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Sample records for prolonged choroidal filling

  1. Adapting to warmer climate through prolonged maize grain filling period in the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Zhuang, Q.; Jin, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming is expected to negatively impact the US food productivity. How to adapt to the future warmer environment and meet the rising food requirement becomes unprecedented urgent. Continuous satellite observational data provides an opportunity to examine the historic responses of crop plants to climate variation. Here 16 years crop growing phases information across US Midwest is generated based on satellite observations. We found a prolonged grain-filling period during 2000-2015, which could partly explain the increasing trend in Midwest maize yield. This longer grain-filling period might be resulted from the adoption of longer maturity group varieties or more resistant varieties to temperature variation. Other management practice changes like advance in planting date could be also an effective way of adapting future warmer climate through lowering the possibility of exposure to heat and drought stresses. If the progress in breeding technology enables the maize grain-filling period to prolong with the current rate, the maize grain filling length could be longer and maize yield in Midwest could adapt to future climate despite of the warming.

  2. Choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Quesada, Flora

    2013-01-01

    A useful and practical guide is developed to better track to the uveal melanoma, due to its highly malignant character. Melanoma of the uveal tract (choroid, iris, ciliary body) has been the intraocular tumor most frequent in adults. The biopsy has been inaccessible, due to its location; therefore, the diagnostic should be based on clinical examination and the correct utilization of the diagnostic procedures (ultrasound, fluorescent angiography, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance). The cases are diagnosed in the histological examination of the operatory piece post-enucleation for other causes. Epidemiological research has been key to determine the associated factors and better to understand the mechanisms of onset of the disease. Anatomopathological studies of choroidal melanoma have permitted to know the natural history of the disease. The decrease of the visual acuity, pain or inflammation are presented as a defect in the visual field. Different techniques to diagnose the disease are explained. Ultrasound in mode A and B, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the diagnostic method of election. Ultrasound has been the primary method of diagnostic, giving the size and vascularisation, useful in tracking, when they are treated in shape conservatively, showing changes in echogenicity and less vascularisation as good response to treatment. The treatments of choroidal melanoma are specified. The correct interpretation of the clinical symptoms and early utilization of diagnostic imaging methods, have permitted to establish the adequate therapeutic and to avoid local and distant metastasis. The uveal melanoma, depending on their size and location, traditionally has been treated by enucleation. Data from the literature and authors, have promoted the conservation of the ocular globe, depending on the size of the tumor. Transpupillary thermotherapy has been an available alternative for small tumors in Costa Rica and level of social security

  3. Radiotherapy of choroidal metastases

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    Hoogenhout, J; Gasteren, J J.M. van; Brink, H M.A.; Verbeek, A M; Beex, L V.A.M.

    1989-05-01

    With binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, fluorescin angiography and ultrasonography 68 choroidal metastases in 52 eyes of 39 patients were diagnosed. The primary tumors were mainly breast cancer (81%) and lung cancer (10%). After radiation treatment the visual acuity improved in 17 eyes (38%), stabilized in 15 eyes (33%), whereas in 13 eyes (29%) deterioration could not be prevented (seven eyes unknown). Regression of the lesions or its accompanying secondary retinal detachment was seen in 78% of the eyes treated. Acute transient side effects of radiation therapy were keratoconjunctivitis (nine patients) and acute glaucoma in one patient. No cataractous changes of the lens were observed in the post radiation period (one to 42 months). Irradiation of choroidal metastases can contribute to improvement of the quality of life with a treatment scheme of 30 Gy in ten daily fractions.

  4. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt Nitul; Diamond James; Jalali Subhadra; Das Taraprasad

    1998-01-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose o...

  5. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Nitul

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician′s viewpoint.

  6. Choroidal neovascular membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, N S; Diamond, J G; Jalali, S; Das, T

    1998-06-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician's viewpoint.

  7. Thyroxine transport in choroid plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, P.W.; Aldred, A.R.; Menting, J.G.; Marley, P.D.; Sawyer, W.H.; Schreiber, G.

    1987-01-01

    The role of the choroid plexus in thyroid hormone transport between body and brain, suggested by strong synthesis and secretion of transthyretin in this tissue, was investigated in in vitro and in vivo systems. Rat choroid plexus pieces incubated in vitro were found to accumulate thyroid hormones from surrounding medium in a non-saturable process. At equilibrium, the ratio of thyroid hormone concentration in choroid plexus pieces to that in medium decreased upon increasing the concentration of transthyretin in the medium. Fluorescence quenching of fluorophores located at different depths in liposome membranes showed maximal hormone accumulation in the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. Partition coefficients of thyroxine and triiodothyronine between lipid and aqueous phase were about 20,000. After intravenous injection of 125 I-labeled thyroid hormones, choroid plexus and parts of the brain steadily accumulated 125 I-thyroxine, but not [ 125 I]triiodothyronine, for many hours. The accumulation of 125 I-thyroxine in choroid plexus preceded that in brain. The amount of 125 I-thyroxine in non-brain tissues and the [ 125 I]triiodothyronine content of all tissues decreased steadily beginning immediately after injection. A model is proposed for thyroxine transport from the bloodstream into cerebrospinal fluid based on partitioning of thyroxine between choroid plexus and surrounding fluids and binding of thyroxine to transthyretin newly synthesized and secreted by choroid plexus

  8. Sarcoid granuloma of the choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, D F; Bovino, J A; Burton, T C

    1982-12-01

    Two patients were found to have macular choroidal granulomas associated with systemic sarcoidosis. This unusual fundus picture was documented by serial fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Both patients had a similar clinical picture of decreased vision, chorioretinal granulomas, and overlying neurosensory detachments. Staining of the inflammatory mass with fluorescein and leakage of dye into the neurosensory space was typical. Lymph node biopsies were performed to substantiate the diagnosis. Both patients responded promptly to systemic corticosteroid therapy with dramatic improvement in visual acuity and resolution of the choroidal lesions.

  9. Choroidal osteoma: US and CT findings

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    Kim, Dong Hun; Park, Sang Woo [Armed Forces Kwangju Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Hun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate US and CT features of choroidal osteoma. US and CT scans of seven cases of choroidal osteoma occurring in six patients were retrospectively analyzed. We analysed US and CT findings with particular attention to the location, size, and shape of calcification associated with choroidal osteoma, and sought the possible cause of the tumor, if any. None of six patients had any possible cause related to choroidal osteoma. All of seven cases of choroidal osteoma were manifested as calcified mass which were located in the posterior wall of the eyeball near the juxtapapillary region. Calcification ranged in size from 1 to 2 cm and had curvilinear shape. Both US and CT were equally useful to evaluate choroidal osteoma. By depicting the characteristic calcification, US and CT are useful imaging modalities in evaluating choroidal osteoma.

  10. Choroidal Thinning Associated With Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seong Joon; Ryu, So Jung; Joung, Joo Young; Lee, Byung Ro

    2017-11-01

    To investigate choroidal thickness in patients using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and compare choroidal thickness between eyes with and without HCQ retinopathy. Retrospective case series. Setting: Institutional. We included 124 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis who were treated with HCQ. The patients were divided into an HCQ retinopathy group and a control group, according to the presence or absence of HCQ retinopathy. Total choroidal thickness and choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness were measured manually by 2 independent investigators using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; DRI-OCT, Topcon Inc, Tokyo, Japan). These measurements were made at the fovea and at nasal and temporal locations 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mm from the fovea. Medium-to-large vessel layer thickness was calculated accordingly. The thicknesses were compared between the HCQ retinopathy and control groups. We performed correlation analyses between choroidal thicknesses and details regarding HCQ use. Total choroidal thickness and choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness. Choroidal thicknesses were significantly decreased (P < .05) in the HCQ retinopathy group compared to the control group, except at the temporal choroid 1.5 mm from the fovea. Choriocapillaris-equivalent thicknesses were significantly different in all choroidal locations between the groups. In contrast, the medium-to-large vessel layer thickness was only significantly different at a few locations. The cumulative dose/body weight was significantly correlated with subfoveal choroidal and choriocapillaris-equivalent thicknesses (both P = .001). The association between presence of HCQ retinopathy and choroidal thicknesses was also statistically significant after adjusting for age, diagnosis for HCQ use, refractive errors, and duration of HCQ use (P = .001 and P = .003 for subfoveal choroidal and choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness, respectively). These results all suggest that HCQ retinopathy is

  11. Effect of Qi Ming Granule on the choroidal circulation in diabetic patients

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    Ke-Jun Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of a Chinese medicine(Qi Ming granuleon the retinal and choroidal circulation in diabetes patients. METHODS: According to the results of fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, all the 45 diabetes patients were divided into no diabetic retinopathy(NDRgroup and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRgroup. All subjects were examined by FFA and indocyanine green angiography(ICGAat the same time. After taken Qi Ming granule for 3mo, all subjects were examined by the same method. FFA and ICGA were used to evaluate the retinal and choroidal circulation and their features. The key points were filling time for the retinal and choroidal circulation before and after treatments. The accuracy data was used to evaluate the effect.RESULTS: After taken Qi Ming granule for 3mo, there were significant decrease of the retina and the choroid filling time in NDR and NPDR groups. The occurrence rate of various abnormal angiographic features were significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: Qi Ming granule can accelerate the blood flow of retina and choroid, improve the blood circulation in diabetes patients, and delay the occurrence and development of diabetic retinopathy.

  12. BILATERAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION IN JUVENILE LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Mackenzie L; Day, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral choroidal excavation in a patient with juvenile localized scleroderma. Case report. An asymptomatic 12-year-old boy with localized scleroderma presented for examination and was found to have bilateral areas of choroidal excavation temporal to the fovea. Previous reports of ocular complications of localized scleroderma have primarily described adnexal and anterior segment changes. This is the second report of choroidal changes in a patient with localized scleroderma, and the first in a pediatric patient.

  13. Clinical applications of choroidal imaging technologies

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    Jay Chhablani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroid supplies the major blood supply to the eye, especially the outer retinal structures. Its understanding has significantly improved with the advent of advanced imaging modalities such as enhanced depth imaging technique and the newer swept source optical coherence tomography. Recent literature reports the findings of choroidal changes, quantitative as well as qualitative, in various chorioretinal disorders. This review article describes applications of choroidal imaging in the management of common diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, high myopia, central serous chorioretinopathy, chorioretinal inflammatory diseases, and tumors. This article briefly discusses future directions in choroidal imaging including angiography.

  14. Newborn with Prenatally Diagnosed Choroidal Fissure Cyst and Panhypopituitarism and Review of the Literature

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    Ritu Chitkara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Little has been reported on fetal diagnosis of choroidal fissure cysts and prediction of the clinical complications that can result. We describe the case of a near-term male infant with prenatally diagnosed choroidal fissure cyst and bilateral clubfeet. His prolonged course in the neonatal intensive care nursery was marked by severe panhypopituitarism, late-onset diabetes insipidus, placement of a cystoperitoneal shunt, and episodes of sepsis. Postnatal genetic evaluation also revealed an interstitial deletion involving most of band 10q26.12 and the proximal half of band 10q26.13. The patient had multiple readmissions for medical and surgical indications and died at 6 months of age. This case represents the severe end of the spectrum of medical complications for children with choroidal fissure cysts. It highlights not only the importance of comprehensive evaluation and multidisciplinary management and counseling in such cases, but also the need for heightened vigilance in these patients.

  15. Fundus autofluorescence in serpiginouslike choroiditis.

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    Gupta, Amod; Bansal, Reema; Gupta, Vishali; Sharma, Aman

    2012-04-01

    To report the fundus autofluorescence characteristics in serpiginouslike choroiditis. Twenty-nine patients with presumed tubercular serpiginouslike choroiditis between November 2008 and January 2010 underwent fundus autofluorescence imaging during the acute stage and at regular intervals till the lesions healed. All patients received antitubercular therapy with oral corticosteroids. The autofluorescence images were compared with color fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography. The main outcome measure was fundus autofluorescence characteristics of lesions during the course of the disease. The pattern of fundus autofluorescence changed as the lesions evolved from the acute to the healed stage. In acute stage, the lesions showed an ill-defined halo of increased autofluorescence (hyperautofluorescence), giving it a diffuse, amorphous appearance (Stage I, acute). As the lesions began to heal, a thin rim of decreased autofluorescence (hypoautofluorescence) surrounded the lesion, defining its edges. The lesions showed predominantly hyperautofluorescence with stippled pattern (Stage II, subacute). With further healing, the hypoautofluorescence progressed and the lesion appeared predominantly hypoautofluorescent with stippled pattern (Stage III, nearly resolved). On complete healing, the lesions became uniformly hypoautofluorescent (Stage IV, completely resolved). Fundus autofluorescence highlighted the areas of disease activity and was a quick imaging tool for monitoring the course of lesions in serpiginouslike choroiditis.

  16. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-06-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1 ) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system development, 2 ) the choroid plexus as a route for microorganisms and immune cells into the central nervous system, and 3 ) the choroid plexus as a potential route for drug delivery into the central nervous system, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight current active areas of research in the choroid plexus physiology and a few matters of continuous controversy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. A new animal model of choroidal neovascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Andersen, Mads Varis Nis; Wiencke, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of different methods to induce choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the domestic pig.......The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of different methods to induce choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the domestic pig....

  18. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus...... is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature......, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system...

  19. Choroidal thickness in traumatic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Eo, Doo-Ri; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2017-12-01

    To examine the choroidal thickness in patients with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) Methods: Patients with unilateral traumatic optic neuropathy over a period of 4 years were included in this study. Horizontal and vertical enhanced-depth imaging (EDI) from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans of the fovea were obtained in patients with unilateral TON within 2 weeks of injury. The main outcome measure was the choroidal thickness at nine locations. The choroidal thickness was compared between affected and unaffected eyes in the TON group, and the mean difference in the choroidal thickness in both eyes was compared between TON and control groups. A total of 16 patients and 20 control subjects were included. The choroidal thickness at horizontal, vertical and average subfoveal, inner temporal, and outer inferior locations was significantly thicker (13-23%) in affected eyes than in unaffected fellow eyes (p = 0.042, 0.046, 0.024, 0.013, 0.018, and 0.027, respectively). The mean difference value between choroidal thickness measurements in both eyes was significantly larger in the TON group than in the control group at the horizontal, vertical and average subfoveal, inner temporal, inner nasal, inner superior, inner inferior, and outer superior locations (p = 0.001, 0.011,  0.05). Eyes affected by TON showed a regionally thicker choroid than unaffected fellow eye. This thick choroid might be due to impaired blood circulation and vascular remodeling of the optic nerve head and choroid. These results help to better understand the pathophysiology of TON.

  20. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

  1. Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Choroidal Detachment

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    L. Sh. Bilandarli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Review describes the theme of rhegmatogenous retinal dеtаchment associated with choroidal separation. It is rare, but quite severe eye pathology. In most cases it has a very poor prognosis. Most authors consider the retinal detachment as a primary pathogenetic part, which decompensates the production of aqueous humor by increasing the absorptive surface of the retinal pigment epithelium. Dilatation of choroidal arterioles occurs in hypotension, it leads to extravasation of protein-rich fluid in the choroidal and the suprachoroidal space. This helps to further swelling and separation of the ciliary body and the choroid with reduced production of aqueous humor and progressive hypotension. There is a high risk of developing “retino-choroidal” separation in patients with macular rupture due to localization of retinal separation and rupture rear hyaloid membrane. The protein level in aqueous humor can be increased to 70 times. It may be a result of reflux of suprachoroidal proteins through uveoscleral route and / or venous proteins through the trabecular network. In addition, the diffusion of proteins from the posterior camera and vitreous cavity is possible. This creates favorable conditions for cell proliferation that can lead to postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Typically patients have a pronounced signs of inflammation, pain, and “red eye”, which is accompanied with vision decrement. Rhegmatogenous retinal reparationcan be associated with such clinical symptoms as severe panuveit, deepening of the anterior camera and the inflammatory response in the moisture, concentric wrinkles and sagging back of the iris, posterior synechia, iridofakodenez, blurred vitreous detachment of the ciliary body, hypotension, and choroidal and retinal detachment in addition. Debatableness of etiopathogenesis and a clinical picture, which is similar to other eye diseases create significant difficulties in early diagnosis and proper treatment of

  2. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

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    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  3. Autofluorescence of choroidal nevus in 64 cases.

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    Shields, Carol L; Pirondini, Cesare; Bianciotto, Carlos; Materin, Miguel A; Harmon, Sarah A; Shields, Jerry A

    2008-10-01

    To describe the autofluorescence features of choroidal nevi. Noncomparative case series. Sixty-four consecutive patients. Correlation of fundus photography with autofluorescence photography. Autofluorescence features of choroidal nevus and overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The mean patient age was 62 years. The choroidal nevus was a mean of 5 mm from the optic disk and foveola. The mean tumor basal dimension was 5.0 mm and mean tumor thickness was 1.0 mm. The choroidal nevus showed hypoautofluorescence in 56%, isoautofluorescence in 19%, and hyperautofluorescence in 25%. The autofluorescence features appeared unaffected by tumor thickness, but increasing tumor base and disrupted overlying RPE appeared to produce slightly brighter autofluorescence. Nevi located in the macular region showed darker hypoautofluorescence than those outside the macular region. Overlying RPE hyperplasia, atrophy, and fibrous metaplasia were generally hypoautofluorescent. Drusen, subretinal fluid, and orange pigment were generally hyperautofluorescent. The brightest hyperautofluorescence was found with orange pigment. Choroidal nevus shows little intrinsic autofluorescence. Overlying RPE alterations show dramatic autofluorescence ranging from dark hypoautofluorescence of RPE atrophy to bright hyperautofluorescence of orange pigment.

  4. Pachychoroid neovasculopathy in extramacular choroidal neovascularization

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    Gupta MP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mrinali Patel Gupta, Irene Rusu, Carly Seidman, Anton Orlin, Donald J D’Amico, Szilard Kiss Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To review a series of extramacular choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs in the context of their choroidal features, as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT.Methods: Patients with extramacular CNVMs were identified from a tertiary care center through a review of records. The charts and cases were reviewed using multimodal imaging including fundus photography, OCT, fluorescein angiography (FA, and indocyanine angio­graphy (ICG.Results: Of six patients with extramacular CNVMs evaluated in this series, four patients (66.7% exhibited pachychoroidopathy on OCT imaging under or adjacent to the extramacular CNVM. All four of these patients also exhibited pachychoroidopathy in the macular OCT distant from the CNVM.Conclusion: Pachychoroidopathy is implicated in some cases of extramacular CNVMs. This represents the first report, to our knowledge, of pachychoroidopathy in extramacular CNVM. Keywords: choroidal neovascularization, pachychoroidopathy, pachychoroid neovasculopathy, peripheral disciform lesions, extramacular choroidal neovascularization, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

  5. Intravitreal bevacizumab associated with photodynamic therapy in a case of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with choroidal nevus: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Carlos M; Villota, Eva; Fernández-Vega González, Álvaro; Sanchez-Avila, Ronald M

    2017-12-01

    Report the clinical findings and management of a case of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with choroidal nevus which received combination therapy. Decreased visual acuity in a woman with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and choroidal nevus. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and choroidal nevus. The initial visual acuity was 0.5. After the first treatment with photodynamic therapy, exudation and bleeding appeared around the lesion. After this, the patient received 3 doses of intravitreal bevacizumab. After treatment with combination therapy, visual acuity, clinical and imaging findings improved, with no recurrence of exudation and bleeding. Intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjunctive treatment after photodynamic therapy is a good option for patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with choroidal nevus. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment with cyclosporine A in serpiginous choroiditis: A case report

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    Kovačević Dragana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Serpiginous choroiditis is a rare clinical entity. The clinical course of serpiginous choroiditis is very variable, there is no universal marker of treatment success, and even among experts there is debate about what is the most appropriate treatment. The aim of this paper is to describe a case of serpiginous choroiditis treated with Cyclosporine A at a tertiary uveitis referral centre.

  7. Clinical Profile and Outcome of Serpiginous Choroiditis in a Uveitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    around the optic disc and then gradually spread in a serpentine manner toward the macula and peripheral fundus. It can be classified into typical (peripapillary geographic paern), serpiginous macular choroiditis and atypical (ampiginous choroiditis). Serpiginous choroiditis is very rare in our environment; work in this area ...

  8. Functional and Genetic Analysis of Choroid Plexus Development in Zebrafish

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    Hannah Elizabeth Henson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The choroid plexus, an epithelial-based structure localized in the brain ventricle, is the major component of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The choroid plexus produces the cerebrospinal fluid and regulates the components of the cerebrospinal fluid. Abnormal choroid plexus function is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, tumor formation in the choroid plexus epithelium, and hydrocephaly. In this study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio as a model system to understand the genetic components of choroid plexus development. We generated an enhancer trap line, Et(cp:EGFPsj2, that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP in the choroid plexus epithelium. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescent tracers, we demonstrated that the zebrafish choroid plexus possesses brain barrier properties such as tight junctions and transporter activity. Thus, we have established zebrafish as a functionally relevant model to study choroid plexus development. Using an unbiased approach, we performed a forward genetic dissection of the choroid plexus to identify genes essential for its formation and function. Using Et(cp:EGFPsj2, we isolated 10 recessive mutant lines with choroid plexus abnormalities, which were grouped into five classes based on GFP intensity, epithelial localization, and overall choroid plexus morphology. We also mapped the mutation for two mutant lines to chromosomes 4 and 21, respectively. The mutants generated in this study can be used to elucidate specific genes and signaling pathways essential for choroid plexus development, function, and/or maintenance and will provide important insights into how these genetic mutations contribute to disease.

  9. Choroidal vasculature characteristics based choroid segmentation for enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiang; Niu, Sijie [School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yuan, Songtao; Fan, Wen, E-mail: fanwen1029@163.com; Liu, Qinghuai [Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: In clinical research, it is important to measure choroidal thickness when eyes are affected by various diseases. The main purpose is to automatically segment choroid for enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) images with five B-scans averaging. Methods: The authors present an automated choroid segmentation method based on choroidal vasculature characteristics for EDI-OCT images with five B-scans averaging. By considering the large vascular of the Haller’s layer neighbor with the choroid-sclera junction (CSJ), the authors measured the intensity ascending distance and a maximum intensity image in the axial direction from a smoothed and normalized EDI-OCT image. Then, based on generated choroidal vessel image, the authors constructed the CSJ cost and constrain the CSJ search neighborhood. Finally, graph search with smooth constraints was utilized to obtain the CSJ boundary. Results: Experimental results with 49 images from 10 eyes in 8 normal persons and 270 images from 57 eyes in 44 patients with several stages of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately segment the choroid of EDI-OCT images with five B-scans averaging. The mean choroid thickness difference and overlap ratio between the authors’ proposed method and manual segmentation drawn by experts were −11.43 μm and 86.29%, respectively. Conclusions: Good performance was achieved for normal and pathologic eyes, which proves that the authors’ method is effective for the automated choroid segmentation of the EDI-OCT images with five B-scans averaging.

  10. Choroidal vasculature characteristics based choroid segmentation for enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiang; Niu, Sijie; Yuan, Songtao; Fan, Wen; Liu, Qinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In clinical research, it is important to measure choroidal thickness when eyes are affected by various diseases. The main purpose is to automatically segment choroid for enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) images with five B-scans averaging. Methods: The authors present an automated choroid segmentation method based on choroidal vasculature characteristics for EDI-OCT images with five B-scans averaging. By considering the large vascular of the Haller’s layer neighbor with the choroid-sclera junction (CSJ), the authors measured the intensity ascending distance and a maximum intensity image in the axial direction from a smoothed and normalized EDI-OCT image. Then, based on generated choroidal vessel image, the authors constructed the CSJ cost and constrain the CSJ search neighborhood. Finally, graph search with smooth constraints was utilized to obtain the CSJ boundary. Results: Experimental results with 49 images from 10 eyes in 8 normal persons and 270 images from 57 eyes in 44 patients with several stages of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately segment the choroid of EDI-OCT images with five B-scans averaging. The mean choroid thickness difference and overlap ratio between the authors’ proposed method and manual segmentation drawn by experts were −11.43 μm and 86.29%, respectively. Conclusions: Good performance was achieved for normal and pathologic eyes, which proves that the authors’ method is effective for the automated choroid segmentation of the EDI-OCT images with five B-scans averaging.

  11. Choroidal Round Hyporeflectivities in Geographic Atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Corbelli

    Full Text Available In geographic atrophy (GA, choroidal vessels typically appear on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT as hyperreflective round areas with highly reflective borders. We observed that some GA eyes show choroidal round hyporeflectivities with highly reflective borders beneath the atrophy, and futher investigated the charcteristcs by comparing structural OCT, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA and OCT angiography (OCT-A.Round hyporeflectivities were individuated from a pool of patients with GA secondary to non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016 at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including ICGA, structural OCT and OCT-A. The correspondence between choroidal round hyporeflectivities beneath GA on structural OCT and ICGA and OCT-A imaging were analyzed.Fifty eyes of 26 consecutive patients (17 females and 9 males; mean age 76.8±6.2 years with GA were included. Twenty-nine round hyporeflectivities have been found by OCT in choroidal layers in 21 eyes of 21 patients (42.0%; estimated prevalence of 57.7%. All 29 round hyporeflectivities showed constantly a hyperreflective border and a backscattering on structural OCT, and appeared as hypofluorescent in late phase ICGA and as dark foci with non detectable flow in the choroidal segmentation of OCT-A. Interestingly, the GA area was greater in eyes with compared to eyes without round hyporeflectivities (9.30±5.74 and 5.57±4.48mm2, respectively; p = 0.01.Our results suggest that most round hyporeflectivities beneath GA may represent non-perfused or hypo-perfused choroidal vessels with non-detectable flow.

  12. Choroidal Round Hyporeflectivities in Geographic Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Eleonora; Sacconi, Riccardo; De Vitis, Luigi Antonio; Carnevali, Adriano; Rabiolo, Alessandro; Querques, Lea; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In geographic atrophy (GA), choroidal vessels typically appear on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) as hyperreflective round areas with highly reflective borders. We observed that some GA eyes show choroidal round hyporeflectivities with highly reflective borders beneath the atrophy, and futher investigated the charcteristcs by comparing structural OCT, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Round hyporeflectivities were individuated from a pool of patients with GA secondary to non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016 at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including ICGA, structural OCT and OCT-A. The correspondence between choroidal round hyporeflectivities beneath GA on structural OCT and ICGA and OCT-A imaging were analyzed. Fifty eyes of 26 consecutive patients (17 females and 9 males; mean age 76.8±6.2 years) with GA were included. Twenty-nine round hyporeflectivities have been found by OCT in choroidal layers in 21 eyes of 21 patients (42.0%; estimated prevalence of 57.7%). All 29 round hyporeflectivities showed constantly a hyperreflective border and a backscattering on structural OCT, and appeared as hypofluorescent in late phase ICGA and as dark foci with non detectable flow in the choroidal segmentation of OCT-A. Interestingly, the GA area was greater in eyes with compared to eyes without round hyporeflectivities (9.30±5.74 and 5.57±4.48mm2, respectively; p = 0.01). Our results suggest that most round hyporeflectivities beneath GA may represent non-perfused or hypo-perfused choroidal vessels with non-detectable flow.

  13. Choroid plexus carcinoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strojan, P.; Jereb, B.; Popovic, M.; Surlan, K.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The opinions on the value of adjuvant therapy in choroid plexus carcinomas vary. The aim of present report is to present a case of successful therapy of this rare tumor. Result. A fourteen-year-old girl with third ventricle tumor had non-radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation. She is alive with no evidence of disease 8.5 years after diagnosis. The role of adjuvant therapy in the context of literature data is discussed. Conclusion. For choroids plexus carcinomas, adjuvant multiagent chemotherapy and craniospinal radiotherapy following surgery should be considered. (author)

  14. The Choroidal Eye Oximeter - An instrument for measuring oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, R. A.; Danisch, L. A.; Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Choroidal Eye Oximeter is an electro-optical instrument that noninvasively measures the oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in the back of the human eye by a spectrophotometric method. Since choroidal blood is characteristic of blood which is supplied to the brain, the Choroidal Eye Oximeter can be used to monitor the amount of oxygen which is supplied to the brain under varying external conditions. The instrument consists of two basic systems: the optical system and the electronic system. The optical system produces a suitable bi-chromatic beam of light, reflects this beam from the fundus of the subject's eye, and onto a low-noise photodetector. The electronic system amplifies the weak composite signal from the photodetector, computes the average oxygen saturation from the area of the fundus that was sampled, and displays the value of the computed oxygen saturation on a panel meter.

  15. CHOROIDAL MELANOMA IN A PATIENT WITH WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itty, Sujit; Richter, Elizabeth R; McCannel, Tara A

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of choroidal malignant melanoma in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome and bilateral choroidal pigmentary abnormalities. Clinical examination and multimodal imaging of the case. A 45-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic flat choroidal pigmentation abnormalities in both eyes. A choroidal lesion was identified in the inferotemporal periphery of the left eye arising from an area of hyperpigmentation; ultrasonography findings were consistent with a choroidal melanoma. The patient endorsed a personal and family history of premature graying of hair and was identified to have dystopia canthorum consistent with the diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome. The authors present the first reported case of concurrent Waardenburg syndrome and choroidal malignant melanoma. This cooccurrence may suggest that the relative hyperpigmented regions in affected fundi may be abnormal and should be monitored closely for the development of choroidal melanoma.

  16. Correlation between choroidal thickness and macular hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the correlation between choroidal thickness and macular hole, and to provide a theoretical basis for diagnosis and treatment of macular hole. METHODS: This study included 40 cases of monocular idiopathic macular hole patients who were treated in ophthalmology of our hospital from June 2015 to June 2016 and 40 cases of healthy people. Sicked eyes of idiopathic macular hole patients(40 eyeswere set as the Group A, uninjured side eyes(40 eyeswere set as the Group B, eyes of 40 cases of healthy people(40 normal eyeswere set as the Group C. Choroidal thickness of macular fovea, macular fovea 1mm, 3mm at 9 points, 4 directions in the upper, lower, nasal and temporal regions were measured through coherent optical tomography of enhanced deep imaging(enhanced depth image optical coherence tomography, EDI-OCT. They were recorded as SFCT, SCT1mm, SCT3mm, ICT1mm, ICT3mm, NCT1mm, NCT3mm, TCT1mm, TCT3mm, and correlation analysis between SFCT and age was analyzed. RESULTS: Average SFCT of Group A, B had no significant difference, data of the Group C was significantly higher than those of the Group A, B, there was statistical significance(P1mm, SCT3mm, ICT1mm, ICT3mm, NCT1mm, NCT3mm, TCT1mm, TCT3mm of the Group A, B had no significant difference(P>0.05, and choroidal thickness at each point of the Group C was significantly higher than that of Group A and B, there was statistical significance(Pr=-0.065, P=0.148; r=-0.057, P=0.658, SFCT of the Group C was negatively correlated with age(r=-0.343, P=0.041. CONCLUSION: The pathogenesis of idiopathic macular hole may be related to the sharp decrease of choroidal thickness, choroidal thickness of uninjured side eyes reduces more sharply than normal population and choroidal vascular metabolism reduces may be pathogenic.

  17. Remodelling of choroidal blood flow in radiation choroidopathy

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    Kobayashi, Hideo; Muraoka, Kanemitsu; Takahashi, Kyoichi; Sutoh, Noriko [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    Two males, aged 68 and 34 years each, presented with radiation retinopathy. One had received radiation therapy to the whole brain for intracranial metastasis of lung carcinoma 29 months before. The other underwent surgery and radiation for melanoma of the upper eyelid 15 years before. When examined by indocyanine green angiography. both cases showed vasoocclusive changes in the choroid involving the choriocapillaris and major vessels in the affected fundus area. In one eye with severe retinal vascular lesions in the superior temporal quadrant, the vortex vein in the quadrant had obliterated. The venous blood in this quadrant was drained into the inferior temporal vortex vein crossing the presumed watershed zone temporal to the macula. Collaterals had formed between choroidal arteries and between choroidal veins. These cases illustrate that choroidal vascular lesions may be present in radiation retinopathy, that the former may be more pronounced than the latter and that choroidal vessels may undergo extensive remodelling to compensate for the disturbed choroidal circulation. (author)

  18. CT of malignant choroidal melanoma - morphology and perfusion characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Hagemann, J.; Jend, H.H.; Guthoff, R.

