However, most studies focused on one or a few isolated heat waves, which cannot demonstrate typical scenarios that population has experienced. In addition, there are limited studies on the difference between daytime and nighttime temperature, resulting in insufficiency to conclude the effect of prolonged heat. In sub-tropical high-density cities where prolonged heat is common in summer, it is important to obtain a comprehensive understanding of prolonged heat for a complete assessment of heat-related health risks. In this study, six types of prolonged heat were examined by using a time-stratified analysis. We found that more consecutive hot nights contribute to higher mortality risk while the number of consecutive hot days does not have significant association with excess mortality. For a day after five consecutive hot nights, there were 7.99% [7.64%, 8.35%], 7.74% [6.93%, 8.55%], and 8.14% [7.38%, 8.88%] increases in all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Non-consecutive hot days or nights are also found to contribute to short-term mortality risk. For a 7-day-period with at least five non-consecutive hot days and nights, there was 15.61% [14.52%, 16.70%] increase in all-cause mortality at lag 0-1, but only -2.00% [-2.83%, -1.17%] at lag 2-3. Differences in the temperature-mortality relationship caused by hot days and hot nights

  12. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  13. QTc-prolonging drugs and hospitalizations for cardiac arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Hoes, Arno W; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia as an adverse effect of noncardiac drugs has been an issue of growing importance during the past few years. In this population-based study, we evaluated the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmias during the use of several noncardiac QTc-prolonging drugs in day-to-day practice......, and subsequently focused on several specific groups of patients who could be extremely vulnerable for drug-induced arrhythmias. We performed a case-control study in which patients (cases), hospitalized for nonatrial cardiac arrhythmias from 1987 to 1998, were compared with their matched controls regarding current...... use of QTc-prolonging drugs. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Data were obtained from the PHARMO record linkage system. We identified 501 cases, 39 of whom used QTc...

  14. Prolonged Remission in Neuromyelitis Optica Following Cessation of Rituximab Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinfurtner, Kelley; Graves, Jennifer; Ness, Jayne; Krupp, Lauren; Milazzo, Maria; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune disease characterized by acute episodes of transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Several small, open-label studies suggest rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, prevents relapses in neuromyelitis optica; however, there is little consensus on timing or duration of treatment. Here we report four patients with severe relapsing neuromyelitis optica who were stabilized on rituximab and, after discontinuing treatment, continued to experience prolonged remission of their disease. Remission ranged from 4.5 to 10.5 years total, including 3 to 9 years off all therapies. The patients had sustained clinical responses despite normal B-lymphocyte levels and, in at least 2 patients, continued seropositivity for aquaporin-4 antibodies. These cases suggest that rituximab may induce prolonged remission in certain neuromyelitis optica patients, and they highlight the need for further elucidation of rituximab's mechanism in neuromyelitis optica. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Prolonged radioprotective activity of WR-2721 linked to dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenig, H.; Konermann, G.; Oehlert, W.

    1990-01-01

    The radioprotective agent WR-2721 was linked to dextran and poly(glutamic acid) respectively, to obtain a prolonged radioprotective ability. Male mice were administered these water soluble polymer conjugates one to 72 hours prior to a whole body irradiation with X-rays. A prolongation of radioprotective efficiency was achieved with two dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugates. For a period of 24 hours between administration, and irradiation dose reduction factors of 1.14±0.04 and 1.10±0.03 respectively were found. After 72 hours, no protective effect was observed. Histopathological investigations of the liver for formation of tumors 200 to 600 days after irradiation seems to indicate that a protective effect is not produced by the dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugats. (orig.) [de

  16. Smoking prolongs the infectivity of patients with tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siddiqui, U A

    2010-10-01

    We sought to establish if smokers on anti-tuberculosis treatment are more likely to have a prolonged period of infectivity, compared to non-smoking tuberculosis patients, in a low tuberculosis prevalence country. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study in Ireland that recruited 53 microbiologically confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The age-sex adjusted odds ratios (AOR) suggest that the infectivity status of PTB on treatment was four times more likely to be prolonged beyond 6-8 weeks, if the cases had a smoking history (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.23; 15.9). Smoking was associated with delayed sputum smear conversion in PTB patients on treatment.

  17. Atraumatic femoral neck fracture secondary to prolonged lactation induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.

  18. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  19. Slow light invisibility, teleportation, and other mysteries of light

    CERN Document Server

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Slow Light is a popular treatment of today's astonishing breakthroughs in the science of light. Even though we don't understand light's quantum mysteries, we can slow it to a stop and speed it up beyond its Einsteinian speed limit, 186,000 miles/sec; use it for quantum telecommunications; teleport it; manipulate it to create invisibility; and perhaps generate hydrogen fusion power with it. All this is lucidly presented for non-scientists who wonder about teleportation, Harry Potter invisibility cloaks, and other fantastic outcomes. Slow Light shows how the real science and the fantasy inspire

  20. Tetrodotoxin-Bupivacaine-Epinephrine Combinations for Prolonged Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bognet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently available local anesthetics have analgesic durations in humans generally less than 12 hours. Prolonged-duration local anesthetics will be useful for postoperative analgesia. Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. In those studies, epinephrine combined with TTX prolonged blocks more than 10-fold, while reducing systemic toxicity. TTX, formulated as Tectin, is in phase III clinical trials as an injectable systemic analgesic for chronic cancer pain. Here, we examine dose-duration relationships and sciatic nerve histology following local nerve blocks with combinations of Tectin with bupivacaine 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL solutions, with or without epinephrine 5 µg/mL (1:200,000 in rats. Percutaneous sciatic blockade was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats, and intensity and duration of sensory blockade was tested blindly with different Tectin-bupivacaine-epinephrine combinations. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Sidak tests. Nerves were examined blindly for signs of injury. Blocks containing bupivacaine 0.25% with Tectin 10 µM and epinephrine 5 µg/mL were prolonged by roughly 3-fold compared to blocks with bupivacaine 0.25% plain (P < 0.001 or bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL (P < 0.001. Nerve histology was benign for all groups. Combinations of Tectin in bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL appear promising for prolonged duration of local anesthesia.

  1. A Case of QT Prolongation Associated with Panhypopituitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Arpaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 37-year-old patient with panhypopituitarism who experienced symptoms and signs of hormonal insufficiency and QT prolongation on electrocardiogram without electrolyte disturbances. After hormonal (steroidal and thyroid replacement therapy electrocardiographic findings were normalized. Hormonal disorders should be considered as a cause of long QT intervals which may lead to torsade de pointes, even if plasma electrolyte levels are normal, because life-threatening arrhythmia is treatable by supplementation of the hormone that is lacking.

  2. MRI findings of prolonged post-traumatic sternal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize the different causes of prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma with involvement of the sternum and to define criteria for sternal nonunion diagnosis using MRI. Five patients with abnormalities of the sternum were evaluated for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma using MRI. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. The patients were selected from the radiology database, which included 8 patients with post-traumatic prolonged sternal pain. Two patients (n = 2) revealed a sternal nonunion after sternal fracture. One patient had a sternal fracture with delayed union and minor displacement of the sternal halves. Abnormal signal intensity alterations adjacent to and within the manubrio-sternal joint were evident in 2 patients and considered due to trauma-related changes in the manubrio-sternal joint. The 3 patients who were not included in the study had no abnormalities of the sternum: 1 of them proved to have a well-healed sternal fracture and nonunion of a rib fracture, 1 had subtle Tietze's syndrome, and 1 patient revealed no pathological findings on imaging. Various factors may be responsible for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma, and these can be viewed with MRI. In cases of sternal nonunion there was common fluid-like signal in the fracture interspace between the bony edges, and the bone marrow adjacent to the nonunion showed altered signal intensity. MRI identified sternal nonunion and other trauma-related abnormalities of the sternum following chest trauma. (orig.)

  3. Hormone supply of the organism in prolonged emotional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M. G.; Stulnikov, B. V.; Svirskaya, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged emotional stress of varying genesis on the hormonal function of the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal cortex was studied. The amount of the hormonal secretion was found to depend on the type of adaptation activity and its duration. High secretion of the hormones observed outside the adaptation activity was examined as an index of the phase transition of defense reactions to the phase of overstress.

  4. The effects of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Wu, Shih-Hao; Li, Wen-Cheng; Kuo, Chan-Wei; Chen, Shou-Yen; Chen, Jih-Chang

    2013-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (for >15 minutes). The retrospective cohort study consisted of adult patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with the diagnosis of cardiac arrest in 2009. Data were retrieved from the institutional database. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were treated (group1, n = 30) or not treated (group 2, n = 62) with sodium bicarbonate. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between groups. The median time interval between the administration of CPR and sodium bicarbonate injection was 36.0 minutes (IQR: 30.5-41.8 minutes). The median amount of bicarbonate injection was 100.2 mEq (IQR: 66.8-104.4). Patients who received a sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR had a higher percentage of return of spontaneous circulation, but not statistical significant (ROSC, 40.0% vs. 32.3%; P = .465). Sustained ROSC was achieved by 2 (6.7%) patients in the sodium bicarbonate treatment group, with no survival to discharge. No significant differences in vital signs after ROSC were detected between the 2 groups (heart rate, P = .124; systolic blood pressure, P = .094). Sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR was not associated with ROSC after adjust for variables by regression analysis (Table 3; P = .615; odds ratio, 1.270; 95% confidence interval: 0.501-3.219) The administration of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged CPR did not significantly improve the rate of ROSC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diclofenac prolongs repolarization in ventricular muscle with impaired repolarization reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kristóf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. METHODS: Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. RESULTS: Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM. The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl(2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg significantly lengthened the QT(c interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QT(c. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%. In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM decreased the amplitude of rapid (I(Kr and slow (I(Ks delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (I(Ca was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (I(to and inward rectifier (I(K1 potassium currents were not influenced. CONCLUSIONS: Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve.

  6. Diclofenac Prolongs Repolarization in Ventricular Muscle with Impaired Repolarization Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, Attila; Husti, Zoltán; Koncz, István; Kohajda, Zsófia; Szél, Tamás; Juhász, Viktor; Biliczki, Péter; Jost, Norbert; Baczkó, István; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Virág, László

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. Methods Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. Results Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM). The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg) did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg) significantly lengthened the QTc interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QTc. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP) while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%). In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM) decreased the amplitude of rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (ICa) was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (Ito) and inward rectifier (IK1) potassium currents were not influenced. Conclusions Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve. PMID:23300901

  7. Prolonged fever in peritoneal tuberculosis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, U.; Irwandi, S.; Habib, H.; Lim, H.; Pasha, M.; Janis, I.; Saragih, R. H.; Ginting, Y.; Effendy-Y S, R.

    2018-03-01

    Peritoneal tuberculosis may lead to delayed diagnosis because of the nonspecific features such as fever, abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, ascites, and weight loss. Here, wereported a case of prolonged fever and abdominal pain which was due to peritoneal tuberculosis. Initial examinations including acomplete blood test and serologic tests did not lead to the diagnosis. A final diagnosis was made by abdominal CT-scan and laparoscopy combined with histopathological studies. Antituberculous medications provided a good clinical response in this patient.

  8. The incidence of hyponatremia during prolonged ultraendurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, T D; Norman, R J; Buck, R H; Godlonton, J; Stevenson, K; Pittaway, D

    1990-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that potentially fatal hyponatremia can develop during prolonged exercise. To determine the incidence of hyponatremia in athletes competing in ultradistance events, we measured serum sodium levels in 315 of 626 (50%) runners who were treated for collapse after two 90 km ultramarathon footraces (total starters 20,335; total finishers 18,031) and in 101 of 147 (69%) finishers in a 186 km ultratriathlon. In both races the athletes drank fluids with low sodium chloride content (less than 6.8 mmol.l-1). Hyponatremia (serum sodium level less than 130 mmol.l-1) was identified in 27 of 315 (9%) collapsed runners in the 90 km races and in none of the triathletes. In response to diuretic therapy, the runner with the most severe hyponatremia (serum sodium level = 112 mmol.l-1) excreted in excess of 7.5 l dilute urine during the first 17 h of hospitalization. These data suggest that, although symptomatic hyponatremia occurs in less than 0.3% of competitors during prolonged exercise even when they ingest little sodium chloride, it is found in a significant proportion (9%) of collapsed runners. A regulated contraction of the extracellular fluid volume would explain why the majority of athletes maintain normal serum sodium levels even though they develop a significant sodium chloride deficit during prolonged exercise. Alternatively, sodium chloride losses during prolonged exercise may be substantially less than are currently believed. Physicians treating collapsed ultradistance athletes need to be aware that as many as 10% or more of such patients may be hyponatremic.

  9. Risk Factors of Prolonged Hospitalization in Patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Onur Topcu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Number of vomiting per day and maternal serum TSH levels could help physicians to estimate the risk of prolonged hospitalization; however further investigations are needed in large population studies. Identifying the high risk patients is important both for prevention of HEG and beginning appropriate antiemetic treatment to avoid complications to reduce the economic costs. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 113-118

  10. Translating QT interval prolongation from conscious dogs to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vincent F S; Smania, Giovanni; Yu, Huixin; Graf, Ramona; Chain, Anne S Y; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    In spite of screening procedures in early drug development, uncertainty remains about the propensity of new chemical entities (NCEs) to prolong the QT/QTc interval. The evaluation of proarrhythmic activity using a comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay does not fully account for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) differences in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between drug-specific parameters describing QT interval prolongation in dogs and in humans. Using estimates of the drug-specific parameter, data on the slopes of the PKPD relationships of nine compounds with varying QT-prolonging effects (cisapride, sotalol, moxifloxacin, carabersat, GSK945237, SB237376 and GSK618334, and two anonymized NCEs) were analysed. Mean slope estimates varied between -0.98 ms μM -1 and 6.1 ms μM -1 in dogs and -10 ms μM -1 and 90 ms μM -1 in humans, indicating a wide range of effects on the QT interval. Linear regression techniques were then applied to characterize the correlation between the parameter estimates across species. For compounds without a mixed ion channel block, a correlation was observed between the drug-specific parameter in dogs and humans (y = -1.709 + 11.6x; R 2  = 0.989). These results show that per unit concentration, the drug effect on the QT interval in humans is 11.6-fold larger than in dogs. Together with information about the expected therapeutic exposure, the evidence of a correlation between the compound-specific parameter in dogs and in humans represents an opportunity for translating preclinical safety data before progression into the clinic. Whereas further investigation is required to establish the generalizability of our findings, this approach can be used with clinical trial simulations to predict the probability of QT prolongation in humans. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Calculus light

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Menahem

    2011-01-01

    Another Calculus book? As long as students find calculus scary, the failure rate in mathematics is higher than in all other subjects, and as long as most people mistakenly believe that only geniuses can learn and understand mathematics, there will always be room for a new book of Calculus. We call it Calculus Light. This book is designed for a one semester course in ""light"" calculus -- mostly single variable, meant to be used by undergraduate students without a wide mathematical background and who do not major in mathematics but study subjects such as engineering, biology or management infor

  12. Lighting Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Mullins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    of design developed from three experiments show how distinct qualitative and quantitative criteria in different disciplinary traditions can be integrated successfully, despite disparate technical/scientific, social scientific and art/humanities backgrounds. The model is applied to a pedagogical curriculum......Light as a multi-dimensional design element has fundamental importance for a sustainable environment. The paper discusses the need for an integration of scientific, technical and creative approaches to light and presents theory, methods and applications toward fulfilling this need. A theory...

  13. Secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratna, R; Dissanayake, D; Silva, F H D S; Dassanayake, M; de Silva, H J

    2015-03-01

    Although dengue management guidelines do not advice on use of antibiotics in dengue shock syndrome, unrecognised bactraemia is likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality. To assess the occurance of secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever. A prospective study was conducted recruiting patients with confirmed acute dengue infection who had prolonged fever (>5 days). Two sets of blood cultures were taken in such patients prior to institution of antibiotic therapy. Demographic, clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Development of ascites and pleural effusions were detected using ultrasonography. Fourty patients (52.5% males) with a mean age of 29.8 years (SD 13.6) were studied. The average duration of fever was 7.9 days (SD 1.8). Ten patients (25%) had bacterial isolates in their blood cultures; Staphylococcus aureus (n=2), coliforms (n=3), pseudomonas (n=1) and 4 had mixed growths. The culture positive group had severe body aches at admission and higher fever, third space fluid accumulation, a significant drop in platelets and a higher CRP. A quarter of dengue patients with prolonged fever had a bacterial isolate. Culture positive patients appeared more ill with body aches and had higher degrees of fever during the latter part of the illness. Increased vascular permeability may predispose to bacterial seepage into blood. Although white cell count is not helpful in detecting bacteraemia, low platelet count and elevation of CRP seem to be helpful.

  14. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 98-104

  15. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇİGİL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies.

  16. Dynamics of heterogeneous liners with prolonged plasma creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Branitskii, A.V.; Volkov, G.S.; Grabovskii, E.V.; Zurin, M.V.; Nedoseev, S.L.; Oleinik, G.M.; Samokhin, A.A.; Smirnov, V.P.; Fedulov, M.V.; Frolov, I.N.; Sasorov, P.V.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged plasma creation in heterogeneous liners, in which the liner substance is separated into two phase states (a hot plasma and a cold skeleton), is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. This situation is typical of multiwire, foam, and even gas liners in high-current high-voltage facilities. The main mechanisms governing the rate at which the plasma is created are investigated, and the simplest estimates of the creation rate are presented. It is found that, during prolonged plasma creation, the electric current flows through the entire cross section of the produced plasma shell, whose thickness is comparable with the liner radius; in other words, a current skin layer does not form. During compression, such a shell is fairly stable because of its relatively high resilience. It is shown that, under certain conditions, even a thick plasma shell can be highly compressed toward the discharge axis. A simplified numerical simulation of the compression of a plasma shell in a liner with prolonged plasma creation is employed in order to determine the conditions for achieving regimes of fairly compact and relatively stable radial compression of the shell

  17. Cardiovascular drugs inducing QT prolongation: facts and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Carlos A; Opezzo, Javier A W; Mayer, Marcos A; Höcht, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Acquired QT syndrome is mainly caused by the administration of drugs that prolong ventricular repolarization. On the other hand, the risk of drug-induced torsades de pointes is increased by numerous predisposing factors, such as genetic predisposition, female sex, hypokalemia and cardiac dysfunction. This adverse reaction is induced by different chemical compounds used for the treatment of a variety of pathologies, including arrhythmias. As it is known, antiarrhythmic agents and other cardiovascular drugs can prolong the QT interval, causing this adverse reaction. Of the 20 most commonly reported drugs, 10 were cardiovascular agents and these appeared in 348 of the reports (46%). Class Ia antiarrhythmic agents have frequently been linked to inducing arrhythmia, including torsades de pointes. Sotalol and amiodarone, class III antiarrhythmics, are known to prolong the QT interval by blocking I(Kr). Due to the severity of events caused by the therapeutic use of these drugs, in this work of revision the cardiovascular drugs that present this property and the factors and evidence will be mentioned.

  18. LIGHT TITRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John; Baas-Becking, Lourens G. M.

    1926-01-01

    1. The usefulness of the radiomicrometer in titration work has been pointed out. The authors suggest that light titration may also be used where a reaction mixture changes its absorption in the (near) infra-red. 2. The applicability of this method to the starch-iodine reaction has been demonstrated. PMID:19872266

  19. Signal processing for LED lighting systems : illumination rendering and sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Solid state lighting, employing high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs), is becoming increasingly widely used. The advantages of LEDs include high radiative efficiency, long lifetime, limited heat generation and superior tolerance to humidity. Another important advantage of LED lighting systems

  20. Factors associated with prolonged length of stay following cardiac surgery in a major referral hospital in Oman: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashrafi, Ahmed; Alsabti, Hilal; Mukaddirov, Mirdavron; Balan, Baskaran; Aylin, Paul

    2016-06-08

    Two objectives were set for this study. The first was to identify factors influencing prolonged postoperative length of stay (LOS) following cardiac surgery. The second was to devise a predictive model for prolonged LOS in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) based on preoperative factors available at admission and to compare it against two existing cardiac stratification systems. Observational retrospective study. A tertiary hospital in Oman. All adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery at a major referral hospital in Oman between 2009 and 2013. 30.5% of the patients had prolonged LOS (≥11 days) after surgery, while 17% experienced prolonged ICU LOS (≥5 days). Factors that were identified to prolong CICU LOS were non-elective surgery, current congestive heart failure (CHF), renal failure, combined coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and valve surgery, and other non-isolated valve or CABG surgery. Patients were divided into three groups based on their scores. The probabilities of prolonged CICU LOS were 11%, 26% and 28% for group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The predictive model had an area under the curve of 0.75. Factors associated with prolonged overall postoperative LOS included the body mass index, the type of surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass machine use, packed red blood cells use, non-elective surgery and number of complications. The latter was the most important determinant of postoperative LOS. Patient management can be tailored for individual patient based on their treatments and personal attributes to optimise resource allocation. Moreover, a simple predictive score system to enable identification of patients at risk of prolonged CICU stay can be developed using data that are routinely collected by most hospitals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.

    1992-01-01

    The main sources of Pakistan's energy supply are oil, natural gas, coal, hydro power, nuclear power and liquefied petroleum gas. At present 75 % of total energy delivered is met through oil and gas. The limited resources and financial constraints have proved to be stumbling block in the way of prosperity and economics stability. Lighting is a conspicuous consumer of energy and thus an easy prey for saving drives which is indeed a very promising target for energy saving. (A.B.)

