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Sample records for prolonged high-intensity intermittent

  1. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

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    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  2. The effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on Wingate anaerobic power and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion cycling performance.

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    Naharudin, Mohamed Nashrudin Bin; Yusof, Ashril

    2018-06-01

    Many physically active individuals have undertaken intermittent fasting to reduce their daily caloric intake. However, abstaining from meals for a specific length of time may lead to the acute disturbance of highly carbohydrate-dependent exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on high-intensity type exercises, Wingate anaerobic (WT) and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion (HIT) cycling test. Twenty participants were randomised into an intermittent fasting (FAS) and a control group (CON). One day after baseline data collection on Day-0 where participants consumed their recommended daily caloric intake (FAS = 2500 ± 143 kcal day -1 ; CON = 2492 ± 20 kcal day -1 ) served over a course of five meals, the FAS group consumed only four meals where 40% was restricted by the omission of lunch (FAS = 1500 ± 55 kcal day -1 ). This diet was then continued for 10 days. Data on exercise performance and other dependent variables were collected on Day-2, -4, -6, -8 and -10. A reduction in WT power in the FAS group was observed on Day-2 (821.74 ± 66.07 W) compared to Day-0 (847.63 ± 95.94 W) with a moderate effect size (p < .05, ES = 0.4), while HIT time-to-exhaustion performance declined over the 10 days with a trend of recovery from a large to a minimum effect size (p < .05, ES = 0.8-0.3). Body weight and triglyceride were consistently reduced in the FAS group (p < .01). The present study suggests that intermittent fasting must exceed 10 days to ensure that high-intensity performance does not deteriorate because this length of time seems to be required for effective adaptation to the new dietary regimen.

  3. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss

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    Stephen H. Boutcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  4. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

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    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle.

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    Terada, Shin; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2004-02-01

    We previously reported that high-intensity exercise training significantly increased citrate synthase (CS) activity, a marker of oxidative enzyme, in rat skeletal muscle to a level equaling that attained after low-intensity prolonged exercise training (Terada et al., J Appl Physiol 90: 2019-2024, 2001). Since mitochondrial oxidative enzymes and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) enzymes are often increased simultaneously, we assessed the effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on FAO enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3 to 4 weeks old) were assigned to a 10-day period of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIT), low-intensity prolonged exercise training (LIT), or sedentary control conditions. In the HIT group, the rats repeated fourteen 20 s swimming sessions with a weight equivalent to 14-16% of their body weight. Between the exercise sessions, a 10 s pause was allowed. Rats in the LIT group swam 6 h/day in two 3 h sessions separated by 45 min of rest. CS activity in the triceps muscle of rats in the HIT and LIT groups was significantly higher than that in the control rats by 36 and 39%, respectively. Furthermore, 3-beta hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity, an important enzyme in the FAO pathway in skeletal muscle, was higher in the two training groups than in the control rats (HIT: 100%, LIT: 88%). No significant difference in HAD activity was observed between the two training groups. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that high-intensity intermittent swimming training elevated FAO enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle to a level similar to that attained after 6 h of low-intensity prolonged swimming exercise training.

  6. Postexercise cold-water immersion improves intermittent high-intensity exercise performance in normothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Avina; Mulligan, James; Egaña, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    A brief cold water immersion between 2 continuous high-intensity exercise bouts improves the performance of the latter compared with passive recovery in the heat. We investigated if this effect is apparent in normothermic conditions (∼19 °C), employing an intermittent high-intensity exercise designed to reflect the work performed at the high-intensity domain in team sports. Fifteen young active men completed 2 exhaustive cycling protocols (Ex1 and Ex2: 12 min at 85% ventilatory threshold (VT) and then an intermittent exercise alternating 30-s at 40% peak power (P peak ) and 30 s at 90% P peak to exhaustion) separated by 15 min of (i) passive rest, (ii) 5-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C, and (iii) 10-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C. Core temperature, heart rate, rates of perceived exertion, and oxygen uptake kinetics were not different during Ex1 among conditions. Time to failure during the intermittent exercise was significantly (P immersions (7.2 ± 3.5 min and 7.3 ± 3.3 min, respectively) compared with passive rest (5.8 ± 3.1 min). Core temperature, heart rate, and rates of perceived exertion were significantly (P immersions compared with passive rest. The time constant of phase II oxygen uptake response during the 85% VT bout of Ex2 was not different among the 3 conditions. A postexercise, 5- to 10-min cold-water immersion increases subsequent intermittent high-intensity exercise compared with passive rest in normothermia due, at least in part, to reductions in core temperature, circulatory strain, and effort perception.

  7. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion....

  8. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

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    Jean Nyakayiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.

  9. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gualano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p189 After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation.

  10. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Body Composition of Overweight Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  11. The Effect of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Power Output for the Upper Body

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    Leonie Harvey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine and measure high intensity, intermittent upper body performance, in addition to identifying areas of the body that affect the variance in total work done during the 5 × 6 s sprint test. Fifteen males completed an upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test on a modified electro-magnetically braked cycle ergometer, which consisted of five maximal effort sprints, each 6 s in duration, separated by 24 s of passive recovery. A fly wheel braking force corresponding to 5% of the participants’ body weight was used as the implemented resistance level. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Percent (% decrement was calculated as 100 − (Total work/ideal work × 100. Significant (P < 0.05 differences were found between sprints for both absolute and relative (W, W·kg−1, W·kg−1 Lean body mass (LBM and W·kg−1 Upper body lean body mass (UBLBM peak (PP and mean (MP power. The % decrement in total work done over the five sprints was 11.4%. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that UBLBM accounts for 87% of the variance in total work done during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test. These results provide a descriptive analysis of upper body, high intensity intermittent exercise, demonstrating that PP and MP output decreased significantly during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test.

  12. Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Vascular Function in Obese Preadolescent Boys.

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    Chuensiri, Napasakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) may serve as an effective alternative to traditional endurance training, since HIIT has been shown to induce greater improvements in aerobic fitness and health-related markers in adult populations. Our objective was to determine whether HIIT and supramaximal high-intensity intermittent training (supra-HIIT) would improve vascular structure and function in obese preadolescent boys. Before the baseline testing, 48 obese preadolescent boys, aged 8-12 years, were randomly assigned into control (CON; n = 16), HIIT (8 × 2 minutes at 90% peak power output, n = 16), and supra-HIIT (8 × 20 seconds at 170% peak power output, n = 16) groups. Both exercise groups performed exercises on a cycle ergometer three times/week for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, both HIIT and supra-HIIT did not affect body mass, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. Peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 peak) increased in both HIIT and supra-HIIT groups (p HIIT and supra-HIIT groups had higher resting metabolic rate than the control group (p HIIT and supra-HIIT program (all p HIIT and supra-HIIT groups (all p HIIT and supra-HIIT have favorable effects on aerobic capacity, metabolic rate, vascular function and structure, and blood lipid profile in obese preadolescent boys. HIIT may be a time efficient and effective exercise for preventing future cardiovascular disease in obese children.

  13. Physiological responses of young thoroughbred horses to intermittent high-intensity treadmill training.

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    Ohmura, Hajime; Matsui, Akira; Hada, Tetsuro; Jones, James H

    2013-08-17

    Training of young Thoroughbred horses must balance development of cardiopulmonary function and aerobic capacity with loading of the musculoskeletal system that can potentially cause structural damage and/or lameness. High-speed equine treadmills are sometimes used to supplement exercise on a track in the training of young Thoroughbreds because the horse can run at high speeds but without the added weight of a rider. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent high-intensity exercise on a treadmill of young Thoroughbred horses entering training can enhance development of aerobic capacity (VO2max) and running performance more than conventional training under saddle, and do so without causing lameness. Twelve yearling Thoroughbreds trained for 8 months with conventional riding (C) only, conventional riding plus a short (2 month, S) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise, or a long (8 month, L) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise. Three treadmill exercise tests evaluated VO2max, oxygen transport and running performance variables in June of the yearling year (only for L), October of the yearling year and April of the 2-year-old year. No horses experienced lameness during the study. Aerobic capacity increased in all groups after training. In both October and April, VO2max in L was higher than in C, but did not differ between L and S or S and C. Running speeds eliciting VO2max also increased in all groups after training, with S (809±3 m/s) and L (804±9 m/s) higher than C (764±27 m/s). Maximum heart rate decreased for all groups after training. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration increased for L throughout training. Young Thoroughbred horses can increase aerobic capacity and running performance more than by strictly using track training under saddle with the addition of intermittent high-intensity treadmill exercise, and they can do so without experiencing lameness. This finding suggests that young racehorses might be able

  14. Neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise in individuals with intellectual disability.

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    Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Zghal, Firas; Rebai, Haithem

    2013-12-01

    This study examined neuromuscular fatigue after high-intensity intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with 10 controls. Both groups performed three maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extension with 5 min in-between. The highest level achieved was selected as reference MVC. The fatiguing exercise consists of five sets with a maximal number of flexion-extension cycles at 80% of the one maximal repetition (1RM) for the right leg at 90° with 90 s rest interval between sets. The MVC was tested again after the last set. Peak force and electromyography (EMG) signals were measured during the MVC tests. Root Mean Square (RMS) and Median Frequency (MF) were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of peak force to the RMS. Before exercise, individuals with ID had a lower MVC (psport train ID individuals, they should consider this nervous system weakness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Intermittent Neck Cooling During Repeated Bouts of High-Intensity Exercise

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    Andrew J. Galpin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of intermittent neck cooling during exercise bouts designed to mimic combat sport competitions. Participants (n = 13, age = 25.3 ± 5.0 year height = 176.9 ± 7.5 cm, mass = 79.3 ± 9.0 kg, body fat = 11.8% ± 3.1% performed three trials on a cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of two, 5-min high-intensity exercise (HEX intervals (HEX1 and HEX2—20 s at 50% peak power, followed by 15 s of rest, and a time to exhaustion (TTE test. One-minute rest intervals were given between each round (RI1 and RI2, during which researchers treated the participant’s posterior neck with either (1 wet-ice (ICE; (2 menthol spray (SPRAY; or (3 no treatment (CON. Neck (TNECK and chest (TCHEST skin temperatures were significantly lower following RI1 with ICE (vs. SPRAY. Thermal sensation decreased with ICE compared to CON following RI1, RI2, TTE, and a 2-min recovery. Rating of perceived exertion was also lower with ICE following HEX2 (vs. CON and after RI2 (vs. SPRAY. Treatment did not influence TTE (68.9 ± 18.9s. The ability of intermittent ICE to attenuate neck and chest skin temperature rises during the initial HEX stages likely explains why participants felt cooler and less exerted during equivalent HEX bouts. These data suggest intermittent ICE improves perceptual stress during short, repeated bouts of vigorous exercise.

  16. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 performance in trained young men. Thirteen men aged 23 ± 1 year (height: 180 ± 2 cm, weight: 78 ± 3 kg; VO2max: 61.3 ± 3.3 mlO2 · kg(-1) · min(-1); means ± SEM) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions in randomized order with (SBC) and without (CON) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg(-1) body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively). Blood pH and bicarbonate were similar between trials at baseline, but higher (P = 0.003) immediately prior to the Yo-Yo IR2 test in SBC than in CON (7.44 ± 0.01 vs 7.32 ± 0.01 and 33.7 ± 3.2 vs 27.3 ± 0.6 mmol · l(-1), respectively). Blood lactate was 0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 mmol · l(-1) at baseline and increased to 11.3 ± 1.4 and 9.4 ± 0.8 mmol · l(-1) at exhaustion in SBC and CON, respectively, being higher (P = 0.03) in SBC. Additionally, peak blood lactate was higher (P = 0.02) in SBC than in CON (11.7 ± 1.2 vs 10.2 ± 0.7 mmol · l(-1)). Blood glucose, plasma K(+) and Na(+) were not different between trials. Peak heart rate reached at exhaustion was 197 ± 3 and 195 ± 3 bpm in SBC and CON, respectively, with no difference between conditions. RPE was 7% lower (P = 0.003) in SBC than in CON after 440 m, but similar at exhaustion (19.3 ± 0.2 and 19.5 ± 0.2). In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior

  17. Improving fitness of elite handball players: small-sided games vs. high-intensity intermittent training.

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    Iacono, Antonio Dello; Eliakim, Alon; Meckel, Yoav

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) and small-sided games (SSGs) training on fitness variables of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (mean age ± SD: 25.6 ± 0.5 years) were assigned to either HIIT or SSGs group training protocols twice per week for 8 weeks. The HIIT consisted of 12-24 × 15 seconds of high-intensity runs interspersed by 15 seconds of recovery. The SSGs training consisted of 3 against 3 small-sided handball games. Both training methods were matched for exercise duration and recovery at each training session. Before and after 8-week training, the following fitness variables were assessed-speed: 10- and 20-m sprint time, agility: handball agility specific test (HAST), upper arm strength: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test, lower limb power: counter-movement jump tests with (CMJarm) and without (CMJ) arm movement, and aerobic fitness (yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIRTL1]). Significant improvement was found in the YYIRTL1 (23.3 and 26.3%, respectively), 10-m sprint (2.3 and 4.1%, respectively) and 20-m sprint (2.1 and 4%, respectively), HAST (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively), 1RM bench press (6.8 and 12.3%, respectively), CMJ (7.4 and 10.8%, respectively), and CMJarm (6.4 and 8.9%, respectively) following training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05 for all). There was a significantly greater improvement in 10- and 20-m sprint, HAST, 1RM, CMJ, and CMJarm following the SSGs training compared with the HIIT (p ≤ 0.05 for all). These results indicated that both HIIT and SSGs are effective training methods for fitness development among elite adult handball players. However, SSGs training may be considered as the preferred training regimen for improving handball-specific fitness variables during the in-season period.

  18. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Chackur Brum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation. Resumo Após breve revisão da literatura existente acerca dos efeitos da suplementação de creatina no rendimento em atividades intermitentes de alta intensidade, o objetivo principal dessa revisão foi discutir diferenças metodológicas dos estudos que possam explicar a divergência encontrada na literatura. Os efeitos da suplementação de creatina

  19. High intensity intermittent games-based activity and adolescents' cognition: moderating effect of physical fitness.

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    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Morris, John G; Sunderland, Caroline; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E

    2018-05-08

    An acute bout of exercise elicits a beneficial effect on subsequent cognitive function in adolescents. The effect of games-based activity, an ecologically valid and attractive exercise model for young people, remains unknown; as does the moderating effect of fitness on the acute exercise-cognition relationship. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of games-based activity on subsequent cognition in adolescents, and the moderating effect of fitness on this relationship. Following ethical approval, 39 adolescents (12.3 ± 0.7 year) completed an exercise and resting trial in a counterbalanced, randomised crossover design. During familiarisation, participants completed a multi-stage fitness test to predict VO 2 peak. The exercise trial consisted of 60-min games-based activity (basketball), during which heart rate was 158 ± 11 beats∙min - 1 . A battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, trail making and d2 tests) were completed 30-min before, immediately following and 45-min following the basketball. Response times on the complex level of the Stroop test were enhanced both immediately (p = 0.021) and 45-min (p = 0.035) post-exercise, and response times on the five item level of the Sternberg paradigm were enhanced immediately post-exercise (p = 0.023). There were no effects on the time taken to complete the trail making test or any outcome of the d2 test. In particular, response times were enhanced in the fitter adolescents 45-min post-exercise on both levels of the Stroop test (simple, p = 0.005; complex, p = 0.040) and on the three item level of the Sternberg paradigm immediately (p = 0.017) and 45-min (p = 0.008) post-exercise. Games-based activity enhanced executive function and working memory scanning speed in adolescents, an effect particularly evident in fitter adolescents, whilst the high intensity intermittent nature of games-based activity may be too demanding for

  20. High-intensity training reduces intermittent hypoxia-induced ER stress and myocardial infarct size.

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    Bourdier, Guillaume; Flore, Patrice; Sanchez, Hervé; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Belaidi, Elise; Arnaud, Claire

    2016-01-15

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) is described as the major detrimental factor leading to cardiovascular morbimortality in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. OSA patients exhibit increased infarct size after a myocardial event, and previous animal studies have shown that chronic IH could be the main mechanism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. High-intensity training (HIT) exerts beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Thus, we hypothesized that HIT could prevent IH-induced ER stress and the increase in infarct size. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 21 days of IH (21-5% fraction of inspired O2, 60-s cycle, 8 h/day) or normoxia. After 1 wk of IH alone, rats were submitted daily to both IH and HIT (2 × 24 min, 15-30m/min). Rat hearts were either rapidly frozen to evaluate ER stress by Western blot analysis or submitted to an ischemia-reperfusion protocol ex vivo (30 min of global ischemia/120 min of reperfusion). IH induced cardiac proapoptotic ER stress, characterized by increased expression of glucose-regulated protein kinase 78, phosphorylated protein kinase-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 4, and C/EBP homologous protein. IH-induced myocardial apoptosis was confirmed by increased expression of cleaved caspase-3. These IH-associated proapoptotic alterations were associated with a significant increase in infarct size (35.4 ± 3.2% vs. 22.7 ± 1.7% of ventricles in IH + sedenary and normoxia + sedentary groups, respectively, P < 0.05). HIT prevented both the IH-induced proapoptotic ER stress and increased myocardial infarct size (28.8 ± 3.9% and 21.0 ± 5.1% in IH + HIT and normoxia + HIT groups, respectively, P = 0.28). In conclusion, these findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damages in OSA patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT perfor...

  2. High intensity aerobic exercise training improves chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced insulin resistance without basal autophagy modulation.

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    Pauly, Marion; Assense, Allan; Rondon, Aurélie; Thomas, Amandine; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Freyssenet, Damien; Benoit, Henri; Castells, Josiane; Flore, Patrice

    2017-03-03

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (insulin resistance: IR). Autophagy is involved in the pathophysiology of IR and high intensity training (HIT) has recently emerged as a potential therapy. We aimed to confirm IH-induced IR in a tissue-dependent way and to explore the preventive effect of HIT on IR-induced by IH. Thirty Swiss 129 male mice were randomly assigned to Normoxia (N), Intermittent Hypoxia (IH: 21-5% FiO 2 , 30 s cycle, 8 h/day) or IH associated with high intensity training (IH HIT). After 8 days of HIT (2*24 min, 50 to 90% of Maximal Aerobic Speed or MAS on a treadmill) mice underwent 14 days IH or N. We found that IH induced IR, characterized by a greater glycemia, an impaired insulin sensitivity and lower AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue and liver. Nevertheless, MAS and AKT phosphorylation were greater in muscle after IH. IH associated with HIT induced better systemic insulin sensitivity and AKT phosphorylation in liver. Autophagy markers were not altered in both conditions. These findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced IR without change of basal autophagy.

  3. THE ROLE OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN HIGH-INTENSITY INTERMITTENT EFFORTS IN ICE-HOCKEY

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    A. Stanula

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine a relationship between aerobic capacity ( ·VO2max and fatigue from high-intensity skating in elite male hockey players. The subjects were twenty-four male members of the senior national ice hockey team of Poland who played the position of forward or defence. Each subject completed an on-ice Repeated-Skate Sprint test (RSS consisting of 6 timed 89-m sprints, with 30 s of rest between subsequent efforts, and an incremental test on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory, the aim of which was to establish their maximal oxygen uptake ( ·VO2max. The analysis of variance showed that each next repetition in the 6x89 m test was significantly longer than the previous one (F5,138=53.33, p<0.001. An analysis of the fatigue index (FI calculated from the times recorded for subsequent repetitions showed that the value of the FI increased with subsequent repetitions, reaching its maximum between repetitions 5 and 6 (3.10±1.16%. The total FI was 13.77±1.74%. The coefficient of correlation between ·VO2max and the total FI for 6 sprints on the distance of 89 m (r =–0.584 was significant (p=0.003. The variance in the index of players’ fatigue in the 6x89 m test accounted for 34% of the variance in ·VO2max. The 6x89 m test proposed in this study offers a high test-retest correlation coefficient (r=0.78. Even though the test is criticized for being too exhaustive and thereby for producing highly variable results it still seems that it was well selected for repeated sprint ability testing in hockey players.

  4. High-intensity intermittent exercise and its effects on heart rate variability and subsequent strength performance

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    Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PRUPOSE: To investigate the effects of a 5-km high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE on heart rate variability (HRV and subsequent strength performance. METHODS: nine trained males performed a control session composed of a half-squat strength exercise (4 x 80% of one repetition maximum – 1RM in isolation and 30-min, 1-, 4-, 8- and 24-h after an HIIE (1-min at the velocity peak:1-min passive recovery. All experimental sessions were performed on different days. The maximum number of repetitions and total weight lifted during the strength exercise were registered in all conditions; in addition, prior to each session, HRV were assessed [beat-to-beat intervals (RR and log-transformed of root means square of successive differences in the normal-to-normal intervals (lnRMSSD]. RESULTS: Performance in the strength exercise dropped at 30-min (31% and 1-h (19% post-HIIE concomitantly with lower values of RR (781±79 ms; 799±134 ms, respectively in the same recovery intervals compared to the control (1015±197 ms. Inferential analysis did not detect any effect of condition on lnRMSSD, however, values were lower after 30-min (3.5±0.4 ms and 1-h (3.3±0.5 ms with moderate and large effect sizes (0.9 and 1.2, respectively compared with the control condition (3.9±0.4 ms. CONCLUSION: Both RR and lnRMSSD seem to be associated with deleterious effects on strength performance, although further studies should be conducted to clarify this association.

  5. The 'Critical Power' Concept: Applications to Sports Performance with a Focus on Intermittent High-Intensity Exercise.

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    Jones, Andrew M; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2017-03-01

    The curvilinear relationship between power output and the time for which it can be sustained is a fundamental and well-known feature of high-intensity exercise performance. This relationship 'levels off' at a 'critical power' (CP) that separates power outputs that can be sustained with stable values of, for example, muscle phosphocreatine, blood lactate, and pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), from power outputs where these variables change continuously with time until their respective minimum and maximum values are reached and exercise intolerance occurs. The amount of work that can be done during exercise above CP (the so-called W') is constant but may be utilized at different rates depending on the proximity of the exercise power output to CP. Traditionally, this two-parameter CP model has been employed to provide insights into physiological responses, fatigue mechanisms, and performance capacity during continuous constant power output exercise in discrete exercise intensity domains. However, many team sports (e.g., basketball, football, hockey, rugby) involve frequent changes in exercise intensity and, even in endurance sports (e.g., cycling, running), intensity may vary considerably with environmental/course conditions and pacing strategy. In recent years, the appeal of the CP concept has been broadened through its application to intermittent high-intensity exercise. With the assumptions that W' is utilized during work intervals above CP and reconstituted during recovery intervals below CP, it can be shown that performance during intermittent exercise is related to four factors: the intensity and duration of the work intervals and the intensity and duration of the recovery intervals. However, while the utilization of W' may be assumed to be linear, studies indicate that the reconstitution of W' may be curvilinear with kinetics that are highly variable between individuals. This has led to the development of a new CP model for intermittent exercise in

  6. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

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    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no

  7. Similar Anti-Inflammatory Acute Responses from Moderate-Intensity Continuous and High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise

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    Carolina Cabral-Santos, José Gerosa-Neto, Daniela Sayuri Inoue, Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Luís Alberto Gobbo, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Fábio Santos Lira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE versus volume matched steady state exercise (SSE on inflammatory and metabolic responses. Eight physically active male subjects completed two experimental sessions, a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (70% vVO2max or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the exercise session. Blood was analyzed for glucose, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA, uric acid, lactate, cortisol, and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (HIIE 1.34 ± 0.24 to 7.11 ± 2.85, and SSE 1.35 ± 0.14 to 4.06±1.60 mmol·L-1, p 0.05. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels showed time-dependent changes under the different conditions (p < 0.05, however, the area under the curve of TNF-α in the SSE were higher than HIIE (p < 0.05, and the area under the curve of IL-6 in the HIIE showed higher values than SSE (p < 0.05. In addition, both exercise conditions promote increased IL-10 levels and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that both exercise protocols, when volume is matched, promote similar inflammatory responses, leading to an anti-inflammatory status; however, the metabolic responses are different.

  8. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

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    L.C. Carnevali Jr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5, HI-IT (N = 10, and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10. The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT and a 5% (MI-CT overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01, as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05. Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min-1·mg protein-1 in HI-IT (around 83%. We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a "time-efficient" strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  9. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevali, L.C. Jr. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro Universitário Ítalo-Brasileiro (Unítalo), São Paulo SP (Brazil); Eder, R.; Lira, F.S. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lima, W.P. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação,Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, D.C. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Zanchi, N.E. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisa do Genoma Humano, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Nicastro, H. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lavoie, J.M. [Department of Kinesiology, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Seelaender, M.C.L. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-29

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min{sup −1}·mg protein{sup −1}) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  10. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevali, L.C. Jr.; Eder, R.; Lira, F.S.; Lima, W.P.; Gonçalves, D.C.; Zanchi, N.E.; Nicastro, H.; Lavoie, J.M.; Seelaender, M.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min −1 ·mg protein −1 ) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation

  11. Effects of hydrogen rich water on prolonged intermittent exercise.

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    Da Ponte, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Nicola; Nigris, Daniele; Lazzer, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies showed a positive effect of hydrogen rich water (HRW) intake on acid-base homeostasis at rest. We investigated 2-weeks of HRW intake on repeated sprint performance and acid-base status during prolonged intermittent cycling exercise. In a cross over single-blind protocol, 8 trained male cyclists (age [mean±SD] 41±7 years, body mass 72.3±4.4 kg, height 1.77±0.04 m, maximal oxygen uptake [V̇O2max] 52.6±4.4 mL·kg-1·min-1) were provided daily with 2 liters of placebo normal water (PLA, pH 7.6, oxidation/reduction potential [ORP] +230 mV, free hydrogen content 0 ppb) or HRW (pH 9.8, ORP -180 mV, free Hydrogen 450 ppb). Tests were performed at baseline and after each period of 2 weeks of treatment. The treatments were counter-balanced and the sequence randomized. The 30-minute intermittent cycling trial consisted in 10 3-minute blocks, each one composed by 90 seconds at 40% V̇O2max, 60 seconds at 60% V̇O2max, 16 seconds all out sprint, and 14 seconds active recovery. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2), heart rate and power output were measured during the whole test, while mean and peak power output (PPO), time to peak power and Fatigue Index (FI) were determined during all the 16 seconds sprints. Lactate, pH and bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentrations were determined at rest and after each sprint on blood obtained by an antecubital vein indwelling catheter. In the PLA group, PPO in absolute values decreased significantly at the 8th and 9th of 10 sprints and in relative values, ΔPPO, decreased significantly at 6th, 8th and 9th of 10 sprints (by mean: -12±5%, Pmay help to maintain PPO in repetitive sprints to exhaustion over 30 minutes.

  12. An evaluation of low volume high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) for health risk reduction in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Benjamin M; Xenophontos, Soteris; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2017-01-01

    Both sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) have been described as time-efficient strategies for inducing favourable metabolic and cardiorespiratory adaptations in healthy and diseased participants. To date, little attention has been given to profiling the potential health benefits of HIIT or modified HIIT training within overweight and obese cohorts with particular focus on inflammation. Within this pilot trial, we tested the hypothesis that 6 sessions of HIIT performed over 2 weeks with 1-2 days' rest would improve aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism and inflammatory profile in an overweight and obese male cohort. Additionally, we profiled the potential health benefits of 4 HIIT sessions performed over the same period. 18 overweight or obese males (BMI = 31.2 ± 3.6; V̇O 2  = 30.3 ± 4.4 ml.kg.min -1 ) were studied before and 72 h after HIIT. Training sessions consisted of 10 x 1 min intervals at 90% HR peak separated by 1 min recovery periods. Exercise was performed either 6 (group 1, n  = 8) or 4 (group 2, n  = 10) times over a 2 week period. After training no changes were detected from baseline for body composition, aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism or inflammatory profile ( p  > 0.05) in either group. Both 6 and 4 sessions of HIIT performed over a 2-week period are ineffective in improving selected health markers within an overweight and obese cohort. This trial reports data from human participants and was retrospectively registered on 22/02/2017 with the ISRCTN registry, trial number ISRCTN90672085.

  13. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

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    Ouerghi N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nejmeddine Ouerghi,1,2 Marwa Khammassi,1 Sami Boukorraa,1 Moncef Feki,2 Naziha Kaabachi,2 Anissa Bouassida,1,3 1Research Unit, Sportive Performance and Physical Rehabilitation, High Institute of Sports and Physical Education of Kef, University of Jendouba, Kef, Tunisia, 2Laboratory of Biochemistry, Rabta Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, El Manar University, Tunis, 3Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Ibn el Jazzar, Sousse, Tunisia Background: Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods: The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8 comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results: Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]. Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05], but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05. During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein

  14. Application of A Physiological Strain Index in Evaluating Responses to Exercise Stress – A Comparison Between Endurance and High Intensity Intermittent Trained Athletes

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    Pokora Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI. Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD, twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h–1 which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h–1 to volitional exhaustion. The heart rate was recorded with a heart rate monitor and aural canal temperature was measured using an aural canal temperature probe. The physiological strain index (PSI and the contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the overall physiological strain were calculated from the heart rate and aural canal temperature. The physiological strain index differed between the study and control participants, but not between the MD and HIIT groups. The physiological strain in response to exercise stress in a thermoneutral environment was mainly determined based on the circulatory strain (MD group - 73%, HIIT group – 70%. The contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the physiological strain did not differ significantly between the trained groups (MD and HIIT despite important differences in morphological characteristics and training-induced systemic cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations.

  15. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

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    Y Khademi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1 control, (2 training, (3 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (5 training with 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil and (6 training with 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil. Groups of 2, 5 and 6 were trained with high intensity interval training for 10 weeks and five sessions per week, also groups 3 to 6 received flaxseed oil for 10 weeks. For statistical analysis of data two way ANOVA test was used (p≤0.05. Results: 10 weeks  treating high intensity interval training  for 10 weeks had significant effect on the increase of the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Nevertheless, Taking 10 weeks 10 and 30 mg/kg flaxseed oil supplementation for 10 weeks has significant effect on reducing  the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats (p=0.001. Training and taking flaxseed oil supplementation have interactional effect on reduingc the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Conclusion: Combination of high intensity interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation has interactional effects on the improvement of plasma concentration of ICAM-1 in male rats.

  16. Chronic and acute inspiratory muscle loading augment the effect of a 6-week interval program on tolerance of high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

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    Tong, Tom K; Fu, Frank H; Eston, Roger; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Quach, Binh; Lu, Kui

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that chronic (training) and acute (warm-up) loaded ventilatory activities applied to the inspiratory muscles (IM) in an integrated manner would augment the training volume of an interval running program. This in turn would result in additional improvement in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in comparison with interval training alone. Eighteen male nonprofessional athletes were allocated to either an inspiratory muscle loading (IML) group or control group. Both groups participated in a 6-week interval running program consisting of 3-4 workouts (1-3 sets of various repetitions of selected distance [100-2,400 m] per workout) per week. For the IML group, 4-week IM training (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets·d-1, 6 d·wk-1) was applied before the interval program. Specific IM warm-up (2 sets of 30 inspiratory efforts at 40% P0) was performed before each workout of the program. For the control group, neither IML was applied. In comparison with the control group, the interval training volume as indicated by the repeatability of running bouts at high intensity was approximately 27% greater in the IML group. Greater increase in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo test (control: 16.9 ± 5.5%; IML: 30.7 ± 4.7% baseline value) was also observed after training. The enhanced exercise performance was partly attributable to the greater reductions in the sensation of breathlessness and whole-body metabolic stress during the Yo-Yo test. These findings show that the combination of chronic and acute IML into a high-intensity interval running program is a beneficial training strategy for enhancing the tolerance to high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

  17. Comparison of an intermittent high-intensity vs continuous low-intensity physiotherapy service over 12 months in community-dwelling people with stroke: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Welz, A; Werner, C; Quentin, B; Wissel, J

    2011-02-01

    This study compared two modes of physiotherapy service over 12 months in community-dwelling people with stroke, either following a train-wait train paradigm by providing bouts of intense physiotherapy, or a continuous less intense programme. Randomized trial. Community-dwelling people with stroke. Fifty patients, first-time stroke, discharged home, following inpatient rehabilitation, allocated to two groups, A and B. Over 12 months, Group A (n = 25) received three two-month blocks of therapy at home, each block contained four 30 to 45 minute sessions per week, totalling 96 sessions. Group B (n = 25) continuously received two 30 to 45 minute sessions per week, totalling 104 sessions. Primary Rivermead Mobility Index (0-15), secondary upper- and lower-limb motor functions, Activities of Daily Living competence, tone and number of falls. Both groups were comparable at onset, the mean age in Group A (B) was 62.4 (61.9) years. A and B patients equally improved functions over time, between group differences did not occur. The initial (terminal) Rivermead Mobility Index was 9.4 ± 2.8 (12.2 ± 2.1) in Group A, and 8.5 ± 3.5 (11.2 ± 2.7) in Group B. More Group B patients fell seriously (7 versus 1). The intermittent high-intensity and continuous low-intensity therapy protocols were equally effective, the sheer intensity seems more important than the time-mode of application. The relatively young patients functionally improved in the first year after stroke, the reduced risk of serious falls in the intermittent high-intensity group should be validated.

  18. Effect of Wheelchair Running on Recovery of Blood Lactate and Physical Performance after High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise – An Experimental Trial

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    Karthikeyan G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Repetitive sprint sport players perform high intensity exercise only for a small percentage of a total game and such periods are often instrumental in determining the eventual outcome. Recovery is a key factor for performance, and constant lack of recovery or insufficient recovery turns into overtraining which is detrimental in achieving peak performance. The purpose was to find out the effect of wheelchair running on the physical performance recovery after high-intensity intermittent exercise. Method: Ten sportsmen having the age range from 20 to 29, VO2max Ranges from 60.51 to 64.29 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. After filling pre-participation questionnaire and 30-min of supine rest, Blood lactate and the field tests for the measurement of static balance, power, speed and agility were applied. The subjects were made to run in the treadmill and to increase the intensity to reach the Target Heart Rate (THR. After 1-min the subjects were given rest for 15-s and after that they started exercise again and thus the subjects completed several bouts of such exercises until exhaustion followed by either Passive rest or wheelchair running for the duration of 10 minutes. Parameters were measures after completed the exercise bout and after the recovery. Results: After the recovery in experimental group significant improvement found only in blood lactate (p<0.01 and no significant changes found in other parameters while in control group no significant changes found in all parameters. There was no significant difference found in all the parameters including blood lactate between the groups. Conclusion: Both wheelchair running and passive recovery are same in the efficiency of blood lactate removal and restoration of physical performance following intense intermittent exercise.

  19. The Effect of Natural or Simulated Altitude Training on High-Intensity Intermittent Running Performance in Team-Sport Athletes: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Lizamore, Catherine A; Hopkins, Will G

    2018-02-01

    While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model. The modifying effects of study characteristics (type and dose of hypoxic exposure, training duration, post-altitude duration) were estimated with fixed effects, random effects allowed for repeated measurement within studies and residual real differences between studies, and the standard-error weighting factors were derived or imputed via standard deviations of change scores. Effects and their uncertainty were assessed with magnitude-based inference, with a smallest important improvement of 4% estimated via between-athlete standard deviations of performance at baseline. Ten studies qualified for inclusion, but two were excluded owing to small sample size and risk of publication bias. Hypoxic interventions occurred over a period of 7-28 days, and the range of total hypoxic exposure (in effective altitude-hours) was 4.5-33 km h in the intermittent-hypoxia studies and 180-710 km h in the live-high studies. There were 11 control and 15 experimental study-estimates in the final meta-analysis. Training effects were moderate and very likely beneficial in the control groups at 1 week (20 ± 14%, percent estimate, ± 90% confidence limits) and 4-week post-intervention (25 ± 23%). The intermittent and live-high hypoxic groups experienced additional likely beneficial gains at 1 week (13 ± 16%; 13 ± 15%) and 4-week post

  20. Evidence of long term muscle fatigue following prolonged intermittent contractions based on mechano- and electromyograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, K; Blangsted, A K; Jørgensen, L V

    2003-01-01

    The focus of the present study is the long term element of muscle fatigue provoked by prolonged intermittent contractions at submaximal force levels and analysed by force, surface electromyography (EMG) and mechanomyogram (MMG). It was hypothesized that fatigue related changes in mechanical...... performance of the biceps muscle are more strongly reflected in low than in high force test contractions, more prominent in the MMG than in the EMG signal and less pronounced following contractions controlled by visual compared to proprioceptive feedback. Further, it was investigated if fatigue induced by 30...... min intermittent contractions at 30% as well as 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) lasted more than 30 min recovery. In six male subjects the EMG and MMG were recorded from the biceps brachii muscle during three sessions with fatiguing exercise at 10% with visual feedback and at 30% MVC...

  1. Investigation of the Effects of High-Intensity, Intermittent Exercise and Unanticipation on Trunk and Lower Limb Biomechanics During a Side-Cutting Maneuver Using Statistical Parametric Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Enda F; Richter, Chris; OʼConnor, Siobhan; Moran, Kieran A

    2018-06-01

    Whyte, EF, Richter, C, O'Connor, S, and Moran, KA. Investigation of the effects of high-intensity, intermittent exercise and unanticipation on trunk and lower limb biomechanics during a side-cutting maneuver using statistical parametric mapping. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1583-1593, 2018-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries frequently occur during side-cutting maneuvers when fatigued or reacting to the sporting environment. Trunk and hip biomechanics are proposed to influence ACL loading during these activities. However, the effects of fatigue and unanticipation on the biomechanics of the kinetic chain may be limited by traditional discrete point analysis. We recruited 28 male, varsity, Gaelic footballers (21.7 ± 2.2 years; 178.7 ± 14.6 m; 81.8 ± 11.4 kg) to perform anticipated and unanticipated side-cutting maneuvers before and after a high-intensity, intermittent exercise protocol (HIIP). Statistical parametric mapping (repeated-measures analysis of varience) identified differences in phases of trunk and stance leg biomechanics during weight acceptance. Unanticipation resulted in less trunk flexion (p < 0.001) and greater side flexion away from the direction of cut (p < 0.001). This led to smaller (internal) knee flexor and greater (internal) knee extensor (p = 0.002-0.007), hip adductor (p = 0.005), and hip external rotator (p = 0.007) moments. The HIIP resulted in increased trunk flexion (p < 0.001) and side flexion away from the direction of cut (p = 0.038), resulting in smaller (internal) knee extensor moments (p = 0.006). One interaction effect was noted demonstrating greater hip extensor moments in the unanticipated condition post-HIIP (p = 0.025). Results demonstrate that unanticipation resulted in trunk kinematics considered an ACL injury risk factor. A subsequent increase in frontal and transverse plane hip loading and sagittal plane knee loading was observed, which may increase ACL strain. Conversely, HIIP-induced trunk kinematic alterations

  2. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip G. Bell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day. On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ, agility and muscle soreness (DOMS were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP, muscle damage (CK and oxidative stress (LOOH were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05. Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6 was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.