    1982-01-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of malignant choroidal melanoma and its perfusion characteristics are described. Thirty-three static and serial CT examinations made on 29 patients with choroidal melanoma, three with pseudotumors of the macula and one with choroidal metastasis revealed the choroidal melanoma to be usually a hyperdense, markedly perfused tumor, while the non-contrast, diagnostically undifferentiable pseudotumors and the choroidal metastasis, revealed no significant change in density after the administration of contrast material. Density values or perfusion characteristics of choroidal melanoma that are outside of the normal range are a result of secondary changes within the immediate surroundings of the tumor, such as detachment of the retina, tumor-induced glaucoma, or tumor necrosis. (orig.)

  19. Remodelling of choroidal blood flow in radiation choroidopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Muraoka, Kanemitsu; Takahashi, Kyoichi; Sutoh, Noriko

    1997-01-01

    Two males, aged 68 and 34 years each, presented with radiation retinopathy. One had received radiation therapy to the whole brain for intracranial metastasis of lung carcinoma 29 months before. The other underwent surgery and radiation for melanoma of the upper eyelid 15 years before. When examined by indocyanine green angiography. both cases showed vasoocclusive changes in the choroid involving the choriocapillaris and major vessels in the affected fundus area. In one eye with severe retinal vascular lesions in the superior temporal quadrant, the vortex vein in the quadrant had obliterated. The venous blood in this quadrant was drained into the inferior temporal vortex vein crossing the presumed watershed zone temporal to the macula. Collaterals had formed between choroidal arteries and between choroidal veins. These cases illustrate that choroidal vascular lesions may be present in radiation retinopathy, that the former may be more pronounced than the latter and that choroidal vessels may undergo extensive remodelling to compensate for the disturbed choroidal circulation. (author)

  20. Choroid plexus transport: gene deletion studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keep Richard F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review examines the use of transporter knockout (KO animals to evaluate transporter function at the choroid plexus (the blood-CSF barrier; BCSFB. Compared to the blood-brain barrier, there have been few such studies on choroid plexus (CP function. These have primarily focused on Pept2 (an oligopeptide transporter, ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, Oat3 (an organic anion transporter, Svct2 (an ascorbic acid transporter, transthyretin, ion transporters, and ion and water channels. This review focuses on the knowledge gained from such studies, both with respect to specific transporters and in general to the role of the CP and its impact on brain parenchyma. It also discusses the pros and cons of using KO animals in such studies and the technical approaches that can be used.

  1. Symptomatic bilateral xanthogranuloma of the choroid plexus

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    Selin Tural Emon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomas (XGRs of the choroid plexus are rare, asymptomatic, and benign lesions usually found incidentally. Here, we present a case of a 47-year-old male with bilateral XGR of the choroid plexus with periventricular edema and discuss our case in relation to a review of existing literature pertaining to the radiology of XGRs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral trigonal XGR causing brain edema without ventricular dilatation. Despite the fact that they can cause hydrocephalus, XGRs are silent and benign lesions. Although the etiopathology of XGRs remains poorly understood, enhanced imaging analyses may provide additional information regarding edema and focal white matter signal changes.

  2. Combination therapy of low-fluence photodynamic therapy and intravitreal ranibizumab for choroidal neovascular membrane in choroidal osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney J Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal osteoma is an unusual form of intraocular calcification seen in otherwise healthy eyes. It is a benign idiopathic osseous tumor of the choroid, typically seen in young females. Choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM is a complication seen in one-third of these patients and carries a poor visual outcome. We report a case of a 25-year-old hyperthyroid female with choroidal osteoma and subfoveal CNVM in her left eye which was successfully treated using low-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT with verteporfin followed by a single injection of intravitreal ranibizumab.

  3. Psammoma bodies - friends or foes of the aging choroid plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Ivan; Ugrenović, Sladjana; Vasović, Ljiljana; Petrović, Dragan; Cekić, Sonja

    2010-06-01

    Psammoma bodies are structures classified in the group of dystrophic calcifications, which occur in some kind of tumors and in choroid plexus during the aging process. Despite early discovery of their presence in choroid plexus stroma, mechanisms responsible for their formation remained unclear. Their presence in some kind of tumors was even more extensively studied, but significant breakthrough in the field of their etiology was not attained, too. However, till today correlation between their presence in tumors and aging is not established. Also, there are not any data about structural differences between ones found in tumors and ones found in choroid plexus. This might points to the assumption that besides the aging, some other causes might be involved in their formation in choroid plexus. Furthermore, it is contradictory that forms, like psammoma bodies, present in such malignant formations as tumors, represent quite benign phenomenon in choroid plexus. Literature data and the results of our previous researches revealed that there might be connections between, these, on the first sight quite different processes. Firstly, psammoma bodies are present in stroma of tumors with predominantly papillomatous morphology, which is present in choroid plexus, too. Initial forms of psammoma bodies might be formed in fibrovascular core of choroid plexus villi, similarly like in tumors papillae of papillary thyroid cancer. Their further growth leads to the progressive destruction of both tumors papillae and choroidal villi. Choroid plexus stroma is characterized by the fenestrated blood vessels presence, which are similar to newly formed vessels in tumors. This makes it vulnerable to the noxious agents from circulation. It can contain lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and myofibroblasts in cases with psammoma bodies, similarly to tumors stroma which is in activated, proinflammatory state. So, all these facts can suggest that similar processes can lead to psammoma

  4. Why choroid vessels appear dark in clinical OCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Mitchell A.; Li, Chenxi; Choi, Woo June; Gregori, Giovanni; Rosenfeld, Philip; Wang, Ruikang

    2018-02-01

    With the onset of clinically available spectral domain (SD-OCT) and swept source (SS-OCT) systems, clinicians are now easily able to recognize sub retinal microstructure and vascularization in the choroidal and scleral regions. As the bloodrich choroid supplies nutrients to the upper retinal layers, the ability to monitor choroid function accurately is of vital importance for clinical assessment of retinal health. However, the physical appearance of the choroid blood vessels (darker under a healthy Retinal Pigmented Epithelium (RPE) compared to regions displaying an RPE atrophic lesion) has led to confusion within the OCT ophthalmic community. The differences in appearance between each region in the OCT image may be interpreted as different vascular patterns when the vascular networks are in fact very similar. To explain this circumstance, we simulate light scattering phenomena in the RPE and Choroid complexes using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results are then used to describe and validate imaging features in a controlled multi-layered tissue phantom designed to replicate human RPE, choroid, and whole blood microstructure. Essentially, the results indicate that the strength of the OCT signal from choroidal vasculature is dependent on the health and function of the RPE, and may not necessarily directly reflect the health and function of the choroidal vasculature.

  5. Transconjunctival drainage of serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Flávio A; Kickinger, Mônica C; Li, Gisèle; Prado, Renata F; Regis, Luiz Gustavo T

    2012-02-01

    To describe a novel surgical technique for drainage of bullous serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachments. A prospective, consecutive case series of 6 eyes with serous and/or hemorrhagic choroidal detachments secondary to intraocular surgery was documented to evaluate the feasibility of using the 25-gauge and 20-gauge transconjunctival trocar/cannula systems to drain choroidal detachments. Two eyes had expulsive hemorrhagic choroidal detachments and 4 eyes had serous choroidal detachments after glaucoma surgeries. A 25-gauge infusion line was placed in the anterior chamber. A 20-gauge (in eyes with hemorrhagic choroidal detachments) or a 25-gauge (in eyes with serous detachments) trocar/cannula system was inserted into the suprachoroidal space 7.0 mm from limbus. After drainage, the cannulas were removed and no sutures were placed. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed only in eyes with concomitant pathology that demanded the additional procedure. The primary outcome measure was presence of choroidal detachment at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures were visual acuity at 6 months and intraocular pressure at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Drainage of hemorrhagic choroidal detachments resulted in resolution of the detachments by 1 month postoperatively. In eyes with serous detachments, resolution was achieved by 1 week postdrainage. In both groups, intraocular pressure increased to at least 10 mmHg by postoperative Week 1. The visual acuity improved in all eyes. No complications related to the transconjunctival technique were noted. Transconjunctival drainage of serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachments seems to be a feasible and simple surgical option with minimal scleral and conjunctival damage. Pars plana vitrectomy may not be necessary when draining choroidal detachments in this manner.

  6. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  7. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  8. Torpedo maculopathy: A primary choroidal capillary abnormality?

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    Rohan Chawla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old healthy male patient's fundus revealed findings consistent with torpedo maculopathy. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a dome-shaped elevation of the retina at the level of ellipsoid zone. On OCT angiography segmented at the level of the choriocapillaris, a cluster of convoluted fine vessels was seen, and further, deeper scans of the larger choroidal vessels showed a slower flow. From these observations along with the embryological correlation of choriocapillaris development, a possibility of an abnormality preventing proper fenestration of the choriocapillaris along the horizontal raphe being responsible for this anomaly is suggested.

  9. Correlation between clinical and histological features in a pig model of choroidal neovascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    To analyse the histological changes in the retina and the choroid in a pig model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and to correlate these findings with fundus photographic and fluorescein angiographic features.......To analyse the histological changes in the retina and the choroid in a pig model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and to correlate these findings with fundus photographic and fluorescein angiographic features....

  10. Choroidal osteoma secondary to ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rua Martinez, Raul; Perez Garcia, Diley; Alemanny Rubio, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The choroidal osteoma is a benign bony tumor described for the first time in 1978 by Gass and collaborators. It is generally unilateral, with juxtapapillary localization and more frequent in young adult females. It presents unknown etiology, but it is associated to different factors as inflammatory processes, congenital malformations, hormonal alterations and ocular traumas among others. The patient was a 54 year-old woman with a personal history of rheumatic fibromyalgia (osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis) and hypertension. Her ophthalmological antecedent showed myopia and arteriolosclerotic retinopathy. At the beginning of the year, she suffered a traffic accident and was injured in her limbs and periocular region. After this, she began feeling blurred vision of the right eye and she went to our service 6 months later. She was performed an ophthalmologic exam. It was found that the right eye had visual acuity of 0.4, and after correction it reached 1.0. Funduscopy revealed vascular thinness, incomplete posterior vitreous detachment, and a white-orange lesion of 3 papillary diameters that involved inferior temporary arcade with well-defined borders. An angiography was performed, which showed sustained hyperfluorescence and non neovascularization; and the optic coherence tomography revealed a halo of serous retinal detachment. Additionally, the ocular ultrasound yielded a high reflectivity echogenic image that involves choroids with posterior acoustic shadow. It is for this reason that we affirm the traumatic etiology of the lesion. This is a rare pathology that should be diagnosed by imaging techniques. Notably, it is secondary to an ocular trauma

  11. Microneurosurgical management of anterior choroid artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehecka, Martin; Dashti, Reza; Laakso, Aki; van Popta, Jouke S; Romani, Rossana; Navratil, Ondrej; Kivipelto, Leena; Kivisaari, Riku; Foroughi, Mansoor; Kokuzawa, Jouji; Lehto, Hanna; Niemelä, Mika; Rinne, Jaakko; Ronkainen, Antti; Koivisto, Timo; Jääskelainen, Juha E; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2010-05-01

    Anterior choroid artery aneurysms (AChAAs) constitute 2%-5% of all intracranial aneurysms. They are usually small, thin walled with one or several arteries originating at their base, and often associated with multiple aneurysms. In this article, we review the practical microsurgical anatomy, the preoperative imaging, surgical planning, and the microneurosurgical steps in the dissection and the clipping of AChAAs. This review, and the whole series on intracranial aneurysms (IAs), are mainly based on the personal microneurosurgical experience of the senior author (J.H.) in two Finnish centers (Helsinki and Kuopio) that serve, without patient selection, the catchment area in Southern and Eastern Finland. These two centers have treated more than 10,000 patients with IAs since 1951. In the Kuopio Cerebral Aneurysm Database of 3005 patients with 4253 IAs, 831 patients (28%) had altogether 980 internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms, of whom 95 patients had 99 (2%) AChAAs. Ruptured AChAAs, found in 39 patients (41%), with median size of 6 mm (range = 2-19 mm), were associated with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) in only 1 (3%) patient. Multiple aneurysms were seen in 58 (61%) patients. The main difficulty in microneurosurgical management of AChAAs is to preserve flow in the anterior choroid artery originating at the base and often attached to the aneurysm dome. This necessitates perfect surgical strategy based on preoperative knowledge of 3 dimensional angioarchitecture and proper orientation during the microsurgical dissection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Posture changes and subfoveal choroidal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Antonio; Geiser, Martial H; Riva, Charles E

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of posture change on subfoveal choroidal blood flow (ChBF) in normal volunteers. The pulsatile, nonpulsatile, and mean ChBF were measured with laser Doppler flowmetry in 11 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 32 +/- 13 (SD) years. The posture of the subjects was changed from standing (90 degrees ), to supine (-8 degrees ), and back to standing, with a mechanically driven table. During the whole experimental procedure, ChBF and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. After 30 seconds in standing position, the subjects were tilted to supine during approximately 30 seconds. They remained in this position for approximately 2 minutes, after which they were tilted back to the standing position (recovery), where they remained for another approximately 2 minutes. Systemic brachial artery blood pressure (BP) was measured in the baseline, supine, and recovery positions. This procedure was repeated to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP) at the different postures. Mean BP did not change significantly throughout the experimental procedure. As the body was tilted from standing to supine, HR decreased by 16% (P blood velocity. Based on previously reported experimental data that indicate that the ocular perfusion pressure increases less than predicted by purely hydrostatic considerations when the body is tilted from the standing to the supine position, the observed increase in ChBF suggests a passive response of the choroidal circulation to the posture change.

  13. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Associated with Optic Disc Coloboma

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    Yumiko Nakano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with optic disc coloboma. Methods: Case report. Results: A 50-year-old woman presented with optic disc coloboma and retinochoroidal coloboma associated with subretinal hemorrhage and serous retinal detachment (SRD in her left eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT confirmed SRD at the macula and showed a sharply elevated retinal epithelial detachment at the choroidal excavation. OCT also revealed choroidal cavitation along the temporal side of the optic coloboma. Fluorescein angiography showed hyperfluorescent dye leakage and indocyanine green angiography revealed polypoidal lesions. We diagnosed polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. PCV was located at the end of the choroidal cavitation. Her left eye was treated with an intraocular injection of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor aflibercept (2 mg. Photodynamic therapy was performed using the standard protocol 1 week after the intravitreal application of aflibercept. One month after the combined treatment, OCT showed completely resolved SRD and her symptoms disappeared. Her best-corrected visual acuity remained stable and no recurrence was found during a 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion: PCV associated with optic disc coloboma has not been previously reported. The morphological abnormality of choroidal cavitation and choroidal excavation connecting with optic disc coloboma may contribute to the development of PCV in this case.

  14. Bilateral choroidal osteomas associated with fatal systemic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, L B; Skalka, H W; Davidson, J D; Wilmes, F J

    1982-02-01

    An 11-year-old black boy complained of intermittent occipital headaches with nausea and projectile vomiting. Previous skin and lung biopsy specimens were interpreted as histiocytosis X. Cranial computed tomographic scanning disclosed a mass lesion in the region of the choroid plexus of the left lateral ventricle. This was surgically removed but proved nondiagnostic despite extensive histologic examination. An ophthalmologic evaluation showed discrete, elevated, yellow-white choroidal tumors in both maculas. The ophthalmoscopic appearance, as well as ultrasonography and computed tomography, led to the diagnosis of choroidal osteomas.

  15. Choroidal thickness in eyes with different degrees of myopia

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    Yuriy Sergeyevich Astakhov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 66 healthy people (124 eyes with different degrees of myopia and emmetropia were examined using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT using the “Spectralis OCT”. It was found that the choroid in subjects with medium and high degrees of myopia was significantly thinner than that in the control group. In the study, a negative correlation was found between the subfoveal choroidal thickness and the degree of myopia (r = -0.75, p < 0.0001. It was also found that the subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased for each diopter of myopia by approximately 18.03 μm.

  16. Standardized precision radiotherapy in choroidal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylen, U.; Kock, E.; Lax, I.; Lundell, G.; Trampe, E. af; Wilking, N.

    1994-01-01

    Metastases in the choroid of the eye are frequent in patients with disseminated malignancy. We here report the results using the precision radiotherapy technique described by Schipper et al. to treat 14 of 17 consecutive patients (21 eyes) with symptoms from such metastases. A beam defining collimator was used and a lateral field was given with the treated eye individually fixed. Varying fractionations and doses were used. The biologically effective dose for early effects (BED 3 ) was 47 to 90 Gy and for late effects (BED 10 ) 28 to 59 Gy. In 14 eyes (82%) the metastases regressed completely. The visual acuity was stabilized or improved in all patients and none needed local surgery. Three patients developed signs of radiation retinopathy, but only in one case the visual function was compromized. With this standardized technique no individualized dose planning was needed, the risk of radiation cataract was minimized and a dry eye avoided. (orig.)

  17. Telocytes in meninges and choroid plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, B O; Gherghiceanu, M; Kostin, S; Ceafalan, L; Popescu, L M

    2012-05-16

    Telocytes (TCs) are a recently identified type of interstitial cells present in a wide variety of organs in humans and mammals (www.telocytes.com). They are characterized by a small cell body, but extremely long cell processes - telopodes (Tp), and a specific phenotype. TCs establish close contacts with blood capillaries, nerve fibers and stem cells. We report here identification of TCs by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence in rat meninges and choroid plexus/subventricular zone, in the vicinity of putative stem cells. The presence of TCs in brain areas involved in adult neurogenesis might indicate that they have a role in modulation of neural stem cell fate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphological features of choroidal metastases: An OCT analysis

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    Ludovico Iannetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics and retinal changes of chroidal metastases using Spectral Domain OCT are described in a case with primary lung adenocarcinoma and secondary choroidal involvement.

  19. Beals–Hecht syndrome and choroidal neovascularization

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    Roberto Gallego-Pinazo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Gallego-Pinazo1, Ruth López-Lizcano1, José María Millán2,3, J Fernando Arevalo5, J Luis Mullor6, Manuel Díaz-Llopis1,3,41Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Genetics, Unit of Experimental Opthalmology, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 3Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER, Valencia, Spain; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 5Retina and Vitreous Service, Clínica Oftalmológica Centro Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela; 6Unit of Experimental Opthalmology, Fundación Parala Investigación del Hospital La Fe, Valencia, SpainPurpose: To describe a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV in a female diagnosed with Beals–Hecht syndrome.Methods: A retrospective, interventional case is described in a 26-year-old female complaining of metamorphopsia and visual loss in her left eye (counting fingers. The fluorescein angiogram and the optical coherence tomography supported the diagnosis of CNV. Intravitreal ranibizumab was administered.Results: After the third intravitreal ranibizumab, her visual acuity improved to 0.8 and the morphology of the macular area was restored.Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report of CNV in Beals–Hecht syndrome treated with ranibizumab. Self-monitoring by periodically performing Amsler grid test is strongly recommended in these patients in order to achieve an early diagnosis of eventual CNV and avoid visual acuity loss.Keywords: Beals–Hecht syndrome, connective tissue disease, choroidal neovascularization, ranibizumab

  20. Multimodal imaging of choroidal nodules in neurofibromatosis type-1

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    Vinod Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal nodules in neurofibromatosis type-1 are common and are best imaged with near-infrared reflectance (NIR imaging. The authors describe swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SSOCTA of choroidal nodules. These nodules are seen as hyperflow areas on SSOCTA and correlate well to bright patches on NIR imaging. The utility of multicolor scanning laser imaging in detecting these abnormalities is also described.

  1. [Central aleolar choroidal dystrophy in sibilings coexisting with alopecia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Dróbecka-Brydak, Ewa; Paćkowska, Maria; Kecik, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Central areolar choroidal dystrophy is localized in macular region and is characterized by atrophy of pigment epithelium, photoreceptors and choriocapillaris. This paper presents the history of two sibilings at the age of 23 and 30, with central aleolar choroidal dystrophy coexisting with alopecia. The results of erg, eog and fluorescein angiography are presented. The results of therapy for glaucoma associated with the Sturge-Weber syndrome are often disappointing.

  2. Choroid metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Color doppler ultrasound study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganado, T.; Torre, S. de la; Contreras, E.; Hernandez, J.

    1997-01-01

    The most common causes of intraocular metastases are breast and lung cancers, although many other neoplasms can metastasize to the eye. Most of the metastases are located in the posterior pole and the choroid is more often involved than the retina. We present a case of a choroidal metastasis from a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, associated with a massive subretinal hemorrhage. Findings with color Doppler ultrasound are emphasized. (Author) 9 refs

  3. Flat choroidal melanoma masquerading as central serous chorioretinopathy

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    Timothy Patrick Higgins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several mimickers of choroidal melanoma. We report a patient with recent family stress who developed blurred vision to 20/50 OD and was found to have unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy and a coincidental choroidal nevus. After 1 year without resolution of the subretinal fluid, the patient was referred for our opinion. On examination, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. The left eye was normal. Evaluation of the right eye showed a small, pigmented submacular choroidal lesion measuring 4 mm Χ 3 mm. Ultrasonography documented an isoechoic mass measuring 1.71 mm in thickness. Optical coherence tomography showed subretinal fluid with shaggy photoreceptors and hyper-reflective material within the subretinal fluid, likely indicative of lipofuscin within macrophages. Autofluorescence revealed orange pigment overlying the lesion. These features were strongly suggestive of small choroidal melanoma with five risk factors for tumor growth. Treatment with Iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy was performed on the patient. The readers should keep in mind that choroidal melanoma can manifest as a tiny choroidal mass with related multimodal imaging features of subretinal fluid and orange pigment.

  4. Choroidal Excavation in Eye with Normal Tension Glaucoma

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    Kazunobu Asao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of an eye with normal tension glaucoma and a choroidal excavation. Methods: This is an observational case report. Results: A 59-year-old woman with normal tension glaucoma had a choroidal excavation in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were within normal limits and had been stable for 5 years. Fundus examination showed a small white lesion inferior to the macula and a nerve fiber layer defect at the inferior edge of the optic disc. Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA showed visual field defects corresponding to the nerve fiber layer defect with C30-2, and a central scotoma superior to the macula with C10-2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a 150-µm deep choroidal excavation. Disruptions of the IS/OS line were detected only in the area inferior to the choroidal excavation. During the 5 months of follow-up, her best-corrected visual acuity remained at 1.0 and the IOP ranged from 12 to 14 mm Hg in the left eye. The fundus and OCT images did not deteriorate and the choroidal excavation did not enlarge. Conclusions: The disruption of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS line was detected only at the area surrounding the choroidal excavation. OCT examinations are useful in assessing the area of the residual IS/OS line, and HFA can be used to estimate the residual central visual field.

  5. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  6. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Thai patients with clinical and angiographic choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomibunchoo C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chavakij Bhoomibunchoo,1 Yosanan Yospaiboon,1 Somanus Thoongsuwan,2 Duangnate Rojanaporn,3 Nawat Watanachai,4 Pichai Jirarattanasopa,5 Nattapon Wongcumchang,6 Atchara Amphornphruet,7 Sritatath Vongkulsiri,8 Eakkachai Arayangkoon9 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, 6Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, 7Department of Ophthalmology, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, 8Department of Ophthalmology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Department of Ophthalmology, Mettapracharak Hospital, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand Objective: This study aimed to study the prevalence and characteristics of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (IPCV in Thai patients with clinical and angiographic choroidal neovascularization (CNV.Patients and methods: A consecutive case study of 140 patients presenting with CNV was conducted in nine large referral eye centers throughout Thailand. The demographic data, fundus photographs, fundus fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography of the patients were analyzed.Results: Of 129 patients with clinical and angiographic CNV, IPCV was diagnosed in 100 patients (77.52%, idiopathic CNVs in 16 patients (12.40% and age-related macular degeneration (AMD in 12 patients (9.30%. Of the 107 eyes with IPCV, 90 eyes (84.11% had both branching venous networks (BVNs and polypoidal lesions. Most IPCV patients (93% had unilateral involvement and were at a younger age than AMD patients. In all, 79 eyes (73.83% had lesions found in the macular area, 14 eyes (13.08% in the

  7. A pilot study to image the vascular network of small melanocytic choroidal tumors with speckle noise-free 1050-nm swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT choroidal angiography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloca, Peter; Gyger, Cyrill; Hasler, Pascal W

    2016-06-01

    To visualize and measure the vascular network of melanocytic choroidal tumors with speckle noise-free swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT choroidal angiography). Melanocytic choroidal tumors from 24 eyes were imaged with 1050-nm optical coherence tomography (Topcon DRI OCT-1 Atlantis). A semi-automated algorithm was developed to remove speckle noise and to extract and measure the volume of the choroidal vessels from the obtained OCT data. In all cases, analysis of the choroidal vessels could be performed with SS-OCT without the need for pupillary dilation. The proposed method allows speckle noise-free, structure-guided visualization and measurement of the larger choroidal vessels in three dimensions. The obtained data suggest that speckle noise-free OCT may be more effective at identifying choroidal structures than traditional OCT methods. The measured volume of the extracted choroidal vessels of Haller's layer and Sattler's layer in the examined tumorous eyes was on average 0.982463955 mm(3) /982463956 μm(3) (range of 0.209764406 mm(3) /209764405.9 μm(3)to 1.78105544 mm(3) /1781055440 μm(3)). Full thickness obstruction of the choroidal vasculature by the tumor was found in 18 cases (72 %). In seven cases (18 %), choroidal vessel architecture did not show pronounced morphological abnormalities (18 %). Speckle noise-free OCT may serve as a new illustrative imaging technology and enhance visualization of the choroidal vessels without the need for dye injection. OCT can be used to identify and evaluate the choroidal vessels of melanocytic choroidal tumors, and may represent a potentially useful tool for imaging and monitoring of choroidal nevi and melanoma.

  8. Retinal sensitivity and choroidal thickness in high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaben, Ahmad; Zapata, Miguel Á; Garcia-Arumi, Jose

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the association between choroidal thickness in the macular area and retinal sensitivity in eyes with high myopia. This investigation was a transversal study of patients with high myopia, all of whom had their retinal sensitivity measured with macular integrity assessment microperimetry. The choroidal thicknesses in the macular area were then measured by optical coherence tomography, and statistical correlations between their functionality and the anatomical structuralism, as assessed by both types of measurements, were analyzed. Ninety-six eyes from 77 patients with high myopia were studied. The patients had a mean age ± standard deviation of 38.9 ± 13.2 years, with spherical equivalent values ranging from -6.00 diopter to -20.00 diopter (8.74 ± 2.73 diopter). The mean central choroidal thickness was 159.00 ± 50.57. The mean choroidal thickness was directly correlated with sensitivity (r = 0.306; P = 0.004) and visual acuity but indirectly correlated with the spherical equivalent values and patient age. The mean sensitivity was not significantly correlated with the macular foveal thickness (r = -0.174; P = 0.101) or with the overall macular thickness (r = 0.103; P = 0.334); furthermore, the mean sensitivity was significantly correlated with visual acuity (r = 0.431; P < 0.001) and the spherical equivalent values (r = -0.306; P = 0.003). Retinal sensitivity in highly myopic eyes is directly correlated with choroidal thickness and does not seem to be associated with retinal thickness. Thus, in patients with high myopia, accurate measurements of choroidal thickness may provide more accurate information about this pathologic condition because choroidal thickness correlates to a greater degree with the functional parameters, patient age, and spherical equivalent values.

  9. Choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyoshi Tei

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: This is the first report of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. We consider it important to enforce systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy for choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer.

  10. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Choroidal Hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Taek; Kang, Se Woong; Lee, Jung-Il

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with choroidal hemangioma (CH), a benign ocular hamartoma, frequently presents with visual disturbance as a result of exudative retinal detachment (RD), which originates in subretinal fluid accumulation. We report our experience using the Leksell Gamma Knife in the management of symptomatic CH. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with symptomatic CH (circumscribed form in 3 patients and diffuse form in 4) were treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife at our institution during a 7-year period. All patients presented with exudative RD involving the macula that resulted in severe visual deterioration. The prescription dose to the target margin was 10 Gy in all cases. The mean tumor volume receiving the prescription dose was 536 mm 3 (range, 151–1,057). The clinical data were analyzed in a retrospective fashion after a mean follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 9–76). Results: The resolution of exudative RD was achieved within 6 months, and the visual acuity of the affected eye had improved at the latest follow-up examination (p = .018) in all patients. No recurrence of exudative RD occurred. Thinning of the CHs was observed in most patients; however, symptomatic radiation toxicity had not developed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Symptomatic CHs can be safely and effectively managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery using a marginal dose of 10 Gy.

  11. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Choroidal Hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Taek; Kang, Se Woong [Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Il, E-mail: jilee@skku.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Patients with choroidal hemangioma (CH), a benign ocular hamartoma, frequently presents with visual disturbance as a result of exudative retinal detachment (RD), which originates in subretinal fluid accumulation. We report our experience using the Leksell Gamma Knife in the management of symptomatic CH. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with symptomatic CH (circumscribed form in 3 patients and diffuse form in 4) were treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife at our institution during a 7-year period. All patients presented with exudative RD involving the macula that resulted in severe visual deterioration. The prescription dose to the target margin was 10 Gy in all cases. The mean tumor volume receiving the prescription dose was 536 mm{sup 3} (range, 151-1,057). The clinical data were analyzed in a retrospective fashion after a mean follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 9-76). Results: The resolution of exudative RD was achieved within 6 months, and the visual acuity of the affected eye had improved at the latest follow-up examination (p = .018) in all patients. No recurrence of exudative RD occurred. Thinning of the CHs was observed in most patients; however, symptomatic radiation toxicity had not developed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Symptomatic CHs can be safely and effectively managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery using a marginal dose of 10 Gy.

  12. Our Treatment Results of Circumscribed and Diffuse Choroidal Hemangiomas

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    Esra Savku

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To discuss our treatment results of choroidal hemangiomas. Material and Method: The records of 39 cases of choroidal hemangioma followed up at our clinic between July 1999–October 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Asymptomatic cases were followed up. Symptomatic cases with subretinal fluid and impaired vision received treatment. Results: Mean age of the 39 patients was 44 (12-80 years. Thirty-five of 39 cases had circumscribed choroidal hemangioma, and 4 cases had diffuse choroidal hemangioma. Sturge-Weber syndrome was present in 3 cases with diffuse choroidal hemangioma. Cases with circumscribed choroidal hemangioma and minimal subretinal fluid were treated with TTT in 11 cases, PDT in 12 cases, and PDT+TTT in 1 case. Cases with circumscribed choroidal hemangioma and excessive subretinal fluid were treated with Ru-106 plaque radiotherapy in 1 case, Ru-106 plaque radiotherapy+TTT in 1 case, EBRT in 3 cases, and TTT+EBRT in 1 case. One painful blind eye with neovascular glaucoma and complicated cataract was enucleated. Cases with diffuse choroidal hemangioma and excessive subretinal fluid were treated with Ru-106 plaque radiotherapy+TTT in 1 case and EBRT in 1 case. Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation and FAKO emulsification were applied to a case with neovascular glaucoma and complicated cataract. Complete resorption of subretinal fluid was achieved in 23 (72% of treated 32 cases. When mean initial tumor thickness was 2.6 mm (0.5-6, mean final tumor thickness was 1.4 mm (0-6. When mean initial visual acuity (LogMAR was 1.5 (0-3, mean final visual acuity was 1.1 (0-3. No recurrence was observed. Discussion: The amount of the subretinal fluid determines the method of treatment in circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. While TTT and PDT are effective treatment modalities for minimal subretinal fluid, plaque radiotherapy and EBRT are applied in cases with excessive subretinal fluid. Combination therapies may be necessary according to the

  13. Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings of Choroidal Osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the morphologic features of a choroidal osteoma using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF. Methods: Two eyes of two cases with a choroidal osteoma were studied using SS-OCT and FAF. Results: The location of the tumor was circumpapillary without macular involvement in case 1 and juxtapapillary with macular involvement in case 2. Both cases had a mixture of calcified and decalcified areas, and a concomitant choroidal neovascularization was found in case 2. The FAF images showed decreased autofluorescence in the central decalcified regions and relatively preserved fluorescence in marginal calcified regions in both cases. SS-OCT revealed a normal inner retina and an abnormal outer retina in both cases, and subretinal fluid in case 2. The calcified regions appeared sponge-like and were multilayered in case 2. A lamellar reflective pattern was observed in the decalcified regions in case 1, and hyperreflective mound-like areas were observed in both cases. SS-OCT demonstrated hyperreflective areas above Bruch's membrane accompanied by disruption of Bruch's membrane in case 1. The chorioscleral border was visible in both cases. Conclusions: The FAF pattern in the calcified and decalcified areas of the choroidal osteoma may correspond to the different stage of tumor evolution. The SS-OCT findings indicate that choroidal osteomas can have characteristic reflective patterns and alterations of the overlying retina.