  2. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  3. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  4. Nickel on the market: a baseline survey of articles in 'prolonged contact' with skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringborg, Evelina; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli

    2016-08-01

    In April 2014, the European Chemicals Agency defined the concept of 'prolonged contact with skin' as used in the EU nickel restriction. To establish a baseline of nickel-releasing items on the Swedish market conforming with the EU nickel restriction according to the definition of 'prolonged contact' with the skin. We performed a limited market survey in Stockholm, Sweden. Items with metallic parts that come into contact with the skin, except those explicitly mentioned in the legal text, were chosen. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to evaluate nickel release. One hundred and forty-one items belonging to one of three categories - accessories, utensils for needlework, painting and writing (called utensils), and electronic devices - were tested in the study. Forty-four percent of all items were DMG test-positive (releasing nickel), and 9% gave a doubtful DMG test result. The large proportion of nickel-releasing items in the present study shows clearly that broader parts of industry need to take action to prevent nickel allergy. The high proportion of DMG test-positive items indicates that there is still much work to be done to reduce the nickel exposure of the population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. PR Interval Prolongation and Cryptogenic Stroke: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Mayra; Tadi, Prasanna; Merkler, Alexander; Gialdini, Gino; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Navalkele, Digvijaya; Samai, Alyana; Nouh, Amre; Hussain, Mohammad; Goldblatt, Steven; Hemendinger, Morgan; Chu, Antony; Song, Christopher; Kamel, Hooman; Furie, Karen L; Yaghi, Shadi

    2017-10-01

    Atrial dysfunction or "cardiopathy" has been recently proposed as a mechanism in cryptogenic stroke. A prolonged PR interval may reflect impaired atrial conduction and thus may be a biomarker of atrial cardiopathy. We aim to compare the prevalence of PR interval prolongation in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) when compared with known non-cryptogenic non-cardioembolic stroke (NCNCS) subtypes. We used prospective ischemic stroke databases of 3 comprehensive stroke centers to identify patients 18 years or older with a discharge diagnosis of ischemic non-cardioembolic stroke between December 1, 2013 and August 31, 2015. The main outcome was ischemic stroke subtype (CS versus NCNCS). We compared PR intervals as a continuous and categorical variable (PR interval prolongation and CS. We identified 644 patients with ischemic non-cardioembolic stroke (224 CS and 420 NCNCS). Patients with CS were more likely to have a PR of 200 milliseconds or greater when compared with those with NCNCS (23.2% versus 13.8%, P = .009). After adjusting for factors that were significant in univariate analyses, a PR of 200 milliseconds or greater was independently associated with CS (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% CI 1.08-2.70). The association was more pronounced when excluding patients on atrioventricular nodal blocking agents (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.44-4.83). A PR of 200 milliseconds or greater is associated with CS and may be a biomarker of atrial cardiopathy in the absence of atrial fibrillation. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this association. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictive factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia after prolonged orotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Carolina Martins de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Salomão, Marina Silva; Bougo, Graziela Chamarelli; Vicente, Laélia Cristina Caseiro

    2017-09-13

    Lesions in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx due to endotracheal intubation can cause reduction in the local motility and sensitivity, impairing the swallowing process, resulting in oropharyngeal dysphagia. To verify the predictive factors for the development of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the risk of aspiration in patients with prolonged orotracheal intubation admitted to an intensive care unit. This is an observational, analytical, cross-sectional and retrospective data collection study of 181 electronic medical records of patients submitted to prolonged orotracheal intubation. Data on age; gender; underlying disease; associated comorbidities; time and reason for orotracheal intubation; Glasgow scale on the day of the Speech Therapist assessment; comprehension; vocal quality; presence and severity of dysphagia; risk of bronchoaspiration; and the suggested oral route were collected. The data were analyzed through logistic regression. The level of significance was set at 5%, with a 95% Confidence Interval. The prevalence of dysphagia in this study was 35.9% and the risk of aspiration was 24.9%. As the age increased, the altered vocal quality and the degree of voice impairment increased the risk of the presence of dysphagia by 5-; 45.4- and 6.7-fold, respectively, and of aspiration by 6-; 36.4- and 4.8-fold. The increase in the time of orotracheal intubation increased the risk of aspiration by 5.5-fold. Patients submitted to prolonged intubation who have risk factors associated with dysphagia and aspiration should be submitted to an early speech-language/audiology assessment and receive appropriate and timely treatment. The recognition of these predictive factors by the entire multidisciplinary team can minimize the possibility of clinical complications inherent to the risk of dysphagia and aspiration in extubated patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. Depressive disorders during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubran, Amal; Lawm, Gerald; Kelly, Joanne; Duffner, Lisa A; Gungor, Gokay; Collins, Eileen G; Lanuza, Dorothy M; Hoffman, Leslie A; Tobin, Martin J

    2010-05-01

    Patients who require mechanical ventilation are at risk of emotional stress because of total dependence on a machine for breathing. The stress may negatively impact ventilator weaning and survival. The purpose of this study was to determine whether depressive disorders in patients being weaned from prolonged mechanical ventilation are linked to weaning failure and decreased survival. A prospective study of 478 consecutive patients transferred to a long-term acute care hospital for weaning from prolonged ventilation was undertaken. A clinical psychologist conducted a psychiatric interview to assess for the presence of depressive disorders. Of the 478 patients, 142 had persistent coma or delirium and were unable to be evaluated for depressive disorders. Of the remaining 336 patients, 142 (42%) were diagnosed with depressive disorders. In multivariate analysis, co-morbidity score [odds ratio (OR), 1.23; P = 0.007], functional dependence before the acute illness (OR, 1.70, P = 0.03) and history of psychiatric disorders (OR, 3.04, P = 0.0001) were independent predictors of depressive disorders. The rate of weaning failure was higher in patients with depressive disorders than in those without such disorders (61 vs. 33%, P = 0.0001), as was mortality (24 vs. 10%, P = 0.0008). The presence of depressive disorders was independently associated with mortality (OR, 4.3; P = 0.0002); age (OR, 1.06; P = 0.001) and co-morbidity score (OR, 1.24; P = 0.02) also predicted mortality. Depressive disorders were diagnosed in 42% of patients who were being weaned from prolonged ventilation. Patients with depressive disorders were more likely to experience weaning failure and death.

  8. Slow, stopped and stored light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.; Scully, M.

    2005-01-01

    Light that can been slowed to walking pace could have applications in telecommunications, optical storage and quantum computing. Whether we use it to estimate how far away a thunderstorm is, or simply take it for granted that we can have a conversation with someone on the other side of the world, we all know that light travels extremely fast. Indeed, special relativity teaches us that nothing in the universe can ever move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum: 299 792 458 ms sup - sup 1. However, there is no such limitation on how slowly light can travel. For the last few years, researchers have been routinely slowing light to just a few metres per second, and have recently even stopped it dead in its tracks so that it can be stored for future use. Slow-light has considerable popular appeal, deriving perhaps from the importance of the speed of light in relativity and cosmology. If everyday objects such as cars or people can travel faster than 'slow' light, for example, then it might appear that relativistic effects could be observed at very low speeds. Although this is not the case, slow light nonetheless promises to play an important role in optical technology because it allows light to be delayed for any period of time desired. This could lead to all-optical routers that would increase the bandwidth of the Internet, and applications in optical data storage, quantum information and even radar. (U.K.)

  9. Transient impairments in single muscle fibre contractile function after prolonged cycling in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...... recovery on the contractile function of single muscle fibres obtained from elite athletes....

  10. Hemiplegic Migraine Presenting with Prolonged Somnolence: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Saleh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemiplegic migraine is a rare and complex disease, characterized by migraine with a reversible motor aura. Hemiplegic migraine can be easily misdiagnosed at its first presentation with an atypical severe form of migraine, a stroke, multiple sclerosis, metabolic disorders, conversion disorder or an epilepsy. We present the case of a young 24-year-old male patient, who since the age of 4 years had been having multiple episodes of migraine associated with hemiparesis, paraesthesia, prolonged somnolence, aphasia and confusion. We review the literature and discuss important diagnostic findings in hemiplegic migraine to help establishing a prompt diagnosis.

  11. Intestinal ultrastructure after prolonged use of an elemental diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The role of 3 diets (Purina, whole casein and hydrolyzed casein) on the morphological aspect of the intestinal mucosa has been studied in adult mice, irradiated with a single dose of 950 R or with 4 doses of 600 R. The experimental group receiving the hydrolyzed casein exhibited always the fastest recovery. 45 days after a single irradiation, some alterations of columnar cells were still noted in the other groups. The prolonged use of an hydrolyzed casein (6 months) did not alter the structure of the mucosal cells. (orig.) [de

  12. Complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, B S; Burke, T J

    1988-04-01

    A case of complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest from massive lidocaine overdose is presented. A 27-year-old woman at 15 weeks gestation had a complete neurologic recovery after 22 minutes of CPR, including 19 minutes of electromechanical dissociation and asystole, with normal fetal heart function and fetal motion confirmed by ultrasound immediately after resuscitation. The patient delivered a healthy and neurologically normal infant at 40 weeks gestation. This is the longest cardiac arrest in early pregnancy reported in the medical literature with normal maternal and fetal outcome.

  13. How long would SDH/SONET be prolonged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiyong; Mao, Qian

    2004-04-01

    As we all know, the increasing speed of data traffic is exceeding gradually from voice in today"s communication network. The main reason is the explosive of Internet. The controversy with IP over ATM/SDH/Optical becomes hotter and hotter, Many people in the telecommunication field are doubt: HOW LONG WOULD SDH/SONET BE PROLONGED? WHAT KIND OF SDH EQUIPMENTS COULD BE USED IN THE NETWORK? With the analysis from several aspects: services in the network, new development with SDH technology, market in transport equipment, This paper is considered that the SDH with some new features would be predominant transport technology in the recent years.

  14. Smart office lighting control using occupancy sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Linnartz, J.-P.; Tjalkens, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, despite the use of efficient LED lighting, lighting consumes a considerable amount of energy. To reduce the energy consumption, many office lighting systems are equipped with occupancy sensors. Since these sensors have a limited reliability in detecting presence, usually very conservative

  15. Handbook of industrial lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, Stanley L

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Industrial Lighting is a practical guide on the specification, design, installation, operation, and maintenance of lighting in industrial premises. Coverage of the book includes the importance of good localized lighting; the different lighting schemes; lighting for difficult visual tasks; lighting in consideration to safety; and emergency lighting. The book also includes the practical, thermal, ventilation, and energy considerations; lighting in different environments; maintenance of lighting installations; and the cost benefits of efficient lighting. Appendices include useful info

  16. Changes of the rats’ heart rate variability caused by chlorpromazine modulation of central noradrenergic neurotransmission during prolonged stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Z. Мelnikova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s established that under the prolonged stress there were changes of geometric and spectral indices of the rats’ heart rate variability (HRV, manifestations of which depended on duration of stressful factors acting and represented the stress reaction development from the stage of anxiety to the exhaustion phase. Application of chlorpromazine at the beginning and against the background of stress blocked the central alpha adrenoceptors and contributed to renewal of the most HRV indices into the limits of control values at the end of experiment. The results of research show that the modulation of functional state of central noradrenergic system plays a great role in the changes of HRV during prolonged stress.

  17. Visible-light photoactivity of plasmonic silver supported on mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag-MTN) for enhanced degradation of 2-chlorophenol: Limitation of Ag-Ti interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, N. F.; Jalil, A. A.; Triwahyono, S.

    2017-01-01

    Various weight loadings of Ag (1-10 wt.%) were introduced to mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTN) via a direct in-situ electrochemical method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, surface area analysis, FTIR, ESR, FESEM-EDX and TEM. Characterization results indicated that the introduction of Ag onto MTN decreased the particles size and band gap of the MTN while increasing the number of oxygen vacancies (OV) and Ti3+ site defects (TSD). The activity performance of Ag-MTN on photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation was in the following order: 5 wt% Ag-MTN> 1 wt% Ag-MTN > MTN > 10 wt% Ag-MTN, with degradation percentages of 97, 88, 80 and 63%, respectively. The synergistic effect between Ag0 and MTN seemed to play an important role in the system. The Ag0 acted as both an electron trap and a plasmonic sensitizer which suppressed the electron-hole recombination, while OV and TSD in the MTN accelerated the production of hydroxyl radicals for enhanced degradation of 2-CP. However, the formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN was found to decrease the photoactivity due to the decrease in the formation of Ag0, TSD and OV as well as the increase in band gap energy. The photodegradation of 5 wt% Ag-MTN followed a pseudo-first-order Langmuir- Hinshelwood model and the catalyst was still stable after five cycles.

  18. First Direct Limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with Electric Charge Less than e/6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nelson, H.; Nelson, R. H.; Ogburn, R. W.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-03-18

    While the standard model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than e / 6 . A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers finds no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between e / 6 and e / 200 .

  19. Is lumbar lordosis related to low back pain development during prolonged standing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Christopher J; Norton, Barbara J; Callaghan, Jack P; Hwang, Ching-Ting; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    An induced-pain paradigm has been used in back-healthy people to understand risk factors for developing low back pain during prolonged standing. The purposes of this study were to (1) compare baseline lumbar lordosis in back-healthy participants who do (Pain Developers) and do not (Non-Pain Developers) develop low back pain during 2 h of standing, and (2) examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and low back pain intensity. Cross-sectional. First, participants stood while positions of markers placed superficial to the lumbar vertebrae were recorded using a motion capture system. Following collection of marker positions, participants stood for 2 h while performing light work tasks. At baseline and every 15 min during standing, participants rated their low back pain intensity on a visual analog scale. Lumbar lordosis was calculated using marker positions collected prior to the 2 h standing period. Lumbar lordosis was compared between pain developers and non-pain developers. In pain developers, the relationship between lumbar lordosis and maximum pain was examined. There were 24 (42%) pain developers and 33 (58%) non-pain developers. Lumbar lordosis was significantly larger in pain developers compared to non-pain developers (Mean difference = 4.4°; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.9° to 7.8°, Cohen's d = 0.7). The correlation coefficient between lumbar lordosis and maximum pain was 0.46 (P = 0.02). The results suggest that standing in more lumbar lordosis may be a risk factor for low back pain development during prolonged periods of standing. Identifying risk factors for low back pain development can inform preventative and early intervention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic Effects of Prolonged Melatonin Administration and Short-Term Fasting in Laboratory Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bojková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of prolonged administration of the pineal hormone melatonin and short-term fasting on metabolic variables in male and female Wistar:Han rats. Melatonin (MEL, 4 μg/ml of tap water was administered daily since the 5th week of age. The control group drank tap water. Rats were fed a standard type of diet ad libitum and were kept in the light regimen L:D - 12:12 h. The experiment was terminated after 11 (variant B or 12 (variant A weeks of MEL administration. The animals were sacrificed by quick decapitation following overnight fasting (variant A or 48-h fasting (variant B. Selected organs and tissues were removed and weighed and selected metabolic variables in the serum and tissues were determined. MEL decreased body mass independent of food and water intake in both sexes. In males (variant A MEL increased the weight of the heart muscle, spleen and adrenals; it decreased the absolute weight of epididymal fat and increased serum corticosterone and phospholipids concentration in comparison with controls. In females, serum glucose decrease and liver triacylglycerols increase were found. After 48-h fasting (variant B liver, spleen and adrenal weight increase in MELdrinking females was found. In males MEL increased the thymus weight and decreased the epididymal fat weight. In both sexes MEL increased serum corticosterone and liver glycogen concentration; MEL increased serum glucose in males and serum cholesterol concentration in females. Changes in the evaluated variables were also related to fasting duration prior to decapitation. A 48-h fasting at the end of the prolonged MEL intake (variant B vs. A decreased the absolute liver weight in both sexes and the epididymal/periovarial fat weight, and increased thymus weight in males. In females it decreased the absolute heart muscle weight and increased the spleen weight. In males, 48-h fasting increased serum corticosterone and phospholipids concentration; it

  1. Indoor Lighting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Koji; Saito, Yoshinori; Ichikawa, Shigenori; Kawauchi, Takao; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Hirano, Rika; Tazuke, Fuyuki

    According to the statistics on building construction floor area from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the total floor area of building construction started in Japan in 2007 was 160,991 thousand square meters, or 14.8% less than the area of the previous year, and the reduction was the first reduction in the past five years. The office markets in Tokyo and Nagoya were active, as represented by the supplies of skyscrapers, and energy saving measures, such as the adoption of high efficiency lighting equipment, the control for initial stage illuminance, daylight harvesting, and the use of occupancy sensors, were well established. In the field of public construction, including museums, multi-purpose halls, and religious buildings, the total area of the new construction was 10.8% less than the total for the previous year, and this reduction was a continuation of an eleven-year trend. In spaces with high ceiling, the innovation for easy replacement of light sources used with reflection mirror systems and optical fibers was noted. Hospitals adapted to the expectation for improved services in their selection of lighting facilities to improve the residential environment for patients while taking into consideration the needs of the aging population, by their use of devices in corridors to help maintain a continuity of light. In libraries, a pendant system was developed to illuminate both ceilings and book shelves. In the field of theaters and halls, the time limit for repairing existing systems had come for the large facilities that were opened during the theater and hall construction boom of the 1960s through 1980s, and around 26 renovations were done. Almost all the renovations were conversions to intelligent dimming systems and lighting control desks. In the field of stores and commercial facilities, the atmosphere and glitter of the selling floor was produced by new light sources, such as ceramic metal halide lamps and LEDs, which have high

  2. Shaping light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser, a high- power laser to shoot down missiles, fills an entire Boeing 747! By customising the laser resonator it is possible to design light to order. Laser technology has been around for 50 years, yet new research and ideas are ensuring... that it will remain an active area of investigation for years to come. ? Professor Andrew Forbes is Chief Researcher and Research Group Leader at the CSIR National Laser Centre, and holds honorary positions in the Schools of Physics at both the University...

  3. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM AND PROLONGED FEVER ASSOCIATED TO SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimberti R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYSecondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the main deragements caused by chronic renal failure, and parathyroid hormone is considered one of the toxins of the uremic syndrome. Prolonged fever due to primary hyperparathyroidism have already been described in the literature but not yet as induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this case report a patient suffering from an erythema nodosum and prolonged fever associated to secondary hyperparathyroidism that disappeared through subtotal parathyroidectomy is presented.RESUMENEl hiperparatiroidismo secundario es uno de los principales disturbios causados por la insuficiencia renal crónica, y la paratohormona es considerada una de las toxinas del sindrome urémico. El sindrome febril prolongado secundario a hiperparatiroidismo primario ya ha sido descripto en la literatura, aunque no lo ha sido aun el inducido por hiperparatiroidismo secundario. En el presente reporte se presenta un caso de eritema nodoso y sindrome febril prolongado asociado a hiperparatiroidismo secundario y que resolvió luego de efectuada una paratiroidectomía subtotal.

  4. Risk Factors for Prolonged Treatment of Whiplash-Associated Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Oka

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD are the most common injuries that are associated with car collisions in Japan and many Western countries. However, there is no clear evidence regarding the potential risk factors for poor recovery from WAD. Therefore, we used an online survey of the Japanese population to examine the association between potential risk factors and the persistence of symptoms in individuals with WAD.An online survey was completed by 127,956 participants, including 4,164 participants who had been involved in a traffic collision. A random sample of the collision participants (n = 1,698 were provided with a secondary questionnaire. From among the 974 (57.4% respondents to the secondary questionnaire, we selected 183 cases (intractable neck pain that was treated over a period of 6 months and 333 controls (minor neck pain that was treated within 3 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential risk factors for prolonged treatment of WAD.Female sex, the severity of the collision, poor expectations of recovery, victim mentality, dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain were associated with a poor recovery from WAD.In the present study, the baseline symptoms (dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain had the strongest associations with prolonged treatment for WAD, although the psychological and behavioral factors were also important. These risk factors should be considered when evaluating patients who may have the potential for poor outcomes.

  5. Prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Shaseb, Elnaz; Ghaffary, Saba; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    Potential protective effects of prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with honey (1%, 2% and 4%) for 45 days then their hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia fallowed by 120 min reperfusion. Two important indexes of ischemia-induced damage (infarction size and arrhythmias) were determined by computerized planimetry and ECG analysis, respectively. Honey (1% and 2%) reduced infarct size from 23±3.1% (control) to 9.7±2.4 and 9.5±2.3%, respectively (Phoney (1%) significantly reduced (PHoney (1% and 2%) also significantly decreased number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). In addition, incidence and duration of reversible ventricular fibrillation (Rev VF) were lowered by honey 2% (Phoney produced significant reduction in the incidences of VT, total and Rev VF, duration and number of VT. The results showed cardioprotective effects of prolonged pre-treatment of rats with honey following myocardial infarction. Maybe, the existence of antioxidants and energy sources (glucose and fructose) in honey composition and improvement of hemodynamic functions may involve in those protective effects.

  6. Prolonged fasting impairs neural reactivity to visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, N; Wassenberg, A; Toygar, T; Kellermann, T; Weidenfeld, C; Berthold-Losleben, M; Chechko, N; Orfanos, S; Vocke, S; Laoutidis, Z G; Schneider, F; Karges, W; Habel, U

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has shown that hypoglycemia influences the intensity of the BOLD signal. A similar but smaller effect may also be elicited by low normal blood glucose levels in healthy individuals. This may not only confound the BOLD signal measured in fMRI, but also more generally interact with cognitive processing, and thus indirectly influence fMRI results. Here we show in a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study on 40 healthy subjects, that overnight fasting and low normal levels of glucose contrasted to an activated, elevated glucose condition have an impact on brain activation during basal visual stimulation. Additionally, functional connectivity of the visual cortex shows a strengthened association with higher-order attention-related brain areas in an elevated blood glucose condition compared to the fasting condition. In a fasting state visual brain areas show stronger coupling to the inferior temporal gyrus. Results demonstrate that prolonged overnight fasting leads to a diminished BOLD signal in higher-order occipital processing areas when compared to an elevated blood glucose condition. Additionally, functional connectivity patterns underscore the modulatory influence of fasting on visual brain networks. Patterns of brain activation and functional connectivity associated with a broad range of attentional processes are affected by maturation and aging and associated with psychiatric disease and intoxication. Thus, we conclude that prolonged fasting may decrease fMRI design sensitivity in any task involving attentional processes when fasting status or blood glucose is not controlled.

  7. Effect of prolonged exposure to low antigen concentration for sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Och, Francois M.M. van; Vandebriel, Rob J.; Jong, Wim H. de; Loveren, Henk van

    2003-01-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an assay in mice to identify potential allergens. Compounds that do not induce a stimulation index (SI)≥3 are not considered sensitizers. Of the chemicals that do, the SI of 3 is used as a benchmark, and indicates the sensitizing potency of a chemical. Compared to the exposure duration of the LLNA (3 days), real life exposure often lasts for months or years. We therefore investigated whether prolonged exposure to sensitizers at concentrations that do not induce a SI≥3 in the LLNA, were able to surpass this threshold. Mice were treated for 2 months at 7-day intervals with a range of concentrations of the known allergens ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine, BENZ), 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (TMTD). Both proliferative activity and cytokine production were established at day 60. Neither BENZ nor TMTD showed a significant increase in the proliferation rate compared to vehicle controls. Only DNCB at concentrations originally above the EC 3 a significant increase in proliferation was seen after prolonged exposure. No significant effect on IFN-γ and IL-4 production was observed for all three compounds compared. These findings indicate that for classification of sensitizers the shorter exposure period employed in the standard LLNA is sufficient, and longer periods of exposure have no bearing on this classification

  8. Survival without sequelae after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation after electric shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawea, Mohamad; Al-Kenany, Al-Sayed; Hosny, Mostafa; Aglan, Omar; Samy, Mohamad; Al-Abd, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    "Electrical shock is the physiological reaction or injury caused by electric current passing through the human body. It occurs upon contact of a human body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair causing undesirable effects ranging from simple burns to death." Ventricular fibrillation is believed to be the most common cause of death after electrical shock. "The ideal duration of cardiac resuscitation is unknown. Typically prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with poor neurologic outcomes and reduced long term survival. No consensus statement has been made and traditionally efforts are usually terminated after 15-30 minutes." The case under discussion seems worthy of the somewhat detailed description given. It is for a young man who survived after 65 minutes after electrical shock (ES) after prolonged high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), multiple defibrillations, and artificial ventilation without any sequelae. Early start of adequate chest compressions and close adherence to advanced cardiac life support protocols played a vital role in successful CPR.

  9. Paternal work stress and prolonged time to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung; Eum, Ki-Do; Siegrist, Johannes; Li, Jian; Lee, Hye-Eun; Cho, Sung-Il

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore an association between psychosocial stress at work in married men and their spouses' prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP). All married male workers of a large Korean petrochemical enterprise and their wives fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Main selection criteria were lack of use of contraceptives and experienced pregnancy in recent past. Data were available from 322 couples. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Prolonged TTP was measured by the "TTP questionnaire". After adjustment for confounding effects of demographic and life-style characteristics and benzene exposure, delayed TTP, defined by frequency of first-cycle pregnancy, was associated with one standard deviation (SD) increase of the effort-reward ratio in the chronically stressed group of married men (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.22-0.99) in logistic regression analysis. A similar, but somewhat weaker effect, was found for the overall group (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.47-0.94). Paternal stress at work, as measured by effort-reward imbalance, seemed to be associated with a decreased number of conceptions in the first menstrual cycle.

  10. Lumbosacral Plexus Injury and Brachial Plexus Injury Following Prolonged Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lan Kao

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who developed right upper and lower limb paralysis with sensory deficit after sedative drug overdose with prolonged immobilization. Due to the initial motor and sensory deficit pattern, brachial plexus injury or C8/T1 radiculopathy was suspected. Subsequent nerve conduction study/electromyography proved the lesion level to be brachial plexus. Painful swelling of the right buttock was suggestive of gluteal compartment syndrome. Elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase and urinary occult blood indicated rhabdomyolysis. The patient received medical treatment and rehabilitation; 2 years after the injury, her right upper and lower limb function had recovered nearly completely. As it is easy to develop complications such as muscle atrophy and joint contracture during the paralytic period of brachial plexopathy and lumbosacral plexopathy, early intervention with rehabilitation is necessary to ensure that the future limb function of the patient can be recovered. Our patient had suspected gluteal compartment syndrome that developed after prolonged compression, with the complication of concomitant lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury, which is rarely reported in the literature. A satisfactory outcome was achieved with nonsurgical management.