  3. The combined effect of high-intensity intermittent training and vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, Hannah Margaret; Florida-James, Geraint; Leggate, Melanie

    2018-05-01

    High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) has been shown to reduce the risk of chronic conditions including the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Independently, a low vitamin D status has also been linked to the prevalence of T2DM. The aim of this study was to investigate if there was a synergistic metabolic effect of HIIT and vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control. A total of 20 male and female participants (age, 34 ± 9 year; BMI, 31.4 ± 2.8 kg·m -2 ) completed 6 weeks HIIT, and were randomized to ingest 100 μg·day -1 of vitamin D 3 or placebo. Response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was determined at baseline and at 72 h postintervention. Glucose tolerance was improved as a result of the HIIT intervention, shown through a reduction in glucose and insulin concentrations during the OGTT, accompanied by a decrease in glucose (829 ± 110 to 786 ± 139 mmol·h -1 ·L -1 ; P = 0.043) and insulin (8101 ± 4755-7024 ± 4489 mU·h -1 ·L -1 ; P = 0.049) area under the curve (AUC). Supplementation increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 concentration by 120% to a sufficiency status (P effect of the intervention on insulin sensitivity (IS) indices: ISI M atsuda and HOMA-IR. Our findings demonstrate that HIIT improves glucose tolerance in nondiabetic overweight and obese adults; however vitamin D 3 supplementation did not proffer any additional positive effects on the measured indices of metabolic health. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  5. Effect of prolonged and intermittent treatment on the clinical course of peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornenka, Zhanetta A; Yasinska, Elvira Ts; Grytsiuk, Mariana I

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The number of patients with peptic ulcer increases annually. According to published data, patients with peptic ulcer constitute about 15% of those hospitalized with gastrointestinal diseases. The aim: That is why we set the task to evaluate the methods of preventive treatment and to choose the most effective one. Materials and methods: For this purpose, we selected 103 patients with peptic ulcer without severe exacerbations and complications from one region (main group) and 101 patients from another region (control group) for observations. Making diagnosis was based on the study of complaints, anamnestic data, physical examination of the patient, evaluation of the functional state of the gastroduodenal system, as well as the X-ray and endoscopic examination. The sources of the study were medical records of outpatients, control cards for dispensary surveillance, registers of temporary disability records, sick leave records and others. Results: Most patients, from both the main and control groups, who were on prophylactic treatment, noticed that they had an increased working capacity, normalized sleep, better appetite and fewer dyspeptic disorders. Patients in the main group for two years were on prolonged prophylactic treatment according to the method that we had developed. by us. Patients in the control group received an intermittent preventive treatment twice a year (in spring and autumn). In the complex of therapeutic measures the following were used: dietary recommendations, antacids, cholinolytics, multivitamins, etc. Conclusions: Prolonged prophylactic treatment is an effective means to combat exacerbations and complications of peptic ulcer and can be recommended for implementation in practice.

  6. Cold intermittent cardioplegia reduces the acidosis during prolonged cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollo, Giandomenico; Ferrari, Paolo; Graffigna, Angelo C

    2011-01-01

    The effect on acid-base balance efficacy of intermittent warm and cold blood cardioplegia (IWBC, ICBC) was assessed in 44 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with prolonged aortic cross clamping. With this purpose a customized multi sensor probe was inserted in the coronary sinus, and pH, PO(2), PCO(2) and temperature were continuously measured at 1 Hz sampling rate. The mean cross-clamping time was of 76 ± 26 min on 19 IWBC cases and of 80 ± 24 min on 14 ICBC cases. With IWBC perfusion, at the end of every ischemic period, the lowest pH and PO(2) progressively decreased and the maximal PCO(2) increased. During ICBC the minimum of pH and PO(2) and maximum of PCO2 at the end of different ischemic period during time were constant, also during long cross-clamping time. With IWBC, myocardial ischemia seemed not completely reversed by standardized reperfusions, as reflected by steady deterioration of PCO(2) and pH after each reperfusion.

  7. High-intensity intermittent "5-10-15" running reduces body fat, and increases lean body mass, bone mineral density, and performance in untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnholt, Tanja Højegaard; Tybirk, Jonas; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    treadmill running (P running at 85% of maximal aerobic speed was lower (P beneficial changes and better performance......The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10......, and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P 

  8. High-intensity intermittent "5-10-15" running reduces body fat, and increases lean body mass, bone mineral density, and performance in untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnholt, Tanja Højegaard; Tybirk, Jonas; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    , and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P bone mineral density was 1.1 and 0.9% higher (P bone turnover markers osteocalcin......The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10...

  9. Prolonged infusion versus intermittent boluses of β-lactam antibiotics for treatment of acute infections: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jocelyn; Liew, Yixin; Lee, Winnie; Kwa, Andrea Lay-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    The clinical advantages of prolonged (extended/continuous) infusion remain controversial. Previous studies and reviews have failed to show consistent clinical benefits of extending the infusion time. This meta-analysis sought to determine whether prolonged β-lactam infusions were associated with a reduction in mortality and improvement in clinical success. A search of PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies comparing prolonged infusion with intermittent bolus administration of the same antibiotic in hospitalised adult patients was conducted. Primary outcomes evaluated were mortality and clinical success. A total of 29 studies with 2206 patients (18 RCTs and 11 observational studies) were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with intermittent boluses, use of prolonged infusion appeared to be associated with a significant reduction in mortality [pooled relative risk (RR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-0.83] and improvement in clinical success (RR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.21). Statistically significant benefit was supported by non-randomised studies (mortality, RR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.76; clinical success, RR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.76) but not by RCTs (mortality, RR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.57-1.21; clinical success, RR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.99-1.12). The positive results from observational studies, especially in the face of increasing antibiotic resistance, serve to justify the imperative need to conduct a large-scale, well-designed, multicentre RCT involving critically ill patients infected with high minimum inhibitory concentration pathogens to clearly substantiate this benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of running versus cycling high-intensity intermittent exercise on local tissue oxygenation and perceived enjoyment in 18–30-year-old sedentary men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise format to improve exercise adherence, thereby targeting the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Exercise mode (cycling, running), if self-selected, will likely affect the physiological and enjoyment responses to HIIT in sedentary individuals. Differences in physiological and enjoyment responses, associated with the mode of exercise, could potentially influence the uptake and continued adherence to HIIT. It was hypothesised that in young sedentary men, local and systemic oxygen utilisation and enjoyment would be higher during a session of running HIIT, compared to a session of cycling HIIT. Methods A total of 12 sedentary men (mean ± SD; age 24 ± 3 years) completed three exercise sessions: a maximal incremental exercise test on a treadmill (MAX) followed by two experiment conditions, (1) free-paced cycling HIIT on a bicycle ergometer (HIITCYC) and (2) constant-paced running HIIT on a treadmill ergometer (HIITRUN). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the gastrocnemius (GN), the left vastus lateralis (LVL) and the right vastus lateralis (RVL) muscles, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) were measured during HIITCYC and HIITRUN. Results There was a higher HHb in the LVL (p = 0.001) and RVL (p = 0.002) sites and a higher VO2 (p = 0.017) and HR (p HIIT produces higher levels of physiological stress when compared to constant-paced running HIIT. Participants perceived running HIIT to be more enjoyable than cycling HIIT. These findings have implications for selection of mode of HIIT for physical stress, exercise enjoyment and compliance.

  11. The effect of running versus cycling high-intensity intermittent exercise on local tissue oxygenation and perceived enjoyment in 18-30-year-old sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriel, Yuri; Askew, Christopher D; Solomon, Colin

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise format to improve exercise adherence, thereby targeting the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Exercise mode (cycling, running), if self-selected, will likely affect the physiological and enjoyment responses to HIIT in sedentary individuals. Differences in physiological and enjoyment responses, associated with the mode of exercise, could potentially influence the uptake and continued adherence to HIIT. It was hypothesised that in young sedentary men, local and systemic oxygen utilisation and enjoyment would be higher during a session of running HIIT, compared to a session of cycling HIIT. A total of 12 sedentary men (mean ± SD; age 24 ± 3 years) completed three exercise sessions: a maximal incremental exercise test on a treadmill (MAX) followed by two experiment conditions, (1) free-paced cycling HIIT on a bicycle ergometer (HIITCYC) and (2) constant-paced running HIIT on a treadmill ergometer (HIITRUN). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the gastrocnemius (GN), the left vastus lateralis (LVL) and the right vastus lateralis (RVL) muscles, oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) were measured during HIITCYC and HIITRUN. There was a higher HHb in the LVL ( p = 0.001) and RVL ( p = 0.002) sites and a higher VO 2 ( p = 0.017) and HR ( p HIIT produces higher levels of physiological stress when compared to constant-paced running HIIT. Participants perceived running HIIT to be more enjoyable than cycling HIIT. These findings have implications for selection of mode of HIIT for physical stress, exercise enjoyment and compliance.

  12. The Effect of Active versus Passive Recovery Periods during High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Local Tissue Oxygenation in 18 - 30 Year Old Sedentary Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kriel

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods.Twelve sedentary males (mean ± SD; age 23 ± 3 yr completed three conditions on a cycle ergometer: 1 HIIT with passive recovery periods between four bouts (HIITPASS 2 HIIT with active recovery periods between four bouts (HIITACT 3 HIITACT with four HIIT bouts replaced with passive periods (REC. Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb in the vastus lateralis (VL and gastrocnemius (GN muscles and the pre-frontal cortex (FH, oxygen consumption (VO2, power output and heart rate (HR were measured continuously during the three conditions.There was a significant increase in HHb at VL during bouts 2 (p = 0.017, 3 (p = 0.035 and 4 (p = 0.035 in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS. Mean power output was significantly lower in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS (p < 0.001. There was a significant main effect for site in both HIITPASS (p = 0.029 and HIITACT (p = 0.005. There were no significant differences in VO2 and HR between HIITPASS and HIITACT.The increase in HHb at VL and the lower mean power output during HIITACT could indicate that a higher level of deoxygenation contributes to decreased mechanical power in sedentary participants. The significant differences in HHb between sites indicates the specificity of oxygen utilisation.

  13. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Training (HIIT and Consumption of Probiotic Supplement on Immune Cells, C – reactive Protein, and IgA in Young Football Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jahani Ghaeh Ghashlagh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: High intensity exercise weakens the immune system and causes upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Probiotic supplements reduce the incidence of infections. In the present study, the effect of 8-week high-intensity intermittent training along with probiotic yogurt consumption, was investigated on immune cells, CRP, and IgA in young football players. Methods: In this quasi-experimental and applied study, 36 healthy young men (16 to 19 years were randomly divided into two groups of supplement–training (ST and training (T, with a mean height of 172±0.77 cm, weight of 66.76±5.87, and BMI of 21.27±2.09. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after 8-week training and after aerobic and anaerobic capacity tests. The subjects performed three 90-minute sessions of training, and the experimental group had probiotic yogurt (400ml twice a day. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-U test and repeated measurements at the significance level of p>0.05. Results: After training program, in the experimental group, lymphocytes, neutrophils, IgA, and C-reactive protein significantly increased, and no URTI case was observed. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that training and consumption of probiotic supplement improve aerobic and anaerobic capacity and strengthen, immune system, and reduce the risk of URTI in ST group, therefore its daily consumption is recommended in athletes who perform intense physical training. Keywords: Reactive protein C; Immunoglobulin A; Probiotics; Immune cells; Respiratory tract infections.

  14. The effects of combined glucose-electrolyte and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mike James; Cripps, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of combined glucose and sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to intermittent exercise. Ninemales (mean ± s age 25.4 ± 6.6 years, body mass 78.8 ± 12.0 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)) 47.0 ± 7 ml · kg · min(-1)) undertook 4 × 45 min intermittent cycling trials including 15 × 10 s sprints one hour after ingesting placebo (PLA), glucose (CHO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a combined CHO and NaHCO3 solution (COMB). Post ingestion blood pH (7.45 ± 0.03, 7.46 ± 0.03, 7.32 ± 0.05, 7.32 ± 0.01) and bicarbonate (30.3 ± 2.1, 30.7 ± 1.8, 24.2 ± 1.2, 24.0 ± 1.8 mmol · l(-1)) were greater for NaHCO3 and COMB when compared to PLA and CHO, remaining elevated throughout exercise (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was greatest throughout exercise for NaHCO3 and COMB (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration was greatest 15 min post-ingestion for CHO followed by COMB, NaHCO3 and PLA (7.13 ± 0.60, 5.58 ± 0.75, 4.51 ± 0.56, 4.46 ± 0.59 mmol · l(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal distress was lower during COMB compared to NaHCO3 at 15 min post-ingestion (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for sprint performance between trials (P = 1.00). The results of this study suggest that a combined CHO and NaHCO3 beverage reduced gastrointestinal distress and CHO availability but did not improve performance. Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted.

  15. Less is more: prolonged intermittent access cocaine self-administration produces incentive-sensitization and addiction-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Alex B; Bentzley, Brandon S; Robinson, Terry E

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary animal models of cocaine addiction focus on increasing the amount of drug consumption to produce addiction-like behavior. However, another critical factor is the temporal pattern of consumption, which in humans is characterized by intermittency, both within and between bouts of use. To model this, we combined prolonged access to cocaine (∼70 days in total) with an intermittent access (IntA) self-administration procedure and used behavioral economic indicators to quantify changes in motivation for cocaine. IntA produced escalation of intake, a progressive increase in cocaine demand (incentive-sensitization), and robust drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. We also asked whether rats that vary in their propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues (sign-trackers [STs] vs. goal-trackers [GTs]) vary in the development of addiction-like behavior. Although STs were more motivated to take cocaine after limited drug experience, after IntA, STs and GTs no longer differed on any measure of addiction-like behavior. Exposure to large quantities of cocaine is not necessary for escalation of intake, incentive-sensitization, or other addiction-like behaviors (IntA results in far less total cocaine consumption than 'long access' procedures). Also, the ST phenotype may increase susceptibility to addiction, not because STs are inherently susceptible to incentive-sensitization (perhaps all individuals are at risk), but because this phenotype promotes continued drug use, subjecting them to incentive-sensitization. Thus, the pharmacokinetics associated with the IntA procedure are especially effective in producing a number of addiction-like behaviors and may be valuable for studying associated neuroadaptations and for assessing individual variation in vulnerability.

  16. What are the Physiological Mechanisms for Post-Exercise Cold Water Immersion in the Recovery from Prolonged Endurance and Intermittent Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Mohammed; Watson, Greig; Abbiss, Chris R

    2016-08-01

    Intense training results in numerous physiological perturbations such as muscle damage, hyperthermia, dehydration and glycogen depletion. Insufficient/untimely restoration of these physiological alterations might result in sub-optimal performance during subsequent training sessions, while chronic imbalance between training stress and recovery might lead to overreaching or overtraining syndrome. The use of post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) is gaining considerable popularity among athletes to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery. CWI, through its primary ability to decrease tissue temperature and blood flow, is purported to facilitate recovery by ameliorating hyperthermia and subsequent alterations to the central nervous system (CNS), reducing cardiovascular strain, removing accumulated muscle metabolic by-products, attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and improving autonomic nervous system function. The current review aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed examination of the mechanisms underpinning acute and longer term recovery of exercise performance following post-exercise CWI. Understanding the mechanisms will aid practitioners in the application and optimisation of CWI strategies to suit specific recovery needs and consequently improve athletic performance. Much of the literature indicates that the dominant mechanism by which CWI facilitates short term recovery is via ameliorating hyperthermia and consequently CNS mediated fatigue and by reducing cardiovascular strain. In contrast, there is limited evidence to support that CWI might improve acute recovery by facilitating the removal of muscle metabolites. CWI has been shown to augment parasympathetic reactivation following exercise. While CWI-mediated parasympathetic reactivation seems detrimental to high-intensity exercise performance when performed shortly after, it has been shown to be associated with improved longer term physiological recovery and day to day

  17. Does prolonged β-lactam infusions improve clinical outcomes compared to intermittent infusions? A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized, controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Arendonk Kyle J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of multi-drug resistant Gram-negatives (MDRGNs coupled with an alarming scarcity of new antibiotics has forced the optimization of the therapeutic potential of available antibiotics. To exploit the time above the minimum inhibitory concentration mechanism of β-lactams, prolonging their infusion may improve outcomes. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to determine if prolonged β-lactam infusion resulted in decreased mortality and improved clinical cure compared to intermittent β-lactam infusion. Methods Relevant studies were identified from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. Heterogeneity was assessed qualitatively, in addition to I2 and Chi-square statistics. Pooled relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel random-effects models. Results Fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. Prolonged infusion β-lactams were not associated with decreased mortality (n= 982; RR 0.92; 95% CI:0.61-1.37 or clinical cure (n = 1380; RR 1.00 95% CI:0.94-1.06 compared to intermittent infusions. Subgroup analysis for β-lactam subclasses and equivalent total daily β-lactam doses yielded similar results. Most studies had notable methodological flaws. Conclusions No clinical advantage was observed for prolonged infusion β-lactams. The limited number of studies with MDRGNs precluded evaluation of prolonged infusion of β-lactams for this subgroup. A large, multicenter RCT with critically ill patients infected with MDRGNs is needed.

  18. Use of Monte Carlo Simulations to Determine Optimal Carbapenem Dosing in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Susan J; Kays, Michael B; Mueller, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses with Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) can be used to integrate prior information on model parameters into a new renal replacement therapy (RRT) to develop optimal drug dosing when pharmacokinetic trials are not feasible. This study used MCSs to determine initial doripenem, imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem dosing regimens for critically ill patients receiving prolonged intermittent RRT (PIRRT). Published body weights and pharmacokinetic parameter estimates (nonrenal clearance, free fraction, volume of distribution, extraction coefficients) with variability were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model. MCS of 5000 patients evaluated multiple regimens in 4 different PIRRT effluent/duration combinations (4 L/h × 10 hours or 5 L/h × 8 hours in hemodialysis or hemofiltration) occurring at the beginning or 14-16 hours after drug infusion. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was calculated using ≥40% free serum concentrations above 4 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the first 48 hours. Optimal doses were defined as the smallest daily dose achieving ≥90% PTA in all PIRRT combinations. At the MIC of 2 mg/L for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, optimal doses were doripenem 750 mg every 8 hours, imipenem 1 g every 8 hours or 750 mg every 6 hours, and meropenem 1 g every 12 hours or 1 g pre- and post-PIRRT. Ertapenem 500 mg followed by 500 mg post-PIRRT was optimal at the MIC of 1 mg/L for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Incorporating data from critically ill patients receiving RRT into MCS resulted in markedly different carbapenem dosing regimens in PIRRT from those recommended for conventional RRTs because of the unique drug clearance characteristics of PIRRT. These results warrant clinical validation. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  20. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  1. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  2. Intermittent food restriction initiated late in life prolongs lifespan and retards the onset of age-related markers in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Du, Xiaoyuan; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Su; Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui

    2017-06-01

    Two of the most studied and widely accepted conjectures on possible aging mechanisms are the oxidative stress hypothesis and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway. Intermittent fasting (IF) is known to modulate aging and to prolong lifespan in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms are still under debate. In this study, we first demonstrated that late-onset two consecutive days a week fasting, a form of IF, termed intermittent food restriction (IFR), exhibited a time-dependent effect, and long-term late-onset IFR extended the mean lifespan and maximum lifespan by approximately 3.5 and 3 weeks, respectively, in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri. We also showed that IFR reduced the accumulation of lipofuscin in the gills and the protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels in the muscles. Moreover, IFR was able to enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the fish. Finally, IFR was also able to decelerate the decrease of SirT1 and Foxo3A, but accelerate the decrease of IGF-1. Collectively, our findings suggest that late-onset IFR can retard the onset of age-related markers, and prolong the lifespan of the aging fish, via a synergistic action of an anti-oxidant system and the IIS pathway. It also proposes that the combined assessment of anti-oxidant system and IIS pathway will contribute to providing a more comprehensive view of anti-aging process.

  3. Intermittent fasting promotes prolonged associative interactions during synaptic tagging/capture by altering the metaplastic properties of the CA1 hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Ananya; Kim, Joonki; Manakkadan, Anoop; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2017-12-19

    Metaplasticity is the inherent property of a neuron or neuronal population to undergo activity-dependent changes in neural function that modulate subsequent synaptic plasticity. Here we studied the effect of intermittent fasting (IF) in governing the interactions of associative plasticity mechanisms in the pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal area CA1. Late long-term potentiation and its associative mechanisms such as synaptic tagging and capture at an interval of 120 min were evaluated in four groups of animals, AL (Ad libitum), IF12 (daily IF for 12 h), IF16 (daily IF for 16 h) and EOD (every other day IF for 24 h). IF had no visible effect on the early or late plasticity but it manifested a critical role in prolonging the associative interactions between weak and strong synapses at an interval of 120 min in IF16 and EOD animals. However, both IF12 and AL did not show associativity at 120 min. Plasticity genes such as Bdnf and Prkcz, which are well known for their expressions in late plasticity and synaptic tagging and capture, were significantly upregulated in IF16 and EOD in comparison to AL. Specific inhibition of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) prevented the prolonged associativity expressed in EOD. Thus, daily IF for 16 h or more can be considered to enhance the metaplastic properties of synapses by improving their associative interactions that might translate into animprovedmemoryformation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  5. Restructuring of the Gut Microbiome by Intermittent Fasting Prevents Retinopathy and Prolongs Survival in db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beli, Eleni; Yan, Yuanqing; Moldovan, Leni; Vieira, Cristiano P; Gao, Ruli; Duan, Yaqian; Prasad, Ram; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; White, Fletcher A; Townsend, Steven; Chan, Luisa; Ryan, Caitlin N; Morton, Daniel; Moldovan, Emil G; Chu, Fang-I; Oudit, Gavin Y; Derendorf, Hartmut; Adorini, Luciano; Wang, Xiaoxin X; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Mirmira, Raghavendra G; Boulton, Michael E; Yoder, Mervin C; Li, Qiuhong; Levi, Moshe; Busik, Julia V; Grant, Maria B

    2018-04-30

    Intermittent fasting (IF) protects against the development of metabolic diseases and cancer, but whether it can prevent diabetic microvascular complications is not known. In db/db mice, we examined the impact of long-term IF on diabetic retinopathy (DR). Despite no change in glycated hemoglobin, db/db mice on the IF regimen displayed significantly longer survival and a reduction in DR endpoints, including acellular capillaries and leukocyte infiltration. We hypothesized that IF mediated changes in the gut microbiota would produce beneficial metabolites and prevent the development of DR. Microbiome analysis revealed increased levels of Firmicutes and decreased Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia Compared to db/db mice on ad-libitum (AL) feeding, changes in the microbiome of the db/db mice on IF were associated with increases in gut mucin, goblet cell number and villi length and reductions in plasma peptidoglycan. Consistent with the known modulatory effects of Firmicutes on bile acid (BA) metabolism, measurement of BAs demonstrated a significant increase of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), a neuroprotective BA, in db/db on IF but not in db/db on AL feeding. TGR-5, the TUDCA receptor, was found in neural cells of the retina primary ganglion cells. Expression of TGR5 did not change with IF or diabetes. However, IF reduced retinal TNF-α mRNA, which is a key downstream target of TGR-5 activation. Pharmacological activation of TGR5 using INT-767 prevented DR in a second diabetic mouse model. These findings support the concept that IF prevents DR by restructuring the microbiota towards species producing TUDCA and subsequent retinal protection by TGR5 activation. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Compton scattering at high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

  7. Prolonged Exposures to Intermittent Hypoxia Promote Visceral White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in a Murine Model of Severe Sleep Apnea: Effect of Normoxic Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Almendros, Isaac; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Hamanaka, Robert B; Mutlu, Gökhan M; Akbarpour, Mahzad; Gozal, David

    2017-03-01

    Increased visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) mass results in infiltration of inflammatory macrophages that drive inflammation and insulin resistance. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) suffer from increased prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Murine models of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking moderate-severe OSA manifest insulin resistance following short-term IH. We examined in mice the effect of long-term IH on the inflammatory cellular changes within vWAT and the potential effect of normoxic recovery (IH-R). Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to IH for 20 weeks, and a subset was allowed to recover in room air (RA) for 6 or 12 weeks (IH-R). Stromal vascular fraction was isolated from epididymal vWAT and mesenteric vWAT depots, and single-cell suspensions were prepared for flow cytometry analyses, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and metabolic assays. IH reduced body weight and vWAT mass and IH-R resulted in catch-up weight and vWAT mass. IH-exposed vWAT exhibited increased macrophage counts (ATMs) that were only partially improved in IH-R. IH also caused a proinflammatory shift in ATMs (increased Ly6c(hi)(+) and CD36(+) ATMs). These changes were accompanied by increased vWAT insulin resistance with only partial improvements in IH-R. In addition, ATMs exhibited increased ROS production, altered metabolism, and changes in electron transport chain, which were only partially improved in IH-R. Prolonged exposures to IH during the sleep period induce pronounced vWAT inflammation and insulin resistance despite concomitant vWAT mass reductions. These changes are only partially reversible after 3 months of normoxic recovery. Thus, long-lasting OSA may preclude complete reversibility of metabolic changes. © Sleep Research Society (SRS) 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise: application to bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Charles P; Flynn, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    Resistance exercise is an activity performed by individuals interested in competition, those who wish to improve muscle mass and strength for other sports, and for individuals interested in improving their strength and physical appearance. In this review we present information suggesting that phosphocreatine depletion, intramuscular acidosis and carbohydrate depletion are all potential causes of the fatigue during resistance exercise. In addition, recommendations are provided for nutritional interventions, which might delay muscle fatigue during this type of activity.

  9. High-intensity laser physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohideen, U.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the effect of high intensity lasers on atoms, free electrons and the generation of X-rays from solid density plasmas. The laser produced 50 milli Joule 180 femto sec pulses at 5 Hz. This translates to a maximum intensity of 5 x 10 18 W/cm 2 . At such high fields the AC stark shifts of atoms placed at the focus is much greater than the ionization energy. The characteristics of multiphoton ionization of atoms in intense laser fields was studied by angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Free electrons placed in high intensity laser fields lead to harmonic generation. This phenomenon of Nonlinear Compton Scattering was theoretically investigated. Also, when these high intensity pulses are focused on solids a hot plasma is created. This plasma is a bright source of a short X-ray pulse. The pulse-width of X-rays from these solid density plasmas was measured by time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy

  10. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  11. Effects of high-intensity swimming training on GLUT-4 and glucose transport activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, S; Yokozeki, T; Kawanaka, K; Ogawa, K; Higuchi, M; Ezaki, O; Tabata, I

    2001-06-01

    This study was performed to assess the effects of short-term, extremely high-intensity intermittent exercise training on the GLUT-4 content of rat skeletal muscle. Three- to four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with an initial body weight ranging from 45 to 55 g were used for this study. These rats were randomly assigned to an 8-day period of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIT), relatively high-intensity intermittent prolonged exercise training (RHT), or low-intensity prolonged exercise training (LIT). Age-matched sedentary rats were used as a control. In the HIT group, the rats repeated fourteen 20-s swimming bouts with a weight equivalent to 14, 15, and 16% of body weight for the first 2, the next 4, and the last 2 days, respectively. Between exercise bouts, a 10-s pause was allowed. RHT consisted of five 17-min swimming bouts with a 3-min rest between bouts. During the first bout, the rat swam without weight, whereas during the following four bouts, the rat was attached to a weight equivalent to 4 and 5% of its body weight for the first 5 days and the following 3 days, respectively. Rats in the LIT group swam 6 h/day for 8 days in two 3-h bouts separated by 45 min of rest. In the first experiment, the HIT, LIT, and control rats were compared. GLUT-4 content in the epitrochlearis muscle in the HIT and LIT groups after training was significantly higher than that in the control rats by 83 and 91%, respectively. Furthermore, glucose transport activity, stimulated maximally by both insulin (2 mU/ml) (HIT: 48%, LIT: 75%) and contractions (25 10-s tetani) (HIT: 55%, LIT: 69%), was higher in the training groups than in the control rats. However, no significant differences in GLUT-4 content or in maximal glucose transport activity in response to both insulin and contractions were observed between the two training groups. The second experiment demonstrated that GLUT-4 content after HIT did not differ from that after RHT (66% higher in trained rats than

  12. LHC Report: reaching high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven

    2015-01-01

    After both beams having been ramped to their full energy of 6.5 TeV, the last two weeks saw the beam commissioning process advancing on many fronts. An important milestone was achieved when operators succeeded in circulating a nominal-intensity bunch. During the operation, some sudden beam losses resulted in beam dumps at top energy, a problem that needed to be understood and resolved.   In 2015 the LHC will be circulating around 2800 bunches in each beam and each bunch will contain just over 1 x 1011 protons. Until a few days ago commissioning was taking place with single bunches of 5 x 109 protons. The first nominal bunch with an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons was injected on Tuesday, 21 April. In order to circulate such a high-intensity bunch safely, the whole protection system must be working correctly: collimators, which protect the aperture, are set at preliminary values known as coarse settings; all kicker magnets for injecting and extracting the beams are commissioned with beam an...

  13. High Intensity Source Laboratory (HISL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The High Intensity Source Laboratory (HISL) is a laboratory facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by EG ampersand G, Energy Measurements (EG ampersand G/EM). This document is intended as an overview -- primarily for external users -- of the general purposes and capabilities of HISL; numerous technical details are beyond its scope. Moreover, systems at HISL are added, deleted, and modified to suit current needs, and upgraded with continuing development. Consequently, interested parties are invited to contact the HISL manager for detailed, current, technical, and administrative information. The HISL develops and operates pulsed radiation sources with energies, intensities, and pulse widths appropriate for several applications. Principal among these are development, characterization, and calibration of various high-bandwidth radiation detectors and diagnostic systems. Hardness/vulnerability of electronic or other sensitive components to radiation is also tested. In this connection, source development generally focuses on attending (1) the highest possible intensities with (2) reasonably short pulse widths and (3) comprehensive output characterization

  14. Severe Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy Requiring Dialysis Aggravated by Prolonged Fasting and Intermittent High Fat Load in a Ramadan Fasting Month in a Patient with CPTII Homozygous Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phowthongkum, P; Ittiwut, C; Shotelersuk, V

    2017-11-21

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPTII) deficiency is a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder that can present antenatally as congenital brain malformations, or postnatally with lethal neonatal, severe infantile, or the most common adult myopathic forms. No case of severe hyperammonemia without liver dysfunction has been reported. We described a 23-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with seizures and was found to have markedly elevation of serum ammonia. Continuous renal replacement therapy was initiated with successfully decreased ammonia to a safety level. He had a prolonged history of epilepsies and encephalopathic attacks that was associated with high ammonia level. Molecular diagnosis revealed a homozygous mutation in CPTII. The plasma acylcarnitine profile was consistent with the diagnosis. Failure to produce acetyl-CoA, the precursor of urea cycle from fatty acid in prolonged fasting state in Ramadan month, worsening mitochondrial functions from circulating long chain fatty acid and valproate toxicities were believed to contribute to this critical metabolic decompensation. Fatty acid oxidation disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperammonemia even without liver dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CPTII deficiency presented with severe hyperammonemic encephalopathy required dialysis after prolonged religious related fasting.

  15. Energy intermittency

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    The first book to consider intermittency as a key point of an energy system, Energy Intermittency describes different levels of variability for traditional and renewable energy sources, presenting detailed solutions for handling energy intermittency through trade, collaboration, demand management, and active energy storage. Addressing energy supply intermittency systematically, this practical text:Analyzes typical time-distributions and intervals between episodes of demand-supply mismatch and explores their dependence on system layouts and energy source characteristicsSimulates scenarios regar

  16. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...... exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body...... composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type...

  17. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.

  18. Very high intensity reaction chamber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, J.J.

    1975-09-01

    The problem of achieving very high intensity irradiation by light in minimal regions was studied. Three types of irradiation chamber are suggested: the common laser-reaction chamber, the folded concentric or near-concentric resonator, and the asymmetric confocal resonator. In all designs the ratio of high-intensity illuminated volume to other volume is highly dependent (to the 3 / 2 power) on the power and fluence tolerances of optical elements, primarily mirrors. Optimization of energy coupling is discussed for the common cavity. For the concentric cavities, optimization for both coherent and incoherent beams is treated. Formulae and numerical examples give the size of chambers, aspect ratios, maximum pass number, image sizes, fluences, and the like. Similarly for the asymmetric confocal chamber, formulae and numerical examples for fluences, dimensions, losses, and totally contained pass numbers are given

  19. Development of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Kusano, J.; Hasegawa, K.; Ouchi, N.; Oguri, H.; Kinsho, M.; Touchi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Mukugi, K.; Ino, H.; Noda, F.; Akaoka, N.; Kaneko, H.; Chishiro, E.; Fechner, B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 5.33mA has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. the NSP is aiming at exploring nuclear technologies for nuclear waste transmutation based on a proton induced spallation neutrons. The proposed accelerators facilities will be also used in the various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a high intensity proton storage ring. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end of the proton accelerator. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting (SC) accelerator linac has been designed and developed as a major option. (Author) 7 refs

  20. Development of a high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu; Kusano, Joichi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ito, Nobuo; Oguri, Hidetomo; Touchi, Yutaka; Mukugi, Ken; Ino, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with a beam power of 15 MW has been proposed for various engineering tests for the nuclear waste transmutation system as one of the research plans in the Neutron Science Research Program (NSRP) in JAERI. High intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beam generated from the proton spallation reaction will be utilized at these facilities in each research field. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end part of the proton accelerator; ion source, RFQ, DTL and RF source. In the beam test, the current of 70 mA with a duty factor of 7% has been accelerated from the RFQ at the energy of 2 MeV. A hot test model of the DTL for the high power and high duty operation was fabricated and tested. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting accelerating cavity is studied as a main option. The superconducting linac is expected to have several favourable characteristics for high intensity accelerator such as short accelerator length, large bore radius resulting in low beam losses and cost effectiveness for construction and operation. A test stand with equipment of cryogenics system, vacuum system, RF system and cavity processing and cleaning is prepared to test the physics issues and fabrication process. The proposed plan for accelerator design and construction will compose of two consecutive stages. The first stage will be completed in about 7 years with the beam power of 1.5 MW. As the second stage gradual upgrading of the beam power will be made up to 15 MW. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Moderate and high intensity pulsed electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Rian Adriana Hendrika

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) processing has gained a lot of interest the last decades as mild processing technology as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, and is suitable for preservation of liquid food products such as fruit juices. PEF conditions typically applied at industrial scale for pasteurisation are high intensity pulsed electric fields aiming for minimal heat load, with an electric field strength (E) in the range of 15 − 20 kV/cm and pulse width (τ) between 2 − 20 μs. Alternativel...

  2. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.G.; Bell, W.H.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.R.H.; Dezillie, B.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Hauler, F.; Jungermann, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Shea, V. O'; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux

  3. The utilization of high-intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, E.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory for the Utilization of High-Intensity Lasers (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research program is focused on the laser-plasma physics, on the generation of high pressures by means of laser shock heating, on the laser spectroscopy and on the laser implosions. Numerical simulation codes are developed. Concerning the atomic physics, the investigations on dense plasmas and the x-laser research developments are carried out. The research activities of the laboratory teams, the published papers, the national and international cooperations, are given [fr

  4. Effect of high-intensity training on exercise-induced gene expression specific to ion homeostasis and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2003-01-01

    Changes in gene expression during recovery from high-intensity, intermittent, one-legged exercise were studied before and after 5.5 wk of training. Genes related to metabolism, as well as Na+, K+, and pH homeostasis, were selected for analyses. After the same work was performed before and after...

  5. Physics of high intensity nanosecond electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    A new high-intensity, short-time electron source is now being used at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using a GaAs negative affinity semiconductor in the construction of the cathode, it is possible to fulfill operation requirements such as peak currents of tens of amperes, peak widths of the order of nanoseconds, hundreds of hours of operation stability, and electron spin polarization. The cathode is illuminated with high intensity laser pulses, and photoemitted electrons constitute the yield. Because of the high currents, some nonlinear effects are present. Very noticeable is the so-called Charge Limit (CL) effect, which consists of a limit on the total charge in each pulse-that is, the total bunch charge stops increasing as the light pulse total energy increases. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the CL and how it is caused by the photovoltaic effect. Our treatment is based on the Three-Step model of photoemission. We relate the CL to the characteristics of the surface and bulk of the semiconductor, such as doping, band bending, surface vacuum level, and density of surface states. We also discuss possible ways to prevent the Char's Level effect

  6. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  7. Intermittent hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, J.; Vogel, H.; Hupe, W.

    1981-01-01

    An intermittent hydronephrosis was observed in a 40-year old patient. This disease pattern is due to an incongruity between the formation of urine and the transport capacity in the ureteropelvic junction. The latent impediment of flow becomes manifest with increased urine secretion. Irreversible renal damage can be the result of the repeatedly occurring hydronephrotic crises. (orig.) [de

  8. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of ∼10 39 cm -2 s -1 , which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10 11 s -1 . 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  9. A High Intensity Hadron Facility, AGS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    We have present one of several possibilities for the evolution of the AGS complex into a high intensity hadron facility. One could consider other alternatives, such as using the AGS as the Collector and constructing a new 9-30 GeV machine. We believe the most responsible scenario must minimize the cost and downtime to the ongoing physics program. With a stepwise approach, starting with the Booster, the physics program can evolve without a single major commitment in funds. At each step an evaluation of the funds versus physics merit can be made. As a final aside, each upgrade at the AGS and Booster is presently being implemented to support an interleaved operation of both protons and ions. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  10. High intensity proton accelerator controls network upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempaska, R.; Bertrand, A.; Lendzian, F.; Lutz, H.

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA) control system network is spread through a vast area in PSI and it was grown historically in an unorganized way. The miscellaneous network hardware infrastructure and the lack of the documentation and components overview could no longer guarantee the reliability of the control system and the facility operation. Therefore, a new network, based on modern network topology, PSI standard hardware with monitoring and detailed documentation and overview was needed. The number of active components has been reduced from 25 to 9 Cisco Catalyst 24- or 48-port switches. They are the same type as other PSI switches, thus a replacement emergency stock is not an issue anymore. We would like to present how we successfully achieved this goal and the advantages of the clean and well documented network infrastructure. (authors)

  11. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  12. Intermittency '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.

    1993-01-01

    The existing data definitely indicate the existence of intermittency, i.e. of self similar structures in the systems of particles created in high-energy collisions. The effect seems universal: it was found in most of the processes investigated and its measures parameters depend only weakly (if at all) on the process in question. Strong HBT effect was found, suggesting that intermittency is related to space-time structure of the pion source rather than to detailed momentum structure of the production amplitudes. There are indications that this space time structure may be fractal, but more data is needed to establish this. The theoretical explanation remains obscure: it seems that both parton cascade and hadronization play an important role. Their interrelation, however, remains a mystery. 5 figs., 19 refs

  13. High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franzotti Sant’Anna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In dental practice, low-level laser therapy (LLLT and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT are mainly used for dental surgery and biostimulation therapy. Within the Orthodontic specialty, while LLLT has been widely used to treat pain associated with orthodontic movement, accelerate bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion, and enhance orthodontic tooth movement, HILT, in turn, has been seen as an alternative for addressing soft tissue complications associated to orthodontic treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to discuss HILT applications in orthodontic treatment. Methods: This study describes the use of HILT in surgical treatments such as gingivectomy, ulotomy, ulectomy, fiberotomy, labial and lingual frenectomies, as well as hard tissue and other dental restorative materials applications. Conclusion: Despite the many applications for lasers in Orthodontics, they are still underused by Brazilian practitioners. However, it is quite likely that this demand will increase over the next years - following the trend in the USA, where laser therapies are more widely used.

  14. ''High intensity per bunch'' working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity (ζ = ΔQ/(Δp/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)

  15. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Edgecock, T.R.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo-Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrzycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T.Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J.J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López-Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L.J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J.J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J.S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the ph...