  14. Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the meninges and the choroid plexus: implications for non-neuronal sources for GABA in the developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitani, Shiro; Kondo, Shigeaki

    2013-01-01

    Neural progenitors in the developing neocortex, neuroepithelial cells and radial glial cells, have a bipolar shape with a basal process contacting the basal membrane of the meninge and an apical plasma membrane facing the lateral ventricle, which the cerebrospinal fluid is filled with. Recent studies revealed that the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid have certain roles to regulate brain development. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter which appears first during development and works as a diffusible factor to regulate the properties of neural progenitors. In this study, we examined whether GABA can be released from the meninges and the choroid plexus in the developing mouse brain. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67), both of which are GABA-synthesizing enzymes, are expressed in the meninges. The epithelial cells in the choroid plexus express GAD65. GABA immunoreactivity could be observed beneath the basal membrane of the meninge and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. Expression analyses on Bestrophin-1, which is known as a GABA-permeable channel in differentiated glial cells, suggested that the cells in the meninges and the epithelial cells in the choroid plexus have the channels able to permeate non-synaptic GABA into the extracellular space. Further studies showed that GAD65/67-expressing meningeal cells appear in a manner with rostral to caudal and lateral to dorsal gradient to cover the entire neocortex by E14.5 during development, while the cells in the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle start to express GAD65 on E11-E12, the time when the choroid plexus starts to develop in the developing brain. These results totally suggest that the meninges and the choroid plexus can work as non-neuronal sources for ambient GABA which can modulate the properties of neural progenitors during neocortical development.

  15. Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the meninges and the choroid plexus: implications for non-neuronal sources for GABA in the developing mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Tochitani

    Full Text Available Neural progenitors in the developing neocortex, neuroepithelial cells and radial glial cells, have a bipolar shape with a basal process contacting the basal membrane of the meninge and an apical plasma membrane facing the lateral ventricle, which the cerebrospinal fluid is filled with. Recent studies revealed that the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid have certain roles to regulate brain development. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a neurotransmitter which appears first during development and works as a diffusible factor to regulate the properties of neural progenitors. In this study, we examined whether GABA can be released from the meninges and the choroid plexus in the developing mouse brain. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67, both of which are GABA-synthesizing enzymes, are expressed in the meninges. The epithelial cells in the choroid plexus express GAD65. GABA immunoreactivity could be observed beneath the basal membrane of the meninge and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. Expression analyses on Bestrophin-1, which is known as a GABA-permeable channel in differentiated glial cells, suggested that the cells in the meninges and the epithelial cells in the choroid plexus have the channels able to permeate non-synaptic GABA into the extracellular space. Further studies showed that GAD65/67-expressing meningeal cells appear in a manner with rostral to caudal and lateral to dorsal gradient to cover the entire neocortex by E14.5 during development, while the cells in the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle start to express GAD65 on E11-E12, the time when the choroid plexus starts to develop in the developing brain. These results totally suggest that the meninges and the choroid plexus can work as non-neuronal sources for ambient GABA which can modulate the properties of neural progenitors during neocortical development.

  16. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  17. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  18. Changes of subfoveal choroidal thickness after treated by Ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization secondary to pathologic myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Shu Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the change of subfoveal choroidal thickness(SFCTafter intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody Ranibizumab in patients with choroidal neovascularization(CNVsecondary to pathologic myopia(PMand to research the relation between visual acuity and SFCT.METHODS:This was a prospective, contrast, open-label study.Fifty pathologic myopia patients with CNV(50 eyeswere recruited in this study. Before the injection,best-corrected visual acuity detected by visual chart from Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study(ETDRS,non-contact tonometer,ophthalmoscope,fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiograph(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCTexamination were necessary. All affected eye were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab 0.05mL. Following up for 12mo, the changes of visual acuity and SFCT were compared before and after treatment, also the relation between them. RESULTS:All eyes received an average of 2.47±2.23 injections,the final vision of follow-up increased by 13.62±8.98 letters than that before(t=6.69,Pt=0.95, P>0.05.While after 6 and 12mo,the differences were significant(t=2.34, 2.61; PPP>0.05.There were no serious systemic or local side effects during the follow up.CONCLUSION:Intravitreal ranibizumab for CNV secondary to pathologic myopia is safe and can improve the visual acuity.Intravitreal injections of ranibizumab can induce SFCT reduction for CNV secondary to pathologic myopia.We hypothesized that increase of SFCT may be one of evaluation index for CNV activity.

  19. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  20. Clinical profile and outcome of serpiginous choroiditis in a Uveitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laterality, clinical presentation, presence of any systemic abnormality, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), lens status, intraocular pressure, findings on funduscopic examination, type of serpiginous choroiditis and treatment modality offered were recorded. Information obtained was entered into SPSS 17.0 data base and ...

  1. Case Report: Bilateral iris, choroid, optic nerve colobomas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Baraitser–Winter syndrome (BRWS) is a malformation syndrome, characterized by facial dysmorphism, ocular colobomata, pachygyria, and intellectual defects. Case report: A 3.5 year old female child with BRWS has bilateral congenital ptosis, microcornea, iris, choroid, and optic nerve coloboma, retinal ...

  2. Malignant melanoma of the choroid in a naevus of Ota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Kaur, B; Annuar, N M

    1988-02-01

    A rare case of choroidal malignant melanoma in a naevus of Ota is described. This is the first reported case from Asia outside the Japanese population. This case illustrates the need for close observation of all pigmented lesions of the eye.

  3. Malignant melanoma of the choroid in a naevus of Ota.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, M.; Kaur, B.; Annuar, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A rare case of choroidal malignant melanoma in a naevus of Ota is described. This is the first reported case from Asia outside the Japanese population. This case illustrates the need for close observation of all pigmented lesions of the eye.

  4. Complications of cobalt plaque therapy of choroidal malanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Char, D.H.; Lonn, L.I.; Margolis, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    We treated a small series of patients with choroidal melanomas with radioactive cobalt plaques. To assess the effectiveness of radiation, we performed radioactive phosphorus ( 32 P) uptake determinations before and after treatment. The 32 P results did not tumor destruction. In five of seven patients with posterior pole melanomas, radiation retinopathy developed after treatment with resultant decrease in vision

  5. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...

  6. Central areolar choroidal dystrophy with associated dominant drusen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Rodman

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Central areolar choroidal dystrophy normally presents without drusen. However, in patients manifesting a specific mutation, central areolar choridal dystrophy may present in conjunction with drusen. It appears that the Arg142Trp mutation is one of the factors predisposing to drusen formation.

  7. The Pediatric Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Jamal, Rana'a T; Cassoux, Nathalie; Desjardins, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To collect comprehensive data on choroidal and ciliary body melanoma (CCBM) in children and to validate hypotheses regarding pediatric CCBM: children younger than 18 years, males, and those without ciliary body involvement (CBI) have more favorable survival prognosis than young adults 18...

  8. Interocular Symmetry in Macular Choroidal Thickness in Children

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    Christiane Al-Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report interocular differences in choroidal thickness in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and correlate findings with biometric data. Methods. This observational cross-sectional study included 91 (182 eyes healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye exam and axial length measurement, high definition macular scans were performed using SD-OCT. Two observers manually measured the choroidal thickness at the foveal center and at 1500 µm nasally, temporally, inferiorly, and superiorly. Interocular differences were computed; correlations with age, gender, refractive error, and axial length were performed. Results. Mean age was 10.40 ± 3.17 years; mean axial length and refractive error values were similar between fellow eyes. There was excellent correlation between the two observers’ measurements. No significant interocular differences were observed at any location. There was only a trend for right eyes to have higher values in all thicknesses, except the superior thickness. Most of the choroidal thickness measurements correlated positively with spherical equivalent but not with axial length, age, or gender. Conclusion. Choroidal thickness measurements in children as performed using SD-OCT revealed a high level of interobserver agreement and consistent interocular symmetry. Values correlated positively with spherical equivalent refraction.

  9. Interocular symmetry in macular choroidal thickness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Christiane; El Chaar, Lama; Antonios, Rafic; El-Dairi, Mays; Noureddin, Baha'

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report interocular differences in choroidal thickness in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and correlate findings with biometric data. Methods. This observational cross-sectional study included 91 (182 eyes) healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye exam and axial length measurement, high definition macular scans were performed using SD-OCT. Two observers manually measured the choroidal thickness at the foveal center and at 1500 µm nasally, temporally, inferiorly, and superiorly. Interocular differences were computed; correlations with age, gender, refractive error, and axial length were performed. Results. Mean age was 10.40 ± 3.17 years; mean axial length and refractive error values were similar between fellow eyes. There was excellent correlation between the two observers' measurements. No significant interocular differences were observed at any location. There was only a trend for right eyes to have higher values in all thicknesses, except the superior thickness. Most of the choroidal thickness measurements correlated positively with spherical equivalent but not with axial length, age, or gender. Conclusion. Choroidal thickness measurements in children as performed using SD-OCT revealed a high level of interobserver agreement and consistent interocular symmetry. Values correlated positively with spherical equivalent refraction.

  10. SCLERAL AND CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN SECONDARY HIGH AXIAL MYOPIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ling; You, Qi Sheng; Xu, Xiaolin; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Zhibao; Li, Bin; Jonas, Jost B

    2016-08-01

    To assess differences in scleral and choroidal thickness between eyes with secondary high axial myopia caused by congenital glaucoma, eyes with primary high axial myopia, and nonhighly myopic eyes. The study consisted of 301 Chinese individuals with a mean age of 23.9 ± 22.6 years and mean axial length of 24.8 ± 4.2 mm. It included the "secondary highly myopic group" (SHMG) because of congenital glaucoma (n = 20 eyes; axial length >26.0 mm), the "primary highly myopic group" (PHMG) (n = 73; axial length >26.0 mm), and the remaining nonhighly myopic group (NHMG). The secondary highly myopic group versus the primary highly myopic group had significantly thinner sclera in the pars plana region (343 ± 71 μm versus 398 ± 83 μm; P = 0.006), whereas scleral thickness in other regions did not differ significantly between both highly myopic groups and was significantly thinner in both highly myopic groups than in the NHMG. Mean total scleral volume did not differ significantly (P > 0.20) between any group (SHMG: 659 ± 106 μm; PHMG: 667 ± 128 μm; NHMG: 626 ± 135 μm). Choroidal thickness was significantly thinner in both highly myopic groups than in the NHMG, with no significant differences between both highly myopic groups. Choroidal volume did not differ significantly (P > 0.40) between any of the groups (SHMG: 43 ± 12 μm; PHMG: 43 ± 13 μm; NHMG: 46 ± 17 μm). In secondary high axial myopia, the sclera gets thinner anterior and posterior to the equator; whereas in primary high axial myopia, scleral thinning is predominantly found posterior to the equator. Because volume of sclera and choroid did not differ between any group, scleral and choroidal thinning in myopia may be due to a rearrangement of tissue and not due to the new formation of tissue.

  11. Macular Choroidal Small-Vessel Layer, Sattler's Layer and Haller's Layer Thicknesses: The Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-03-13

    To study macular choroidal layer thickness, 3187 study participants from the population-based Beijing Eye Study underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging for thickness measurements of the macular small-vessel layer, including the choriocapillaris, medium-sized choroidal vessel layer (Sattler's layer) and large choroidal vessel layer (Haller's layer). In multivariate analysis, greater thickness of all three choroidal layers was associated (all P  0.05) associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. There was a tendency (0.07 > P > 0.02) toward thinner choroidal layers in chronic angle-closure glaucoma. The ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness increased (P layer and Haller's layer thickness to total choroidal thickness decreased. A higher ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AMD (early type, intermediate type, late geographic type). Axial elongation-associated and aging-associated choroidal thinning affected Haller's and Sattler's layers more markedly than the small-vessel layer. Non-exudative and exudative AMD, except for geographic atrophy, was associated with slightly increased choroidal thickness.

  12. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  13. Choroidal thinning in high myopia measured by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuno Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi Ikuno, Satoko Fujimoto, Yukari Jo, Tomoko Asai, Kohji NishidaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, JapanPurpose: To investigate the rate of choroidal thinning in highly myopic eyes.Patients and methods: A retrospective observational study of 37 eyes of 26 subjects (nine males and 17 females, mean age 39.6 ± 7.7 years with high myopia but no pathologies who had undergone spectral domain optical coherence tomography and repeated the test 1 year later (1 ± 0.25 year at Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, Japan. Patients older than 50 years with visual acuity worse than 20/40 or with whitish chorioretinal atrophy involving the macula were excluded. Two masked raters measured the choroidal thicknesses (CTs at the foveda, 3 mm superiorly, inferiorly, temporally, and nasally on the images and averaged the values. The second examination was about 365 days after the baseline examination. The CT reduction per year (CTRPY was defined as (CT 1 year after - baseline CT/days between the two examinations × 365. The retinal thicknesses were also investigated.Results: The CTRPY at the fovea was −1.0 ± 22.0 µm (range –50.2 to 98.5 at the fovea, –6.5 ± 24.3 µm (range −65.8 to 90.2 temporally, –0.5 ± 22.3 µm (range –27.1 to 82.5 nasally, –9.7 ± 21.7 µm (range –40.1 to 60.1 superiorly, and –1.4 ± 25.5 µm (range –85.6 to 75.2 inferiorly. There were no significant differences in the CTRPY at each location (P = 0.34. The CT decreased significantly (P < 0.05 only superiorly. The superior CTRPY was negatively correlated with the axial length (P < 0.05. The retinal thickness at the fovea did not change. Stepwise analysis for CTRPY selected axial length (P = 0.04, R2 = 0.13 and age (P = 0.08, R2 = 0.21 as relevant factors.Conclusions: The highly myopic choroid might gradually thin and be affected by many factors. Location and axial length are key factors to regulate the rate of choroidal

  14. /sup 3/H-dextran method for measurements of the blood volume in the rat choroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsusaka, T [Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan); Morimoto, K; Kikkawa, Y

    1980-01-01

    A new method was developed using /sup 3/H-dextran for measuring the blood volume in the choroid. Under pentobarbital-anesthesia, albino rats weighing 200 grams were perfused through the left ventricle with a 2.5 percent glutaraldehyde solution containing the radioactive dextran. The procedure allowed exchange of the choroidal blood with the /sup 3/H-dextran solution with a simultaneous fixation of the choroid. The blood volume in the choroid was calculated from the radioactivity count, which is estimated to be 1.690 x 10/sup -4/ ml per mg wet weight and 5.070 x 10/sup -4/ ml per mg dry weight. Epinephrine subconjunctivally injected diminished the blood volume in the choroid by 68 percent. Pretreatment with lidocaine almost nullified the effect of epinephrine. Applicability of this method to the analytical study of the choroidal circulation is discussed.

  15. 3H-dextran method for measurements of the blood volume in the rat choroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusaka, Toshihiko; Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Kikkawa, Yoshizo.

    1980-01-01

    A new method was developed using 3 H-dextran for measuring the blood volume in the choroid. Under pentobarbital-anesthesia, albino rats weighing 200 grams were perfused through the left ventricle with a 2.5 percent glutaraldehyde solution containing the radioactive dextran. The procedure allowed exchange of the choroidal blood with the 3 H-dextran solution with a simultaneous fixation of the choroid. The blood volume in the choroid was calculated from the radioactivity count, which is estimated to be 1.690 x 10 -4 ml per mg wet weight and 5.070 x 10 -4 ml per mg dry weight. Epinephrine subconjunctivally injected diminished the blood volume in the choroid by 68 percent. Pretreatment with lidocaine almost nullified the effect of epinephrine. Applicability of this method to the analytical study of the choroidal circulation is discussed. (author)

  16. Real-time in vivo micromorphology and histopathology of choroidal osteoma using enhanced depth imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal osteoma is a usually unilateral benign tumor of the choroid composed of mature bone. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used to image osteoma for several years. With the advent of enhanced depth imaging (EDI feature of spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT, better visualization of the morphology of choroidal lesions has been possible. Herein we present a case of choroidal osteoma in a 45-year-old woman, wherein in vivo morphology of the choroidal osteoma had been visualized using EDI technique of SD-OCT before and after performing photodynamic therapy. EDI OCT has proven to be a valuable noninvasive imaging modality, almost comparable to histopathological examination, for diagnosing choroidal osteomas and for providing an insight into the in vivo micromorphological changes occurring during the course of the disease.

  17. Diffuse choroid plexus hyperplasia: an under-diagnosed cause of hydrocephalus in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Azian Abd.; Coleman, Lee [Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Morokoff, Andrew; Maixner, Wirginia [Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Department of Neurosurgery, Parkville (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder in children and the result of a variety of causes. However, with the advancement of imaging modalities, particularly MRI, previously reported rarer causes of hydrocephalus in children are now being more readily appreciated. We report an 11-year-old boy with diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus. He had a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt in-situ and a prior diagnosis from infancy of congenital aqueduct stenosis as the cause of his hydrocephalus. His current presentation was with further shunt dysfunction. CT and MRI demonstrated enlarged choroid plexuses but did not confirm aqueduct stenosis. CSF overproduction was demonstrated from the externalized ventricular drain. The enlarged choroid plexuses were surgically resected and histology confirmed choroid plexus hyperplasia. Identification of choroid plexus hyperplasia is important since the neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus is not VP shunt insertion, but resection of the hyperplastic choroid plexus. (orig.)

  18. Diffuse choroid plexus hyperplasia: an under-diagnosed cause of hydrocephalus in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Azian Abd.; Coleman, Lee; Morokoff, Andrew; Maixner, Wirginia

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder in children and the result of a variety of causes. However, with the advancement of imaging modalities, particularly MRI, previously reported rarer causes of hydrocephalus in children are now being more readily appreciated. We report an 11-year-old boy with diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus. He had a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt in-situ and a prior diagnosis from infancy of congenital aqueduct stenosis as the cause of his hydrocephalus. His current presentation was with further shunt dysfunction. CT and MRI demonstrated enlarged choroid plexuses but did not confirm aqueduct stenosis. CSF overproduction was demonstrated from the externalized ventricular drain. The enlarged choroid plexuses were surgically resected and histology confirmed choroid plexus hyperplasia. Identification of choroid plexus hyperplasia is important since the neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus is not VP shunt insertion, but resection of the hyperplastic choroid plexus. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of focal choroidal excavation in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, F P M; Loh, B K; Cheung, C M G; Lim, L S; Chan, C M; Wong, D W K

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate imaging findings of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and correlate it clinically. Prospective observational case series. Eleven consecutive patients (12 eyes) with FCE were described. Data on demographics and clinical presentation were collected and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and SS-OCT) were analyzed. The primary diagnosis was epiretinal membrane (two eyes), choroidal neovascularization (one eye), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (three eyes), central serous chorioretinopathy (one eye), and dry age-related macular degeneration (two eyes). Eleven out of 12 of the lesions were conforming. One presented with a non-conforming lesion that progressed to a conforming lesion. One eye had multiFCE and two had two overlapping choroidal excavations. Using the SS-OCT, we found the choroid to be thinned out at the area of FCE but sclera remained normal. The choroidal tissue beneath the FCE was abnormal, with high internal reflectivity and poor visualization of choroidal vessels. There was loss of contour of the outer choroidal boundary that appeared to be pulled inward by this abnormal choroidal tissue. A suprachoroidal space was noted beneath this choroidal tissue and the choroidal-scleral interface was smooth. Repeat SS-OCT 6 months after presentation showed the area of excavation to be stable in size. FCE can be associated with epiretinal membrane, central serous chorioretinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. The choroid was thinned out in the area of FCE.

  20. Current and emerging treatment options for myopic choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Matri L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leila El Matri, Ahmed Chebil, Fedra Kort Department B of Ophthalmology, Hedi Rais Institute of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University of El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia Abstract: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV is the main cause of visual impairment in highly myopic patients younger than 50 years of age. There are different treatments for myopic CNV (mCNV, with 5- to 10-year outcomes currently. Chorioretinal atrophy is still the most important determinant factor for visual outcome. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the current treatments for mCNV, including laser, surgical management, verteporfin photodynamic therapy, and mainly anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Emerging treatment options are also discussed. Keywords: myopia, choroidal neovascularization, current treatment, emerging treatment

  1. The formation of rats' choroidal neovascularization induced by acrolein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Feng Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the formation of rats' choroidal neovascularization(CNVinduced by acrolein. METHODS:Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Acrolein 200μL(2.5 mg/kg/dwas poured into the rats' stomach for 4wk as acrolein 4wk and for 8wk as acrolein 8wk group. The same volume of fresh water was also done to the rats as the control group. Remove all eye balls and embed into paraffin with HE staining.RESLUTS:The RPE-Bruch membrane was intact with no obvious abnormality in the control group and acrolein 4wk group. Lost in the continuity of RPE and the movement of choroidal neovascularization were found in the acrolein 8wk. CONCLUSION:The long time use of acrolein can induce the formation of choroial neovascularization in rats.

  2. Transscleral diode photocoagulation of large retinal and choroidal vascular lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transscleral retinal photocoagulation with a diode laser is used in glaucoma refractory to medical and surgical treatment. Our main research question was how the technique performed in large vascular lesions associated with hemangiomas of the retina and choroid. METHODOLOGY/CLINICAL FINDINGS: Patient charts were retrieved from the hospital files for patients who underwent the procedure and were followed for at least 24 months. Five patients (6 eyes fit the criteria. Cases included Von Hippel's disease (2 eyes, Coats' disease (1 eye and choroidal hemangioma (3 cases. Transscleral diode laser treatment was performed under retrobulbar and topical anesthesia with a retinopexy probe (IRIS DioPexy, IRIS Medical Instruments, Mountain View, CA applied transsclerally under indirect ophthalmoscope visualization. We found an improvement in best-corrected visual acuity at 24 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transscleral photocoagulation may have a clinical application in these diseases as an alternate to the high cost of photodynamic therapy with photosensitizing agents.

  3. Choroidal Coloboma in a Case of Tay-Sachs Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Nasreen Raees; Tripathy, Koushik; Kumar, Vivek; Gogia, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Coloboma as an ocular finding has been documented in various syndromes. Here we have a case of infantile Tay-Sachs disease associated with unilateral choroidal coloboma. To the best of our knowledge, such an association has not been documented in the literature. Whether such an association is a matter of chance or signifies the involvement of ganglioside metabolism in ocular embryogenesis remains to be elucidated.

  4. Choroidal coloboma in a case of tay-sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasreen Raees; Tripathy, Koushik; Kumar, Vivek; Gogia, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Coloboma as an ocular finding has been documented in various syndromes. Here we have a case of infantile Tay-Sachs disease associated with unilateral choroidal coloboma. To the best of our knowledge, such an association has not been documented in the literature. Whether such an association is a matter of chance or signifies the involvement of ganglioside metabolism in ocular embryogenesis remains to be elucidated.

  5. Choroidal Coloboma in a Case of Tay-Sachs Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Raees Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coloboma as an ocular finding has been documented in various syndromes. Here we have a case of infantile Tay-Sachs disease associated with unilateral choroidal coloboma. To the best of our knowledge, such an association has not been documented in the literature. Whether such an association is a matter of chance or signifies the involvement of ganglioside metabolism in ocular embryogenesis remains to be elucidated.

  6. Altered choroid plexus gene expression in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortney Ann Turner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the emergent interest in biomarkers for mood disorders, we assessed gene expression in the choroid plexus, the region that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD. Genes that are expressed in the choroid plexus (CP can be secreted into the CSF and may be potential biomarker candidates. Given that we have previously shown that fibroblast growth factor family members are differentially expressed in post-mortem brain of subjects with MDD and the CP is a known source of growth factors in the brain, we posed the question whether growth factor dysregulation would be found in the CP of subjects with MDD. We performed laser capture microscopy of the choroid plexus at the level of the hippocampus in subjects with MDD and psychiatrically normal controls. We then extracted, amplified, labeled and hybridized the cRNA to Illumina BeadChips to assess gene expression. In controls, the most highly abundant known transcript was transthyretin. Moreover, half of the 14 most highly expressed transcripts in controls encode ribosomal proteins. Using BeadStudio software, we identified 169 transcripts differentially expressed (p< 0.05 between control and MDD samples. Using pathway analysis we noted that the top network altered in subjects with MDD included multiple members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR confirmed downregulation of several transcripts that interact with the extracellular matrix in subjects with MDD. These results suggest that there may be an altered cytoskeleton in the choroid plexus in MDD subjects that may lead to a disrupted blood-CSF-brain barrier.

  7. Functional end-arterial circulation of the choroid assessed by using fat embolism and electric circuit simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Ahn, Ki Su; Park, Keun Heung; Pak, Kang Yeun; Kim, Hak Jin; Byon, Ik Soo; Park, Sung Who

    2017-05-30

    The discrepancy in the choroidal circulation between anatomy and function has remained unsolved for several decades. Postmortem cast studies revealed extensive anastomotic channels, but angiographic studies indicated end-arterial circulation. We carried out experimental fat embolism in cats and electric circuit simulation. Perfusion defects were observed in two categories. In the scatter perfusion defects suggesting an embolism at the terminal arterioles, fluorescein dye filled the non-perfused lobule slowly from the adjacent perfused lobule. In the segmental perfusion defects suggesting occlusion of the posterior ciliary arteries, the hypofluorescent segment became perfused by spontaneous resolution of the embolism without subsequent smaller infarction. The angiographic findings could be simulated with an electric circuit. Although electric currents flowed to the disconnected lobule, the level was very low compared with that of the connected ones. The choroid appeared to be composed of multiple sectors with no anastomosis to other sectors, but to have its own anastomotic arterioles in each sector. Blood flows through the continuous choriocapillaris bed in an end-arterial nature functionally to follow a pressure gradient due to the drainage through the collector venule.

  8. MACULAR CHOROIDAL VOLUME CHANGES AFTER INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB FOR EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, Stefan; Seidel, Gerald; Pertl, Laura; Malle, Eva M; Hausberger, Silke; Makk, Johanna; Singer, Christoph; Osterholt, Julia; Herzog, Sereina A; Haas, Anton; Weger, Martin

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on the macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness in treatment naïve eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration. The macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness were measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. After a screening examination, each patient received 3 monthly intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg bevacizumab. One month after the third injection was a final assessment. Forty-seven patients with a mean age of 80 ± 6.4 years were included. The macular choroidal volume decreased significantly from median 4.1 mm (interquartile range 3.4-5.9) to median 3.9 mm (interquartile range 3.1-5.6) between the baseline and final examination (difference -0.46 mm, 95% confidence interval: -0.57 to 0.35, P macular choroidal volume at baseline and subfoveal choroidal thickness at baseline were not associated with the response to treatment. The macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased significantly after 3 monthly bevacizumab injections for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

  9. Visual acuity after Ruthenium106 brachytherapy of choroidal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, Bertil; Patel, Imran M.; Campbell, Ian R.; Mayles, Helen M.; Errington, R. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To report on conservation of visual acuity after Ruthenium 106 (Ru-106) brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. Methods and materials: This study was a noncomparative interventional case series of 458 patients with choroidal melanoma treated at a single center between January 1993 and December 2001. The intervention consisted of Ru-106 brachytherapy delivering minimum scleral and apex doses of 300 Gy and 80 Gy, respectively, using a 15-mm or 20-mm plaque. For discrete, posterior tumors, the plaque was positioned eccentrically with its posterior edge aligned with the posterior tumor margin. To ensure correct plaque positioning, any overlying extraocular muscles were dis-inserted, and the locations of both tumor and plaque edges were confirmed by transillumination and indentation. The main outcome measures were conservation of vision of 20/40 or better, 20/200 or better, and Counting Fingers or better, according to baseline variables. Results: The actuarial rate of conservation of 20/40 or better was 55% at 9 years, loss of such vision correlating with posterior tumor extension (p 106 brachytherapy of posterior choroidal melanoma achieves good conservation of vision if the tumor does not extend close to the optic nerve or fovea

  10. DYSPHONIA AS AN UNCOMMON PRESENTATION OF PONTOCEREBELLAR CHOROID PLEXUS PAPILLOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotim, Krešimir; Sajko, Tomislav; Zmajević, Marina; Šumonja, Ilijana; Grgić, Marko

    2015-06-01

    A case is presented of a patient with dysphonia, hearing loss and ataxia due to vestibulocochlear and vagal nerve compression by choroid plexus papilloma in the cerebellopontine angle. Choroid plexus papillomas are rare tumors usually arising in the lateral and fourth ventricle, and rarely found in the cerebellopontine angle, making the neuroimaging characteristics usually not sufficient for diagnosis. Patients usually present with headache and hydrocephalus but tumors in the cerebellopontine angle can cause vestibulocochlear dysfunction and cerebellar symptoms. Dysphonia along with hearing loss was a dominant symptom in the case presented. After complete surgical removal of the tumor, deterioration of dysphonia was noticed; it could be explained as peripheral vagal nerve neuropathy due to tumor compression and intraoperative manipulation. In this case report, we describe dysphonia as an uncommon presentation of a rare posterior fossa tumor. To our knowledge, a case of choroid plexus papilloma presenting with dysphonia has not been described before. Our case extends the differential diagnosis of dysphonia from the otorhinolaryngological to the neurosurgical field.

  11. CHOROIDAL MELANOMA IN PHAKOMATOSIS PIGMENTOVASCULARIS WITH KLIPPEL-TRENAUNAY SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carol L; Di Nicola, Maura; Pellegrini, Marco; Shields, Jerry A

    2017-09-20

    To describe the relationship of choroidal melanoma with phakomatosis pigmentovascularis in patients with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Retrospective review of 5 patients. In all 5 cases, the patient was white and the cutaneous port-wine stain was congenital. The port-wine stain involved the chin (n = 1), jawline (n = 2), lower cheek (n = 1), thorax (n = 5), abdomen (n = 4), upper (n = 4), and lower (n = 3) limb(s). The ocular melanocytosis involved the sclera (n = 5), iris (n = 2) and choroid (n = 4). At diagnosis of choroidal melanoma, mean patient age was 57 years (median 61, range 17-83 years). The melanoma demonstrated mean basal diameter of 11.6 mm (median 12, range 5-16 mm) and mean thickness of 5.7 mm (median 6.1, range 2-9), revealing intrinsic tumor pigment and subretinal fluid in all cases. Melanoma management included plaque radiotherapy (n = 3), thermotherapy (n = 1), or enucleation (n = 1). At mean follow-up of 4 years, one patient demonstrated melanoma-related metastasis with death. Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis represents coexistence of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (or Sturge-Weber syndrome) and oculo(dermal) melanocytosis, promoting risk for life-threatening uveal melanoma. The authors suggest that all patients with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome be evaluated for phakomatosis pigmentovascularis and affected patients have dilated fundus examination once or twice a year.

  12. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  13. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factors for choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal osteoma: Long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Lekha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal osteoma is an uncommon benign osseous intraocular tumor typically seen unilaterally in young women. Visual loss can occur due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV complicating osteoma. We report a rare case of bilateral choroidal osteoma with secondary CNV in a young male and the long-term results following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF therapy. A 30-year-old male with history of defective vision in both eyes since several years and recent worsening in the right eye (RE since 2 months was found to have bilateral macular osteoma with CNV in the RE based on clinical evaluation, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and ultrasonography. Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab at monthly intervals for three doses resulted in resolution of CNV and remained stable for 5 years. Recurrent CNV detected 6 years later responded to an injection of intravitreal bevacizumab and has remained stable till date. Anti-VEGF therapy stabilized the secondary CNV in our patient for 7 years with satisfactory structural and functional outcome, demonstrating the long-term efficacy of this modality of treatment.

  14. Choroidal thickness in non-ocular Behçet's disease – A spectral-domain OCT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Mittal

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that BD may have subclinical manifestations in the choroid, resulting in thinning of the choroid relative to normal eyes, even without overt signs of ocular involvement.