  11. Influence of a Prolonged Tennis Match Play on Serve Biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Martin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify kinematic, kinetic and performance changes that occur in the serve throughout a prolonged tennis match play. Serves of eight male advanced tennis players were recorded with a motion capture system before, at mid-match, and after a 3-hour tennis match. Before and after each match, electromyographic data of 8 upper limb muscles obtained during isometric maximal voluntary contraction were compared to determine the presence of muscular fatigue. Vertical ground reaction forces, rating of perceived exertion, ball speed, and ball impact height were measured. Kinematic and upper limb kinetic variables were computed. The results show decrease in mean power frequency values for several upper limb muscles that is an indicator of local muscular fatigue. Decreases in serve ball speed, ball impact height, maximal angular velocities and an increase in rating of perceived exertion were also observed between the beginning and the end of the match. With fatigue, the majority of the upper limb joint kinetics decreases at the end of the match. No change in timing of maximal angular velocities was observed between the beginning and the end of the match. A prolonged tennis match play may induce fatigue in upper limb muscles, which decrease performance and cause changes in serve maximal angular velocities and joint kinetics. The consistency in timing of maximal angular velocities suggests that advanced tennis players are able to maintain the temporal pattern of their serve technique, in spite of the muscular fatigue development.

  12. Evolution of perceived footwear comfort over a prolonged running session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzy, F; Cavagna, J; Horvais, N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the subjective perception of overall footwear comfort over a prolonged running session. Ten runners performed two similar sessions consisting of a 13-km trail run (5 laps of 2.6 km) as fast as possible. The overall footwear comfort was evaluated before running and at the end of each lap with a 150-mm visual analogic scale, as well as speed, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion. The results showed that both overall footwear comfort and speed decreased consistently during the run session, and significantly after 44 min of running (i.e. the 3rd lap). It could be hypothesized that the deterioration of overall footwear comfort was explained by mechanical and energetical parameter changes with time and/or fatigue occurring at the whole body, foot and footwear levels. These results justify the use of a prolonged running test for running footwear comfort evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  14. AVS-1357 inhibits melanogenesis via prolonged ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Seo-Hyoung; Chae, Chong Hak; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that a derivative of imidazole, AVS-1357, is a novel skin-whitening compound. AVS-1357 was found to significantly inhibit melanin production in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not directly inhibit tyrosinase. Furthermore, we found that AVS-1357 induced prolonged activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, while it downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. It has been reported that the activation of ERK and/or Akt is involved in melanogenesis. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVS-1357 on melanogenesis in the absence or presence of PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of the ERK pathway) and/or LY294002 (a specific inhibitor of the Akt pathway). PD98059 dramatically increased melanogenesis, whereas LY294002 had no effect. Furthermore, PD98059 attenuated AVS-1357 induced ERK activation, as well as the downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase. These findings suggest that the effects of AVS-1357 occur via downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which is caused by AVS-1357-induced prolonged ERK activation. Taken together, our results indicate that AVS-1357 has the potential as a new skin whitening agent.

  15. Light-Front QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.

    2004-11-30

    In these lectures, I survey a number of applications of light-front methods to hadron and nuclear physics phenomenology and dynamics, including light-front statistical physics. Light-front Fock-state wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Nonperturbative methods for computing LFWFs in QCD are discussed, including string/gauge duality which predicts the power-law fall-off at high momentum transfer of light-front Fock-state hadronic wavefunctions with an arbitrary number of constituents and orbital angular momentum. The AdS/CFT correspondence has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders derivation of counting rules for exclusive processes. One can also compute the hadronic spectrum of near-conformal QCD assuming a truncated AdS/CFT space. Given the LFWFs, one can compute form factors, heavy hadron decay amplitudes, hadron distribution amplitudes, and the generalized parton distributions underlying deeply virtual Compton scattering. The quantum fluctuations represented by the light-front Fock expansion leads to novel QCD phenomena such as color transparency, intrinsic heavy quark distributions, diffractive dissociation, and hidden-color components of nuclear wavefunctions. A new test of hidden color in deuteron photodisintegration is proposed. The origin of leading-twist phenomena such as the diffractive component of deep inelastic scattering, single-spin asymmetries, nuclear shadowing and antishadowing is also discussed; these phenomena cannot be described by light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. Part of the anomalous NuTeV results for the weak mixing angle {theta}{sub W} could be due to the non-universality of nuclear antishadowing for charged and neutral currents.

  16. Prolonged hepatitis and jaundice: a rare complication of paediatric Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhen Han; Phua, Kong Boo; Ong, Christina; Kader, Ajmal

    2015-07-01

    We herein report the case of a 14-year-old girl with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis who developed prolonged hepatitis and jaundice. At presentation, she had tender hepatomegaly with a markedly deranged liver function test. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hepatomegaly and a thickened gallbladder wall. During the subsequent 11 weeks, her transaminases showed two further peaks, which corresponded with clinical deterioration. Her highest alanine transaminase level was 1,795 µ/L and total bilirubin level was 154 µmol/L. She recovered fully with conservative management. EBV-related liver involvement is typically mild and self-limiting. We believe that tender hepatomegaly and gallbladder thickening may be important predictors of significant liver involvement. Although multiple transaminase peaks may occur, we do not consider this an indication for antiviral or immunosuppressive therapy. In the absence of strong evidence supporting the use of any specific therapy, we recommend a conservative approach for an immunocompetent patient.

  17. Neuroenergetic Response to Prolonged Cerebral Glucose Depletion after Severe Brain Injury and the Role of Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patet, Camille; Quintard, Hervé; Suys, Tamarah; Bloch, Jocelyne; Daniel, Roy T; Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre J; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-10-15

    Lactate may represent a supplemental fuel for the brain. We examined cerebral lactate metabolism during prolonged brain glucose depletion (GD) in acute brain injury (ABI) patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Sixty episodes of GD (defined as spontaneous decreases of CMD glucose from normal to low [brain oxygen and blood lactate remained normal. Dynamics of lactate and glucose supply during GD were further studied by analyzing the relationships between blood and CMD samples. There was a strong correlation between blood and brain lactate when LPR was normal (r = 0.56; p 25. The correlation between blood and brain glucose also decreased from r = 0.62 to r = 0.45. These findings in ABI patients suggest increased cerebral lactate delivery in the absence of brain hypoxia when glucose availability is limited and support the concept that lactate acts as alternative fuel.

  18. Kinematic effects of inertia and friction added by a robotic knee exoskeleton after prolonged walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, C; Tucker, M R; Lambercy, O; Gassert, R

    2017-07-01

    The capabilities of robotic gait assistive devices are ever increasing; however, their adoption outside of the lab is still limited. A critical barrier for the functionality of these devices are the still unknown mechanical properties of the human leg during dynamic conditions such as walking. We built a robotic knee exoskeleton to address this problem. Here, we present the effects of our device on the walking pattern of four subjects. We assessed the effects after a short period of acclimation as well as after a 1.5h walking protocol. We found that the knee exoskeleton decreased (towards extension) the peak hip extension and peak knee flexion of the leg with the exoskeleton, while minimally affecting the non-exoskeleton leg. Comparatively smaller changes occurred after prolonged walking. These results suggest that walking patterns attained after a few minutes of acclimation with a knee exoskeleton are stable for at least a couple of hours.

  19. Visible-light photoactivity of plasmonic silver supported on mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag-MTN) for enhanced degradation of 2-chlorophenol: Limitation of Ag-Ti interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, N.F.; Jalil, A.A.; Triwahyono, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag 0 loaded on MTN was prepared by a direct in-situ electrochemical method. • The introduction of Ag 0 lowers the band gap and increases the number of OV and TSD. • Ag 0 acted as an electrons trapper and also a plasmonic sensitizer. • The formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN decreased the amount of Ag 0 , TSD and OV. • 5 wt% Ag-MTN gave the highest percentage of photodegradation of 2-CP. - Abstract: Various weight loadings of Ag (1–10 wt.%) were introduced to mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTN) via a direct in-situ electrochemical method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, surface area analysis, FTIR, ESR, FESEM-EDX and TEM. Characterization results indicated that the introduction of Ag onto MTN decreased the particles size and band gap of the MTN while increasing the number of oxygen vacancies (OV) and Ti 3+ site defects (TSD). The activity performance of Ag-MTN on photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation was in the following order: 5 wt% Ag-MTN> 1 wt% Ag-MTN > MTN > 10 wt% Ag-MTN, with degradation percentages of 97, 88, 80 and 63%, respectively. The synergistic effect between Ag 0 and MTN seemed to play an important role in the system. The Ag0 acted as both an electron trap and a plasmonic sensitizer which suppressed the electron-hole recombination, while OV and TSD in the MTN accelerated the production of hydroxyl radicals for enhanced degradation of 2-CP. However, the formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN was found to decrease the photoactivity due to the decrease in the formation of Ag 0 , TSD and OV as well as the increase in band gap energy. The photodegradation of 5 wt% Ag-MTN followed a pseudo-first-order Langmuir- Hinshelwood model and the catalyst was still stable after five cycles.

  20. In vivo relaxation time measurements on a murine tumor model--prolongation of T1 after photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y H; Hawk, R M; Ramaprasad, S

    1995-01-01

    RIF tumors implanted on mice feet were investigated for changes in relaxation times (T1 and T2) after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photodynamic therapy was performed using Photofrin II as the photosensitizer and laser light at 630 nm. A home-built proton solenoid coil in the balanced configuration was used to accommodate the tumors, and the relaxation times were measured before, immediately after, and up to several hours after therapy. Several control experiments were performed untreated tumors, tumors treated with Photofrin II alone, or tumors treated with laser light alone. Significant increases in T1s of water protons were observed after PDT treatment. In all experiments, 31P spectra were recorded before and after the therapy to study the tumor status and to confirm the onset of PDT. These studies show significant prolongation of T1s after the PDT treatment. The spin-spin relaxation measurements, on the other hand, did not show such prolongation in T2 values after PDT treatment.

  1. FACT light collection - solid light concentrators in Cherenkov Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Isabel [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    Pixelized cameras of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes use hollow light guides with reflective surfaces based on the Winston cone design. These cones minimize insensitive spaces between the photo sensors and shield the camera from stray background light by limiting the angular acceptance to the primary reflector area. FACT (First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope) will be the first IACT with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes as light sensors. Solid light concentrators complementing these sensors will be used instead of hollow Winston cones. We will present simulations and measurements of our light collector design, which was optimized for the requirements of the FACT telescope and detector, and discuss the specific differences to more traditional solutions.

  2. Light guide technology: using light to enhance safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, William S.

    2009-05-01

    When used to detect extreme temperatures in harsh environments, warning devices have been placed at a distance from the "danger zone" for several reasons. The inability to mix electricity with flammable, caustic, liquid or volatile substances, the limited heat tolerances exhibited by most light sources, and the susceptibility of light sources to damage from vibration, have made the placement of a warning light directly within these harsh environments impossible. This paper describes a system that utilizes a beam of light to provide just such a warning. This system can be used with hard-wired or wireless sensors, side-light illumination, image projection and image transfer. The entire system may be self-contained and portable.

  3. General considerations of the choice of dose limits, averaging areas and weighting factors for the skin in the light of revised skin cancer risk figures and experimental data on non-stochastic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent biological data from man and pig on the non-stochastic effects following exposure with a range of β-emitters are combined with recent epidemiological analyses of skin cancer risks in man to form a basis for suggested improved protection criteria following whole- or partial-body skin exposures. Specific consideration is given to the choice of an organ weighting factor for evaluation of effective dose-equivalent. Since stochastic and non-stochastic end-points involve different cell types at different depths in the skin, the design of an ideal physical dosemeter may depend on the proportion of the body skin exposed and the radiation penetrating power. Possible choices of design parameters for skin dosemeters are discussed. Limitation of skin exposure from small radioactive sources ('hot particles') is addressed using animal data. (author)

  4. Supersymmetry across the light and heavy-light hadronic spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosch, Hans Gunter [Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); de Teramond, Guy F. [Univ. de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca (Costa Rica); Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Relativistic light-front bound-state equations for mesons and baryons can be constructed in the chiral limit from the supercharges of a superconformal algebra which connect baryon and meson spectra. Quark masses break the conformal invariance, but the basic underlying supersymmetric mechanism, which transforms meson and baryon wave functions into each other, still holds and gives remarkable connections across the entire spectrum of light and heavy-light hadrons. As a result, we also briefly examine the consequences of extending the supersymmetric relations to double-heavy mesons and baryons.

  5. Visible-light photoactivity of plasmonic silver supported on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (Ag-MTN) for enhanced degradation of 2-chlorophenol: Limitation of Ag-Ti interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaafar, N.F. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Jalil, A.A., E-mail: aishahaj@utm.my [Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Triwahyono, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag{sup 0} loaded on MTN was prepared by a direct in-situ electrochemical method. • The introduction of Ag{sup 0} lowers the band gap and increases the number of OV and TSD. • Ag{sup 0} acted as an electrons trapper and also a plasmonic sensitizer. • The formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN decreased the amount of Ag{sup 0}, TSD and OV. • 5 wt% Ag-MTN gave the highest percentage of photodegradation of 2-CP. - Abstract: Various weight loadings of Ag (1–10 wt.%) were introduced to mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTN) via a direct in-situ electrochemical method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, surface area analysis, FTIR, ESR, FESEM-EDX and TEM. Characterization results indicated that the introduction of Ag onto MTN decreased the particles size and band gap of the MTN while increasing the number of oxygen vacancies (OV) and Ti{sup 3+} site defects (TSD). The activity performance of Ag-MTN on photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation was in the following order: 5 wt% Ag-MTN> 1 wt% Ag-MTN > MTN > 10 wt% Ag-MTN, with degradation percentages of 97, 88, 80 and 63%, respectively. The synergistic effect between Ag{sup 0} and MTN seemed to play an important role in the system. The Ag0 acted as both an electron trap and a plasmonic sensitizer which suppressed the electron-hole recombination, while OV and TSD in the MTN accelerated the production of hydroxyl radicals for enhanced degradation of 2-CP. However, the formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN was found to decrease the photoactivity due to the decrease in the formation of Ag{sup 0}, TSD and OV as well as the increase in band gap energy. The photodegradation of 5 wt% Ag-MTN followed a pseudo-first-order Langmuir- Hinshelwood model and the catalyst was still stable after five cycles.

  6. Applications and limitations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps for measuring biting densities of African malaria vector populations: a pooled-analysis of 13 comparisons with human landing catches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Huho, Bernadette J; Gimnig, John E; Bayoh, Nabie; Seyoum, Aklilu; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Govella, Nicodem; Diallo, Diadier A; Abdullah, Salim; Smith, Thomas A; Killeen, Gerry F

    2015-06-18

    Measurement of densities of host-seeking malaria vectors is important for estimating levels of disease transmission, for appropriately allocating interventions, and for quantifying their impact. The gold standard for estimating mosquito-human contact rates is the human landing catch (HLC), where human volunteers catch mosquitoes that land on their exposed body parts. This approach necessitates exposure to potentially infectious mosquitoes, and is very labour intensive. There are several safer and less labour-intensive methods, with Centers for Disease Control light traps (LT) placed indoors near occupied bed nets being the most widely used. This paper presents analyses of 13 studies with paired mosquito collections of LT and HLC to evaluate these methods for their consistency in sampling indoor-feeding mosquitoes belonging to the two major taxa of malaria vectors across Africa, the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato complex and the Anopheles funestus s.l. group. Both overall and study-specific sampling efficiencies of LT compared with HLC were computed, and regression methods that allow for the substantial variations in mosquito counts made by either method were used to test whether the sampling efficacy varies with mosquito density. Generally, LT were able to collect similar numbers of mosquitoes to the HLC indoors, although the relative sampling efficacy, measured by the ratio of LT:HLC varied considerably between studies. The overall best estimate for An. gambiae s.l. was 1.06 (95% credible interval: 0.68-1.64) and for An. funestus s.l. was 1.37 (0.70-2.68). Local calibration exercises are not reproducible, since only in a few studies did LT sample proportionally to HLC, and there was no geographical pattern or consistent trend with average density in the tendency for LT to either under- or over-sample. LT are a crude tool at best, but are relatively easy to deploy on a large scale. Spatial and temporal variation in mosquito densities and human malaria transmission

  7. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).

  8. Naloxone fails to prolong seizure length in ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, K G; Pandurangi, A K

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) in animals has been shown to enhance endogenous opiate systems. The anticonvulsant effects of ECS are also partially blocked by the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone, leading some investigators to postulate that the anticonvulsant effects of ECS are mediated by activation of endogenous opiates. If such a phenomenon occurs in humans, then naloxone might prolong seizure length in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In the present study, nine patients were given 2.0 mg intravenous (i.v.) naloxone 2 minutes prior to one-half of their ECT treatments. Motor seizure length was measured via the cuff technique. EEG tracings were read by an investigator blind to naloxone status. There was no difference between the two groups in either EEG or nonblindly evaluated motor seizure length. It is concluded that a dose of 2 mg naloxone does not effectively increase seizure length in ECT.

  9. Sex differences in cardiac function after prolonged strenuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Anita T; Phillips, Aaron A; Foulds, Heather J; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Koehle, Michael S; Warburton, Darren E R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) function after an ultramarathon, and the association of vascular and training indices with the magnitude of exercise-induced cardiac fatigue. Descriptive field study. Fat Dog 100 Ultramarathon Trail Race, Canada. Thirty-four (13 women) recreational runners (aged 28-56 years). A 100-km or 160-km mountain marathon. Baseline baroreceptor sensitivity, heart rate variability, and arterial compliance; Pre-exercise and postexercise echocardiographic evaluations of LV dimensions, volumes, Doppler flow velocities, tissue velocities, strain, and strain rate. Finishers represented 17 men (44.8 ± 6.6 years) and 8 women (45.9 ± 10.2 years; P = 0.758). After ultraendurance exercise, significant reductions (P training status/experience. These findings suggest that vascular health is an important contributor to the degree of cardiovascular strain incurred as the result of an acute bout of prolonged strenuous exercise.

  10. Interleukin-6 release from the human brain during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which has a variety of physiological roles including functions within the central nervous system. Circulating IL-6 increases markedly during exercise, partly due to the release of IL-6 from the contracting skeletal muscles, and exercise-induced IL-6 m...... influence of hyperthermia. In conclusion, IL-6 is released from the brain during prolonged exercise in humans and it appears that the duration of the exercise rather than the increase in body temperature dictates the cerebral IL-6 response....... in the brain at rest or after 15 min of exercise, but a small release of IL-6 was observed after 60 min of exercise in the first bout (0.06 +/- 0.03 ng min(-1)). This release of IL-6 from the brain was five-fold greater at the end of the second bout (0.30 +/- 0.08 ng min(-1); P

  11. Fractures and Fanconi syndrome due to prolonged sodium valproate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, N; Högler, W

    2011-06-01

    Sodium valproate (VPA) is commonly used to treat epilepsy in children. Renal dysfunction is a rare side eff ect but can present as tubulopathy such as Fanconi syndrome. We report on an 8-year-old disabled girl with myoclonic epilepsy who was referred for investigation of recurrent low impact fractures of the distal femur which were initially thought to be caused by her severe immobility. However, she was subsequently found to have hypophosphataemia secondary to Fanconi syndrome due to prolonged VPA use. After VPA withdrawal renal function and serum phosphate levels normalised and X-rays improved dramatically. The possibility of drug-induced osteoporosis and fractures should always be considered in disabled children, even in the presence of severe immobility.

  12. Prolonged reorganization of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kundu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged reorganization behaviour of mono-, di-, tri- and multi-layer films of Au nanoparticles prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett method on hydrophobic Si(001 substrates have been studied by using X-ray scattering techniques. Out-of-plane study shows that although at the initial stage the reorganization occurs through the compaction of the films keeping the layered structure unchanged but finally all layered structures modify to monolayer structure. Due to this reorganization the Au density increases within the nanometer thick films. In-plane study shows that inside the reorganized films Au nanoparticles are distributed randomly and the particle size modifies as the metallic core of Au nanoparticles coalesces.

  13. New Heterogeneous Clustering Protocol for Prolonging Wireless Sensor Networks Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Golam Rashed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustering in wireless sensor networks is one of the crucial methods for increasing of network lifetime. The network characteristics of existing classical clustering protocols for wireless sensor network are homogeneous. Clustering protocols fail to maintain the stability of the system, especially when nodes are heterogeneous. We have seen that the behavior of Heterogeneous-Hierarchical Energy Aware Routing Protocol (H-HEARP becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. In this paper we assume a new clustering protocol whose network characteristics is heterogeneous for prolonging of network lifetime. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed clustering algorithm outperforms than other clustering algorithms in terms of the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period. The simulation results also show the high performance of the proposed clustering algorithm for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.

  14. CNS fatigue provoked by prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    to the brain. However, exercise with superimposed hyperthermia is not only a challenge to the brain it also provides an excellent model for studying factors of importance for central fatigue. Excessive heat storage within the brain appears to be the primary cause for the central fatigue during exercise......Exercise-induced hyperthermia is associated with central fatigue as indicated by an impaired ability to sustain maximal motor activation during prolonged voluntary efforts. Therefore, exercise in hot environments challenges not only to the cardiorespiratory and locomotive systems but also...... to aggravate central fatigue and degrade exercise performance. Hyperthermia mediated central fatigue may include other cerebral perturbations such as reduced perfusion of the brain, accumulation of ammonia or depletion of neuronal energy stores, but further research is needed to elucidate their possible...

  15. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  16. Effect of prolonged continuous irradiation of humoral immunity of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, E.N.; Muksinova, K.N.; Skukovskaya, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the content and function of cell populations and subpopulations involved in the humoral response of mice to the thymus-dependent antigen were investigated. The effect was followed during a prolonged continuous exposure to 137 C gamma-emitter (total dose - 5 Gy and daily dose - 12 cGy for 22 hours) and after its termination. The data obtained give evidence for a decrease of the pool of polypotent lymphocyte precursors (CFUs), stable moderate hypoplasia of central and peripheral organs of the immune system, distinct inhibition of antibody production at the expense of reduced activity of precursors of lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and T-helpers. In the remote post-irradiation period residual radiation damage was seen in polypotent and committed precursors of lymphocytes and T-helpers, which was responsible for the trend towards the decline of antibody production, hypoplasia in the spleen and lymph nodes being persistent

  17. Efficacy of prolonged antimicrobial chemotherapy for brucellar spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, S; Karadima, D; Pneumaticos, S; Athanasiou, H; Pontikis, J; Zormpala, A; Sipsas, N V

    2011-05-01

    The standard treatment of brucellar spondylitis with a combination of two antibiotics for 6-12 weeks is associated with high rates of treatment failure and relapse. The present study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a treatment strategy based on the prolonged administration of a triple combination of suitable antibiotics. Eighteen patients with brucellar spondylitis were treated with a combination of at least three suitable antibiotics (doxycycline, rifampin, plus intramuscular streptomycin or cotrimoxazole or ciprofloxacin) until the completion of at least 6 months of treatment, when clinical, radiological and serology re-evaluation was performed. If necessary, the treatment was continued with additional 6-month cycles, until resolution or significant improvement of clinical and radiological findings, or for a maximum of 18 months. At presentation, the median age was 66 years (range, 42-85 years) with male predominance. The median duration of therapy was 48 weeks (range 24-72 weeks). Treatment was discontinued early because of side-effects in only one patient. Surgical intervention was required for three patients. At the end of treatment all patients had a complete response. After completion of treatment, all patients were followed up with regular visits. During the follow-up period (duration 1-96 months, median 36.5 months), no relapses were observed. In conclusion, prolonged (at least 6 months) administration of a triple combination of suitable antibiotics appears to be an effective treatment for brucellar spondylitis. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Prolonged neuroinflammation after lipopolysaccharide exposure in aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Qun Fu

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a hallmark of several disease states ranging from neurodegeneration to sepsis but is also implicated in physiological processes like ageing. Non-resolving inflammation and prolonged neuroinflammation are unclear processes implicated in several conditions, including ageing. In this study we studied the long-term effects of endotoxemia, as systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection, focusing on the role of astrocyte activation and cytokine release in the brain of aged rats. A single dose of LPS (2 mg/kg or 0.9% saline was injected intraperitoneally in aged rats. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-1β and NF-κB p65 activation were measured systemically and in hippocampal tissue. Astrocytes and cytokines release in the CNS were detected via double immunofluorescence staining at different time-points up to day 30. Serum levels of TNFα and IL-1β were significantly increased acutely after 30 minutes (p<0.001 and up to 6 hours (p<0.001 following LPS-injection. Centrally, LPS-treated rats showed up-regulated mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus. These changes associated with astrogliosis in the hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG, IL-1β immunoreactivity and elevated NF-κB p65 expression up to day 30 post LPS exposure. Overall, these data demonstrate that LPS induces prolonged neuroinflammation and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of aged rats. Hippocampal NF-κB p65 and excessive astrocytes-derived IL-1β release may play a pivotal role in regulating long-lasting neuroinflammation.