  16. High-Intensity Events in International Women's Team Handball Matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Spencer, Matt

    2017-01-01

    International women's team handball is a physically demanding sport and is intermittent in nature. The aim of the study was to profile high-intensity events (HIEs) in international women's team handball matches with regard to playing positions. Twenty female national-team handball players were equipped with inertial movement units (OptimEye S5, Catapult Sports, Australia) in 9 official international matches. Players were categorized in 4 different playing positions: backs, wings, pivots, and goalkeepers (GKs). PlayerLoad™, accelerations (Acc), changes of direction (CoD), decelerations (Dec), and the sum of the latter 3, HIEs, were extracted from raw-data files using the manufacturer's software. All Acc, Dec, CoD, and HIEs >2.5 m/s were included. Data were log-transformed and differences were standardized for interpretation of magnitudes and reported with effect-size statistics. Mean numbers of events were 0.7 ± 0.4 Acc/min, 2.3 ± 0.9 Dec/min, and 1.0 ± 0.4 CoD/min. Substantial differences between playing positions, ranging from small to very large, were found in the 3 parameters. Backs showed a most likely greater frequency for HIE/min (5.0 ± 1.1 HIE/min) than all other playing positions. Differences between playing positions were also apparent in PlayerLoad/min. HIEs in international women's team handball are position specific, and the overall intensity depends on the positional role within a team. Specific HIE and intensity profiles from match play provide useful information for a better understanding of the overall game demands and for each playing position.

  17. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  18. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Edgecock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ^{+} and μ^{-} beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  19. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin...

  20. Effects of high-intensity swimming training on the bones of ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Taewoong; Tanaka, Sakura; Naka, Tatsuki; Igawa, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming training(HIT) on bone in ovariectomized rats. [Methods] Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. After surgery, they were divided into the following four groups: 1) sham-operated sedentary (S), 2) sham-operated exercise training (SE), 3) OVX sedentary (O), 4) OVX exercise training (OE) 5) OVX given 17?-estradiol (OE2) and 6) ...

  1. Influence of two high-intensity intermittent training programmes on anaerobic capacity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Buśko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of a maximal effort training programme with variation of the pedalling rate on the anaerobic capacity, post-exercise maximal concentration of lactic acid (LA and acid-alkali balance changes in the capillary blood. Identification of the dependence between the lactic acid concentration and the anaerobic capacity produced in the Wingate test was also the goal. The hypothesis that cycloergometer training consisting of maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW will elicit bigger changes of measured values in comparison to training with a load of 5% BW was verified. Twenty non-athletes, students of UPE took part in the study. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group (M10; n=9 performed maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW. The second group (M5; n=11 performed maximal efforts with a load of 5% BW. Control measurements of anaerobic capacity (Wingate test were taken every Monday: before the test (0, during 4 weeks of training (1-4 and for 2 weeks after the test (5-6. Blood for the determination of lactic acid concentration and acid-alkali balance was taken from the fingertip before performing the Wingate test – in the 5th, 7th, 9th and 30th resting minute. Changes of maximal power (Pmax were not statistically significant in either group. Significant differences were found between the two groups after the second week of rest. For mean power (Pm the most important changes were noted in the first week from training (M10 – 6.5%; M5 – 11.0% No significant differences were found between groups. Average values of the individual LA concentration peak (the highest LA concentration occurring after the Wingate test for each individual changed significantly in group M10 from 15.233±2.367 mmol/l in the measurement made before training to 12.340±2.353 mmol/l in the measurement taken 2 weeks after training. Group M5 is characterised by a change of this factor after 4 weeks of training from 15.109±1.739 (before tests to 13.491±2.098 mmol/l. The scarcity of significant changes between groups indicates that the pedalling rate does not influence the anaerobic capacity. A surprising observation was the lactic acid concentration lowering in the Wingate test performed after 4 weeks of maximal effort training in relation to the LA values obtained before the experiment began.

  2. Wet high-intensity magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.; Shanks, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Miscellaneous laboratory tests (most of them on cyanide residues) were undertaken to supplement on-site pilot-plant work on wet high intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Initially, the main concern was with blockage of the matrix, and consideration was given to the use of a reverse-flushing system. The laboratory tests on this system were encouraging, but they were not of sufficiently long duration to be conclusive. The velocity of the pulp through the matrix is important, because it determines the capacity of the separator and the recovery obtainable. Of almost equal importance is the magnetic load, which affects the velocity of the pulp and the recovery. Typically, a recovery of 51 per cent of the uranium was reduced to one of 40 per cent as the magnetic load was increased from 25 to 100 g/l, while the pulp velocity decreased from 62 to 36 mm/s. There was some indication that, for the same pulp velocity, lower recoveries are obtained when free-fall feeding is used. Some benefit was observed in the application of WHIMS to coarsely ground ore; from a Blyvooruitzicht rod-mill product, 25 per cent of the total uranium was recovered when only 29 per cent of the rod-mill product (the finest portion) was treated. A similar recovery was made from 43 per cent of the rod-mill product from Stilfontein; a second stage of treatment after regrinding raised the overall recovery of uranium to 76,4 per cent. Recoveries of 55 and 42 per cent of the uranium were obtained in tests on two flotation tailings from Free State Geduld. In a determination of the mass magnetic susceptibilities of the constituents in a typical concentrate obtained by WHIMS, it was found that some 20 per cent of the magnetic product had a susceptibility of less than 5,4 X 10 -6 e.m.u. but contained 38 per cent of the uranium recovered by WHIMS. A few tests were conducted on different types of matrix. A matrix of spaced horizontal rods is recommended for possible future consideration [af

  3. Intermittent hyperthyreosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulman, F.G.; Tal, E.; Pfeifer, Y.; Superstine, E.

    1975-01-01

    Intermittent hyperthyreosis occurs under various forms of stress, especially heat stress. The clinician may diagnose such cases as masked or apathetic hyperthyroidism or 'forme fruste' hyperthyreosis or thyroid autonomy. As most routine and standard tests may here yield inconsistent results, it is the patients' anamnesis which may provide the clue. Our Bioclimatology Unit has now seen over 100 cases in which thyroid hypersensitivity towards heat was the most prominent syndrome: 10-15% of weather-sensitive patients are affected. The patients complain before or during heat spells of such contradictory symptoms as insomnia, irritability, tension, tachycardia, palpitations, precordial pain, dyspnoe, flushes with sweating or chills, tremor, abdominal pain or diarrhea, polyuria or pollakisuria, weight loss in spite of ravenous appetite, fatigue, exhaustion, depression, adynamia, lack of concentration and confusion. Determination of urinary neurohormones allows a differential diagnosis, intermittent hyperthyreosis being characterized by three cardinal symptoms: tachycardia - every case with more than 80 pulse beats being suspect (not specific); urinary histamine - every case excreting more than 90 μg/day being suspect. Again the drawback of this test is its lack of specificity, as histamine may also be increased in cases of allergy and spondylitis; urinary thyroxine - every case excreting more than 20 μg/day T-4 being suspect. This is the only specific test. Therapy should make use of lithium carbonate and betablockers. Propyl thiouracil is rarely required. (orig.) [de

  4. Effects of high-intensity swimming training on the bones of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taewoong; Tanaka, Sakura; Naka, Tatsuki; Igawa, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to assess the effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming training(HIT) on bone in ovariectomized rats. Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. After surgery, they were divided into the following four groups: 1) sham-operated sedentary (S), 2) sham-operated exercise training (SE), 3) OVX sedentary (O), 4) OVX exercise training (OE) 5) OVX given 17β-estradiol (OE2) and 6) OVX exercise training and given 17β-estradiol (OEE). SE, OE and OEE rats were used extremely high-intensity swim exercise. The rats repeated fourteen 20-s swimming bouts with a weight equivalent to 14, 15, and 16% of body weight for the first 5, the next 9, and the last 5 days, respectively. Between exercise bouts, a 10-s pause was allowed. HIT was originally designed as an exercise method; a method that very quickly induces an increase in the maximum oxygen intake (Tabata I et al., 1996). OEE and OE2 rats were subcutaneously injected ethanol with 25μg/kg body weight 17β-estradiol 3 times per week. Bone strength, bone mineral density and trabecular bone parameters were measured after a 8-weeks experimental period. Bone strength was significantly higher in the SE, OE, OE2 and OEE group compared with the O group. BV/TV was significant increase in the SE, OE groups compared with the O group. BMD showed no difference in the OE group compared with the O group. This study demonstrate some beneficial effects of postmenopausal osteoporosis of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on bone structure and strength.

  5. High-Intensity Interval Training in Heart Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael José Perrier-Melo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heart transplantation (HTx is considered an efficient and gold-standard procedure for patients with end-stage heart failure. After surgery, patients have lower aerobic power (VO2max and compensatory hemodynamic responses. The aim of the present study was to assess through a systematic review with meta-analysis whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT can provide benefits for those parameters. This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, which searched the databases and data portals PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and Wiley until December 2016 (pairs. The following terms and descriptors were used: “heart recipient” OR “heart transplant recipient” OR ”heart transplant” OR “cardiac transplant” OR “heart graft”. Descriptors via DeCS and Mesh were: “heart transplantation’’ OR “cardiac transplantation”. The words used in combination (AND were: “exercise training” OR “interval training” OR “high intensity interval training” OR “high intensity training” OR “anaerobic training” OR “intermittent training” OR “sprint training”. The initial search identified 1064 studies. Then, only those studies assessing the influence of HIIT on the post-HTx period were added, resulting in three studies analyzed. The significance level adopted was 0.05. Heart transplant recipients showed significant improvement in VO2peak, heart rate and peak blood pressure in 8 to 12 weeks of intervention.

  6. Development of high intensity beam handling system, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Minakawa, Michifumi

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed the new counter experimental hall at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (KEK-PS) in order to handle high intensity primary proton beams of up to 1x10 3 pps (protons per second), which is one order of magnitude greater than the present beam intensity of the KEK-PS, 1x10 12 pps. New technologies for handling high-intensity beams have, then, been developed and employed in the construction of the new hall. A part of our R/D work on handling high intensity beams will be reported. (author)

  7. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  8. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  9. Apparatus for controlled mixing in a high intensity mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, Z.; Gupta, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for controlled mixing of a mixable material in a high intensity mixer. The system enables instantaneous, precise and continual monitoring of a batch in a high intensity mixer which heretofore could not be achieved. The process comprises the steps of feeding a batch of material into a high intensity mixer, agitating the batch in the mixer, monitoring batch temperature separately from mixer temperature and discharging the batch from the mixer when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level. The apparatus includes means for monitoring batch temperature in a high intensity mixer separately from mixer temperature, and means responsive to the batch temperature to discharge the batch when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level

  10. Feasibility of high-intensity training in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Sørensen, E D; Hostrup, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Background: High-intensity interval training is an effective and popular training regime but its feasibility in untrained adults with asthma is insufficiently described. Objective: The randomized controlled trial 'EFFORT Asthma' explored the effects of behavioural interventions including high......-intensity interval training on clinical outcomes in nonobese sedentary adults with asthma. In this article we present a sub analysis of data aiming to evaluate if patients' pre-intervention levels of asthma control, FEV1, airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) predicted their training response...... to the high-intensity interval training program, measured as increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Design: We used data from the EFFORT Asthma Study. Of the 36 patients randomized to the 8-week exercise intervention consisting of high-intensity training three times per week, 29 patients (45...

  11. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  12. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  13. Case Study on Justification: High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps produce bright white light of a high intensity in an energy efficient manner. These lamps are typically used in large numbers in public and professional settings such as shops, warehouses, hotels and offices. They are also used in outdoor applications to illuminate streets, buildings, statues, flags and gardens and further as architectural lighting. They also have applications associated with film projection in cinemas, manufacture of semiconductors, fluorescence endoscopy and microscopy, schlieren photography, hologram projection, ultraviolet curing, sky beamers and car headlights. Some types of high intensity discharge lamp, as well as certain other consumer products for lighting, contain radioactive substances for functional reasons. The radionuclides that are typically incorporated into high intensity discharge lamps are 85 Kr and 232 Th. Given the wide range of uses, specific decisions on justification may be required for different applications. A small number of safety assessments for high intensity discharge lamps have been carried out and published. No published decisions at the national level specifically addressing the justification of the use of high intensity discharge lamps have been identified

  14. Photon-photon scattering at the high-intensity frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Kohlfürst, Christian; Seegert, Nico

    2018-04-01

    The tremendous progress in high-intensity laser technology and the establishment of dedicated high-field laboratories in recent years have paved the way towards a first observation of quantum vacuum nonlinearities at the high-intensity frontier. We advocate a particularly prospective scenario, where three synchronized high-intensity laser pulses are brought into collision, giving rise to signal photons, whose frequency and propagation direction differ from the driving laser pulses, thus providing various means to achieve an excellent signal to background separation. Based on the theoretical concept of vacuum emission, we employ an efficient numerical algorithm which allows us to model the collision of focused high-intensity laser pulses in unprecedented detail. We provide accurate predictions for the numbers of signal photons accessible in experiment. Our study is the first to predict the precise angular spread of the signal photons, and paves the way for a first verification of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in a well-controlled laboratory experiment at one of the many high-intensity laser facilities currently coming online.

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Burtscher, Martin; Martínez-Guardado, Ismael; Timon, Rafael; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olcina, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO 2 = 17.2%; n = 13), (2) aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15), (3) sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15), and (4) sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18). Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1), after 18 training sessions (T2), 7 days after the last session (T3), and 4 weeks after the last session (T4). The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 ( p Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly ( p fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups ( p fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval training under normobaric intermittent hypoxia for 12 weeks in overweight/obese women seems to be promising for reducing body fat content with a concomitant increase in muscle mass.

  16. Locomotor muscle fatigue does not alter oxygen uptake kinetics during high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hopker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The slow component (VO2sc that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre fatigue condition or rest for 33 minutes (control condition according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-second maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min-1. Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and VO2max determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue (P = 0.03, the VO2sc was not significantly different between the pre fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min-1 and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min-1 condition (P = 0.50. Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions (P = 0.48 but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition (P < 0.01 suggesting higher muscle recruitment. These results demonstrate experimentally that locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the VO2 kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the VO2sc is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue.

  17. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham; Holst, Jens; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bård; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 and subjective feelings of appetite were measured every 30 min for 3 h. Nutrient and taste preferences were measured at the beginning and end of each condition using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Insulin levels were significantly reduced, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even at high intensity, does not induce any known physiological adaptation that would lead to increased EI.

  18. Locomotor Muscle Fatigue Does Not Alter Oxygen Uptake Kinetics during High-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, James G; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Azzalin, Andrea; Carpenter, Roger; Marcora, Samuele M

    2016-01-01

    The [Formula: see text] slow component ([Formula: see text]) that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre-fatigue condition) or rest for 33 min (control condition) according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-s maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min -1 . Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE) were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and [Formula: see text] determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue ( P = 0.03), the [Formula: see text] was not significantly different between the pre-fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min -1 ) and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min -1 ) condition ( P = 0.50). Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions ( P = 0.48) but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition ( P locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the [Formula: see text] kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the [Formula: see text] is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue.

  19. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  20. Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...

  1. Simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Nakajima, Kazuhisa [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we report the results of simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector. The aim of the simulation study is to transport high bunch charge with low emittance evolution. The simulation result shows that 7nC bunch with rms emittance 22.3 {pi} mm mrad can be outputted at the exit of photoinjector. (author)

  2. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  3. The high intensity approximation applied to multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1980-08-01

    It is shown that the most commonly used high intensity approximations as applied to ionization by strong electromagnetic fields are related. The applicability of the steepest descent method in these approximations, and the relation between them and first-order perturbation theory, are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.C.; Frank, J.A.; Liska, D.J.; Potter, R.C.; Schamaun, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder

  5. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases

  6. Simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector. The aim of the simulation study is to transport high bunch charge with low emittance evolution. The simulation result shows that 7nC bunch with rms emittance 22.3 π mm mrad can be outputted at the exit of photoinjector. (author)

  7. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to power athletes and other individuals wishing to improve performance in ... effect of creatine supplementation on physical performance. It has been reported that ... high-intensity work performance.1,2,5,16,31,36 Such activities as resistance ...

  8. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  9. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators. [240 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases.

  10. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the

  11. Tolerable Beam Loss at High-Intensity Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosheev, Oleg E.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.

    2000-01-01

    Tolerable beam losses are estimated for high-intensity ring accelerators with proton energy of 3 to 16 GeV. Dependence on beam energy, lattice and magnet geometry is studied via full Monte Carlo MARS14 simulations in lattice elements, shielding, tunnel and surrounding dirt with realistic geometry, materials and magnetic fields

  12. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  13. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of short-term creatine supplementation plus a protein-carbohydrate formula on high-intensity exercise performance and recovery. Design. A repeated-measures, experimental study, employing a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, group comparison design was used.

  14. Intermittent search strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénichou, O.; Loverdo, C.; Moreau, M.; Voituriez, R.

    2011-01-01

    This review examines intermittent target search strategies, which combine phases of slow motion, allowing the searcher to detect the target, and phases of fast motion during which targets cannot be detected. It is first shown that intermittent search strategies are actually widely observed at various scales. At the macroscopic scale, this is, for example, the case of animals looking for food; at the microscopic scale, intermittent transport patterns are involved in a reaction pathway of DNA-binding proteins as well as in intracellular transport. Second, generic stochastic models are introduced, which show that intermittent strategies are efficient strategies that enable the minimization of search time. This suggests that the intrinsic efficiency of intermittent search strategies could justify their frequent observation in nature. Last, beyond these modeling aspects, it is proposed that intermittent strategies could also be used in a broader context to design and accelerate search processes.

  15. Half-integer resonance crossing in high-intensity rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotov

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the influence of space charge on the crossing of second-order resonances is presented and associated with the space-charge limit of high-intensity rings. Two-dimensional simulation studies are compared with envelope models, which agree in the finding of an increased intensity limit due to the coherent frequency shift. This result is also found for realistic bunched beams with multiturn injection painting. Characteristic features such as the influence of tune splitting, structure resonances, and the role of envelope instabilities are discussed in detail. The theoretical limits are found to be in good agreement with the performance of high-intensity proton machines.

  16. Chrome tannage using high-intensity ultrasonic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysalo, E; Marjoniemi, M; Kilpeläinen, M

    1997-04-01

    The process time in chrome tannage in leather making, using an elastic compression cycle followed by irradiation by high-intensity ultrasound, is quite short lasting only a few minutes, compared with a process time of several hours in modern chrome tannage. After ultrasonic irradiation, samples were basified in 17 h in chrome liquor at a pH of 4.0 and the shrinkage temperature was measured. The determination of the efficiency for the chrome liquor penetrating into the hides can be based on the steepness of the shrinkage temperature-processing time curve. An approximate value of 20 degrees C min(-1) can be evaluated for the initial slope of the curve when elastic compression and high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation is used, and a processing time of 2 min is required in chrome liquor (plus 17 h basification and 24 h storage time) to obtain leather stable to boiling. Usually, hides are kept in chrome liquor for 2 h.

  17. rf coaxial couplers for high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, J.J.; Knapp, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Two rf coaxial couplers that are particularly suitable for intertank connection of the disk-and-washer accelerating structure for use in high-intensity linear accelerators have been developed. These devices have very high coupling to the accelerating structure and very low rf power loss at the operating frequency, and they can be designed for any relative particle velocity β > 0.4. Focusing and monitoring devices can be located inside these couplers

  18. Light and Light Sources High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Flesch, Peter G

    2006-01-01

    Light and Light Sources gives an introduction to the working principles of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps and points out challenges and problems associated with the development and operation of HID lamps. The state-of-the-art in electrode and plasma diagnostics as well as numerical methods used for the understanding of HID lamps are described. This volume addresses students as well as scientists and researchers at universities and in industry.

  19. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.; Tsai, J.; Cherng, C.; Chen, J.

    1994-01-01

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUCCIO, A.; D' IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.

    2005-09-12

    Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.

  1. Pulsed Power Applications in High Intensity Proton Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wu; Ducimetière, Laurent; Fowler, Tony; Kawakubo, Tadamichi; Mertens, Volker; Sandberg, Jon; Shirakabe, Yoshihisa

    2005-01-01

    The pulsed power technology has been applied in particle accelerators and storage rings for over four decades. It is most commonly used in injection, extraction, beam manipulation, source, and focusing systems. These systems belong to the class of repetitive pulsed power. In this presentation, we review and discuss the history, present status, and future challenge of pulsed power applications in high intensity proton accelerators and storage rings.

  2. Proton induction linacs as high-intensity neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Hoyer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induction linacs are explored as high intensity neutron sources. The induction linac - concept, properties, experience with electrons, and possibilities - and its limitations for accelerating ions are reviewed. A number of proton induction linac designs are examined with the LIACEP program and general conclusions are given. Results suggest that a proton induction accelerator of the lowest voltage, consistent with good neutron flux, is preferred and could well be cost competitive with the usual rf linac/storage ring designs. (orig.)

  3. High intensity proton linear accelerator development for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Oguri, H.; Ito, N.; Kusano, J.; Okumura, Y.; Murata, H.; Sakogawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA has been proposed for various engineering tests for the transmutation system of nuclear waste by JAERI. The conceptual and optimization studies for this accelerator performed for a proper choice of operating frequency, high b structure, mechanical engineering considerations and RF source aspects are briefly described

  4. CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; Snopok, P.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS)...

  5. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  6. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  7. Pulsed system for obtaining microdosimetric data with high intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Dicello, J.F.; Hiebert, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The use of heavy particle accelerators for radiation therapy requires high intensity beams in order to produce useful dose rates. The 800-MeV proton beam at LAMPF passes through different production targets to generate secondary pion beams. Conventional microdosimetric techniques are not applicable under these conditions because exceedingly high count rates result in detector damage, gas breakdown, and saturation effects in the electronics. We describe a new microdosimetric system developed at the Pion Biomedical Channel of LAMPF. The accelerator provides a variable low intensity pulse once every ten high intensity macropulses. The voltage on the detector is pulsed in coincidence with the low intensity pulse so that we were able to operate the detector under optimum data-taking conditions. A low noise two-stage preamplifier was built in connection with the pulsed mode operation. A comparison is made between data obtained in pulsed (high intensity beam) and unpulsed (low intensity beam) modes. The spectra obtained by the two methods agree within the experimental uncertainties

  8. Intermittency in branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Texas Univ., Austin; Hwa, R.C.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1990-01-01

    The intermittency properties of three branching models have been investigated. The factorial moments show power-law behavior as function of small rapidity width. The slopes and energy dependences reveal different characteristics of the models. The gluon model has the weakest intermittency. (orig.)

  9. Randomized, controlled trial comparing synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Zenaida C; Claure, Nelson; Tauscher, Markus K; D'Ugard, Carmen; Vanbuskirk, Silvia; Bancalari, Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    Prolonged mechanical ventilation is associated with lung injury in preterm infants. In these infants, weaning from synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation may be delayed by their inability to cope with increased respiratory loads. The addition of pressure support to synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation can offset these loads and may facilitate weaning. The purpose of this work was to compare synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support in weaning from mechanical ventilation and the duration of supplemental oxygen dependency in preterm infants with respiratory failure. Preterm infants weighing 500 to 1000 g at birth who required mechanical ventilation during the first postnatal week were randomly assigned to synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation or synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support. In both groups, weaning followed a set protocol during the first 28 days. Outcomes were assessed during the first 28 days and until discharge or death. There were 107 infants enrolled (53 synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support and 54 synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation). Demographic and perinatal data, mortality, and morbidity did not differ between groups. During the first 28 days, infants in the synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support group reached minimal ventilator settings and were extubated earlier than infants in the synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation group. Total duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of oxygen dependency, and oxygen need at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age alone or combined with death did not differ between groups. However, infants in synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support within the 700- to 1000-g birth weight strata had a shorter oxygen dependency. The results of this study suggest that the addition of

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Camacho-Cardenosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1 aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17.2%; n = 13, (2 aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15, (3 sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15, and (4 sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18. Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1, after 18 training sessions (T2, 7 days after the last session (T3, and 4 weeks after the last session (T4. The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 (p < 0.05 and from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05 and muscle mass increased significantly from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05. Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly (p < 0.01 and muscle mass increased (p = 0.022 compared with the AitN group from T1 to T4. All training groups showed a reduction in the percentage of fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05. Muscle mass increased significantly in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05, especially at T4. While fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval

  11. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Roché

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  12. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, F

    2006-12-21

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  13. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  14. Nuclear diagnostics of high intensity laser plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushelnick, K.; Santala, M.I.K.; Beg, F.N.; Clark, E.L.; Dangor, A.E.; Tatarakis, M.; Watts, I.; Wei, M.S.; Zepf, M.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; McCanny, T.; Spencer, I.; Clarke, R.J.; Norreys, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear activation has been observed in materials exposed to energetic protons and heavy ions generated from high intensity laser-solid interactions (at focused intensities up to 5x10 19 W/cm 2 ). The energy spectrum of the protons is determined through the use of these nuclear activation techniques and is found to be consistent with other ion diagnostics. Heavy ion fusion reactions and large neutron fluxes from the (p, n) reactions were also observed. The reduction of proton emission and increase in heavy ion energy using heated targets was also observed

  15. The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) agreed to promote the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This document describes the joint proposal prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  16. P-West High Intensity Secondary Beam Area Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.; Currier, R.; Eartly, D.; Guthke, A.; Johnson, G.; Lee, D.; Dram, R.; Villegas, E.; Rest, J.; Tilles, E.; Vander Arend, P.

    1977-03-01

    This report gives the initial design parameters of a 1000 GeV High Intensity Superconducting Secondary Beam Laboratory to be situated in the Proton Area downstream of the existing Proton West experimental station. The area will provide Fermilab with a major capability for experimentation with pion and antiproton beams of intensities and of energies available at no other laboratory and with an electron beam with excellent spot size, intensity, and purity at energies far above that available at electron machines. Detailed beam design, area layouts, and cost estimates are presented, along with the design considerations.

  17. Summary for the WG4: physics with high intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.

    2006-01-01

    There are many physics opportunities in laser-beam interactions and innovations in the laser- and the beam technologies expand them or even open new window in the field. Therefore, physics with high intense lasers is an attractive application of nanobeam technologies. The topics in the working group 4 covers fundamental physics based on technique related with nanobeam development aiming to encourage communication between physics and accelerator communities. Due to the limited time for the preparation, we did not try comprehensive coverage of the field but invited topics which are planed near future or can be studied at the ILC test facilities. (author)

  18. KEK/JAERI joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    From JFY01, which started on April 1, 2001, a new accelerator project to provide high-intensity proton beams proceeded into a construction phase. This project is conducted under a cooperation of two institutions, KEK and JAERI. The accelerator complex will provide 1 MW proton beams at 3 GeV and 0.75 MW beams at 50 GeV. The project will be completed within six years. In this article I will describe a) the project itself, b) sciences to be pursued at this new accelerator complex and c) the present status and future plans of the project. (author)

  19. JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2000-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK) are promoting the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This paper describes the joint project prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  20. A high intensity positron beam at the Brookhaven reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.; Lynn, K.G.; Roellig, L.O.; Mills, A.P. Jr.; Moodenbaugh, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a high intensity, low energy positron beam utilizing high specific activity /sup 64/Cu sources (870 Ci/g) produced in a reactor with high thermal neutron flux. Fast-to-slow moderation can be performed in a self moderation mode or with a transmission moderator. Slow positron rates up to 1.6 x 10/sup 8/ e/sup +//s with a half life of 12.8 h are calculated. Up to 1.0 x 10/sup 8/ e/sup +//s have been observed. New developments including a Ne moderator and an on-line isotope separation process are discussed. 21 refs., 9 figs

  1. Performance of GEM detectors in high intensity particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Ketzer, B; Deutel, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Bondar, A E; Buzulutskov, A F; Shekhtman, L I; Sokolov, A; Tatarinov, A A; Vasilev, A; Kappler, S; Schulte, E C

    2001-01-01

    We describe extensive tests of Double GEM and Triple GEM detectors, including full size prototypes for the COMPASS experiment, exposed to high intensity muon, proton and pion beams at the Paul~Scherrer Institute and at CERN. The measurements aim at detecting problems possible under these operation conditions, the main concern being the occurrence of discharges induced by beam particles. Results on the dependence of the probability for induced discharges on the experimental environment are presented and discussed. Implications for the application of GEM~detectors in experiments at high luminosity colliders are illustrated.

  2. Ultra-High Intensity Proton Accelerators and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    The science and technology of proton accelerators have progressed considerably in the past three decades. Three to four orders of magnitude increase in both peak intensity and average flux have made it possible to construct high intensity proton accelerators for modern applications, such as: spallation neutron sources, kaon factory, accelerator production of tritium, energy amplifier and muon collider drivers. The accelerator design focus switched over from intensity for synchrotrons, to brightness for colliders to halos for spallation sources. An overview of this tremendous progress in both accelerator science and technology is presented, with special emphasis on the new challenges of accelerator physics issues such as: H(-) injection, halo formation and reduction of losses

  3. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 109-113 ISSN 0029-5922. [PLASMA 2015 : International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas. Warsaw, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : high-intensity laser * implantation * material modification Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016

  4. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-01-01

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,ω). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating

  5. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 μ x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10 4 ) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail

  6. Overview of high intensity proton accelerator facility, J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The J-PARC project of high intensity proton accelerator research complex, conducted jointly by JAERI and KEK, has been completed with demonstration of all beam productions in 2009 as the facility construction phase, and the operation started to offer the secondary beams of neutron, muon, kaon, and neutrino, to the advanced scientific experimental research aiming at making breakthroughs in materials and life science, nuclear and elementary physics, etc. This text describes the overview of the J-PARC present status with emphasis of a performance toward to 1MW power as user facilities. (author)

  7. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fultz, B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science] [and others

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  8. A transparent vacuum window for high-intensity pulsed beams

    CERN Document Server

    Monteil, M; Veness, R

    2011-01-01

    The HiRadMat (High-Radiation to Materials) facility Ill will allow testing of accelerator components, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams. To reach this intensity range, the beam will be focused on a focal point where the target to be tested is located. A 60 mm aperture vacuum window will separate the vacuum of the beam line which is kept under high vacuum 10(-8) mbar, from the test area which is at atmospheric pressure. This window has to resist collapse due to beam passage. The high-intensity of the beam means that typical materials used for standard vacuum windows (such as stainless steel, aluminium and titanium alloy) cannot endure the energy deposition induced by the beam passage. Therefore, a vacuum window has been designed to maintain the differential pressure whilst resisting collapse due to the beam impact on the window. In this paper, we will present calculations of the energy transfer from beam to window, the design of the ...

  9. ORBIT : BEAM DYNAMICS CALCULATIONS FOR HIGH - INTENSITY RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLMES, J.A.; DANILOV, V.; GALAMBOS, J.; SHISHLO, A.; COUSINEAU, S.; CHOU, W.; MICHELOTTI, L.; OSTIGUY, F.; WEI, J.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK the introduction of a treatment magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings

  10. Injection and capture simulations for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Lessner, E.; Symon, K.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    1994-01-01

    The injection and capture processes in a high intensity, rapid cycling, proton synchrotron are simulated by numerical integration. The equations of motion suitable for rapid numerical simulation are derived so as to maintain symplecticity and second-order accuracy. By careful bookkeeping, the authors can, for each particle that is lost, determine its initial phase space coordinates. They use this information as a guide for different injection schemes and rf voltage programming, so that a minimum of particle losses and dilution are attained. A fairly accurate estimate of the space charge fields is required, as they influence considerably the particle distribution and reduce the capture efficiency. Since the beam is represented by a relatively coarse ensemble of macro particles, the authors study several methods of reducing the statistical fluctuations while retaining the fine structure (high intensity modulations) of the beam distribution. A pre-smoothing of the data is accomplished by the cloud-in-cell method. The program is checked by making sure that it gives correct answers in the absence of space charge, and that it reproduces the negative mass instability properly. Results of simulations for stationary distributions are compared to their analytical predictions. The capture efficiency for the rapid-cycling synchrotron is analyzed with respect to variations in the injected beam energy spread, bunch length, and rf programming

  11. Gaussian representation of high-intensity focused ultrasound beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneson, Joshua E; Myers, Matthew R

    2007-11-01

    A method for fast numerical simulation of high-intensity focused ultrasound beams is derived. The method is based on the frequency-domain representation of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, and assumes for each harmonic a Gaussian transverse pressure distribution at all distances from the transducer face. The beamwidths of the harmonics are constrained to vary inversely with the square root of the harmonic number, and as such this method may be viewed as an extension of a quasilinear approximation. The technique is capable of determining pressure or intensity fields of moderately nonlinear high-intensity focused ultrasound beams in water or biological tissue, usually requiring less than a minute of computer time on a modern workstation. Moreover, this method is particularly well suited to high-gain simulations since, unlike traditional finite-difference methods, it is not subject to resolution limitations in the transverse direction. Results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with numerical solutions of the full KZK equation in both tissue and water for moderately nonlinear beams.

  12. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  13. Intermittent heating of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohonen, K

    1983-02-01

    Conditions for intermittent heating of buildings are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Thermal behaviour of buildings adn rooms in intermittent heating is simulated by a program based on the convective heat balance equation and by simplified RC-models. The preheat times and the heating energy savings compared with continuous heating are presented for typical lightweight, mediumweight and heavyweight classroom and office modules. Formulaes for estimating the oversizing of the radiator network, the maximum heat output of heat exchangers in district heating and the efficiency of heating boilers in intermittent heating are presented. The preheat times and heating energy savings with different heating control systems are determined also experimentally in eight existing buildings. In addition some principles for the planning and application of intermittent heating systems are suggested.

  14. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment for abdominal wall endometriosis: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Wang Wei; Wang Longxia; Wang Junyan; Tang Jie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for the treatment of abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE). Materials and methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with AWE were treated as outpatients by US-guided HIFU ablation under conscious sedation. The median size of the AWE was 2.4 cm (range 1.0-5.3 cm). An acoustic power of 200-420 W was used, intermittent HIFU exposure of 1 s was applied. Treatment was considered complete when the entire nodule and its nearby 1 cm margin become hyperechoic on US. Pain relief after HIFU ablation was observed and the treated nodule received serial US examinations during follow-up. Results: All AWE was successfully ablated after one session of HIFU ablation, the ablation time lasted for 5-48 min (median 13 min), no major complications occurred. The cyclic pain disappeared in all patients during a mean follow-up of 18.7 months (range 3-31 months). The treated nodules gradually shank over time, 16 nodules became unnoticeable on US during follow-up. Conclusion: US-guided HIFU ablation appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of AWE.

  15. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment for abdominal wall endometriosis: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yang [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Wang Wei, E-mail: wangyang301301@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Wang Longxia; Wang Junyan; Tang Jie [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for the treatment of abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE). Materials and methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with AWE were treated as outpatients by US-guided HIFU ablation under conscious sedation. The median size of the AWE was 2.4 cm (range 1.0-5.3 cm). An acoustic power of 200-420 W was used, intermittent HIFU exposure of 1 s was applied. Treatment was considered complete when the entire nodule and its nearby 1 cm margin become hyperechoic on US. Pain relief after HIFU ablation was observed and the treated nodule received serial US examinations during follow-up. Results: All AWE was successfully ablated after one session of HIFU ablation, the ablation time lasted for 5-48 min (median 13 min), no major complications occurred. The cyclic pain disappeared in all patients during a mean follow-up of 18.7 months (range 3-31 months). The treated nodules gradually shank over time, 16 nodules became unnoticeable on US during follow-up. Conclusion: US-guided HIFU ablation appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of AWE.

  16. Optimal intermittent search strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, F; Budde, C E; Wio, H S

    2009-01-01

    We study the search kinetics of a single fixed target by a set of searchers performing an intermittent random walk, jumping between different internal states. Exploiting concepts of multi-state and continuous-time random walks we have calculated the survival probability of a target up to time t, and have 'optimized' (minimized) it with regard to the transition probability among internal states. Our model shows that intermittent strategies always improve target detection, even for simple diffusion states of motion

  17. THE EFFECT OF MODERATE AND HIGH-INTENSITY FATIGUE ON GROUNDSTROKE ACCURACY IN EXPERT AND NON-EXPERT TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyons

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player's achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female and 17 non-expert (13 male, 4 female tennis players participated in the study. Groundstroke accuracy was assessed using the modified Loughborough Tennis Skills Test. Fatigue was induced using the Loughborough Intermittent Tennis Test with moderate (70% and high-intensities (90% set as a percentage of peak heart rate (attained during a tennis-specific maximal hitting sprint test. Ratings of perceived exertion were used as an adjunct to the monitoring of heart rate. Achievement goal indicators for each player were assessed using the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport in an effort to examine if this personality characteristic provides insight into how players perform under moderate and high-intensity fatigue conditions. A series of mixed ANOVA's revealed significant fatigue effects on groundstroke accuracy regardless of expertise. The expert players however, maintained better groundstroke accuracy across all conditions compared to the novice players. Nevertheless, in both groups, performance following high-intensity fatigue deteriorated compared to performance at rest and performance while moderately fatigued. Groundstroke accuracy under moderate levels of fatigue was equivalent to that at rest. Fatigue effects were also similar regardless of gender. No fatigue by expertise, or fatigue by gender interactions were found. Fatigue effects were also equivalent regardless of player's achievement goal indicators. Future research is required to explore the effects of fatigue on

  18. Analysis of technology and seminar on economic trends about High-intensity LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is divided into two parts. Contents of this report in the first part are technical trends on high-intensity LED which reports introduction of LED as compound semiconductor, white LED? patent issues, review on technology of High-intensity LED and Reliability of High-intensity LED. The second part deals with economic tends about High-intensity LED. This seminar was held to report analysis and economical trends about High-intensity LED by Korea Industrial Education Institute in 2003.

  19. Evidence of direct cardiac damage following high-intensity exercise in chronic energy restriction: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Marianne F; Grace, Fergal; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Graham, Scott M; Fleming, Audrey; Baker, Julien S

    2017-07-01

    Following prolonged endurance events such as marathons, elevated levels of cardiospecific biomarkers are commonly reported. Although transiently raised levels are generally not considered to indicate clinical myocardial damage, comprehension of this phenomenon remains incomplete. The popularity of high-intensity interval training highlights a paucity of research measuring cardiac biomarker response to this type of exercise. This a posteriori case report discusses the elevation of cardiac troponins (cTn) associated with short interval, high-intensity exercise. In this case report, an apparently healthy 29-year-old recreationally active female presented clinically raised cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels (>0.04 ng/mL), after performing high-intensity cycle ergometer sprints. As creatine kinase (CK) is expressed by multiple organs (e.g., skeletal muscle, brain, and myocardium), cTnI assays were performed to determine any changes in total serum CK levels not originating from skeletal muscle damage. A posteriori the individual's daily energy expenditure indicated chronically low-energy availability. Psychometric testing suggested that the individual scored positive for disordered eating, highly for fatigue levels, and low in mental health components. The current case report provides novel evidence of elevated cTnI occurring as a result of performing short duration, high intensity, cycle ergometer exercise in an individual with self-reported chronically depleted energy balance. A schematic to identify potentially "at risk" individuals is presented. Considering this as a case report, results cannot be generalized; however, the main findings suggest that individuals who habitually restrict their calorie intake below their bodies' daily energy requirements, may have elevated biomarkers of exercise induced myocardial stress from performing high-intensity exercise.

  20. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Y Khademi; MA Azarbayejani; SA Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1) control, (2) training, (3) 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4) 30 mg/kg Flaxse...

  1. How does high-intensity intermittent training affect recreational endurance runners? Acute and chronic adaptations: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe García-Pinillos

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: HIIT-based running plans (2 to 3 HIIT sessions per week, combining HIIT and CR runs show athletic performance improvements in endurance runners by improving maximal oxygen uptake and running economy along with muscular and metabolic adaptations. To maximize the adaptations to training, both HIIT and CR must be part of training programs for endurance runners.