  15. ASSOCIATION OF DRUSEN VOLUME WITH CHOROIDAL PARAMETERS IN NONNEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Siva; Lei, Jianqin; Nittala, Muneeswar G; Velaga, Swetha B; Haines, Jonathan; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Stambolian, Dwight; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2017-10-01

    The choroid is thought to be relevant to the pathogenesis of nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration, but its role has not yet been fully defined. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between the extent of macular drusen and specific choroidal parameters, including thickness and intensity. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were collected from two distinct, independent cohorts with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration: Amish (53 eyes of 34 subjects) and non-Amish (40 eyes from 26 subjects). All spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were obtained using the Cirrus HD-OCT with a 512 × 128 macular cube (6 × 6 mm) protocol. The Cirrus advanced retinal pigment epithelium analysis tool was used to automatically compute drusen volume within 3 mm (DV3) and 5 mm (DV5) circles centered on the fovea. The inner and outer borders of the choroid were manually segmented, and the mean choroidal thickness and choroidal intensity (i.e., brightness) were calculated. The choroidal intensity was normalized against the vitreous and nerve fiber layer reflectivity. The correlation between DV and these choroidal parameters was assessed using Pearson and linear regression analysis. A significant positive correlation was observed between normalized choroidal intensity and DV5 in the Amish (r = 0.42, P = 0.002) and non-Amish (r = 0.33, P = 0.03) cohorts. Also, DV3 showed a significant positive correlation with normalized choroidal intensity in both the groups (Amish: r = 0.30, P = 0.02; non-Amish: r = 0.32, P = 0.04). Choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with normalized choroidal intensity in both Amish (r = -0.71, P = 0.001) and non-Amish (r = -0.43, P = 0.01) groups. Normalized choroidal intensity was the most significant constant predictor of DV in both the Amish and non-Amish groups. Choroidal intensity, but not choroidal thickness, seems to be associated with drusen volume in Amish and non-Amish populations. These

  16. Choroidal thickness in Chinese patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Libin; Chen, Lanlan; Qiu, Xiujuan; Jiang, Ran; Wang, Yaxing; Xu, Liang; Lai, Timothy Y Y

    2016-08-31

    Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) is one of the most common types of ischemic optic neuropathy. Several recent studies suggested that abnormalities of choroidal thickness might be associated with NA-AION. The main objective of this case-control study was to evaluate whether choroidal thickness is an ocular risk factor for the development of NA-AION by evaluating the peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses in affected Chinese patients. Forty-four Chinese patients with unilateral NA-AION were recruited and compared with 60 eyes of 60 normal age and refractive-error matched control subjects. Peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Choroidal thicknesses of eyes with NA-AION and unaffected fellow eyes were compared with normal controls. Choroidal thicknesses of NA-AION eyes with or without optic disc edema were also compared. The correlation between choroidal thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, logMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and the mean deviation (MD) of Humphrey static perimetry in NA-AION eyes were analyzed. The peripapillary choroidal thicknesses at the nasal, nasal inferior and temporal inferior segments in NA-AION eyes with optic disc edema were significantly thicker compared with that of normal subjects (P optic disc edema and normal eyes (all P > 0.05). No significant correlation between choroidal thickness and RNFL thickness, logMAR BCVA and perimetry MD was found in eyes affected by NA-AION (all P > 0.05). Increase in peripapillary choroid thickness in some segments was found in NA-ION eyes with optic disc edema. However, our findings do not support the hypothesis that choroidal thickness is abnormal in Chinese patients with NA-AION compared with normal subjects with similar age and refractive error status.

  17. Evaluation of focal choroidal excavation in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, F P M; Loh, B K; Cheung, C M G; Lim, L S; Chan, C M; Wong, D W K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate imaging findings of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and correlate it clinically. Methods Prospective observational case series. Eleven consecutive patients (12 eyes) with FCE were described. Data on demographics and clinical presentation were collected and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and SS-OCT) were analyzed. Results The primary diagnosis was epiretinal membrane (two eyes), choroidal neovascularization (one eye), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (three eyes), central serous chorioretinopathy (one eye), and dry age-related macular degeneration (two eyes). Eleven out of 12 of the lesions were conforming. One presented with a non-conforming lesion that progressed to a conforming lesion. One eye had multiFCE and two had two overlapping choroidal excavations. Using the SS-OCT, we found the choroid to be thinned out at the area of FCE but sclera remained normal. The choroidal tissue beneath the FCE was abnormal, with high internal reflectivity and poor visualization of choroidal vessels. There was loss of contour of the outer choroidal boundary that appeared to be pulled inward by this abnormal choroidal tissue. A suprachoroidal space was noted beneath this choroidal tissue and the choroidal–scleral interface was smooth. Repeat SS-OCT 6 months after presentation showed the area of excavation to be stable in size. Conclusion FCE can be associated with epiretinal membrane, central serous chorioretinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. The choroid was thinned out in the area of FCE. PMID:24946847

  18. Na(+) dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henriette L; Nguyen, An T; Pedersen, Fredrik D

    2013-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells....... Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular p...

  19. An Unusual Case of Unilateral Multifocal Choroiditis in a Young Male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multifocal choroiditis is a vision‑threatening disease causing inflammation at the level of retinal pigment epithelium and outer retina. We present a unique case of unilateral multifocal choroiditis in a young nonmyopic male and its subsequent course. The patient developed visual loss due to the sub‑retinal neovascular ...

  20. Choroidal Thickness Changes in the Acute Attack Period in Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Fatih C; Akay, Fahrettin; Uzun, Salih; Ozge, Gokhan; Toyran, Sami; Genç, Halil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate choroidal thickness changes during acute attacks of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Fifty patients with FMF and 50 healthy controls were included. Choroidal thickness of each participant was measured at the foveola and horizontal nasal and temporal quadrants at 500-µm intervals to 1,500 µm from the foveola using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. White blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated. The clinical findings (peritonitis, arthritis and pleuritis) were noted. Choroidal thickness was significantly thicker at all measurement points in FMF patients compared to healthy controls during an acute attack (p 0.05). Increased choroidal thickness in the acute phase of FMF is possibly related to the inflammatory edematous changes in the choroid. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1030 nm with enhanced penetration into the choroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhuber, A.; Povazay, B.; Hermann, B.; Sattmann, H.; Michels, S.; Sacu, S.; Ahlers, C.; Scholda, C.; Chavez-Pirson, A.; Schmidt-Erfurth, U.; Fercher, Adolf F.; Drexler, W.

    2005-08-01

    In vivo retinal imaging with ~ 8 μm axial resolution at 1030 nm is demonstrated for the first time, enabling enhanced penetration into the choroid. A new high power, broad bandwidth light source based on amplified spontaneous emission (NP Photonics, λc = 1030 nm, Δλ= 50 nm, Pout = 25 mW) has been interfaced to a time domain ophthalmic OCT system. In vivo retinal OCT tomograms performed at 800 nm are compared to those achieved at 1030 nm. Retinal OCT at longer wavelengths, e.g. 1030 nm significantly improves the visualization of the retinal pigment epithelium/choriocapillaris/choroid interface and might therefore provide new insight into choroidal/choriocapillary changes in age-related macular degeneration and other diseases of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid complex. 1030 nm OCT could also become a valuable tool in monitoring treatment effects on the choroids as in Verteporfin therapy.

  2. Shaggy Photoreceptors with Subfoveal Fluid Associated with a Distant Choroidal Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Q. Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT findings in a patient with an extra macula choroidal melanoma before and after treatment. Methods. Observational case report. Results. A 45 year-old Caucasian male patient was referred to retina clinic for management of choroidal melanoma. Examination revealed a nasal choroidal melanoma while EDI-OCT illustrated subfoveal fluid pocket with elongated shaggy photoreceptors distant and separate from the tumor. The patient was treated with plaque brachytherapy and intravitreal bevacizumab. One week after plaque removal, there was a dramatic reduction in the shaggy photoreceptors. Conclusion. Choroidal melanomas have effects that are not localized to the area of the tumor. This loculated pocket of subretinal fluid and coinciding changes to photoreceptor morphology may be related to global changes in choroidal function or release of tumor related cytokines.

  3. The choroid plexus response to a repeated peripheral inflammatory stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palha Joana A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic systemic inflammation triggers alterations in the central nervous system that may relate to the underlying inflammatory component reported in neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. However, it is far from being understood whether and how peripheral inflammation contributes to induce brain inflammatory response in such illnesses. As part of the barriers that separate the blood from the brain, the choroid plexus conveys inflammatory immune signals into the brain, largely through alterations in the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid. Results In the present study we investigated the mouse choroid plexus gene expression profile, using microarray analyses, in response to a repeated inflammatory stimulus induced by the intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide every two weeks for a period of three months; mice were sacrificed 3 and 15 days after the last lipopolysaccharide injection. The data show that the choroid plexus displays a sustained response to the repeated inflammatory stimuli by altering the expression profile of several genes. From a total of 24,000 probes, 369 are up-regulated and 167 are down-regulated 3 days after the last lipopolysaccharide injection, while at 15 days the number decreases to 98 and 128, respectively. The pathways displaying the most significant changes include those facilitating entry of cells into the cerebrospinal fluid, and those participating in the innate immune response to infection. Conclusion These observations contribute to a better understanding of the brain response to peripheral inflammation and pave the way to study their impact on the progression of several disorders of the central nervous system in which inflammation is known to be implicated.

  4. Studies on the human choroid plexus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redzic Zoran B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of human choroid plexus (CP epithelium in the transport of solutes between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid and/or in secretion processes may be studied by employing several experimental approaches. There are a number of in vitro techniques for human CP epithelium (CPE and all have limitations that do not exclude them a priori, but that should be carefully taken into consideration. Developmental and morphological studies have been largely performed on human choroid plexus samples of either embryonic or post-mortem origin. Functional uptake studies may be performed on pathologically unaltered CP samples obtained during surgical removal of choroid plexus tumors. This approach can be used to explore transport processes mainly across the apical side of the CPE, but cannot be used to study vectorial transport across the CPE. Also, these samples have limited viability. A monolayer of CPE in culture, grown on permeable supports, provides the best available tool to study transport processes or polarized secretion by the CP, but thus far only limited attempts to culture these cells have been published and they mainly include data from neoplastic CPE. A study that used a human papilloma-derived cell line in culture showed that it forms a monolayer with barrier properties, although the cells express pleomorphic and neoplastic features and lack contact inhibition. Other cell cultures express some CPE markers but do not develop tight junctions/barrier properties. This article reviews the main characteristics and limitations of available in vitro methods to study human CPE, which could help researchers choose an appropriate experimental approach for a particular study.

  5. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  6. filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  7. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Systolic ventricular filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    The evidence of the ventricular myocardial band (VMB) has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium, making it possible to understand the principles governing electrical, mechanical and energetical events within the human heart. From the earliest Erasistratus' observations, principal mechanisms responsible for the ventricular filling have still remained obscured. Contemporary experimental and clinical investigations unequivocally support the attitude that only powerful suction force, developed by the normal ventricles, would be able to produce an efficient filling of the ventricular cavities. The true origin and the precise time frame for generating such force are still controversial. Elastic recoil and muscular contraction were the most commonly mentioned, but yet, still not clearly explained mechanisms involved in the ventricular suction. Classical concepts about timing of successive mechanical events during the cardiac cycle, also do not offer understandable insight into the mechanism of the ventricular filling. The net result is the current state of insufficient knowledge of systolic and particularly diastolic function of normal and diseased heart. Here we summarize experimental evidence and theoretical backgrounds, which could be useful in understanding the phenomenon of the ventricular filling. Anatomy of the VMB, and recent proofs for its segmental electrical and mechanical activation, undoubtedly indicates that ventricular filling is the consequence of an active muscular contraction. Contraction of the ascendent segment of the VMB, with simultaneous shortening and rectifying of its fibers, produces the paradoxical increase of the ventricular volume and lengthening of its long axis. Specific spatial arrangement of the ascendent segment fibers, their interaction with adjacent descendent segment fibers, elastic elements and intra-cavitary blood volume (hemoskeleton), explain the physical principles

  9. Outer Retinal and Choroidal Evaluation in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS): An Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Tito; Iaccheri, Barbara; Cerquaglia, Alessio; Lupidi, Marco; Torroni, Giovanni; Fruttini, Daniela; Cagini, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    To perform an analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) abnormalities in patients with MEWDS, during the acute and recovery stages, using enhanced depth imaging-OCT (EDI-OCT). A retrospective case series of five patients with MEWDS was included. EDI-OCT imaging was evaluated to detect retinal and choroidal features. In the acute phase, focal impairment of the ellipsoid zone and external limiting membrane, hyperreflective dots in the inner choroid, and full-thickness increase of the choroidal profile were observed in the affected eye; disappearance of these findings and restoration of the choroidal thickness (p = 0.046) was appreciated in the recovery phase. No OCT abnormalities were assessed in the unaffected eye. EDI-OCT revealed transient outer retinal layer changes and inner choroidal hyperreflective dots. A transient increased thickness of the whole choroid was also identified. This might confirm a short-lasting inflammatory involvement of the whole choroidal tissue in the active phase of MEWDS.

  10. Role of echography in diagnostic dilemma in choroidal masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopal N Mithal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the role of echography in diagnosis and management of a diverse array of choroidal masses. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two cases of clinically suspected choroidal masses were prospectively analyzed with B-scan (10 Hz, A-scan, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM (50 Hz after a meticulous history and ocular examination. Ancillary investigations and systemic evaluation were also done. Results: Based on clinical suspicion, acoustic features, response to treatment, and other ancillary tests combined together, the various masses were differentiated. The cases included in the study were as follows: n = 10 malignant melanomas, n = 16 metastasis and infiltrations, n = 9 hemangioma, n = 7 tuberculoma, n = 8 nonspecific inflammatory masses, n = 2 disciform plaques, n = 4 macular cysts or retinoschisis, n = 2 Coat′s disease, n = 1 melanocytoma, and n = 2 osteomas. Ultrasonography (USG alone could identify n = 51 lesions, while UBM in combination with USG was needed in remaining 11 masses. Conclusion: Standardized echography is an important adjunct in the diagnosis and management of eyes with intraocular masses. A better understanding of the clinicopathological and echographic picture of the diverse lesions can help in detection, differentiation, diagnosis, proposing a therapeutic approach, and also monitoring response to treatment. Echography is essential to evaluate tumors for extrascleral and anterior segment extension.

  11. Pelvis metastasis from primary choroidal melanoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yan Xiong, Yun Lang, Chongqi Tu, Hong Duan Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China Abstract: The patient, a 16-year-old girl, was admitted to our hospital with complaints of right hip pain and claudication. Her past medical history indicated that 2 years earlier she had undergone enucleation of her left eye for a primary choroidal melanoma. Imaging studies revealed a osteolytic destruction with soft tissue mass involving the right hemipelvis (zone I–II. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET–CT showed no other sites of metastases. Consequently, the patient underwent hemipelvic prosthesis reconstruction after tumor resection. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was metastatic malignant melanoma. Thirty months after treatment, imaging studies indicated no evidence of recurrence, and functional recovery was excellent. To our knowledge, the literature does not reveal any previously reported cases of ocular choroidal melanoma that metastasized to pelvis, meanwhile was carried out hemipelvic prosthesis reconstruction after pelvic tumor resection. Keywords: melanoma, metastasis, pelvis, tumor, reconstruction

  12. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy: Definition, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Ruamviboonsuk, Paisan; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chen, Youxin; Freund, K Bailey; Gomi, Fomi; Koh, Adrian H; Lee, Won-Ki; Wong, Tien Yin

    2018-05-01

    Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) subtype and is seen particularly in Asians. Previous studies have suggested disparity in response to intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents between PCV and typical AMD, and thus, the preferred treatment for PCV has remained unclear. Recent research has provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of PCV, and imaging studies based on OCT suggest that PCV belongs to a spectrum of conditions characterized by pachychoroid, in which disturbance in the choroidal circulation seems to be central to its pathogenesis. Advances in imaging, including enhanced depth imaging, swept-source OCT, en face OCT, and OCT angiography, have facilitated the diagnosis of PCV. Importantly, 2 large, multicenter randomized clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of anti-VEGF monotherapy and combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) recently reported initial first-year outcomes, providing level I evidence to guide clinicians in choosing the most appropriate therapy for PCV. In this review, we summarize the latest updates in the epidemiologic features, pathogenesis, and advances in imaging and treatment trials, with a focus on the most recent key clinical trials. Finally, we propose current management guidelines and recommendations to help clinicians manage patients with PCV. Remaining gaps in current understanding of PCV, such as significance of polyp closure, high recurrence rate, and heterogeneity within PCV, are highlighted where further research is needed. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of conventional color fundus photography and multicolor imaging in choroidal or retinal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Gaber, Raouf; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Meshi, Amit; Goldbaum, Michael; Freeman, William R

    2018-04-01

    Our purpose was to compare the characteristics of the retinal and choroidal lesions including choroidal nevus, choroidal melanoma and congenital hypertrophy of the retina pigment epithelium using conventional color fundus photography (CFP) and multicolor imaging (MCI). The paired images of patients with retinal or choroidal lesions were assessed for the visibility of lesion's border, halo and drusen using a grading scale (0-2). The area of the lesion was measured on both imaging modalities. The same grading was also done on the individual color channels of MCI for a further evaluation. Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients were included. There were no significant differences in the mean border, drusen and halo visibility scores between the two imaging modalities (p = 0.12, p = 0.70, p = 0.35). However, the mean area of the lesion was significantly smaller on MCI than that on CFP (14.9±3.3 versus 18.7±3.4 mm 2 , p = 0.01). The appearance of choroidal and/ or retinal lesions on MCI may be different than that on CFP. Though MCI can provide similar information with CFP for the features of retinal and/ or choroidal lesions including border, halo and drusen; the infrared light reflection on MCI underestimates the extent of the choroidal lesion by 33%.

  14. Automated estimation of choroidal thickness distribution and volume based on OCT images of posterior visual section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vupparaboina, Kiran Kumar; Nizampatnam, Srinath; Chhablani, Jay; Richhariya, Ashutosh; Jana, Soumya

    2015-12-01

    A variety of vision ailments are indicated by anomalies in the choroid layer of the posterior visual section. Consequently, choroidal thickness and volume measurements, usually performed by experts based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, have assumed diagnostic significance. Now, to save precious expert time, it has become imperative to develop automated methods. To this end, one requires choroid outer boundary (COB) detection as a crucial step, where difficulty arises as the COB divides the choroidal granularity and the scleral uniformity only notionally, without marked brightness variation. In this backdrop, we measure the structural dissimilarity between choroid and sclera by structural similarity (SSIM) index, and hence estimate the COB by thresholding. Subsequently, smooth COB estimates, mimicking manual delineation, are obtained using tensor voting. On five datasets, each consisting of 97 adult OCT B-scans, automated and manual segmentation results agree visually. We also demonstrate close statistical match (greater than 99.6% correlation) between choroidal thickness distributions obtained algorithmically and manually. Further, quantitative superiority of our method is established over existing results by respective factors of 27.67% and 76.04% in two quotient measures defined relative to observer repeatability. Finally, automated choroidal volume estimation, being attempted for the first time, also yields results in close agreement with that of manual methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated serum IGF-1 level enhances retinal and choroidal thickness in untreated acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Ma, Jin; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Lüe; Gao, Lu; Guo, Xiaopeng; Xing, Bing; Zhong, Yong

    2018-03-01

    1) To compare the retinal, choroidal, Haller's layer, and Sattler's/choriocapillaris thicknesses of untreated acromegaly patients without chiasm compression or diabetes mellitus and healthy controls. 2) To evaluate the correlations of retinal and choroidal thicknesses with serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF) burden. This prospective, case-control study included 27 untreated acromegaly patients and 27 sex-matched and age-matched controls. Subfoveal choroidal, Haller's layer and Sattler's/choriocapillaris thicknesses were determined by enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Foveal and macular retinal thicknesses were determined with SD-OCT. GH and IGF-1 burdens were defined as the product of disease duration and treatment-naïve serum GH and IGF-1 levels. Compared with healthy controls, patients with acromegaly exhibited significantly increased foveal retinal (p = 0.003), subfoveal choroidal (p IGF-1 level (p = 0.03) and IGF-1 burden (p = 0.009). No significant correlations were detected between choroidal thickness and GH burden (p = 0.44). Retinal thickness was not significantly correlated with any factor. The choroidal thickness of acromegaly patients was greater than that of healthy controls and was significantly correlated with disease duration, IGF-1 level and IGF-1 burden, indicating that excessive serum IGF-1 and its exposure time have a combined effect on choroidal thickness.

  16. Choroidal thickness in Malaysian eyes with full-thickness macular holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Y Tan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare choroidal thickness at the macula in eyes with unilateral idiopathic full-thickness macular holes(FTMHwith that of unaffected fellow eyes, and eyes of normal control patients.METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Thirty patients with unilateral idiopathic FTMH and thirty age, sex, and race-matched controls were recruited. Axial lengths were measured using laser interferometry. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images were obtained using Heidelberg spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea, and at 1 mm and 2 mm nasally, temporally, superiorly and inferiorly from the center of the fovea. Statistical analysis was performed using independent and paired t-tests, chi-square tests, and Pearson correlation tests(PRESULTS: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 201.0±44.0 μm in the FTMH group, 225.3±51.4 μm in the fellow eye group and 262.3±70.3 μm in the control group. The choroid was thinner in FTMH eyes at all locations when compared to control eyes(PPP>0.05. Choroidal thickness was generally highest subfoveally and lowest nasally. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age(r=-0.278, P=0.032, and axial length(r=-0.328, P=0.011.CONCLUSION: Choroidal thickness is lower in both eyes of patients with unilateral FTMH compared to healthy control eyes.

  17. Choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Mitsuyoshi; Wakasugi, Masaki; Akamatsu, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, and there have been no reported cases of such metastasis from early colorectal cancer. We report a case of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. A 61 year-old-man experienced myodesopsia in the left eye 2 years and 6 months after primary rectal surgery for early cancer, and was diagnosed with left choroidal metastasis and multiple lung metastases. Radiotherapy was initiated for the left eye and systemic chemotherapy is initiated for the multiple lung metastases. The patient is living 2 years and 3 months after the diagnosis of choroidal metastasis without signs of recurrence in the left eye, and continues to receive systemic chemotherapy for multiple lung metastases. Current literatures have few recommendations regarding the appropriate treatment of choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer, but an aggressive multi-disciplinary approach may be effective in local regression. This is the first report of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. We consider it important to enforce systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy for choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  19. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  20. Objective evaluation of choroidal melanin contents with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Ikuno, Yasushi; Uematsu, Sato; Iwasaki, Takuya; Goto, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    We non-invasively evaluated choroidal melanin contents in human eyes with PS-OCT. We calculated the percentage area of low DOPU in the choroidal interstitial stroma for Vogt-Koyanagi- Harada disease with sunset glow fundus, without sunset glow fundus, control group and tessellated fundus with high myopia. The mean percentage area of low DOPU in the sunset group was significantly lower than the other groups. PS-OCT provides an in vivo objective evaluation of choroidal melanin loss in vivo human eyes.

  1. Central retinal vein occlusion with cilioretinal infarction from branch flow exclusion and choroidal arterial steal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David

    2009-01-01

    The first definitive study of retinal vein occlusion complicated by infarction within the territory of one or more cilioretinal arteries was published in 1976. Many individual cases and further case series have been reported in the interim, but the nature of the interrelationship is still under debate. A review was undertaken of the relevant clinical and fundus fluorescein angiographic characteristics of this combined retinal vascular disorder together with the pathophysiological mechanisms currently presented in the literature to explain their association. Scientific publications up to 2008 were evaluated by one of the authors of the original report. There are broad similarities between publications in their descriptions of the clinical features, but significant differences of detail and interpretation are also evident. Most of the mechanisms so far proposed to account for cilioretinal infarction after central or hemisphere retinal vein occlusion do not withstand critical scrutiny. Two related hypotheses are expounded that appear to satisfactorily elucidate this interrelationship -- branch flow exclusion and branch flow diversion (otherwise termed "choroidal arterial steal"). In eyes with a cilioretinal supply, the probability that cilioretinal infarction will complicate retinal vein occlusion increases with increasing severity of venous obstruction and the more distally the cilioretinal artery arises from the posterior ciliary arterial tree. A distal branch point also facilitates observation of dye front reciprocation within the artery. Indicators of the degree of venous obstruction that may be necessary to instigate cilioretinal infarction include very prolonged dye transit times in the central retinal circulation, exaggerated venous cyanosis and tortuosity, perivenous cotton-wool sentinels, and macular perivenular whitening.

  2. Effect of myopia onset time for macula choroidal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of onset time(Tfor macula choroidal thickness(CTin myopia patient. METHODS:A prospective cohort study was designed.One hundred and twenty-two myopia patients(244 eyes; 67 male and 55 female; aged 30~41 years, mean 35.1±4.6 years oldwho received preoperative examinations from March 2014 to April 2015 were recruited in this study. The patients were divided into three groups according to onset time(T:group A(T≤5a, group B(5aF=1.56,P>0.05,age(F=2.13,P>0.05,best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, F=1.41,P>0.05,corneal curvature(F=1.65,P>0.05and axial length(F=1.89,P>0.05among the three groups. The choroid in macular region was measured by enhanced depth imaging(EDIusing spectral-domain optical coherence tomography(SD-OCT. This study recorded the CT at subfoveal(SFCT, 1mm at temporal(T1mm, nasal(N1mm, superior(S1mmand inferior(I1mmto the fovea and 3mm temporal(T3mm, nasal(N3mm, superior(S3mmand inferior(I3mmto the fovea, respectively. The differences of CT at the same position among the three groups were analyzed.RESULTS:The mean SFCT for group A,B,C were 238.32±57.95μm, 230.58±67.21μm, 221.63±62.37μm respectively in this study. The CT was found no significant difference in different locations except N3mm(tA-B=4.34,P3mm(tB-C=7.61,P3mm(t=0.76,P>0.05between group A and C. Significant difference was found at N3mm(tA-B=4.31,t B-C=7.59,tA-C=12.18; PCONCLUSION:The choroidal thickness decreases as the myopia onset time is earlier, especially at nasal.

  3. Intravitreal itraconazole inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hun Bae

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascularization (CNV is a major cause of severe visual loss in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Recently, itraconazole has shown potent and dose-dependent inhibition of tumor-associated angiogenesis. We evaluated the anti-angiogenic effect of itraconazole in a rat model of laser-induced CNV. After laser photocoagulation in each eye to cause CNV, right eyes were administered intravitreal injections of itraconazole; left eyes received balanced salt solution (BSS as controls. On day 14 after laser induction, fluorescein angiography (FA was used to assess abnormal vascular leakage. Flattened retinal pigment epithelium (RPE-choroid tissue complex was stained with Alexa Fluor 594-conjugated isolectin B4 to measure the CNV area and volume. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 mRNA and protein expression was determined 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after intravitreal injection by quantitative RT-PCR or Western blot. VEGF levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Intravitreal itraconazole significantly reduced leakage from CNV as assessed by FA and CNV area and volume on flat mounts compared with intravitreal BSS (p = 0.002 for CNV leakage, p<0.001 for CNV area and volume. Quantitative RT-PCR showed significantly lower expression of VEGFR2 mRNA in the RPE-choroid complexes of itraconazole-injected eyes than those of BSS-injected eyes on days 7 and 14 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006. Western blots indicated that VEGFR2 was downregulated after itraconazole treatment. ELISA showed a significant difference in VEGF level between itraconazole-injected and BSS-injected eyes on days 7 and 14 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001. Our study demonstrated that intravitreal itraconazole significantly inhibited the development of laser-induced CNV in rats. Itraconazole had anti-angiogenic activity along with the reduction of VEGFR2 and VEGF levels. Itraconazole may prove beneficial for treating CNV as an alternative or

  4. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  5. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  6. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  7. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  8. Surgical induction of choroidal neovascularization in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a reproducible surgical technique for the induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the subretinal space of porcine eyes and to analyse the resulting CNV clinically and histologically. METHODS: Two different modifications of a surgical technique previously described...... were compared with the original method. In ten porcine eyes retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were removed using a silicone tipped cannula, in ten porcine eyes Bruch's membrane was perforated once with a retinal perforator without prior RPE removal and in ten eyes RPE removal was followed...... by a single perforation of Bruch's membrane. Fifteen of the eyes, five from each group, were enucleated 30 minutes after surgery, while the remaining eyes were enucleated after 14 days. Prior to enucleation, at day 14, fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms were obtained. Eyes were examined by light...

  9. Dye-enhanced diode laser photocoagulation of choroidal neovascularizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Ulrich; Puliafito, Carmen A.; McCarthy, Dan; Reichel, Elias; Olk, Joseph; Lesiecki, Michael L.

    1994-06-01

    Dye-enhanced diode laser photocoagulation, using the dye indocyanine green (ICG), has shown some potential in the treatment of choroidal neovascularizations (CNV). A diode laser system was developed and optimized to emit at the absorption maximum of ICG. In a clinical study at two retinal centers, more than 70 patients, the majority of which had age-related macular degeneration, were treated. Eighteen cases with ill-defined subfoveal CNV were followed an average of 11 months after laser treatment. The results show success in resolving the CNV with an average long-term preservation of visual function equal to or superior to data provided by the Macular Photocoagulation Study for confluent burns of low intensity applied to the CNV. Details of the technique and discussion of the controversies inherent in such a treatment strategy will be presented.

  10. Choroidal sclerosis in localized scleroderma (morphea en plaque).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, S; Petrovic, L; Risimic, D; Kosanovic-Jakovic, N; Jaksic, V; Djakovic, Z; Stojkovic, M; Risovic, D; Ivankovic, Lj; Ivancevic-Milenkovic, M

    2008-01-01

    Plaque morphea is a superficial type of morphea (localized scleroderma) which is characterized by various fibrotic areas of the dermis without systemic features. We present a 63-year-old man with morphea en plaque. The skin on his forearms and feet was taut, thickened and hidebound with scattered telangiectatic changes. Autoantibody profile was obtained and only ANA were positive (1:80). The patient had a decreased vision in the only functional, left eye. Our case is specific because the patient negated any kind of health problem, meaning the morphea and visual deterioration were of outstanding importance for him. Choroidal sclerosis and fundus appearance was extremely impressive and, to our knowledge, this is the first report of such unique case of ocular involvement in the literature. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Helicoid peripapillary chorioretinal degeneration complicated by choroidal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafylla, Magdalini; Panos, Georgios D; Dardabounis, Doukas; Nanos, Panagiotis; Konstantinidis, Aristeidis

    2016-02-15

    Helicoid peripapillary chorioretinal degeneration (HPCD) is a hereditary disease of the fundus that is characterized by atrophic chorioretinal areas that appear early in life and expand gradually from the optic disc towards the macula and the periphery. We describe the case of an elderly man with a known diagnosis of HPCD who developed choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) in both eyes during the course of the disease. The patient was treated with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, to which he had excellent response. The CNV subsided with 2 injections in the right eye and 1 in the left. Two years after the initial diagnosis of CNV in the right eye, visual acuity was 5/10 OD and 9/10 OS. Helicoid peripapillary chorioretinal degeneration is rarely complicated by CNV as the fundus lacks the trigger factors that would sustain this process. Although rare, HPCD complicated by CNV can be seen bilaterally, but responds well to few ranibizumab injections.

  12. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  13. Multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escott S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Escott, Ahmad B Tarabishy, Frederick H DavidorfHavener Eye Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: The paper describes the first reported case of multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis-A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. A 33-year-old male developed sudden onset of flashing lights and floaters in his right eye 3 weeks following hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. Fundus examination and angiography confirmed the presence of multiple peripheral chorioretinal lesions. These lesions demonstrated characteristic morphologic changes over a period of 8 weeks which were consistent with a diagnosis of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis. Vaccine-induced intraocular inflammation has been described infrequently. We demonstrate the first case of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous administration of hepatitis A, yellow fever, and typhoid immunizations.Keywords: multifocal choroiditis, vaccination, hepatitis A, typhoid, yellow fever

  14. Choroidal metastasis of a minor salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla Blanco, R R; Roberts Martínez-Aguirre, I; Pontón Méndez, P; Zarzosa Martín, M E; Pérez-Salvador García, E

    2018-03-21

    A 61-year-old man with a lower lip minor salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, suffered from a unilateral progressive visual acuity loss due to choroidal metastasis. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare primary tumour with significant metastatic potential. Our patient presented with a unilateral choroidal metastasis. According to the current literature, 8 cases of choroidal metastasis of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma have been reported. This is the second case reported of choroidal metastasis with origin in a minor salivary gland, and the first one with origin in the minor salivary glands of the lower lip. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Choroidal thickness in relation to birth parameters in 11- to 12-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Q; Munkholm, Anja; Larsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    biometry and measurement of height, weight, refraction, and self-reported pubertal development status. Birth parameters were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. RESULTS: The subfoveal choroid in low birth weight children (

  16. MULTIFOCAL CHOROIDITIS IN DISSEMINATED SPOROTRICHOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, Ana L; Freitas, Dayvison F S; Valviesse, Vitor R G de A; Andrade, Hugo B; de Oliveira, Manoel M E; do Valle, Antonio C F; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M; Galhardo, Maria C G; Curi, Andre L L

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe multifocal choroiditis related to disseminated sporotrichosis in patients with HIV/AIDS. We conducted a retrospective observational study of three patients infected with HIV who presented with disseminated sporotrichosis characterized by cutaneous lesions, multifocal choroiditis, and other manifestations, including osteomyelitis and involvement of the bone marrow, larynx, pharynx, and nasal and oral mucosa. Five eyes of three patients with HIV/AIDS showed multifocal choroiditis related to disseminated sporotrichosis. The CD4 counts ranged from 25 to 53 mm. All patients were asymptomatic visually. The ocular disease was bilateral in two patients. The lesion size ranged from 1/3 to 2 disc diameters. None of the patients had vitritis. Of the 12 lesions, 9 were localized in the posterior pole (Zone 1) and 3 were localized in the mild periphery (Zone 2). Multifocal choroiditis due to disseminated sporotrichosis can occur in profoundly immunosuppressed patients with HIV/AIDS.