  19. Prolonged fasting increases glutathione biosynthesis in postweaned northern elephant seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Forman, Henry Jay; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Northern elephant seals experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting) while breeding, molting or weaning. The postweaning fast in elephant seals is characterized by increases in the renin–angiotensin system, expression of the oxidant-producing protein Nox4, and NADPH oxidase activity; however, these increases are not correlated with increased oxidative damage or inflammation. Glutathione (GSH) is a potent reductant and a cofactor for glutathione peroxidases (GPx), glutathione-S transferases (GST) and 1-cys peroxiredoxin (PrxVI) and thus contributes to the removal of hydroperoxides, preventing oxidative damage. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on the GSH system are not well described in mammals. To test our hypothesis that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting in postweaned elephant seals, we measured circulating and muscle GSH content at the early and late phases of the postweaning fast in elephant seals along with the activity/protein content of glutamate-cysteine ligase [GCL; catalytic (GCLc) and modulatory (GCLm) subunits], γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione disulphide reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GST and PrxVI, as well as plasma changes in γ-glutamyl amino acids, glutamate and glutamine. GSH increased two- to four-fold with fasting along with a 40–50% increase in the content of GCLm and GCLc, a 75% increase in GGT activity, a two- to 2.5-fold increase in GR, G6PDH and GST activities and a 30% increase in PrxVI content. Plasma γ-glutamyl glutamine, γ-glutamyl isoleucine and γ-glutamyl methionine also increased with fasting whereas glutamate and glutamine decreased. Results indicate that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting and that GSH contributes to counteracting hydroperoxide production, preventing oxidative damage in fasting seals. PMID:21430206

  20. Survival in Patients Receiving Prolonged Ventilation: Factors that Influence Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. James Mamary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Prolonged mechanical ventilation is increasingly common. It is expensive and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our objective is to comprehensively characterize patients admitted to a Ventilator Rehabilitation Unit (VRU for weaning and identify characteristics associated with survival. Methods 182 consecutive patients over 3.5 years admitted to Temple University Hospital (TUH VRU were characterized. Data were derived from comprehensive chart review and a prospectively collected computerized database. Survival was determined by hospital records and social security death index and mailed questionnaires. Results Upon admission to the VRU, patients were hypoalbuminemic (albumin 2.3 ± 0.6 g/dL, anemic (hemoglobin 9.6 ± 1.4 g/dL, with moderate severity of illness (APACHE II score 10.7 + 4.1, and multiple comorbidities (Charlson index 4.3 + 2.3. In-hospital mortality (19% was related to a higher Charlson Index score ( P = 0.006; OR 1.08-1.6, and APACHE II score ( P = 0.016; OR 1.03-1.29. In-hospital mortality was inversely related to admission albumin levels ( P = 0.023; OR 0.17-0.9. The presence of COPD as a comorbid illness or primary determinant of respiratory failure and higher VRU admission APACHE II score predicted higher long-term mortality. Conversely, higher VRU admission hemoglobin was associated with better long term survival (OR 0.57-0.90; P = 0.0006. Conclusion Patients receiving prolonged ventilation are hypoalbuminemic, anemic, have moderate severity of illness, and multiple comorbidities. Survival relates to these factors and the underlying illness precipitating respiratory failure, especially COPD.

  1. Prolonged operative time increases infection rate in tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as to identify other surgical risk factors. We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution's level I trauma centre during a recent 5-year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8h vs. 2.2h in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, pinfection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, psite infection. Operative times approaching 3h and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not appear to expose the patient to increased risk compared to single incision approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does prolonged β-lactam infusions improve clinical outcomes compared to intermittent infusions? A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized, controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Arendonk Kyle J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of multi-drug resistant Gram-negatives (MDRGNs coupled with an alarming scarcity of new antibiotics has forced the optimization of the therapeutic potential of available antibiotics. To exploit the time above the minimum inhibitory concentration mechanism of β-lactams, prolonging their infusion may improve outcomes. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to determine if prolonged β-lactam infusion resulted in decreased mortality and improved clinical cure compared to intermittent β-lactam infusion. Methods Relevant studies were identified from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. Heterogeneity was assessed qualitatively, in addition to I2 and Chi-square statistics. Pooled relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel random-effects models. Results Fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. Prolonged infusion β-lactams were not associated with decreased mortality (n= 982; RR 0.92; 95% CI:0.61-1.37 or clinical cure (n = 1380; RR 1.00 95% CI:0.94-1.06 compared to intermittent infusions. Subgroup analysis for β-lactam subclasses and equivalent total daily β-lactam doses yielded similar results. Most studies had notable methodological flaws. Conclusions No clinical advantage was observed for prolonged infusion β-lactams. The limited number of studies with MDRGNs precluded evaluation of prolonged infusion of β-lactams for this subgroup. A large, multicenter RCT with critically ill patients infected with MDRGNs is needed.

  3. Risk factors for prolonged length of stay after colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe de Campos Lobato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Colorectal surgeons often struggle to explain to administrators/payers reasons for prolonged length of stay (LOS. This study aim was to identify factors associated with increased LOS after colorectal surgery. Design: The study population included patients from the 2007 American-College-of-Sur- geons-National-Surgical-Quality-Improvement-Program (ACS-NSQIP database undergoing ileocolic resection, segmental colectomy, or anterior resection. The study population was divided into normal (below 75th percentile and prolonged LOS (above the 75th percentile. A multivariate analysis was performed using prolonged LOS as dependent variable and ACS- NSQIP variables as predictive variables. P-value < 0.01 was considered significant. Results: 12,269 patients with a median LOS of 6 (inter-quartile range 4-9 days were includ- ed. There were 2,617 (21.3% patients with prolonged LOS (median 15 days, inter-quartile range 13-22. 1,308 (50% were female, and the median age was 69 (inter-quartile range 57-79 years. Risk factors for prolonged LOS were male gender, congestive heart failure, weight loss, Crohn's disease, preoperative albumin < 3.5 g/dL and hematocrit < 47%, base- line sepsis, ASA class ≥ 3, open surgery, surgical time ≥ 190 min, postoperative pneumonia, failure to wean from mechanical ventilation, deep venous thrombosis, urinary-tract in- fection, systemic sepsis, surgical site infection and reoperation within 30-days from the primary surgery. Conclusion: Multiple factors are associated with increased LOS after colorectal surgery. Our results are useful for surgeons to explain prolonged LOS to administrators/payers who are critical of this metric. Resumo: Objetivo: Os cirurgiões proctologistas muitas vezes enfrentam dificuldades para explicar aos administradores/contribuintes as razões para o prolongamento do tempo de interna- ção hospitalar (TIH. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores associados ao aumen- to do TIH ap

  4. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Arguments for the prolonged use of antithyroid drugs in children with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude

    2017-08-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder. It is the leading cause of hyperthyroidism, but is rare in children. Patients are initially managed with antithyroid drugs (ATDs), such as methimazole/carbimazole. A major disadvantage of treatment with ATD is the high risk of relapse, exceeding 70% of children treated for duration of 2 years, and the potential major side effects of the drug reported in exceptional cases. The major advantage of ATD treatment is that normal homeostasis of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis may be restored, with periods of drug treatment followed by freedom from medical intervention achieved in approximately 40-50% of cases after prolonged treatment with ATD, for several years, in recent studies. Alternative ablative treatments such as radioactive iodine and, less frequently and mostly in cases of very high volume goiters or in children under the age of 5 years, thyroidectomy, performed by pediatric surgeons with extensive experience should be proposed in cases of non-compliance, intolerance to medical treatment or relapse after prolonged medical treatment. Ablative treatments are effective against hyperthyroidism, but they require the subsequent administration of levothyroxine throughout the patient's life. This review considers data relating to the prognosis for Graves' disease remission in children and explores the limitations of study designs and results; and the emerging proposal for management through the prolonged use of ATD drugs. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Cumulation of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.; Bondarev, V.K.; Golovanov, L.B.

    1977-01-01

    Limit fragmentation of light nuclei (deuterium, helium) bombarded with 8,6 GeV/c protons was investigated. Fragments (pions, protons and deuterons) were detected within the emission angle 50-150 deg with regard to primary protons and within the pulse range 150-180 MeV/c. By the kinematics of collision of a primary proton with a target at rest the fragments observed correspond to a target mass upto 3 GeV. Thus, the data obtained correspond to teh cumulation upto the third order

  6. EDITORIAL: LED light sources (light for the future) LED light sources (light for the future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, N.

    2010-09-01

    Generating white light from electricity with maximum efficacy has been a long quest since the first incandescent lamp was invented by Edison at the end of the 19th century. Nowadays, semiconductors are making reality the holy grail of converting electrons into photons with 100% efficiency and with colours that can be mixed for white light illumination. The revolution in solid-state lighting (SSL) dates to 1994 when Nakamura reported the first high-brightness blue LED based on GaN semiconductors. Then, white light was produced by simply combining a blue dye with a yellow phosphor. After more than a decade of intensive research the performance of white LEDs is quite impressive, beating by far the luminous efficacy of compact fluorescent lamps. We are likely close to replacing our current lighting devices by SSL lamps. However, there are still technological and fabrication cost issues that could delay large market penetration of white LEDs. Interestingly, SSL may create novel ways of using light that could potentially limit electricity saving. Whatever the impact of SSL, it will be significant on our daily life. The purpose of this special cluster issue is to produce a snapshot of the current situation of SSL from different viewing angles. In an introductory paper, Tsao and co-workers from Sandia National Laboratories, present an energy-economics perspective of SSL considering societal changes and SSL technology evolution. In a second article, Narukawa et al working at Nichia Corporation—the pioneer and still the leading company in SSL—describe the state of the art of current research products. They demonstrate record performance with white LEDs exhibiting luminous efficacy of 183 lm W-1 at high-current injection. Then, a series of topical papers discuss in detail various aspects of the physics and technology of white LEDs Carrier localization in InGaN quantum wells has been considered the key to white LEDs' success despite the huge density of defects. A

  7. Prolonged antibiotics for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnin, Khin; Nguyen, Chau; Carson, Kristin V; Evans, David J; Greenstone, Michael; Smith, Brian J

    2015-08-13

    The vicious cycle hypothesis for bronchiectasis predicts that bacterial colonisation of the respiratory tract perpetuates inflammatory change. This damages the mucociliary escalator, preventing bacterial clearance and allowing persistence of pro-inflammatory mediators. Conventional treatment with physiotherapy and intermittent antibiotics is believed to improve the condition of people with bronchiectasis, although no conclusive data show that these interventions influence the natural history of the condition. Various strategies have been tried to interrupt this cycle of infection and inflammation, including prolonging antibiotic treatment with the goal of allowing the airway mucosa to heal. To determine the benefits of prolonged antibiotic therapy in the treatment of patients with bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and reference lists of identified articles. Searches were current as of February 2014. Randomised trials examining the use of prolonged antibiotic therapy (for four or more weeks) in the treatment of bronchiectasis compared with placebo or usual care. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors to ask for missing information. Eighteen trials met the inclusion criteria, randomly assigning a total of 1157 participants. Antibiotics were given for between four weeks and 83 weeks. Limited meta-analysis was possible because of the diversity of outcomes reported in these trials. Based on the number of participants with at least one exacerbation, the meta-analysis showed significant effects in favour of the intervention (odds ratio (OR) 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.52; P value antibiotics with a moderate quality grade of supporting evidence (37 per 1000 in the intervention arm (95% CI 13 to 96) and 87 per 1000 in control (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.11; P value = 0.08). Drug resistance developed in 36 of 220 participants taking antibiotics compared with

  8. Pankiller effect of prolonged exposure to menadione on glioma cells: potentiation by vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Marina F; Nagachar, Nivedita; Avramidis, Dimitrios; Delwar, Zahid M; Cruz, Mabel H; Siden, Åke; Paulsson, Kajsa M; Yakisich, Juan Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Menadione (Vitamin K3) has anti-tumoral effects against a wide range of cancer cells. Its potential toxicity to normal cells and narrow therapeutic range limit its use as single agent but in combination with radiation or other anti-neoplastic agents can be of therapeutic use. In this paper, we first evaluated the early (within 3 h) effect of menadione on ongoing DNA replication. In normal rat cerebral cortex mini-units menadione showed an age dependent anti-proliferative effect. In tissue mini-units prepared from newborn rats, menadione inhibited ongoing DNA replication with an IC (50) of approximately 10 μM but 50 μM had no effect on mini-units from prepared adult rat tissue. The effect of short (72 h) and prolonged exposure (1-2 weeks) to menadione alone in the DBTRG.05MG human glioma cells line and in combination with vitamin C was studied. After short period of exposure data show that menadione alone or in combination with vitamin C provided similar concentration-response curves (and IC(50) values). Prolonged exposure to these drugs was evaluated by their ability to kill 100% of glioma cells and prevent regrowth when cells are re-incubated in drug-free media. In this long-term assay, menadione:vitamin C at a ratio 1:100 showed higher anti-proliferative activity when compared to each drug alone and allowed to reduce each drug concentration between 2.5 to 5-fold. Similar anti-proliferative effect was demonstrated in 8 patient derived glioblastoma cell cultures. Our data should be able to encourage further advanced studies on animal models to evaluate the potential use of this combination therapy for glioma treatment.

  9. Prolonged striatal disinhibition as a chronic animal model of tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinner, Esther; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2017-12-01

    Experimental findings and theoretical models have associated Tourette syndrome with abnormal striatal inhibition. The expression of tics, the hallmark symptom of this disorder, has been transiently induced in non-human primates and rodents by the injection of GABA A antagonists into the striatum, leading to temporary disinhibition. The novel chronic model of tic expression utilizes mini-osmotic pumps implanted subcutaneously in the rat's back for prolonged infusion of bicuculline into the dorsolateral striatum. Tics were expressed on the contralateral side to the infusion over a period of multiple days. Tic expression was stable, and maintained similar properties throughout the infusion period. Electrophysiological recordings revealed the existence of tic-related local field potential spikes and individual neuron activity changes that remained stable throughout the infusion period. The striatal disinhibition model provides a unique combination of face validity (tic expression) and construct validity (abnormal striatal inhibition) but is limited to sub-hour periods. The new chronic model extends the period of tic expression to multiple days and thus enables the study of tic dynamics and the effects of behavior and pharmacological agents on tic expression. The chronic model provides similar behavioral and neuronal correlates of tics as the acute striatal disinhibition model but over prolonged periods of time, thus providing a unique, basal ganglia initiated model of tic expression. Chronic expression of symptoms is the key to studying the time varying properties of Tourette syndrome and the effects of multiple internal and external factors on this disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Integrative Data Science Pipeline to Identify Novel Drug Interactions that Prolong the QT Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorberbaum, Tal; Sampson, Kevin J; Woosley, Raymond L; Kass, Robert S; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2016-05-01

    Drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram (long QT syndrome, LQTS) can lead to a potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmia known as torsades de pointes (TdP). Over 40 drugs with both cardiac and non-cardiac indications are associated with increased risk of TdP, but drug-drug interactions contributing to LQTS (QT-DDIs) remain poorly characterized. Traditional methods for mining observational healthcare data are poorly equipped to detect QT-DDI signals due to low reporting numbers and lack of direct evidence for LQTS. We hypothesized that LQTS could be identified latently using an adverse event (AE) fingerprint of more commonly reported AEs. We aimed to generate an integrated data science pipeline that addresses current limitations by identifying latent signals for QT-DDIs in the US FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and retrospectively validating these predictions using electrocardiogram data in electronic health records (EHRs). We trained a model to identify an AE fingerprint for risk of TdP for single drugs and applied this model to drug pair data to predict novel DDIs. In the EHR at Columbia University Medical Center, we compared the QTc intervals of patients prescribed the flagged drug pairs with patients prescribed either drug individually. We created an AE fingerprint consisting of 13 latently detected side effects. This model significantly outperformed a direct evidence control model in the detection of established interactions (p = 1.62E-3) and significantly enriched for validated QT-DDIs in the EHR (p = 0.01). Of 889 pairs flagged in FAERS, eight novel QT-DDIs were significantly associated with prolonged QTc intervals in the EHR and were not due to co-prescribed medications. Latent signal detection in FAERS validated using the EHR presents an automated and data-driven approach for systematically identifying novel QT-DDIs. The high-confidence hypotheses flagged using this method warrant further investigation.

  11. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics and functional status in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Huey; Lin, Hui-Ling; Hsiao, Hsiu-Feng; Chou, Lan-Ti; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2012-05-01

    The functional status and outcomes in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) are often limited by poor endurance and pulmonary mechanics, which result from the primary diseases or prolonged time bedridden. We evaluate the impact of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics, physical functional status, and hospitalization outcomes in PMV patients. Twenty-seven subjects with PMV in our respiratory care center (RCC) were divided randomly into an exercise training group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 15). The exercise program comprised 10 sessions of exercise training. The measurement of pulmonary mechanics and physical functional status (Functional Independence Measurement and Barthel index) were performed pre-study and post-study. The hospitalization outcomes included: days of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization days, and weaning and mortality rates during RCC stay. The training group had significant improvement in tidal volume (143.6 mL vs 192.5 mL, P = .02) and rapid shallow breathing index after training (162.2 vs 110.6, P = .009). No significant change was found in the control group except respiratory rate. Both groups had significant improvement in functional status during the study. However, the training group had greater changes in FIM score than the control group (44.6 vs 34.2, P = .024). The training group also had shorter RCC stay and higher weaning and survival rates than the control group, although no statistical difference was found. Subjects with PMV in our RCC demonstrated significant improvement in pulmonary mechanics and functional status after exercise training. The application of exercise training may be helpful for PMV patients to improve hospitalization outcomes.

  12. Cell culture chamber with gas supply for prolonged recording of human neuronal cells on microelectrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Joose; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Mäki, Antti-Juhana; Ristola, Mervi; Narkilahti, Susanna; Kallio, Pasi

    2017-03-15

    Typically, live cell analyses are performed outside an incubator in an ambient air, where the lack of sufficient CO 2 supply results in a fast change of pH and the high evaporation causes concentration drifts in the culture medium. That limits the experiment time for tens of minutes. In many applications, e.g. in neurotoxicity studies, a prolonged measurement of extracellular activity is, however, essential. We demonstrate a simple cell culture chamber that enables stable culture conditions during prolonged extracellular recordings on a microelectrode array (MEA) outside an incubator. The proposed chamber consists of a gas permeable silicone structure that enables gas transfer into the chamber. We show that the culture chamber supports the growth of the human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurons both inside and outside an incubator. The structure provides very low evaporation, stable pH and osmolarity, and maintains strong signaling of hESC-derived neuronal networks over three-day MEA experiments. Existing systems are typically complex including continuous perfusion of medium or relatively large amount of gas to supply. The proposed chamber requires only a supply of very low flow rate (1.5ml/min) of non-humidified 5% CO 2 gas. Utilizing dry gas supply makes the proposed chamber simple to use. Using the proposed culture structure on top of MEA, we can maintain hESC-derived neural networks over three days outside an incubator. Technically, the structure requires very low flow rate of dry gas supporting, however, low evaporation and maintaining the pH of the culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Melanoma with second myxoid stromal changes after personally applied prolonged phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulamec, Monika; Soldo-Belić, Antica; Vucić, Majda; Buljan, Marija; Kruslin, Bozo; Tomas, Davor

    2008-04-01

    Most malignant melanomas are easily diagnosed; however, melanoma is also one of the lesions most frequently reported to mimic other tumors. One of the most difficult patterns to recognize is characterized by prominent myxoid matrix. A case is presented of primary cutaneous melanoma with abundant myxoid matrix in a patient who underwent prolonged phototherapy. Three years before, after getting sunburns, the patient noticed changes of a congenital nevus located in the area of sunburns. It became darker, started to blanch, and grew, with occasional bleeding. Without consulting a physician, the patient applied phototherapy onto the area for 30 months. He used a Bioptron lamp with polarized, polychromatic, incoherent light, at a wavelength from 480 to 3400 nm, without ultraviolet radiation. Clinically, the lesion was unevenly pigmented, ulcerated, covered with hemorrhagic crust, and measuring 3.5 cm in greatest dimension, with a satellite nodule. Multiple metastatic subcutaneous nodules were also found on the scalp and trunk. Histologically, the primary tumor and metastases were composed of nests and pseudotubular formations of polygonal, spindle, and stellate cells embedded in abundant myxoid stroma that comprised more than 80% of the tumor mass. Focally, in the epidermis and papillary dermis, nests of atypical melanocytes and numerous melanophages were observed. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy were administered as suggested by an oncologist. The patient died from distant metastases 6 months after the diagnosis. Although some authors believe that myxoid changes do not seem to alter the behavior of melanoma, it remains an important differential diagnosis issue.

  14. Diverse definitions of prolonged labour and its consequences with sometimes subsequent inappropriate treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nystedt, Astrid; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prolonged labour very often causes suffering from difficulties that may have lifelong implications. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and treatment of prolonged labour and to compare birth outcome and women's experiences of prolonged and normal labour. Method: Women with spontaneous onset of labour, living in a Swedish county, were recruited two months after birth, to a cross-sectional study. Women (n = 829) completed a questionnaire that investigated socio-demographic an...