  2. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate. ((orig.))

  3. High intensity neutrino source superconducting solenoid cyrostat design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, T.M.; Nicol, T.H.; Feher, S.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is involved in the development of a 100 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. The solenoid cryostat will house the helium vessel, suspension system, thermal shield, multilayer insulation, power leads, instrumentation, a vacuum vessel and cryogenic distribution lines. This paper discusses the requirements and detailed design of these superconducting solenoid cryostats.

  4. An outline of research facilities of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  5. High intensity proton accelerator and its application (Proton Engineering Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, Spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  6. Simplified shielding calculation system for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumura, Tomomi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sasamoto, Nobuo [Center for Neutron Science, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A simplified shielding calculation system is developed for applying conceptual shielding design of facilities in the joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators. The system is composed of neutron transmission calculation part for bulk shielding using simplified formulas: Moyer model and Tesch's formula, and neutron skyshine calculation part using an empirical formula: Stapleton's formula. The system is made with the Microsoft Excel software for user's convenience. This report provides a manual for the system as well as calculation conditions used in the calculation such as Moyer model's parameters. In this report preliminary results based on data at December 8, 1999, are also shown as an example. (author)

  7. Overview of High Intensity Linac Programs in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen a boost in the support by the European Union (EU) of accelerator research in Europe. Provided they coordinate their efforts and define common goals and strategies, laboratories and institutions from the member states can receive a financial support reaching 50% of the total project cost. In the field of High Intensity Linacs, the EU has already supported the EURISOL initiative for nuclear physics, which this year is applying for funding of a Design Study, and the development of linacs for Waste Transmutation. More recently, an initiative for high-energy physics has been approved, which includes a programme for the development of pulsed linac technologies. The coordination and synergy imposed by the EU rules increase the benefit of the allocated resources. Combined with the ongoing internal projects in the partner laboratories, these European initiatives represent a strong effort focussed towards the development of linac technologies. This paper summarises the requests from the various E...

  8. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables......, and endurance time at W90 with FCPR-25, FCPR, and FCPR+25. Power reserve was calculated as the difference between applied power output at a given pedalling rate and peak crank power at this same pedalling rate. W90 was 325 (47) W. FCPR at W90 was 78 (11) rpm, resulting in FCPR-25 being 59 (8) rpm and FCPR+25...... time was negatively related to VO(2max), W90 and % MHC I, while positively related to power reserve. In conclusion, at group level, endurance time was longer at FCPR and at a pedalling rate 25% lower compared to a pedalling rate 25% higher than FCPR. Further, inter-individual physiological variables...

  9. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. High Intensity Beam Issues in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, Sandra; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD work is about limitations of high intensity proton beams observed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and, in particular, about issues at injection and transition energies. With its 53 years, the CERN PS would have to operate beyond the limit of its performance to match the future requirements. Beam instabilities driven by transverse impedance and aperture restrictions are important issues for the operation and for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade which foresees an intensity increase delivered by the injectors. The main subject of the thesis concerns the study of a fast transverse instability occurring at transition energy. The proton beams crossing this energy range are particularly sensitive to wake forces because of the slow synchrotron motion. This instability can cause a strong vertical emittance blow-up and severe losses in less than a synchrotron period. Experimental observations show that the particles at the peak density of the beam longitudinal distribution oscillate in the vertical plane du...

  11. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ 2 , where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  12. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is under high mortality but has few effective treatment modalities. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is becoming an emerging approach of noninvasively ablating solid tumor in clinics. A variety of solid tumors have been tried on thousands of patients in the last fifteen years with great success. The principle, mechanism, and clinical outcome of HIFU were introduced first. All 3022 clinical cases of HIFU treatment for the advanced pancreatic cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 241 published papers were reviewed and summarized for its efficacy, pain relief, clinical benefit rate, survival, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS score, changes in tumor size, occurrence of echogenicity, serum level, diagnostic assessment of outcome, and associated complications. Immune response induced by HIFU ablation may become an effective way of cancer treatment. Comments for a better outcome and current challenges of HIFU technology are also covered.

  13. Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Variale

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571–1582 (1999 and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999, p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.

  14. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-12-21

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ{sup 2}, where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  15. High-intensity, subkilovolt x-ray calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckuck, R.W.; Gaines, J.L.; Ernst, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A high-intensity subkilovolt x-ray calibration source utilizing proton-induced inner-shell atomic fluorescence of low-Z elements is described. The high photon yields and low bremsstrahlung background associated with this phenomenon are ideally suited to provide intense, nearly monoenergetic x-ray beams. The proton accelerator is a 3 mA, 300 kV Cockroft-Walton using a conventional rf hydrogen ion source. Seven remotely-selectable targets capable of heat dissipation of 5 kW/cm 2 are used to provide characteristic x-rays with energies between 100 and 1000 eV. Source strengths are of the order of 10 13 to 10 14 photons/sec. Methods of reducing spectral contamination due to hydrocarbon build-up on the target are discussed. Typical x-ray spectra (Cu-L, C-K and B-K) are shown

  16. 'J-KAREN' - high intensity, high contrast laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Mori, Michiaki; Nakai, Yoshiki; Okada, Hajime; Sasao, Hajime; Sagisaka, Akito; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Momoko; Kondo, Kiminori; Tateno, Ryo; Sugiyama, Akira; Daido, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masato; Kawanishi, Syunichi; Shimomura, Takuya; Tanoue, Manabu; Wakai, Daisuke; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei

    2010-01-01

    We report on the high intensity, high contrast double chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) Ti:sapphire laser system (named J-KAREN). By use of an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) preamplifier that is seeded by a cleaned high-energy pulse, a background amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) level of 10 -10 relative to the peak main femtosecond pulse on the picosecond timescales demonstrated with an output energy of 1.7 J and a pulse duration of 30 fs, corresponding to a peak power of 60TW at a 10 Hz repetition rate. This system which uses a cryogenically-cooled Ti:sapphire final amplifier generates focused peak intensity in excess of 10 20 W/cm 2 at a 10 Hz repetition rate. (author)

  17. What IAPT CBT High-Intensity Trainees Do After Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liness, Sheena; Lea, Susan; Nestler, Steffen; Parker, Hannah; Clark, David M

    2017-01-01

    The UK Department of Health Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative set out to train a large number of therapists in cognitive behaviour therapies (CBT) for depression and anxiety disorders. Little is currently known about the retention of IAPT CBT trainees, or the use of CBT skills acquired on the course in the workplace after training has finished. This study set out to conduct a follow-up survey of past CBT trainees on the IAPT High Intensity CBT Course at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London (KCL), one of the largest IAPT High Intensity courses in the UK. Past trainees (n = 212) across 6 cohorts (2008-2014 intakes) were contacted and invited to participate in a follow-up survey. A response rate of 92.5% (n = 196) was achieved. The vast majority of IAPT trainees continue to work in IAPT services posttraining (79%) and to practise CBT as their main therapy modality (94%); 61% have become CBT supervisors. A minority (23%) have progressed to other senior roles in the services. Shortcomings are reported in the use of out-of-office CBT interventions, the use of disorder-specific outcome measures and therapy recordings to inform therapy and supervision. Past trainees stay working in IAPT services and continue to use CBT methods taught on the course. Some NICE recommended treatment procedures that are likely to facilitate patients' recovery are not being routinely implemented across IAPT services. The results have implications for the continued roll out of the IAPT programme, and other future large scale training initiatives.

  18. High intensity laser interactions with sub-micron droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    A high-density source of liquid ethanol droplets has been developed, characterised and used in laser interaction studies for the first time. Mie Scattering and attenuation measurements show that droplets with a radius of (0.5 ± 0.1) μm and atomic densities of 10 19 atoms/cm 3 can be produced, bridging the gap between clusters and macroscopic solids. Lower density (10 16 cm -3 ) sprays can also be produced and these are electrostatically split into smaller droplets with a radius of (0.3 ± 0.1) μm. This work has been accepted for publication in Review of Scientific Instruments. A range of high intensity interaction experiments have been carried out with this unique sub-micron source. The absolute yield of keV x-rays, generated using 527 nm, 2 ps pulses focused to ∼10 17 W/cm 2 , was measured for the first time. ∼7 μJ of x-rays with photon energies above 1 keV were produced, comparable to yields obtained from much higher Z Xenon clusters. At intensities ≤10 16 W/cm 2 the yield from droplets exceeds that from solid targets of similar Z. The droplet medium is debris free and self-renewing, providing a suitable x-ray source for lithographic techniques. Due to the spacing between the droplets, it was expected that the droplet plasma temperature would exceed that of a solid target plasma, which is typically limited by rapid heat conduction to <1 keV. Analysis of the x-ray data shows this to be true with a mean droplet plasma temperature of (2 ± 0.8) keV, and a number of measurements exceeding 5 keV (to appear in Applied Physics Letters). The absorption of high intensity laser pulses in the dense spray has been measured for the first time and this was found to be wavelength and polarisation independent and in excess of 60%. These first interaction measurements clearly indicate that there are significant differences between the laser heating of droplet, solid and cluster targets. (author)

  19. Optimal intermittent search strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, F; Budde, C E [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina); Wio, H S [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Universidad de Cantabria and CSIC E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2009-03-27

    We study the search kinetics of a single fixed target by a set of searchers performing an intermittent random walk, jumping between different internal states. Exploiting concepts of multi-state and continuous-time random walks we have calculated the survival probability of a target up to time t, and have 'optimized' (minimized) it with regard to the transition probability among internal states. Our model shows that intermittent strategies always improve target detection, even for simple diffusion states of motion.

  20. Intermittency and random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry; Illarionov, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    A spectacular phenomenon of intermittency, i.e. a progressive growth of higher statistical moments of a physical field excited by an instability in a random medium, attracted the attention of Zeldovich in the last years of his life. At that time, the mathematical aspects underlying the physical description of this phenomenon were still under development and relations between various findings in the field remained obscure. Contemporary results from the theory of the product of independent random matrices (the Furstenberg theory) allowed the elaboration of the phenomenon of intermittency in a systematic way. We consider applications of the Furstenberg theory to some problems in cosmology and dynamo theory.

  1. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  2. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1993-02-01

    The QUEGS facility at MURR has produced a number of new results and demonstrated the range of potential applications of high resolution, high intensity Moessbauer scattering. This work has been carried out by both MU and Purdue researchers and includes published results on Na, W, pentadecane, polydimethylsiloxane and other systems, manuscripts submitted on alkali halides (Phys. Rev. B) and accurate Moessbauer lineshape measurements (Phys. Rev. C), and manuscripts in preparation on glycerol, NiAl and Moessbauer spectra obtained by modulating a scattering crystal. Recently, new collaborations have been initiated which will substantially enhance our efforts. These are with W. Steiner (Vienna), G. Coddens (Saclay), and R. D. Taylor (Los Alamos). Steiner is experienced with Fe-57 Moessbauer scattering, while Coddens specializes in quasielastic neutron scattering; both of these areas naturally complement our work. R. D. Taylor has pioneered Moessbauer spectroscopy from the time of its discovery and has already made important contributions to our study of lattice dynamics and superconductivity for lead alloyed with small quantities of tin. At the same time, a significant instrument upgrade is underway, funded in part by the DOE-URIP program

  3. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-01-01

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand

  4. Shielding for high energy, high intensity electron accelerator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warawas, C.; Chongkum, S.

    1997-03-01

    The utilization of electron accelerators (eBA) is gradually increased in Thailand. For instance, a 30-40 MeV eBA are used for tumor and cancer therapy in the hospitals, and a high current eBA in for gemstone colonization. In the near future, an application of eBA in industries will be grown up in a few directions, e.g., flue gases treatment from the coal fire-power plants, plastic processing, rubber vulcanization and food preservation. It is the major roles of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to regulate the public safety and protection of the environment. By taking into account of radiation safety aspect, high energy electrons are not only harmful to human bodies, but the radioactive nuclides can be occurred. This report presents a literature review by following the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) report No.31. This reviews for parametric calculation and shielding design of the high energy (up to 100 MeV), high intensity electron accelerator installation

  5. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Syresin, E. M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A. E.

    2004-05-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5×109 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production.

  6. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donets, E.D.; Donets, E.E.; Syresin, E.M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5x10 9 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production

  7. High-intensity interval training improves obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Nes, Bjarne Martens; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Engstrøm, Morten; Støylen, Asbjørn; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    Three hours per week of vigorous physical activity is found to be associated with reduced odds of sleep-disordered breathing. To investigate whether 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) reduced the apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) in obese subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea. In a prospective randomised controlled exercise study, 30 (body mass index 37±6 kg/m 2 , age 51±9 years) patients with sleep apnoea (AHI 41.5±25.3 events/hour) were randomised 1:1 to control or 12 weeks of supervised HIIT (4×4 min of treadmill running or walking at 90%-95% of maximal heart rate two times per week). In the HIIT group, the AHI was reduced by 7.5±11.6 events/hour (within-group pHIIT improved the AHI and self-reported daytime sleepiness in subjects with obese sleep apnoea without any change in the desaturation index and body weight.

  8. Multifunctional pulse generator for high-intensity focused ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can achieve high spatial resolution for the treatment of diseases. A major technical challenge in implementing a HIFU therapeutic system is to generate high-voltage high-current signals for effectively exciting a multichannel HIFU transducer at high efficiencies. In this paper, we present the development of a multifunctional multichannel generator/driver. The generator can produce a long burst as well as an extremely high-voltage short pulse of pseudosinusoidal waves (trigger HIFU) and second-harmonic superimposed waves for HIFU transmission. The transmission timing, waveform, and frequency can be controlled using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) via a universal serial bus (USB) microcontroller. The hardware is implemented in a compact printed circuit board. The test results of trigger HIFU reveal that the power consumption and the temperature rise of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors were reduced by 19.9% and 38.2 °C, respectively, from the previous design. The highly flexible performance of the novel generator/driver is demonstrated in the generation of second-harmonic superimposed waves, which is useful for cavitation-enhanced HIFU treatment, although the previous design exhibited difficulty in generating it.

  9. High intensity proton linear accelerator for Neutron Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP) which will be composed of a high intensity proton accelerator and various research facilities. With an energy of 1.5 GeV and a beam power of 8 MW, the accelerator is required for basic research fields and nuclear waste transmutation studies. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the accelerator. In the low energy accelerator part, a beam test with an ion source and an RFQ has been performed with a current of 80 mA and a duty factor of 10% at an energy of 2 MeV. A 1 m long high power test model of DTL has been fabricated and tested with a duty factor of 20%. In the high energy accelerator part, a superconducting (SC) linac has been selected as a main option from 100 MeV to 1.5 GeV. A test stand for SC linac cavity with equipment of cryogenics, vacuum, RF source and cavity processing and cleaning system has been prepared to test the fabrication process and physics issues. The vertical tests of β = 0.5 (145 MeV) and β = 0.89 (1.1 GeV) single cell SC cavities have been made resulting in a maximum electric field strength of 44 MV/m and 47 MV/m at 2 K, respectively. (author)

  10. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D P; Friedman, A; Vay, J L; Haber, I

    2004-01-01

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP( ) summary.html

  11. High Intensity Effects in the SNS Accumulator Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jeffrey A.; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A.; Shishlo, Andrei P.

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  12. A modified space charge routine for high intensity bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapostolle, P.; Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 a space charge calculation for bunched beam with a three-dimensional ellipsoid was proposed, replacing the usual SCHEFF routines. It removes the cylindrical symmetry required in SCHEFF and avoids the point to point interaction computation, whose number of simulation points is limited. This routine has now been improved with the introduction of two or three ellipsoids giving a good representation of the complex non-symmetrical form of the bunch (unlike the 3-d ellipsoidal assumption). The ellipsoidal density distributions are computed with a new method, avoiding the difficulty encountered near the centre (the axis in 2-d problems) by the previous method. It also provides a check of the ellipsoidal symmetry for each part of the distribution. Finally, the Fourier analysis reported in 1991 has been replaced by a very convenient Hermite expansion, which gives a simple but accurate representation of practical distributions. Comparisons with other space charge routines have been made, particularly with the ones applying other techniques such as SCHEFF. Introduced in the versatile beam dynamics code DYNAC, it should provide a good tool for the study of the various parameters responsible for the halo formation in high intensity linacs. (orig.)

  13. High intensity region segmentation in MR imaging of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, F; Filipuzzi, M; Graffigna, J P; Isoardi, R; Noceti, M

    2013-01-01

    Numerous pathologies are often manifest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as hyperintense or bright regions as compared to normal tissue. It is of particular interest to develop an algorithm to detect, identify and define those Regions of Interest (ROI) when analyzing MRI studies, particularly for lesions of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study is to analyze those parameters which optimize segmentation of the areas of interest. To establish which areas should be considered as hyperintense regions, we developed a database (DB), with studies of patients diagnosed with MS. This disease causes axonal demyelination and it is expressed as bright regions in PD, T2 and FLAIR MRI sequences. Thus, with more than 4300 hyperintense regions validated by an expert physician, an algorithm was developed to detect such spots, approximating the results the expert obtained. Alongside these hyperintense lesion regions, it also detected bone regions with high intensity levels, similar to the intensity of the lesions, but with other features that allow a good differentiation.The algorithm will then detect ROIs with similar intensity levels and performs classification through data mining techniques

  14. A review of adolescent high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Greig R M; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant

    2014-08-01

    Despite the promising evidence supporting positive effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the metabolic profile in adults, there is limited research targeting adolescents. Given the rising burden of chronic disease, it is essential to implement strategies to improve the cardiometabolic health in adolescence, as this is a key stage in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours. This narrative review summarises evidence of the relative efficacy of HIIT regarding the metabolic health of adolescents. Methodological inconsistencies confound our ability to draw conclusions; however, there is meaningful evidence supporting HIIT as a potentially efficacious exercise modality for use in the adolescent cohort. Future research must examine the effects of various HIIT protocols to determine the optimum strategy to deliver cardiometabolic health benefits. Researchers should explicitly show between-group differences for HIIT intervention and steady-state exercise or control groups, as the magnitude of difference between HIIT and other exercise modalities is of key interest to public health. There is scope for research to examine the palatability of HIIT as an exercise modality for adolescents through investigating perceived enjoyment during and after HIIT, and consequent long-term exercise adherence.

  15. Pulmonary Vein Isolation by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Antz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI using radiofrequency current (RFC ablation is a potentially curative treatment option for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. The shortcomings of the RFC technology (technically challenging, long procedure times, complications steadily kindle the interest in new energy sources and catheter designs. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU has the ability to precisely focus ultrasound waves in a defined area with a high energy density. HIFU balloon catheters (BC positioned at the PV ostia appear to be an ideal tool to transmit the ablation energy in a circumferential manner to the PV ostia and may therefore bear substantial advantage over conventional ablation catheters in PVI procedures. In clinical trials the HIFU BC has shown promising success rates similar to RFC catheter ablation for PVI in patients with AF. However, procedure times are still long and serious complications have been observed. Therefore, it may be a valuable alternative to the conventional techniques in selected patients but further clinical trials have to be initiated.

  16. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  17. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Telis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men. As new focal therapies become more popular in treatment of prostate cancer, failure cases requiring salvage therapy with either surgical or other techniques are being reported. Objective. To report the options in treatment of prostate cancer after recurrence or failure of the primary treatment modality. Methods. We report a salvage robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP for prostate cancer recurrence following high intensity focused ultrasound treatment (HIFU in the United States. Results. A 67-year-old man who underwent HIFU treatment for prostate adenocarcinoma 2 years prior was presented with a rising prostate specific antigen of 6.1 ng/mL to our clinic. A biopsy proven recurrent disease in the area of previous treatment documented the failure of treatment. The patient elected to undergo a salvage RALP. The operation time was 159 minutes. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 1 with no complications. The catheter was removed on post-op day 10. The patient reserved sexual function and urinary continence. The PSA levels on 6 months’ follow-up are undetectable. Conclusions. Salvage RALP is an effective and safe treatment choice for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma following failed HIFU treatment if operated by an experienced surgeon.

  18. Production and Studies of Photocathodes for High Intensity Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallay, E; Legros, P; Suberlucq, Guy; Trautner, H

    2000-01-01

    For short, high-intensity electron bunches, alkali-tellurides have proved to be a reliable photo-cathode material. Measurements of lifetimes in an rf gun of the CLIC Test Facility II at field strengths greater than 100 MV/m are presented. Before and after using them in this gun, the spectral response of the CS-Te and Rb-Te cathodes were determined with the help of an optical parametric oscillator. The behaviour of both materials can be described by Spicer's 3-step model. Whereas during the use the threshold for photo-emission in Cs-Te was shifted to higher proton energies, that of Rb-Te did not change. Our latest investigations on the stoichiometric ratio of the components are shown. The preparation of the photo-cathodes was monitored with 320 nm wavelength light , with the aim of improving the measurement sensitivity. The latest results on the protection of Cs-Te cathode surfaces with CsBr against pollution are summarized. New investigations on high mean current production are presented.,

  19. Creatine kinase response to high-intensity aerobic exercise in adult-onset muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren P; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Hansen, Regitze S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies.......We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies....

  20. High-intensity lower limb endurance training in chronic respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takako; Arizono, Shinichi; Hanada, Masatoshi; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity endurance training is mainly undertaken during pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic respiratory disease. High-intensity endurance training is recommended in many clinical management guidelines. High-intensity endurance training involves training generally at an intensity of at 60-80% of the patient’s peak work capacity or higher. The effects of high-intensity lower limb endurance training have mostly been investigated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD...

  1. Intermittent Testicular Torsion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-02

    Jun 2, 2017 ... had prior episodes of testicular pain, suggesting that they may have had intermittent torsion before .... None of the patients had antecedent history of sexual exposure, fever, or urinary tract infection .... torsion of the spermatic cord portends an increased risk of acute testicular infarction. J Urol 2008;180 4 ...

  2. Soccer training: high-intensity interval training is mood disturbing while small sided games ensure mood balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Okba; Haddad, Monoem; Majed, Lina; Ben Khalifa, Wissam; Hamza, Marzougui; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-09

    BACKGROUNDː The aim of the study was to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) versus small-sided games (SSG) in soccer on both the physiological responses and the mood state of players. Sixteen professional soccer players took part in the study (age: 24.1±0.9 years). Testing of players was conducted on separate days in a randomized and counter-balanced order (each training session: 28-min: 4x4 minutes work with 3-min of passive recovery in-between). Effort: HIIT: intermittent 15-s runs at 110% maximal aerobic speed with 15-s of passive recovery in-between. SSG: 4 versus 4 players on a 25x35m pitch size with full-involvement play. Psychological responses before- and after- each training-session were assessed using the profile of mood-state (POMS: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion). The players' heart rate (HR) was continuously measured, whereas ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]) were collected ~3-min after each training-session. HIIT and SSG showed no significant difference in HR, RPE and [La] responses. The HIIT compared with SSG resulted in: an increased total mood disturbance (pmind the mood-related advantages of the SSG shown in the present study.

  3. High intensive short laser pulse interaction with submicron clusters media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A. Ya

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of short intense laser pulses with structured targets, such as clusters, exhibits unique features, stemming from the enhanced absorption of the incident laser light compared to solid targets. Due to the increased absorption, these targets are heated significantly, leading to enhanced emission of x rays in the keV range and generation of electrons and multiple charged ions with kinetic energies from tens of keV to tens of MeV. Possible applications of these targets can be an electron/ion source for a table top accelerator, a neutron source for a material damage study, or an x ray source for microscopy or lithography. The overview of recent results, obtained by the high intensive short laser pulse interaction with different submicron clusters media will be presented. High resolution K and L shell spectra of plasma generated by superintense laser irradiation of micron sized Ar, Kr and Xe clusters have been measured with intensity 10"17"-10"19"W/cm"2"and a pulse duration of 30-1000fs. It is found that hot electrons produced by high contrast laser pulses allow the isochoric heating of clusters and shift the ion balance toward the higher charge states, which enhances both the X ray line yield and the ion kinetic energy. Irradiation of clusters, produced from such gas mixture, by a fs Ti:Sa laser pulses allows to enhance the soft X ray radiation of Heβ(665.7eV)and Lyα(653.7eV)of Oxygen in 2-8 times compare with the case of using as targets pure CO"2"or N"2"O clusters and reach values 2.8x10"10"(∼3μJ)and 2.7x10"10"(∼2.9μJ)ph/(sr·pulse), respectively. Nanostructure conventional soft X ray images of 100nm thick Mo and Zr foils in a wide field of view (cm"2"scale)with high spatial resolution (700nm)are obtained using the LiF crystals as soft X ray imaging detectors. When the target used for the ion acceleration studies consists of solid density clusters embedded into the background gas, its irradiation by high intensity laser light makes the target

  4. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Development of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Hydrophone System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, Mark E.; Gessert, James

    2009-01-01

    The growing clinical use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has driven a need for reliable, reproducible measurements of HIFU acoustic fields. We have previously presented data on a reflective scatterer approach, incorporating several novel features for improved bandwidth, reliability, and reproducibility [Proc. 2005 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1739-1742]. We now report on several design improvements which have increase the signal to noise ratio of the system, and potentially reduced the cost of implementation. For the scattering element, we now use an artificial sapphire material to provide a more uniform radiating surface. The receiver is a segmented, truncated spherical structure with a 10 cm radius; the scattering element is positioned at the center of the sphere. The receiver is made from 25 micron thick, biaxially stretched PVDF, with a Pt-Au electrode on the front surface. In the new design, a specialized backing material provides the stiffness required to maintain structural stability, while at the same time providing both electrical shielding and ultrasonic absorption. Compared with the previous version, the new receiver design has improved the noise performance by 8-12 dB; the new scattering sphere has reduced the scattering loss by another 14 dB, producing an effective sensitivity of -298 dB re 1 microVolt/Pa. The design trade-off still involves receiver sensitivity with effective spot size, and signal distortion from the scatter structure. However, the reduced cost and improved repeatability of the new scatter approach makes the overall design more robust for routine waveform measurements of HIFU systems.

  6. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1990-10-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  7. Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  8. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1991-05-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is not fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using Bragg scattering filters to suppress unwanted radiation. These have led to a Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to make a novel independent determination of interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na metal and the charge density wave satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. Using a specially constructed sample cell which enables us to vary temperatures from -10 C to 110 C, we have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. Included are the temperature and Q dependence of the scattering in pentadecane and diffusion in glycerol

  9. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation around the tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Jun Yang; Liu, Chenhui; Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been emerging as an effective and noninvasive modality in cancer treatment with very promising clinical results. However, a small vessel in the focal region could be ruptured, which is an important concern for the safety of HIFU ablation. In this study, lesion formation in the polyacrylamide gel phantom embedded with different tubing (inner diameters of 0.76 mm and 3 mm) at varied flow speeds (17-339 cm/s) by HIFU ablation was photographically recorded. Produced lesions have decreased length (~30%) but slightly increased width (~6%) in comparison to that without the embedded tubing. Meanwhile, bubble activities during the exposures were measured by passive cavitation detection (PCD) at the varied pulse repetition frequency (PRF, 10-30 Hz) and duty cycle (DC, 10%-20%) of the HIFU bursts. High DC and low flow speed were found to produce stronger bubble cavitation whereas no significant influence of the PRF. In addition, high-speed photography illustrated that the rupture of tubing was produced consistently after the first HIFU burst within 20 ms and then multiple bubbles would penetrate into the intraluminal space of tubing through the rupture site by the acoustic radiation force. Alignment of HIFU focus to the anterior surface, middle, and posterior surface of tubing led to different characteristics of vessel rupture and bubble introduction. In summary, HIFU-induced vessel rupture is possible as shown in this phantom study; produced lesion sizes and shapes are dependent on the focus alignment to the tubing, flow speed, and tubing properties; and bubble cavitation and the formation liquid jet may be one of the major mechanisms of tubing rupture as shown in the high-speed photography.

  10. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  11. Topics in high-intensity laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses with pre-formed and laser-produced plasmas is studied. Through experiments and simulations we have investigated stimulated Compton scattering in preformed plasmas and the plasma physics aspects of tunnel-ionized gases. A theoretical study is presented on the nonlinear dynamics of relativistic plasma waves driven by colinear optical mixing. The electron density-fluctuation spectra induced by stimulated Compton scattering have been directly observed for the first time. A CO2 laser was focused into pre-formed plasmas with densities n(e) varied from 0.4-6 x 10(exp 16) cu cm. The fluctuations corresponding to backscatter were probed using Thomson scattering. At low n(e), the scattered spectra peak at a frequency shift Delta omega is approximately kv e and appears to be in a linear regime. At the highest n(e), a nonlinear saturation of the SCS instability is observed due to a self-induced perturbation of the electron distribution function. Tunnel-ionized plasmas have been studied through experiments and particle simulations. Experimentally, qualitative evidence for plasma temperature control by varying the laser polarization was obtained by the measurement of stimulated Compton scattering fluctuation spectra and x-ray emission from such plasmas. A higher parallel temperature than expected from the single-particle tunneling model was observed. Simulations indicate that stochastic heating and the Weibel instability play an important role in plasma heating in all directions and isotropization. The non-linear dynamics associated with beatwave (Delta omega, Delta k) excited long wavelength plasma waves in the presence of strong, short wavelength density ripple have been examined, using the relativistic Lagrangian oscillator model. This model shows period doubling that roughly follows Feigenbaum scaling, and a transition to chaos

  12. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C 6+ and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C 6+ spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times increase in

  13. Frequency conversion of high-intensity, femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, P S

    1997-06-01

    Almost since the invention of the laser, frequency conversion of optical pulses via non- linear processes has been an area of active interest. However, third harmonic generation using ~(~1 (THG) in solids is an area that has not received much attention because of ma- terial damage limits. Recently, the short, high-intensity pulses possible with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems allow the use of intensities on the order of 1 TW/cm2 in thin solids without damage. As a light source to examine single-crystal THG in solids and other high field inter- actions, the design and construction of a Ti:sapphire-based CPA laser system capable of ultimately producing peak powers of 100 TW is presented. Of special interest is a novel, all-reflective pulse stretcher design which can stretch a pulse temporally by a factor of 20,000. The stretcher design can also compensate for the added material dispersion due to propagation through the amplifier chain and produce transform-limited 45 fs pulses upon compression. A series of laser-pumped amplifiers brings the peak power up to the terawatt level at 10 Hz, and the design calls for additional amplifiers to bring the power level to the 100 TW level for single shot operation. The theory for frequency conversion of these short pulses is presented, focusing on conversion to the third harmonic in single crystals of BBO, KD*P, and d-LAP (deuterated I-arginine phosphate). Conversion efficiencies of up to 6% are obtained with 500 fs pulses at 1053 nm in a 3 mm thick BBO crystal at 200 GW/cm 2. Contributions to this process by unphasematched, cascaded second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are shown to be very significant. The angular relationship between the two orders is used to measure the tensor elements of C = xt3)/4 with Crs = -1.8 x 1O-23 m2/V2 and .15Cri + .54Crs = 4.0 x 1O-23 m2/V2. Conversion efficiency in d-LAP is about 20% that in BBO and conversion efficiency in KD*P is 1% that of BBO. It is calculated

  14. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  15. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  16. Quasistatic Dynamics with Intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppänen, Juho; Stenlund, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    We study an intermittent quasistatic dynamical system composed of nonuniformly hyperbolic Pomeau–Manneville maps with time-dependent parameters. We prove an ergodic theorem which shows almost sure convergence of time averages in a certain parameter range, and identify the unique physical family of measures. The theorem also shows convergence in probability in a larger parameter range. In the process, we establish other results that will be useful for further analysis of the statistical properties of the model.

  17. Quasistatic Dynamics with Intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppänen, Juho; Stenlund, Mikko, E-mail: mikko.stenlund@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Finland)

    2016-06-15

    We study an intermittent quasistatic dynamical system composed of nonuniformly hyperbolic Pomeau–Manneville maps with time-dependent parameters. We prove an ergodic theorem which shows almost sure convergence of time averages in a certain parameter range, and identify the unique physical family of measures. The theorem also shows convergence in probability in a larger parameter range. In the process, we establish other results that will be useful for further analysis of the statistical properties of the model.

  18. Within-session responses to high-intensity interval training in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-02-01

    Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake. During subsequent sessions, they completed moderate intensity exercise, HIIT, or sprint interval training. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured. Oxygen uptake and heart rate increased (p  0.05) to moderate intensity exercise. Peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were higher (p HIIT (90% peak oxygen uptake and 99% peak heart rate) and sprint interval training (80% peak oxygen uptake and 96% peak heart rate) versus moderate intensity exercise. Despite a higher intensity and peak cardiorespiratory strain, all participants preferred interval training versus moderate exercise. Examining long-term efficacy and feasibility of interval training in this population is merited, considering that exercise intensity is recognized as the most important variable factor of exercise programming to optimize maximal oxygen uptake. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury (SCI) reduces locomotion which impairs voluntary physical activity, typically resulting in a reduction in peak oxygen uptake and enhanced chronic disease risk. In various able-bodied populations, completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been consistently reported to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and other health-related outcomes, although its efficacy in persons with SCI is poorly understood. Data from this study in 9 men and women with SCI show similar changes in oxygen uptake and heart in response to HIIT compared to a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise, although peak values were higher in response to HIIT. Due to

  19. Neurovascular Saturation Thresholds Under High Intensity Auditory Stimulation During Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Jennifer L.; Van Nortwick, Amy S.; Meighan, Peter C.; Rector, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic responses is important in understanding brain function, interpreting brain imaging signals, and assessing pathological conditions. Tissue state is a major factor in neurovascular coupling and may alter the relationship between neural and hemodynamic activity. However, most neurovascular coupling studies are performed under anesthetized or sedated states which may have severe consequences on coupling mechanisms. Our previous studies showed that following prolonged periods of sleep deprivation, evoked hemodynamic responses were muted despite consistent electrical responses, suggesting that sustained neural activity may decrease vascular compliance and limit blood perfusion. To investigate potential perfusion limitations during natural waking conditions, we simultaneously measured evoked response potentials (ERPs) and evoked hemodynamic responses using optical imaging techniques to increasing intensity auditory stimulation. The relationship between evoked hemodynamic responses and integrated ERPs followed a sigmoid relationship where the hemodynamic response approached saturation at lower stimulus intensities than the ERP. If limits in blood perfusion are caused by stretching of the vessel wall, then these results suggest there may be decreased vascular compliance due to sustained neural activity during wake, which could limit vascular responsiveness and local blood perfusion. Conditions that stress cerebral vasculature, such as sleep deprivation and some pathologies (e.g., epilepsy), may further decrease vascular compliance, limit metabolic delivery, and cause tissue trauma. While ERPs and evoked hemodynamic responses provide an indication of the correlated neural activity and metabolic demand, the relationship between these two responses is complex and the different measurement techniques are not directly correlated. Future studies are required to verify these findings and further explore neurovascular coupling during

  20. Trunk muscle activation during moderate- and high-intensity running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G; Cappa, Dario; Power, Geoffrey A

    2009-12-01

    Time constraints are cited as a barrier to regular exercise. If particular exercises can achieve multiple training functions, the number of exercises and the time needed to achieve a training goal may be decreased. It was the objective of this study to compare the extent of trunk muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during running and callisthenic activities. EMG activity of the external obliques, lower abdominals (LA), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) was monitored while triathletes and active nonrunners ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 60% and 80% of their maximum heart rate (HR) reserve, as well as during 30 repetitions of a partial curl-up and 3 min of a modified Biering-Sørensen back extension exercise. The mean root mean square (RMS) amplitude of the EMG signal was monitored over 10-s periods with measures normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction rotating curl-up (external obliques), hollowing exercise (LA), or back extension (ULES and LSES). A main effect for group was that triathletes had greater overall activation of the external obliques (p runs, respectively, than with the curl-ups (p = 0.001). The back extension exercise provided less ULES (p = 0.009) and LSES (p = 0.0001) EMG activity than the 60% and 80% runs, respectively. In conclusion, triathletes had greater trunk activation than nonrunners did while running, which could have contributed to their better performance. Back-stabilizing muscles can be activated more effectively with running than with a prolonged back extension activity. Running can be considered as an efficient, multifunctional exercise combining cardiovascular and trunk endurance benefits.

  1. Analysis of High-Intensity Skating in Top-Class Ice Hockey Match-Play in Relation to Training Status and Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignell, Erik; Fransson, Dan; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2018-05-01

    Lignell, E, Fransson, D, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. Analysis of high-intensity skating in top-class ice hockey match-play in relation to training status and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1303-1310, 2018-We examined high-intensity activities in a top-class ice-hockey game and the effect of training status. Male ice-hockey players (n = 36) from the National Hockey League participated. Match analysis was performed during a game and physical capacity was assessed by a submaximal Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Ice-hockey test, level 1 (YYIR1-IHSUB). Venous blood samples were collected 24-hour post-game to determine markers of muscle damage. Players performed 119 ± 8 and 31 ± 3 m·min of high intensity and sprint skating, respectively, during a game. Total distance covered was 4,606 ± 219 m (2,260-6,749 m), of which high-intensity distance was 2042 ± 97 m (757-3,026 m). Sprint-skating speed was 5-8% higher (p ≤ 0.05) in periods 1 and 2 vs. period 3 and overtime. Defensemen (D) covered 29% more (p ≤ 0.05) skating in total than forwards (F) and were on the ice 47% longer. However, F performed 54% more (p ≤ 0.05) high-intensity skating per minute than defensemen. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) was 338 ± 45 (78-757) U·L 24-hour post-game. Heart rate loading during YYIR1-IHSUB correlated inversely (p ≤ 0.05) to the frequency of high-intensity skating bouts (r = -0.55) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (r = -0.85) and positively to post-game CK (r = 0.49; p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, ice hockey is a multiple-sprint sport that provokes fatigue in the latter half of a game. Forwards perform more intense skating than defensemen. Moreover, high-intensity game activities during top-class ice hockey are correlated with cardiovascular loading during a submaximal skating test. Taken together, training of elite ice-hockey players should improve the ability for repeated high-intensity skating, and testing should include the YYIR1-IHSUB test as an indicator for ice

  2. Clinical significance of periventricular high intensity lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaieda, Makoto

    1991-01-01

    In this study, vascular dementia (VD, 31 cases), senile dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT, 36 cases) and mixed type dementia (14 cases) were studied by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diagnosis of dementia was made according to DSM-III and Hachinski's ischemic score. The areas of periventricular high intensity lesions (PVH) and those of brain parenchyma were measured by digitizer which was connected to a computer. The PVH score was obtained by dividing the areas of PVH by those of brain parenchyma at the level of the body of the lateral ventricle. A multiple variable analysis was applied to the PVH scores and risk factors for dementia using Hayashi's quantification method I. The multiple correlation coefficient between the PVH and the risk factors was 0.685. The most significant correlation was found between Hachinski's ischemic score and the PVH score (partial correlation coefficient: 0.58). Significant correlations were also found between ADL and the PVH score (0.25), as well as between the Hasegawa dementia score and the PVH score (0.24). Using the student T test, it was shown that the large PVH group was significantly correlated to poor ADL, whereas the small PVH group was not. The large PVH group in VD showed lower Hasegawa score than the small PVH group. On the other hand, there was no such correlation in DAT. PVH with prolongation of T2 could exist in various pathological states irrespective of their causes. Diffuse PVH tended to be frequently observed in VD together with poor ADL. It was therefore thought that brain ischemia was the main cause of PVH. (author)

  3. Clinical significance of periventricular high intensity lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaieda, Makoto [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-04-01

    In this study, vascular dementia (VD, 31 cases), senile dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT, 36 cases) and mixed type dementia (14 cases) were studied by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diagnosis of dementia was made according to DSM-III and Hachinski's ischemic score. The areas of periventricular high intensity lesions (PVH) and those of brain parenchyma were measured by digitizer which was connected to a computer. The PVH score was obtained by dividing the areas of PVH by those of brain parenchyma at the level of the body of the lateral ventricle. A multiple variable analysis was applied to the PVH scores and risk factors for dementia using Hayashi's quantification method I. The multiple correlation coefficient between the PVH and the risk factors was 0.685. The most significant correlation was found between Hachinski's ischemic score and the PVH score (partial correlation coefficient: 0.58). Significant correlations were also found between ADL and the PVH score (0.25), as well as between the Hasegawa dementia score and the PVH score (0.24). Using the student T test, it was shown that the large PVH group was significantly correlated to poor ADL, whereas the small PVH group was not. The large PVH group in VD showed lower Hasegawa score than the small PVH group. On the other hand, there was no such correlation in DAT. PVH with prolongation of T2 could exist in various pathological states irrespective of their causes. Diffuse PVH tended to be frequently observed in VD together with poor ADL. It was therefore thought that brain ischemia was the main cause of PVH. (author).