  17. Knockdown of the placental growth factor gene inhibits laser induced choroidal neovascularization in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourinia, Ramin; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Akrami, Hassan; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Samiei, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of placental growth factor (PlGF) gene knockdown in a murine model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Choroidal neovascularization was induced in the left eyes of 11 mice by infrared laser. Small interfering RNA (siRNA, 20 picomoles/10 μl) corresponding to PlGF mRNA was administered intravitreally by Hamilton syringe in all subjects. One month later, fluorescein angiography and histolologic examination were performed. No leakage was apparent in the 11 eyes treated with siRNA cognate to PlGF. The results of histological evaluation were consistent with angiographic findings showing absence of choroidal neovascularization. Knockdown of the PlGF gene can inhibit the growth of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice.

  18. Knockdown of the Placental Growth Factor Gene Inhibits Laser Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Nourinia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of placental growth factor (PlGF gene knockdown in a murine model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Methods: Choroidal neovascularization was induced in the left eyes of 11 mice by infrared laser. Small interfering RNA (siRNA, 20 picomoles/10 μl corresponding to PlGF mRNA was administered intravitreally by Hamilton syringe in all subjects. One month later, fluorescein angiography and histolologic examination were performed. Results: No leakage was apparent in the 11 eyes treated with siRNA cognate to PlGF. The results of histological evaluation were consistent with angiographic findings showing absence of choroidal neovascularization. Conclusion: Knockdown of the PlGF gene can inhibit the growth of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice.

  19. Automated choroid segmentation based on gradual intensity distance in HD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Fan, Wen; Niu, Sijie; Shi, Jiajia; Shen, Honglie; Yuan, Songtao

    2015-04-06

    The choroid is an important structure of the eye and plays a vital role in the pathology of retinal diseases. This paper presents an automated choroid segmentation method for high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) images, including Bruch's membrane (BM) segmentation and choroidal-scleral interface (CSI) segmentation. An improved retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) complex removal algorithm is presented to segment BM by considering the structure characteristics of retinal layers. By analyzing the characteristics of CSI boundaries, we present a novel algorithm to generate a gradual intensity distance image. Then an improved 2-D graph search method with curve smooth constraints is used to obtain the CSI segmentation. Experimental results with 212 HD-OCT images from 110 eyes in 66 patients demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high segmentation accuracy. The mean choroid thickness difference and overlap ratio between our proposed method and outlines drawn by experts was 6.72µm and 85.04%, respectively.

  20. IDIOPATHIC MULTIFOCAL CHOROIDITIS PRESENTING WITH A TRANSIENT PERIPAPILLARY WHITE RING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattoussi, Sarra; Ghadiali, Quraish; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Freund, K Bailey

    2017-11-22

    We describe with multimodal imaging the presentation and follow-up for a patient with idiopathic multifocal choroiditis and a transient peripapillary white ring. Case report. A 39-year-old Asian woman was initially seen for an evaluation of lattice degeneration in 2015. Her medical history included Graves disease and psoriasis. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 in her right eye and 20/25 in her left eye. Ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence imaging showed a curvilinear hyperautofluorescent line in her right eye. One year later, the patient returned complaining of floaters in her right eye for 1 month. Her visual acuity was unchanged. Funduscopic examination showed new inflammatory yellowish lesions in the right eye corresponding to hyperreflective sub-retinal pigment epithelium lesions on structural spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Fluorescein angiography showed corresponding late staining of these active lesions. Late-phase indocyanine green angiography showed multiple nummular hypocyanescent dots. Ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence showed large areas of hyperautofluorescence. The patient was started on a 60-mg oral prednisone taper and demonstrated subsequent regression of the inflammatory lesions. Ten months later, the patient returned emergently with complaints of floaters in both eyes for 2 days and a new temporal scotoma in her left eye. Funduscopic examination demonstrated a white ring around the optic nerve of the left eye corresponding to a hyperautofluorescent lesion. Ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence showed new areas of hyperautofluorescence in both eyes. Structural spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed new sub-retinal pigment epithelium inflammatory lesions and a disruption of the ellipsoid zone in both eyes. The patient was again treated with a 60-mg oral prednisone taper and demonstrated subsequent restoration of the ellipsoid zone. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a transient annular white

  1. The choroid plexus in normal full-term neonate : a study of morphological variety on sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Ji Hye

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic features of normal choroid plexus, thus helping avoid misinterpretations such as intraventricular hemorrhage or abnormality. Posterior coronal, parasagittal, and oblique sagittal scans of 400 choroid plexus in normal full-term neonates(100 girls, 100 boys) were reviewed with special attention to coronal configuration, glomus patterns, and the shape of anterior ends. Sonographic features were classified as follows ; tubular(type 1), posterior clubbing(type 2), mid-bulging(type 3), or double choroidal pattern(type 4), as seen on posterior coronal scans; crescent(type 1), superior notching(type 2), dorsal bulging(type 3), or inferior notching(type 4), as seen on parasagittal scans; and anterior tapering(type 1) and clubbing shape (type 2) on oblique parasagittal scans. Maximal diameters of the choroid plexus on posterior coronal scan and the glomus on parasagittal scan were measured. All sonographic measurements of normal choroid plexus were statistically analysed according to gender and side. Four hundred normal choroid plexus were classified as 293 cases(73%) of tubular pattern(type 1), 50 cases(13%) of posterior bulging(type 2), 44 cases (11%) of mid-bulging(type 3) and 13 cases(3%) of double choroidal pattern (type 4) as seen on posterior coronal scans ; 263 cases(66%) of crescent shape(type 1), 70 cases(17%) of superior notching (type 2), 38 cases(9%) of dorsal bulging(type 3), and 29 cases(7%) of inferior notching(type 4), as seen on parasagittal scans; and 233 cases(58%) of anterior tapering(type 1) and 167 cases(42%) of anterior clubbing (type 2), as seen on oblique parasagittal scans. Maximal diameters of the choroid plexus on posterior coronal scan were 7.17±0.12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]) on the right side and 7.13±0.19 mm (95% CI) on the left side, and 8.13±0.24(95% CI) mm on the right and 8.57±0.29 mm on the left side glomus on parasagittal scan. There were no significant statistical

  2. The choroid plexus in normal full-term neonate : a study of morphological variety on sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Seok [Dankook Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Chunganggil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic features of normal choroid plexus, thus helping avoid misinterpretations such as intraventricular hemorrhage or abnormality. Posterior coronal, parasagittal, and oblique sagittal scans of 400 choroid plexus in normal full-term neonates(100 girls, 100 boys) were reviewed with special attention to coronal configuration, glomus patterns, and the shape of anterior ends. Sonographic features were classified as follows ; tubular(type 1), posterior clubbing(type 2), mid-bulging(type 3), or double choroidal pattern(type 4), as seen on posterior coronal scans; crescent(type 1), superior notching(type 2), dorsal bulging(type 3), or inferior notching(type 4), as seen on parasagittal scans; and anterior tapering(type 1) and clubbing shape (type 2) on oblique parasagittal scans. Maximal diameters of the choroid plexus on posterior coronal scan and the glomus on parasagittal scan were measured. All sonographic measurements of normal choroid plexus were statistically analysed according to gender and side. Four hundred normal choroid plexus were classified as 293 cases(73%) of tubular pattern(type 1), 50 cases(13%) of posterior bulging(type 2), 44 cases (11%) of mid-bulging(type 3) and 13 cases(3%) of double choroidal pattern (type 4) as seen on posterior coronal scans ; 263 cases(66%) of crescent shape(type 1), 70 cases(17%) of superior notching (type 2), 38 cases(9%) of dorsal bulging(type 3), and 29 cases(7%) of inferior notching(type 4), as seen on parasagittal scans; and 233 cases(58%) of anterior tapering(type 1) and 167 cases(42%) of anterior clubbing (type 2), as seen on oblique parasagittal scans. Maximal diameters of the choroid plexus on posterior coronal scan were 7.17{+-}0.12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]) on the right side and 7.13{+-}0.19 mm (95% CI) on the left side, and 8.13{+-}0.24(95% CI) mm on the right and 8.57{+-}0.29 mm on the left side glomus on parasagittal scan. There were no significant

  3. Choroidal Thickness Analysis in Patients with Usher Syndrome Type 2 Using EDI OCT

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, L.; Sala, B.; Montesano, G.; Pierrottet, C.; De Cillà, S.; Maltese, P.; Bertelli, M.; Rossetti, L.

    2015-01-01

    To portray Usher Syndrome type 2, analyzing choroidal thickness and comparing data reported in published literature on RP and healthy subjects. Methods. 20 eyes of 10 patients with clinical signs and genetic diagnosis of Usher Syndrome type 2. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length (AL), automated visual field (VF), and EDI OCT. Both retinal and choroidal measures were measured. Stati...

  4. Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness in 1323 Children Aged 11 to 12 Years and Association With Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Qiang; Jeppesen, Pia; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    .0001). There was no effect of height or puberty in boys, who were less sexually mature than girls. CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal thickness in girls increased with body height and sexual maturation. The results suggest that puberty promotes choroidal thickening in girls, an effect that may be mediated by the pubertal growth spurt....... The lack of pubertal effect in boys may be related to a smaller proportion of boys in this study having entered puberty....

  5. Measurement of Choroidal Perfusion and Thickness Following Systemic Sildenafil (Viagra®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David Y.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Chan, R.V. Paul; Khanifar, Aziz A.; Rondeau, Mark; Lloyd, Harriet; Schlegel, Peter; Coleman, D. Jackson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate anatomic and physiologic changes in the human choroid following systemic sildenafil citrate (ViagraR) using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and swept-scan high frequency digital ultrasound. Methods Seven healthy male subjects (mean age 32.7 years) were evaluated at baseline and two hours after ingesting 50 mg of sildenafil. Swept-scan high frequency digital ultrasound and EDI-OCT were utilized to measure choroidal perfusion and thickness, respectively. Results were read by masked observers. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and t-test were used to analyze differences in choroidal flow and thickness at baseline and two hours after ingestion of sildenafil. Results Two hours following sildenafil, increased choroidal perfusion was observed in 11 of 12 eyes measured by swept-scan high frequency digital ultrasound. The mean increase was 3.46 (±2.00) times baseline with a range of 0.47 to 7.80 times baseline (p=0.004). Increased choroidal thickness was observed in 12 of 12 eyes measured with EDI-OCT. The average choroidal thickness increased by 11.6% temporal to the fovea, 9.3% nasal to the fovea, and 10.7% underneath the fovea (p<0.001 for all values). Conclusions Choroidal perfusion and thickness both increase in response to systemic sildenafil. These changes could secondarily affect retinal function, explain previously reported clinical symptoms, and potentially be a useful adjunct for treatment of ocular diseases that would benefit from increased choroidal blood flow. PMID:22974308

  6. Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascularization Associated with Optic Nerve Head Drusen Treated with Anti-VEGF Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman A. Saffra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head drusen can be associated with peripapillary choroidal neovascularization, in both the pediatric and adult population. These membranes can involve the macula, causing significant visual loss. Herein, we present a case that required treatment with an anti-VEGF agent. The patient failed to respond to the initial agent, but subsequently responded to a change of agent. Adult patients with macular degeneration involving peripapillary choroidal neovascularization associated with optic nerve head drusen may require individualized treatment plans.

  7. PRIMARY CHOROIDAL MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA:REPORT OF A CASE AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asadi Amoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is one of the masquerade syndromes of malignant melanoma that can occur with two main patterns of presentations in the eye: metastatic involvement of uveal tract, and primary involvement of retina. We report ophthalmic, imaging and histopathological findings in the first case diagnosed as primary choroidal NHL without central nervous system or systemic involvement. A 37-year-old woman presented with the complaint of severe visual loss in her right eye. Significant ocular finding included light perception of vision (LP, 2+ APD, 2+ cells in vitreous and intraocular pressure of 46 mmHg. Fundoscopic examination revealed exudative retinal detachment. Ocular echography showed choroidal thickening in addition to retinal detachment. MRI showed semilunar shape lesion in the posterior right globe suggesting choroidal melanoma. Systemic work-up could not reveal any underlying cause. The patient underwent enucleation with clinical suggestion of choroidal melanoma. Result of histological examination showed NHL (diffuse large Bcell type of choroid. Immunohistochemical staining showed negative staining for HMB-45 and CD3, positive staining for LCA, and CD20. Multiple periodic lumbar puncture, bone marrow biopsies and MRI were unremarkable. No recurrence of tumor in systemic work-up was noted during the 36-months follow-up. Primary choroidal NHL is one of the causes of generalized thickening of choroid and should be considered in differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma. It is recommended to perform fine needle biopsy before performing surgery in any patient who has had an atypical malignant melanoma. This is, so far as we know, the first case diagnosed as primary choroidal NHL.

  8. Dark adaptation in relation to choroidal thickness in healthy young subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Altuntas, Cigdem; Li, Xiao Qiang

    2016-01-01

    a sensitivity of 5.0 × 10-3 cd/m2 (time to rod intercept) and the slope (rod adaptation rate). The choroid was imaged using enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Results: The time to the rod intercept was 7.3 ± 0.94 (range 5.1 - 10.2) min. Choroidal thickness 2.5° above...

  9. Choroidal thickness and biometric markers for the screening of lacquer cracks in patients with high myopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Kai Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Validation of choroidal thickness and other biometrics measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT in predicting lacquer cracks formation in highly myopic eyes. METHODS: Patients with a refractive error worse than -8 diopters and moderate myopic maculopathy were recruited into two groups based on the presence or absence of lacquer cracks (36 eyes without and 33 eyes with lacquer cracks. Choroidal thickness, refractive error, and axial length were measured and subjected to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff values at predicting lacquer crack formation. The width of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, RPE to the inner segment/outer segment line, RPE to the external limiting membrane were also measured and compared to the subfoveal choroidal thickness to assess their relationships as potential markers of lacquer crack formation. RESULTS: Lacquer crack is associated with decreased choroidal thickness, lower best-corrected visual acuity, longer axial length and higher refractive errors. Choroidal thickness has the strongest association with lacquer crack formation versus axial length and refractive error. In eyes with lacquer cracks, stellate lacquer cracks are associated with thinner choroidal thickness compared to eyes with linear lacquer cracks. Subfoveal choroidal thickness less than the width of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner segment/outer segment line is also associated with lacquer crack formation (sensitivity 78.8%, specificity 88.3%, and accuracy 81.2%. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that choroidal thickness and other SD-OCT measurements could be employed clinically to predict the development and severity of lacquer cracks in patients with high myopia.

  10. Choroid Plexus in the Central Canal of the Spinal Cord Causing Recurrent Syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtaya, Anan; Sadek, Ahmed-Ramadan; Nicoll, James A R; Nader-Sepahi, Ali

    2018-03-01

    Syringomyelia is a fluid-filled cavitation within the substance of the spinal cord. This condition usually follows a primary pathology that disrupts the normal cerebrospinal fluid circulation or disturbs the microcirculation and cytoarchitecture of the spinal cord parenchyma. However, an etiology of recurrent syringomyelia resulting from an ectopic choroid plexus (CP) has not been discussed. Ectopic CP rests may be found within the central nervous system. Although there has been a single report, describing ectopic intramedullary spinal cord CP, to our knowledge, extra-cranial nonmalignant CP in the central canal of the spinal cord has not been reported. We report CP in the central canal of the spinal cord in a 23-year-old male patient who had developmental delay and diabetes mellitus type I who presented with dissociated sensory changes and muscle wastage predominantly on the right upper and lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a multiloculated spinal cord syringomyelia stretching from cervical (C3) to the conus medullaris causing recurrent neurologic deficits. A biopsy of the central canal spinal cord lesion revealed CP. Decompression and syringosubarachnoid shunt insertion stabilized the patient's neurology. Our illustrative case reveals the presence of CP in the central canal of the spinal cord that may suggest a role in the etiology of recurrent syringomyelia. Although management poses a challenge to neurosurgeons, prompt decompression and shunting of the syringomyelia remains a favorable approach with acceptable outcomes. Further investigation into the pathophysiology of central canal CP ectopic causing recurrent syringomyelia and its correlation with spinal cord development may help future treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Automatic segmentation of the choroid in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Marziliano, Pina; Baskaran, Mani; Tun, Tin Aung; Aung, Tin

    2013-03-01

    Enhanced Depth Imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-definition cross-sectional images of the choroid in vivo, and hence is used in many clinical studies. However, the quantification of the choroid depends on the manual labelings of two boundaries, Bruch's membrane and the choroidal-scleral interface. This labeling process is tedious and subjective of inter-observer differences, hence, automatic segmentation of the choroid layer is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a fast and accurate algorithm that could segment the choroid automatically. Bruch's membrane is detected by searching the pixel with the biggest gradient value above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroidal-scleral interface is delineated by finding the shortest path of the graph formed by valley pixels using Dijkstra's algorithm. The experiments comparing automatic segmentation results with the manual labelings are conducted on 45 EDI-OCT images and the average of Dice's Coefficient is 90.5%, which shows good consistency of the algorithm with the manual labelings. The processing time for each image is about 1.25 seconds.

  12. Spontaneous Regression of Choroidal Neovascularization in a Patient with Pattern Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Anastasakis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present a case of a patient with pattern dystrophy (PD associated choroidal neovascularization (CNV that resolved spontaneously without treatment. Methods. A 69-year-old male patient was referred to our unit, for evaluation of a recent visual loss (metamorphopsias in his left eye. Fundus examination, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and fluorescein angiography showed a choroidal neovascular membrane in his left eye. Since visual acuity was satisfactory the patient elected observation. Clinical examination and OCT testing were repeated at 6 and 12 months after presentation. Results. Visual acuity remained stable at the level of 0.9 (baseline BCVA during the follow-up period (12 months. Repeat OCT testing showed complete spontaneous regression of the choroidal neovascular membrane without evidence of intra- or subretinal fluid in both follow-up visits. Conclusions. Spontaneous regression of choroidal neovascularization can occur in patients with retinal dystrophies and associated choroidal neovascular membranes. The decision to treat or observe these patients relies strongly on the presenting visual acuity, since, in isolated instances, spontaneous resolution of choroidal neovascularization may occur.

  13. Choroidal Thickness Analysis in Patients with Usher Syndrome Type 2 Using EDI OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Colombo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To portray Usher Syndrome type 2, analyzing choroidal thickness and comparing data reported in published literature on RP and healthy subjects. Methods. 20 eyes of 10 patients with clinical signs and genetic diagnosis of Usher Syndrome type 2. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, axial length (AL, automated visual field (VF, and EDI OCT. Both retinal and choroidal measures were measured. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate choroidal thickness with age, BCVA, IOP, AL, VF, and RT. Comparison with data about healthy people and nonsyndromic RP patients was performed. Results. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT was 248.21±79.88 microns. SFCT was statistically significant correlated with age (correlation coefficient −0.7248179, p<0.01. No statistically significant correlation was found between SFCT and BCVA, IOP, AL, VF, and RT. SFCT was reduced if compared to healthy subjects (p<0.01. No difference was found when compared to choroidal thickness from nonsyndromic RP patients (p=0.2138. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated in vivo choroidal thickness reduction in patients with Usher Syndrome type 2. These data are important for the comprehension of mechanisms of disease and for the evaluation of therapeutic approaches.

  14. Cell Behaviors during Closure of the Choroid Fissure in the Developing Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Gestri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coloboma is a defect in the morphogenesis of the eye that is a consequence of failure of choroid fissure fusion. It is among the most common congenital defects in humans and can significantly impact vision. However, very little is known about the cellular mechanisms that regulate choroid fissure closure. Using high-resolution confocal imaging of the zebrafish optic cup, we find that apico-basal polarity is re-modeled in cells lining the fissure in proximal to distal and inner to outer gradients during fusion. This process is accompanied by cell proliferation, displacement of vasculature, and contact between cells lining the choroid fissure and periocular mesenchyme (POM. To investigate the role of POM cells in closure of the fissure, we transplanted optic vesicles onto the yolk, allowing them to develop in a situation where they are depleted of POM. The choroid fissure forms normally in ectopic eyes but fusion fails in this condition, despite timely apposition of the nasal and temporal lips of the retina. This study resolves some of the cell behaviors underlying choroid fissure fusion and supports a role for POM in choroid fissure fusion.

  15. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 in human choroidal melanoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Tatsuya; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Ishii, Yoko; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), exerts anti-apoptotic effects in various malignant tumors. However, relationships between choroidal melanoma and BAG3 are poorly studied. This study investigated the expression of BAG3 in a case of human choroidal melanoma. Funduscopy, computed tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography with the intravenous injection of N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine strongly indicated choroidal melanoma in a 68-year-old woman. Accordingly, we carried out an enucleation and pathological diagnosis. Proteins and total RNA were extracted from normal retinochoroidal and tumor tissues. Proteins were also extracted from ocular nevus tissues of other patients. We examined the expression of BAG3 protein and mRNA using Western blotting and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for melan-A, HMB-45, and S-100. Histopathology confirmed a choroidal melanoma. The expression of BAG3 protein and mRNA in the choroidal melanoma tissue was upregulated with respect to both normal retinochoroidal tissue and ocular nevus tissues from other patients. Because BAG3 may inhibit apoptosis of choroidal melanoma and facilitate its survival, overexpression of this gene product may be a prognostic marker and therapeutic target.

  16. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  17. Enhanced Depth SD-OCT Images Reveal Characteristic Choroidal Changes in Patients With Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Liu, Qiuhui; Luo, Yan; Li, Yonghao; Lin, Shaofen; Lian, Ping; Yang, Qiufen; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Xialin; Sadda, SriniVas; Lu, Lin

    2016-11-01

    To identify characteristic choroidal changes of patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease at different stages. Fifty-four patients with VKH in the acute uveitic or convalescent stages, 24 patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), and 54 normal participants were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans were captured for all subjects to allow for comparison of choroidal morphological findings. Numerous round or oval hyperreflective profiles with hyporeflective cores, corresponding to choroidal vessels, were observed in the choroid of control participants and patients with CSC; whereas the numbers of these profiles were markedly decreased in the choroid of VKH patients in both the acute uveitic and convalescent stages. A reduction in vascular profiles in the choroid is observed in VKH and may aid in the differentiation with disorders such as CSC. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:1004-1012.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  19. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  20. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  1. Waardenburg syndrome: iris and choroidal hypopigmentation: findings on anterior and posterior segment imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carol L; Nickerson, Stephanie J; Al-Dahmash, Saad; Shields, Jerry A

    2013-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome typically manifests with congenital iris pigmentary abnormalities, but careful inspection can reveal additional posterior uveal pigmentary abnormalities. To demonstrate iris and choroidal hypopigmentation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Retrospective review of 7 patients referred for evaluation of presumed ocular melanocytosis. To describe the clinical and imaging features of the anterior and posterior uvea. In all patients, the diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome was established. The nonocular features included white forelock in 4 of 7 (57%), tubular nose in 5 of 6 (83%), and small nasal alae in 5 of 6 (83%) patients. In 2 patients, a hearing deficit was documented on audiology testing. Family history of Waardenburg syndrome was elicited in 5 of 7 (71%) patients. Ocular features (7 patients) included telecanthus in 5 (71%), synophrys in 2 (29%), iris hypopigmentation in 5 (71%), and choroidal hypopigmentation in 5 (71%) patients. No patient had muscle contractures or Hirschsprung disease. Visual acuity was 20/20 to 20/50 in all patients. Iris hypopigmentation in 8 eyes was sector in 6 (75%) and diffuse (complete) in 2 (25%). Choroidal hypopigmentation in 9 eyes (100%) showed a sector pattern in 6 (67%) and a diffuse pattern in 3 (33%). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography revealed the hypopigmented iris to be thinner and with shallower crypts than the normal iris. Posterior segment optical coherence tomography showed a normal retina in all patients, but the subfoveal choroid in the hypopigmented region was slightly thinner (mean, 197 μm) compared with the opposite normal choroid (243 μm). Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated mild hyperautofluorescence (scleral unmasking) in hypopigmented choroid and no lipofuscin abnormality. Waardenburg syndrome manifests hypopigmentation of the iris and choroid with imaging features showing a slight reduction in the thickness of the affected tissue.

  2. CD36 deficiency leads to choroidal involution via COX2 down-regulation in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Houssier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Western world, a major cause of blindness is age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Recent research in angiogenesis has furthered the understanding of choroidal neovascularization, which occurs in the "wet" form of AMD. In contrast, very little is known about the mechanisms of the predominant, "dry" form of AMD, which is characterized by retinal atrophy and choroidal involution. The aim of this study is to elucidate the possible implication of the scavenger receptor CD36 in retinal degeneration and choroidal involution, the cardinal features of the dry form of AMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We here show that deficiency of CD36, which participates in outer segment (OS phagocytosis by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE in vitro, leads to significant progressive age-related photoreceptor degeneration evaluated histologically at different ages in two rodent models of CD36 invalidation in vivo (Spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR and CD36-/- mice. Furthermore, these animals developed significant age related choroidal involution reflected in a 100%-300% increase in the avascular area of the choriocapillaries measured on vascular corrosion casts of aged animals. We also show that proangiogenic COX2 expression in RPE is stimulated by CD36 activating antibody and that CD36-deficient RPE cells from SHR rats fail to induce COX2 and subsequent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression upon OS or antibody stimulation in vitro. CD36-/- mice express reduced levels of COX2 and VEGF in vivo, and COX2-/- mice develop progressive choroidal degeneration similar to what is seen in CD36 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: CD36 deficiency leads to choroidal involution via COX2 down-regulation in the RPE. These results show a novel molecular mechanism of choroidal degeneration, a key feature of dry AMD. These findings unveil a pathogenic process, to our knowledge previously undescribed, with important implications for the development of new therapies.

  3. VEGF-production by CCR2-dependent macrophages contributes to laser-induced choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten A Krause

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most prevalent cause of blindness in the elderly, and its exsudative subtype critically depends on local production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF. Mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages and microglia cells, can produce VEGF. Their precursors, for example monocytes, can be recruited to sites of inflammation by the chemokine receptor CCR2, and this has been proposed to be important in AMD. To investigate the role of macrophages and CCR2 in AMD, we studied intracellular VEGF content in a laser-induced murine model of choroidal neovascularisation. To this end, we established a technique to quantify the VEGF content in cell subsets from the laser-treated retina and choroid separately. 3 days after laser, macrophage numbers and their VEGF content were substantially elevated in the choroid. Macrophage accumulation was CCR2-dependent, indicating recruitment from the circulation. In the retina, microglia cells were the main VEGF+ phagocyte type. A greater proportion of microglia cells contained VEGF after laser, and this was CCR2-independent. On day 6, VEGF-expressing macrophage numbers had already declined, whereas numbers of VEGF+ microglia cells remained increased. Other sources of VEGF detectable by flow cytometry included in dendritic cells and endothelial cells in both retina and choroid, and Müller cells/astrocytes in the retina. However, their VEGF content was not increased after laser. When we analyzed flatmounts of laser-treated eyes, CCR2-deficient mice showed reduced neovascular areas after 2 weeks, but this difference was not evident 3 weeks after laser. In summary, CCR2-dependent influx of macrophages causes a transient VEGF increase in the choroid. However, macrophages augmented choroidal neovascularization only initially, presumably because VEGF production by CCR2-independent eye cells prevailed at later time points. These findings identify macrophages as a relevant source

  4. RD50 Prolongation Request 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    With this document, we request the prolongation of the CERN RD50 research program for 5 years. A very brief historical review of the RD50 research program since the RD50 project approval by the Research Board in the year 2002 is presented and the biggest RD50 achievements are highlighted. The present composition of the collaboration, its organizational structure, and the research methodology are described. The role of RD50 in the present various upgrade and research programs of the LHC Experiments community is given and the overall work plan explained. Finally, a detailed 5-years work program with precise milestones and deliverables for the various research activities is presented. We conclude with our prolongation request towards the LHCC.

  5. Proliferation of cultured mouse choroid plexus epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basam Z Barkho

    Full Text Available The choroid plexus (ChP epithelium is a multifunctional tissue found in the ventricles of the brain. The major function of the ChP epithelium is to produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that bathes and nourishes the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to the CSF, ChP epithelial cells (CPECs produce and secrete numerous neurotrophic factors that support brain homeostasis, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Accordingly, damage and dysfunction to CPECs are thought to accelerate and intensify multiple disease phenotypes, and CPEC regeneration would represent a potential therapeutic approach for these diseases. However, previous reports suggest that CPECs rarely divide, although this has not been extensively studied in response to extrinsic factors. Utilizing a cell-cycle reporter mouse line and live cell imaging, we identified scratch injury and the growth factors insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF as extrinsic cues that promote increased CPEC expansion in vitro. Furthermore, we found that IGF-1 and EGF treatment enhances scratch injury-induced proliferation. Finally, we established whole tissue explant cultures and observed that IGF-1 and EGF promote CPEC division within the intact ChP epithelium. We conclude that although CPECs normally have a slow turnover rate, they expand in response to external stimuli such as injury and/or growth factors, which provides a potential avenue for enhancing ChP function after brain injury or neurodegeneration.

  6. Alteration of choroidal thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hyponea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Bo Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze the choroidal thickness alteration in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS. METHODS: Seventeen patients who were diagnosed with OSAHS initially and 31 healthy individuals were enrolled. Enhanced depth imaging choriodal scans were obtained by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Choroidal thickness of subfovea, 2mm superior, inferior, nasal and temporal to the fovea were measured and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Subfoveal choroidal thickness of the control group and the OSAHS group was 323.58±58.63μm and 316.82±46.43μm respectively, and the difference was unsignificant(t=0.409, P=0.684. Choroidal thickness at 2mm superior to the fovea of the control group and the OSAHS group was 318.29±56.89μm and 314.29±59.8μm respectively, and the difference was unsignificant(t=0.229, P=0.820. Choroidal thickness at 2mm inferior to the fovea of the control group and the OSAHS group was 308.42±54.95μm and 291.65±55.37μm respectively, and the difference was not significant(t=1.009, P=0.318. Choroidal thickness at 2mm temporal to the fovea of the control group and the OSAHS group was 308.23±54.62μm and 302.76±46.97μm respectively, and the difference was not significant(t=0.347, P=0.730. Choroidal thickness at 2mm nasal to the fovea of the control group and the OSAHS group was 266.23±58.10μm and 277.12±63.99μm respectively, and the difference was not significant(t=-0.599, P=0.552. There were no significant differences among subgroups after grading based on the severity of sleep apnea hypopnea index and blood oxygen concentration. CONCLUSION: Compared with healthy individuals, choroidal thickness of patients with OSAHS decreases slightly(except for the location of 2mm nasal to the fovea, but the alteration is not significant. The severity of OSAHS has no effect on the choroidal thickness for the patients first diagnosis of OSAHS.

  7. En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Imaging Versus Fundus Photography in the Measurement of Choroidal Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michele D; Kaidonis, Georgia; Kim, Alice Y; Shields, Ryan A; Leng, Theodore

    2017-09-01

    Choroidal nevi are common benign intraocular tumors with a small risk of malignant transformation. This retrospective study investigates the use of en face spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA) in determining the clinical features and measurement of choroidal nevi. Patients with choroidal nevi were imaged with both OCTA and a fundus photography device. Greatest longitudinal dimension (GLD), perpendicular dimension (PD), and the GLD/PD ratio were assessed on each device. Inter-device variation and intra- and inter-rater reliability analyses were performed. Fourteen patients with choroidal nevi were included. No significant difference between the GLD/PD ratio as measured by all three devices was found (Chi-square = 2.8, 2 df, P = .247). Intraclass correlation coefficients were greater than 0.7 for repeated measures on all devices, suggesting good repeatability and reproducibility. This study demonstrated inter-device consistency and high intra- and inter-rater reliability when measuring choroidal nevi. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:741-747.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Choroidal Thickness Analysis in Patients with Usher Syndrome Type 2 Using EDI OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, L; Sala, B; Montesano, G; Pierrottet, C; De Cillà, S; Maltese, P; Bertelli, M; Rossetti, L

    2015-01-01

    To portray Usher Syndrome type 2, analyzing choroidal thickness and comparing data reported in published literature on RP and healthy subjects. Methods. 20 eyes of 10 patients with clinical signs and genetic diagnosis of Usher Syndrome type 2. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length (AL), automated visual field (VF), and EDI OCT. Both retinal and choroidal measures were measured. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate choroidal thickness with age, BCVA, IOP, AL, VF, and RT. Comparison with data about healthy people and nonsyndromic RP patients was performed. Results. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was 248.21 ± 79.88 microns. SFCT was statistically significant correlated with age (correlation coefficient -0.7248179, p patients (p = 0.2138). Conclusions. Our study demonstrated in vivo choroidal thickness reduction in patients with Usher Syndrome type 2. These data are important for the comprehension of mechanisms of disease and for the evaluation of therapeutic approaches.