  15. AORN Ergonomic Tool 4: Solutions for Prolonged Standing in Perioperative Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nancy L; Nelson, Audrey; Matz, Mary W; Lloyd, John

    2011-06-01

    Prolonged standing during surgical procedures poses a high risk of causing musculoskeletal disorders, including back, leg, and foot pain, which can be chronic or acute in nature. Ergonomic Tool 4: Solutions for Prolonged Standing in Perioperative Settings provides recommendations for relieving the strain of prolonged standing, including the use of antifatigue mats, supportive footwear, and sit/stand stools, that are based on well-accepted ergonomic safety concepts, current research, and access to new and emerging technology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Prolong Cardiac Repolarization through Transcriptional Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Stan; Deurinck, Mark; Ju, Haisong; Traebert, Martin; McLean, LeeAnne; Marlowe, Jennifer; Emotte, Corinne; Tritto, Elaine; Tseng, Min; Shultz, Michael; Friedrichs, Gregory S

    2016-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an emerging class of anticancer agents that modify gene expression by altering the acetylation status of lysine residues of histone proteins, thereby inducing transcription, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and cell death or apoptosis of cancer cells. In the clinical setting, treatment with HDAC inhibitors has been associated with delayed cardiac repolarization and in rare instances a lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmia known as torsades de pointes. The mechanism(s) of HDAC inhibitor-induced effects on cardiac repolarization is unknown. We demonstrate that administration of structurally diverse HDAC inhibitors to dogs causes delayed but persistent increases in the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc), an in vivo measure of cardiac repolarization, at timepoints far removed from the Tmax for parent drug and metabolites. Transcriptional profiling of ventricular myocardium from dogs treated with various HDAC inhibitors demonstrated effects on genes involved in protein trafficking, scaffolding and insertion of various ion channels into the cell membrane as well as genes for specific ion channel subunits involved in cardiac repolarization. Extensive in vitro ion channel profiling of various structural classes of HDAC inhibitors (and their major metabolites) by binding and acute patch clamp assays failed to show any consistent correlations with direct ion channel blockade. Drug-induced rescue of an intracellular trafficking-deficient mutant potassium ion channel, hERG (G601S), and decreased maturation (glycosylation) of wild-type hERG expressed by CHO cells in vitro correlated with prolongation of QTc intervals observed in vivo The results suggest that HDAC inhibitor-induced prolongation of cardiac repolarization may be mediated in part by transcriptional changes of genes required for ion channel trafficking and localization to the sarcolemma. These data have broad implications for the development of these drug classes and

  17. Parto inducido por embarazo prolongado Induced delivery in prolonged gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Peña Abraham

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, explicativo y longitudinal sobre el comportamiento de la inducción del parto por embarazo prolongado en el Hospital Gineco-Obstétrico "Justo Legón Padilla", en el período comprendido entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2005.El universo estuvo constituido por la totalidad de los nacimientos por embarazo prolongado que se produjeron en el período, donde el grupo estudio estaba exclusivamente formado por las gestantes con trabajo de parto inducido (n=104; se estudiaron variables de la madre, del nacimiento y del producto de la concepción y a los datos obtenidos se les aplicó porcentaje. La edad materna más frecuente fue la del grupo de 20 - 35 años (65,5%; predominaron las nulíparas (40,4%, la vía del parto que predominó fue la transpelviana (42,3%; todos con un índice de Bishop >7 puntos La causa más frecuente de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo (23%; el embarazo prolongado no constituyó una causa importante de Apgar Bajo, en el parto distócico fue donde ocurrió el mayor número de morbilidad materna y neonatal (9,5%, no se encontró valor significativo en la macrosomía fetal y predominó el sexo femenino en los recién nacidos (65,3%.A retrospective, descriptive, explicative and longitudinal study about the behavior of the induction of labor in prolonged pregnancy was conducted at "Justo Legón Padilla" Gyneco-Obstetric Hospital during the period of January 2004 to December 2005. The whole sample was constituted by the totality of births in prolongad pregnancy during the period where the study group was exclusively formed by pregnants who underwent induced labor (n = 104.Variables of mother, birth and conception product were taken, and percentage method was applied to data collected. The group of most frequent maternal age was 20 - 35 (65,5%, prevailing nulliparous (40,4% and transpelvic labor (42,3%, having a Bishop index = 7. The most frequent cause of cesarean section

  18. A conclusive experiment to throw more light on 'light'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brida, G.; Genovese, M.; Gramegna, M.; Predazzi, E.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new realization of Ghose, Home, Agarwal experiment on wave particle duality of light where some limitations of the former experiment, realized by Mizobuchi and Ohtake, are overcome. Our results clearly indicate that wave-particle complementarity must be understood between interference and 'whelcher weg' knowledge and not in a more general sense

  19. The 30-second rule: the effects of prolonged intubation attempts on oxygen saturation and heart rate in preterm infants in the delivery room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Madeline; Arnell, Kathy; Brown, Melissa; Gonzales, Sarah; Lazarus, Danielle; Rich, Wade; Katheria, Anup

    2018-04-01

    A duration of 30 seconds has been shown to improve the success rate of intubation attempts without any decompensation. There is limited data regarding the detrimental effects of prolonged intubation attempts in preterm infants. The aim was to determine the effect of prolonged intubation attempts on heart rate and oxygen saturation in preterm infants. We retrospectively reviewed videos and physiologic data collected during delivery room (DR) resuscitations. Infants who had a functioning pulse oximeter at the time of intubation in the delivery room were analyzed using video and analog recordings. The duration of the intubation attempt was defined as the time the laryngoscope blade was in the infant's mouth. Prolonged intubations were defined as intubations over 30 seconds. Baseline heart rate and saturations were defined as the heart rate and saturation immediately prior to the intubation attempt. Video recording was used to determine time laryngoscope was in the mouth, what other procedures were performed, and whether there was recovery between attempts. Analog data including heart rate, airway pressure and saturation was also recorded. There were 52 intubation attempts in 28 infants. The median (IQR) birth weight and gestational age were 795 (705, 972) grams and 25 (25, 27) weeks. The duration of an intubation attempt was 35 (27, 46) seconds with number of attempts 2 (1, 2). There were 34 intubation attempts greater than 30 seconds (prolonged group) and 18 attempts less than or equal to 30 seconds (short group). Longer attempts did not affect intubation success (successful 34 [25,37] seconds vs. unsuccessful 41[29, 53] seconds; P=0.05). Infants in the prolonged group had a greater decrease in oxygen saturation percentage from baseline (5±8 percent, short intubation group and 13±27 prolonged intubation group; P=0.004). There was also a significant decrease in heart rate beats per minute between the two groups (6±9 in the short intubation group and 23±29

  20. Features of History, Anthropometric Data and Individual Functions of the Liver in Children with Prolonged Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Tyajka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neonatal jaundice is one of the urgent problems in neonatology. There is a tendency to increase the incidence of prolonged jaundice. The aim of our study was to explore the features of history, anthropometric data and some liver functions in children with prolonged jaundice. Materials and methods. The study involved 111 children with prolonged jaundice aged from 3 weeks to 3 months. In all children with prolonged jaundice, we have examined complete blood count, urinalysis, blood chemistry (determination of total bilirubin and fractions, total protein, albumin, glucose and used instrumental methods of examination — ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and cranial ultrasonography, electrocardiography. Most children with prolonged jaundice were breastfed and were term infants. Results. Indicators of physical development at birth (body weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference in children with prolonged jaundice and in healthy children had not statistically significant differences. Neonatal jaundice was prolonged in children, who were born from the first pregnancy, — 60 children (54.1 %. A high level of total and indirect bilirubin was accompanied by a low level of albumin in the blood serum of children with prolonged jaundice. Protein-synthesis function of the liver was reduced in children with prolonged jaundice.

  1. Are shame and self-esteem risk factors in prolonged grief after death of a spouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellmann, Thomas

    2018-07-01

    Although many single factors of prolonged grief have been identified in the literature, a comprehensive understanding of predictors is still lacking. This article argues that shame and low self-esteem, present risk factors in prolonged grief after spousal loss, based on a review of correlational studies. Using a practitioner-scientist approach, a developmental model of shame as a core factor in prolonged grief is proposed, outlining the progression from childhood relational trauma, to insecure attachment, shame, self-esteem contingent on spousal approval to eventual prolonged grief.

  2. Sextet quarks and light pseudoscalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Leung, C.N.; Love, S.T.; Rosner, J.L.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1986-01-01

    Light pseudoscalar bosons are a very general consequence of the existence of higher-color representations (such as sextets) of quarks. It is shown that if the condensate vertical stroke vertical stroke=F 3 defines a scale F>>Λ QCD , as has been expected on the basis of perturbative and lattice calculations, then present limits on axions exclude a wide range of values of F. Such limits therefore serve as complements to direct accelerator searches for higher-color quarks. (orig.)

  3. Interaction between two stopped light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi-Hsin, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Lee, Meng-Jung, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Hung, Weilun, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Yu, Ite A., E-mail: yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Cheng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yong-Fan [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-05

    The efficiency of a nonlinear optical process is proportional to the interaction time. We report a scheme of all-optical switching based on two motionless light pulses via the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. One pulse was stopped as the stationary light pulse (SLP) and the other was stopped as stored light. The time of their interaction via the medium can be prolonged and, hence, the optical nonlinearity is greatly enhanced. Using a large optical density (OD) of 190, we achieved a very long interaction time of 6.9 μs. This can be analogous to the scheme of trapping light pulses by an optical cavity with a Q factor of 8×10{sup 9}. With the approach of using moving light pulses in the best situation, a switch can only be activated at 2 photons per atomic absorption cross section. With the approach of employing a SLP and a stored light pulse, a switch at only 0.56 photons was achieved and the efficiency is significantly improved. Moreover, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and show that the efficiency can be further improved by increasing the OD of the medium. Our work advances the technology in quantum information manipulation utilizing photons.

  4. Interaction between two stopped light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Meng-Jung; Hung, Weilun; Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng; Chen, Yong-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of a nonlinear optical process is proportional to the interaction time. We report a scheme of all-optical switching based on two motionless light pulses via the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. One pulse was stopped as the stationary light pulse (SLP) and the other was stopped as stored light. The time of their interaction via the medium can be prolonged and, hence, the optical nonlinearity is greatly enhanced. Using a large optical density (OD) of 190, we achieved a very long interaction time of 6.9 μs. This can be analogous to the scheme of trapping light pulses by an optical cavity with a Q factor of 8×10 9 . With the approach of using moving light pulses in the best situation, a switch can only be activated at 2 photons per atomic absorption cross section. With the approach of employing a SLP and a stored light pulse, a switch at only 0.56 photons was achieved and the efficiency is significantly improved. Moreover, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and show that the efficiency can be further improved by increasing the OD of the medium. Our work advances the technology in quantum information manipulation utilizing photons

  5. Mean arterial pressure following prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, D; Lynn, A G; Binder, K

    2012-01-01

    benefit to its regulation. We examined MAP (Finometer) in eight trained (T) and eight untrained (UT) individuals prior to, and following, 120 min of cycling at 42 °C with (HYD) and without (DEHY) fluid replacement. Exercise during DEHY induced significant hyperthermia (T: 39.20 ± 0.52 °C vs UT: 38.70 ± 0......Prolonged exercise in the heat without fluid replacement represents a significant challenge to the regulation of mean arterial pressure (MAP). It is unknown, however, if MAP is equally challenged during the post-exercise period, and whether regular endurance exercise training can provide any.......36 °C, P = 0.941) and body weight losses (T: 3.4 ± 1.2% vs UT: 2.7 ± 0.9%, P = 0.332), which did not differ between groups. Although MAP was equally reduced 5 min into the post-exercise period of DEHY (T: -20 ± 11 mmHg vs UT: -22 ± 13 mmHg, P = 0.800), its subsequent recovery was significantly different...

  6. Response of Escherichia coli to Prolonged Berberine Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budeyri Gokgoz, Nilay; Avci, Fatma Gizem; Yoneten, Kubra Karaosmanoglu; Alaybeyoglu, Begum; Ozkirimli, Elif; Sayar, Nihat Alpagu; Kazan, Dilek; Sariyar Akbulut, Berna

    2017-07-01

    Berberine is a plant-derived alkaloid possessing antimicrobial activity; unfortunately, its efflux through multidrug resistance pumps reduces its efficacy. Cellular life span of Escherichia coli is generally shorter with prolonged berberine exposure; nevertheless, about 30% of the cells still remain robust following this treatment. To elucidate its mechanism of action and to identify proteins that could be involved in development of antimicrobial resistance, protein profiles of E. coli cells treated with berberine for 4.5 and 8 hours were compared with control cells. A total of 42 proteins were differentially expressed in cells treated with berberine for 8 hours when compared to control cells. In both 4.5 and 8 hours of berberine-treated cells, carbohydrate and peptide uptake regimens remained unchanged, although amino acid maintenance regimen switched from transport to synthesis. Defect in cell division persisted and this condition was confirmed by images obtained from scanning electron microscopy. Universal stress proteins were not involved in stress response. The significant increase in the abundance of elongation factors could suggest the involvement of these proteins in protection by exhibiting chaperone activities. Furthermore, the involvement of the outer membrane protein OmpW could receive special attention as a protein involved in response to antimicrobial agents, since the expression of only this porin protein was upregulated after 8 hours of exposure.

  7. Color stability and staining of silorane after prolonged chemical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Nata Luiz; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged chemical challenges on color stability and staining susceptibility of a silorane-based composite material when compared to methacrylate-based composites. Methods: Cylindrical specimens (n=24) were fabricated from...... methacrylate (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE; Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE; Master Fill, Biodinâmica) or silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) composite materials. Initial color was registered in a spectrophotometer. Specimens were divided in four groups and individually stored at 37°C in 0.02N citric acid, 0.02N phosphoric...... acid, 75% ethanol or distilled water (control) for 7, 14, 21, and 180 days, when new measurements were performed. A staining test was performed (n=12) after 21 days of chemical challenge by immersion in coffee during 3 weeks at 37°C. Color changes (¿E) were characterized using the CIEL*a*b* color...

  8. Burst stimulation improves hemodynamics during resuscitation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory; Melnick, Sharon; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Ideker, Raymond

    2009-02-01

    Although return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is frequently achieved during resuscitation for sudden cardiac arrest, systolic blood pressure can then decrease, requiring additional myocardial support. Previous studies have shown that a series of 1-ms electrical pulses delivered through the defibrillation patches during ventricular fibrillation (VF) can stimulate the autonomic nervous system to increase myocardial function following defibrillation. We hypothesized that a similar series of electrical pulses could increase myocardial function and blood pressure during the early post-resuscitation period. Six swine were studied that underwent 6-7 min. Each animal received 5, 10, 15, or 20 pulse packets consisting of 6 10 A, 1-ms pulses every 3-4 s in random order whenever systolic blood pressure became less than 50 mmHg. All four sets of pulse packets were delivered to each animal. Systolic blood pressure and cardiac function (left ventricular +dP/dt) were increased to pre-stimulation levels or above by all four sets of pulse packets. The increases were significantly greater for the longer than the shorter number of pulse packets. The mean+/-SD duration of the time that the systolic pressure remained above 50 mmHg following pulse delivery was 4.2+/-2.5 min. Electrical stimulation during regular rhythm following prolonged VF and resuscitation can increase blood pressure and cardiac function to above prestimulation levels.

  9. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almedom, Astier; Tesfamichael, Berhe; Mohammed, Zein; Mascie-Taylor, Nick; Muller, Jocelyn; Alemu, Zemui

    2005-12-01

    to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Displaced women's SOC scores were significantly less than those of the non-displaced: Mean = 54.84; SD = 6.48 in internally displaced person (IDP) camps, compared to non-displaced urban and rural/pastoralist: Mean = 48. 94, SD = 11.99; t = 3.831, p urban (non-displaced). Rural but traditionally mobile (pastoralist or transhumant) communities scored more or less the same as the urban non-displaced--i.e., significantly higher than those in IDP camps (p urban and pastoralist/transhumant groups were similar, while women in IDP camps were lower scoring--RR = .268, p < .001. The implications of these findings for health policy are critical. It is incumbent on the international health institutions including the World Health Organization and regional as well as local players to address the plight of internally displaced women, their families and communities in Eritrea and other places of dire conditions such as, for example Darfur in the Sudan.

  10. Progranulin inhibits platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, A M; Al-Masri, A A; El Eter, E A; Hersi, A; Lateef, R; Mawlana, O

    2018-05-01

    Several adipokines secreted by adipose tissue have an anti-thrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic function. Recently identified adipokine progranulin was found to play a protective role in atherosclerosis. Bearing in mind the central role of platelets in inflammation and atherosclerosis, we aimed, in this study, to examine the effect of progranulin on platelet function and coagulation profile in rats. Healthy male albino Wistar rats weighing (250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups. Three groups were given increasing doses of progranulin (0.001 µg, 0.01 µg, and 0.1 µg) intraperitoneally, while the control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and platelet aggregation responses to adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid were assessed. Administration of progranulin resulted in a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation in response to both adenosine diphosphate, and arachidonic acid. Bleeding time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly prolonged in all groups that received progranulin, in particular, the 0.1 µg dose, in comparison to the control group. This preliminary data is first suggesting that the antiplatelet and anticoagulant action of progranulin could have a physiological protective function against thrombotic disorders associated with obesity and atherosclerosis. However, these results merit further exploration.

  11. Predictors of successful weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Kuang; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2009-08-01

    For adult patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV, >/=21 days), successful weaning has been attributed to various factors. The purpose of this study was to describe patient outcomes, weaning rates and factors in successful weaning at a hospital-based respiratory care center (RCC) in Taiwan. This was a retrospective observational study performed in a 24-bed RCC over six years. A total of 1307 patients on PMV were included in the study. The overall survival rate was 62%. Fifty-six percent of patients were successfully weaned. Unsuccessfully weaned patients had higher MICU transfer rates, higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, longer duration of RCC stay, higher rates of being bed-ridden prior to admission, increased hemodialysis rates, higher modified Glasgow Coma Scale scores, higher rapid shallow breathing index, lower inspiratory pressure at residual volume (PImax) and lower blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels. Factors found to be associated with unsuccessful weaning were length of RCC stay (OR=1.04, Pventilator independence can be achieved in an RCC setting as an alternative to ICU care. Factors associated with unsuccessful weaning included longer duration of RCC stay, elevated BUN levels and lower modified GCS scores, serum albumin and PImax levels.

  12. Significant prolongation of segmental pancreatic allograft survival in two species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the suppression of segmental pancreatic allograft rejection by cyclosporine (CSA) alone in baboons and dogs, and subtotal marrow irradiation (TL1) alone and TL 1 in combination with CSA in baboons. Total pancreatectomy in the dog and primate provided a reliable diabetic model, induced an absolute deficiency of insulin and was uniformly lethal if not treated. Continuous administration of CSA in baboons resulted in modest allograft survival. As in baboons, dogs receiving CSA 25 mg/kg/d rendered moderate graft prolongation but a dose of 40 mg/kg/d resulted in significant graft survival (greater than 100 days) in 5 of 8 allograft recipients. Irradiation alone resulted in minimal baboon pancreatic allograft survival of 20 baboons receiving TL1 1,000 rad and CSA, 3 had graft survival greater than of 100 days. Of 15 baboons receiving TL1 800 rad and CSA, 6 had graft survival of greater than 100 days. In conclusion, CSA administration in dogs and TL1 in combination with CSA in baboons resulted in highly significant segmental pancreatic allograft survival.

  13. Significant prolongation of segmental pancreatic allograft survival in two species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the suppression of segmental pancreatic allograft rejection by cyclosporine (CSA) alone in baboons and dogs, and subtotal marrow irradiation (TL1) alone and TL 1 in combination with CSA in baboons. Total pancreatectomy in the dog and primate provided a reliable diabetic model, induced an absolute deficiency of insulin and was uniformly lethal if not treated. Continuous administration of CSA in baboons resulted in modest allograft survival. As in baboons, dogs receiving CSA 25 mg/kg/d rendered moderate graft prolongation but a dose of 40 mg/kg/d resulted in significant graft survival (greater than 100 days) in 5 of 8 allograft recipients. Irradiation alone resulted in minimal baboon pancreatic allograft survival of 20 baboons receiving TL1 1,000 rad and CSA, 3 had graft survival greater than of 100 days. Of 15 baboons receiving TL1 800 rad and CSA, 6 had graft survival of greater than 100 days. In conclusion, CSA administration in dogs and TL1 in combination with CSA in baboons resulted in highly significant segmental pancreatic allograft survival

  14. Glucocorticoid augmentation of prolonged exposure therapy: rationale and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pratchett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Prolonged exposure (PE therapy has been found to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; however, it is difficult for many patients to engage fully in the obligatory retelling of their traumatic experiences. This problem is compounded by the fact that habituation and cognitive restructuring – the main mechanisms through which PE is hypothesized to work – are not instantaneous processes, and often require several weeks before the distress associated with imaginal exposure abates. Case reports: Two cases are described that respectively illustrate the use of hydrocortisone and placebo, in combination with PE, for the treatment of combat-related PTSD. Based on known effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory performance, we hypothesized that augmentation with hydrocortisone would improve the therapeutic effects of PE by hastening “new” learning and facilitating decreases in the emotional impact of fear memories during the course of treatment. The veteran receiving hydrocortisone augmentation of PE displayed an accelerated and ultimately greater decline in PTSD symptoms than the veteran receiving placebo. Conclusions: While no general conclusion can be derived from comparison of two patients, the findings are consistent with the rationale for augmentation. These case reports support the potential for an appropriately designed and powered clinical trial to examine the efficacy of glucocorticoids in augmenting the effects of psychotherapy for PTSD.

  15. Physiological Responses and Hedonics During Prolonged Physically Interactive Videogame Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio S; Barkley, Jacob E; Hafen, Paul S; Navalta, James

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to assess physiologic responses and hedonics (i.e., liking) during prolonged physically interactive videogame play. Participants (n = 24) completed three 30-minute videogame conditions on separate days in a random order. During two of the conditions participants played physically interactive videogames (Nintendo of America, Inc. [Redmond, WA] "Wii™ Fit" "Basic Run" and "Basic Step"). During the third condition participants played a traditional/sedentary game ("Tanks!"), which required minimal physical movement for gameplay. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was assessed using indirect calorimetry throughout each condition and averaged every 5 minutes. Liking was assessed via visual analog scale at the 15- and 30-minute time points during each condition. Mean VO2 was significantly (P videogame (5.39 ± 1.0 mL/kg/minute, 1.5 ± 0.1 METs). "Basic Step" was also greater (P videogame conditions. Furthermore, because liking was similar across all gaming conditions, participants may be willing to substitute the physically interactive videogames in place of the traditional/sedentary game.

  16. Thermoregulatory responses to skin wetting during prolonged treadmill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, D R; Nagle, F J; Mookerjee, S; Darr, K C; Ng, A V; Voss, S G; Napp, J P

    1987-02-01

    We examined the physiological responses to skin wetting during a 120-min level treadmill run to assess whether skin wetting would reduce the dehydration and the increase in core temperature associated with prolonged exercise. Testing was conducted in an environmental chamber (T = 29.5 degrees C, wind velocity = 3 m X sec-1) under two different humidity conditions (33 or 66% relative humidity). Ten male subjects performed two runs in each humidity condition; one served as a control run. The other included spraying the body with 50 ml of water (T = 29.5 degrees C) every 10 min. Spraying had no effect on rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate, oxygen consumption, perceived exertion, sweat loss, or percent change in plasma volume in both the humid and the dry conditions. Spraying produced a significant reduction in mean skin temperature (Tsk), which increased the (Tre - Tsk) gradient. At the same time, overall skin conductance (K) was decreased, presumably as a result of cutaneous vasoconstriction due to the low Tsk. Since heat transfer from the body's core to the skin is expressed by the equation: heat transfer = K X (Tre - Tsk) the spraying had no effect on heat transfer away from the core, and Tre remained unchanged.

  17. Overview of light sources powered by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian; Lei Jiarong; Liu Wenke

    2012-01-01

    Due to their long lifespan and stable intensity, light sources initiated by tritium instead of electricity or batteries are suitable for low level lighting applications. Therefore, tritium-based radioluminescent (RL) light sources are widely used in both military and civil applications. However, traditional tritium lights with the gas tube structure have several shortcomings: (1) the phosphors are opaque; (2) the glass tube is fragile and easily broken; and (3) the beta kinetic energy is attenuated due to the sorption by the gas; etc. As a result, further application of the tritium lights is limited. In this paper, the lighting mechanism and radiation safety of tritium-based RL light sources are briefly reviewed. Besides, the history and prospects of the development of tritium-based RL light source are discussed. Due to their long lifespan and stable intensity, light sources initiated by tritium instead of electricity or batteries are suitable for low level lighting applications. Therefore, tritium- based radioluminescent (RL) light sources are widely used in both military and civil applications. However, traditional tritium lights with the gas tube structure have several short- comings: (1) the phosphors are opaque; (2) the glass tube is fragile and easily broken; and (3) the beta kinetic energy is attenuated due to the sorption by the gas; etc. As a result, further application of the tritium lights is limited. In this paper, the lighting mechanism and radiation safety of tritium-based RL, light sources are briefly reviewed. Besides, the history and prospects of the development of tritium-based RL light source are discussed. (authors)

  18. Semipolar InGaN-based superluminescent diodes for solid-state lighting and visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-02-16

    III-nitride light emitters, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs), have been demonstrated and studied for solid-state lighting (SSL) and visible-light communication (VLC) applications. However, for III-nitride LEDbased SSL-VLC system, its efficiency is limited by the

  19. Investigations of Optical Limiting Involving Light-Matter Interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potasek, M. J

    2005-01-01

    ... while maintaining a high transmittance at low input power. The many applications of the device include laser power regulation, laser mode-locking, optical pulse shaping, signal level processing, and sensor/detector protection...

  20. Work-related limitations and return-to-work experiences in prolonged fatigue: workers' perspectives before and after vocational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment.

  1. Limited prolonged effects of rifaximin treatment on irritable bowel syndrome-related differences in the fecal microbiome and metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeber-Lubecka, Natalia; Kulecka, Maria; Ambrozkiewicz, Filip; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Goryca, Krzysztof; Karczmarski, Jakub; Rubel, Tymon; Wojtowicz, Wojciech; Mlynarz, Piotr; Marczak, Lukasz; Tomecki, Roman; Mikula, Michal; Ostrowski, Jerzy

    2016-09-02

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder and its development may be linked, directly and indirectly, to intestinal dysbiosis. Here we investigated the interactions between IBS symptoms and the gut microbiome, including the relation to rifaximin (1200 mg daily; 11.2 g per a treatment). We recruited 72 patients, including 31 with IBS-D (diarrhea), 11 with IBS-C (constipation), and 30 with IBS-M (mixed constipation and diarrhea) and 30 healthy controls (HCs). Of them, 68%, 64%, and 53% patients with IBS-D, IBS-C, and IBS-M, respectively, achieved 10-12 week-term improvement after the rifaximin treatment. Stool samples were collected before and after the treatment, and fecal microbiotic profiles were analyzed by deep sequencing of 16S rRNA, while stool metabolic profiles were studied by hydrogen 1-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of 26 identified phyla, only Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were consistently found in all samples. Bacteroidetes was predominant in fecal samples from HCs and IBS-D and IBS-M subjects, whereas Firmicutes was predominant in samples from IBS-C subjects. Species richness, but not community diversity, differentiated all IBS patients from HCs. Metabolic fingerprinting, using NMR spectra, distinguished HCs from all IBS patients. Thirteen metabolites identified by GC-MS differed HCs and IBS patients. However, neither metagenomics nor metabolomics analyses identified significant differences between patients with and without improvement after treatment.