  4. Intermittency in Complex Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Redondo, Jose M.

    2017-04-01

    Experimental results of the complex turbulent wake of a cilinder in 2D [1] and 3D flows [2] were used to investigate the scaling of structure functions, similar research was also performed on wave propagation and breaking in the Ocean [3], in the the stratified Atmosphere (ABL) [4] and in a 100large flume (UPC) for both regular and irregular waves, where long time series of waves propagating and generating breaking turbulence velocity rms and higher order measurements were taken in depth. [3,5] by means of a velocimeter SONTEK3-D. The probability distribution functions of the velocity differences and their non Gaussian distribution related to the energy spectrum indicate that irregularity is an important source of turbulence. From Kolmogorov's K41 and K61 intermittency correction: the p th-order longitudinal velocity structure function δul at scale l in the inertial range of three-dimensional fully developed turbulence is related by ⟨δup⟩ = ⟨(u(x+ l)- u(x))p⟩ ˜ ɛp0/3lp/3 l where ⟨...⟩ represents the spatial average over flow domain, with ɛ0 the mean energy dissipation per unit mass and l is the separation distance. The importance of the random nature of the energy dissipation led to the K62 theory of intermittency, but locality and non-homogeneity are key issues. p p/3 p/3 ξd ⟨δul⟩ ˜ ⟨ɛl ⟩l ˜ l and ξp = p 3 + τp/3 , where now ɛl is a fractal energy dissipation at scale l, τp/3 is the scaling of and ξp is the scaling exponent of the velocity structure function of order p. Both in K41 and K62, the structure functions of third order related to skewness is ξ3 = 1. But this is not true either. We show that scaling exponents ξp do deviate from early studies that only investigated homogeneous turbulence, where a large inertial range dominates. The use of multi-fractal analysis and improvements on Structure function calculations on standard Enhanced mixing is an essential property of turbulence and efforts to alter and to control

  5. Intermittency in nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploszajczak, M.; Tucholski, A.

    1990-07-01

    Fluctuations of the fragment size distribution in a percolation model and in nuclear multifragmentation following the breakup of high energy nuclei in the nuclear emulsion are studied using the method of scaled factorial moments. An intermittent patern of fluctuations is found in the data as well as in the percolation lattice calculation. This is a consequence of both a self-similarity in the fragment size distribution and a random character for the scaling law. These fluctuations are in general well-described by percolation model. The multifractal dimensions are calculated and their relevance to the study of possible critical behaviour is pointed out. (orig.)

  6. Multidimensional intermittency in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, J.; Hwa, R.C.

    1992-06-01

    The study of intermittency in high-energy hadronic collisions by the Monte Carlo code ECCO is extended to 3-dimensional phase space. Strong intermittency is found in agreement with the data. Fluctuation in the impact parameter is responsible for the intermittency in lnp T , and the transverse-momentum conservation leads to negative intermittency slopes in the azimuthal angle φ. The Ochs-Wosiek plots are linear in all dimensions having universal slopes. An exponent ν = 1.448 emerges to characterize multiparticle production in pp collisions. The properties of G moments are also examined, and the fractal dimensions determined

  7. Active Recovery After High-Intensity Interval-Training Does Not Attenuate Training Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT can be extremely demanding and can consequently produce high blood lactate levels. Previous studies have shown that lactate is a potent metabolic stimulus, which is important for adaptation. Active recovery (ACT after intensive exercise, however, enhances blood lactate removal in comparison with passive recovery (PAS and, consequently, may attenuate endurance performance improvements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of regular ACT on training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle.Methods: Twenty-six well-trained male intermittent sport athletes (age: 23.5 ± 2.5 years; O2max: 55.36 ± 3.69 ml min kg-1 participated in a randomized controlled trial consisting of 4 weeks of a running-based HIIT mesocycle with a total of 12 HIIT sessions. After each training session, participants completed 15 min of either moderate jogging (ACT or PAS. Subjects were matched to the ACT or PAS groups according to age and performance. Before the HIIT program and 1 week after the last training session, the athletes performed a progressive incremental exercise test on a motor-driven treadmill to determine O2max, maximum running velocity (vmax, the running velocity at which O2max occurs (vO2max, and anaerobic lactate threshold (AT. Furthermore, repeated sprint ability (RSA were determined.Results: In the whole group the HIIT mesocycle induced significant or small to moderate changes in vmax (p < 0.001, effect size [ES] = 0.65,, vO2max (p < 0.001, ES = 0.62, and AT (p < 0.001, ES = 0.56 compared with the values before the intervention. O2max and RSA remained unchanged throughout the study. In addition, no significant differences in the changes were noted in any of the parameters between ACT and PAS except for AT (p < 0.05, ES = 0.57.Conclusion: Regular use of individualized ACT did not attenuate training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle compared to PAS. Interestingly, we found that the ACT

  8. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  9. 76 FR 44613 - Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy has designated eight additional counties as High Intensity Drug...

  10. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  11. Underutilization of high-intensity statin therapy after hospitalization for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S; Kent, Shia T; Brown, Todd M; Farkouh, Michael E; Levitan, Emily B; Yun, Huifeng; Sharma, Pradeep; Safford, Monika M; Kilgore, Meredith; Muntner, Paul; Bittner, Vera

    2015-01-27

    National guidelines recommend use of high-intensity statins after hospitalization for coronary heart disease (CHD) events. This study sought to estimate the proportion of Medicare beneficiaries filling prescriptions for high-intensity statins after hospital discharge for a CHD event and to analyze whether statin intensity before hospitalization is associated with statin intensity after discharge. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries between 65 and 74 years old. Beneficiaries were included in the analysis if they filled a statin prescription after a CHD event (myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization) in 2007, 2008, or 2009. High-intensity statins included atorvastatin 40 to 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 to 40 mg, and simvastatin 80 mg. Among 8,762 Medicare beneficiaries filling a statin prescription after a CHD event, 27% of first post-discharge fills were for a high-intensity statin. The percent filling a high-intensity statin post-discharge was 23.1%, 9.4%, and 80.7%, for beneficiaries not taking statins pre-hospitalization, taking low/moderate-intensity statins, and taking high-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Compared with beneficiaries not on statin therapy pre-hospitalization, multivariable adjusted risk ratios for filling a high-intensity statin were 4.01 (3.58-4.49) and 0.45 (0.40-0.52) for participants taking high-intensity and low/moderate-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Only 11.5% of beneficiaries whose first post-discharge statin fill was for a low/moderate-intensity statin filled a high-intensity statin within 365 days of discharge. The majority of Medicare beneficiaries do not fill high-intensity statins after hospitalization for CHD. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fate in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Gaardsting, O; Hougaard Jensen, K

    1986-01-01

    , or an ankle/arm pressure index below 50% were individually significantly associated with progression of the arteriosclerotic disease. These findings show the importance of peripheral blood pressure measurements in the management of patients with intermittent claudication due to arteriosclerotic disease........ The rate of clinical progression of the arteriosclerotic disease (that is, rest pain or gangrene) of the worst affected leg was 7.5% in the first year after referral. Thereafter the rate was 2.2% a year. An ankle systolic blood pressure below 70 mm Hg, a toe systolic blood pressure below 40 mm Hg...... 113 of the patients (44%) had died. Causes of death were no different from those in the general population. Mortality was twice that of the general population matched for age and sex. Mortality among the men was twice that among the women. In men under 60 mortality was four times that expected...

  13. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  14. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Helena A; Randers, Morten B; Heiner-Møller, Anja; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM. The distances covered in high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting were longer (p game types, the amount of HIR was reduced by 24-27% (p game. The midfielders covered longer (p game and in the most intense 5-minute period of the games, whereas no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus, our results are important to coaches to prepare players to meet the challenges of international soccer games and show that the ability to perform intense intermittent exercise should be trained regularly in elite female players.

  15. The effect of high intensity exercise and anticipation on trunk and lower limb biomechanics during a crossover cutting manoeuvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Enda F; Richter, Chris; O'connor, Siobhan; Moran, Kieran A

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effects of high intensity, intermittent exercise (HIIP) and anticipation on trunk, pelvic and lower limb biomechanics during a crossover cutting manoeuvre. Twenty-eight male, varsity athletes performed crossover cutting manoeuvres in anticipated and unanticipated conditions pre- and post-HIIP. Kinematic and kinetic variables were captured using a motion analysis system. Statistical parametric mapping (repeated-measures ANOVA) was used to identify differences in biomechanical patterns. Results demonstrated that both unanticipation and fatigue (HIIP) altered the biomechanics of the crossover cutting manoeuvre, whereas no interactions effects were observed. Unanticipation resulted in less trunk and pelvic side flexion in the direction of cut (d = 0.70 - 0.79). This led to increased hip abductor and external rotator moments and increased knee extensor and valgus moments with small effects (d = 0.24-0.42), potentially increasing ACL strain. The HIIP resulted in trivial to small effects only with a decrease in internal knee rotator and extensor moment and decreased knee power absorption (d = 0.35), reducing potential ACL strain. The effect of trunk and hip control exercises in unanticipated conditions on the crossover cutting manoeuvre should be investigated with a view to refining ACL injury prevention programmes.

  16. High-intensity, long-duration, continuous AE activity events associated with Alfvénic fluctuations in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Alan; Klausner, Virginia; Ojeda-González, Arian

    2017-11-01

    The interaction between a fast-speed and a low-speed stream causes large-amplitude Alfvénic fluctuations; consequently, the intermittency and the brief intervals of southward magnetic field associated with Alfvén waves may cause high levels of AE activity, the so-called high-intensity, long-duration, continuous AE activity (HILDCAA). In this article, the 4 h windowed Pearson cross-correlation (4WPCC) between the solar wind velocity and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components is performed in order to confirm that the less strict HILDCAA (HILDCAAs*) events include a larger number of Alfvén waves than the HILDCAA events, once HILDCAAs disregard part of the phenomenon. Actually, a HILDCAA event is entirely contained within a HILDCAA* event. However, the opposite is not necessarily true. This article provides a new insight, since the increase of Alfvén waves results in an increase of auroral electrojet activity; consequently, it can cause HILDCAAs* events. Another important aspect of this article is that the superposed epoch analysis (SEA) results reaffirm that the HILDCAAs* are associated with high-speed solar streams (HSSs), and also the HILDCAAs* present the same physical characteristics of the traditional HILDCAA events.

  17. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women....... A three month intervention of high-intensity aerobic training reduces risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to a similar extent in late pre- and early postmenopausal women....... the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (ptraining intervention reduced body weight (p

  18. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  19. Naftidrofuryl for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, T L M; Vander Stichele, R; Lehert, P; Van Bortel, L

    2008-04-16

    Lifestyle changes and cardiovascular prevention measures are a primary treatment for intermittent claudication (IC). Symptomatic treatment with vasoactive agents (Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) for medicines from the World Health Organisation class CO4A) is controversial. To evaluate evidence on the efficacy and safety of oral naftidrofuryl (ATC CO4 21) versus placebo on the pain-free walking distance (PFWD) of people with IC by using a meta-analysis based on individual patient data (IPD). The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group searched their Trials Register (last searched December 2007) and CENTRAL (last searched 2007, Issue 4). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, the Science Citation Index and contacted the authors and checked the reference lists of retrieved articles. We asked the manufacturing company for IPD. We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with low or moderate risk of bias for which the IPD were available. We collected data from the electronic data file or from the case report form and checked the data by a statistical quality control procedure. All randomized patients were analyzed following the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle. The geometric mean of the relative improvement in PFWD was calculated for both treatment groups in all identified studies. The effect of the drug was assessed compared with placebo on final walking distance (WDf) using multilevel and random-effect models and adjusting for baseline walking distance (WD0). For the responder analysis, therapeutic success was defined as an improvement of walking distance of at least 50%. We included seven studies in the IPD (n = 1266 patients). One of these studies (n = 183) was only used in the sensitivity analysis so that the main analysis included 1083 patients. The ratio of the relative improvement in PFWD (naftidrofuryl compared with placebo) was 1.37 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32 to 1.51, P < 0.001). The

  20. Intermedia and Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Bálint

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that medial reflections have been initiated by attempts to secure the borders of discrete medial forms and to define the modus operandi of each essentialized medial area. Later on, the focus of study has shifted to plurimedial formations and the interactions between predefined medial genres. In the last few decades, taxonomic approaches to various multi-, inter-, and transmedial phenomena dominated the discussions, which offered invaluable support in mapping the terrain, but at the same time hindered the analysis of the ephemeral, time-dependent aspects of plurimedial operations. While we explore the properties of each medial configuration, we lose sight of the actual historical drivers that produce ever-new configurations. My thesis is that any discourse on intermediality should be paralleled by a discourse on cultural intermittency, and consequently, media studies should involve an approach that focuses on the “ecosystem” of the constantly renewing media configurations from the point of view of their vitalizing potential and capability to trigger heightened experiences. This approach draws much inspiration from K. Ludwig Pfeiffer’s media anthropology that gives orientation in my paper.

  1. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifshitz, A.; Skinner, G.B.; Wood, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described

  2. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, A; Skinner, G B; Wood, D R

    1978-09-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described.

  3. Photocathode fatigue of L-24 PM head due to high intensity light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.F.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of radiation detectors which utilizes photomultipliers was determined after exposing the multiplier phototubes to high intensity light pulses. Test results found that generally less than a 5% change was found

  4. Analog measurement of delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra in a high intensity pulsed antiproton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niestroj, A.; Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Torii, H.A.; Morita, N.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugai, I.; Nakayoshi, K.; Horvath, D.; Eades, J.; Widmann, E.

    1996-01-01

    An analog detection system has been developed to measure delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra for laser resonance spectroscopy of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms using the high-intensity pulsed beam of antiprotons from LEAR at CERN. (orig.)

  5. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette K.; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a pause with preceding high intensity contraction requires further investigation before high intensity shoulder elevations can......BACKGROUND: Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary...... contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction...

  6. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (Ptraining, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  7. A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.H.; Minakawa, M.; Yamanoi, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)

  8. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Savransky, Vladimir; Nanayakkara, Ashika; Li, Jianguo; Bevans, Shannon; Smith, Philip L.; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea, a condition leading to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and a high cardiovascular risk. A causal link between obstructive sleep apnea and atherosclerosis has not been established.

  9. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Mor; Gökhan İpekoğlu; Cansel Arslanoglu; Kursat Acar; Erkal Arslanoglu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT) was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lacta...

  10. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  11. High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) versus TENS and NSAIDs in low back pain: clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zati, Allesandro; Fortuna, Damiano; Valent, A.; Filippi, M. V.; Bilotta, Teresa W.

    2004-09-01

    Low back pain, caused by lumbar disc herniation, is prevalently treated with a conservative approach. In this study we valued the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT), compared with accepted therapies such as TENS and NSAIDs. Laser therapy obtained similar results in the short term, but better clinical effect over time than TENS and NSAIDs. In conclusion high intensity laser therapy appears to be a interesting new treatment, worthy of further research.

  12. Impact of a high intensity training program on glucose tolerance in people with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patyn, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent research reported a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in MS patients than in healthy people. The influence of high intensity exercise on IGT in MS was never investigated before. Objective: To investigate the effect of high intensity aerobic interval (HIIT) or continuous endurance (CT) training, both in combination with resistance training, on glucose tolerance muscle strength and body composition. Methods: 34 subjects were randomly as...

  13. Dynamics of Cavitation Clouds within a High-Intensity Focused Ultrasonic Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the cloud size. I. INTRODUCTION High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), along with the associated cavitation , is used in a variety of fields. The...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2012- May 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamics of Cavitation Clouds within a High-Intensity Focused...in initially quiescent water. The resulting pressure field and behavior of the cavitation bubbles are measured using high-speed digital in-line

  14. Dynamic characterizers of spatiotemporal intermittency

    OpenAIRE

    Gupte, Neelima; Jabeen, Zahera

    2006-01-01

    Systems of coupled sine circle maps show regimes of spatiotemporally intermittent behaviour with associated scaling exponents which belong to the DP class, as well as regimes of spatially intermittent behaviour (with associated regular dynamical behaviour) which do not belong to the DP class. Both types of behaviour are seen along the bifurcation boundaries of the synchronized solutions, and contribute distinct signatures to the dynamical characterizers of the system, viz. the distribution of...

  15. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  16. Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Nicolas; Ivarsson, Niklas; Venckunas, Tomas; Neyroud, Daria; Brazaitis, Marius; Cheng, Arthur J; Ochala, Julien; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Girard, Sebastien; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Paužas, Henrikas; Mekideche, Abdelhafid; Kayser, Bengt; Martinez-Redondo, Vicente; Ruas, Jorge L; Bruton, Joseph; Truffert, Andre; Lanner, Johanna T; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2015-12-15

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s bouts of all-out cycling with 4-min rest in between bouts (≤3 min total exercise time). Skeletal muscle biopsies taken 24 h after the HIIT exercise showed an extensive fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). The HIIT exercise also caused a prolonged force depression and triggered major changes in the expression of genes related to endurance exercise. Subsequent experiments on elite endurance athletes performing the same HIIT exercise showed no RyR1 fragmentation or prolonged changes in the expression of endurance-related genes. Finally, mechanistic experiments performed on isolated mouse muscles exposed to HIIT-mimicking stimulation showed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)-dependent RyR1 fragmentation, calpain activation, increased SR Ca(2+) leak at rest, and depressed force production due to impaired SR Ca(2+) release upon stimulation. In conclusion, HIIT exercise induces a ROS-dependent RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of recreationally active subjects, and the resulting changes in muscle fiber Ca(2+)-handling trigger muscular adaptations. However, the same HIIT exercise does not cause RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of elite endurance athletes, which may explain why HIIT is less effective in this group.

  17. Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Nicolas; Ivarsson, Niklas; Venckunas, Tomas; Neyroud, Daria; Brazaitis, Marius; Cheng, Arthur J.; Ochala, Julien; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Girard, Sebastien; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Paužas, Henrikas; Mekideche, Abdelhafid; Kayser, Bengt; Martinez-Redondo, Vicente; Bruton, Joseph; Truffert, Andre; Lanner, Johanna T.; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s bouts of all-out cycling with 4-min rest in between bouts (≤3 min total exercise time). Skeletal muscle biopsies taken 24 h after the HIIT exercise showed an extensive fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). The HIIT exercise also caused a prolonged force depression and triggered major changes in the expression of genes related to endurance exercise. Subsequent experiments on elite endurance athletes performing the same HIIT exercise showed no RyR1 fragmentation or prolonged changes in the expression of endurance-related genes. Finally, mechanistic experiments performed on isolated mouse muscles exposed to HIIT-mimicking stimulation showed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)-dependent RyR1 fragmentation, calpain activation, increased SR Ca2+ leak at rest, and depressed force production due to impaired SR Ca2+ release upon stimulation. In conclusion, HIIT exercise induces a ROS-dependent RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of recreationally active subjects, and the resulting changes in muscle fiber Ca2+-handling trigger muscular adaptations. However, the same HIIT exercise does not cause RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of elite endurance athletes, which may explain why HIIT is less effective in this group. PMID:26575622

  18. Lifetime of anode polymer in magnetically insulated ion diodes for high-intensity pulsed ion beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X. P.; Dong, Z. H.; Han, X. G.; Xin, J. P.; Lei, M. K.

    2007-01-01

    Generation of high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) has been studied experimentally using polyethylene as the anode polymer in magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with an external magnetic field. The HIPIB is extracted from the anode plasma produced during the surface discharging process on polyethylene under the electrical and magnetic fields in MIDs, i.e., high-voltage surface breakdown (flashover) with bombardments by electrons. The surface morphology and the microstructure of the anode polymer are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The surface roughening of the anode polymer results from the explosive release of trapped gases or newly formed gases under the high-voltage discharging, leaving fractured surfaces with bubble formation. The polyethylene in the surface layer degrades into low-molecular-weight polymers such as polyethylene wax and paraffin under the discharging process. Both the surface roughness and the fraction of low molecular polymers apparently increase as the discharging times are prolonged for multipulse HIPIB generation. The changes in the surface morphology and the composition of anode polymer lead to a noticeable decrease in the output of ion beam intensity, i.e., ion current density and diode voltage, accompanied with an increase in instability of the parameters with the prolonged discharge times. The diode voltage (or surface breakdown voltage of polymer) mainly depends on the surface morphology (or roughness) of anode polymers, and the ion current density on the composition of anode polymers, which account for the two stages of anode polymer degradation observed experimentally, i.e., stage I which has a steady decrease of the two parameters and stage II which shows a slow decrease, but with an enhanced fluctuation of the two parameters with increasing pulses of HIPIB generation

  19. Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Endurance Performance in Cyclists: A Double-Blind, Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Egger

    Full Text Available While the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate (BICA on short-term, sprint-type performance has been repeatedly demonstrated, little is known about its effectiveness during prolonged high-intensity exercise in well-trained athletes. Therefore, this study aims to examine the influence of BICA on performance during exhaustive, high-intensity endurance cycling.This was a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists (mean ± SD: age 24±8 y, BMI 21.3±1.7, VO2peak 67.3±9.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 were randomly allocated to sequences of following interventions: oral ingestion of 0.3 g·kg-1 BICA or 4 g of sodium chloride (placebo, respectively. One h after ingestion subjects exercised for 30 min at 95% of the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT followed by 110% IAT until exhaustion. Prior to these constant load tests stepwise incremental exercise tests were conducted under both conditions to determine IAT and VO2peak. Analysis of blood gas parameters, blood lactate (BLa and gas exchange measurements were conducted before, during and after the tests. The main outcome measure was the time to exhaustion in the constant load test.Cycling time to exhaustion was improved (p<0.05 under BICA (49.5±11.5 min compared with placebo (45.0±9.5 min. No differences in maximal or sub-maximal measures of performance were observed during stepwise incremental tests. BICA ingestion resulted in an increased pH, bicarbonate concentration and BLa before, throughout and after both exercise testing modes.The results suggest that ingestion of BICA may improve prolonged, high-intensity cycling performance.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS DRKS00006198.

  20. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Taha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal hypertension is the most common risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As the exercises training conveys benefits of the setting of secondary prevention of hypertension. High intensity interval training (HIIT emerged as a new form of physical training and presents as therapeutic alternative to patients and health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training on endothelial function in postmenopausal hypertension. Methods: Forty six mildly hypertensive postmenopausal women, their ages ranged from (45-55 years old, were randomly allocated to two groups: HIIT group (group-I; n=23 performed a high intensity interval training 3 times a week for 10 weeks at an intensity of (80-85% HR max for 40 minutes and control group (group-II; n=23 remains sedentary during this period. Serum nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF and blood pressures were measured before and after intervention. Results: A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by 9.5% and 7 % respectively, was seen after high intensity interval training which was accompanied by increase in NO and VEGF levels by 43.3% and 15.2 % respectively, while no significant change observed in the control group. Conclusion: High intensity interval training had obvious benefits in improving plasma No, VEGF concentrations and controlling hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  1. Intermittency in 197Au fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Cherry, M.L.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jones, W.V.; Sengupta, K.; Wefel, B.

    1995-07-01

    The concept of factorial moments was applied to an analysis of the dynamical fluctuations in the charge distributions of the fragments emitted from gold nuclei with energies 10.6 and < 1.0 GeV/n interacting with emulsion nuclei. Clear evidence for intermittent fluctuations has been found in an analysis using all the particles released from the gold projectile, with a stronger effect observed below 1 GeV/n than at 10.6 GeV/n. For the full data sets, however, the intermittency effect was found to be very sensitive to the singly charged particles, and neglecting these particles strongly reduces the intermittency signal. When the analysis is restricted to the multiply charged fragments, an intermittency effect is revealed only for multifragmentation events, although one that is enhanced as compared to the analysis of all, singly and multiply charged, particles. The properties of the anomalous fractal dimensions suggest a sequential decay mechanism, rather than the existence of possible critical behaviour in the process of nuclear fragmentation. The likely influence of the charge conservation effects and the finite size of decaying systems on the observed intermittency signals was pointed out. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  2. Nutrition therapy with high intensity interval training to improve prostate cancer-related fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton J; Skinner, Tina L; Leveritt, Michael D; Wright, Olivia R L

    2017-01-03

    Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most prevalent, prolonged and distressing side effects of prostate cancer treatment with androgen deprivation therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests natural therapies such as nutrition therapy and structured exercise prescription can reduce symptoms of cancer-related fatigue. Men appear to change their habitual dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis, yet prostate-specific dietary guidelines provide limited support for managing adverse side effects of treatment. The exercise literature has shown high intensity interval training can improve various aspects of health that are typically impaired with androgen deprivation therapy; however exercise at this intensity is yet to be conducted in men with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of nutrition therapy beyond the current healthy eating guidelines with high intensity interval training for managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy. This is a two-arm randomized control trial of 116 men with prostate cancer and survivors treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Participants will be randomized to either the intervention group i.e. nutrition therapy and high intensity interval training, or usual care. The intervention group will receive 20 weeks of individualized nutrition therapy from an Accredited Practising Dietitian, and high intensity interval training (from weeks 12-20 of the intervention) from an Accredited Exercise Physiologist. The usual care group will maintain their standard treatment regimen over the 20 weeks. Both groups will undertake primary and secondary outcome testing at baseline, week 8, 12, and 20; testing includes questionnaires of fatigue and quality of life, objective measures of body composition, muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, biomarkers for disease progression, as well as dietary analysis. The primary outcomes for this trial are measures of

  3. High-intensity Aerobic Exercise Blocks the Facilitation of iTBS-induced Plasticity in the Human Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashleigh E; Goldsworthy, Mitchell R; Wood, Fiona M; Olds, Timothy S; Garside, Tessa; Ridding, Michael C

    2018-03-01

    Acute exercise studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can provide important insights into the mechanisms underpinning the positive relationship between regular engagement in physical activity and cortical neuroplasticity. Emerging evidence indicates that a single session of aerobic exercise can promote the response to an experimentally induced suppressive neuroplasticity paradigm; however, little is known about the neuroplasticity response to facilitatory paradigms, including intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). To more fully characterize the effects of exercise on brain plasticity we investigated if a single 30 min bout of high-intensity cycling (80% predicted heart rate reserve) modulated the response to an iTBS paradigm compared to rest. In 18 participants (9 females; 25.5 ± 5.0 years, range: 18-35 years) iTBS was applied using standard repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques immediately following exercise or 30 min of rest. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle at baseline, after the exercise/rest period but before iTBS, and at 5 time points following iTBS (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min). Contrary to our hypothesis, MEPs were suppressed following iTBS after a single 30 min bout of lower limb aerobic exercise compared to rest. These results indicate that acute aerobic exercise may not always enhance the response to an experimentally induced neuroplasticity paradigm. Further investigation of the factors that influence the relationship between exercise and neuroplasticity is warranted. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High-intensity discharge lamp and Duffing oscillator—Similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Stein, Ulrich; Hallerberg, Sarah; Wolff, Marcus

    2017-12-01

    The processes inside the arc tube of high-intensity discharge lamps are investigated using finite element simulations. The behavior of the gas mixture inside the arc tube is governed by differential equations describing mass, energy, and charge conservation, as well as the Helmholtz equation for the acoustic pressure and the Reynolds equations for the flow driven by buoyancy and Reynolds stresses. The model is highly nonlinear and requires a recursion procedure to account for the impact of acoustic streaming on the temperature and other fields. The investigations reveal the presence of a hysteresis and the corresponding jump phenomenon, quite similar to a Duffing oscillator. The similarities and, in particular, the differences of the nonlinear behavior of the high-intensity discharge lamp to that of a Duffing oscillator are discussed. For large amplitudes, the high-intensity discharge lamp exhibits a stiffening effect in contrast to the Duffing oscillator. It is speculated on how the stiffening might affect hysteresis suppression.

  5. Effects of high-intensity physical training on muscle fiber characteristics in poststroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Jørgensen, Jørgen R.; Zeeman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. High-intensity physical training can improve muscle strength and gait speed, but adaptive mechanisms at the muscle cellular level are largely unknown. METHODS: Outpatients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in a 3-month...... rehabilitation program combining high-intensity strength and body-weight supported treadmill-training. Biopsies sampled bilaterally from vastus lateralis muscles, before, after, and at 1-year follow-up after intervention, were analyzed for fiber size, type, and capillarization. RESULTS: At baseline, paretic...... lower limbs had smaller muscle fiber size and lower type I and IIA and higher type IIX percentages than nonparetic lower limbs. Paretic lower limbs had increased type IIA fibers after training. At follow-up, no difference between the lower limbs remained. CONCLUSIONS: Although high-intensity training...

  6. The high intensity solar cell - Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems associated with conventional solar cells at high intensities and presents the design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell which appears to eliminate the major problems. Test data obtained at greater than 250 AM1 suns gave a peak output power density of 2 W per sq cm at an efficiency exceeding 6% with an unoptimized cell operating at over 100 C. It appears that operation at 1000 AM1 suns at efficiencies greater than 10% is possible. At 1000 AM1 suns and 10% efficiency, the HI cell manufacturing cost is estimated to be $0.25/watt, with multi-megawatt annual production capability already existing within the industrial sector. A high intensity solar system was also analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency.

  7. Enhancement of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Heating by Short-Pulse Generated Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yoshizawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A target tissue can be thermally coagulated in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU treatment noninvasively. HIFU thermal treatments have been clinically applied to various solid tumors. One of the problems in HIFU treatments is a long treatment time. Acoustically driven microbubbles can accelerate the ultrasonic heating, resulting in the significant reduction of the treatment time. In this paper, a method named “trigger HIFU exposure” which employs cavitation microbubbles is introduced and its results are reviewed. A trigger HIFU sequence consists of high-intensity short pulses followed by moderate-intensity long bursts. Cavitation bubbles induced in a multiple focal regions by rapidly scanning the focus of high-intensity pulses enhanced the temperature increase significantly and produced a large coagulation region with high efficiency.

  8. The clinical study on high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging using Scolopendrid Aquacupuncture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-a Lim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to find out the effect of scolopendrid aquacupuncture on low back pain with or without sciatica showing high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging. Methods : The 30 patients who had a diagnosis of high intensity zone by lumbar-MRI and admitted to Gwangju oriental medical hospital in wonkwang university from January 2005 to August 2004 were observed. The symptom of inpatients is low back pain with or without sciatica. We treated 30 patients by scolopendrid aquacupuncture besides the general conservative treatment of oriental medicine. Results and Conclusion : The scolopendrid aquacupuncture treatment led to improvement in the pain and symptom of disability as determined by all efficacy measures. After scolopendrid aquacupuncture treatment, there was improvement in VAS, ROM and SLRT. This results suggest that scolopendrid aquacupuncture is good method for treatment of low back pain with or without sciatica showing high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. High-intensity erotic visual stimuli de-activate the primary visual cortex in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hieu K; Beers, Caroline; Willemsen, Antoon; Lont, Erna; Laan, Ellen; Dierckx, Rudi; Jansen, Monique; Sand, Michael; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord; Holstege, Gert

    2012-06-01

    The primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area (BA 17), plays a vital role in basic survival mechanisms in humans. In most neuro-imaging studies in which the volunteers have to watch pictures or movies, the primary visual cortex is similarly activated independent of the content of the pictures or movies. However, in case the volunteers perform demanding non-visual tasks, the primary visual cortex becomes de-activated, although the amount of incoming visual sensory information is the same. Do low- and high-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies, produce similar de-activation of the primary visual cortex? Brain activation/de-activation was studied by Positron Emission Tomography scanning of the brains of 12 healthy heterosexual premenopausal women, aged 18-47, who watched neutral, low- and high-intensity erotic film segments. We measured differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the primary visual cortex during watching neutral, low-intensity erotic, and high-intensity erotic film segments. Watching high-intensity erotic, but not low-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies resulted in strong de-activation of the primary (BA 17) and adjoining parts of the secondary visual cortex. The strong de-activation during watching high-intensity erotic film might represent compensation for the increased blood supply in the brain regions involved in sexual arousal, also because high-intensity erotic movies do not require precise scanning of the visual field, because the impact is clear to the observer. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Influence of mature men way of life on highly intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Pryshva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly intensive physical activity is the most effective for men’s health protection. In modern life conditions its level is insufficient. It requires organism’s appropriate physical activity, which is determined by way of life. Especially important it is before trainings. Purpose: to study special aspects of different intensity’s physical activity; of eating special food and sleeping regime of mature men before their highly intensive physical trainings. Material: in experiment men (n=26, age - 35-53years, who practice healthy life style and independent physical activity of high intensity, participated. We used bio-register Basis B1. Every day we registered: Peak - physical activity of different intensity; duration and quality of sleep; relative weight of consumed food. Besides, we calculated body mass index and physical condition. The study was conducted during 30 days in winter period. The following results were compared: indicators before not planned physical activity and average-monthly indicators. Results: Before arbitrary physical functioning we found in men: confident weakening of average intensity (by 9-11% and low intensity (by 10% physical activity; confident increase of consumed food’s relative weight (by 6.82%, vegetarian food (by 10.64% and raw food (by 7.61%; confident reduction of animal origin food (by 8.7%. No changes were found in duration and quality of sleep before highly intensive physical functioning. Conclusions: specific features of mature men’s way of life before their not planned highly intensive physical functioning are as follows: reduction of general physical activity; increase of consumed food. These factors facilitate energy accumulation in organism for its realization in highly intensive physical functioning the next day.

  11. Fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamp use in chambers and greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge lamps have opened up great opportunities for researchers to study plant growth under controlled environment conditions and for commercial growers to increase plant production during low/light periods. Specific technical qualities of fluorescent and HID lamps have been critically reviewed. I will direct my remarks to fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers, growth rooms, and greenhouses. I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each lamp in growth chambers, growth rooms and greenhouses.

  12. The Benefits of High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) Fitness Programs for Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2016-01-01

    High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps’ High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) program are increasingly popular among military personnel. This article reviews the practical, health, body composition, and military fitness implications of HIFT exercise programs. We conclude that, given the unique benefits of HIFT, the military should consider evaluating whether these programs should be the standard for military fitness training. PMID:27849484

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet Ar2*laser pumped by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Kaku, Masanori; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We observed a small-signal gain of Ar 2 * emission at 126 nm by use of an Ar-filled hollow fiber to guide the ultrashort-pulse high-intensity laser propagation. The small signal gain coefficient was measured to be 0.05 cm -1 at 126 nm. Kinetic analysis revealed that the electrons produced by the high-intensity laser through an optical-field ionization process initiated the Ar 2 * production process. This laser scheme could be combined with high harmonic radiation of the pump laser in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), leading to the production of amplified ultrashort VUV pulses. (author)

  14. US evaluation of volume brain lesions produced by high-intensity focused US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, R.V.; Chua, G.T.; Fry, F.J.; Franklin, T.D.; Wills, E.R.; Hastings, J.S.; Sanghui, N.T.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen volume brain lesions produced by high-intensity focused US in the right cerebral hemispheres of research canines were evaluated by diagnostic US from immediately after ablation up to 62 days later. Animals were killed and perfused for whole-brain recovery. US evaluation of whole-brain specimens was performed. Histologic analysis of brain sections verified lesion placement, size, and tissue response to US. These sections were compared with US studies for correlation data. Correlation data suggest that US visualization may aid in accurate placement of volume brain lesions and in evaluation of effects of high-intensity focuses US in normal brain

  15. Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...... or a mixture of gases (500) flow in contact with said solid object (100) is thinned or destructed for at least a part of said surface (314). In this way, the plasma can more efficiently access and influence the surface of the solid object to be treated by the plasma, which speeds the process time up...

  16. Inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation are differentially expressed following intermittent vs. sustained neural apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertsch, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a rebound increase in phrenic and hypoglossal motor output known as inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation (iPMF and iHMF, respectively). We hypothesized that, similar to other forms of respiratory plasticity, iPMF and iHMF are pattern sensitive. Central respiratory neural activity was reversibly reduced in ventilated rats by hyperventilating below the CO2 apneic threshold to create brief intermittent neural apneas (5, ∼1.5 min each, separated by 5 min), a single brief massed neural apnea (7.5 min), or a single prolonged neural apnea (30 min). Upon restoration of respiratory neural activity, long-lasting (>60 min) iPMF was apparent following brief intermittent and prolonged, but not brief massed, neural apnea. Further, brief intermittent and prolonged neural apnea elicited an increase in the maximum phrenic response to high CO2, suggesting that iPMF is associated with an increase in phrenic dynamic range. By contrast, only prolonged neural apnea elicited iHMF, which was transient in duration (<15 min). Intermittent, massed, and prolonged neural apnea all elicited a modest transient facilitation of respiratory frequency. These results indicate that iPMF, but not iHMF, is pattern sensitive, and that the response to respiratory neural inactivity is motor pool specific. PMID:23493368

  17. Efficient coupling of high intensity short laser pulses into snow clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchan, T.; Pecker, S.; Henis, Z.; Eisenmann, S.; Zigler, A.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of energy absorption of high intensity laser pulses in snow clusters are reported. Targets consisting of sapphire coated with snow nanoparticles were found to absorb more than 95% of the incident light compared to 50% absorption in flat sapphire targets.

  18. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    Elite women volleyball players (n=25; age; 19±5 yrs, height; 171±7 cm, weight; 63±10 kg; means±SD) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high intensity training group (HIT; n=13) and a control group (CON; n=12). In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT...... women volleyball players....

  19. SOLVING BY PARALLEL COMPUTATION THE POISSON PROBLEM FOR HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS IN CIRCULAR ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUCCIO, A.U.; DIMPERIO, N.L.; SAMULYAK, R.; BEEB-WANG, J.

    2001-01-01

    Simulation of high intensity accelerators leads to the solution of the Poisson Equation, to calculate space charge forces in the presence of acceleration chamber walls. We reduced the problem to ''two-and-a-half'' dimensions for long particle bunches, characteristic of large circular accelerators, and applied the results to the tracking code Orbit

  20. Physics with a high-intensity proton accelerator below 30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The types of physics that would be pursued at a high-intensity, moderate-energy proton accelerator are discussed. The discussion is drawn from the deliberations of the 30-GeV subgroup of the Fixed-Target Group at this workshop

  1. Characterization of a proton beam driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagisaka, Akito; Daido, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yukio; Mori, Michiaki; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Yogo, Akifumi; Kado, Masataka; Fukumi, Atsushi; Li, Zhong; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Nakamura, Shu

    2007-01-01

    High-energy protons are observed with a 3 μm thick tantalum target irradiated with a high intensity laser. The maximum proton energy is ∼900 keV. The half angle of the generated proton beam (>500 keV) is about 10deg. Characterization of the proton beam will significantly contribute to the proton applications. (author)

  2. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-01-01

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

  3. 75 FR 52780 - Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Office of National Drug Control Policy Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated nine additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to...