  9. Primary Culture of Choroid Plexuses from Neonate Rats Containing Progenitor Cells Capable of Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Li Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choroid plexuses, which could secrete a number of neurotrophins, have recently been used in transplantation in central nervous system diseases. Aims: To study the mechanism of nerve regeneration in the central nervous system by grafting choroid plexus tissues. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The choroid plexuses from the lateral ventricles of neonatal rats were cultured in adherent culture, and immunocytochemical methods were used to analyse the progenitor cells on days 2, 6, and 10 after seeding. Results: Expression of both nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in small cell aggregates on day 2 in primary culture. Most of the nestin-positive cells on day 6 were immunoreactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. No cells expressing nestin or glial fibrillary acidic protein were seen on day 10. Conclusion: These experimental results indicate that the choroid plexus contains a specific cell population – progenitor cells. Under in vitro experimental conditions, the progenitor cells differentiated into choroid plexus epithelial cells but did not form neurons or astrocytes.

  10. Simultaneous development of craniopharyngioma and choroid plexus carcinoma in the childhood -a clinical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, L.; Georgiev, R.; Mihaylova, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a clinical case of 9 years old girl with concomitant brain tumors - choroid plexus carcinoma and craniopharyngioma diagnosed in 2009. After three operations, cranio-spinal irradiation with boost for the remaining tumor located in left ventricular trigonum to a total dose of 55 Gy and 7 courses chemotherapy, local tumor control was achieved for the choroid plexus carcinoma. Four years following the achievement of local tumor control of the choroid plexus carcinoma, an increase of the tumor formation located in the left side of the pituitary was reported. The diagnosis cystic craniopharyngeoma was found during the surgical operation. With this clinical case we would like to stress on the achieved local tumor control following the complex treatment of carcinoma of the choroid plexus, as well as on the slow growth of simultaneously diagnosed craniopharyngeoma. This case report raises the question of the genetic predisposition of the brain tumors in children, as well as possibility of malignant transformation of craniopharyngeoma following radiotherapy. The differential diagnosis of neuroectodermal brain tumors requires immunohistochemical analysis and if necessary genetic analysis. Key words: Complex treatment. Choroid plexus carcinoma. Craniopharyngioma. Radiotherapy. Malignant transformation. Simultaneity

  11. Association of ABO blood groups and Rh factor with retinal and choroidal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teberik, Kuddusi; Eski, Mehmet Tahir

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate if ABO blood group and Rh factor have an effect on retinal and choroidal thickness. This study was designed prospectively. Retinal nerve fiber layer, retinal, and choroidal thicknesses were measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal and choroidal thickness measurements (one subfoveal, three temporal, and three nasal) were obtained at 500-μm intervals up to 1500 μm with the caliper system. In this study, 109 male and 151 female, 260 individuals in total were included. There were 125 subjects in group A, 29 in group B, 34 in group AB, and 72 in group O. Rh factor was positive in 194 subjects and negative in 66. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age (p = 0.667). The groups did not show any statistical difference in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. There was significant difference found for mean retinal thickness at temporal 1000 μm when four groups were compared (p = 0.037). No statistically significant difference was detected for the remaining retinal and choroidal sectoral regions. The groups did not statistically significantly differ concerning Rh factor (p > 0.05). Although we found a significant difference in retinal thickness in the temporal retina between group B with group A and group O, we suggest that both blood group and Rh factor have no effect on retinal and choroidal thickness.

  12. RECURRENCE OF CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION LESION ACTIVITY AFTER AFLIBERCEPT TREATMENT FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakazono, Tomotaka; Yamashiro, Kenji; Oishi, Akio; Ooto, Sotaro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Hata, Masayuki; Takahashi, Ayako; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2017-11-01

    To examine the recurrence rate of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesion activity in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated factors after 1-year aflibercept treatment. Age-related macular degeneration eyes with 1-year aflibercept fixed-regimen treatment and a follow-up period of at least 18 months from the initial aflibercept injection for treatment-naive exudative AMD were retrospectively evaluated. The recurrence rate was examined. Age, gender, visual acuity, AMD subtype, greatest linear dimension, and retinal and choroidal thicknesses at the 12th month examination were compared between eyes with and without recurrence. Presence of remnant polyps and pigment epithelial detachment (PED) morphology were also compared in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) eyes. Of the 98 eyes studied, 69 displayed a dry macula at the 12th month examination; 43.7% exhibited recurrence during the subsequent 12-month period in Kaplan-Meier analysis. Although no factors associated with recurrence were detected in AMD, remnant polyps and pigment epithelial detachment morphology at the 12th month examination were significantly associated with recurrence in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (P = 0.018 and 0.048, respectively). Continuous, proactive treatment would be considered overtreatment for more than half of the AMD eyes that achieved a dry macula. Angiography and optical coherence tomography analyses may be useful for predicting recurrence in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy eyes.

  13. Is a diagnostic CT of the brain indicated in patients with choroidal metastases before radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottke, D.; Wiegel, T.; Hoecht, S.; Hinkelbein, W.; Kreusel, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: there is no evidence in the literature about the incidence of synchronous brain metastases in patients with choroidal metastases. This is of major importance, because the radiation fields of choroidal metastases and, later on, brain metastases, if treated consecutively, are partly overlapping, thus potentially increasing the rate of late side effects such as brain necrosis. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of synchronous brain metastases. Patients and methods: 50 patients with choroidal metastases were enrolled into a study of the ''Arbeitsgemeinschaft Radiologische Onkologie'' of the German Cancer Society (ARO 95-08) with standardized 40 Gy radiotherapy, 2 Gy single dose. All patients were staged before treatment with a computed tomography of the brain (CCT). No patient showed clinical signs of brain metastases. Results: 13 out of 50 patients (26%) had brain metastases in the CCT leading to radiotherapy of the brain and choroidal metastases in one volume. Conclusion: a CCT is indicated at the diagnosis of choroidal metastases for screening of synchronous brain metastases. The incidence is about 25%, and the diagnosis of brain metastases results in a different target volume: the whole brain including the posterior parts of the eyes compared to the posterior parts of the eyes alone. Therefore, the risk of late side effects could be reduced compared with an additional later radiotherapy of the whole brain with partly overlapping fields. (orig.)

  14. Choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula in highly myopic eyes: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Francesco; Dell'Arti, Laura; Benatti, Eleonora; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Mapelli, Chiara; Ferrari, Fabio; Ratiglia, Roberto; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Barteselli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    To describe choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula associated with high myopia using fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and to elucidate the mechanism and natural course of serous retinal detachment (RD) associated with dome-shaped macula. Retrospective, observational case series. We reviewed longitudinal imaging results of 52 highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula. Changes on FA and ICGA were assessed. Retinal, choroidal, and scleral thicknesses and bulge height were measured on SD OCT. Serous RD was the most common abnormality associated with dome-shaped macula, detected by SD OCT in 44% of the cases with no associated choroidal neovascularization. Significant differences in the proportion of eyes with pinpoint leakage on FA (P macula was likely caused by choroidal vascular changes, similar to central serous chorioretinopathy, but specifically confined in the inward bulge of the staphyloma and secondary to excessive scleral thickening. Serous retinal detachment showed fluctuating changes over time, with alternating active and inactive stages. Angiographic findings in dome-shaped macula suggest the choroid as a target for possible treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gas-filled hohlraum fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.; Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Bush, H. Jr.; Gomez, V.M.; Moore, J.E.; Stone, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have fabricated and fielded gas-filled hohlraums at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nova laser. Fill pressures of 1--5 atmospheres have been typical. We describe the production of the parts, their assembly and fielding. Emphasis is placed on the production of gas-tight polyimide windows and the fielding apparatus and procedure

  16. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.; Cachim, P.B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in Retinal and Choroidal Vascular Blood Flow after Oral Sildenafil: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berrones

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe changes in the retina and choroidal flow by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A after a single dose of oral sildenafil. Method. A case-control study. Patients in the study group received 50 mg of oral sildenafil. Patients in the control group received a sham pill. Retinal and choroidal images were obtained at baseline (before pill ingestion and 1 hour after ingestion. Central macular and choroidal thickness, choroidal and outer retina flow, and the retinal and choroidal vascular density were compared using a Mann-Whitney U test. Results. Twenty eyes were enrolled into the study group and 10 eyes in the control group. There was a significant difference in central choroidal thickness and outer retina blood flow between groups after 1 hour of sildenafil ingestion (p<0.01. There were no differences in central macular thickness, choroidal flow, and retinal vascular density among groups. Conclusions. A single dose of oral sildenafil increases choroidal thickness, probably due to sildenafil-induced vasodilation.

  19. CHOROIDAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH SEROUS MACULAR DETACHMENT IN EYES WITH STAPHYLOMA, DOME-SHAPED MACULA OR TILTED DISK SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Anna C S; Yzer, Suzanne; Freund, K Bailey; Dansingani, Kunal K; Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Sarraf, David

    2017-08-01

    To study the relationship of choroidal abnormalities with serous retinal detachment (SRD) in eyes with staphyloma, dome-shaped macula, or tilted disk syndrome. Group 1, 28 eyes of 20 patients with staphyloma/dome-shaped macula/tilted disk syndrome associated with SRD was compared with Group 2, 30 eyes of 20 patients, with staphyloma/dome-shaped macula/tilted disk syndrome but without SRD. Radial and en-face optical coherence tomography and choroidal analysis were performed. Group 1 had a thicker mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (161 μm vs. 92 μm, P 0.05) compared with eyes of Group 2. Focal abrupt changes in choroidal thickness were more commonly seen in Group 1 versus eyes in Group 2 (90% vs. 30%, P < 0.05) and this area of abrupt change was located within or at the edge of the SRD in 64% of eyes. Large choroidal vessels (pachyvessels) (82% located within the area of SRD) were always associated with the presence of SRD. An abrupt transition in choroidal thickness may be involved in the pathogenesis of SRD. In some cases, a radial scan pattern may better demonstrate mild SRD, choroidal contours and the focal choroidal variations than horizontal or vertical raster scan patterns.

  20. Comparison of choroidal thickness using swept-source and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in normal Indian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Siddharth; Manayath, George; Venkatapathy, Narendran

    2018-01-01

    Choroidal thickness measurements are reported to differ between spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and swept-source OCT (SS-OCT). The aim of this study was to assess the comparability of choroidal thickness measurements using SS-OCT and SD-OCT devices among normal participants. This was a prospective study of 31 (62 eyes) normal participants. Choroidal imaging was performed sequentially with the Spectralis OCT (SD-OCT) and the deep range imaging OCT (DRI OCT-1) (SS-OCT) using standardized imaging protocols. The subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT) was measured manually by two masked retinal specialists. Paired t -tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to compare the measurements. The mean SFChT was 319.5 μm and 325.3 μm for DRI OCT-1 and Spectralis OCT, respectively ( P = 0.001), with a mean difference of 5.9 with ICC of 0.97. The mean difference in choroidal thickness between the OCT devices was larger among eyes with choroidal thickness > 350 μm compared with eyes with thinner choroids (8.0 μm vs. 4.7 μm). SFChT measurements are comparable between DRI OCT-1 and Spectralis OCT. The variability between the devices increases in thicker choroids.

  1. Modulation of iron metabolism in aging and in Alzheimer’s disease: relevance of the choroid plexus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Da Mesquita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for mammalian cellular homeostasis. However, in excess, it promotes free radical formation and is associated with aging-related progressive deterioration and with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD. There are no mechanisms to excrete iron, which makes iron homeostasis a very tightly regulated process at the level of the intestinal absorption. Iron is believed to reach the brain through receptor mediated endocytosis of iron-bound transferrin by the brain barriers, the blood-cerebrospinal (CSF fluid barrier, formed by the choroid plexus (CP epithelial cells and the blood-brain barrier formed by the endothelial cells of the brain capillaries. Importantly, the CP epithelial cells are responsible for producing most of the CSF, the fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space. Recently, the finding that the CP epithelial cells display all the machinery to locally control iron delivery into the CSF may suggest that the general and progressive senescence of the CP may be at the basis of the impairment of regional iron metabolism, iron-mediated toxicity and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging and, particularly, in AD.

  2. Canine Choroid Plexus Tumor with Intracranial Dissemination Presenting as Multiple Cystic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha J. Oura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Miniature Pinscher developed acute blindness and behavioral changes. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, there were multiple small intra-axial cystic lesions, and primary differential diagnoses included primary or metastatic neoplasia and neurocysticercosis. These cystic lesions were subsequently diagnosed histopathologically as disseminated choroid plexus carcinoma. This is only the second documented description of this diagnosis in a dog, but both patients had very similar MRI findings. This patient adds to the literature about the MRI characteristics of choroid plexus tumors and indicates that choroid plexus tumor should be considered as a possible cause of small multifocal intra-axial cystic brain lesions in dogs, regardless of whether a primary intraventricular lesion is visible.

  3. External radiotherapy for circumscribed choroidal haemangiomas using a modified retinoblastoma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, N.; Syrdalen, P.; Tausjoe, J.; Tveraa, K.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes two cases of circumscribed choroidal haemangiomas involving the fovea, complicated by serous retinal detachment. Laser photocoagulation, generally accepted as the treatment of choice for choroidal haemangioma, was considered either to be of no visual benefit or a risk for jeopardizing vision further due to the subfoveolar lesions. Fractionated radiotherapy using a lens-sparing, modified retinoblastoma technique, was given, using circular fields of 15 mm diameter. The dose was 24 Gy in 8 fractions. In both eyes the retina reattached completely. The visual acuity improved markedly in the first, and was restored to the prior level in the second. Normalization of a high intraocular pressure was also achieved in the second case. We believe this method to be a reasonable and effective therapy for some choroidal haemangiomas after careful individual consideration. (au) 17 refs

  4. Case of choroid plexus papilloma of the lateral ventricle presenting as a primary intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kenji; Gito, Yoji; Goto, Tsuneo; Ito, Yasunobu; Fujii, Satoshi

    1988-04-01

    A case of a choroid plexus papilloma of the lateral ventricle that was revealed by a massive intracranial hemorrhage in a 61-year-old man is presented. This patient had an intracranial hemorrhage at the onset. The presence of brain tumor was suspected after a radiologic evaluation using computerized tomography (CT) and angiography; the correctness of this histological diagnosis was confirmed by surgical specimens. Choroid plexus papillomas, rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin, account for 0.5 to 0.6 % of all intracranial tumors. They most frequently appear during the first 2 years of life. A case manifesting intracranial hemorrhage associated with choroid plexus papilloma in an adult is described, with a review of the literature. The importance of adequate radiological investigation is emphasized.

  5. Choroidal thickness and myopia in relation to physical activity during childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Kristian; Jacobsen, Nina; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet

    Purpose: Decreasing physical activity (PA) has been suggested to be a driving force behind the rapid increase of myopia worldwide. The possible protective effects of PA might be through increased blood flow and subsequent change in thickness of the choroid. The purpose of this study......, L, M and V PA (2.31 µm/% (p=0.22), -3.99 µm/% (p=0.15), -5.43 µm/% (p=0.57) and -0.53 µm/% (p=0.95), respectively). Conclusions: We found no association between physical activity and the choroidal thickness, axial length or refractive error. However, the choroid was thinner in myopic eyes......±59 µm (3 mm zone), respectively. All CT measurements were thinner in myopic eyes (psex-adjusted linear regression there were no associations between PA and SE, AL or any CT measurements. There was no association between accumulated PA and the overall CT for SED...

  6. Lack of correlation between the location of choroidal melanoma and ultraviolet radiation dose distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Ferrand, R.; Boelle, P.Y.; Maylin, C.; D'Hermies, F.; Virmont, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: ocular melanomas arise from the choroid. The result of our study of a total of 92 ocular melanomas would indicate that there is no preferential location for tumors on the eye. We estimate the ultraviolet (UV) radiation dose distribution using data available in the literature. We then compared tumor location and UV radiation. UVC and UVB do not reach the choroid and UVA is filtered by the cornea and the lens. Only, a small percentage of the incoming rays reach the posterior and inferior part of retina, but none reach the superior and anterior part of the eye. We concluded that it is therefore very unlikely that UV radiation exposure is responsible for choroidal melanoma. (authors)

  7. A case of choroid plexus papilloma of the lateral ventricle presenting as a primary intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kenji; Gito, Yoji; Goto, Tsuneo; Ito, Yasunobu; Fujii, Satoshi

    1988-01-01

    A case of a choroid plexus papilloma of the lateral ventricle that was revealed by a massive intracranial hemorrhage in a 61-year-old man is presented. This patient had an intracranial hemorrhage at the onset. The presence of brain tumor was suspected after a radiologic evaluation using computerized tomography (CT) and angiography; the correctness of this histological diagnosis was confirmed by surgical specimens. Choroid plexus papillomas, rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin, account for 0.5 to 0.6 % of all intracranial tumors. They most frequently appear during the first 2 years of life. A case manifesting intracranial hemorrhage associated with choroid plexus papilloma in an adult is described, with a review of the literature. The importance of adequate radiological investigation is emphasized. (author)

  8. Choroid-Plexus-Derived Otx2 Homeoprotein Constrains Adult Cortical Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Spatazza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity is often restricted to critical periods in early life. Here, we show that a key regulator of this process in the visual cortex, Otx2 homeoprotein, is synthesized and secreted globally from the choroid plexus. Consequently, Otx2 is maintained in selected GABA cells unexpectedly throughout the mature forebrain. Genetic disruption of choroid-expressed Otx2 impacts these distant circuits and in the primary visual cortex reopens binocular plasticity to restore vision in amblyopic mice. The potential to regulate adult cortical plasticity through the choroid plexus underscores the importance of this structure in brain physiology and offers therapeutic approaches to recovery from a broad range of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. Structural changes of the choroid in sarcoid- and tuberculosis-related granulomatous uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, H; Sim, D A; Keane, P A; Zarranz-Ventura, J; Gallagher, K; Egan, C A; Westcott, M; Lee, R W J; Tufail, A; Pavesio, C E

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to characterise the choroidal features of patients diagnosed with sarcoid- and tuberculosis (TB)-associated granulomatous uveitis using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Twenty-seven patients (27 eyes) diagnosed with sarcoid- (13 eyes) and TB (14 eyes)-related uveitis were included in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. Over a six-month period, patients diagnosed with sarcoid and TB granulomatous uveitis were scanned using enhanced depth imaging OCT. Clinical and demographical characteristics were recorded, including the method of diagnosis, disease activity, site of inflammation (anterior or posterior), treatments, and visual acuity (VA). Manual segmentation of the choroidal layers was performed using custom image analysis software. Results The main outcome measure was OCT-derived thickness measurements of the choroid and choroidal sublayers (Haller's large vessel and Sattler's medium vessel layers) at the macula region. The ratio of Haller's large vessel to Sattler's medium vessel layer was significantly different at the total macula circle in eyes diagnosed with TB uveitis (1.47 (=140.71/95.72 μm)) compared with sarcoid uveitis (1.07 (=137.70/128.69 μm)) (P=0.001). A thinner choroid was observed in eyes with a VA ≥0.3 LogMAR (Snellen 6/12; 198.1 μm (interquartile range (IQR)=147.0–253.4 μm) compared with those with VA uveitis, and choroidal thickening may be a feature of active granulomatous uveitis. PMID:26021867

  10. Is there a relationship between outer retinal destruction and choroidal changes in cone dystrophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Ayyildiz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of the present study was to use enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT to investigate choroidal changes in patients with cone dystrophy (CD and to correlate these findings with clinical and electroretinography (ERG findings. Methods: This case-control study included 40 eyes of 20 patients with CD and 40 eyes of 40 age- and refraction-matched healthy individuals. Choroidal thickness (CT measurements were obtained under the foveal center and at 500 and 1,500 μm from the nasal and temporal regions to the center of the fovea, respectively. EDI-OCT and ERG data were analyzed, and the correlations of CT with the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and the central foveal thickness (CFT were evaluated. Results: The mean subfoveal CTs in the CD and control groups were 240.70 ± 70.78 and 356.18 ± 48.55 μm, respectively. The subfoveal CT was significantly thinner in patients with CD than in the controls (p<0.001. The patients with CD also had significantly thinner choroids than the controls at each measurement location relative to the fovea (p<0.001. The subfoveal CT in the CD group correlated with CFT (p=0.012, but no significant correlation was found between the subfoveal CT and BCVA or photopic ERG responses. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated a significant thinning of the choroid in patients with CD. EDI-OCT is a useful technique for describing the choroidal changes occurring in CD. Future studies investigating the association between choroidal changes and outer retinal destruction or the disease stage may provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of CD.

  11. Is there a relationship between outer retinal destruction and choroidal changes in cone dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Onder; Ozge, Gokhan; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; Ozgonul, Cem; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Durukan, Ali Hakan; Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to use enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) to investigate choroidal changes in patients with cone dystrophy (CD) and to correlate these findings with clinical and electroretinography (ERG) findings. This case-control study included 40 eyes of 20 patients with CD and 40 eyes of 40 age- and refraction-matched healthy individuals. Choroidal thickness (CT) measurements were obtained under the foveal center and at 500 and 1,500 μm from the nasal and temporal regions to the center of the fovea, respectively. EDI-OCT and ERG data were analyzed, and the correlations of CT with the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the central foveal thickness (CFT) were evaluated. The mean subfoveal CTs in the CD and control groups were 240.70 ± 70.78 and 356.18 ± 48.55 μm, respectively. The subfoveal CT was significantly thinner in patients with CD than in the controls (p<0.001). The patients with CD also had significantly thinner choroids than the controls at each measurement location relative to the fovea (p<0.001). The subfoveal CT in the CD group correlated with CFT (p=0.012), but no significant correlation was found between the subfoveal CT and BCVA or photopic ERG responses. The present study demonstrated a significant thinning of the choroid in patients with CD. EDI-OCT is a useful technique for describing the choroidal changes occurring in CD. Future studies investigating the association between choroidal changes and outer retinal destruction or the disease stage may provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of CD.

  12. Radiopacity of root filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Olsen, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for measuring the radiopacity of root filling materials is described. Direct measurements were made of the optic density values of the materials in comparison with a standard curve relating optic density to the thickness of an aluminium step wedge exposed simultaneously. By proper selection of film and conditions for exposure and development, it was possible to obtain a near-linear standard curve which added to the safety and reproducibility of the method. The technique of radiographic assessment was modified from clinical procedures in evaluating the obturation in radiographs, and it was aimed at detecting slits or voids between the dental wall and the filling material. This radiographic assessment of potensial leakage was compared with actual in vitro lekage of dye (basic fuchsin) into the roots of filled teeth. The result of the investigation show that root filling materials display a very wide range of radiopacity, from less than 3 mm to more than 12 mm of aluminium. It also seem that tooth roots that appear to be well obturated by radiographic evaluation, stand a good chance of beeing resistant to leakage in vitro, and that the type of filling material rather than its radiographic appearance, determines the susceptibility of the filled tooth to leakage in vitro. As an appendix the report contains a survey of radiopaque additives in root filling materials

  13. Endovascular coil embolization for anterior choroidal artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Moon; Chung, Eun Chul [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Dong Joon; Suh, Sang Hyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sun Yong [Ajou University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea); Shin, Yong Sam [Ajou University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Suwon (Korea); Park, Sung Il [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea); Choi, Chun Sik; Won, Yu.Sam [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-03-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the ischemic complications related to the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) and clinical outcome after coiling of AChA aneurysms. We included 37 patients (27 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 10 without) harboring 38 AChA aneurysms (23 ruptured, 15 unruptured) who were treated by coiling at four institutions. Ischemic complications related to the AChA and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Intraprocedural transient AChA occlusion occurred in five aneurysms, all of which had AChA incorporated into the aneurysm neck. Two of the five patients suffered postprocedural transient contralateral hemiparesis, but recovered completely. The remaining three patients had no postprocedural symptoms. Incidence of transient AChA occlusion was significantly higher in those aneurysms in which the AChA was incorporated into aneurysm neck (group 2) than in those in which the AChA was not incorporated (group 1). Of the 37 patients, 31 (83.8%) had good recoveries (modified Rankin scale score 0-2). Two patients died from the consequences of subarachnoid hemorrhage. During follow-up for a mean of 27 months (range 4-72 months), none of the 35 living patients re-bled. A total of 29 aneurysms in 28 patients were followed-up angiographically. Recurrences were found in 5 of the 29 aneurysms during follow-up (mean 18 months, range 6-45 months). Re-embolization achieved near complete occlusion of two recurrent aneurysms, both of which were still stable at the time of the next two follow-up angiographies. The other three recurrent aneurysms were not retreated due to the small size of the recurrences. Coiling of AChA aneurysms resulted in good outcomes without AChA-related permanent ischemic complications. Transient AChA occlusion, potentially associated with ischemic complications, was significantly more frequent in the aneurysm in which the AChA was incorporated into the aneurysm neck. (orig.)

  14. Choroid plexus accumulates cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, W.; Perry, D.F.; Nelson, D.L.; Aposhian, H.V.

    1990-01-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) is the site of the formation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the major location of the blood-CSF barrier. The property of CP in sequestering heavy metals so as to prevent their entering CSF was studied in male rats and rabbits. The content of Cd, Pb and Hg in rat tissues was determined by AAS and radioactive isotopes 24 hours after a single exposure. Cd was 33 fold greater in CP than in brain cortex (BC) after 4 mg Cd/kg ip. No Cd was detected in CSF. In rats given 27 mg Pb/kg ip, Pb in CP was 57 fold greater than in BC and 12 fold greater in blood than CSF. Rats exposed to 1 mg Hg/kg ip showed a 13 fold greater Hg content in CP than in BC. Hg was 78 fold lower in CSF than in blood. Arsenic distribution in rabbits was determined 4 hours after iv injection of 1.7 mg As 5+ /kg. As in CP was 6 fold greater than in BC and in blood it was 26 fold more than in CSF. Total thiol content in BC was significantly higher than that in CP. In CP, 87% of total thiol was non-protein bound thiol. Results suggest that the CP accumulates toxic metals such as Cd, Pb, Hg and As and acts as a filter to limit these metals passing through the blood-CSF barrier. CdCl 2 , Pb acetate, HgCl 2 or Na arsenate was used for injection

  15. Transcriptome signature of the adult mouse choroid plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the gene expression profile of several tissues in humans and in rodent animal models has been explored, analysis of the complete choroid plexus (CP transcriptome is still lacking. A better characterization of the CP transcriptome can provide key insights into its functions as one of the barriers that separate the brain from the periphery and in the production of cerebrospinal fluid. Methods This work extends further what is known about the mouse CP transcriptome through a microarray analysis of CP tissue from normal mice under physiological conditions. Results We found that the genes most highly expressed are those implicated in energy metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and in ribosomal function, which is in agreement with the secretory nature of the CP. On the other hand, genes encoding for immune mediators are among those with lower expression in basal conditions. In addition, we found genes known to be relevant during brain development, and not previously identified to be expressed in the CP, including those encoding for various axonal guidance and angiogenesis molecules and for growth factors. Some of these are known to influence the neural stem cell niche in the subventricular zone, highlighting the involvement of the CP as a likely modulator of neurogenesis. Interestingly, our observations confirm that the CP transcriptome is unique, displaying low homology with that of other tissues. Of note, we describe here that the closest similarity is with the transcriptome of the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Conclusions Based on the data presented here, it will now be possible to further explore the function of particular proteins of the CP secretome in health and in disease.

  16. Characteristics of Fundus Autofluorescence in Active Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Öztaş

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To define characteristic fundus autofluorescence (FAF findings in eyes with active polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five eyes of 29 patients with active PCV who were diagnosed at Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Retina Division between January 2012 and November 2014 were included in the study. All the patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, FAF photography, and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA. ICGA was used to diagnose active PCV and identify lesion components. FAF findings were described at the retinal site of the corresponding lesions identified and diagnosed using ICGA. Results: The mean age of the 29 study patients (15 men, 14 women was 64.6±7.5 years (range, 54-82 years. ICGA revealed active PCV in 35 eyes, consisting of polypoid lesions in 11 eyes (31.4%, branching vascular networks (BVN in 10 eyes (28.6%, and a combination of polypoid lesions and BVNs in 14 eyes (40%. On FAF images, 4 different patterns were detected at the corresponding retinal sites of 25 polypoid lesions detected by ICGA: confluent hypoautofluorescence with a hyperautofluorescent ring in 18 eyes (72%, hyperautofluorescence with hypoautofluorescent ring in 2 eyes (8%, confluent hypoautofluorescence in 1 eye (4%, and granular hypoautofluorescence in 1 eye (4%. The remaining 3 eyes (12% demonstrated blocked hypoautofluorescence because of the excessive hemorrhaging in the macula. The FAF images showed the granular hypoautofluorescent FAF pattern in all 24 BVNs (100% consistent with the location of the lesions on ICGA. Conclusion: The typical PCV lesions, polypoid lesions and BVNs had characteristic autofluorescent findings on FAF imaging. Non-invasive, quick, and repeatable FAF imaging can be considered a reliable and helpful diagnostic technique for the diagnosis of

  17. Investigation of the choroidal thickness in patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ulas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effect of hypothyroidism on the choroidal thickness (CT was investigated in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism, and biochemically and clinically euthyroid patients receiving levothyroxine treatment. The patients were compared with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: One eye of 71 hypothyroid and 22 healthy subjects between 20 and 40 years of age were included in this study. CT measurements were taken at the fovea and at 2 points that were 1500 μm nasal and temporal to the fovea using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Independent sample t-test′s and was used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: The CT was significantly thicker in hypothyroid patients compared to healthy subjects (P values were 0.013 for subfoveal, 0.015 for temporal and 0.020 for nasal segments. The intraocular pressure (IOP and body mass index (BMI were also significantly higher in hypothyroid patients (P values were 0.021 and 0.003, respectively. There was not a statistically significant difference in the BMI and IOP measurements between healthy subjects and euthyroid patients (P > 0.05. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the subfoveal, temporal and nasal CT measurements between healthy subjects and euthyroid patients (P values were 0.006, 0.031 and 0.013, respectively. Conclusions: All subgroups of hypothyroid patients had thicker CT compared to healthy subjects. Euthyroid patients receiving levothyroxine treatment had lower IOP, BMI levels, and serum lipid levels than patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism.

  18. [Prenatal diagnosis and treatment of fetal choroid plexus cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Ying; Wang, Hong-Bin; Huang, Xin; Wei, Yan-Qiu

    2007-09-01

    To discuss the clinical management and significance of the prenatal diagnosis of Fetal Choroid Plexus Cysts (CPC). From May 2004 to March 2007, 55 cases of fetal CPC diagnosed by B-ultrasound during second trimester were prospectively studied. Each case was studied regarding fetal chromosome karyotype, disappearance weeks of the cyst, the clinical outcome and follow-up results respectively. The cases were diagnosed during 16 - 25 gestational weeks. The diameters of the cysts varied from 0.2 cm to 2.4 cm. There were 25 cases of bilateral cysts and 30 cases of unilateral or 50 cases of isolated CPC and 5 cases of complicated CPC. The cysts of all cases who continued pregnancy disappeared before 28 weeks. Fetal chromosome karyotypes were obtained in 50 cases. Among them, two cases were 18-trisomy, and one case was 21-trisomy. Five cases were terminated pregnancy because of abnormal chromosome karyotype or malformation during second trimester. One neonate was diagnosed as ventricular septal defect among 50 cases of follow up. Among these six cases, three were from advanced-age pregnant women, five cases were with abnormal fetal structure and five cases were with the diameter of bilateral or unilateral cysts more than 1.0 cm. (1) Fetal CPC can be diagnosed during second trimester, and the majority disappear before 28 gestational weeks. (2) High risk factors for fetal abnormal chromosome karyotype may be: advanced-age pregnant women, abnormal structure of fetus, and the diameter of bilateral or unilateral cyst more than 1.0 cm. It is suggested that fetal CPC with the high risks should receive fetal chromosome karyotype test during pregnancy.

  19. A comparison of two methods to measure choroidal thickness by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Lars Kristian; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Vergmann, Anna Stage

    Introduction The choroid is believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of several vision threatening diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, inflammatory disorders and myopic macular degeneration. Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical...... millimeter in each direction of fovea. Only the horizontal and vertical sections were selected for analysis. A total of 9 targets per eye that represented anatomically different choroidal locations were analysed for every subject. We used 2 different methods from the Heidelberg Explorer software to measure...