  2. Lighting Options for Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  3. Urban lighting, light pollution and society

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Josiane; Krause, Katharina; Pottharst, Merle

    2014-01-01

    After decades "in the shadows", urban lighting is re-emerging as a matter of public debate. Long-standing truths are increasingly questioned as a confluence of developments affects lighting itself and the way it is viewed. Light has become an integral element of place-making and energy-saving initiatives alike. Rapidly evolving lighting technologies are opening up new possibilities, but also posing new challenges to planners, and awareness is growing that artificial illumination is not purely benign but can actually constitute a form of pollution. As a result, public policy frameworks, incentives and initiatives are undergoing a phase of innovation and change that will affect how cities are lit for years to come. The first comprehensive compilation of current scientific discussions on urban lighting and light pollution from a social science and humanities perspective, Urban Lighting, Light Pollution and Society contributes to an evolving international debate on an increasingly controversial topic. The contrib...

  4. Light up My Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Simply stated, light is nature's way of transferring energy through space. Discussions of light usually refer to visible light, which is perceived by the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. We see however, only a small part of the light spectrum. Light connects us as we sit and tell yarns around camp fires. Yet, one in every four…

  5. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  6. Selective nature and inherent variability of interrill erosion across prolonged rainfall simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Kuhn, N. J.; Fister, W.

    2012-04-01

    Sediment of interrill erosion has been generally recognized to be selectively enriched with soil organic carbon (SOC) and fine fractions (clay/silt-sized particles or aggregates) in comparison to source area soil. Limited kinetic energy and lack of concentrated runoff are the dominant factors causing selective detachment and transportation. Although enrichment ratios of SOC (ERsoc) in eroded sediment were generally reported > 1, the values varied widely. Causal factors to variation, such as initial soil properties, rainfall properties and experimental conditions, have been extensively discussed. But less attention was directed to the potential influence of prolonged rainfall time onto the temporal pattern of ERsoc. Conservation of mass dictates that ERsoc must be balanced by a decline in the source material which should also lead to a reduced or even negative ERsoc in sediment over time. Besides, the stabilizing effects of structural crust on reducing erosional variation, and the unavoidable variations of erosional response induced by the inherent complexity of interrill erosion, have scarcely been integrated. Moreover, during a prolonged rainfall event surface roughness evolves and affects the movement of eroded aggregates and mineral particles. In this study, two silt loams from Möhlin, Switzerland, organically (OS) and conventionally farmed (CS), were exposed to simulated rainfall of 30 mm h-1 for up to 6 hours. Round donut-flumes with a confined eroding area (1845 cm2) and limited transporting distance (20 cm) were used. Sediments, runoff and subsurface flow were collected in intervals of 30 min. Loose aggregates left on the eroded soil surface, crusts and the soil underneath the crusts were collected after the experiment. All the samples were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) content, and texture. Laser scanning of soil surface was applied before and after the rainfall event. The whole experiment was repeated for 10 times. Results from this study showed

  7. Behavioral and physiological photoresponses to light intensity by intertidal microphytobenthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guoying; Yan, Hongmei; Liu, Chunrong; Mao, Yunxiang

    2017-03-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses to light are the two major mechanisms by which natural microphytobenthic assemblages adapt to the intertidal environment and protect themselves from light stress. The present study investigated these photoresponses with different light intensities over 8 h of illumination, and used a specific inhibitor (Latrunculin A, Lat A) for migration to compare migratory and non-migratory microphytobenthos (MPB). Photosynthetic activity was detected using rapid light curves and induction curves by chlorophyll fluorescence. It showed distinct variation in migratory responses to different light intensities; high light induced downward migration to avoid photoinhibition, and low and medium light (50-250 μmol/(m2·s)) promoted upward migration followed by downward migration after certain period of light exposure. No significant difference in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) or PSII maximal quantum yield (Fv/Fm) was detected between low and medium light irradiance, possibly indicating that only high light influences the photosynthetic capability of MPB. Decreased photosynthetic activity, indicated by three parameters, the maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax), minimum saturating irradiance (E k) and light utilization coefficient (α), was observed in MPB after exposure to prolonged illumination under low and medium light. Lat A effectively inhibited the migration of MPB in all light treatments and induced lower Fv/Fmunder high light (500 and 100 μmol/(m2·s)) and prolonged illumination at 250 μmol/(m2·s), but did not significantly influence Fv/Fmunder low light (0-100 μmol/(m2·s)) or NPQ. The increase of NPQ in Lat A treatments with time implied that the MPB assemblages can recover their physiological photoprotection capacity to adapt to light stress. Non-migratory MPB exhibited lower light use efficiency (lower α) and lower maximum photosynthetic capacity (lower rETRmax) than migratory MPB under light intensities above

  8. QT prolongation and sudden cardiac death risk in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Salma I; Ackerman, Michael J; Shamoun, Fadi E; Geske, Jeffrey B; Ommen, Steve R; Love, William T; Cha, Stephen S; Bos, Johan M; Lester, Steven J

    2018-03-07

    Risk assessment for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains complex. The goal of this study was to assess electrocardiogram (ECG)-derived risk factors on SCD in a large HCM population Methods: Retrospective review of adults with HCM evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from 1 December 2002 to 31 December 2012 was performed. Data inclusive of ECG and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitor were assessed. SCD events were documented by ventricular fibrillation (VF) noted on implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), or appropriate VT or VF-terminating ICD shock. Overall, 1615 patients (mean age 53.7 ± 15.2 years; 943 males, 58.4%) were assessed, with mean follow-up 2.46 years and 110 SCD events. Via logistic regression (n = 820), the odds of SCD increased with increasing number of conventional risk factors. With one risk factor the OR was 4.88 (p  450 to this logistic regression model had OR 1.722 (p = .04, CI 1.01-2.937) to predict SCD. QTc ≥ 450 was a significant predictor for death (HR 1.88, p = .021, CI 1.10-3.20). There was no correlation between sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, first degree AV block, atrial fibrillation, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, premature atrial complexes, premature ventricular complexes, supraventricular tachycardia, PR interval, QRS interval and SCD. Prolonged QTc was a risk factor for SCD and death even when controlling for typical risk factors.

  9. Prolonged peritoneal gene expression using a helper-dependent adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Limin; Shi, Chang-Xin; Ghayur, Ayesha; Zhang, Claire; Su, Je Yen; Hoff, Catherine M; Margetts, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis. The causes of EPS are not well defined and are likely multifactorial. A suitable animal model would facilitate research into the pathophysiology and treatment of EPS. We developed a helper-dependent adenovirus that expresses both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and active transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1; HDAdTGF-beta1). Mice were administered HDAdTGF-beta1 via intraperitoneal injection and the response was compared with mice administered either first-generation adenovirus expressing TGF-beta1 (AdTGF-beta1) or control adenovirus (AdGFP). HDAdTGF-beta1-treated mice continued to express the GFP reporter transgene to day 74, the end of the observation period. Transgene expression lasted less than 28 days in the animals treated with first-generation adenoviruses. Animals treated with first-generation AdTGF-beta1 demonstrated submesothelial thickening and angiogenesis at day 7, with almost complete resolution by day 28. The HDAdTGF-beta1-treated mice demonstrated progressive peritoneal fibrosis with adhesion formation and encapsulation of bowels. Weight gain was significantly reduced in animals treated with HDAdTGF-beta1 compared to both the control-treated animals and the AdTGF-beta1-treated animals. Inflammation was not a major component of the fibroproliferative response. Peritoneal administration of a first-generation AdTGF-beta1 leads to transient gene expression, resulting in a resolving fibrotic response and histology similar to that seen in simple peritoneal sclerosis. Prolonged TGF-beta1 expression induced by the helper-dependent HDAdTGF-beta1 led to changes in peritoneal morphology resembling EPS. This suggests that TGF-beta1 may be a contributing factor in both simple peritoneal sclerosis and EPS. This model will be useful for elucidation of the mechanism of EPS and evaluation of potential treatment.

  10. Thioredoxin priming prolongs lung allograft survival by promoting immune tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbo Hu

    Full Text Available Tolerance to allograft antigen is the major challenge and final goal of transplant medicine. Our previous study demonstrated that thioredoxin-1 (Trx priming of donor lung significantly protected allogeneic lung graft. To determine whether Trx priming of donor lung inhibits allograft rejection, extends allograft survival and induces immune tolerance, orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed from Lewis to Sprague-Dawley rats without immunosuppression. Donor lungs were primed with Trx at 4°C for 4 hr prior to transplantation. After up to 37 days post-transplantation, allograft lung morphology, recipient T cell and humoral alloantigen-specific immune responses were examined. We found that Trx-primed lungs exhibited much reduced acute rejection and associated lung injuries resulting in loss of graft functional area at 5-37 days post-transplant in contrast to the control groups. CD4+ T cells from the recipients with Trx-primed grafts responded to the stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs of donor origin, in contrast to DCs from the third party, with significantly reduced proliferation. Consistent with above findings, we observed that CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in spleen cells from the recipients with Trx-primed grafts were significantly increased compared to controls, and CD4+ T cells from the recipients with Trx-primed grafts produced much higher levels of immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10 when stimulated with allogeneic donor DCs. In addition, humoral immune tolerance was also induced as there was no significant increase levels of serum antibodies against donor antigens in Trx-lung recipients when re-challenged with allogeneic donor antigens. Our results demonstrate that one-time Trx-priming of donor lung grafts prior to transplantation significantly prolongs the survival of the grafts through inducing or promoting cellular and humoral alloantigen-specific immune tolerance, which might be associated with the induction of

  11. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2017-03-16

    There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The objective of the present study is to examine the consequences of chronic hypothyroidism, induced in adulthood, for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. In order to investigate this, adult female rats were provided either a control or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid. Sixteen weeks later animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for hormone analyses and ovaries were evaluated histologically. At the time of sacrifice, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were 20- to 40-fold increased, thyroxine concentrations were negligible while tri-iothyronin concentrations were decreased by 40% in the hypothyroid group, confirming that the animals were hypothyroid. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle and corpora lutea numbers was observed. Surprisingly the percentage of atretic follicles was not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the reduced preantral and antral follicle numbers were presumably not the consequence of increased degeneration of these follicle types in the hypothyroid group. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total ovarian number of primary, preantral and antral follicles, suggesting that also under hypothyroid conditions AMH can serve as a surrogate marker to assess the growing ovarian follicle population. The induction of a chronic hypothyroid condition in adult female rats negatively affects the ovarian follicular

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Unintended Prolonged Opioid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael; Brummett, Chad M; Sullivan, Mark D; Goesling, Jenna; Tilburt, Jon C; Merlin, Jessica S; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Wasan, Ajay D; Clauw, Daniel J; Warner, David O

    2017-12-01

    An urgent need exists to better understand the transition from short-term opioid use to unintended prolonged opioid use (UPOU). The purpose of this work is to propose a conceptual framework for understanding UPOU that posits the influence of 3 principal domains that include the characteristics of (1) individual patients, (2) the practice environment, and (3) opioid prescribers. Although no standardized method exists for developing a conceptual framework, the process often involves identifying corroborative evidence, leveraging expert opinion to identify factors for inclusion in the framework, and developing a graphic depiction of the relationships between the various factors and the clinical problem of interest. Key patient characteristics potentially associated with UPOU include (1) medical and mental health conditions; (2) pain etiology; (3) individual affective, behavioral, and neurophysiologic reactions to pain and opioids; and (4) sociodemographic factors. Also, UPOU could be influenced by structural and health care policy factors: (1) the practice environment, including the roles of prescribing clinicians, adoption of relevant practice guidelines, and clinician incentives or disincentives, and (2) the regulatory environment. Finally, characteristics inherent to clinicians that could influence prescribing practices include (1) training in pain management and opioid use; (2) personal attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the risks and benefits of opioids; and (3) professionalism. As the gatekeeper to opioid access, the behavior of prescribing clinicians directly mediates UPOU, with the 3 domains interacting to determine this behavior. This proposed conceptual framework could guide future research on the topic and allow plausible hypothesis-based interventions to reduce UPOU. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prolonged Adaptive Evolution of a Defensive Gene in the Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausher, Mark D; Huang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Although plants and their natural enemies may coevolve for prolonged periods, little is known about how long individual plant defensive genes are involved in the coevolutionary process. We address this issue by examining patterns of selection on the defensive gene threonine deaminase (TD). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has two copies of this gene. One performs the canonical housekeeping function in amino acid metabolism of catalyzing the first reaction in the conversion of threonine to isoleucine. The second copy functions as an antinutritive defense against lepidopteran herbivores by depleting threonine in the insect gut. Wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) also contains a defensive copy. We show that a single copy of TD underwent two or three duplications near the base of the Solanaceae. One copy retains the housekeeping function, whereas a second copy evolved defensive functions. Positive selection occurred on the branch of the TD2 gene tree subtending the common ancestor of the Nicotianoideae and Solanoideae. It also occurred within the Solanoideae clade but not within the Nicotianoideae clade. Finally, it occurred on most branches leading from the common ancestor to S. lycopersicum. Based on recent calibrations of the Solanaceae phylogeny, TD2 experienced adaptive substitutions for a period of 30-50 My. We suggest that the most likely explanation for this result is fluctuating herbivore abundances: When herbivores are rare, relaxed selection increases the likelihood that slightly disadvantageous mutations will be fixed by drift; when herbivores are common, increased selection causes the evolution of compensatory adaptive mutations. Alternative explanations are also discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Safety and tolerability of prolonged-release nicotinic acid in statin-treated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birjmohun, R. S.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Poldermans, D.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Hostalek, U.; Assmann, G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of prolonged -release nicotinic acid (Niaspan*) added to statin therapy in patients at increased cardiovascular risk. Methods: This was a 6-month, prospective, observational, multicentre, open-label evaluation of prolonged-release nicotinic acid

  15. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation : comparison of European Union and United States drug labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, Miriam J.; Holtkamp, Frank A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; de Boer, Anthonius; Mol, Peter G M; De Bruin, Marie L.

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approved

  16. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation : Comparison of European Union and United States drug labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, Miriam J.; Holtkamp, Frank A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; de Boer, Anthonius; Mol, Peter G. M.; De Bruin, Marie L.

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approved

  17. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-01-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses. (author)

  18. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-08-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses.

  19. Levofloxacin-Induced QTc Prolongation Depends on the Time of Drug Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kervezee, L; Gotta, V; Stevens, J; Birkhoff, W; Kamerling, Imc; Danhof, M; Meijer, J H; Burggraaf, J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing a drug's potential to prolong the QTc interval on an electrocardiogram is essential for the correct evaluation of its safety profile. To explore the effect of dosing time on drug-induced QTc prolongation, a randomized, crossover, clinical trial was conducted in

  20. Stopping light in its tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, B. J.; Martijn de Sterke, C.; Slusher, R. E.; Krug, Peter A.; Sipe, J. E.

    1996-12-01

    To control the speed of a light pulse without absorbing its photons, or distorting its shape, is a challenging problem. However, this has been accomplished using fiber gratings, as part of a joint research program of the University of Sydney, the Australian Photonics Research Centre, Lucent Technologies, and the University of Toronto. The gratings are written in the optical fiber's core by directing a UV beam onto it via a periodic phase mask. Through a photochemical process still not well-understood, the periodic intensity pattern burns a permanent index of refraction change in the core.1-2 In our experiments, we use gratings with a period of about 350 nm chosen to reflect light at 1.05 u m and a length of 5.5 cm.3 Because the grating has over 150,000 periods, an index change of only 0.0003 is sufficient to limit the transmission to less than 30 dB on resonance. Essentially no light is transmitted by such a grating at the Bragg resonance; yet a nanometer away, light propagates through as if the grating were absent. As we tune away from resonance, the light's group velocity increases from zero to c/n (where c is the speed of light in a vacuum and n=1.46 is the refractive index of the core of the fiber), leading to a dispersion about 100,000 times larger than that of bare fiber. Gratings can thus slow down a pulse of light, but at the price of tearing it apart.4 At high light intensities a nonlinearly, with the index of refraction increasing with intensity.5 In the center of the pulse, where the intensity is the highest, the index is thus raised the most. Since regions of high index attract light, the nonlinearity acts as a "glue," counteracting the strong dispersive effects of the grating.

  1. New approaches in the management of insomnia: weighing the advantages of prolonged-release melatonin and synthetic melatoninergic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rüdiger HardelandJohann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Hypnotic effects of melatonin and melatoninergic drugs are mediated via MT1 and MT2 receptors, especially those in the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts on the hypothalamic sleep switch. Therefore, they differ fundamentally from GABAergic hypnotics. Melatoninergic agonists primarily favor sleep initiation and reset the circadian clock to phases allowing persistent sleep, as required in circadian rhythm sleep disorders. A major obstacle for the use of melatonin to support sleep maintenance in primary insomnia results from its short half-life in the circulation. Solutions to this problem have been sought by developing prolonged-release formulations of the natural hormone, or melatoninergic drugs of longer half-life, such as ramelteon, tasimelteon and agomelatine. With all these drugs, improvements of sleep are statistically demonstrable, but remain limited, especially in primary chronic insomnia, so that GABAergic drugs may be indicated. Melatoninergic agonists do not cause next-day hangover and withdrawal effects, or dependence. They do not induce behavioral changes, as sometimes observed with z-drugs. Despite otherwise good tolerability, the use of melatoninergic drugs in children, adolescents, and during pregnancy has been a matter of concern, and should be avoided in autoimmune diseases and Parkinsonism. Problems and limits of melatoninergic hypnotics are compared.Keywords: agomelatine, hypnotics, melatonin, prolonged-release, ramelteon, tasimelteon

  2. Canadian Light Infantry in Adaptive Dispersed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    adapted the concept to the offence by subdividing the gruppe in a light machine gun support trupp (detachment) and an assault trupp, thus creating the...They include medium and light elements that can be augmented by heavy elements if needed. According to the LO 202, light elements: “ trade a measure...the transportation of electronics equipment, weapons, and limited amounts of ammunition and supplies. All elements are helicopter transportable and

  3. Photonic limiters with enhanced dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Rodion; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos; Anisimov, Igor; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Chabanov, Andrey

    2018-02-01

    Optical limiters transmit low intensity input light while blocking input light with the intensity exceeding certain limiting threshold. Conventional passive limiters utilize nonlinear optical materials, which are transparent at low light intensity and turn absorptive at high intensity. Strong nonlinear absorption, though, can result in over- heating and destruction of the limiter. Another problem is that the limiting threshold provided by the available optical material with nonlinear absorption is too high for many applications. To address the above problems, the nonlinear material can be incorporated in a photonic structure with engineered dispersion. At low intensity, the photonic structure can display resonant transmission via localized mode(s), while at high intensity the resonant transmission can disappear, and the entire stack can become highly re ective (not absorptive) within a broad frequency range. In the proposed design, the transition from the resonant transmission at low intensity to nearly total re ectivity at high intensity does not rely on nonlinear absorption; instead, it requires only a modest change in the refractive index of the nonlinear material. The latter implies a dramatic increase in the dynamic range of the limiter. The main idea is to eliminate the high-intensity resonant transmission by decoupling the localized (resonant) modes from the input light, rather than suppressing those modes using nonlinear absorption. Similar approach can be used for light modulation and switching.

  4. Prolonged QTc interval and risk of sudden cardiac death in a population of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, Sabine M J M; Kors, Jan A; De Bruin, Marie L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether prolongation of the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in the general population. BACKGROUND: In developed countries, sudden cardiac death is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Prolongation...... of the QTc interval has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias, but in most population-based studies no consistent association was found between QTc prolongation and total or cardiovascular mortality. Only very few of these studies specifically addressed sudden cardiac death. METHODS: This study......). The association between a prolonged QTc interval and sudden cardiac death was estimated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: During an average follow-up period of 6.7 years (standard deviation, 2.3 years) 125 patients died of sudden cardiac death. An abnormally prolonged QTc interval (>450 ms in men...

  5. High frequency of pertussis in older children and adolescents with prolonged cough in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Aslı; Kurugöl, Zafer; Aydemir, Şöhret; Gürsel, Derya; Koturoğlu, Güldane

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of B. pertussis infection among Turkish children with prolonged cough. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from 7-18 year old children, presenting with prolonged cough of two to four weeks' duration. Specimens were examined for B. pertussis by PCR. Of 101 children with prolonged cough, 20 (19.8%) had a positive PCR testing for B. pertussis. Children who were vaccinated ≥5 years previously had a 6.13-fold higher risk of PCR-confirmed pertussis than those who were vaccinated pertussis (paroxysmal cough, whooping and post-tussive vomiting) were seen in 30%, 15% and 25% of the patients with positive PCR, respectively; 55% of them had only a prolonged cough without any classic symptoms. Pertussis is common among Turkish children with prolonged cough, even after implementation of a fifth dose of pertussis vaccination and despite high vaccination coverage.

  6. A calpain-2 selective inhibitor enhances learning & memory by prolonging ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Yubin; Zhu, Guoqi; Sun, Jiandong; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2016-06-01

    While calpain-1 activation is required for LTP induction by theta burst stimulation (TBS), calpain-2 activation limits its magnitude during the consolidation period. A selective calpain-2 inhibitor applied either before or shortly after TBS enhanced the degree of potentiation. In the present study, we tested whether the selective calpain-2 inhibitor, Z-Leu-Abu-CONH-CH2-C6H3 (3, 5-(OMe)2 (C2I), could enhance learning and memory in wild-type (WT) and calpain-1 knock-out (C1KO) mice. We first showed that C2I could reestablish TBS-LTP in hippocampal slices from C1KO mice, and this effect was blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK. TBS resulted in PTEN degradation in hippocampal slices from both WT and C1KO mice, and C2I treatment blocked this effect in both mouse genotypes. Systemic injection of C2I 30 min before training in the fear-conditioning paradigm resulted in a biphasic dose-response curve, with low doses enhancing and high doses inhibiting freezing behavior. The difference between the doses needed to enhance and inhibit learning matches the difference in concentrations producing inhibition of calpain-2 and calpain-1. A low dose of C2I also restored normal learning in a novel object recognition task in C1KO mice. Levels of SCOP, a ERK phosphatase known to be cleaved by calpain-1, were decreased in dorsal hippocampus early but not late following training in WT mice; C2I treatment did not affect the early decrease in SCOP levels but prevented its recovery at the later time-point and prolonged ERK activation. The results indicate that calpain-2 activation limits the extent of learning, an effect possibly due to temporal limitation of ERK activation, as a result of SCOP synthesis induced by calpain-2-mediated PTEN degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lightingLighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  8. Interaction of prechilling, temperature, osmotic stress, and light in Picea abies seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinonen, K.; Rita, H.