  4. 75 FR 21368 - Designation of Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Office of National Drug Control Policy Designation of Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated five additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to...

  5. Axial segregation in high intensity discharge lamps measured by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flikweert, A.J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Groothuis, C.H.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps have a high efficiency. These lamps contain rare-earth additives (in our case dysprosium iodide) which radiate very efficiently. A problem is color separation in the lamp because of axial segregation of the rare-earth additives, caused by diffusion and convection. Here

  6. Moderate-to-high intensity physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A.; Frederiksen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. Objective: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...

  7. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...

  8. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    ; means±SD) performed three warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive-high intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2x20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6...

  9. Amide proton transfer imaging of high intensity focused ultrasound-treated tumor tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, S.J.C.G.; Jacobs, I.; Strijkers, G.J.; Nicolay, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the suitability of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging as a biomarker for the characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-treated tumor tissue was assessed. Methods: APT imaging was performed on tumor-bearing mice before (n=15), directly after (n=15) and at 3

  10. Amide Proton Transfer Imaging of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Treated Tumor Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, Stefanie J. C. G.; Jacobs, Igor; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    PurposeIn this study, the suitability of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging as a biomarker for the characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-treated tumor tissue was assessed. MethodsAPT imaging was performed on tumor-bearing mice before (n=15), directly after (n=15) and at 3

  11. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Con...

  12. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Spatial and spectral coherence in propagating high-intensity twin beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haderka, O.; Machulka, R.; Peřina ml., Jan; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, Sep (2015), s. 14365 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spatial and spectral coherence * high-intensity twin beams Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  14. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  15. Effectiveness and Safety of High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E.

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF Recent research has shown that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can promote improvements in glucose control and cardiovascular health in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes the evidence and highlights the ways in which HIIT might be safely implemented as an adjunct to more traditional exercise approaches. PMID:25717277

  16. Fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altajskij, M.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Korenev, S.A.; Orelovich, O.L.; Puzynin, I.V.; Chernik, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the results of scanning electron microscopy of surfaces of the solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion beam treatment. The appearance of fractal structures on the modified surfaces is shown. The fractal dimensions of these structures were estimated by box-counting algorithm

  17. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  18. Inhibition of enteric pathogens using integrated high intensity 405 nm LED on the surface of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfecting properties of 405 nm light were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and their non-pathogenic surrogates inoculated onto the surface of almonds. High intensity monochromatic light was generated from an array of narrow-band 405 nm light emitting diodes (LED). Al...

  19. Effect of high-intensity interval and resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in MS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Severijns, Tobias; Wijckmans, Ferdy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of high-intensity interval plus resistance training (HIITR) on cardiovascular risk factors was studied through a quasi-experimental study. Outcome measures are: endurance capacity, body composition, physical activity level, isometric muscle strength, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipids and lipoprotein - cholesterol.

  20. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. T1 ρ mapping for the evaluation of high intensity focused ultrasound tumor treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, Stefanie J. C. G.; Moonen, Rik P. M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the effects of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation on tumor T1ρ . In vivo T1ρ measurements of murine tumors at various spin-lock amplitudes (B1 = 0-2000 Hz) were performed before (n = 13), directly after (n = 13) and 3 days (n = 7) after HIFU

  2. Non-Thermal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Comet assay reveals DNA strand breaks induced by ultrasonic cavitation in vitro, Ultrasound in medicine & biology 1995; 21: 841-8. 3. Dalecki D...doxorubicin, focused ultrasound , HIFU, prostate cancer I. INTRODUCTION Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pFUS) is able to create acoustic cavitation ... ultrasound for breast cancer therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chang Ming (Charlie) Ma, Ph.D

  3. Sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking: findings from a US national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Hughes, Tonda L; Russell, Stephen T

    2018-04-01

    To estimate sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking. Cross-sectional US adult health survey from 2014 and 2015. US adults aged 18 and older (n = 215 684; n = 203 562 heterosexual, n = 2784 lesbian/gay, n = 2892 bisexual, n = 686 'other' and n = 1947 don't know/unsure). Self-reported past 30-day standard binge and high-intensity binge drinking. Standard binge drinking cut-off values were 4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively. High-intensity binge drinking was measured as two and three times the standard level (8+ and 12+ drinks for women and 10+ and 15+ drinks for men). Lesbian and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to report consuming 4+ drinks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =1.57, confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.09 and aOR = 1.83, CI = 1.45, 2.30 for lesbian and bisexual women, respectively); 8+ drinks (aOR = 3.86, CI = 2.39, 6.24, aOR = 2.07, CI = 1.39, 3.07); and 12+ drinks (aOR = 3.81, CI = 1.77, 8.19, aOR = 2.54, CI = 1.25, 5.14) on a single occasion in the past 30 days. Generally, gay and bisexual men were no more likely than heterosexual men to report standard or high-intensity binge drinking. However, bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to consume 15+ drinks (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.01, 3.06). Rates of standard and high-intensity binge drinking were similar between heterosexual and unsure men and women. Men and women who indicated 'other' sexual identities were generally less likely than heterosexuals to report standard and high-intensity binge drinking, with the exception of 4+ drinks for women and 10+ drinks for men. In the United States, sexual minority women are more likely, and sexual minority men are equally likely, to drink at standard and high-intensity binge drinking levels as their heterosexual counterparts. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (M age =20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O 2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min -1 ) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (pmusic-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Different ankle muscle coordination patterns and co-activation during quiet stance between young adults and seniors do not change after a bout of high intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2015-03-04

    contributions during SLEO. These neuromuscular changes are not affected by acute intermittent high intensity aerobic exercise.

  6. Comparison of affective responses during and after low volume high-intensity interval exercise, continuous moderate- and continuous high-intensity exercise in active, untrained, healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Ailsa; Thow, Jacqueline; Holroyd, Jack; Turner, Anthony P; Phillips, Shaun M

    2018-09-01

    This study compared affective responses to low volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) and high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE). Twelve untrained males ([Formula: see text] 48.2 ± 6.7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed MICE (30 min cycle at 85% of ventilatory threshold (VT)), HICE (cycle at 105% of VT matched with MICE for total work), and HIIE (10 x 6 s cycle sprints with 60 s recovery). Affective valence and perceived activation were measured before exercise, post warm-up, every 20% of exercise time, and 1, 5, 10, and 15 min post-exercise. Affective valence during exercise declined by 1.75 ± 2.42, 1.17 ± 1.99, and 0.42 ± 1.38 units in HICE, HIIE, and MICE, respectively, but was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.35), time (P = 0.06), or interaction effect (P = 0.08). Affective valence during HICE and HIIE was consistently less positive than MICE. Affective valence post-exercise was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.10) and at 5 min post-exercise exceeded end-exercise values (P = 0.048). Circumplex profiles showed no negative affect in any trial. Affective responses to low volume HIIE are similar to HICE but remain positive and rebound rapidly, suggesting it may be a potential alternative exercise prescription.

  7. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  8. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  9. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  10. Intermittent Fasting with or without Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Improves Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Robin A. Wilson; William Deasy; Christos G. Stathis; Alan Hayes; Matthew B. Cooke

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C...

  11. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  12. Time evolution of the vacuum - pair production in high intensity laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellert, Anton; Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Interaction between the vacuum and high intensity lasers will lead to new possibilities in high-field physics. We present numerical ab initio studies for time evolution of the vacuum state into multiple pair states. The high intensity laser field of two counter-propagating beams is treated classically and in the non-perturbative regime (E{sub 0}/ω ∝ 1). In this regime, the time needed by an electron to become relativistic in presence of a static field E{sub 0} is of same order as the period of the laser field. Pair state probabilities as well as correlations are investigated in real-time depending on polarization and field strength.

  13. High Intensity Laser Power Beaming Architecture for Space and Terrestrial Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, Taysir; Fast, Brian; Raible, Daniel; Dinca, Dragos; Tollis, Nick; Jalics, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    High Intensity Laser Power Beaming (HILPB) has been developed as a technique to achieve Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) for both space and terrestrial applications. In this paper, the system architecture and hardware results for a terrestrial application of HILPB are presented. These results demonstrate continuous conversion of high intensity optical energy at near-IR wavelengths directly to electrical energy at output power levels as high as 6.24 W from the single cell 0.8 cm2 aperture receiver. These results are scalable, and may be realized by implementing receiver arraying and utilizing higher power source lasers. This type of system would enable long range optical refueling of electric platforms, such as MUAV s, airships, robotic exploration missions and provide power to spacecraft platforms which may utilize it to drive electric means of propulsion.

  14. High intensity metallic ion beam from an ecr ion source using the Mivoc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Jaffres, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    The MIVOC method has been successfully used at GANIL to produce a high intensity nickel beam with the ECR4 ion source: 20 μA 58 Ni 11+ at 24 kV extraction voltage. This beam has been maintained for 8 days and accelerated up to 74.5 MeV/u by our cyclotrons with a mean intensity of 0.13 pμA on target. This high intensity, required for experiment, led to the discovery of the doubly magic 48 Ni isotope. Experimental setup, handling and off-line preparation using a residual gas analyzer are described in this report. The ion source behavior, performances and limitations are presented in the case of nickel and iron. The ionization efficiencies have been measured and compared to the oven method usually used at GANIL. (author)

  15. Approach to a very high intensity beam at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The high-intensity, high-energy proton accelerator project, J-PARC, comprises the 400-MeV proton linac, the 3-GeV, 1-MW Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) and the 50-GeV Marin Ring (MR) Synchrotron. The secondary particles such as neutrons, muons, Kaons, neutrinos and so forth will be fully made use of for materials science, life science, nuclear physics, and particle physics. Even the industrial use of the neutrons and the nuclear energy application are incorporated in the project. The rationale for choosing the accelerator schemes are presented together with the present status of the project and research and development for the high-intensity, high-energy proton accelerators J-PARC. The development of the high-field gradient RF cavity system making use of the magnetic alloy (MA), which is really necessary for the future development of the high-power proton accelerators, is reported in detail. (author)

  16. Vacuum thermalization of high intensity laser beams and the uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.P.; Bhakar, B.S.; Panarella, E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter phenomenologically calculates the cross section for photon-photon scattering in high intensity laser beams. The consequence of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle must be taken account in any photon-photon scattering calculation when many photons are present within the uncertainty volume. An exact determination of the number of scattering centers present in the scattering region is precluded when high intensity laser beams are involved in the scattering. Predictions are presented which suggest an upper limit to which the coherent photon densities can be increased either during amplification or focusing before scattering becomes predominant. The results of multiphoton ionization of gases, and laser induced CTR plasmas of the future, may be significantly affected due to the enhancement of the photon scattering investigated

  17. Dose rate laser simulation tests adequacy: Shadowing and high intensity effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.Y.; Skorobogatov, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The adequacy of laser based simulation of the flash X-ray effects in microcircuits may be corrupted mainly due to laser radiation shadowing by the metallization and the non-linear absorption in a high intensity range. The numerical joint solution of the optical equations and the fundamental system of equations in a two-dimensional approximation were performed to adjust the application range of laser simulation. As a result the equivalent dose rate to laser intensity correspondence was established taking into account the shadowing as well as the high intensity effects. The simulation adequacy was verified in the range up to 4·10 11 rad(Si)/s with the comparative laser test of a specially designed test structure

  18. Development plan of basic technology for a high intensity proton linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    The national program called OMEGA (Option Making Extra Gains from Actinide and Fission Products) has started with the aim of promoting the research and development of the new technologies for nuclear waste partitioning and transmutation. As a part of this program, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has laid out several R and D plans for accelerator based actinide transmutation. The present article first outlines the status of the high intensity proton linear accelerator. Then it describes the time schedule for the development of a high intensity proton linac, focusing on the first step development (basic technology accelerator), second step development (engineering test accelerator, and third step development (commercial plant). It also outlines the conceptual design study and preliminary design calculations for basic technology accelerator, focusing on general consideration, ion source, radio frequency quadrupole, drift tube linac, and high beta linac. (N.K.)

  19. Current status of high-intensity focused ultrasound for the management of uterine adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Vincent Y. T.

    2017-01-01

    While high-intensity focused ultrasound has been used for some time in the management of uterine fibroids, its effectiveness and safety in managing adenomyosis is less well established. A literature review was performed of all eligible reports using this modality as a treatment for adenomyosis. Relevant publications were obtained from the PubMed electronic database from inception through March 2016. Eleven articles, including information from 1,150 treatments and follow-up data from 990 patients, were reviewed. High-intensity focused ultrasound appears to be effective and safe in the management of symptomatic adenomyosis, and can be considered as an alternative uterine-sparing option for women with this condition

  20. Current status of high-intensity focused ultrasound for the management of uterine adenomyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Vincent Y. T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-04-15

    While high-intensity focused ultrasound has been used for some time in the management of uterine fibroids, its effectiveness and safety in managing adenomyosis is less well established. A literature review was performed of all eligible reports using this modality as a treatment for adenomyosis. Relevant publications were obtained from the PubMed electronic database from inception through March 2016. Eleven articles, including information from 1,150 treatments and follow-up data from 990 patients, were reviewed. High-intensity focused ultrasound appears to be effective and safe in the management of symptomatic adenomyosis, and can be considered as an alternative uterine-sparing option for women with this condition.

  1. Beam Dynamics Studies for High-Intensity Beams in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082016; Benedikt, Michael

    With the discovery of the Higgs boson, the existence of the last missing piece of the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) was confirmed. However, even though very elegant, this theory is unable to explain, for example, the generation of neutrino masses, nor does it account for dark energy or dark matter. To shed light on some of these open questions, research in fundamental particle physics pursues two complimentary approaches. On the one hand, particle colliders working at the high-energy frontier, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), located in Geneva, Switzerland, are utilized to investigate the fundamental laws of nature. Alternatively, fixed target facilities require high-intensity beams to create a large flux of secondary particles to investigate, for example, rare particle decay processes, or to create neutrino beams. This thesis investigates limitations arising during the acceleration of high-intensity beams at the CERN Proton Synchrotro...

  2. Recovery of a soil under different vegetation one year after a high intensity wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martín

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on soil recovery in fragile ecosystems following high intensity wildfires are scarce. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the impact of a high intensity wildfire in an ecosystem under different vegetation (shrubland and pinewood located at Vilardevós (Galicia, NW Spain and highly susceptible to suffer soil erosion due to the steep relief and high erositivity of the rainfall. Soil samples were collected from the A horizon (0-5 cm 1 year after the fire and soil quality was evaluated by analysis of several physical, chemical and biochemical properties measured in the fraction chemical properties > physical properties. The data also showed that the fire impact was different depending on the soil vegetation considered (shrubland and pinewood. Moreover, the data confirmed the slow soil recovery in this fragile ecosystem and, therefore, the need of adopting post-fire stabilisation and rehabilitation treatments in order to minimize the post-fire erosion and soil degradation.

  3. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Gabriel R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6 and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6 that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  4. Automated system for the determination of patterns of high-intensity LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baly, L.; Bolaño, L.; Arteche, R.; Broco, Y.; Quesada, I.; Rodríguez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of high-intensity LEDs lighting patterns is an important step for the simulation and planning of arrays of these devices configurations. Currently there are systems based on CCD cameras able to efficiently solve this problem, however the high cost of these is a limiting factor for use. Another limitation of CCD cameras, is that they are designed for light levels much lower than those produced by a high-intensity LED. In this paper we present an automated system for the determination of the intensity of LEDs based on the scan point to point patterns. The results of the analysis of a type of LED based on arrays of bars with built-in optical system is presented.

  5. Trans-abdominal ultrasound evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of uterine leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Wei; Huang Jin; Wang Junhua; Wang Yuling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of dynamic trans-abdominal ultrasound after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of uterine leiomyomas. Methods: The trans-abdominal ultrasound images of 63 patients before and after HIFU treatment of uterine leiomyomas were compared. Results: The volume and blood flow of leiomyomas were reduced after the HIFU treatment. Conclusion: Trans-abdominal ultrasound is a valuable method for evaluating the results of HIFU treatment of uterine leiomyomas. (authors)

  6. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Carneiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of H^{-} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H^{-} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  7. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Jonathan; Villa, Mario; Mellor, Matthew; Joyce, Malcolm John

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has bee...

  8. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  9. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  10. High-intensity focused ultrasound to treat primary hyperparathyroidism: a feasibility study in four patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovatcheva, Roussanka D; Vlahov, Jordan D; Shinkov, Alexander D

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with primary hyperparathyroidism either decline or are not candidates for surgical parathyroidectomy. There are drawbacks to medical therapy as well as percutaneous ethanol injection as alternative therapies for primary hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, in this pilot study, our aim...... was to test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a newly developed noninvasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) technique for the nonsurgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism....

  11. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sakamoto, H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y. [Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10{sup 8} muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  12. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-01-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10 8 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion

  13. Status of spallation neutron source program in High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and High Energy Accelerator Organization are jointly designing a 1 MW spallation neutron source as one of the research facilities planned in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project. The spallation neutron source is driven by 3 GeV proton beam with a mercury target and liquid hydrogen moderators. The present status of design for these spallation source and relevant facility is overviewed. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1997-01-01

    The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs

  15. Analysis of plasma channels in mm-scale plasmas formed by high intensity laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, R; Habara, H; Iwawaki, T; Uematsu, Y; Tanaka, K A; Ivancic, S; Anderson, K; Haberberger, D; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Sakagami, H

    2016-01-01

    A plasma channel created by a high intensity infrared laser beam was observed in a long scale-length plasma (L ∼ 240 μm) with the angular filter refractometry technique, which indicated a stable channel formation up to the critical density. We analyzed the observed plasma channel using a rigorous ray-tracing technique, which provides a deep understanding of the evolution of the channel formation. (paper)

  16. Target Surface Area Effects on Hot Electron Dynamics from High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Science, University ofMichigan, AnnArbor,MI 48109-2099, USA E-mail: czulick@umich.edu Keywords: laser- plasma ,mass-limited, fast electrons , sheath...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 063020 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/063020 PAPER Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser... plasma interactions CZulick, ARaymond,AMcKelvey, VChvykov, AMaksimchuk, AGRThomas, LWillingale, VYanovsky andKKrushelnick Center forUltrafast Optical

  17. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...

  18. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L; Tiller, NB; Karageorghis, CI

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on ac...

  19. High-intensity cyclotrons for radioisotope production and accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Y.; Vandeplassche, D.; Kleeven, W.; Beeckman, W.; Zaremba, S.; Lannoye, G.; Stichelbaut, F

    2002-04-22

    IBA recently proposed a new method to extract high-intensity positive ion beams from a cyclotron based on the concept of auto-extraction. We review the design of a 14 MeV, multi-milliampere cyclotron using this new technology. IBA is also involved in the design of the accelerator system foreseen to drive the MYRRHA facility, a multipurpose neutron source developed jointly by SCK-CEN and IBA.

  20. 650 mm long liquid hydrogen target for use in a high intensity electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    This paper describes a 650 mm long liquid hydrogen target constructed for use in the high intensity electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The main design problem was to construct a target that would permit the heat deposited by the electron beam to be removed rapidly without boiling the hydrogen so as to maintain constant target density for optimum data taking. Design requirements, construction details and operating experience are discussed

  1. SPES: A new cyclotron-based facility for research and applications with high-intensity beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, M.; Campo, D.; Antonini, P.; Lombardi, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Esposito, J.; Silvestrin, L.

    2017-06-01

    In 2016, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy) started the commissioning of a new accelerator facility based on a high-power cyclotron able to deliver proton beams up to 70 MeV of energy and 700 μA current. Such a machine is the core of the Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project whose main goal is to provide exotics beam for nuclear and astrophysics research and to deliver high-intensity proton beams for medical applications and neutrons generator.

  2. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop

  3. Targets for production of high-intensity radioactive ion-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagebo, E.; Hoff, P.; Steffensen, K.

    1991-01-01

    The recent developments of target systems for production of high intensity radioactive ion-beams at the ISOLDE mass separators is described. Methods for chemically selective production through separation of molecular ions are outlined and the effects of the addition of reactive gases has been studied. Results and further possible applications in the light element region are discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  4. High intensity focused ultrasound treatment of small renal masses: Clinical effectiveness and technological advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, G.; Goodman, C.; Melzer, A.

    2010-01-01

    The review summarises the technological advances in the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound for small renal masses presumed to be cancer including the systematic review of its clinical application. Current progress in the area of magnetic resonance image guided ultrasound ablation is also appraised. Specifically, organ tracking and real time monitoring of temperature changes during the treatment are discussed. Finally, areas of future research interest are outlined. PMID:21116349

  5. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  6. High intensity pulse self-compression in short hollow core capillaries

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Thomas J.; Anderson, Patrick N.; Horak, Peter; Frey, Jeremy G.; Brocklesby, William S.

    2011-01-01

    The drive for shorter pulses for use in techniques such as high harmonic generation and laser wakefield acceleration requires continual improvement in post-laser pulse compression techniques. The two most commonly used methods of pulse compression for high intensity pulses are hollow capillary compression via self-phase modulation (SPM) [1] and the more recently developed filamentation [2]. Both of these methods can require propagation distances of 1-3 m to achieve spectral broadening and com...

  7. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Leanna M.; Porter, Ryan R.; Durstine, J. Larry

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT). HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared t...

  8. The effect of angiotensin converting enzyme genotype on aerobic capacity following high intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, N; Baker, M.D; Higgins, T; Cobbold, C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity can reduce T2DM and CVD risk, and increase aerobic capacity, a significant predictor of all-cause mortality and morbidity. High intensity interval training (HIIT) produces similar improvements in aerobic capacity to continuous moderate exercise (CME). Different genotypes of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) have been implicated in improving aerobic capacity and theref...

  9. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  10. High intensity focused ultrasound treatment of small renal masses: Clinical effectiveness and technological advances

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi, G.; Goodman, C.; Melzer, A.

    2010-01-01

    The review summarises the technological advances in the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound for small renal masses presumed to be cancer including the systematic review of its clinical application. Current progress in the area of magnetic resonance image guided ultrasound ablation is also appraised. Specifically, organ tracking and real time monitoring of temperature changes during the treatment are discussed. Finally, areas of future research interest are outlined.

  11. Laser-enhanced cavitation during high intensity focused ultrasound: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Huizhong; Zhang, Ti; Yang, Xinmai

    2013-01-01

    Laser-enhanced cavitation during high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was studied in vivo using a small animal model. Laser light was employed to illuminate the sample concurrently with HIFU radiation. The resulting cavitation was detected with a passive cavitation detector. The in vivo measurements were made under different combinations of HIFU treatment depths, laser wavelengths, and HIFU durations. The results demonstrated that concurrent light illumination during HIFU has the potentia...

  12. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enoch C.Chow; Jennifer L.Etnier

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dissociative attentional stimuli (e.g.,music,video) are effective in decreasing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during low-to-moderate intensity exercise,but have inconsistent results during exercise at higher intensity.The purpose of this study was to assess attentional focus and RPE during high-intensity exercise as a function of being exposed to music,video,both (music and video),or a no-treatment control condition.Methods:During the first session,healthy men (n =15) completed a maximal fitness test to determine the workload necessary for high-intensity exercise (operationalized as 125% ventilatory threshold) to be performed during subsequent sessions.On 4 subsequent days,they completed 20 min of high-intensity exercise in a no-treatment control condition or while listening to music,watching a video,or both.Attentional focus,RPE,heart rate,and distance covered were measured every 4 min during the exercise.Results:Music and video in combination resulted in significantly lower RPE across time (partial η2 =0.36) and the size of the effect increased over time (partial η2 =0.14).Additionally,music and video in combination resulted in a significantly more dissociative focus than the other conditions (partial η2 =0.29).Conclusion:Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation.Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  13. Nonlinear Delta-f Particle Simulations of Collective Effects in High-Intensity Bunched Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Hong; Hudson, Stuart R; Startsev, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The collective effects in high-intensity 3D bunched beams are described self-consistently by the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations.* The nonlinear delta-f method,** a particle simulation method for solving the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations, is being used to study the collective effects in high-intensity 3D bunched beams. The delta-f method, as a nonlinear perturbative scheme, splits the distribution function into equilibrium and perturbed parts. The perturbed distribution function is represented as a weighted summation over discrete particles, where the particle orbits are advanced by equations of motion in the focusing field and self-consistent fields, and the particle weights are advanced by the coupling between the perturbed fields and the zero-order distribution function. The nonlinear delta-f method exhibits minimal noise and accuracy problems in comparison with standard particle-in-cell simulations. A self-consistent 3D kinetic equilibrium is first established for high intensity bunched beams. The...

  14. High intensity metallic ion beams from an ecr ion source at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leherissier, P.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Lemagnen, F.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine-Landre, F.; Rataud, J.P.; Jaffres, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the recent years, progress concerning the production of high intensity of metallic ions beams ( 58 Ni, 48 Ca, 76 Ge) at Ganil have been performed. The MIV0C method has been successfully used to produce a high intensity nickel beam with the ECR4 ion source: 20 eμA of 58 Ni 11+ at 24 kV extraction voltage. This beam has been maintained for 8 days and accelerated up to 74.5 MeV/u by our cyclotrons with a mean intensity of 0.13 pμA on target. This high intensity, required for experiment, led to the discovery of the doubly magic 48 Ni isotope. The oven method has been first tested with natural metallic calcium on the ECR4 ion source, then used to produce a high power beam (740 W on target i.e. 0.13 pμA accelerated up to 60 MeV/u) of 48 Ca still keeping a low consumption (0.09 mg/h). A germanium beam is now under development, using the oven method with germanium oxide. The ionization efficiencies have been measured and compared. (authors)

  15. Repeated High Intensity Bouts with Long Recovery: Are Bicarbonate or Carbohydrate Supplements an Option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying recovery modes and the influence of preexercise sodium bicarbonate and carbohydrate ingestion on repeated high intensity performance, acid-base response, and recovery were analyzed in 12 well-trained males. They completed three repeated high intensity running bouts to exhaustion with intervening recovery periods of 25 min under the following conditions: sodium bicarbonate, active recovery (BIC; carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery (CHO; placebo ingestion, active recovery (ACTIVE; placebo ingestion, passive recovery (PASSIVE. Blood lactate (BLa, blood gases, heart rate, and time to exhaustion were collected. The three high intensity bouts had a duration of 138±9, 124±6, and 121±6 s demonstrating a decrease from bout 1 to bout 3. Supplementation strategy had no effect on performance in the first bout, even with differences in pH and bicarbonate (HCO3-. Repeated sprint performance was not affected by supplementation strategy when compared to ACTIVE, while PASSIVE resulted in a more pronounced decrease in performance compared with all other interventions. BIC led to greater BLa, pH, and HCO3- values compared with all other interventions, while for PASSIVE the opposite was found. BLa recovery was lowest in PASSIVE; recovery in pH, and HCO3- was lower in PASSIVE and higher in BIC.

  16. High-Intensity Exercise as a Dishabituating Stimulus Restores Counterregulatory Responses in Recurrently Hypoglycemic Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Alison D; Gallagher, Jennifer R; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Ashford, Michael L J; McCrimmon, Rory J

    2017-06-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major adverse effect of insulin therapy for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Profound defects in the normal counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia explain the frequency of hypoglycemia occurrence in T1D. Defective counterregulation results to a large extent from prior exposure to hypoglycemia per se, leading to a condition called impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), the cause of which is unknown. In the current study, we investigate the hypothesis that IAH develops through a special type of adaptive memory referred to as habituation. To test this hypothesis, we used a novel intense stimulus (high-intensity exercise) to demonstrate two classic features of a habituated response, namely dishabituation and response recovery. We demonstrate that after recurrent hypoglycemia the introduction of a novel dishabituating stimulus (a single burst of high-intensity exercise) in male Sprague-Dawley rats restores the defective hypoglycemia counterregulatory response. In addition, the rats showed an enhanced response to the novel stimulus (response recovery). We make the further observation using proteomic analysis of hypothalamic extracts that high-intensity exercise in recurrently hypoglycemic rats increases levels of a number of proteins linked with brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. These findings may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for individuals with T1D and IAH. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Benefits of High-Intensity Intensive Care Unit Physician Staffing under the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Logani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act signed into law by President Obama, with its value-based purchasing program, is designed to link payment to quality processes and outcomes. Treatment of critically ill patients represents nearly 1% of the gross domestic product and 25% of a typical hospital budget. Data suggest that high-intensity staffing patterns in the intensive care unit (ICU are associated with cost savings and improved outcomes. We evaluate the literature investigating the cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes of high-intensity ICU physician staffing as recommended by The Leapfrog Group (a consortium of companies that purchase health care for their employees and identify ways to overcome barriers to nationwide implementation of these standards. Hospitals that have implemented the Leapfrog initiative have demonstrated reductions in mortality and length of stay and increased cost savings. High-intensity staffing models appear to be an immediate cost-effective way for hospitals to meet the challenges of health care reform.

  18. Beam loss studies in high-intensity heavy-ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumov, P.N.; Aseev, V.N.; Lessner, E.S.; Mustapha, B.

    2004-01-01

    A low beam-loss budget is an essential requirement for high-intensity machines and represents one of their major design challenges. In a high-intensity heavy-ion machine, losses are required to be below 1 W/m for hands-on-maintenance. The driver linac of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) is designed to accelerate beams of any ion to energies from 400 MeV per nucleon for uranium up to 950 MeV for protons with a beam power of up to 400 kW. The high intensity of the heaviest ions is achieved by acceleration of multiple-charge-state beams, which requires a careful beam dynamics optimization to minimize effective emittance growth and beam halo formation. For beam loss simulation purposes, large number of particles must be tracked through the linac. Therefore the computer code TRACK has been parallelized and calculations are being performed on the JAZZ cluster recently inaugurated at ANL. This paper discusses how this powerful tool is being used for simulations for the RIA project to help decide on the high-performance and cost-effective design of the driver linac

  19. Potential Universal Application of High-intensity Interval Training from Athletes and Sports Lovers to Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2017-06-25

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.

  20. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  1. Atomic motion in a high-intensity standing wave laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez Ramdohr, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    This work discusses the effect of a high-intensity standing wave laser field on the motion of neutral atoms moving with a relatively high velocity. The analysis involves a detailed calculation of the force acting on the atoms and the calculation of the diffusion tensor associated with the fluctuations of the quantum force operator. The high-intensity laser field limit corresponds to a Rabi frequency much greater than the natural rate of the atom. The general results are valid for any atomic velocity. Results are then specialized to the case of slow and fast atoms where the Doppler shift of the laser frequency due to the atomic motion is either smaller or larger than the natural decay rate of the atom. The results obtained for the force and diffusion tensor are applied to a particular ideal experiment that studies the evolution of a fast atomic beam crossing a high-intensity laser beam. The theories developed previously, for a similar laser configuration, discuss only the low atomic velocities case and not the more realistic case of fast atoms. Here, an approximate solution of the equation for the distribution is obtained. Starting from the approximate distribution function, the deflection angle and dispersion angle for the atomic beam with respect to the free motion are calculated

  2. Self-guiding of high-intensity laser pulses for laser wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umstader, D.; Liu, X.

    1992-01-01

    A means of self-guiding an ultrashort and high-intensity laser pulse is demonstrated both experimentally and numerically. Its relevance to the laser wake field accelerator concept is discussed. Self-focusing and multiple foci formation are observed when a high peak power (P>100 GW), 1 μm, subpicosecond laser is focused onto various gases (air or hydrogen). It appears to result from the combined effects of self-focusing by the gas, and de-focusing both by diffraction and the plasma formed in the central high-intensity region. Quasi-stationary computer simulations show the same multiple foci behavior as the experiments. The results suggest much larger nonlinear electronic susceptibilities of a gas near or undergoing ionization in the high field of the laser pulse. Although self-guiding of a laser beam by this mechanism appears to significantly extend its high-intensity focal region, small-scale self-focusing due to beam non-uniformity is currently a limitation

  3. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purpura Martin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr and creatine citrate (Cr-Cit supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young athletes. Methods Performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity was evaluated before (pretest and after (posttest 28 days of Cr-Pyr (5 g/d, n = 16, Cr-Cit (5 g/d, n = 16 or placebo (pla, 5 g/d, n = 17 intake. Subjects performed ten 15-sec exercise intervals, each followed by 45 sec rest periods. Results Cr-Pyr (p Conclusion It is concluded that four weeks of Cr-Pyr and Cr-Cit intake significantly improves performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity and that Cr-Pyr might benefit endurance, due to enhanced activity of the aerobic metabolism.

  4. Accommodative spasm with bilateral vision loss due to untreated intermittent exotropia in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, V; Ganesh, S; Sethi, S

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent exotropia (IXT) is an exodeviation intermittently controlled by fusional mechanisms. Patients with IXT may present with asthenopic symptoms, blurred vision, headaches, diplopia or visual confusion and reading difficulties; especially after prolonged periods of near work. To report the presentation and management of a young adult with intractable accommodative spasm secondary to long standing intermittent exotropia. The patient was found to have bilateral accommodative spasm with high pseudomyopia and severe impairment of vision. There was a tendency for recurrence with discontinuation of cycloplegics. A total relief of symptoms was noticed after strabismus surgery was undertaken for the exotropia. A detailed orthoptic evaluation with emphasis on recognizing accommodative spasm as an unusual presentation of IXT, could aid in appropriate diagnosis and treatment of such cases. © NEPjOPH.

  5. Development of an Exergame to Deliver a Sustained Dose of High-Intensity Training: Formative Pilot Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Thomas; Weston, Matthew; Crawshaw, Paul; Haighton, Catherine; Spears, Iain

    2018-03-27

    Sport science can play a critical role in reducing health inequalities. The inverse relationship between life expectancy, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status could be addressed by performing high-intensity training (HIT), delivered in a class salient and accessible approach. Commercially available exergames have shown encouraging compliance rates but are primarily designed for entertainment purposes rather than focusing on health-related outcomes. A serious game tailored toward delivering an exercise stimulus, while reducing the aversive protocols associated with HIT, could be beneficial to engage and improve health outcomes in socially deprived males. The aims of this study were to develop an exergame capable of delivering HIT and evaluate the effect on selected health outcomes in men recruited in regions of socioeconomic deprivation. We conducted an exploratory trial in our target population, and participants were allocated to intervention (n=14) or control groups (n=10) by third-party minimization. The intervention was a 6-week training program consisting of three sessions of exergaming per week. The sessions involved a structured warm-up, then brief intermittent repetitions in the form of boxing rounds (10 s, 20 s, and 30 s) against their peers with a work/rest ratio of 0.25. Retention to the intervention was 87.5% (21/24). Over the duration of the intervention, session attendance was 67.5% (170/252); repetition mean and peak heart rates (% of maximal) and session ratings of perceived exertion (AU, arbitrary units) were 86.3 (5.4%), 89.9 (6.1%), and 7.5 (2.2 AU), respectively. The effect of the intervention, when compared with the control, was a likely small beneficial improvement in predicted maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max, 3.0; 90% confidence limits ±2.6%). Effects on body mass, waist circumference, and blood pressure were either trivial or unclear. Over the 6-week intervention, the exergame delivered a consistent and sustained dose of

  6. EFFECT OF IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED COLD WATER IMMERSION AFTER A HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE SESSION ON SUBSEQUENT RUN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Brophy-Williams

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of cold water immersion (CWI performed immediately or 3 h after a high intensity interval exercise session (HIIS on next-day exercise performance. Eight male athletes performed three HIIS at 90%VO2max velocity followed by either a passive recovery (CON, CWI performed immediately post-exercise (CWI(0 or CWI performed 3 h post-exercise (CWI(3. Recovery trials were performed in a counter balanced manner. Participants then returned 24 h later and completed a muscle soreness and a totally quality recovery perception (TQRP questionnaire, which was then followed by the Yoyo Intermittent Recovery Test [level 1] (YRT. Venous blood samples were collected pre-HIIS and pre-YRT to determine C-Reactive Protein (CRP levels. Significantly more shuttles were performed during the YRT following CWI(0 compared to the CON trial (p=0.017, ES = 0. 8, while differences between the CWI(3 and the CON trials approached significance (p = 0.058, ES = 0.5. Performance on the YRT between the CWI(0 and CWI(3 trials were similar (p = 0.147, ES = 0. 3. Qualitative analyses demonstrated a 98% and 92% likely beneficial effect of CWI(0 and CWI(3 on next day performance, compared to CON, respectively, while CWI(0 resulted in a 79% likely benefit when compared to CWI(3. CRP values were significantly lower pre-YRT, compared to baseline, following CWI(0 (p = 0.0.36 and CWI(3 (p = 0.045, but were similar for CON (p = 0.157. Muscle soreness scores were similar between trials (p = 1.10, while TQRP scores were significantly lower for CON compared to CWI(0 (p = 0.002 and CWI(3 (p = 0.024. Immediate CWI resulted in superior next-day YRT performance compared to CON, while delayed (3 h CWI was also likely to be beneficial. Qualitative analyses suggested that CWI(0 resulted in better performance than CWI(3. These results are important for athletes who do not have immediate access to CWI following exercise

  7. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  8. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  9. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  10. Effects of in-season short-term aerobic and high-intensity interval training program on repeated sprint ability and jump performance in handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Schwesig, René; Fieseler, Georg; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Chamari, Karim; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 7-week in-season aerobic and high-intensity interval-training program on performance tests linked to successful handball play (e.g., repeated sprint and jumping ability). Thirty participants (age 17.0±1.2 years, body mass 81.1±3.4 kg, height 1.82±0.07 m) performed a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), a squat (SJ) and a Countermovement Jump Test (CMJ), as well as a repeated Sprint Ability Test (RSA). From this, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, reached at the end of the Yo-Yo IR1), jumping ability, best time in a single sprint trial (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and the performance decrement (RSAdec) during all sprints were calculated. Later, subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; N.=15) performing their normal training schedule (5 weekly sessions of ~90 minutes of handball training) or an experimental group (EG; N.=15). The EG performed two 30 min sessions per week of high-intensity aerobic exercises at 100-130% of MAS in addition to their normal training schedule. A significant improvement in MAS (d=4.1), RSAbest (d=1.9), RSATT (d=1.5) and RSAdec (d=2.3) after the training period was demonstrated. Also, significant interaction effects (time x group) were found for all parameters as the EG significantly improved performances in all tests after training. The greatest interaction effects were observed in MAS (η2=0.811) and CMJ (η2=0.759). No relevant changes in test performances were found in the CG (mean d=-0.02). These results indicate that individually speed-controlled aerobic and interval training is effective for improving specific handball performance.

  11. Iron, Hematological Parameters and Blood Plasma Lipid Profile in Vitamin D Supplemented and Non-Supplemented Young Soccer Players Subjected to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Suárez, Arturo Diaz; Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe López; Jastrzebska, Joanna; Radziminski, Lukasz; Jastrzebski, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and anemia. Vitamin D-related changes in lipid profile have been studied extensively but the relationship between vitamin D and lipid metabolism is not completely understood. As both vitamin D and intermittent training may potentially affect iron and lipid metabolism, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether a daily supplementation of vitamin D can modulate the response of hematological and lipid parameters to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in soccer players. Thirty-six young elite junior soccer players were included in the placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were non-randomly allocated into either a supplemented group (SG, n=20, HIIT and 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily) or placebo group (PG, n=16, HIIT and sunflower oil). Hematological parameters were ascertained before and after the 8-wk training. The change score (post- and pre-training difference) was calculated for each individual and the mean change score (MCS) was compared between SG and PG using the t test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences between SG and PG at baseline. The red and white cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, ferritin, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly over the 8-wk HIIT. However, no significant differences in MCS were observed between SG and PG for any variable. A daily vitamin D supplement did not have any impact on alteration in hematological or lipid parameters in young soccer players in the course of high-intensity interval training.