  20. Fractionated stereotactic irradiation by Cyberknife of choroid melanomas: repositioning validation, closed eyelids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, S.; Rezvoy, N.; Lacornerie, T.; Mirabel, X.; Labalette, P.; Lartigau, E.

    2009-01-01

    The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife is an option in the treatment of eyes tumors. The advantages of the Cyberknife in the choroid melanomas are in its infra-millimetric precision, to the automated repositioning on the skull bones and to the conformity brought by the stereotaxy. The objective of this study was to validate the quality of repositioning and the immobility of the eyes with closed eyelids. Conclusion: the reproducibility of the eye positioning with closed eyelids seems enough to consider the conservative treatment of choroid melanomas by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife without implementation of fiducials nor retrobulbar anaesthesia. (N.C.)

  1. Simultaneous dual wavelength eye-tracked ultrahigh resolution retinal and choroidal optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterhuber, A.; Povaay, B.; Müller, André

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical coherence tomography device that simultaneously combines different novel ultrabroad bandwidth light sources centered in the 800 and 1060 nm regions, operating at 66 kHz depth scan rate, and a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope-based eye tracker to permit motion......-artifact-free, ultrahigh resolution and high contrast retinal and choroidal imaging. The two wavelengths of the device provide the complementary information needed for diagnosis of subtle retinal changes, while also increasing visibility of deeper-lying layers to image pathologies that include opaque media in the anterior...... eye segment or eyes with increased choroidal thickness....

  2. Choroidal thickness in patients with fibromyalgia and correlation with disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Oguz Ulusoy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and compare choroidal thickness in patients with fibromyalgia (FM and healthy controls. Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, forty eyes of 40 patients with FM and 40 eyes of 40 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled. FM was diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. The choroidal thickness measurements of the subjects were obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100, Optovue. Widespread pain index (WPI, symptom severity scale (SSS, and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ scores were recorded. The choroidal thickness measurements of the groups were compared, and correlations among the WPI, SSS, and FIQ scores and these measurements were calculated. Results: Choroidal thicknesses at 1500 μm nasally were 198.5 ± 46.7 μm and 306.3 ± 85.4 μm; at 1000 μm nasally were 211.7 ± 50.2 μm and 310.05 ± 87.26 μm; at 500 μm nasally were 216 ± 55.05 μm and 311.5 ± 83.4 μm; at subfoveal region were 230.9 ± 58.4 μm and 332.4 ± 91.3 μm; at 500 μm temporally 227.5 ± 58.1 μm and 318.15 ± 92.3 μm; at 1000 μm temporally 224.5 ± 57.07 μm and 315.1 ± 84.2 μm; at 1500 μm temporally 212.5 ± 56.08 μm and 312.9 ± 87.8 μm in the FM and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001. Choroidal thicknesses were thinner at all measurement location, except temporal 1000 and 1500 in patients with FIQ score ≥50 than in FIQ score <50. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that choroidal thickness decreases in patients with FM and correlated with disease activity. This choroidal changes might be related with the alterations in autonomic nervous system functioning. Further studies are needed to evaluate the etiopathologic relationship between choroidal thickness and FM.

  3. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  4. Assessment of Choroidal Microstructure and Subfoveal Thickness Change in Eyes With Different Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Linna; Xu, Shiqiong; He, Fangling; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yidan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Zhiliang; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness. Choroidal structural changes seem to be inevitable in AMD pathogenesis. Our study revealed associated choroidal microstructural changes in AMD eyes.The aim of the study was to compare choroidal microstructural changes in eyes with AMD of different stages.The study was a retrospective, cross-sectional case series.The participants comprised of 32 age-matched normal eyes as controls, and 26 fellow uninvolved eyes of intermediate/late AMD, 29 of early AMD, 28 of intermediate AMD, and 39 of late AMD.All subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. The choroid images, including subfoveal choroidal thickness, percentage of Sattler layer area, and en face images of the choroid, were obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.The main outcome measures were subfoveal choroidal thickness changes, percentage of Sattler layer area changes, and en face images of the choroid in AMD eyes.One hundred fifty-four eyes of 96 individuals with mean age of 67.1±9.2 years were included. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 295.4 ± 56.8 μm in age-matched normal eyes, 306.7 ± 68.4 μm in fellow uninvolved eyes with AMD, 293.8 ± 80.4 μm in early AMD, 215.6 ± 80.4 μm in intermediate AMD, and 200.4 ± 66.6 μm in late AMD (F = 14.2, all P < 0.001). Choroidal thickness was greater in early AMD eyes than in intermediate/late AMD eyes (P < 0.001). Mean percentage of Sattler layer area in each group showed a similar tendency. Microstructure of the choroid showed reduced vascular density of Sattler layer areas in late AMD eyes compared with normal eyes.Decreasing subfoveal choroidal thickness and percentage of Sattler layer area were demonstrated in the progression of AMD. The choroidal change was related to atrophy of the microstructural changes of underlying capillaries and medium-sized vessels.

  5. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  6. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Macular Choroidal Thickness in Myopic Eyes with and without a Dome-Shaped Macula: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudier, Guillaume; Gaudric, Alain; Gualino, Vincent; Massin, Pascale; Nardin, Mathieu; Tadayoni, Ramin; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Gaucher, David

    2016-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) has recently been described with myopic staphyloma, which may cause decreased vision. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the choroidal thickness of eyes with and eyes without DSM. A total of 26 eyes with DSM were paired based on axial length with 26 eyes without DSM. All patients underwent spectral-domain OCT examination using the 7-line EDI (enhanced depth imaging) protocol. The mean choroidal thickness was measured using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid areas. Both nasal choroidal thickness and temporal choroidal thickness were significantly thinner in the DSM group (120.43 vs. 159.46 µm, p = 0.035, and 142.17 vs. 187.23 µm, p = 0.021, respectively). However, the mean central choroidal thickness did not differ (152.61 vs. 175.96 µm, p = 0.20). The ratio between central and peripheral choroidal thickness was very significantly elevated with DSM (1.18 ± 0.12 vs. 0.99 ± 0.09, p < 0.0001). Choroidal thickness decreases at the periphery but not in the macular area with DSM. DSM seems not to be due to an inward protrusion of the globe but due to macular anatomical preservation in a growing staphyloma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Anterior choroidal artery occlusions: Clinical and laboratory features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Gündoğdu Çelebi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The anterior choroidal artery (ACHA irrigation area, this area is very volatile infarction incidence and clinical characteristics of classical knowledge. In our study, patients with infarct lesion limited irrigation area of Achan was to determine the clinical and laboratory features. METHODS: The patient group, magnetic resonance imaging, patients with lesions limited to the area by selecting Achan was created. In addition to the acute lesion Achan, the other in the sprawling grounds of the arteries of patients, additional lesions Those who define transient ischemic attack attributable to infarct Achan, the applicant passed before the first signs of neurological sequelae due to cerebrovascular disease and / or old lesions deemed capable of neurological deficits were excluded. Acha deciding that the irrigation area of the lesion, which is a deep dive irrigation area and medial thalamus, globus pallidus delimit the lateral thalamus formed the typical image of the lesion which were taken into account. For the superficial branch of the amygdala and hippocampus lentikülo-striate arteries occlusion seen in the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle of the lesion until komşuluğuna taken into account. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in hypertension common modifiable risk factor for the highest rate (p <0.000. Pure motor or sensory examination in all patients except 1 patient showed signs of stroke. According to the classification of etiologic TOAST small vessel disease, significantly higher rate compared to other etiologies (p <0.000. Etiologic groups compared to the risk factors of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in patients with small vessel disease, atrial firillasyon (AF kardioemboli group was significantly higher (p = 0.035 and p = 0.011, p = 0.005. Introduction of the patients were between NIHSS 1-15 (6 + 3.2. Between mRS 0-4 at baseline (1.83 +1.22. Infarct area, Acha is one of the branches or the entire irrigation

  9. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Milani,1 Amedeo Massacesi,1 Stefania Moschini,1 Marco Setaccioli,1 Ennio Bulone,1 Gemma Tremolada,1 Stefano Ciaccia,1 Elena Mantovani,1 Daniela Morale,2 Fulvio Bergamini1 1Ophthalmology Department, Istituto Auxologico, 2Institute of Mathematics, Universita’ degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Purpose: To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV by fluorescein angio­graphy (FA, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, near-infrared (NIR reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF. Methods: This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years and a mean refraction of -9.72 diopters (95% CI -8.74 to -10.70 diopters. Results: Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%, with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3% and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%. No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2% eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4% eyes. Papillary chorio­retinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%, a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%, and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4% eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P<0.001. In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P<0.005. NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2% and 27 (41.5% eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3% and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed on AF (25/65, 38.4%. FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3% and 48 (73.8% eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P<0.001, absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P<0.05, and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P<0.01. Conclusion: Tomographic, angiographic, AF

  10. Cost of myopic patients with and without myopic choroidal neovascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, J M; Roura, M

    2016-06-01

    To study the costs associated with high myopia (HM) with choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV) or without mCNV. Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, and multicentre study (HM and mCNV) conducted on adult patients. Annualised medical direct cost (MDC) from the perspective of the National Health System, the non-medical direct cost (nMDC) from the patient perspective, and productivity losses were calculated. A total of 137 mCNV and 48 HM patients were included (mean age [SD]: 55.1 [2.8] vs. 54.7 [13.8]; P=.2), with 80% women in both groups. The observation time (months) ranged from 17.9 (9.6) right eye (RE) and 20.0 (9.7), left eye (LE) in mCNV and 47.1 (21.5) RE/45.5 (20.7) LE in MM. A higher percentage of emergency room visits was observed in mCNV vs. HM patients (41.7 vs. 25%; P=.06) and retinal specialists (91.2 vs. 77.1%; P=.01). The MDC was higher in mCNV: € 1,985 (95% CI: 1772-2198) vs. € 356 (251-480) HM, P.4. The number of affected eyes, the follow-up time, and the mCNV were factors associated with direct costs. The impact on work productivity was higher in mCNV (quite/very concerned): 27.7 vs. 10.4% HM. The mCNV showed a significant association with activity impairment (OR: 3.47, 95% CI: 10.101-1.195). mCNV involves higher medical costs than HM. In addition, mCNV patients have a greater need of care and assistive devices, and greater impact of the disease in their work productivity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Choroid plexus carcinomas in children: MRI features and patient outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Steven P. [University of Rochester School of Medicine, Strong Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rochester, NY (United States); University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 601 Elmwood Avenue, P.O. Box 648, Rochester, NY (United States); Khademian, Zarir P.; Zimmerman, Robert A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chuang, Sylvester H. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pollack, Ian F. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Korones, David N. [University of Rochester School of Medicine, Strong Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Choroid plexus carcinomas (CPC) are rare malignant intracranial neoplasms usually occurring in young children. The objectives of this study were to characterize the preoperative MRI features of CPC, determine the frequency of disseminated disease in the CNS at diagnosis, and assess patient outcomes. The preoperative cranial MR images of 11 patients with CPC were retrospectively reviewed for lesion location, lesion size, un-enhanced and enhanced MRI signal characteristics, and presence of disseminated intracranial tumor. Postoperative cranial and spinal MRI images were reviewed for residual, recurrent, and/or disseminated tumor. The study group included six male and five female patients ranging in age from 5 months to 5.3 years (median=1.8 years). CPC were located in the lateral (n=8), fourth (n=1), and third (n=1) ventricles, and foramen of Luschka (n=1). Mean tumor size was 5.2cm x 4.9cm x 5.0 cm. On short-TR images, CPC had heterogeneous, predominantly intermediate signal with foci of high signal in 45% of lesions from areas of hemorrhage. On long-TR/long-TE images, solid portions of CPC typically had heterogeneous, intermediate-to-slightly-high signal. Small zones of low signal on long-TR/long-TE images were seen in 55% of the lesions secondary to areas of hemorrhage and/or calcifications. Tubular flow voids representing blood vessels were seen in 55% of the lesions. Zones of high signal comparable to CSF were seen in 64% of CPC secondary to cystic/necrotic zones. All CPC showed prominent contrast enhancement. Irregular enhancing margins suggesting subependymal invasion were seen in 73% of the lesions. Findings consistent with edema in the brain adjacent to the enhancing lesions were seen in 73% of CPC. CPC caused hydrocephalus in 82% of patients at diagnosis. Two patients died from hemorrhagic complications from surgical biopsies. Disseminated tumor in the leptomeninges was present in 45% of patients at diagnosis and was associated with a poor prognosis. The 1

  12. Novel low-kVp beamlet system for choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Carlos Jr; Fuller, Clifton D; Waggener, Robert G; Wong, Adrian; Meltz, Martin; Blough, Melissa; Eng, Tony Y; Thomas, Charles R Jr

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of choroidal melanoma with radiation often involves placement of customized brachytherapy eye-plaques. However, the dosimetric properties inherent in source-based radiotherapy preclude facile dose optimization to critical ocular structures. Consequently, we have constructed a novel system for utilizing small beam low-energy radiation delivery, the Beamlet Low-kVp X-ray, or 'BLOKX' system. This technique relies on an isocentric rotational approach to deliver dose to target volumes within the eye, while potentially sparing normal structures. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code version 5.0(14) was used to simulate photon interaction with normal and tumor tissues within modeled right eye phantoms. Five modeled dome-shaped tumors with a diameter and apical height of 8 mm and 6 mm, respectively, were simulated distinct positions with respect to the macula iteratively. A single fixed 9 × 9 mm 2 beamlet, and a comparison COMS protocol plaque containing eight I-125 seeds (apparent activity of 8 mCi) placed on the scleral surface of the eye adjacent to the tumor, were utilized to determine dosimetric parameters at tumor and adjacent tissues. After MCNP simulation, comparison of dose distribution at each of the 5 tumor positions for each modality (BLOKX vs. eye-plaque) was performed. Tumor-base doses ranged from 87.1–102.8 Gy for the BLOKX procedure, and from 335.3–338.6 Gy for the eye-plaque procedure. A reduction of dose of at least 69% to tumor base was noted when using the BLOKX. The BLOKX technique showed a significant reduction of dose, 89.8%, to the macula compared to the episcleral plaque. A minimum 71.0 % decrease in dose to the optic nerve occurred when the BLOKX was used. The BLOKX technique allows more favorable dose distribution in comparison to standard COMS brachytherapy, as simulated using a Monte Carlo iterative mathematical modeling. Future series to determine clinical utility of such an approach are warranted

  13. Stereotactic Radiosurgical Treatment of Brain Metastases to the Choroid Plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siomin, Vitaly; Lin, Jennifer L.; Marko, Nicholas F.; Barnett, Gene H.; Toms, Steven A.; Chao, Samuel T.; Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Navaratne, Kapila; Suh, John H.; Weil, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Choroid plexus metastases (CPM) are uncommon lesions. Consequently, optimal management of CPM is uncertain. We summarize our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of CPM. Methods and Materials: Sixteen consecutive patients with presumed CPM treated with SRS between 1997 and 2007 were examined. Twelve were men with a median age at diagnosis of CPM of 61.9 ± 9.9 years; 14 had metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). All patients had controlled primary disease at the time of treatment for CPM. Four patients with RCC and 1 with non-small-cell lung cancer had undergone whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) previously and 2 had received SRS to other brain metastases. The disease-free interval from the primary diagnosis to CPM diagnosis averaged 39.3 ± 46.2 months (range, 1.0-156.3). Five patients were asymptomatic; of the remaining 11, none had symptoms related to CPM. All presented with a single CPM. Results: Average maximum diameter of the CPMs was 2.0 ± 1.0 cm (range, 0.9-4.1 cm); mean volume was 2.4 ± 2.6 cm 3 (range, 0.2-9.3). Median SRS dose was 24 Gy to the 53% isodose line (range, 14-24 Gy). Survival after SRS to the CPM was 25.3 ± 23.4 months (range, 3.2-101.6). Patients in Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) class I (n = 10) had improved survival compared to those in class II (n = 6), as did those with better GPA scores. There were no local failures. After SRS, 1 patient underwent WBRT, 3 patients had one, and another had two subsequent SRS treatments to other brain lesions. Of the 14 patients who have died, 11 succumbed to systemic disease progression, 2 to progressive, multifocal central nervous system disease, and 1 to systemic disease with concurrent, stable central nervous system disease. There were no complications related to SRS. Conclusions: Most CPMs are associated with RCC. SRS represents a safe and viable treatment option as primary modality for these metastases, with excellent outcomes.

  14. Choroidal thickness and myopia in relation to physical activity - the CHAMPS Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Kristian; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Jacobsen, Nina

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the relationship between choroidal thickness (CT) and myopia in relation to physical activity (PA) in a population-based child cohort. METHODS: In a prospective study of 307 children from the CHAMPS Study Denmark, we used objective data from GT3X accelerometer worn at four...

  15. Multifocal choroiditis as the first sign of systemic sarcoidosis associated with pembrolizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu-Knafo Lise

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: Pembrolizumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. We report a pembrolizumab-associated sarcoidosis revealed by a panuveitis with multifocal choroiditis. Physicians should be aware of the potential inflammatory and autoimmune disease that may be induced by immunomodulatory therapies.

  16. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and choroidal thickness in cirrhosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Orcun Akdemir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effect of cirrhosis on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and choroidal thickness with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Methods: This cross sectional, single center study was undertaken at Bulent Ecevit University Ophthalmology department with the participation of internal medicine, Gastroenterology department. Patients who were treated with the diagnosis of cirrhosis (n=75 were examined in the ophthalmology clinic. Age and sex matched patients (n=50 who were healthy and met the inclusion, exclusion criteria were included in the study. Complete ophthalmological examination included visual acuity with Snellen chart, intraocular pressure measurement with applanation tonometry, biomicroscopy of anterior and posterior segments, gonioscopy, axial length measurement, visual field examination, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, central macular and subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements. Results: The difference between intraocular pressure values was not statistically significant between cirrhosis and control group (p=0.843. However, mean peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was significantly thinner in cirrhosis group in all regions (p<0.001 and subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly thinner in cirrhosis group also (p<0.001. Moreover, central macular thickness of cirrhosis group was significantly thicker than the control group (p=0.001. Conclusion: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly thinner in cirrhosis patients.

  17. Developmentally Regulated Production of meso-Zeaxanthin in Chicken Retinal Pigment Epithelium/Choroid and Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Subhani, Yumna K; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S

    2016-04-01

    meso-Zeaxanthin is a carotenoid that is rarely encountered in nature outside of the vertebrate eye. It is not a constituent of a normal human diet, yet this carotenoid comprises one-third of the primate macular pigment. In the current study, we undertook a systematic approach to biochemically characterize the production of meso-zeaxanthin in the vertebrate eye. Fertilized White Leghorn chicken eggs were analyzed for the presence of carotenoids during development. Yolk, liver, brain, serum, retina, and RPE/choroid were isolated, and carotenoids were extracted. The samples were analyzed on C-30 or chiral HPLC columns to determine the carotenoid composition. Lutein and zeaxanthin were found in all studied nonocular tissues, but no meso-zeaxanthin was ever detected. Among the ocular tissues, the presence of meso-zeaxanthin was consistently observed starting at embryonic day 17 (E17) in the RPE/choroid, several days before its consistent detection in the retina. If RPE/choroid of an embryo was devoid of meso-zeaxanthin, the corresponding retina was always negative as well. This is the first report of developmentally regulated synthesis of meso-zeaxanthin in a vertebrate system. Our observations suggest that the RPE/choroid is the primary site of meso-zeaxanthin synthesis. Identification of meso-zeaxanthin isomerase enzyme in the developing chicken embryo will facilitate our ability to determine the biochemical mechanisms responsible for production of this unique carotenoid in other higher vertebrates, such as humans.

  18. Mast cells are present in the choroid of the normal eye in most vertebrate classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul Gerard; Polla, Emily

    2013-07-01

    Mast cells are bone marrow-derived tissue-homing leukocytes, which have traditionally been regarded as effector cells in allergic disorders, responses against parasites, and regulation of blood flow, but a broader perspective of their functional heterogeneity, such as immunomodulation, angiogenesis, tissue repair, and remodeling after injury, is now emerging. The persistence of mast cells in connective tissues throughout the evolution of vertebrates is evidence of strong selective pressure suggesting that these cells must have multiple beneficial and important roles in normal homeostasis. While mast cells are present within the uveal tract of eutherian mammals, there is little known about their presence in the choroid of other vertebrate classes. Eye tissues from a range of vertebrate species (fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, marsupials, monotreme, and eutherian mammals) were investigated. Tissues were fixed in either 2% glutaraldehyde, 2% paraformaldehyde or a mixture of both and processed for resin embedding. Semi-thin sections of the retina and choroid were cut and stained with toluidine blue. Mast cells were identified in the choroid of all classes of vertebrates investigated except sharks. Their morphology, location, and staining characteristics were remarkably similar from teleost fish through to eutherian mammals and bore close morphological resemblance to mammalian connective tissue mast cells. The similar morphology and distribution of mast cells in the choroid of all vertebrate classes studied suggest a basic physiological function that has been retained since the evolution of the vertebrate eye. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Natural history of choroidal neovascularization after surgical induction in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; la Cour, Morten

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study an expanded time course of surgically induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a porcine model applying fluorescence angiography and immunohistology. METHODS: Twenty-two porcine eyes underwent vitrectomy, a retinal bleb was raised and the detached retina perforated using en...

  20. Prognostic value of nucleolar size and size pleomorphism in choroidal melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Gamel, J W; Jensen, O A

    1993-01-01

    Morphometric estimates of nucleolar size have been shown to possess a high prognostic value in patients with uveal melanomas. The authors investigated various quantitative estimators of the mean size and pleomorphism of nucleoli in choroidal melanomas from a consecutive series of 95 Danish patien...

  1. Prevalence of choroidal nevus and retinal pigment epithelial alterations in vitiligo patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleissig, Efrat; Pavlovksy, Mor; Loewenstein, Anat; Zur, Dinah; Newman, Hadas; Keren, Shay; Goldenberg, Dafna; Bar-Ilan, Efrat; Goldstein, Michaella

    2018-05-01

    To investigate ocular manifestations in patients with vitiligo by multimodal imaging, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), color fundus photography, and fundus autofluorescence (FAF). In this prospective, observational clinical study, vitiligo patients underwent ophthalmologic and dermatologic clinical assessment and imaging by spectral-domain OCT, FAF, and color fundus imaging. Ocular echography was performed as indicated. Statistical analysis was performed using paired T test and Pearson correlation. A total of 61 eyes of 31 vitiligo patients were examined. Ocular findings consisted of choroidal nevi (n = 10, 32%), of which four (40%) were bilateral; two patients (6.5%) had a prominent choroidal pattern, two (6.5%) had hypopigmentary retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lesions, and one (3.2%) had peripapillary atrophy of the RPE. Choroidal nevi were demonstrated only in eyes of patients with generalized vitiligo and were more common with upper body involvement (p = 0.02) and more prevalent in women (p = 0.02). Hypopigmentary lesions were detected in two patients and demonstrated on OCT as RPE atrophy and as photoreceptor/RPE changes. In this case series, vitiligo patients had a higher rate of choroidal nevi than previously reported. The hypopigmentary vitiliginous fundus lesions were depicted on OCT as photoreceptor and RPE atrophy. These findings may suggest the advisability of regular ocular monitoring for vitiligo patients.

  2. Diffuse choroidal haemangioma in Sturge-Weber syndrome treated with photodynamic therapy under general anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, EA; Muskens, RPHM; Ballast, A; Hooymans, JMM

    Purpose: To report the treatment outcome of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT) for exudative retinal detachment associated with diffuse choroidal haemangioma in Sturge-Weber syndrome. Methods: An interventional case report of a 12-year-old girl with Sturge-Weber syndrome who developed an

  3. Prolonged pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1......) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner and social conditions (IV). The National Birth Cohort provided data for the study on prenatal risk indicators of prolonged pregnancy in a follow-up design (V). The self-reported gestational ages from this database...

  4. Supra choroidal buckling in managing myopic vitreoretinal interface disorders: 1-year data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rayes, Ehab N

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of supra choroidal buckling procedure using a supra choroidal catheter, as a new approach in treating myopic vitreomacular interface disorders specially in difficult cases of myopic traction maculopathy with or without macular hole retinal detachment in posterior staphyloma depending on the concept of indenting the choroid only, from a 1-year data study. A newly developed supra choroidal catheter was used to deliver stabilized, cross-linked, long-acting hyaluronic acid as a filler in the supra choroidal space in the area of the staphyloma forming a choroidal indenting effect. Before the injection, pars plana vitrectomy was performed without internal limiting membrane peeling to avoid the risk of break of the roof of foveal detachment in case of foveoschisis. This indentation was used to treat 11 patients with myopic foveoschisis and 12 patients with myopic macular hole retinal detachment, 5 of whom had failed primary repair by vitrectomy before inclusion in this trial. Clinical and optical coherence tomographic evaluations of these patients were performed over 1-year follow-up. Retinal layer restoration was achieved in all 11 eyes with myopic foveoschisis. This was gradual over a period of 2 to 6 weeks postoperatively. No recurrence over the 12-month follow-up was observed. Visual acuity improved by 1 line or more in 9 eyes (81.8%). Of the 12 eyes, 10 with macular hole detachment (83%) showed closure of the holes in association with the resolution of the detachment; 2 eyes showed resolution of the detachment and flatting of the edge of the holes but with incomplete closure on optical coherence tomography. Eight eyes (66.6%) showed improvement in visual acuity by 1 or more lines with no recurrence of retinal detachment over the 12-month follow-up period. The indentation effect was sufficient over the 12-month follow-up period. The indentation effect achieved by supra choroidal approach can be used as a method of managing myopic foveoschisis

  5. Bevacizumab inhibits proliferation of choroidal endothelial cells by regulation of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusovici, Raluca; Patel, Chirag J; Chalam, Kakarla V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cell cycle changes in choroidal endothelial cells treated with varying doses of bevacizumab in the presence of a range of concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bevacizumab, a drug widely used in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, neutralizes all isoforms of VEGF. However, the effect of intravitreal administration of bevacizumab on the choroidal endothelial cell cycle has not been established. Monkey choroidal endothelial (RF/6A) cells were treated with VEGF 50 ng/mL and escalating doses of bevacizumab 0.1-2 mg/mL for 72 hours. Cell cycle changes in response to bevacizumab were analyzed by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. Cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Morphological changes were recorded by bright field cell microscopy. Bevacizumab inhibited proliferation of choroidal endothelial cells by stabilization of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle analysis of VEGF-enriched choroidal endothelial cells revealed a predominant increase in the G2/M population (21.84%, P, 0.01) and a decrease in the G0/G1 phase population (55.08%, P, 0.01). Addition of escalating doses of bevacizumab stabilized VEGF-enriched cells in the G0/G1 phase (55.08%, 54.49%, 56.3%, and 64% [P, 0.01]) and arrested proliferation by inhibiting the G2/M phase (21.84%, 21.46%, 20.59%, 20.94%, and 16.1% [P, 0.01]). The increase in G0/G1 subpopulation in VEGF-enriched and bevacizumab-treated cells compared with VEGF-enriched cells alone was dose-dependent. Bevacizumab arrests proliferation of VEGF-enriched choroidal endothelial cells by stabilizing the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and inhibiting the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent fashion.

  6. Susceptibility of Primary Human Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells and Meningeal Cells to Infection by JC Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Bethany A; Gee, Gretchen V; Atwood, Walter J; Haley, Sheila A

    2018-04-15

    JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) establishes a lifelong persistence in roughly half the human population worldwide. The cells and tissues that harbor persistent virus in vivo are not known, but renal tubules and other urogenital epithelial cells are likely candidates as virus is shed in the urine of healthy individuals. In an immunosuppressed host, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Recent observations indicate that JCPyV may productively interact with cells in the choroid plexus and leptomeninges. To further study JCPyV infection in these cells, primary human choroid plexus epithelial cells and meningeal cells were challenged with virus, and their susceptibility to infection was compared to the human glial cell line, SVG-A. We found that JCPyV productively infects both choroid plexus epithelial cells and meningeal cells in vitro Competition with the soluble receptor fragment LSTc reduced virus infection in these cells. Treatment of cells with neuraminidase also inhibited both viral infection and binding. Treatment with the serotonin receptor antagonist, ritanserin, reduced infection in SVG-A and meningeal cells. We also compared the ability of wild-type and sialic acid-binding mutant pseudoviruses to transduce these cells. Wild-type pseudovirus readily transduced all three cell types, but pseudoviruses harboring mutations in the sialic acid-binding pocket of the virus failed to transduce the cells. These data establish a novel role for choroid plexus and meninges in harboring virus that likely contributes not only to meningoencephalopathies but also to PML. IMPORTANCE JCPyV infects greater than half the human population worldwide and causes central nervous system disease in patients with weakened immune systems. Several recent reports have found JCPyV in the choroid plexus and leptomeninges of patients with encephalitis. Due to their role in forming the blood

  7. Reliability of CSF turbulence and choroid plexus visualization on fast-sequence MRI in pediatric hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzelle, Curtis J; Madura, Casey; Reeder, Ron W

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization for the treatment of neonatal and infant hydrocephalus has gained popularity in the past decade. Identifying treatment failure is critically important. Results of a pilot study of 2 novel imaging markers seen on fast-sequence T2-weighted axial MRI showed potential clinical utility. However, the reliability of multiple raters detecting these markers must be established before a multicenter validation study can be performed. METHODS Two sets of de-identified single-shot T2-weighted turbo spin-echo axial images were prepared from scans of patients before and after they underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization between March 2013 and January 2016. The first set showed the lateral and third ventricles for visualization of turbulent CSF dynamics, and the second set showed the lateral ventricular atria for choroid plexus glomus detection. Three raters (Group 1) received written instructions before evaluating each image set once and then again 1 week later. Another 8 raters (Group 2) evaluated both image sets after oral instruction and group training on a pretest image set. Fleiss' kappa coefficients with 95% CIs were calculated for intrarater and interrater reliability in Group 1 and interrater reliability in Group 2. RESULTS Intrarater reliability kappa coefficients for Group 1 were ≥ 0.74 for turbulence and ≥ 0.80 for choroid plexus; their interrater kappa coefficients at the initial assessment were 0.50 (95% CI 0.37-0.62) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.43-0.69), respectively. The Group 2 interrater kappa scores were 0.82 (95% CI 0.78-0.86) for turbulence and 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.66) for choroid plexus. CONCLUSIONS With minimal training, intrarater reliability on visualization of turbulence and the choroid plexus was substantial, but interrater reliability was only moderate. After modestly increasing training, interrater reliability improved to near perfect and to

  8. The effect of intravitreal bevacizumab and transpupillary thermotherapy on choroidal metastases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ju Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To represent the effects of transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT and intravitreal bevacizumab on choroidal metastases and review the literature. Settings and Design : A retrospective, interventional, noncomparative case series. Materials and Methods : A retrospective, interventional, noncomparative case series of five eyes in three patients with choroidal metastases was conducted. Fundus findings of choroidal metastases were divided into two types: Solitary or diffuse type. The size of the tumor was termed small (15 mm diameter. All eyes received one session of TTT followed by 3 weekly intravitreal bevacizumab injections as an adjuvant therapy. The parameters of treatment for TTT were 1.2-3 mm spot size, 150-300 mW, 60 s with the whole lesion covered confluently. The changes in preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA were recorded. Serial color fundus photography and optical coherent tomography were performed to measure the treatment efficacy. Results : All eight choroidal metastases were solitary type. The size of six tumors was small, the size of one tumor was medium, and the size of one tumor was large. All five eyes of the three patients had improvement of BCVA after treatment. Fundus photos revealed tumor shrinkage and the mean shrinkage percentage was 61.27 ± 21.71%. Optical coherence tomography revealed complete resolution of serous retinal detachment. There was no recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Conclusions : TTT combined with intravitreal bevacizumab injections brought about beneficial effects in reducing tumor size and improving vision in all five eyes of the three patients. Despite the retrospective nature of our study, the absence of control group and the size limitation that, of course, limit the statistical power, TTT combined with intravitreal bevacizumab seems to be efficient in providing another cost-reducing and time-saving treatment option for patients with choroidal metastases. The

  9. Characterization and functional correlation of multiple imaging modalities with focal choroidal excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chen Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the clinical manifestations and imaging features of near-infrared autofluorescence (NIA, infrared reflectance (IR, fundus autofluorescence (FAF, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA and fluorescein angiography (FAG in the detection of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE identified by cross-sectional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 12 eyes of 10 Taiwanese patients with FCE diagnosed by SD-OCT. The areas and depths of FCE in serial cross-sectional and en-face OCT were compared in different imaging modalities. NIA, IR, FAF, ICGA and FAG images were obtained. Best corrected visual acuity, subjective distortion area in the Amsler grid and history of maculopathies were also recorded. Results: In areas where the choroid started to excavate as shown in SD-OCT, hypo-autofluorescence in NIA was noted. The area of hypo-fluorescence in NIA of all the FCE lesions showed good correlation with the size. The area of FCE was associated with complications such as choroidal neovascularization and central serous chorioretinopathy (p = 0.014, d.f = 1 and the volume (NIA area × Depth measured by SD-OCT × 1/3 was associated with subjective distortion strongly (p = 0.051, Spearman's correlation = 0.600. Conclusion: Among all image modalities, NIA was the most sensitive tool in area measurement of FCE and peripheral lesion detection. Also, the volume of FCE was associated with subjective distortion and the area was related to complications. Recording the area and volume of FCE could play an important role in monitoring complications. Keywords: Choroid-retina disease, Focal choroidal excavation, Near-infrared autofluorescence, Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

  10. Clinical Features of Pregnancy-associated Retinal and Choroidal Diseases Causing Acute Visual Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Joo; Park, Kyu Hyung; Woo, Se Joon

    2017-08-01

    To report clinical features of patients with retinal and choroidal diseases presenting with acute visual disturbance during pregnancy. In this retrospective case series, patients who developed acute visual loss during pregnancy (including puerperium) and visited a tertiary hospital from July 2007 to June 2015, were recruited by searching electronic medical records. Patients were categorized according to the cause of visual loss. Clinical features and required diagnostic modalities were analyzed in the retinal and choroidal disease group. Acute visual loss occurred in 147 patients; 49 (38.9%) were classified into the retinal and choroidal group. The diagnoses included central serous chorioretinopathy (22.4%), hypertensive retinopathy with or without pre-eclampsia (22.4%), retinal tear with or without retinal detachment (18.4%), diabetic retinopathy progression (10.2%), Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (4.1%), retinal artery occlusion (4.1%), multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (4.1%), and others (14.3%). Visual symptoms first appeared at gestational age 25.9 ± 10.3 weeks. The initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.27 ± 0.39 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR); the final BCVA after delivery improved to 0.13 ± 0.35 logMAR. Serious visual deterioration (BCVA worth than 20 / 200) developed in two patients. Differential diagnoses were established with characteristic fundus and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in all cases. In pregnant women with acute visual loss, retinal and choroidal diseases are common and could be vision threatening. Physicians should be aware of pregnancy-associated retinal and choroidal diseases and their clinical features. The differential diagnosis can be established with non-invasive techniques. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  11. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  12. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  13. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  14. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  15. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  16. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  17. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  18. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings in bilateral choroidal osteoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Coban, Deniz Turgut; Ceran, Basak Bostanci; Bulut, Mehmet, E-mail: muhammetkazimerol@gmail.com [Kazim Erol. Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Ophthalmology Department, Antalya (Turkey)

    2013-11-01

    The authors present enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) characteristics of a patient with bilateral choroidal osteoma and try to make a correlation between two imaging techniques. Two eyes of a patient with choroidal osteoma underwent complete ophthalmic examination. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed a cage-like pattern, which corresponded to the calcified region of the tumor. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the same area showed slight hyperautofluorescence. Three different reflectivity patterns in the decalcified area were defined. In the areas of subretinal fluid, outer segment elongations similar to central serous chorioretinopathy were observed. Hyperautofluorescent spots were evident in fundus autofluorescence in the same area. Calcified and decalcified portions of choroidal osteoma as well as the atrophy of choriocapillaris demonstrated different patterns with enhanced depth imaging and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Both techniques were found to be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of choroidal osteoma. (author)

  19. Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Choroid In Vivo Compared With Histology After Enucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Qiang; Heegaard, Steffen; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study compared in vivo enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) with ex vivo histology of the choroid in human eyes. METHODS: Three eyes in three patients with advanced iris melanoma without posterior segment involvement underwent EDI-OCT less than 24 hours prior...... to enucleation and, in one eye, immediately after enucleation. Following fixation in 4% buffered formaldehyde and paraffin embedding, serial sections of the whole eye were cut horizontally, mounted, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and digitized. Alignment between histology and EDI-OCT was made on landmarks...... and subfoveal choroid thickness reduced to 56%, 45%, and 56%, respectively, of its in vivo thickness on EDI-OCT. CONCLUSIONS: There were no identifiable discrepancies in choroidal structural patterns between clinical EDI-OCT and histologic sections except that after enucleation and histologic fixation choroidal...