    1995-01-01

    A multi-factor experimental approach and proportional odds model was used to study interactions between five environmental factors significant to Norway spruce seed germination: prechilling (at +4.5 °C), suboptimal temperatures (+12 and +16 °C), osmotically induced water stress (–0.3 Mpa and 0 Mpa), prolonged white light, and short-period far-red light. Temperature and osmotic stress interacted with one another in the germination of seeds: the effect of osmotic stress being stronger at +16 °C than at +12 °C. In natural conditions, this interaction may prevent germination early in the summer when soil dries and temperature increases. Prolonged white light prevented germination at low temperature and low osmotic potential. Inhibitory effect was less at higher temperatures and higher osmotic potential, as well as after prechilling. Short-period far-red light did not prevent germination of unchilled seeds in darkness. Prechilling tended to make seeds sensitive to short pulses of far-red light, an effect which depended on temperature: at +12 °C the effect on germination was promotive, but at +16 °C, inhibitory and partly reversible by white light. It seems that Norway spruce seeds may have adapted to germinate in canopy shade light rich in far-red. The seeds may also have evolved mechanisms to inhibit germination in prolonged light

  9. Subwavelength light confinement with surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.

    2009-01-01

    In free space, the diffraction limit sets a lower bound to the size to which light can be confined. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are electromagnetic waves bound to the interface between a metal and a dielectric, allow the control of light on subwavelength length scales. This opens up a

  10. Exquisite light sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Vinayak

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster shows exquisite light sensitivity for modulation of circadian functions in vivo, yet the activities of the Drosophila circadian photopigment cryptochrome (CRY have only been observed at high light levels. We studied intensity/duration parameters for light pulse induced circadian phase shifts under dim light conditions in vivo. Flies show far greater light sensitivity than previously appreciated, and show a surprising sensitivity increase with pulse duration, implying a process of photic integration active up to at least 6 hours. The CRY target timeless (TIM shows dim light dependent degradation in circadian pacemaker neurons that parallels phase shift amplitude, indicating that integration occurs at this step, with the strongest effect in a single identified pacemaker neuron. Our findings indicate that CRY compensates for limited light sensitivity in vivo by photon integration over extraordinarily long times, and point to select circadian pacemaker neurons as having important roles.

  11. Effectiveness of prolonged use of continuous passive motion (CPM, as an adjunct to physiotherapy, after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geesink Ruud JT

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate and intensive rehabilitation is an important requirement for successful total knee arthroplasty. Although research suggests that Continuous Passive Motion (CPM should be implemented in the first rehabilitation phase after surgery, there is substantial debate about the duration of each session and the total period of CPM application. A Cochrane review on this topic concluded that short-term use of CPM leads to greater short-term range of motion. It also suggested, however, that future research should concentrate on the treatment period during which CPM should be administered. Methods In a randomised controlled trial we investigated the effectiveness of prolonged CPM use in the home situation as an adjunct to standardised PT. Efficacy was assessed in terms of faster improvements in range of motion (RoM and functional recovery, measured at the end of the active treatment period, 17 days after surgery. Sixty patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing TKA and experiencing early postoperative flexion impairment were randomised over two treatment groups. The experimental group received CPM + PT for 17 consecutive days after surgery, whereas the usual care group received the same treatment during the in-hospital phase (i.e. about four days, followed by PT alone (usual care in the first two weeks after hospital discharge. From 18 days to three months after surgery, both groups received standardised PT. The primary focus of rehabilitation was functional recovery (e.g. ambulation and regaining RoM in the knee. Results Prolonged use of CPM slightly improved short-term RoM in patients with limited RoM at the time of discharge after total knee arthroplasty when added to a semi-standard PT programme. Assessment at 6 weeks and three months after surgery found no long-term effects of this intervention Neither did we detect functional benefits of the improved RoM at any of the outcome assessments. Conclusion Although results

  12. Effectiveness of prolonged use of continuous passive motion (CPM), as an adjunct to physiotherapy, after total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenssen, Ton AF; van Steyn, Mike JA; Crijns, Yvonne HF; Waltjé, Eddie MH; Roox, George M; Geesink, Ruud JT; Brandt, Piet A van den; De Bie, Rob A

    2008-01-01

    Background Adequate and intensive rehabilitation is an important requirement for successful total knee arthroplasty. Although research suggests that Continuous Passive Motion (CPM) should be implemented in the first rehabilitation phase after surgery, there is substantial debate about the duration of each session and the total period of CPM application. A Cochrane review on this topic concluded that short-term use of CPM leads to greater short-term range of motion. It also suggested, however, that future research should concentrate on the treatment period during which CPM should be administered. Methods In a randomised controlled trial we investigated the effectiveness of prolonged CPM use in the home situation as an adjunct to standardised PT. Efficacy was assessed in terms of faster improvements in range of motion (RoM) and functional recovery, measured at the end of the active treatment period, 17 days after surgery. Sixty patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing TKA and experiencing early postoperative flexion impairment were randomised over two treatment groups. The experimental group received CPM + PT for 17 consecutive days after surgery, whereas the usual care group received the same treatment during the in-hospital phase (i.e. about four days), followed by PT alone (usual care) in the first two weeks after hospital discharge. From 18 days to three months after surgery, both groups received standardised PT. The primary focus of rehabilitation was functional recovery (e.g. ambulation) and regaining RoM in the knee. Results Prolonged use of CPM slightly improved short-term RoM in patients with limited RoM at the time of discharge after total knee arthroplasty when added to a semi-standard PT programme. Assessment at 6 weeks and three months after surgery found no long-term effects of this intervention Neither did we detect functional benefits of the improved RoM at any of the outcome assessments. Conclusion Although results indicate that prolonged CPM use

  13. Effectiveness of prolonged use of continuous passive motion (CPM), as an adjunct to physiotherapy, after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenssen, Ton A F; van Steyn, Mike J A; Crijns, Yvonne H F; Waltjé, Eddie M H; Roox, George M; Geesink, Ruud J T; van den Brandt, Piet A; De Bie, Rob A

    2008-04-29

    Adequate and intensive rehabilitation is an important requirement for successful total knee arthroplasty. Although research suggests that Continuous Passive Motion (CPM) should be implemented in the first rehabilitation phase after surgery, there is substantial debate about the duration of each session and the total period of CPM application. A Cochrane review on this topic concluded that short-term use of CPM leads to greater short-term range of motion. It also suggested, however, that future research should concentrate on the treatment period during which CPM should be administered. In a randomised controlled trial we investigated the effectiveness of prolonged CPM use in the home situation as an adjunct to standardised PT. Efficacy was assessed in terms of faster improvements in range of motion (RoM) and functional recovery, measured at the end of the active treatment period, 17 days after surgery. Sixty patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing TKA and experiencing early postoperative flexion impairment were randomised over two treatment groups. The experimental group received CPM + PT for 17 consecutive days after surgery, whereas the usual care group received the same treatment during the in-hospital phase (i.e. about four days), followed by PT alone (usual care) in the first two weeks after hospital discharge. From 18 days to three months after surgery, both groups received standardised PT. The primary focus of rehabilitation was functional recovery (e.g. ambulation) and regaining RoM in the knee. Prolonged use of CPM slightly improved short-term RoM in patients with limited RoM at the time of discharge after total knee arthroplasty when added to a semi-standard PT programme. Assessment at 6 weeks and three months after surgery found no long-term effects of this intervention Neither did we detect functional benefits of the improved RoM at any of the outcome assessments. Although results indicate that prolonged CPM use might have a small short-term effect

  14. Cloaked in the Light: Language, Consciousness, and the Problem of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the implications of the limitations of language for phenomenological description. For corroboration, it relies on a section in Nietzsche's The Gay Science in which he gives his most prolonged explanation of what he calls "the essence" of his understanding of "phenomenalism and perspectivism" ...

  15. Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuo; Luo Xiaoming; Chen Liqing; Ning Bo; Chen Shuai; Wang Jingyang; Zhong Zhiping; Pan Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    We report a prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of a thermal 87 Rb atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated cell. The spin wave is prepared through a stimulated Raman process. The long coherence time is achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the spins with paraffin coating and minimize dephasing with optimal experimental configuration. The observation of the long-time-delayed-stimulated Stokes signal in the writing process suggests the prolonged lifetime of the prepared spins; a direct measurement of the decay of anti-Stokes signal in the reading process shows the coherence time is up to 300 μs after minimizing dephasing. This is 100 times longer than the reported coherence time in the similar experiments in thermal atomic ensembles based on the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller and its improved protocols. This prolonged coherence time sets the upper limit of the memory time in quantum repeaters based on such protocols, which is crucial for the realization of long-distance quantum communication. The previous reported fluorescence background in the writing process due to collision in a sample cell with buffer gas is also reduced in a cell without buffer gas.

  16. Blooming rhythms of cactus Cereus peruvianus with nocturnal peak at full moon during seasons of prolonged daytime photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Reinberg, Alain; Smolensky, Michael H; Gadacha, Wafa; Khedaier, Achraf; Sani, Mamane; Touitou, Yvan; Boughamni, Néziha Ghanem

    2016-01-01

    Cereus peruvianus (Peruvian apple cactus) is a large erect and thorny succulent cactus characterized by column-like (cereus [L]: column), that is, candle-shaped, appendages. For three successive years (1100 days), between early April and late November, we studied the flowering patterns of eight cacti growing in public gardens and rural areas of north and central Tunisia, far from nighttime artificial illumination, in relation to natural environmental light, temperature, relative humidity and precipitation parameters. Flower blooming was assessed nightly between 23:00 h and until at least 02:00 h, and additionally around-the-clock at ~1 h intervals for 30 consecutive days during the late summer of each year of study to quantify both nyctohemeral (day-night) and lunar patterns. During the summer months of prolonged daytime photoperiod, flower blooming of C. peruvianus exhibited predictable-in-time variation as "waves" with average period of 29.5 days synchronized by the light of the full moon. The large-sized flower (~16 cm diameter) opens almost exclusively at night, between sunset and sunrise, as a 24 h rhythm during a specific 3-4-day span of the lunar cycle (full moon), with a strong correlation between moon phase and number and proportion of flowers in bloom (ranging from r = +0.59 to +0.91). Black, blue and red cotton sheets were used to filter specific spectral bands of nighttime moonlight from illuminating randomly selected plant appendages as a means to test the hypothesis of a "gating" 24 h rhythm phenomenon of photoreceptors at the bud level. Relative to control conditions (no light filtering), black sheet covering inhibited flower bud induction by 87.5%, red sheet covering by 46.6% and blue sheet covering by 34%, and the respective inhibiting effects on number of flowers in bloom were essentially 100%, ~81% and ~44%. C. peruvianus is a unique example of a terrestrial plant that exhibits a circadian flowering rhythm (peak ~00:00 h) "gated" by 24 h, lunar

  17. Causes of Death Associated With Prolonged TV Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah K.; Moore, Steven C.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Xiao, Qian; Albanes, Demetrius; Matthews, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TV viewing is the most prevalent sedentary behavior and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality, but the association with other leading causes of death is unknown. This study examined the association between TV viewing and leading causes of death in the U.S. Methods A prospective cohort of 221,426 individuals (57% male) aged 50–71 years who were free of chronic disease at baseline (1995–1996), 93% white, with an average BMI of 26.7 (SD=4.4) kg/m2 were included. Participants self-reported TV viewing at baseline and were followed until death or December 31, 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for TV viewing and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results After an average follow-up of 14.1 years, adjusted mortality risk for a 2-hour/day increase in TV viewing was significantly higher for the following causes of death (HR [95% CI]): cancer (1.07 [1.03, 1.11); heart disease (1.23 [1.17, 1.29]); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.28 [1.14, 1.43]); diabetes (1.56 [1.33, 1.83]); influenza/pneumonia (1.24 [1.02, 1.50]); Parkinson disease (1.35 [1.11, 1.65]); liver disease (1.33 [1.05, 1.67]); and suicide (1.43 [1.10, 1.85]. Mortality associations persisted in stratified analyses with important potential confounders, reducing causation concerns. Conclusions This study shows the breadth of mortality outcomes associated with prolonged TV viewing, and identifies novel associations for several leading causes of death. TV viewing is a prevalent discretionary behavior that may be a more important target for public health intervention than previously recognized. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340015 PMID:26215832

  18. Effects of hydrogen rich water on prolonged intermittent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ponte, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Nicola; Nigris, Daniele; Lazzer, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies showed a positive effect of hydrogen rich water (HRW) intake on acid-base homeostasis at rest. We investigated 2-weeks of HRW intake on repeated sprint performance and acid-base status during prolonged intermittent cycling exercise. In a cross over single-blind protocol, 8 trained male cyclists (age [mean±SD] 41±7 years, body mass 72.3±4.4 kg, height 1.77±0.04 m, maximal oxygen uptake [V̇O2max] 52.6±4.4 mL·kg-1·min-1) were provided daily with 2 liters of placebo normal water (PLA, pH 7.6, oxidation/reduction potential [ORP] +230 mV, free hydrogen content 0 ppb) or HRW (pH 9.8, ORP -180 mV, free Hydrogen 450 ppb). Tests were performed at baseline and after each period of 2 weeks of treatment. The treatments were counter-balanced and the sequence randomized. The 30-minute intermittent cycling trial consisted in 10 3-minute blocks, each one composed by 90 seconds at 40% V̇O2max, 60 seconds at 60% V̇O2max, 16 seconds all out sprint, and 14 seconds active recovery. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2), heart rate and power output were measured during the whole test, while mean and peak power output (PPO), time to peak power and Fatigue Index (FI) were determined during all the 16 seconds sprints. Lactate, pH and bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentrations were determined at rest and after each sprint on blood obtained by an antecubital vein indwelling catheter. In the PLA group, PPO in absolute values decreased significantly at the 8th and 9th of 10 sprints and in relative values, ΔPPO, decreased significantly at 6th, 8th and 9th of 10 sprints (by mean: -12±5%, Pmay help to maintain PPO in repetitive sprints to exhaustion over 30 minutes.

  19. Street light detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a method, a vehicle and a system for measuring light from one or more outdoor lamps on a road, the system comprising a number of light sensors configured to be arranged in a fixed position relative to a vehicle, where at least a first part of the light sensors is configured...... for measuring light from the one or more outdoor lamps, wherein at least a second part of the light sensors comprises at least two light sensors configured for detecting the angle which the light from the one or more outdoor lamps arrives at in the second part of the light sensors; a processing unit configured...... for calculating the position relative to the vehicle of the one or more outdoor lamps based on the detected angle which the light arrives in, and wherein the processing unit is configured for calculating the light on the road based on the light measured in the fixed position relative to the vehicle and based...

  20. Evaluation of benzodiazepines and zolpidem in nails and their stability after prolonged exposure to chlorinated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Matteo; Andrello, Luisa; Visonà, Silvia; Vignali, Claudia; Groppi, Angelo; Freni, Francesca; Osculati, Antonio; Tajana, Luca; Morini, Luca

    2018-04-15

    The study aims the development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of benzodiazepines and zolpidem in nails as alternative keratinized matrix to hair in long-term monitoring of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs. Both fingernail and toenail samples (1-2 mm) were collected by clipping the excess overhang of the nail from volunteers and from postmortem cases. They were washed twice with organic solvents, dried under nitrogen stream, pulverized, immersed in a methanol solution (internal standard: diazepam-D5) and sonicated up to two hours. The solution was then direct injected in the LC-MS/MS system. Mass spectrometry was set in MRM mode, selecting two transitions for each substance. 32 analytes among benzodiazepines, metabolites and hypnotics were included in the list. The method fulfilled the internationally required criteria for validation. Limits of detection ranged from 0.03 pg/mg (zolpidem) to 13.1 pg/mg (bromazepam). 9 subjects under therapy were positive at 7 different benzodiazepines and/or metabolites (lorazepam, desalkylflurazepam, bromazepam, diazepam, alprazolam, lormetazepam and prazepam), while 5 molecules were measured in 4 postmortem cases (diazepam, desmethyldiazepam, delorazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam and zolpidem). In vitro experiments on eight authentic samples suggested that benzodiazepines in nails are influenced by the prolonged exposure to chlorinated water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amphotericin-B entrapped lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles for prolonged ocular application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhonker, Yashpal S; Prasad, Yarra Durga; Chandasana, Hardik; Vishvkarma, Akhilesh; Mitra, Kalyan; Shukla, Praveen K; Bhatta, Rabi S

    2015-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is the major cause of vision loss worldwide. Amphotericin-B is considered as the drug of choice for fungal infections. However, its use in ophthalmic drug delivery is limited by the low precorneal residence at ocular surface as a result of blinking reflex, tear turnover and nasopharyngeal drainage. We report Amphotericin-B loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles for prolonged ocular application. The prepared nanoparticles were in the size range of 161.9-230.5 nm, entrapment efficiency of 70-75%, theoretical drug loading of 5.71% with positive zeta potential of 26.6-38.3 mV. As demonstrated by antifungal susceptibility against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, nanoparticles were more effective than marketed formulation. They exhibited pronounced mucoadhesive properties. In-vivo pharmacokinetic studies in New Zealand albino rabbit eyes indicated improved bioavailablity (∼ 2.04 fold) and precorneal residence time (∼ 3.36 fold) by nanoparticles prepared from low molecular weight chitosan as compared with marketed formulation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Phentolamine mesylate: It′s role as a reversal agent for unwarranted prolonged local analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of local anesthesia is an integral procedure prior to dental treatments to minimize the associated pain. It is learned that its effect stays more than the time required for the dental procedure to be completed. This prolonged soft tissue anesthesia (STA can be detrimental, inconvenient, and unnecessary. Phentolamine mesylate, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug essentially serves the purpose of faster recovery from numbness at the site of local anesthesia. This article reviews the development of the drug phentolamine mesylate and its indication as a local anesthetic reversal agent. A literature search for phentolamine mesylate as a STA reversal agent was conducted in PubMed using the terms "dental local anesthesia reversal, phentolamine mesylate" up to March 2014. The search was limited to articles published in English. The search revealed 13 PubMed indexed articles stating the development and application of phentolamine mesylate. Phentolamine mesylate is an important step in the progress of developing patient care as well as an aid to the dental clinician.

  3. Prolonged silicon carbide integrated circuit operation in Venus surface atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G. Neudeck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prolonged operation of semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs needed for long-duration exploration of the surface of Venus has proven insurmountably challenging to date due to the ∼ 460 °C, ∼ 9.4 MPa caustic environment. Past and planned Venus landers have been limited to a few hours of surface operation, even when IC electronics needed for basic lander operation are protected with heavily cumbersome pressure vessels and cooling measures. Here we demonstrate vastly longer (weeks electrical operation of two silicon carbide (4H-SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET ring oscillator ICs tested with chips directly exposed (no cooling and no protective chip packaging to a high-fidelity physical and chemical reproduction of Venus’ surface atmosphere. This represents more than 100-fold extension of demonstrated Venus environment electronics durability. With further technology maturation, such SiC IC electronics could drastically improve Venus lander designs and mission concepts, fundamentally enabling long-duration enhanced missions to the surface of Venus.

  4. Prolonged hydrocephalus induced by intraventricular hemorrhage in rats is reduced by curcumin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhihua; Zhang, Huiqin; Fu, Chuhua; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Bo; Dang, Yanwei; Chen, Huayun; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-10

    Prolonged hydrocephalus is a major cause of severe disability and death of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) patients. However, the therapeutic options to minimize the detrimental effects of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus are limited. Curcumin has been reported to confer neuroprotective effects in numerous neurological diseases and injuries, but its role in IVH-induced hydrocephalus has not been determined. The aim of present study was to determine whether curcumin treatment ameliorates blood brain barrier (BBB) damage and reduces the incidence of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in IVH rat model. Autologous blood intraventricular injection was used to establish the IVH model. Our results revealed that repeated intraperitoneal injection of curcumin ameliorated IVH-induced learning and memory deficits as determined by Morris water maze and reduced the incidence of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in a dose-dependent manner at 28 d post-IVH induction. Further, the increased BBB permeability and brain edema induced by IVH were significantly reduced by curcumin administration. In summary, these findings highlighted the important role of curcumin in improving neurological function deficits and protecting against BBB disruption via promoting the neurovascular unit restoration, and thus it reduced the severity of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the long term. It is believed that curcumin might prove to be an effective therapeutic component in prevent the post-IVH hydrocephalus in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic bronchiolitis in non-human primates after prolonged ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustis, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) were exposed to 0.0, 0.5, and 0.8 ppM ozone for 7, 28, or 90 consecutive d, eight h per d. Changes in the lung evoked by prolonged oxidant exposure were evaluated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, autoradiography, and morphometry. Morphological changes were principally characterized as a low-grade chronic respiratory bronchiolitis. Proximal generations of respiratory bronchioles were the most consistently affected region of the pulmonary acinus. Major features of the bronchiolitis were intraluminal accumulations of macrophages and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. The degree of inflammation was greatest at the 0.8 ppM ozone concentration at each exposure period. The number of inflammatory cells observed at 90 d, however, was about one-half that observed at 7 d. Tritiated thymidine labeling and differential cell counts of respiratory bronchiolar epithelium demonstrated a proliferative response and an increase in the proportion of cubiodal bronchiolar cells which presumably function as the progenitor cell during cell renewal and repair of the epithelium. The labeling index remained elevated above control values through 90 d of ozone exposure despite a reduction below 7 d values at both 28 and 90 d. The epithelial hyperplasia persisted through 90 d at a level similar to but slightly above that present at 7 d. Since cell differentials remained shifted at 28 and 90 d, it appears that persistent ozone exposure delayed maturation and transformation of cubiodal bronchiolar cells to their mature phenotype

  6. The impact of new partial AUC parameters for evaluating the bioequivalence of prolonged-release formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily, Michaël; Dussault, Catherine; Massicotte, Julie; Guibord, Pascal; Lefebvre, Marc

    2015-01-23

    To demonstrate bioequivalence (BE) between two prolonged-release (PR) drug formulations, single dose studies under fasting and fed state as well as at least one steady-state study are currently required by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Recently, however, there have been debates regarding the relevance of steady-state studies. New requirements in single-dose investigations have also been suggested by the EMA to address the absence of a parameter that can adequately assess the equivalence of the shape of the curves. In the draft guideline issued in 2013, new partial area under the curve (pAUC) pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were introduced to that effect. In light of these potential changes, there is a need of supportive clinical evidence to evaluate the impact of pAUCs on the evaluation of BE between PR formulations. In this retrospective analysis, it was investigated whether the newly defined parameters were associated with an increase in discriminatory ability or a change in variability compared to the conventional PK parameters. Among the single dose studies that met the requirements already in place, 20% were found unable to meet the EMA's new requirements in regards to the pAUC PK parameters. When pairing fasting and fed studies for a same formulation, the failure rate increased to 40%. In some cases, due to the high variability of these parameters, an increase of the sample size would be required to prove BE. In other cases however, the pAUC parameters demonstrated a robust ability to detect differences between the shapes of the curves of PR formulations. The present analysis should help to better understand the impact of the upcoming changes in European regulations on PR formulations and in the design of future BE studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  8. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSCH, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms

  9. On the ultrarelativistic limit of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautcourt, G.

    1998-01-01

    As is well-known, Newton's gravitational theory can be formulated as a four-dimensional space-time theory and follows as singular limit from Einstein's theory, if the velocity of light tends to the infinity. Here 'singular' stands for the fact, that the limiting geometrical structure differs from a regular Riemannian space-time. Geometrically, the transition Einstein → Newton can be viewed as an 'opening' of the light cones. This picture suggests that there might be other singular limits of Einstein's theory: Let all light cones shrink and ultimately become part of a congruence of singular world lines. The limiting structure may be considered as a null hypersurface embedded in a five-dimensional spacetime. While the velocity of light tends to zero here, all other velocities tend to the velocity of light. Thus one may speak of an ultrarelativistic limit of General Relativity. The resulting theory is as simple as Newton's gravitational theory, with the basic difference, that Newton's elliptic differential equation is replaced by essentially ordinary differential equations, with derivatives tangent to the generators of the singular congruence. The Galilei group is replaced by the Carroll group introduced by Levy-Leblond. We suggest to study near ultrarelativistic situations with a perturbational approach starting from the singular structure, similar to post-Newtonian expansions in the c → ∞ case. (author)

  10. Matrix light and pixel light: optical system architecture and requirements to the light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinger, Benno; Timinger, Andreas L.

    2015-09-01

    Modern Automotive headlamps enable improved functionality for more driving comfort and safety. Matrix or Pixel light headlamps are not restricted to either pure low beam functionality or pure high beam. Light in direction of oncoming traffic is selectively switched of, potential hazard can be marked via an isolated beam and the illumination on the road can even follow a bend. The optical architectures that enable these advanced functionalities are diverse. Electromechanical shutters and lens units moved by electric motors were the first ways to realize these systems. Switching multiple LED light sources is a more elegant and mechanically robust solution. While many basic functionalities can already be realized with a limited number of LEDs, an increasing number of pixels will lead to more driving comfort and better visibility. The required optical system needs not only to generate a desired beam distribution with a high angular dynamic, but also needs to guarantee minimal stray light and cross talk between the different pixels. The direct projection of the LED array via a lens is a simple but not very efficient optical system. We discuss different optical elements for pre-collimating the light with minimal cross talk and improved contrast between neighboring pixels. Depending on the selected optical system, we derive the basic light source requirements: luminance, surface area, contrast, flux and color homogeneity.