  12. Intermittent Fasting with or without Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Improves Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin A. Wilson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting (IF and high intensity interval training (HIIT are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males (n = 39 and females (n = 49 were fed a high fat (HF and sugar (S water diet (30% (w/v for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1 ‘obese’ baseline control (OBC; (2 no intervention (CON; (3 intermittent fasting (IF; (4 high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT and (5 combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT. Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice (p < 0.05. The results suggest that IF, with or without HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet.

  13. Intermittent Fasting with or without Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Improves Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin A; Deasy, William; Stathis, Christos G; Hayes, Alan; Cooke, Matthew B

    2018-03-12

    Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males ( n = 39) and females ( n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% ( w / v )) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) 'obese' baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT). Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL) levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice ( p < 0.05). The results suggest that IF, with or without HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet.

  14. Intermittent Fasting with or without Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Improves Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin A.; Deasy, William; Stathis, Christos G.; Hayes, Alan; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males (n = 39) and females (n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% (w/v)) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) ‘obese’ baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT). Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL) levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice (p HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet. PMID:29534545

  15. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vasc...

  16. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense...... to CAF and PLA, while no difference in heart rate was observed between trials. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake....... intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na...

  17. [Effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropoietin levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-yan; Zhang, Ji-xin; Lü, Xiao-tao; Li, Bao-yu

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure and normoxic convalescence on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Rat models of intermittent hypoxic exposure were established, combined with the clinical research on volunteers experiencing the intermittent plateau work. Blood samples for red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) were collected, serum HIF-1alpha and EPO levels were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RBC counts, Hb concentration and HCT were significantly higher than the normoxic group (P hypoxic exposure can enhance serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropointin levels and the generation of red blood cells, which leads to an increase in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. The results have changed with the hypoxic exposure period prolonged. Normoxic convalescence after intermittent hypoxic exposure can make the related indexes reduced, and contribute to the organism recovery.

  18. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Nyberg, Michael; Weihe, Pál; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that low-volume high-intensity swimming has a larger impact on insulin sensitivity and glucose control than high-volume low-intensity swimming in inactive premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Sixty-two untrained premenopausal women were randomised to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min recovery periods and LIT swam continuously for 1 h at low intensity (average HR = 73 ± 3 % HRmax). Fasting blood samples were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted pre- and post-intervention. After HIT, resting plasma [insulin] was lowered (17 ± 34 %; P high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective and time-efficient training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function in inactive, middle-aged mildly hypertensive women.

  19. Effect of High-Intensity Wildfire and Silvicultural Treatments on Reptile Communities in Sand-Pine Scrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Daniel G. Neary; Larry D. Harris

    1994-01-01

    We tested whether the herpetofuunal response to clearcutting followed by site preparation was similar to high-intensity wildfire foIlowed by salvage logging in sand- pine scrub. Herpetofaunal communities were compared in three replicated 5- to 7-yearpost-disturbance treatments and mature sand-pine forest. The three disturbance treatments were (1) high-intensity...

  20. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Ferid; Guertin, Arnaud; Michel, Nathalie; Ferrer, Ludovic; Carlier, Thomas; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ( 67 Cu, 47 Sc) or alpha ( 211 At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ( 64 Cu, 124 I, 44 Sc), or that can be generator-produced ( 82 Rb, 68 Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ( 44 Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas 86 Y, 52 Fe, 55 Co, 76 Br or 89 Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs. (orig.) 5

  1. Experience Corps Baltimore: Exploring the Stressors and Rewards of High-intensity Civic Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Carlson, Michelle C; Parisi, Jeanine M; Tanner, Elizabeth K; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P; Song, Linda H; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2015-12-01

    Experience Corps (EC) represents a high-intensity, intergenerational civic engagement activity where older adults serve as mentors and tutors in elementary schools. Although high-intensity volunteer opportunities are designed to enhance the health and well being of older adult volunteers, little is known about the negative and positive aspects of volunteering unique to intergenerational programs from the volunteer's perspective. Stressors and rewards associated with volunteering in EC were explored in 8 focus group discussions with 46 volunteers from EC Baltimore. Transcripts were coded for frequently expressed themes. Participants reported stressors and rewards within 5 key domains: intergenerational (children's problem behavior, working with and helping children, observing/facilitating improvement or transformation in a child, and developing a special connection with a child); external to EC (poor parenting and children's social stressors); interpersonal (challenges in working with teachers and bonding/making social connections); personal (enjoyment, self-enhancement/achievement, and being/feeling more active); and structural (satisfaction with the structural elements of the EC program). Volunteers experienced unique intergenerational stressors related to children's problem behavior and societal factors external to the EC program. Overall, intergenerational, interpersonal, and personal rewards from volunteering, as well as program structure may have balanced the stress associated with volunteering. A better understanding of stressors and rewards from high-intensity volunteer programs may enhance our understanding of how intergenerational civic engagement volunteering affects well being in later life and may inform project modifications to maximize such benefits for future volunteers and those they serve. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  2. Plasma Irisin Modestly Increases during Moderate and High-Intensity Afternoon Exercise in Obese Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C.; Grunewald, Zachary I.; Liu, Ying; Heden, Timothy D.; Nyhoff, Lauren M.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Irisin is an exercise-responsive myokine that has been proposed to exert anti-obesity benefits; yet its response during exercise in obese women is not described. This study characterized plasma irisin levels during a single bout of afternoon isocaloric-exercise of different intensities (moderate- vs high-intensity) in obese females. Methods Eleven obese females participated in 3 randomized study days beginning at 1600h: 1) no exercise (NoEx), 2) moderate exercise (ModEx; 55%VO2max) and 3) high intensity interval exercise (IntEx; 4 min (80%VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lactate (whole-blood), and insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, and irisin (plasma) throughout 190 min of testing. Results Plasma irisin increased above baseline during ModEx and IntEx (P0.05). Peak irisin levels during ModEx and IntEx exercise were 11.9± 3.4% and 12.3 ± 4.1% relative to baseline (Pexercise intensities (P>0.05). Irisin levels remained elevated above resting for 125 minutes post-exercise during ModEx, whereas levels returned to baseline within 15 minutes post-exercise during IntEx. Similarly, no associations were found between plasma irisin levels and circulating lactate, glucose, insulin, c-peptide, or glucagon among study days (P>0.05). However, there was an inverse association between basal irisin and lean mass (r = -0.70, P = 0.01). Conclusion A single bout of moderate and high intensity afternoon exercise induces modest increases in circulating irisin concentrations during exercise; however the regulation post-exercise appears to be dimorphic between exercise intensity in obese females. Future studies are needed to compare morning and afternoon exercise on irisin secretion. PMID:28125733

  3. High-Intensity Telemedicine Decreases Emergency Department Use by Senior Living Community Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish N; Wasserman, Erin B; Wang, Hongyue; Gillespie, Suzanne M; Noyes, Katia; Wood, Nancy E; Nelson, Dallas; Dozier, Ann; McConnochie, Kenneth M

    2016-03-01

    The failure to provide timely acute illness care can lead to adverse consequences or emergency department (ED) use. We evaluated the effect on ED use of a high-intensity telemedicine program that provides acute illness care for senior living community (SLC) residents. We performed a prospective cohort study over 3.5 years. Six SLCs cared for by a primary care geriatrics practice were intervention facilities, with the remaining 16 being controls. Consenting patients at intervention facilities could access telemedicine for acute illness care. Patients were provided patient-to-provider, real-time, or store-and-forward high-intensity telemedicine (i.e., technician-assisted with resources beyond simple videoconferencing) to diagnose and treat acute illnesses. The primary outcome was the rate of ED use. We enrolled 494 of 705 (70.1%) subjects/proxies in the intervention group; 1,058 subjects served as controls. Control and intervention subjects visited the ED 2,238 and 725 times, respectively, with 47.3% of control and 43.4% of intervention group visits resulting in discharge home. Among intervention subjects, ED use decreased at an annualized rate of 18% (rate ratio [RR]=0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.95), whereas in the control group there was no statistically significant change in ED use (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.95-1.07; p=0.009 for group-by-time interaction). Primary care use and mortality were not significantly different. High-intensity telemedicine significantly reduced ED use among SLC residents without increasing other utilization or mortality. This alternative to traditional acute illness care can enhance access to acute illness care and should be integrated into population health programs.

  4. Effect of high-intensity statin therapy on atherosclerosis in non-infarct-related coronary arteries (IBIS-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räber, Lorenz; Taniwaki, Masanori; Zaugg, Serge

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The effect of long-term high-intensity statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of high-intensity statin therapy on plaque burden, composition, and phen......AIM: The effect of long-term high-intensity statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of high-intensity statin therapy on plaque burden, composition......-infarct-related epicardial coronary arteries (non-IRA) after successful primary PCI. Patients were treated with high-intensity rosuvastatin (40 mg/day) throughout 13 months and serial intracoronary imaging with the analysis of matched segments was available for 82 patients with 146 non-IRA. The primary IVUS end...

  5. Discussion of superconducting and room-temperature high-intensity ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The point of view taken in this discussion is that the basic technology base exists in all essential respects for both superconducting or room-temperature rf linac accelerators and associated power and control systems, and thus a project can make a choice between these technologies on overall system considerations. These include performance, cost, availability, flexibility, and upgradability. Large high-intensity neutron source proposals involving light-ion rf linacs in three categories are reviewed in this context. The categories arc cw linacs to high (∼1 GeV) and low (∼40 MeV) output energy, and pulsed linacs to energy ∼1 GeV

  6. Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on a 30-s High-Intensity Inertial Cycle Ergometer Test

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Domínguez; Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño; Eduardo Cuenca; Pablo García-Fernández; Arturo Muñoz-González; Fernando de Jesús; María Del Carmen Lozano-Estevan; Sandro Fernandes da Silva; Pablo Veiga-Herreros; José Luis Maté-Muñoz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Beetroot juice (BJ) is rich in inorganic nitrates and has proved effective at increasing blood nitric oxide (NO) levels. When used as a supplement BJ has shown an ergogenic effect on cardiorespiratory resistance exercise modalities, yet few studies have examined its impact on high intensity efforts. Objective: To assess the effects of BJ intake on anaerobic performance in a Wingate test. Methods: Fifteen trained men (age 21.46 ± 1.72 years, height 1.78 ± 0.07 cm and weight 76.90 ±...

  7. The effect of high intensity laser propagation instabilities on channel formation in underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmudin, Z.; Krushelnick, K.; Tatarakis, M.; Clark, E.L.; Danson, C.N.; Malka, V.; Neely, D.; Santala, M.I.K.; Dangor, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have been performed using high power laser pulses (up to 50 TW) focused into underdense helium plasmas (n e ≤5x10 19 cm -3 ). Using shadowgraphy, it is observed that the laser pulse can produce irregular density channels, which exhibit features such as long wavelength hosing and 'sausage-like' self-focusing instabilities. This phenomenon is a high intensity effect and the characteristic period of oscillation of these instabilities is typically found to correspond to the time required for ions to move radially out of the region of highest intensity

  8. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  9. A high-intensity He-jet production source for radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Kimberly, H.J.; Grisham, D.L.; Talbert, W.L.; Wouters, J.M.; Rosenauer, D.; Bai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a thin-target, He-jet transport system operating with high primary beam intensities is explored as a high-intensity production source for radioactive beams. This method is expected to work well for short-lived, non-volatile species. As such the thin-target, He-jet approach represents a natural complement to the thick-target ISOL method in which such species are not, in general, rapidly released. Highlighted here is a thin-target, He-jet system that is being prepared for a 500 + μA, 800-MeV proton demonstration experiment at LAMPF this summer

  10. No effect of glycogen level on glycogen metabolism during high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberghe, Katleen; Hespel, P.; Eynde, Bart Vanden

    1995-01-01

    , either for 1 min 45 s (protocol 1; N = 18) or to exhaustion (protocol 2; N = 14). The exercise tests were preceded by either 5 d on a controlled normal (N) diet, or by 2 d of glycogen-depleting exercise accompanied by the normal diet followed by 3 d on a carbohydrate-rich (CHR) diet. In protocol 1......This study examined the effect of glycogen supercompensation on glycogen breakdown, muscle and blood lactate accumulation, blood-pH, and performance during short-term high-intensity exercise. Young healthy volunteers performed two supramaximal (125% of VO2max) exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer...

  11. Production and study of high intensity discharges; Production et etude de decharges a forte intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, C.; Charbon, J.; Hubert, P.; Vendryes, G.; Yvon, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    High intensity discharges have been induced in a pyrex toroid filled with argon or deuterium at low pressure. An attempt was made to stabilise the ring of plasma by the joint action of a metal screen and a longitudinal magnetic field. Penetrating X-ray have been observed under certain conditions. (author) [French] Des decharges a forte intensite ont ete induites dans une tore en pyrex rempli d'argon ou de deuterium sous basse pression. On a cherche a stabiliser l'anneau de plasma par l'action conjuguee d'un champ magnetique longitudinal. Un rayon X penetrant a ete observe dans certaines conditions. (auteur)

  12. Generation of high intensity rf pulses in the ionosphere by means of in situ compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Perkins, F.W.; Valeo, E.J.

    1993-04-01

    We demonstrate, using a simple model, that high intensity pulses can be generated from a frequency-chirped modifier of much lower intensity by making use of the dispersive properties of the ionosphere. We show that a frequency-chirped pulse can be constructed so that its various components overtake each other at a prescribed height, resulting in large (up to one hundred times) transient intensity enhancements as compared to those achievable from a steady modifier operating at the same power. We examine briefly one possible application: the enhancement of plasma wave amplitudes which occurs as a result of the interaction of such a compressed pulse with pre-generated turbulence

  13. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  14. Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.; Al Mahamid, I.; Blandin, C.; Chabod, S.; Chartier, F.; Dupont, E.; Fioni, G.; Isnard, H.; Letourneau, A.; Marie, F.; Mutti, P.; Oriol, L.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The 241 Am and 232 Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

  15. KEK/JAERI Joint Project on high-intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    From JFY01, which started on April 1, 2001, a new accelerator project to provide high-intensity proton beams proceeded into a construction phase. This project is conducted under a cooperation of two institutions, KEK and JAERI. The accelerator complex will provide 1 MW proton beams at 3 GeV and 0.75 MW beams at 50 GeV. The project will be completed within 6 years. In this article I will describe (a) the project itself, (b) sciences to be pursued at this new accelerator complex and (c) the present status and future plans of the project

  16. Production and study of high intensity discharges; Production et etude de decharges a forte intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, C; Charbon, J; Hubert, P; Vendryes, G; Yvon, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    High intensity discharges have been induced in a pyrex toroid filled with argon or deuterium at low pressure. An attempt was made to stabilise the ring of plasma by the joint action of a metal screen and a longitudinal magnetic field. Penetrating X-ray have been observed under certain conditions. (author) [French] Des decharges a forte intensite ont ete induites dans une tore en pyrex rempli d'argon ou de deuterium sous basse pression. On a cherche a stabiliser l'anneau de plasma par l'action conjuguee d'un champ magnetique longitudinal. Un rayon X penetrant a ete observe dans certaines conditions. (auteur)

  17. Magnetic resonance–guided interstitial high-intensity focused ultrasound for brain tumor ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Jacquelyn; Patel, Niravkumar; Rubino, Sebastian; Ghoshal, Goutam; Fischer, Gregory; Burdette, E. Clif; Hwang, Roy; Pilitsis, Julie G.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, treatment of brain tumors is limited to resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Thermal ablation has been recently explored. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is being explored as an alternative. Specifically, the authors propose delivering HIFU internally to the tumor with an MRI-guided robotic assistant (MRgRA). The advantage of the authors’ interstitial device over external MRI-guided HIFU (MRgHIFU) is that it allows for conformal, precise ablation and concurrent tissue sampling. The authors describe their workflow for MRgRA HIFU delivery. PMID:29385926

  18. A fast chopper for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab; Dymokde-Bradshaw, A.; Hares, J.; Kellett, P.

    2008-10-01

    A fast chopper capable of kicking single 2.5 MeV H-bunches spaced at 325 MHz, at rates greater than 50 MHz is needed for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) [1]. Four 1.2 kV fast pulsers, designed and manufactured by Kentech Instruments Ltd., will drive a 0.5 m long meander made from a copper plated ceramic composite. Test results showing pulses from the first 1.2 kV pulser and meander results will be presented.

  19. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio...

  20. Potency of high-intensity ultrasonic treatment for grain refinement of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Qian Ma; Davis, B.; Wilks, T.; StJohn, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasonic treatment (UT) for grain refinement of magnesium alloys has been investigated using a novel theoretical approach in order to better understand its grain-refining potential and the mechanism of nucleation. The process demonstrated significantly superior grain-refining potency to carbon inoculation for Al-containing magnesium alloys but inferior potency to zirconium for Al-free alloys. Details revealed by applying the theoretical approach to ultrasonic grain refinement provide new clues to understanding the mechanism of grain nucleation by UT

  1. The 1989 progress report: Laboratory for the Utilization of High-Intensity Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, E.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory for the Utilization of High-Intensity Lasers of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations reported were performed in the following fields: laser-matter interactions in fusion experiments, particles' laser acceleration, picoseconds and femtoseconds interactions, low-flux interactions, development of hydrodynamic codes, laser chocks simulation codes, x-ray lasers, generation of high pressures, implosion physics at 0.26 microns, dense plasmas, material's hardening by laser radiation. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  2. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  3. Effects of high-intensity strength interval training program on body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Juránková, Michaela; Bílý, Jiří; Hrazdíra, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine effects of 10-week high-intensity strength interval training (HIIT) program on body composition. Seven women (31.0 ± 6.0 years old, 65.7 ± 9.8 kg body weight, 23.6 ± 2.8 kg*m−2 BMI, 18.6 ± 5.8 kg body fat, 26.0 ± 3.4 kg muscle mass) completed intervention program. We performed an analyze of body composition before and after training program. We focused especially on body fat and muscle mass. Each session consisted of short term bouts (until 30 s duration) w...

  4. Oxidative stress does not influence local sweat rate during high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Robert D; Fujii, Naoto; Poirier, Martin P; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We evaluated whether oxidative stress attenuates the contribution of nitric oxide to sweating during high-intensity exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? In contrast to our previous report of an oxidative stress-mediated reduction in nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation in this cohort during intense exercise, we demonstrated no influence of local ascorbate administration on the sweating response during moderate- (∼51% peak oxygen uptake) or high-intensity exercise (∼72% peak oxygen uptake). These new findings provide important mechanistic insight into how exercise-induced oxidative stress impacts sudomotor activity. Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent sweating is diminished during high- but not moderate-intensity exercise. We evaluated whether this impairment stems from increased oxidative stress during high-intensity exercise. On two separate days, 11 young (24 ± 4 years) men cycled in the heat (35°C) at a moderate [500 W; 52 ± 6% peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak )] or high (700 W; 71 ± 5% V̇O2 peak ) rate of metabolic heat production. Each session included two 30 min exercise bouts separated by a 20 min recovery period. Local sweat rate was monitored at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with the following: (i) lactated Ringer solution (Control); (ii) 10 mm ascorbate (Ascorbate; non-selective antioxidant); (iii) 10 mm N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor); or (iv) 10 mm ascorbate plus 10 mm l-NAME (Ascorbate + l-NAME). During moderate exercise, sweat rate was attenuated at the l-NAME and Ascorbate + l-NAME sites (both ∼1.0 mg min -1  cm -2 ; all P < 0.05) but not at the Ascorbate site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ; both P ≥ 0.28) in comparison to the Control site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ). However, no differences were observed between treatment sites (∼1.4 mg min -1  cm -2 ; P = 0

  5. New initiatives on lepton flavor violation and neutrino oscillation with high intense muon and neutrino sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kuno, Yoshitaka; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2002-01-01

    The area of physics involving muons and neutrinos has become exciting in particle physics. Using their high intensity sources, physicists undertake, in various ways, extensive searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model, such as tests of supersymmetric grand unification (SUSY-GUT) and precision measurements of the muon and neutrino properties, which will in future extend to ambitious studies such as determination of the three-generation neutrino mixing matrix elements and CP violation in the lepton sector. The physics of this field is advancing, with potential improvements of the source

  6. Charge-exchange-induced formation of hollow atoms in high-intensity laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F.B. [TU-Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Magunov, A.I.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Auguste, T.; D' Oliveira, P.; Hulin, S.; Monot, P. [Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique DSM/DRECAM/SPAM, Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Andreev, N.E.; Chegotov, M.V.; Veisman, M.E. [High Energy Density Research Centre, Institute of High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-03-14

    For the first time registration of high-resolution soft x-ray emission and atomic data calculations of hollow-atom dielectronic satellite spectra of highly charged nitrogen have been performed. Double-electron charge-exchange processes from excited states are proposed for the formation of autoionizing levels nln'l' in high-intensity laser-produced plasmas, when field-ionized ions penetrate into the residual gas. Good agreement is found between theory and experiment. Plasma spectroscopy with hollow ions is proposed and a temperature diagnostic for laser-produced plasmas in the long-lasting recombining regime is developed. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  7. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Abbie E; Walter, Ashley A; Graef, Jennifer L; Kendall, Kristina L; Moon, Jordan R; Lockwood, Christopher M; Fukuda, David H; Beck, Travis W; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2009-02-11

    Intermittent bouts of high-intensity exercise result in diminished stores of energy substrates, followed by an accumulation of metabolites, promoting chronic physiological adaptations. In addition, beta-alanine has been accepted has an effective physiological hydrogen ion (H+) buffer. Concurrent high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and beta-alanine supplementation may result in greater adaptations than HIIT alone. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of combining beta-alanine supplementation with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on endurance performance and aerobic metabolism in recreationally active college-aged men. Forty-six men (Age: 22.2 +/- 2.7 yrs; Ht: 178.1 +/- 7.4 cm; Wt: 78.7 +/- 11.9; VO2peak: 3.3 +/- 0.59 l.min-1) were assessed for peak O2 utilization (VO2peak), time to fatigue (VO2TTE), ventilatory threshold (VT), and total work done at 110% of pre-training VO2peak (TWD). In a double-blind fashion, all subjects were randomly assigned into one either a placebo (PL - 16.5 g dextrose powder per packet; n = 18) or beta-alanine (BA - 1.5 g beta-alanine plus 15 g dextrose powder per packet; n = 18) group. All subjects supplemented four times per day (total of 6 g/day) for the first 21-days, followed by two times per day (3 g/day) for the subsequent 21 days, and engaged in a total of six weeks of HIIT training consisting of 5-6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio. Significant improvements in VO2peak, VO2TTE, and TWD after three weeks of training were displayed (p body mass were only significant for the BA group after the second three weeks of training. The use of HIIT to induce significant aerobic improvements is effective and efficient. Chronic BA supplementation may further enhance HIIT, improving endurance performance and lean body mass.

  8. Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Travis W

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent bouts of high-intensity exercise result in diminished stores of energy substrates, followed by an accumulation of metabolites, promoting chronic physiological adaptations. In addition, β-alanine has been accepted has an effective physiological hydrogen ion (H+ buffer. Concurrent high-intensity interval training (HIIT and β-alanine supplementation may result in greater adaptations than HIIT alone. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of combining β-alanine supplementation with high-intensity interval training (HIIT on endurance performance and aerobic metabolism in recreationally active college-aged men. Methods Forty-six men (Age: 22.2 ± 2.7 yrs; Ht: 178.1 ± 7.4 cm; Wt: 78.7 ± 11.9; VO2peak: 3.3 ± 0.59 l·min-1 were assessed for peak O2 utilization (VO2peak, time to fatigue (VO2TTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done at 110% of pre-training VO2peak (TWD. In a double-blind fashion, all subjects were randomly assigned into one either a placebo (PL – 16.5 g dextrose powder per packet; n = 18 or β-alanine (BA – 1.5 g β-alanine plus 15 g dextrose powder per packet; n = 18 group. All subjects supplemented four times per day (total of 6 g/day for the first 21-days, followed by two times per day (3 g/day for the subsequent 21 days, and engaged in a total of six weeks of HIIT training consisting of 5–6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio. Results Significant improvements in VO2peak, VO2TTE, and TWD after three weeks of training were displayed (p 2peak, VO2TTE, TWD and lean body mass were only significant for the BA group after the second three weeks of training. Conclusion The use of HIIT to induce significant aerobic improvements is effective and efficient. Chronic BA supplementation may further enhance HIIT, improving endurance performance and lean body mass.

  9. Intermittent reductions in respiratory neural activity elicit spinal TNF-α-independent, atypical PKC-dependent inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertsch, Nathan A; Baker-Herman, Tracy L

    2015-04-15

    In many neural networks, mechanisms of compensatory plasticity respond to prolonged reductions in neural activity by increasing cellular excitability or synaptic strength. In the respiratory control system, a prolonged reduction in synaptic inputs to the phrenic motor pool elicits a TNF-α- and atypical PKC-dependent form of spinal plasticity known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Although iPMF may be elicited by a prolonged reduction in respiratory neural activity, iPMF is more efficiently induced when reduced respiratory neural activity (neural apnea) occurs intermittently. Mechanisms giving rise to iPMF following intermittent neural apnea are unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that iPMF following intermittent reductions in respiratory neural activity requires spinal TNF-α and aPKC. Phrenic motor output was recorded in anesthetized and ventilated rats exposed to brief intermittent (5, ∼1.25 min), brief sustained (∼6.25 min), or prolonged sustained (30 min) neural apnea. iPMF was elicited following brief intermittent and prolonged sustained neural apnea, but not following brief sustained neural apnea. Unlike iPMF following prolonged neural apnea, spinal TNF-α was not required to initiate iPMF during intermittent neural apnea; however, aPKC was still required for its stabilization. These results suggest that different patterns of respiratory neural activity induce iPMF through distinct cellular mechanisms but ultimately converge on a similar downstream pathway. Understanding the diverse cellular mechanisms that give rise to inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat devastating respiratory control disorders when endogenous compensatory mechanisms fail. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  11. Attentional bias to emotional stimuli is altered during moderate- but not high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qu; Smith, J Carson

    2011-12-01

    Little is known regarding how attention to emotional stimuli is affected during simultaneously performed exercise. Attentional biases to emotional face stimuli were assessed in 34 college students (17 women) using the dot-probe task during counterbalanced conditions of moderate- (heart rate at 45% peak oxygen consumption) and high-intensity exercise (heart rate at 80% peak oxygen consumption) compared with seated rest. The dot-probe task consisted of 1 emotional face (pleasant or unpleasant) paired with a neutral face for 1,000 ms; 256 trials (128 trials for each valence) were presented during each condition. Each condition lasted approximately 10 min. Participants were instructed to perform each trial of the dot-probe task as quickly and accurately as possible during the exercise and rest conditions. During moderate-intensity exercise, participants exhibited significantly greater attentional bias scores to pleasant compared with unpleasant faces (p bias scores to emotional faces did not differ at rest or during high-intensity exercise (p > .05). In addition, the attentional bias to unpleasant faces was significantly reduced during moderate-intensity exercise compared with that during rest (p emotional stimuli and away from unpleasant emotional stimuli. Future work is needed to determine whether acute exercise may be an effective treatment approach to reduce negative bias or enhance positive bias in individuals diagnosed with mood or anxiety disorders, or whether attentional bias during exercise predicts adherence to exercise. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Moderate-to-High Intensity Physical Exercise in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A; Frederiksen, Kristian S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruite...... reduced neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild AD, with possible additional benefits of preserved cognition in a subgroup of patients exercising with high attendance and intensity.......BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...... 200 patients with mild AD to a supervised exercise group (60-min sessions three times a week for 16 weeks) or to a control group. Primary outcome was change from baseline in cognitive performance estimated by Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) group. Secondary outcomes...

  13. Cancer and Exercise: Warburg Hypothesis, Tumour Metabolism and High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter

    2018-01-31

    There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors. Beside a multitude of effects of exercise on the human body, one underscored effect of exercise training is to target the specific metabolism of tumour cells, namely the Warburg-type highly glycolytic metabolism. Tumour metabolism as well as the tumour⁻host interaction may be selectively influenced by single bouts as well as regularly applied exercise, dependent on exercise intensity, duration, frequency and mode. High-intensity anaerobic exercise was shown to inhibit glycolysis and some studies in animals showed that effects on tumour growth might be stronger compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. High-intensity exercise was shown to be safe in patients; however, it has to be applied carefully with an individualized prescription of exercise.

  14. Improvement in surface fatigue life of hardened gears by high-intensity shot peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.

    1992-04-01

    Two groups of carburized, hardened, and ground spur gears that were manufactured from the same heat vacuum induction melted vacuum arc melted (VIM VAR) AISI 9310 steel were endurance tested for surface fatigue. Both groups were manufactured with a standard ground 16 rms surface finish. One group was subjected to a shot peening (SP) intensity of 7 to 9A, and the second group was subjected to a SP intensity of 15 to 17A. All gears were honed after SP to a surface finish of 16 rms. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa, a gear temperature of 350 K, and a speed of 10000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The following results were obtained: The 10 pct. surface fatigue (pitting) life of the high intensity (15 to 17A) SPed gears was 2.15 times that of the medium intensity (7 to 9A) SPed gears, the same as that calculated from measured residual stress at a depth of 127 microns. The measured residual stress for the high intensity SPed gears was 57 pct. higher than that for the medium intensity SPed gears at a depth of 127 microns and 540 pct. higher at a depth of 51 microns.

  15. High-intensity interval training (HIIT for patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna M. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT. HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  16. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  17. The physiological stress response to high-intensity sprint exercise following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Daniel J; Kirk, Richard J; Hillman, Angela R; Madden, Leigh A; Siegler, Jason C; Vince, Rebecca V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-exercise alkalosis on the physiological stress response to high-intensity exercise. Seven physically active males (age 22 ± 3 years, height 1.82 ± 0.06 m, mass 81.3 ± 8.4 kg and peak power output 300 ± 22 W) performed a repeated sprint cycle exercise following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) (BICARB), or a placebo of 0.045 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (PLAC). Monocyte-expressed heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly attenuated in BICARB compared to PLAC (p = 0.04 and p = 0.039, respectively), however total anti-oxidant capacity, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione, cortisol, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 were not significantly induced by the exercise. In conclusion, monocyte-expressed HSP72 is significantly increased following high-intensity anaerobic exercise, and its attenuation following such exercise with the ingestion of NaHCO(3) is unlikely to be due to a decreased oxidative stress.

  18. Microbiological properties of poultry breast meat treated with high-intensity ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñon, M I; Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Renteria, A L; Carrillo-Lopez, L M

    2018-01-03

    Lactic acid, psychrophilic, and mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were enumerated on chicken breasts after treatment with different high intensity ultrasound (frequency 40 kHz, intensity 9.6 W/cm -2 ) application times (0, 30, and 50 min) and packaging atmospheres (aerobic and vacuum) after a 7-day storage. The experiment was performed in commercial 7-week-old chicken breasts. Counts were performed prior to and immediately after ultrasonication, and on the 7th day of chill-storage. After sonication and storage, mesophiles, psychrophiles, LAB and S. aureus increased statistically. Psychrophiles decreased significantly under anaerobic packaging. There were no differences among ultrasonication times in terms of mesophiles, psychrophiles, LAB, E. coli and Salmonella spp. S. aureus numbers had a significant reduction after 50 min sonication. Under these experimental conditions, high-intensity ultrasound for 50 min is a control method of S. aureus and the anaerobic packaging reduces numbers of psychrophiles in chicken breast. The effect of ultrasound is only significant after the storage time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Technical development of high intensity proton accelerators in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1995-01-01

    Science and Technology Agency decided 'Options making extra gains of actinides and fission products (OMEGA)' and to promote the related researches. Also in JAERI, the research on the group separation method for separating transuranic elements, strontium and cesium from high level radioactive wastes has been carried out since the beginning of 1970s. Also the concept of the fast reactors using minor actinide mixture fuel is being established, and the accelerator annihilation treatment utilizing the nuclear spallation reaction by high energy protons has been examined. In this report, from the viewpoint of the application of accelerators to atomic energy field, the annihilation treatment method by the nuclear spallation reaction utilizing high intensity proton accelerators, the plan of the various engineering utilization of proton beam, and the development of accelerators in JAERI are described. The way of thinking on the annihilation treatment of radioactive waste, the system using fast neutrons, the way of thinking on the development of high intensity proton accelerator technology, the steps of the development, the research and development for constructing the basic technology accelerator, 2 MeV beam acceleration test, the basic technology accelerator utilization facility and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  20. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lactate levels were measured at baseline (PRE at immediately after the HIIT (POST, at the 1 minutes after HIIT (1min, at the 5 minutes after HIIT (5min, and at the 10 minutes after HIIT (10min. On the rest days, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and serum creatine kinase (CK  measurements were done to determine the muscle damage. Results: The in-group comparisons for lactate levels showed no significant difference (p>0,01. The level of lactate on the 10min was found to be significantly lower than the 5min in the core exercise group (p0,01. These results show that the lactate level reaches to the maximum level after HIIT, and the level of lactate decreases between the 5th and the 10th minutes. Discussion and conclusion: These indicate that the active recovery methods are more effective than the passive. It was found that the active recovery methods accelerate the lactate removal from the metabolism and provide effective recovery in short time during the recovery period after exercise.

  1. Dose-Response of High-Intensity Training (HIT) on Atheroprotective miRNA-126 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Schelleckes, Katrin; Nedele, Johanna; Thorwesten, Lothar; Klose, Andreas; Lenders, Malte; Krüger, Michael; Brand, Eva; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) exerts beneficial effects on vascular integrity, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the dose-response relationship of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on miR-126-3p and -5p levels. Methods: Sixty-one moderately trained individuals (females = 31 [50.8%]; 22.0 ± 1.84 years) were consecutively recruited and allocated into three matched groups using exercise capacity. During a 4-week intervention a HIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out), a progressive HIIT (proHIIT) group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out) with one extra session every week (up to 7 × 30 s) and a low-intensity training (LIT) control group performed three exercise sessions/week for 25 min HIIT groups (after 4 min of high-intensity running). After the intervention, the LIT group presented an increase in miR-126-3p, while in the HIIT group, miR-126-3p levels were still reduced (all p HIIT (−1.05 ± 2.6 units). Conclusions: LIT and proHIIT may be performed to increase individual miR-126 levels. HIIT without progression was less effective in increasing miR-126. PMID:28611681

  2. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Drobner, Juliane; Fischer, Tina; Werner, Sarah; Linke, Axel; Mangner, Norman; Schuler, Gerhard; Adams, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a key risk factor for heart failure, with the latter characterized by diaphragm muscle weakness that is mediated in part by increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we used a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mouse model to determine whether hypertension could independently induce diaphragm dysfunction and further investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sham-treated (n = 11), DOCA-salt-treated (n = 11), and DOCA-salt+HIIT-treated (n = 15) mice were studied over 4 wk. Diaphragm contractile function, protein expression, enzyme activity, and fiber cross-sectional area and type were subsequently determined. Elevated blood pressure confirmed hypertension in DOCA-salt mice independent of HIIT (P HIIT. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression tended to decrease (∼30%; P = 0.06) in DOCA-salt vs. sham- and DOCA-salt+HIIT mice, whereas oxidative stress increased (P HIIT further prevented direct oxidant-mediated diaphragm contractile dysfunction (P hypertension induces diaphragm contractile dysfunction via an oxidant-mediated mechanism that is prevented by HIIT.-Bowen, T. S., Eisenkolb, S., Drobner, J., Fischer, T., Werner, S., Linke, A., Mangner, N., Schuler, G., Adams, V. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice. © FASEB.

  3. Accelerator technical design report for high-intensity proton accelerator facility project, J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    This report presents the detail of the technical design of the accelerators for the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility Project, J-PARC. The accelerator complex comprises a 400-MeV room-temperature linac (600-MeV superconducting linac), 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS), and a 50-GeV synchrotron (MR). The 400-MeV beam is injected to the RCS, being accelerated to 3 GEV. The 1-MW beam thus produced is guided to the Materials Life Science Experimental Facility, with both the pulsed spallation neutron source and muon source. A part of the beam is transported to the MR, which provides the 0.75-MW beam to either the Nuclear and Fundamental Particle Experimental Facility or the Neutrino Production Target. On the other hand, the beam accelerated to 600 MeV by the superconducting linac is used for the Nuclear Waster Transmutation Experiment. In this way, this facility is unique, being multipurpose one, including many new inventions and Research and Development Results. This report is based upon the accomplishments made by the Accelerator Group and others of the Project Team, which is organized on the basis of the Agreement between JAERI and KEK on the Construction and Research and Development of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility. (author)

  4. The vestibulomyogenic balance response is elevated following high-intensity lengthening contractions of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Emily I; Power, Geoffrey A; Dalton, Brian H

    2018-05-14

    The purpose was to investigate whether exercise-induced muscle weakness of the plantar and dorsiflexors through high-intensity lengthening contractions increases the vestibulomyogenic balance response. Nine males (∼25 years) participated in three experimental testing days to evaluate the vestibular control of standing balance and neuromuscular function of the plantar and dorsiflexors pre- and post (30 min, and 1 and 7 days) high-intensity lengthening plantar and dorsiflexions. To evaluate the vestibular-evoked balance response, participants stood quietly on a force plate while exposed to continuous, random electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS) for two 90-s trials. Relationships between EVS-antero-posterior (AP) forces and EVS-medial gastrocnemius electromyography (EMG) were estimated in the frequency domain (i.e., coherence). Weakness of the right plantar and dorsiflexors were assessed using maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The lengthening contractions induced a 13 and 24% reduction in plantar and dorsiflexor MVC torque, respectively (p balance response when muscle strength is reduced. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-intensity laser for Ta and Ag implantation into different substrates for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutroneo, M., E-mail: cutroneo@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, AS CR, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute, AS CR, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Matousek, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Torrisi, L. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-01

    High-intensity lasers generating non-equilibrium plasma, can be employed to accelerate ions in the keV–MeV region, useful for many applications. In the present work, we performed study of ion implantation into different substrates by using a high-intensity laser at the PALS laboratory in Prague. Multi-energy ions generated by plasma from Ta and Ag targets were implanted into polyethylene and metallic substrates (Al, Ti) at energies of tens of keV per charge state. The ion emission was monitored online using time-of-flight detectors and electromagnetic deflection systems. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to characterise the elemental composition in the implanted substrates by ion plasma emission and to provide the implanted ion depth profiling. These last measurements enable offline plasma characterisation and provide information on the useful potentiality of multi-ion species and multi-energy ion implantation into different substrates. XPS analysis gives information on the chemical bonds and their modifications in the first superficial implanted layers. The depth distributions of implanted Ta and Ag ions were compared with the theoretical ones achieved by using the SRIM-2012 simulation code.

  6. An ex vivo feasibility experimental study on targeted cell surgery by high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Biao; Wu, Junru; Fang, Liao Qiong; Wang, Hua; Li, Fa Qi; Tian, Yun Bo; Gong, Xiao Bo; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Lian; Feng, Ruo

    2012-10-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has become a new noninvasive surgical modality in medicine. A portion of tissue seated inside a patient's body may experience coagulative necrosis after a few seconds of insonification by high intensity focused ultrasound (US) generated by an extracorporeal focusing US transducer. The region of tissue affected by coagulative necrosis (CN) usually has an ellipsoidal shape when the thermal effect due to US absorption plays the dominant role. Its long and short axes are parallel and perpendicular to the US propagation direction respectively. It was shown by ex vivo experiments that the dimension of the short and long axes of the tissue which experiences CN can be as small as 50 μm and 250 μm respectively after one second exposure of US pulse (the spatial and pulse average acoustic power is on the order of tens of Watts and the local acoustic spatial and temporal pulse averaged intensity is on the order of 3 × 104 W/cm2) generated by a 1.6 MHz HIFU transducer of 12 cm diameter and 11 cm geometric focal length (f-number = 0.92). The numbers of cells which suffered CN were estimated to be on the order of 40. This result suggests that HIFU is able to interact with tens of cells at/near its focal zone while keeping the neighboring cells minimally affected, and thus the targeted cell surgery may be achievable.