  11. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064

  12. Electrocardiographic PR prolongation and atrial fibrillation risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shu; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiographic PR interval prolongation is considered a benign condition, but recent studies have challenged the notion by demonstrating that prolonged PR interval is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the evidence supporting an association of prolonged PR interval with AF incidence. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE database (from inception to May 2014) supplemented by manual searches of references of relevant retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies were included with hazard ratio (HR) of prolonged PR interval for incident AF. The search strategy yielded 6 cohort studies meeting eligibility criteria. A total of 328,932 participants were included, with 14,191 participants suffering from AF during follow-up. Pooled HRs of prolonged PR interval for incident AF was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.13 to 1.49) using random-effect model (I(2) = 30%). There was a significant difference of combined HRs between studies with and without adjustment for taking of AV nodal blocking agents in subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analysis supported the robustness of the results. Prolonged PR interval is not a totally benign condition but an independent risk factor for AF incidence. The mechanisms underlying the association of prolonged PR interval with AF incidence need further research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Does a 'tight' hamstring predict low back pain reporting during prolonged standing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftry, Sean M; Marshall, Paul W M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hamstring passive stiffness and extensibility in asymptomatic individuals with the reporting of low back pain during 2-h prolonged standing. Twenty healthy participants with no history of low back pain (mean±SD, age 22.6±2.7 years, height 1.74±0.09 m, weight 76.2±14.8 kg). Low back pain (VAS score; mm) was continuously monitored during 2-h prolonged standing. Hamstring extensibility, passive stiffness, and stretch tolerance were measured before and after prolonged standing using an instrumented straight leg raise (iSLR). Ten participants reported a clinically relevant increase (Δ VAS>10mm) in low back pain during prolonged standing. Hamstring extensiblity (leg°(max)), passive stiffness (Nm.°(-1)), and stretch tolerance (VAS; mm) were no different between pain developers and non-pain developers. No changes in hamstring measures were observed following 2-h prolonged standing. No relationship was observed in this study between measures of hamstring extensibility and the reporting of low back pain during prolonged standing. There is no evidence to recommend hamstring extensibility interventions (i.e. passive stretching) as a means of reducing pain reporting in occupations requiring prolonged standing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cheng Tang

    Full Text Available Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1 to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2 to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled.A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine, psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress, job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support, and prolonged fatigue.A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue.Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers' prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables.

  15. Red light crossing, transportation time and attitudes in crossing with intelligent green light for pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlæger, Rasmus; Tønning, Charlotte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2018-01-01

    In order to increase mobility and promote modal shift to walking, intersections in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, have been equipped with intelligent management of green light for pedestrians. This allows adjustment of green time based on radar detection of pedestrians in the crossing...... and prolongation of the green time for the pedestrians if required. The effect is examined in a before/after study of a two-stage pedestrian crossing with a centre refuge island in an intersection of four-lane roads. The data consists of responses from an on-site questionnaire including 72+53 individuals and 266...

  16. Ventricular Cycle Length Characteristics Estimative of Prolonged RR Interval during Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIACCIO, EDWARD J.; BIVIANO, ANGELO B.; GAMBHIR, ALOK; EINSTEIN, ANDREW J.; GARAN, HASAN

    2014-01-01

    Background When atrial fibrillation (AF) is incessant, imaging during a prolonged ventricular RR interval may improve image quality. It was hypothesized that long RR intervals could be predicted from preceding RR values. Methods From the PhysioNet database, electrocardiogram RR intervals were obtained from 74 persistent AF patients. An RR interval lengthened by at least 250 ms beyond the immediately preceding RR interval (termed T0 and T1, respectively) was considered prolonged. A two-parameter scatterplot was used to predict the occurrence of a prolonged interval T0. The scatterplot parameters were: (1) RR variability (RRv) estimated as the average second derivative from 10 previous pairs of RR differences, T13–T2, and (2) Tm–T1, the difference between Tm, the mean from T13 to T2, and T1. For each patient, scatterplots were constructed using preliminary data from the first hour. The ranges of parameters 1 and 2 were adjusted to maximize the proportion of prolonged RR intervals within range. These constraints were used for prediction of prolonged RR in test data collected during the second hour. Results The mean prolonged event was 1.0 seconds in duration. Actual prolonged events were identified with a mean positive predictive value (PPV) of 80% in the test set. PPV was >80% in 36 of 74 patients. An average of 10.8 prolonged RR intervals per 60 minutes was correctly identified. Conclusions A method was developed to predict prolonged RR intervals using two parameters and prior statistical sampling for each patient. This or similar methodology may help improve cardiac imaging in many longstanding persistent AF patients. PMID:23998759

  17. The Significance of Prolonged and Saddleback Fever in Hospitalised Adult Dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Hl Ng

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is gaining importance in Singapore with an increase in the number of cases and mortality in recent years. Although prolonged and saddleback fever have been reported in dengue fever, there are no specific studies on their significance in dengue. This study aims to examine the prevalence of prolonged and saddleback fever in dengue as well as their associations with dengue severity. A total of 2843 polymerase-chain reaction (PCR confirmed dengue patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital from 2004 to 2008 were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of them were male with a median age of 34 years. Prolonged fever (fever > 7 days duration was present in 572 (20.1% of patients. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, dengue shock syndrome (DSS and severe dengue (SD were significantly more likely to occur in patients with prolonged fever. Mucosal bleeding, anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, lethargy, rash, clinical fluid accumulation, hepatomegaly, nosocomial infection, leukopenia, higher neutrophil count, higher hematocrit, higher alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST, higher creatinine, lower protein and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT were significantly associated with prolonged fever but not platelet count or prothrombin time (PT. Saddleback fever was present in 165 (5.8%. Although DHF and SD were more likely to occur in patients in those with saddleback fever, DSS was not. Compared with prolonged fever, saddleback fever did not show many significant associations except for diarrhea, abdominal pain, clinical fluid accumulation, hematocrit and platelet change, and lower systolic blood pressure. This study demonstrates that prolonged fever may be associated with various warning signs and more severe forms of dengue (SD, DSS, DHF, while saddleback fever showed associations with DHF and SD but not DSS. The presence of prolonged or saddleback fever in dengue patients should therefore

  18. Light Trapping with Silicon Light Funnel Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Prajapati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon light funnels are three-dimensional subwavelength structures in the shape of inverted cones with respect to the incoming illumination. Light funnel (LF arrays can serve as efficient absorbing layers on account of their light trapping capabilities, which are associated with the presence of high-density complex Mie modes. Specifically, light funnel arrays exhibit broadband absorption enhancement of the solar spectrum. In the current study, we numerically explore the optical coupling between surface light funnel arrays and the underlying substrates. We show that the absorption in the LF array-substrate complex is higher than the absorption in LF arrays of the same height (~10% increase. This, we suggest, implies that a LF array serves as an efficient surface element that imparts additional momentum components to the impinging illumination, and hence optically excites the substrate by near-field light concentration, excitation of traveling guided modes in the substrate, and mode hybridization.

  19. WLCG Operations and the First Prolonged LHC Run

    CERN Document Server

    Girone, M; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2011-01-01

    By the time of CHEP 2010 we had accumulated just over 6 months’ experience with proton-proton data taking, production and analysis at the LHC. This paper addresses the issues seen from the point of view of the WLCG Service. In particular, it answers the following questions: Did the WLCG service delivered quantitatively and qualitatively? Were the "key performance indicators" a reliable and accurate measure of the service quality? Were the inevitable service issues been resolved in a sufficiently rapid fashion? What are the key areas of improvement required not only for long-term sustainable operations, but also to embrace new technologies. It concludes with a summary of our readiness for data taking in the light of real experience.

  20. WLCG Operations and the First Prolonged LHC Run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girone, M; Shiers, J

    2011-01-01

    By the time of CHEP 2010 we had accumulated just over 6 months' experience with proton-proton data taking, production and analysis at the LHC. This paper addresses the issues seen from the point of view of the WLCG Service. In particular, it answers the following questions: Did the WLCG service delivered quantitatively and qualitatively? Were the 'key performance indicators' a reliable and accurate measure of the service quality? Were the inevitable service issues been resolved in a sufficiently rapid fashion? What are the key areas of improvement required not only for long-term sustainable operations, but also to embrace new technologies. It concludes with a summary of our readiness for data taking in the light of real experience.

  1. ISO celebrates its prolonged life with a video of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This is excellent news for astronomers and especially for the multinational teams, with leaders in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, who spent many years devising the four instruments served by ISO's telescope. The camera ISOCAM, the photometer ISOPHOT, the Short Wavelength Spectrometer and the Long Wavelength Spectrometer span between them an unprecedented range of infrared wavelengths from 2 to 200 microns. The atmosphere of Jupiter is one of the cool and cloudy places attracting ISO's attention, and ESA today releases a video of unprecedented images of Jupiter. The planet changes its appearance drastically as the camera ISOCAM scans a range of 90 different infrared wavelengths. Picture by picture, ISOCAM picks out different features of the atmosphere's composition and behaviour. These and other results from ISO will enable scientists to sharpen their ideas about how Jupiter's weather works. "ISO is giving us a new impression of the giant planets of the Solar System," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "Not just Jupiter, but Saturn, Uranus and Neptune too. By observing the planets across its very wide range of infrared wavelengths, ISO can see features overlooked even by spacecraft visiting the planets. The remarkable movie of Jupiter released today represents only a few per cent of ISO's wavelength range, yet every image tells its own story." More information about the Jupiter video appears later in this Information Note. How ISO's cold telescope beat the calendar The need to keep ISO's telescope and instruments chilled to a very low temperature sets a limit to their useful operating life. ISO was supplied with more than 2000 litres of superfluid helium to cool it. Slow evaporation maintains key parts of the spacecraft at temperatures close to absolute zero, below minus 271 degrees C. The rate of loss of helium was expected to be about 3 litres a day, but the cryogenic system could not be tested in exactly the conditions

  2. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education...

  3. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education.......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education....

  4. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, R. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, T. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  5. Diverse definitions of prolonged labour and its consequences with sometimes subsequent inappropriate treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged labour very often causes suffering from difficulties that may have lifelong implications. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and treatment of prolonged labour and to compare birth outcome and women’s experiences of prolonged and normal labour. Method Women with spontaneous onset of labour, living in a Swedish county, were recruited two months after birth, to a cross-sectional study. Women (n = 829) completed a questionnaire that investigated socio-demographic and obstetric background, birth outcome and women’s feelings and experiences of birth. The prevalence of prolonged labour, as defined by a documented ICD-code and inspection of partogram was calculated. Four groups were identified; women with prolonged labour as identified by documented ICD-codes or by partogram inspection but no ICD-code; women with normal labour augmented with oxytocin or not. Results Every fifth woman experienced a prolonged labour. The prevalence with the documented ICD-code was (13%) and without ICD-code but positive partogram was (8%). Seven percent of women with prolonged labour were not treated with oxytocin. Approximately one in three women (28%) received oxytocin augmentation despite having no evidence of prolonged labour. The length of labour differed between the four groups of women, from 7 to 23 hours. Women with a prolonged labour had a negative birth experience more often (13%) than did women who had a normal labour (3%) (P women with prolonged labour were emergency Caesarean section (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.0) and to strongly agree with the following statement ‘My birth experience made me decide not to have any more children’ (OR 41.3, 95% CI 4.9-349.6). The factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience in women with normal labour were less agreement with the statement ‘It was exiting to give birth’ (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.34-0.5). Conclusions There is need for increased clinical skill in identification and classification

  6. Value choices and considerations when limiting intensive care treatment: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, K; Førde, R; Nortvedt, P

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on the values and considerations that affect the decision-making processes and the decisions to limit intensive care treatment. Qualitative methodology with participant observation and in-depth interviews, with an emphasis on eliciting the underlying rationale of the clinicians' actions and choices when limiting treatment. Informants perceived over-treatment in intensive care medicine as a dilemma. One explanation was that the decision-making base was somewhat uncertain, complex and difficult. The informants claimed that those responsible for taking decisions from the admitting ward prolonged futile treatment because they may bear guilt or responsibility for something that had gone wrong during the course of treatment. The assessments of the patient's situation made by physicians from the admitting ward were often more organ-oriented and the expectations were less realistic than those of clinicians in the intensive care unit who frequently had a more balanced and overall perspective. Aspects such as the personality and the speciality of those involved, the culture of the unit and the degree of interdisciplinary cooperation were important issues in the decision-making processes. Under-communicated considerations jeopardise the principle of equal treatment. If intensive care patients are to be ensured equal treatment, strategies for interdisciplinary, transparent and appropriate decision-making processes must be developed in which open and hidden values are rendered visible, power structures disclosed, employees respected and the various perspectives of the treatment given their legitimate place.

  7. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2013-01-01

    On one hand, urban lighting expresses itself in a complex visual environment made by the interplay by between many separate lighting schemes, as street lighting, shop lighting, luminous commercials etc. On the other, a noticeable order of patterns occurs, when lighting is observed as luminous...... formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human...... instincts, but they can be met by careful selection and adjustment of existing light situations....

  8. Shrinkage Characteristics of Experimental Polymer Containing Composites under Controlled Light Curing Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Pefferkorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of polymethylmethacrylate polymer of different molecular weight at the aerosil/ethyleneglycol- or 1,3 butanediol-dimethacrylate interfaces was determined to provide microstructured networks. Their structural characteristics were determined to be controlled by the amount of polymer initially supplied to the system. The sediment (the settled phase characteristics, determined as a function of the polymer concentration and the rate of the polymerization shrinkage determined for composite resins, obtained by extrusion of the sediment after centrifugation, were found to be correlated. The specific role of the adsorbed polymer was found to be differently perturbed with the supplementary supply of dimethacrylate based monomer additives. Particularly, the bisphenol A dimethacrylate that generated crystals within the sediment was found to impede the shrinkage along the crystal lateral faces and strongly limit the shrinkage along its basal faces. Addition of ethyleneglycol- or polyethylene-glycoldimethacrylate monomers was determined to modify the sedimentation characteristics of the aerosil suspension and the shrinkage properties of the composites. Finally, the effects of stepwise light curing methods with prolonged lighting-off periods were investigated and found to modify the development and the final values of the composite shrinkage.

  9. Concept of white light in stage lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Mauricio R.

    2002-06-01

    In perceiving objects, generally we see them in a white light situation. But, actually, there is not an absolute white, in such a manner that the different light sources have a determined kind of white, what it is known as color temperature. Even the white light may be of different kinds (different color temperature), the individual mind tends to perceive it as the same kind of white, that is to say, there is in our mind a psychological function by which we operate an integration in the perception in order to do the object perceptually invariable. On the other hand, it is a common practice in stage lighting to use color light sources. It is a well known phenomenon that a color of light produces a change in the object color perception. However, when we go to theater, we see the objects as having their real color, even if the lighting is not white. In this paper the concept of white light in stage lighting is presented, showing its possibilities of aesthetical expression.

  10. Performance and brain electrical activity during prolonged confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, B; Lorenz, J; Manzey, D

    1996-01-01

    to be associated with an increasing demand on perceptual cue utilization required by the tracking performance. In one subject marked attenuation of alpha power occurred during the first half of the confinement period, where he also scored the highest fatigue ratings. A striking increase in fronto-central theta activity was observed in the same subject after six weeks of isolation. The change was associated with an efficient rather than a degraded task performance, and a high rating of the item "concentrated" and a low rating of the item "fatigued." This finding supports the hypothesis that the activation state associated with increased fronto-central theta activity accompanies efficient performance of demanding mental tasks. The usefulness of standardized laboratory tasks as monitoring instruments is demonstrated by the direct comparability with results of studies obtained from other relevant research applications using the same tasks. The feasibility of a self-administered integrated psychophysiological assessment of the individual state was illustrated by the nearly complete collection of data. The large number of individual data collected over the entire period permitted application of quantitative single-subject analysis, allowing reliable determination of changes in the individual state in the course of time. It thus appears that this assessment technique can be adapted for in-flight monitoring of astronauts during prolonged spaceflights. Parallel EEG recording can provide relevant supplementary information for diagnosing the individual activation state associated with task performance. The existence of large individual differences in the generation of task-sensitive EEG rhythms forms an important issue for further studies.

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states were also evaluated after these repeated exercises. The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal field trials was collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers in 1993 (n=6 and 1994 (n=15 during the "International Four-Day Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995 during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland. Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. Mood states were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours. Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased

  12. Light and colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Often a dichotomy between daylight and artificial light is observed, often artificial lighting replaces daylight. In Denmark daylight is characterized partly by being "borrowed" half of the year, partly by having long transitions periods between the light and the dark (nautical and civil twilight......). For these reasons artificial lighting does not complement daylight but provides, coupled with the daylight, the total lighting in the indoor environment. Electric lighting is therefore ‐ in a complex interaction with the daylight ‐ of great importance for both our lighting and our wellbeing. Studying artificial...... lighting without studying daylight seem to be a common procedure of the practice of today in Denmark and other parts of the industrialized world. As a consequence of this artificial lighting suffers from a quantifying tyranny, a tyranny where the quality of light is measured in quantities. This procedure...

  13. Light Pollution: Outdoor lighting is a growing threat to astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, K W

    1973-03-30

    There have been major qualitative and quantitative changes in outdoor lighting technology in the last decade. The level of skylight caused by outdoor lighting systems is growing at a very high rate, about 20 percent per year nationwide. In addition, the spectral distribution of man-made light pollution may change in the next decade from one containing a few mercury lines to one containing dozens of lines and a significantly increased continuum level. Light pollution is presently damaging to some astronomical programs, and it is likely to become a major factor limiting progress in the next decade. Suitable sites in the United States for new dark sky observing facilities are very difficult to find. Some of the increase in outdoor illumination is due to the character of national growth and development. Some is due to promotional campaigns, in which questionable arguments involving public safety are presented. There are protective measures which might be adopted by the government; these would significantly aid observational astronomy, without compromising the legitimate outdoor lighting needs of society. Observatories should establish programs to routinely monitor sky brightness as a function of position, wavelength, and time. The astronomical community should establish a mechanism by which such programs can be supported and coordinated.

  14. [Citalopram, escitalopram and prolonged QT: warning or alarm?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Enric; Vieira, Sara; Garcia-Moll, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The alerts issued by regulatory agencies on the potential cardiac toxicity of citalopram and escitalopram have caused alarm among clinicians. A review of the data concerning this topic shows that the alarm should be limited to patients with a history of syncope or poisoning. As a precautionary measure, an electrocardiogram should be performed on elderly patients. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children: The HAPPY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel P; Charman, Sarah J; Ploetz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A; Kerr, Catherine J

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the association between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children. This cross-sectional design study analysed accelerometry-determined sedentary behaviour and physical activity collected over 7 days from 111 (66 girls) UK schoolchildren. Objective outcome measures included waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression was used for the main data analysis. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of having hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.03) and an increased clustered cardiometabolic risk score (P = 0.05) were significantly higher in children who engaged in more prolonged sedentary bouts per day. The number of breaks in sedentary time per day was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor, but longer mean duration of daily breaks in sedentary time were associated with a lower odds of having abdominal adiposity (P = 0.04) and elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01). These associations may be mediated by engagement in light activity. This study provides evidence that avoiding periods of prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time may be important for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in children.

  16. Partnerships – Limited partnerships and limited liability limited partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Johan J.

    2000-01-01

    Consideration of the Limited Liability Partnership Act 2000 which introduced a new corporate entity, carrying the designations “partnership” and “limited” which allow members to limit their liability whilst organising themselves internally as a partnership. Article by Professor Johan Henning (Director of the Centre for Corporate Law and Practice, IALS and Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of the Free State, South Africa). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced ...

  17. Supra-complete surgery via dual intraoperative visualization approach (DiVA) prolongs patient survival in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y; Hore, Nirjhar; Merkel, Andreas; Buslei, Rolf; Buchfelder, Michael; Savaskan, Nicolai

    2016-05-03

    Safe and complete resection represents the first step in the treatment of glioblastomas and is mandatory in increasing the effectiveness of adjuvant therapy to prolong overall survival. With gross total resection currently limited in extent to MRI contrast enhancing areas, the extent to which supra-complete resection beyond obvious contrast enhancement could have impact on overall survival remains unclear. DiVA (dual intraoperative visualization approach) redefines gross total resection as currently accepted by enabling for the first time supra-complete surgery without compromising patient safety. This approach exploits the advantages of two already accepted surgical techniques combining intraoperative MRI with integrated functional neuronavigation and 5-ALA by integrating them into a single surgical approach. We investigated whether this technique has impact on overall outcome in GBM patients. 105 patients with GBM were included. We achieved complete resection with intraoperative MRI alone according to current best-practice in glioma surgery in 75 patients. 30 patients received surgery with supra-complete resection. The control arm showed a median life expectancy of 14 months, reflecting current standards-of-care and outcome. In contrast, patients receiving supra-complete surgery displayed significant increase in median survival time to 18.5 months with overall survival time correlating directly with extent of supra-complete resection. This extension of overall survival did not come at the cost of neurological deterioration. We show for the first time that supra-complete glioma surgery leads to significant prolongation of overall survival time in GBM patients.

  18. Can combined use of low-level lasers and hyaluronic acid injections prolong the longevity of degenerative knee joints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, David; Fu, Nga Yue

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection together with low-level laser therapy in addition to standard conventional physical therapy can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery in elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic tricompartmental knee arthritis. In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral tricompartmental knee arthritis were assigned at random to either one of two conservative treatment protocols to either one of the painful knees. Protocol A consisted of conventional physical therapy plus a sham light source plus saline injection, and protocol B consisted of protocol A with addition of half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection as well as low-level laser treatment instead of using saline and a sham light source. Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain necessitating joint replacement. Among the 140 painful knees treated with either protocol A or protocol B, only one of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol B required joint replacement, whereas 15 of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol A needed joint replacement surgery (Phyaluronic acid injections together with low-level laser therapy should be incorporated into the standard conservative treatment protocol for symptomatic knee arthritis, because it may prolong the longevity of the knee joint without the need for joint replacement.

  19. Incidence, risk factors, and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwarg, S.G.; Linstone, F.A.; Daniels, S.A.; Isenberg, S.J.; Hanscom, T.A.; Geoghegan, M.; Straatsma, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of 135 consecutive cataract operations identified ten cases (7.4%) of operating microscope light retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopically, these light retinopathy lesions appeared as a focal pigment epithelial change with varying degrees of pigment clumping in the center. Fluorescein angiography accentuated the lesion by demonstrating a sharply demarcated transmission defect, occasionally with multiple satellite lesions. The shape of the lesion matched the shape of the illuminating source of the particular operating microscope used during the surgery. The most significant risk factor associated with the production of these light retinopathy lesions was prolonged operating time. Mean total operating time for the ten patients with light retinopathy was 51 minutes longer than for those without (P less than .0001). Other significant associated factors were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P less than .03), younger age (P less than .05), and the use of hydrochlorothiazide (P less than .04)

  20. Pharmacokinetics of prolonged-release tacrolimus and implications for use in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Maria G; Undre, Nasrullah; Keirns, James; Fitzsimmons, William E; Brown, Malcolm; First, M Roy

    2016-08-01

    Prolonged-release tacrolimus was developed as a once-daily formulation with ethylcellulose as the excipient, resulting in slower release and reduction in peak concentration (Cmax ) for a given dose compared with immediate-release tacrolimus, which is administered twice daily. This manuscript reviews pharmacokinetic information on prolonged-release tacrolimus in healthy subjects, in transplant recipients converted from immediate-release tacrolimus, and in de novo kidney and liver transplant recipients. As with the immediate-release formulation, prolonged-release tacrolimus shows a strong correlation between trough concentration (Cmin ) and area under the 24-hour time-concentration curve (AUC24 ), indicating that trough whole blood concentrations provide an accurate measure of drug exposure. We present the pharmacokinetic similarities and differences between the two formulations, so that prescribing physicians will have a better understanding of therapeutic drug monitoring in patients receiving prolonged-release tacrolimus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.