  7. High Intensity Exercise: Can It Protect You from A Fast Food Diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Christian; Rouillier, Marc-Antoine; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Karelis, Antony D

    2017-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of high intensity exercise to counteract the deleterious effects of a fast food diet on the cardiometabolic profile of young healthy men. Fifteen men were subjected to an exclusive fast food diet from a popular fast food restaurant chain (three extra value meals/day + optional snack) for 14 consecutive days. Simultaneously, participants were asked to perform each day high intensity interval training (HIIT) (15 × 60 sec sprint intervals (~90% of maximal heart rate)) on a treadmill. Fast food diet and energy expenditure profiles of the participants during the intervention were assessed as well as body composition (DXA), cardiometabolic profile (lipid, hepatic enzymes, glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, hsC-reactive protein (hsCRP) and blood pressure) and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) pre- and post-experiment. We found significant improvements for fat mass, lean body mass, estimated VO₂ max, fasting glucose, serum lipoprotein(a) and hsCRP after the intervention ( p fast food diet.

  8. A high-intensity plasma-sputter heavy negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mori, Y.; Takagi, A.; Ueno, A.; Fukumoto, S.

    1989-01-01

    A multicusp magnetic field plasma surface ion source, normally used for H/sup /minus//ion beam formation, has been modified for the generation of high-intensity, pulsed, heavy negative ion beams suitable for a variety of uses. To date, the source has been utilized to produce mA intensity pulsed beams of more than 24 species. A brief description of the source, and basic pulsed-mode operational data, (e.g., intensity versus cesium oven temperature, sputter probe voltage, and discharge pressure), are given. In addition, illustrative examples of intensity versus time and the mass distributions of ion beams extracted from a number of samples along with emittance data, are also presented. Preliminary results obtained during dc operation of the source under low discharge power conditions suggest that sources of this type may also be used to produce high-intensity (mA) dc beams. The results of these investigations are given, as well, and the technical issues that must be addressed for this mode of operation are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  9. ORBIT: A CODE FOR COLLECTIVE BEAM DYNAMICS IN HIGH INTENSITY RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLMES, J.A.; DANILOV, V.; GALAMBOS, J.; SHISHLO, A.; COUSINEAU, S.; CHOU, W.; MICHELOTTI, L.; OSTIGUY, J.F.; WEI, J.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection, including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK, the introduction of a treatment of magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings

  10. ORBIT: A Code for Collective Beam Dynamics in High-Intensity Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. A.; Danilov, V.; Galambos, J.; Shishlo, A.; Cousineau, S.; Chou, W.; Michelotti, L.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Wei, J.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection, including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK; the introduction of a treatment of magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings.

  11. ORBIT: A code for collective beam dynamics in high-intensity rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.; Danilov, V.; Galambos, J.; Shishlo, A.; Cousineau, S.; Chou, W.; Michelotti, L.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Wei, J.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection, including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK; the introduction of a treatment of magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings

  12. A model of the enhancement of coal combustion using high intensity acoustic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuzkurt, S.; Ha, M.Y.; Koopmann, G.H.; Scaroni, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a model for the enhancement of coal combustion in the presence of high intensity acoustics is developed. A high intensity acoustic field induces an oscillating velocity over pulverized coal particles otherwise entrained in the main gas stream, resulting in increased heat and mass transfer. The augmented heat and mass transfer coefficients, expressed as space- and time-averaged Nusselt and Sherwood numbers for the oscillating flow, were implemented in an existing computer code (PCGC-2) capable of predicting various aspects of pulverized coal combustion and gasification. Increases in the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers of about 45, 60 and 82.5% at sound pressure levels of 160, 165, and 170 dB for 100 μm coal particles were obtained due to increases in the acoustic slop velocity associated with the increased sound pressure levels. The main effect of the acoustic field was observed during the char combustion phase in a diffusionally controlled situation. A decrease in the char burnout length (time) of 15.7% at 160 dB and 30.2% at 170 dB was obtained compared to the case with no sound for the 100 μm coal particles

  13. Design features and performance of the LAMPF high-intensity beam area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, L.; Grisham, D.; Macek, R.J.; Sommer, W.F.; Werbeck, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    LAMPF is a multi-purpose high-intensity meson factory capable of producing a 1 mA beam of 800-MeV protons. The three target cells and the beam stop facilities in the high intensity area have many special design features that are required for operation in the presence of high heat loads and intense radiation fields where accessibility is extremely limited. Reliable targets, beam windows, beam stops, beam transport and diagnostic components, vacuum enclosures, and auxiliary systems have been developed. Sophisticated remote-handling systems are employed for maintenance. Complex protection systems have been developed to guard against damage caused by errant beam. Beam availability approaching 90% has been achieved at currents of 600 to 700 μA. A new facility for direct proton and neutron radiation effects studies will be installed in 1985. The new facility will provide an integrated spallation neutron flux of up to 5 x 10 17 m -2 s -1 and will anable proton irradiation studies in the primary beam

  14. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Mahmoud, Mustafa Z.; Alzimami, Khalid S.; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim; Fagiri, Maram A.

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applies high-intensity focused ultrasound energy to locally heat and destroy diseased or damaged tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU to explain the fundamentals of HIFU, evaluate the evidence concerning the role of HIFU in the treatment of prostate cancer (PC), review the technologies used to perform HIFU and the published clinical literature regarding the procedure as a primary treatment for PC. Studies addressing HIFU in localized PC were identified in a search of internet scientific databases. The analysis of outcomes was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013. HIFU is a non-invasive approach that uses a precisely delivered ultrasound energy to achieve tumor cell necrosis without radiation or surgical excision. In current urological oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of PC. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for localized PC began in the 1990s, and the majority of PC patients were treated with the Ablatherm device. HIFU treatment for localized PC can be considered as an alternative minimally invasive therapeutic modality for patients who are not candidates for radical prostatectomy. Patients with lower pre-HIFU PSA level and favourable pathologic Gleason score seem to present better oncologic outcomes. Future advances in technology and safety will undoubtedly expand the HIFU role in this indication as more of patient series are published, with a longer follow-up period

  15. The effects of high intensity interval training in women with rheumatic disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstad, Janne; Stensvold, Dorthe; Hoff, Mari; Nes, Bjarne M; Arbo, Ingerid; Bye, Anja

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are inflammatory diseases which involve increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High intensity interval training (HIIT) is known to be effective in improving cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 10 weeks of HIIT at 85-95% of HRmax would improve important risk factors of CVD in rheumatic patients, and if these patients would tolerate exercise intensities above today's recommendations. Seven women with RA and eleven with adult-JIA, 20-50 years, were recruited to this cross-over study. Participants performed HIIT, consisting of 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% of HRmax twice a week for 10 weeks on spinning bikes. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate recovery, blood pressure, body composition, and blood variables were measured before and after the exercise and control period. Disease activity was determined and questionnaire data were collected. HIIT resulted in 12.2% increase in VO2max and 2.9% improvement in heart rate recovery (p HIIT (p = 0.08). No changes were detected in disease activity or pain. Despite rigorous high intensity exercise, no increase was detected in disease activity or pain, indicating that HIIT was well tolerated by these patients. Furthermore, HIIT had positive effects on several CVD risk factors. In light of this pilot study, HIIT seems like a promising non-pharmacological treatment strategy for patients with RA and adult-JIA.

  16. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  17. Effects of menopause and high-intensity training on insulin sensitivity and muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrup, Camilla M; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Kjær, Andreas; Clemmensen, Andreas E; Christensen, Anders Nymark; Suetta, Charlotte; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Steenberg, Dorte Enggaard; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva; Stallknecht, Bente M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate peripheral insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and evaluate whether exercise training benefits are maintained after menopause. Sedentary, healthy, normal-weight, late premenopausal (n = 21), and early postmenopausal (n = 20) women were included in a 3-month high-intensity exercise training intervention. Body composition was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, whole body glucose disposal rate (GDR) by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (40 mU/m/min), and femoral muscle glucose uptake by positron emission tomography/computed tomography, using the glucose analog fluorodeoxyglucose, expressed as estimated metabolic rate (eMR). Insulin signaling was investigated in muscle biopsies. Age difference between groups was 4.5 years, and no difference was observed in body composition. Training increased lean body mass (estimate [95% confidence interval] 0.5 [0.2-0.9] kg, P training (eMR vastus lateralis muscle: 27.8 [19.6-36.0] μmol/min/kg, P training-induced increases in insulin sensitivity included increased expression of hexokinase (19.2 [5.0-24.7] AU, P = 0.02) and glycogen synthase (32.4 [15.0-49.8] AU, P high-intensity exercise training.

  18. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60 min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ∆ peak power (p<0.003) and ∆ mean power (p<0.02). Additionally, IG demonstrated a faster ∆ sprint (p<0.02) and a trend (p=0.08) for faster ∆ endurance test time to completion for IG. These results indicate that hockey players may utilize short-term HIIT to elicit positive effects in muscle thickness, power and on-ice performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Venous Lake of the Lips Treated Using Photocoagulation with High-Intensity Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletta, Vivian C.; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Migliari, Dante A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of photocoagulation with high-intensity diode laser in the treatment of venous lake (VL) lesions. Background Data: VL is a common vascular lesion characterized by elevated, usually dome-shaped papules, ranging in color from dark blue to dark purple, seen more frequently in elderly patients. They often occur as single lesions on the ears, face, lips, or neck. Once formed, lesions persist throughout life. Although these lesions are usually asymptomatic, they can bleed if injured. Methods: Seventeen patients (7 men and 10 women) with VL on the lip were treated using a noncontact diode laser (wavelength 808 nm, power output 2–3 W in continuous wave). Results: After only one irradiation exposure, all lesions were successfully treated. Healing was completed in approximately 2 to 3 weeks, and none of the patients experienced complications. Postoperative discomfort and scarring were not present or were minimal. Conclusion: Photocoagulation with high-intensity diode laser is an effective, bloodless procedure for the treatment of VL. PMID:19811083

  20. Methodological Considerations When Quantifying High-Intensity Efforts in Team Sport Using Global Positioning System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Matthew C; Jaspers, Arne; Helsen, Werner F; Malone, James J

    2017-09-01

    Sprints and accelerations are popular performance indicators in applied sport. The methods used to define these efforts using athlete-tracking technology could affect the number of efforts reported. This study aimed to determine the influence of different techniques and settings for detecting high-intensity efforts using global positioning system (GPS) data. Velocity and acceleration data from a professional soccer match were recorded via 10-Hz GPS. Velocity data were filtered using either a median or an exponential filter. Acceleration data were derived from velocity data over a 0.2-s time interval (with and without an exponential filter applied) and a 0.3-second time interval. High-speed-running (≥4.17 m/s 2 ), sprint (≥7.00 m/s 2 ), and acceleration (≥2.78 m/s 2 ) efforts were then identified using minimum-effort durations (0.1-0.9 s) to assess differences in the total number of efforts reported. Different velocity-filtering methods resulted in small to moderate differences (effect size [ES] 0.28-1.09) in the number of high-speed-running and sprint efforts detected when minimum duration was GPS. Changes to how high-intensity efforts are defined affect reported data. Therefore, consistency in data processing is advised.

  1. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  2. Report of the Snowmass M6 Working Group on high intensity proton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiren Chou and J. Wei

    2002-08-20

    The U.S. high-energy physics program needs an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver (PD), by the end of this decade. This machine will serve as a stand-alone facility that will provide neutrino superbeams and other high intensity secondary beams such as kaons, muons, neutrons, and anti-protons (cf. E1 and E5 group reports) and also serve as the first stage of a neutrino factory (cf. M1 group report). It can also be a high brightness source for a VLHC. Based on present accelerator technology and project construction experience, it is both feasible and cost-effective to construct a 1-4 MW Proton Driver. Two recent PD design studies have been made, one at FNAL and the other at the BNL. Both designed PD's for 1 MW proton beams at a cost of about U.S. $200M (excluding contingency and overhead) and both designs were upgradeable to 4 MW. An international collaboration between FNAL, BNL and KEK on high intensity proton facilities is addressing a number of key design issues. The superconducting (sc) RF cavities, cryogenics, and RF controls developed for the SNS can be directly adopted to save R&D efforts, cost, and schedule. PD studies are also actively being pursued at Europe and Japan.

  3. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHOU, W.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade

  4. Ca-48 handling for a cyclotron ECR ion source to produce highly intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.Ya.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Kutner, V.B.; Shamanin, A.N.; Yakushev, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Production of highly intense ion beams of 48 Ca is one of the main tasks in experiments carried out within the framework of the synthesis of new superheavy elements. 48 Ca is very rare and expensive isotope, therefore there is necessity to reach the high intensity of ion beams of the isotope at a low consumption rate. Analysis and our preliminary experiments have showed that the best way of producing highly intense calcium ion beams is evaporation of metallic calcium in an ECR ion source. So we have developed a technique of metallic 48 Ca production by reducing CaO (this chemical form is available at the market with 40-80% of 48 Ca ) with aluminium powder. We used two tantalum crucibles: a larger, with a mixture of CaO + Al heated up to 1250 deg C, which was connected to the smaller (2 mm I.D. and 30 mm long) in which calcium vapour condensed. The temperature distribution in the small crucible was about 50 deg C at the bottom and about 500 deg C in the middle of the crucible. The pressure inside of the set-up was between 0.1 and 1 Pa. The production rate of metallic 48 Ca was 10-20 mg/h. The crucible with the condensed metallic Ca in argon atmosphere was transferred to the ECR-4M ion source, where it was inserted in a wired tubular oven and the calcium evaporation was controlled through the oven power supply. The application of metallic 48 Ca as the working substance for the ECR-4M ion source of the U-400 cyclotron of allowed us to approach a stable high intensity of 48 Ca ion beams: the intensities for the internal and external beams were 10 13 c -1 and 3.10 12 c -1 , respectively, at a consumption rate about 0.4 mg/h. A technique was developed for the reclamation of 48 Ca from the residue inside of the large crucible and from the inner parts of the ECR ion source. Extracting Ca from the inner parts of the ion source enabled us to save up to some 25% of the calcium used in the ECR ion source, so that the actual consumption rate was about 0.3 mg/h at the highest 48

  5. Recovery of Breathing and Forelimb Function after Prolonged Exposure to Repetitive Acute Intermittent Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    March 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION...Z39.18 March 2017 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 4 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 Key Research...breathing capacity (Aim 1) and forelimb function (Aim 2), without systemic hypertension or hippocampal pathology (Aim 3). SPECIFIC AIMS Aim 1 (Florida

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Kazakova, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Mehus, Ingar; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bard; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate (RMR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), nonexercise physical activity (PA) levels and fasting and postprandial insulin response in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women), with a mean BMI of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and a mean age of 34.4 ± 8.8 years were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: HIIT (n = 16), MICT (n = 14) or 1/2HIIT (n = 16) and exercise was performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Overall, there was a significant reduction in body weight, waist (p fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity with exercise or between groups. There was a tendency for a reduction in AUC insulin with exercise (p = .069), but no differences between groups. These results indicate that isocaloric training protocols of HIIT or MICT (or 1/2HIIT inducing only half the energy deficit) exert similar metabolic and cardiovascular improvements in sedentary obese individuals.

  7. Effects of Heart Rate vs. Speed-Based High Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity of Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two types of high-intensity interval training (HIIT programs on aerobic and anaerobic capacity of female soccer players. Regional-level female athletes were randomly divided into heart rate-based HIIT (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.1 year and speed-based HIIT groups (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.3 year. Athletes trained three days per week for six weeks. Before and after training, each athlete’s performance was assessed directly through the Hoff test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT, and repeated-sprint ability test (RAST; maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, power and fatigue were estimated indirectly. Both experimental groups improved power, fatigue index and VO2max after training (p < 0.05. It was noteworthy that the speed-based group had greater gains in minimal power (effect size (ES: 3.99 vs. 0.75, average power (ES: 2.23 vs. 0.33, and fatigue index (ES: 2.53 vs. 0.17 compared to heart rate-based group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, both heart rate-based and speed-based HIIT induced meaningful improvements in power, VO2max, and fatigue index in female soccer players, although the speed-based HIIT group achieved greater gains in power and fatigue index compared to the heart rate-based group.

  8. Effects of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training on aerobic and repeated sprint performance and peripheral muscle oxygenation changes in elite junior basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, A; Gruet, M; Bieuzen, F

    2018-03-06

    The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of small-sided game (SSG) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic fitness and muscle oxygenation during a repeated sprint (RS) sequence in elite male junior basketball players. Twenty participants (14.3 ± 0.5 years; 176.8 ± 12.5 cm; 74.5 ± 9.8 kg) performed pre- and post-tests interspersed by 6-weeks of SSG or HIIT training. Testing sessions consisted of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and a RS sequence (two bouts of 15-s). During RS, muscle oxygenation parameters (tissue saturation index (TSI, %), post-sprint muscle reoxygenation rate) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The results showed that both training interventions similarly improved maximal aerobic speed (VIFT, 3.4 and 4.1%, respectively for HIIT and SSG, Ptraining interventions also resulted in a greater ΔTSI during the second sprint (47.8% to 114%, Ptrainings are applicable methodologies to improve in-season aerobic and anaerobic fitness capacities in junior basketball players.

  9. SU-E-J-04: Integration of Interstitial High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound Applicators On a Clinical MRI-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment Planning Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellens, N [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Partanen, A [Philips Healthcare, Andover, Massachusetts (United States); Ghoshal, G; Burdette, E [Acoustic MedSystems Inc., Savoy, IL (United States); Farahani, K [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Interstitial high intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) applicators can be used to ablate tissue percutaneously, allowing for minimally-invasive treatment without ionizing radiation [1,2]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usability of combining multielement interstitial HITU applicators with a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound software platform. Methods: The Sonalleve software platform (Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland) combines anatomical MRI for target selection and multi-planar MRI thermometry to provide real-time temperature information. The MRI-compatible interstitial US applicators (Acoustic MedSystems, Savoy, IL, USA) had 1–4 cylindrical US elements, each 1 cm long with either 180° or 360° of active surface. Each applicator (4 Fr diameter, enclosed within a 13 Fr flexible catheter) was inserted into a tissue-mimicking agar-silica phantom. Degassed water was circulated around the transducers for cooling and coupling. Based on the location of the applicator, a virtual transducer overlay was added to the software to assist targeting and to allow automatic thermometry slice placement. The phantom was sonicated at 7 MHz for 5 minutes with 6–8 W of acoustic power for each element. MR thermometry data were collected during and after sonication. Results: Preliminary testing indicated that the applicator location could be identified in the planning images and the transducer locations predicted within 1 mm accuracy using the overlay. Ablation zones (thermal dose ≥ 240 CEM43) for 2 active, adjacent US elements ranged from 18 mm × 24 mm (width × length) to 25 mm × 25 mm for the 6 W and 8 W sonications, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of interstitial HITU applicators and this software platform holds promise for novel approaches in minimally-invasive MRI-guided therapy, especially when bony structures or air-filled cavities may preclude extracorporeal HIFU.[1] Diederich et al

  10. [Effect of high-intensity interval training on the reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin in type-2 diabetic adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Eguía, Raúl Alberto; Russell Guzmán, Javier Antonio; Soto Muñoz, Marcelo Enrique; Villegas González, Bastián Eduardo; Poblete Aro, Carlos Emilio; Ibacache Palma, Alejandro

    2015-03-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the major non-communicable chronic diseases in the world. Its prevalence in Chile is significant, and complications associated with this disease involve great costs, which is why prevention and treatment of this condition are essential. Physical exercise is an effective means for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The emergence of new forms of physical training, such as "high intensity interval training", presents novel therapeutic alternatives for patients and health care professionals. To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of high intensity interval training in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and answer the following question: In subjects with type 2 diabetes, can the method of high intensity interval training compared to moderate intensity exercise decrease glycosylated hemoglobin? We performed a critical analysis of the article "Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of high intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes". We found no significant differences in the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin between groups of high intensity interval training and moderate-intensity exercise upon completion of the study (p>0.05). In adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, high intensity interval training does not significantly improve glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Despite this, the high intensity interval training method shows as much improvement in body composition and physical condition as the moderate intensity exercise program.

  11. Effects of intermittent fasting on glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2017-08-01

    Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism. For IER, there is a growing evidence demonstrating its benefits on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the short-to-medium term; however, more long-term safety studies are required. Whilst the metabolic benefits of TRF appear quite profound in rodents, findings from the few human studies have been mixed. There is some suggestion that the metabolic changes elicited by these approaches can occur in the absence of energy restriction, and in the context of IER, may be distinct from those observed following similar weight-loss achieved via modest continuous energy restriction. Mechanistically, the frequently repeated prolonged fasting intervals may favour preferential reduction of ectopic fat, beneficially modulate aspects of adipose tissue physiology/morphology, and may also impinge on circadian clock regulation. However, mechanistic evidence is largely limited to findings from rodent studies, thus necessitating focused human studies, which also incorporate more dynamic assessments of glucose and lipid metabolism. Ultimately, much remains to be learned about intermittent fasting (in its various forms); however, the findings to date serve to highlight promising avenues for future research.

  12. Age-Related Changes in Associations Between Reasons for Alcohol Use and High-Intensity Drinking Across Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Evans-Polce, Rebecca; Kloska, Deborah D; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2017-07-01

    Analyses focus on whether self-reported reasons for drinking alcohol change in their associations with high-intensity drinking across the transition to adulthood. Self-report data on high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks) collected from the national Monitoring the Future study in 2005 to 2014 from those ages 18-26 were used (N = 2,664 [60% women] for all drinkers and 1,377 for heavy episodic [5+] drinkers; up to 6,541 person-waves). Time-varying effect modeling examined changes in the direction and magnitude of associations between eight reasons for drinking and high-intensity alcohol use across continuous age. Four reasons to drink showed quite stable associations with high-intensity drinking across age: drinking to get away from problems, to get high, to relax, and to sleep. Associations between two reasons and high-intensity drinking decreased with age: anger/frustration and to have a good time. The association between drinking because of boredom and high-intensity drinking increased with age. Drinking because it tastes good had a weak association with high-intensity drinking. Among heavy episodic drinkers, reasons for use also differentiated high-intensity drinking, with two exceptions: drinking to have a good time and to relax did not distinguish drinking 10+ drinks from drinking 5-9 drinks. Reasons for drinking are differentially associated with high-intensity drinking, compared with any other drinking and compared with lower intensity heavy drinking, across age during the transition to adulthood. Intervention programs seeking to mitigate alcohol-related harms should focus on reasons for use when they are the most developmentally salient.

  13. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Iaia, F. Marcello; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The two Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (IR) tests evaluate an individual's ability to repeatedly perform intense exercise. The Yo-Yo IR level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test focuses on the capacity to carry out intermittent exercise leading to a maximal activation of the aerobic system, whereas Yo-Yo IR level 2...

  14. Intermittent behavior of the logistic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Kress, G.; Haken, H.

    1981-03-01

    In the discrete logistic model a transition to chaotic behavior via intermittency occurs in a neighborhood of periodic bands. Intermittent behavior is also induced if a stable periodic orbit is perturbed by low-level external noise, whereas alterations due to computer digitalisation produce remarkable periodicities. We compare our numerical results with the predictions of Pomeau and Manneville for the Lorenz system.

  15. Development of apparatus for high-intensity beam lines at the KEK-PS new experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Minakawa, Michifumi

    1992-01-01

    The new counter experimental hall was constructed at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (the KEK-PS) in order to handle high-intensity primary proton beams of up to 1 x 10 13 pps (protons per second), which is one order of magnitude greater than the present beam intensity of the KEK-PS, 1 x 10 12 pps. New technologies for handling high-intensity beams have, then, been developed and employed in the new hall construction. A part of our R/D work on handling high intensity beam is briefly reported. (author)

  16. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S.; Snodin, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  17. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Snodin, Andrew P., E-mail: a.seta1@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: amitseta90@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2017-04-10

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  18. Effects of anabolic steroids and high-intensity aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle of transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Fontana

    Full Text Available In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS. This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks. The transgenic mice (CETP(+/-LDLr(-/+ were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into groups of sedentary (Sed and/or training (Ex mice (each treated orally with AAS or gum arabic/vehicle: Sed-C, Sed-M, ex-C, ex-M. The effects of AAS (mesterolone: M on specific phenotypic adaptations (muscle wet weight, cross-sectional area, and fiber type composition in three hindlimb muscles (soleus:SOL, tibialis anterior:TA and gastrocnemius:GAS were assessed. In order to detect subtle changes in fiber type profile, the entire range of fiber types (I, IC, IIAC, IIA, IIAD, IID, IIDB, IIB was delineated using mATPase histochemistry. Body weight gain occurred throughout the study for all groups. However, the body weight gain was significantly minimized with exercise. This effect was blunted with mesterolone treatment. Both AAS treatment (Sed-M and high-intensity, aerobic training (ex-C increased the wet weights of all three muscles and induced differential hypertrophy of pure and hybrid fibers. Combination of AAS and training (ex-M resulted in enhanced hypertrophy. In the SOL, mesterolone treatment (Sed-M and ex-M caused dramatic increases in the percentages of fiber types IC, IIAC, IIAD, IID, with concomitant decrease in IIA, but had minimal impact on fiber type percentages in the predominantly fast muscles. Overall, the AAS-induced differential adaptive changes amounted to significant fiber type transformations in the fast-to-slow direction in SOL. AAS treatment had a significant effect on muscle weights and fiber type composition in SOL, TA and GAS which was

  19. Five Weeks of Sprint and High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Paddling Performance in Adolescent Surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Oliver R L; Secomb, Josh L; Parsonage, Joanna R; Lundgren, Lina E; Abbiss, Chris R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-09-01

    Farley, ORL, Secomb, JL, Parsonage, JR, Lundgren, LE, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Five weeks of sprint and high-intensity interval training improves paddling performance in adolescent surfers. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2446-2452, 2016-The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT; 10 seconds) and high-intensity interval training (HIT; 30 seconds) on surfing athletes paddling performance (400-m time trial and repeat-sprint paddle performance). Twenty-four competitive adolescent surfers (19 male, 5 female; age = 14.4 ± 1.3 years, mass: 50.1 ± 10.7 kg, and stature: 159.9 ± 10.3 cm) were assigned to perform either 5 weeks of SIT and HIT. Participants completed a repeated-sprint paddle ability test (RSPT, 15-m surfboard sprint paddle initiated every 40 seconds × 10 bouts) and 400-m endurance surfboard paddle time trial before and after training. High-intensity interval training decreased the total time to complete the 400 m by 15.8 ± 16.1 seconds (p = 0.03), and SIT decreased the total time to complete the RSPT by 6.5 ± 4.3 seconds (p = 0.02). Fatigue index during the RSPT (first-slowest effort) was lower after HIT and SIT (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). There were no significant differences in performance changes in the 400 m (total time) and RSPT (total time, fastest 15 m time, and peak velocity) between HIT and SIT. Our study indicates that HIT and SIT may be implemented to the training program of surfers to improve aerobic and repeat-sprint paddle ability, both of which are identified as key aspects of the sport. In addition, these findings indicate that 400-m paddle and RSPT can discriminate between aerobic and anaerobic training adaptations, with aerobic gains likely from HIT and anaerobic gains from SIT.

  20. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams OP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG, but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed.Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed.Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%.Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long

  1. The effects of high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Miłosz; Zając, Adam; Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Poprzęcki, Stanisław; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (ptraining in normoxia caused an increase (ptraining protocol with high intensity intervals (4 to 5 × 4 min bouts at 90% of vVO2max-hyp) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity at sea level in basketball players.

  2. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg · m(2)] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%-100%) (2MIN-HIIT). There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg(-1) · min(-1)) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ-2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males.

  3. INFLUENCE OF RAMADAN FASTING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY FOLLOWING SHORT TIME HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Karli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF, the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping time and daily caloric intake associated with Ramadan fasting. No significant changes were found in total body water either, but urinary density measured at End-RF was significantly higher than After-RF. Similarity among peak HR and peak LA values at Pre-RF, End- RF and After-RF demonstrated that cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by WAnT was not affected by Ramadan fasting. In addition, no influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and removal rate of LA from blood following high intensity exercise was observed. The results of this study revealed that if strength-power training is performed regularly and daily food intake, body fluid balance and daily sleeping time are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting will not have adverse effects on body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, and LA metabolism during and after high intensity exercise in power athletes

  4. EFFECTS OF ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING ON HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY ON BADMINTON PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Volkan Gürses

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC on high intensity interval training and recovery parameters on badminton players. Sixteen well trained badminton players (male n= 10, female n=6 age: 18.90 ± 0.99, 20.33 ± 1.75 years; height: 176.50 ± 5.42, 159.33 ± 3.61 cm; body weight: 72.55 ± 7.93, 54.93 ± 4.53 kg; systolic blood pressure: 12.30 ± 1.15, 11.16 ± 1.47 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure: 7.80 ± 1.22, 7.66 ± 0.81 mmHg voluntarily participated in the study. All participant were able to complete all trails. A randomized crossover study design was performed to investigate the acute effect of IPC on high intensity interval training performance and recovery. The Wingate Style high intensity interval training (HIIT workout was conducted as generate to physiological fatigue. The HIIT protocol was involved 30 seconds of “all-out” cycling 3 times with 4 minutes rest against a high resistance which participants 7.5% of body weight. Relative Peak Power (PP, Relative Mean Power (MP and Power Drop (PD% were evaluated for every repeated trails to execute HITT performance. Rested; hearth rate (HR, blood lactate concentration (BLAC and blood pressure (BP values were evaluated. HR, BLAC and BP values were measured after, 12 and 30 minute after exhaustion. IPC were conducted 3 set × 5 min 220 mmHg. 72 hours rest was given between measurements. Nonparametric Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test used to determine the effect of IPC on performance and recovery parameters. All data were processed at the significance level p.05. The impact of IPC were -6.5%, -5.8% and 24.5% were respectively. According to these results it is assumed that IPC applications seems to be not effective method as enhancing performance in badminton players.

  5. Electromyographic evaluation of high-intensity elastic resistance exercises for lower extremity muscles during bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Skals, Sebastian; Calatayud, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prolonged hospital bed rest after severe injury or disease leads to rapid muscle atrophy and strength loss. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lower extremity strengthening exercises using elastic resistance that can be performed while lying in a hospit......, the present study has the potential to provide a reference table of exercises to select from when individualizing and progressing strengthening exercises during the early rehabilitation of bedridden individuals....

  6. High Intensity Training (HIT) en High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) bij patiënten met chronische non-specifieke lage rugpijn: effecten op fysieke parameters en subjectieve pijnbeleving

    OpenAIRE

    Nuyttens, Jelle; Vuylsteke, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Niet-specifieke chronische lage rugpijn (NSCLRP) zorgt via directe en indirecte kosten voor een enorme economische last in onze huidige maatschappij. Tot op heden wordt een grote variëteit aan trainingsprogramma's aangewend in de behandeling van lage rugpijn, maar er bestaat weinig consensus omtrent de ideale trainingsintensiteit. In deze pilotstudie werd de bruikbaarheid en het effect van de combinatie 'High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)' en 'High-Intensity Training (HIT)' op pijn, acti...

  7. ANISOTROPIC INTERMITTENCY OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, K. T.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2014-01-01

    A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsässer field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multiexponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas

  8. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  9. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  10. Clinical evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound in treating uterus myomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jingjing; Tan Yan; Wei Dong; Li Yan; Zhao Zhengguo; Gao hui; Zhang Tao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the safety and efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of uterus myomas. Methods: HIFU was performed in 47 patients with symptomatic hysteromyoma, who had a childbearing history and were 26-59 years old. Postoperative follow-up was carried out. Clinical symptoms and the tumor's size were observed before and after the HIFU treatment. The results were compared with each other. Results: After HIFU treatment, the symptoms such as dysmenorrhea and hypermenorrhea were markedly improved. Some patients developed hematuria or lower limb pain, which was relieved after symptomatic management. The average volume of myoma before the treatment was (47.6 ± 24.1) cm 3 and it was reduced to (17.7 ± 13.1) cm 3 at 6 months after the treatment, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: HIFU is a safe and effective treatment for uterus myomas. (authors)

  11. Program for calculating multi-component high-intense ion beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarinov, N.Yu.; Prejzendorf, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The CANAL program for calculating transport of high-intense beams containing ions with different charges in a channel consisting of dipole magnets and quadrupole lenses is described. The equations determined by the method of distribution function momenta and describing coordinate variations of the local mass centres and r.m.s. transverse sizes of beams with different charges form the basis of the calculation. The program is adapted for the CDC-6500 and SM-4 computers. The program functioning is organized in the interactive mode permitting to vary the parameters of any channel element and quickly choose the optimum version in the course of calculation. The calculation time for the CDC-6500 computer for the 30-40 m channel at the integration step of 1 cm is about 1 min. The program is used for calculating the channel for the uranium ion beam injection from the collective accelerator into the heavy-ion synchrotron

  12. Dynamic forces on agglomerated particles caused by high-intensity ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Claas; Fritsching, Udo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the acoustic forces on particles and agglomerates caused by high-intensity ultrasound in gaseous atmosphere are derived by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Sound induced forces cause an oscillating stress scenario where the primary particles of an agglomerate are alternatingly pressed together and torn apart with the frequency of the applied wave. A comparison of the calculated acoustic forces with respect to the inter particle adhesion forces from Van-der-Waals and liquid bridge interactions reveals that the separation forces may reach the same order of magnitude for 80 μm sized SiO2-particles. Hence, with finite probability acoustically agitated gases may de-agglomerate/disperse solid agglomerate structures. This effect is confirmed by dispersion experiments in an acoustic particle levitation setup. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Note: A new design for a low-temperature high-intensity helium beam source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, B. A. J.; Hedgeland, H.; Allison, W.; Ellis, J.; Jardine, A. P.

    2013-02-01

    A high-intensity supersonic beam source is a key component of any atom scattering instrument, affecting the sensitivity and energy resolution of the experiment. We present a new design for a source which can operate at temperatures as low as 11.8 K, corresponding to a beam energy of 2.5 meV. The new source improves the resolution of the Cambridge helium spin-echo spectrometer by a factor of 5.5, thus extending the accessible timescales into the nanosecond range. We describe the design of the new source and discuss experiments characterizing its performance. Spin-echo measurements of benzene/Cu(100) illustrate its merit in the study of a typical slow-moving molecular adsorbate species.

  14. Infrared losses from a Na/Sc metal-halide high intensity discharge arc lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D J; Bonvallet, G A; Lawler, J E

    2003-01-01

    A study of the near-infrared (IR) emission from the arc of a metal-halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamp with a sodium/scandium chemistry is reported. Radiometrically calibrated spectra from 0.7 to 2.5 μm were recorded as a function of position on the arc tube of a 250 W lamp. These spectra were analysed to determine the relative densities of Na and Sc atoms and the arc temperature as a function of radius. Information from these spectra, combined with absorption measurements in the companion paper (Bonvallet and Lawler 2003), were used to determine the absolute output power in the near-IR from the MH-HID lamp

  15. Radiative properties of ceramic metal-halide high intensity discharge lamps containing additives in argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The ceramic metal-halide high intensity lamps (C-MHL) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new C-MHL lamps contain additives species that reduce mercury inside and lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the net emission coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, and thallium or strontium iodides). The results show the strong influence of the additives on the power radiated despite of their small quantity in the mixtures and the increase of visible radiation portion in presence of dysprosium.

  16. Electronic Dimmable Ballasts for High-Intensity Discharge Sodium Vapor and Metal Halide Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Two types of high-intensity discharge lamps were tested using dimmable ballasts. The main purpose for evaluating this lighting system was to determine its efficacy for saving power. Whereas previous variable level lighting systems for HID lamps in Advanced Life Support applications were adjustable in two or three steps using capacitive switching, this system allows for continuously adjustable lamp output. This type of lighting system when used as part of an Advanced Life Support biomass production system would provide only the amount of light energy a crop needed at any particular point in its growth cycle. Since most of the equivalent system mass in an ALS system is from the light energy required to grow the crops, controlling that light energy dynamically over a continuous range of operation would dramatically reduce the power consumption and reduce system mass.

  17. Initial Results on Neutralized Drift Compression Experiments (NDCX-IA) for High Intensity Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Prabir K; Baca, David; Bieniosek, Frank; Coleman, Joshua E; Davidson, Ronald C; Efthimion, Philip; Eylon, Shmuel; Gilson, Erik P; Grant Logan, B; Greenway, Wayne; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Leitner, Matthaeus; Rose, David; Sefkow, Adam; Sharp, William M; Shuman, Derek; Thoma, Carsten H; Vanecek, David; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam neutralization and compression experiments are designed to determine the feasibility of using compressed high intensity ion beams for high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and for inertial fusion power. To quantitatively ascertain the various mechanisms and methods for beam compression, the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) facility is being constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). In the first compression experiment, a 260 KeV, 25 mA, K+ ion beam of centimeters size is radially compressed to a mm size spot by neutralization in a meter-long plasma column and beam peak current is longitudinally compressed by an induction velocity tilt core. Instrumentation, preliminary results of the experiments, and practical limits of compression are presented. These include parameters such as emittance, degree of neutralization, velocity tilt time profile, and accuracy of measurements (fast and spatially high resolution diagnostic) are discussed.

  18. High-intensity laser-accelerated ion beam produced from cryogenic micro-jet target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, M., E-mail: maxence.gauthier@stanford.edu; Kim, J. B.; Curry, C. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Göde, S.; Propp, A.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Aurand, B.; Willi, O. [Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf (Germany); Goyon, C.; Hazi, A.; Pak, A.; Ruby, J.; Williams, G. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Kerr, S. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1R1 (Canada); Ramakrishna, B. [Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India); Rödel, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    We report on the successful operation of a newly developed cryogenic jet target at high intensity laser-irradiation. Using the frequency-doubled Titan short pulse laser system at Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we demonstrate the generation of a pure proton beam a with maximum energy of 2 MeV. Furthermore, we record a quasi-monoenergetic peak at 1.1 MeV in the proton spectrum emitted in the laser forward direction suggesting an alternative acceleration mechanism. Using a solid-density mixed hydrogen-deuterium target, we are also able to produce pure proton-deuteron ion beams. With its high purity, limited size, near-critical density, and high-repetition rate capability, this target is promising for future applications.

  19. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Jonathan S; Mellor, Matthew P; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2015-10-09

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors.

  20. The experiences of high intensity therapists delivering cognitive behavioural therapy to people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Hayley; Chinn, Deborah; Gannon, Kenneth; Scior, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) should be able to access the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme, currently a main provider of mainstream mental health services in England. IAPT offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to individuals experiencing mental health problems, although its effectiveness for people with ID, when delivered within IAPT, is unclear. Ten high-intensity therapists took part in semi-structured interviews, analysed using thematic analysis, regarding their experiences of delivering CBT to people with ID in IAPT. The rigidity of the IAPT model appears to offer a poor fit with the needs of people with ID. Therapists appeared uncertain about how to modify CBT and highlighted training and service development needs. Findings suggest barriers to accessing IAPT largely remain unaddressed where people with ID are concerned. Services may need to reconsider what constitutes appropriate reasonable adjustments to ensure equitable access. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.