  20. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings in bilateral choroidal osteoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Coban, Deniz Turgut; Ceran, Basak Bostanci; Bulut, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The authors present enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) characteristics of a patient with bilateral choroidal osteoma and try to make a correlation between two imaging techniques. Two eyes of a patient with choroidal osteoma underwent complete ophthalmic examination. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed a cage-like pattern, which corresponded to the calcified region of the tumor. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the same area showed slight hyperautofluorescence. Three different reflectivity patterns in the decalcified area were defined. In the areas of subretinal fluid, outer segment elongations similar to central serous chorioretinopathy were observed. Hyperautofluorescent spots were evident in fundus autofluorescence in the same area. Calcified and decalcified portions of choroidal osteoma as well as the atrophy of choriocapillaris demonstrated different patterns with enhanced depth imaging and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Both techniques were found to be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of choroidal osteoma. (author)

  1. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings in bilateral choroidal osteoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kazim Erol

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF characteristics of a patient with bilateral choroidal osteoma and try to make a correlation between two imaging techniques. Two eyes of a patient with choroidal osteoma underwent complete ophthalmic examination. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed a cage-like pattern, which corresponded to the calcified region of the tumor. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the same area showed slight hyperautofluorescence. Three different reflectivity patterns in the decalcified area were defined. In the areas of subretinal fluid, outer segment elongations similar to central serous chorioretinopathy were observed. Hyperautofluorescent spots were evident in fundus autofluorescence in the same area. Calcified and decalcified portions of choroidal osteoma as well as the atrophy of choriocapillaris demonstrated different patterns with enhanced depth imaging and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Both techniques were found to be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of choroidal osteoma.

  2. Scleral electrocautery and its effects on choroid vessels: implications for subretinal fluid drainage during scleral buckling surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, C Nathaniel; Tsui, Irena; Sanfilippo, Christian; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    External drainage of subretinal fluid as part of a scleral buckling procedure rapidly restores the retinal pigment epithelium-neural retina interface in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments but carries the inherent risk of subretinal hemorrhage and retinal incarceration. The authors investigated variations to the technique to reduce the chance of subretinal hemorrhage originating from the choroid. A novel method for needle drainage using electrocautery of the sclerochoroidal layers before puncture was employed. The effect of 0% to 50% scleral electrocautery in a porcine model was investigated. A significant decrease in choroidal vessel diameter and choroidal vessel density at 40% electrocautery was demonstrated. Electrocautery without scleral cut-down before external drainage of subretinal fluid likely decreases the chance of subretinal hemorrhage by decreasing choroidal vascularity. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  4. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  5. Relapse of choroidal neovascularization in Bietti's crystalline retinopathy following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    HUA, RUI; CHEN, KANG; HU, YUEDONG; WANG, XINLING; CHEN, LEI

    2015-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization secondary to retinitis pigmentosa is rarely observed in clinical practice. The present study describes a case of atypical retinitis pigmentosa, crystalline retinal pigmentary degeneration, complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a 26-year-old man presenting with blurred vision in the right eye. Heidelberg multimodality imaging was performed to achieve a confirmed diagnosis. Bevacizumab was injected once intravitreally. The 3-month follow-up included v...

  6. Clinical and histological findings after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) in a porcine model of choroidal neovascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Scherfig, Erik

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of intravitreally injected bevacizumab (Avastin) on the histological and angiographic morphology of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a masked and placebo-controlled animal study. METHODS: Choroidal neovascularization was induced surgically in 11 porcine eyes by...... these membranes. After a single injection, bevacizumab did not exhibit a size reducing effect on CNV, but it was still present in the membranes 14 days after intravitreal injection....

  7. A new application of stannic pyrophosphate in nuclear medicine: scintigraphy of choroid plexus, morphological and quantitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, G. de; Akerman, M.; Panneciere, C.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    It was shown that the concentration of pertechnetate (Tc 99m) in the choroid plexus can be increased by previous injection of stannic pyrophosphate. This phenomenon affords an excellent morphological study of these structures, which trace most of the cerebral ventricles. An isotopic ventricle scintigraph is thus obtained by simple intraveinous injection. Furthermore a dynamic study supplies information on the functional activity of choroid plexus, of special interest in research on the pathology of the cerebrospinal fluid [fr

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Assessment of the 3-Dimensional Structures of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Tien; Yang, Chang-Hao; Cheng, Cheng-Kuo

    2017-12-01

    Investigating the quantitative 3-dimensional (3-D) anatomy of polypoidal complex is important for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). To quantitatively evaluate the 3-D characteristics of polypoidal structures, branching vascular networks (BVNs), and origin of PCV using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and multiple image systems. A prospective, observational study was conducted in 47 consecutive Taiwanese patients (47 eyes) from May 21, 2015, to April 30, 2017. All participants were scanned with the Optovue-RTVue-XR-Avanti OCTA system. Patients in whom PCV was identified on OCTA were examined to define characteristics and structures of the original spouting vessels (stalks) from the choroid, polypoidal structures, and BVNs on OCTA. Quantitative analysis of 3-D structures of the polypoidal complex. Among the 47 patients, the mean (SD) patient age was 68.9 (8.0) years, and 28 (59.6%) men were included. Clear images of polypoidal structures could be detected in 17 eyes (36.2%, 22 polypoidal structures), BVNs in 26 eyes (55.3%, 26 tufts of BVNs), and stalks of origin from the choroid in 26 eyes (55.3%, 26 stalks) on the en face plane on OCTA. All polypoidal structures were found at a mean (SD) height of 45.3 (36.1) μm above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) reference plane that was preset by the machine, while the BVNs were found at a mean (SD) depth of 28.6 (14.2) μm below the RPE reference plane and the choroidal stalks at 80.4 (24.4) μm below RPE reference plane. The mean (SD) thickness of polypoidal structures was 38.4 (15.5) μm and of BVNs, 60.2 (25.0) μm. The polypoidal structures were all above the Bruch membrane within the dome of the RPE detachment, the choroidal stalks were all in the choroid layer. The BVNs could be either above (up to 18 μm), within, or below (up to 28 μm) the Bruch membrane and were in proximity to the double layers of flattened RPE detachment. These results

  9. Krypton laser photocoagulation induces retinal vascular remodeling rather than choroidal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Cohen, F; Benezra, D; Soubrane, G; Jonet, L; Jeanny, J C

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the retina and choroid response following krypton laser photocoagulation. Ninety-two C57BL6/Sev129 and 32 C57BL/6J, 5-6-week-old mice received one single krypton (630 nm) laser lesion: 50 microm, 0.05 s, 400 mW. On the following day, every day thereafter for 1 week and every 2-3 days for the following 3 weeks, serial sections throughout the lesion were systematically collected and studied. Immunohistology using specific markers or antibodies for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (astrocytes, glia and Muller's cells), von Willebrand (vW) (vascular endothelial cells), TUNEL (cells undergoing caspase dependent apoptosis), PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) p36, CD4 and F4/80 (infiltrating inflammatory and T cells), DAPI (cell nuclei) and routine histology were carried out. Laser confocal microscopy was also performed on flat mounts. Temporal and spatial observations of the created photocoagulation lesions demonstrate that, after a few hours, activated glial cells within the retinal path of the laser beam express GFAP. After 48 h, GFAP-positive staining was also detected within the choroid lesion center. "Movement" of this GFAP-positive expression towards the lasered choroid was preceded by a well-demarcated and localized apoptosis of the retina outer nuclear layer cells within the laser beam path. Later, death of retinal outer nuclear cells and layer thinning at this site was followed by evagination of the inner nuclear retinal layer. Funneling of the entire inner nuclear and the thinned outer nuclear layers into the choroid lesion center was accompanied by "dragging" of the retinal capillaries. Thus, from days 10 to 14 after krypton laser photocoagulation onward, well-formed blood capillaries (of retinal origin) were observed within the lesion. Only a few of the vW-positive capillary endothelial cells stained also for PCNA p36. In the choroid, dilatation of the vascular bed occurred at the vicinity of the

  10. Iodine 125-lysergic acid diethylamide binds to a novel serotonergic site on rat choroid plexus epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagaloff, K.A.; Hartig, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    125 I-Lysergic acid diethylamide ( 125 I-LSD) binds with high affinity to serotonergic sites on rat choroid plexus. These sites were localized to choroid plexus epithelial cells by use of a novel high resolution stripping film technique for light microscopic autoradiography. In membrane preparations from rat choroid plexus, the serotonergic site density was 3100 fmol/mg of protein, which is 10-fold higher than the density of any other serotonergic site in brain homogenates. The choroid plexus site exhibits a novel pharmacology that does not match the properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine-1a (5-HT1a), 5-HT1b, or 5-HT2 serotonergic sites. 125 I-LSD binding to the choroid plexus site is potently inhibited by mianserin, serotonin, and (+)-LSD. Other serotonergic, dopaminergic, and adrenergic agonists and antagonists exhibit moderate to weak affinities for this site. The rat choroid plexus 125 I-LSD binding site appears to represent a new type of serotonergic site which is located on non-neuronal cells in this tissue

  11. Prolonged CT urography in duplex kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghan; Gao, Lei; Dai, Xi-Jian; Zhou, Fuqing; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Xianjun; Jiang, Jian; He, Laichang

    2016-05-13

    Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) and has been suggested to considerably aid in the duplex kidney diagnosi. Unfortunately, regarding duplex kidney with prolonged dilatation, the affected parenchyma and tortuous ureters demonstrate a lack of or delayed excretory opacification. We used prolonged-delay CTU, which consists of another prolonged-delay phase (1- to 72-h delay; mean delay: 24 h) to opacify the duplicated ureters and affected parenchyma. Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5-56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with duplex kidney were included in this study. Unenhanced scans did not find typical characteristics of duplex kidney, except for irregular perirenal morphology. Duplex kidney could not be confirmed on typical four-phase CTU, whereas it could be easily diagnosed in axial and CT-3D reconstruction using prolonged CTU (prolonged-delay phase). Between January 2005 and October 2010, in this review board-approved study (with waived informed consent), 17 patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5 ~ 56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with suspicious duplex kidney underwent prolonged CTU to opacify the duplicated ureters and confirm the diagnosis. Our results suggest the validity of prolonged CTU to aid in the evaluation of the function of the affected parenchyma and in the demonstration of urinary tract malformations.

  12. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  13. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  14. Choroidal thickness alterations in diabetic nephropathy patients with early or no diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasarac, Can; Yigit, Yavuz; Sengul, Erkan; Sakalar, Yildirim Beyazit

    2018-04-01

    To assess changes in choroidal thickness (CT) in diabetes patients with and without diabetic nephropathy using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Thirty-five type 2 diabetes patients with a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DNP) in nephrology department and 35 type 2 diabetes patients without nephropathy (non-DNP) were included in our prospective study consecutively. The control group comprised 34 healthy individuals. CT measurements were recorded under the fovea and at 1500 µm from the foveal center in the nasal and temporal sides. The study parameters also included age, refractive error, axial length, intraocular pressure, HbA1c, glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria amount. The subfoveal, temporal and nasal choroidal thickness was noted to be thinner in patients with DNP compared with non-DNP and normal subjects (p diabetic patients when diabetic nephropathy accompanies diabetes mellitus.

  15. Intravitreal bevacizumab for treatment of choroidal neovascularization associated with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old girl, diagnosed of osteogenesis imperfecta, presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. Investigations revealed an active choroidal neovascular membrane. She underwent treatment with intravitreal Bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 ml. Follow-up at 1 month revealed the development of lacquer crack running through the macula, underlying the fovea. The patient received two re-treatments at 1-month intervals, following which the choroidal neovascularization (CNV regressed completely. However, further progression of lacquer cracks was noted. At the last follow-up, 6 months following the last injection, the fundus remained stable and vision was maintained at 20/200. Considering the natural history of the disease and the increased risk of rupture of the Bruch′s membrane in such eyes, the possible complication of a lacquer crack developing must be borne in mind, before initiating treatment.

  16. Effect of Reduced Meal Frequency during Ramadan Fasting on Retinal and Choroidal Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersan, Ismail; Tufan, Hasan Ali; Arikan, Sedat; Kara, Selcuk; Gencer, Baran; Hondur, Ahmet Murat

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on central foveal thickness (CFT) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in healthy individuals using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). The EDI-OCT scans of 42 healthy individuals obtained after about 12 hours of fasting on at least the twenty-first consecutive day of fasting were compared to scans of the same patients taken one month after the last day they had fasted. CFT values were similar for both time periods (p > 0.05). The SFCT was significantly higher after consecutive fasting days towards the end of Ramadan, compared to the SFCT after one month of no fasting (one month after Ramadan ended) (p Ramadan fasting may lead to a significant increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness without affecting the central foveal thickness.

  17. Unilateral solitary choroid metastasis from breast cancer: Rewarding results of external radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular metastatic tumor is the commonest intraocular malignancy in adults, with uveal tract the commonest site. In nearly 85% of cases the choroid is the afflicted site due to its vascularity. Breast and lung are the common primaries. In breast primaries, this could be the first metastatic disease. This condition should always be kept in mind in patients with visual symptoms. Fundus examination, ultrasonography and CT/MRI of the orbit help in diagnosis. Early recognition and timely treatment can save the visual function thus imparting good quality of life to the patient. External beam radiotherapy is a good local form of treatment. Hormone therapy in hormone receptor positive tumors can have additional benefits. Here we report a case of unilateral solitary choroid metastasis in a case of breast cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy.

  18. Bilateral choroidal neovascularization response to unilateral intravitreal Ranibizumab injection in a patient with angioid streaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio de Oliveira Maia Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Report of a 48 year-old male with bilateral decrease in vision due to choroidal neovascularization secondary to angioid streaks. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/80 in the right eye and counting fingers at 2 meters on the left eye. Patient underwent intravitreal injection of Ranibizumab (Lucentis in the eye with worse visual acuity. Fifteen days after treatment patient reported better visual acuity on the fellow eye, which was measured to be 20/25. Treatment result was evaluated with visual acuity and optical coherence tomography. The effect of ranibizumab was observed in the treated eye, but the fellow eye had complete resolution of the choroidal neovascularization complex. This result may be a response to systemic absorption of the medication.

  19. Heparanase-1 activities in the development of laser induced choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Ke Hou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the role of heparanase-1 in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV.METHODS:Experimental CNV was induced by krypton laser photocoagulation in 15 male Brown Norway rats. Fundus fluorescein angiography and histopathological examination were performed in observing the CNV development. The expression and distribution of heparanase-1 protein in the laser lesions were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis.RESULTS:The success rate of laser induced CNV was approximately 75% on 3-4 weeks after laser photocoagulation. The protein levels of heparanase-1 increased significantly in the retina-choroidal complex of CNV models when compared to normal rat eyes (P<0.01. Immunostaining confirmed strong heparanase-1 expressions in all laser lesions, and it displayed to be highest at the newly formed blood vessels within the fibrovascular complex in the subretinal space.CONCLUSION:Heparanase-1 is closely involved in the development of laser induced CNV.

  20. [Choroidal neovascularization followed in a patient with "Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome" (MEWDS) -- a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, U; Palmowski, A M; Weich, C-M; Ruprecht, K W

    2004-12-01

    Since the description of the "multiple evanescent white dot syndrome" (MEWDS) by Jampol et al, choroiditis has been in the focus of interest. But the classical type of MEWDS was an exceptional case in clinical routine. A 48-year-old female presented to our hospital with a sudden unilateral visual acuity decrease and an extension of the blind spot. Ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography revealed typical multiple grey-white chorioretinal patches of the same stage with lesion areas of about 100 - 200 microm compatible with the diagnose of MEWDS. Although visual acuity increased continuously the patient developed a classical choroidal neovascularization within 4 weeks. She was treated with PDT and visual acuity as well as the ophthalmoscopic diagnosis remained stable. In spite of visual improvement in MEWDS, regular control is recommended. In addition we propose to consider the diagnosis of MEWDS if an enlargement of the blind spot and CNV without lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium are diagnosed.

  1. miR-539-5p inhibits experimental choroidal neovascularization by targeting CXCR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yifan; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Xi; Shen, Minqian; Yuan, Fei

    2018-03-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been previously confirmed to participate in the formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) via its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4; CXCR7 is a recently identified receptor for SDF-1. The molecular mechanisms and therapeutic value of CXCR7 in CNV remain undefined. In this study, experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown-Norway pigmented rats, and aberrant CXCR7 overexpression was detected in the retinal pigment epithelial/choroid/sclera tissues of laser-injured eyes. Blockade of CXCR7 activation via CXCR7 knockdown or neutralizing Ab administration inhibited SDF-1-induced cell survival and the tubular formation of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) in vitro and reduced CNV leakage and lesion size in vivo. By using microRNA array screening and bioinformatic analyses, we identified miR-539-5p as a regulator of CXCR7. Transfection of HRMECs and choroid-retinal endothelial (RF/6A) cells with the miR-539-5p mimic inhibited their survival and tube formation, whereas CXCR7 overexpression rescued the suppressive effect of miR-539-5p. The antiangiogenic activities of the miR-539-5p mimic were additionally demonstrated in vivo by intravitreal injection. ERK1/2 and AKT signaling downstream of CXCR7 is involved in the miR-539-5p regulation of endothelial cell behaviors. These findings suggest that the manipulation of miR-539-5p/CXCR7 levels may have important therapeutic implications in CNV-associated diseases.-Feng, Y., Wang, J., Yuan, Y., Zhang, X., Shen, M., Yuan, F. miR-539-5p inhibits experimental choroidal neovascularization by targeting CXCR7.

  2. Proton or photon irradiation for hemangiomas of the choroid? A retrospective comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoecht, Stefan; Wachtlin, Joachim; Bechrakis, Nikolaos E.; Schaefer, Christiane; Heufelder, Jens; Cordini, Dino; Kluge, Heinz; Foerster, Michael; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare, on a retrospective basis, the results of therapy in patients with uveal hemangioma treated with photon or proton irradiation at a single center. Methods and Materials: From 1993 to 2002 a total of 44 patients were treated. Until 1998 radiotherapy was given with 6 MV photons in standard fractionation of 2.0 Gy 5 times per week. In 1998 proton therapy became available and was used since then. A dose of 20 to 22.5 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) 68 MeV protons was given on 4 consecutive days. Progressive symptoms or deterioration of vision were the indications for therapy. Results: Of the 44 patients treated, 36 had circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas and 8 had diffuse choroidal hemangiomas (DCH) and Sturge-Weber syndrome. Of the patients, 19 were treated with photons with a total dose in the range of 16 to 30 Gy. A total of 25 patients were irradiated with protons. All patients with DCH but 1 were treated with photons. Stabilization of visual acuity was achieved in 93.2% of all patients. Tumor thickness decreased in 95.4% and retinal detachment resolved in 92.9%. Late effects, although generally mild or moderate, were frequently detected. In all, 40.9% showed radiation-induced optic neuropathy, maximum Grade I. Retinopathy was found in 29.5% of cases, but only 1 patient experienced more than Grade II severity. Retinopathy and radiation-induced optic neuropathy were reversible in some of the patients and in some resolved completely. No differences could be detected between patients with circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas treated with protons and photons. Treatment was less effective in DCH patients (75%). Conclusions: Radiotherapy is effective in treating choroidal hemangiomas with respect to visual acuity and tumor thickness but a benefit of proton therapy could not be detected. Side effects are moderate but careful monitoring for side effects should be part of the follow-up procedures

  3. Acute triventricular hydrocephalus caused by choroid plexus cysts: a diagnostic and neurosurgical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spennato, Pietro; Chiaramonte, Carmela; Cicala, Domenico; Donofrio, Vittoria; Barbarisi, Manlio; Nastro, Anna; Mirone, Giuseppe; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Cinalli, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraventricular choroid plexus cysts are unusual causes of acute hydrocephalus in children. Radiological diagnosis of intraventricular choroid plexus cysts is difficult because they have very thin walls and fluid contents similar to CSF and can go undetected on routine CT studies. METHODS This study reports the authors' experience with 5 patients affected by intraventricular cysts originating from the choroid plexus. All patients experienced acute presentation with rapid neurological deterioration, sometimes associated with hypothalamic dysfunction, and required urgent surgery. In 2 cases the symptoms were intermittent, with spontaneous remission and sudden clinical deteriorations, reflecting an intermittent obstruction of the CSF pathway. RESULTS Radiological diagnosis was difficult in these cases because a nonenhanced CT scan revealed only triventricular hydrocephalus, with slight lateral ventricle asymmetry in all cases. MRI with driven-equilibrium sequences and CT ventriculography (in 1 case) allowed the authors to accurately diagnose the intraventricular cysts that typically occupied the posterior part of the third ventricle, occluding the aqueduct and at least 1 foramen of Monro. The patients were managed by urgent implantation of an external ventricular drain in 1 case (followed by endoscopic surgery, after completing a diagnostic workup) and by urgent endoscopic surgery in 4 cases. Endoscopic surgery allowed the shrinkage and near-complete removal of the cysts in all cases. Use of neuronavigation and a laser were indispensable. All procedures were uneventful, resulting in restoration of normal neurological conditions. Long-term follow-up (> 2 years) was available for 2 patients, and no complications or recurrences occurred. CONCLUSIONS This case series emphasizes the necessity of an accurate and precise identification of the possible causes of triventricular hydrocephalus. Endoscopic surgery can be considered the ideal treatment of choroid plexus

  4. Profile of serpiginous choroiditis in a tertiary eye care centre in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the clinical profile of serpiginous choroiditis in eastern India. Materials and Methods: Ninety-one eyes of 54 patients with serpiginous choroiditis presenting to a tertiary care centre in eastern India between January 2006 and December 2010 were included in the study. Clinical presentation, treatment given, and visual outcome of the eyes were studied. Results: Thirty-five (64.8% patients were male and 19 (35.2% were female in the age group of 13-62 years (mean age: 34.1 μ 18.7 years. Blurring of vision (71; 78% and floaters (36; 39.5% were commonest symptoms. In 75 (82.4% eyes, choroiditis started from optic nerve head and spreading centrifugally. Overall, 38 (41.75% eyes had macular involvement at first visit. Mantoux test reading was 10 mm or more (Group A in 12 (22.22% patients and less than 10 mm (Group B in 42 (77.77% patients. Difference between Groups A and B in macular involvement at first visit (10; 50% vs. 28; 39.4% and rate of recurrence (3; 15% vs. 14; 19.7% was not statistically significant (P = 0.37 and 0.68. Oral steroid (51; 94.4% was the commonest mode of treatment. Fifty-one (56% eyes had two lines or more improvement in vision. Conclusions: The present study details the clinical presentation, treatment, and visual outcome of serpiginous choroiditis. Mantoux test reading does not affect the clinical presentation or the treatment outcome in these eyes.

  5. Efficacy of reduced dose of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in a case of active serpiginous choroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avirupa Ghose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active serpiginous choroiditis (SC is a vision-threatening condition which requires intensive treatment using corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressives, especially if the lesions are involving or encroaching on the macula. Use of oral and intravenous high-dose steroids are contraindicated in uncontrolled diabetics. Intravitreal steroid delivers a localized dose in such situations. This case report highlights the efficacy of reduced dose of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (2 mg in the treatment of active SC.

  6. Curie-therapy for the conservative treatment of 304 choroidal melanomas in the Catalonia Oncology Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riou, O.; Gutierrez, C.; Pera, J.; Martinez, E.; Caminal, J.M.; Modolell, I.; Navarro, V.; Guedea, F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report an analysis of results obtained on 304 patients who have been treated by curie-therapy for a non-metastatic choroidal melanoma. They address the treatment (exclusive curie-therapy, local relapse, and adjuvant surgery), the treatment type (iodine-125 plate, ruthenium plate, and dose level), the survival, metastatic evolutions, toxicity occurrence, and vision quality. In most of the cases, curie-therapy results in ocular conservation and in an acceptable vision. Short communication

  7. Transscleral sustained vasohibin-1 delivery by a novel device suppressed experimentally-induced choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Onami

    Full Text Available We established a sustained vasohibin-1 (a 42-kDa protein, delivery device by a novel method using photopolymerization of a mixture of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and collagen microparticles. We evaluated its effects in a model of rat laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV using a transscleral approach. We used variable concentrations of vasohibin-1 in the devices, and used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting to measure the released vasohibin-1 (0.31 nM/day when using the 10 μM vasohibin-1 delivery device [10VDD]. The released vasohibin-1 showed suppression activity comparable to native effects when evaluated using endothelial tube formation. We also used pelletized vasohibin-1 and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 40 kDa dextran as controls. Strong fluorescein staining was observed on the sclera when the device was used for drug delivery, whereas pellet use produced strong staining in the conjunctiva and surrounding tissue, but not on the sclera. Vasohibin-1 was found in the sclera, choroid, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, and neural retina after device implantation. Stronger immunoreactivity at the RPE and ganglion cell layers was observed than in other retinal regions. Significantly lower fluorescein angiography (FA scores and smaller CNV areas in the flat mounts of RPE-choroid-sclera were observed for the 10VDD, VDD (1 μM vasohibin-1 delivery device, and vasohibin-1 intravitreal direct injection (0.24 μM groups when compared to the pellet, non-vasohibin-1 delivery device, and intravitreal vehicle injection groups. Choroidal neovascularization can be treated with transscleral sustained protein delivery using our novel device. We offer a safer sustained protein release for treatment of retinal disease using the transscleral approach.

  8. Characteristics of choroidal neovascularization in the complications of age-related macular degeneration prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Maureen G; Alexander, Judith; Fine, Stuart L

    2008-09-01

    To describe the characteristics of incident choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in observed and treated eyes in the Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT). Cross-sectional descriptive study within a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Patients who developed CNV during CAPT follow-up. Inclusion criteria for CAPT specified bilateral large drusen (>or=10 drusen at least 125 micro), visual acuity >or=20/40 in each eye, and age >or=50. Exclusion criteria included CNV and geographic atrophy >1 Macular Photocoagulation Study (MPS) disc area or within 500 micro of the foveal center. One eye of each person was selected randomly for low-intensity laser treatment and the contralateral eye was observed. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline, annually for >or=5 years, and whenever there were symptoms of CNV. Trained readers at the CAPT Photograph Reading Center assessed color stereo photographs and angiogram negatives to identify CNV. Choroidal neovascularization was classified by type (predominantly classic CNV, minimally classic CNV, occult only CNV, or scar), location, and area. Visual acuity was measured by certified examiners. Symmetry of characteristics between eyes of bilaterally affected patients was examined. Choroidal neovascularization developed in 282 eyes of 225 patients. At the time of detection, 192 (68%) of the lesions were occult only, 153 (54%) were subfoveal, and 157 (56%) were or=20/40 in 123 (69%) of 179 eyes with visual acuity measured at the time of detection. Choroidal neovascularization developed in both eyes in 57 patients (25%) during CAPT follow-up. Lesions in eyes of bilaterally affected patients were no more similar to each other than affected eyes in 2 different patients. When patients are monitored closely, many CNV lesions can be detected outside of the fovea and when they are relatively small. Early detection may lead to improved long-term visual acuity.

  9. Mobile Laser Indirect Ophthalmoscope: For the Induction of Choroidal Neovascularization in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Dov; Bor-Shavit, Elite; Barliya, Tilda; Dahbash, Mor; Kinrot, Opher; Gaton, Dan D; Nisgav, Yael; Livnat, Tami

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate and standardize the reliability of a mobile laser indirect ophthalmoscope in the induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a mouse model. A diode laser indirect ophthalmoscope was used to induce CNV in pigmented male C57BL/6J mice. Standardization of spot size and laser intensity was determined using different aspheric lenses with increasing laser intensities applied around the optic disc. Development of CNV was evaluated 1, 5, and 14 days post laser application using fluorescein angiography (FA), histology, and choroidal flat mounts stained for the endothelial marker CD31 and FITC-dextran. Correlation between the number of laser hits to the number and size of developed CNV lesions was determined using flat mount choroid staining. The ability of intravitreally injected anti-human and anti-mouse VEGF antibodies to inhibit CNV induced by the mobile laser was evaluated. Laser parameters were standardized on 350 mW for 100 msec, using the 90 diopter lens to accomplish the highest incidence of Bruch's membrane rupture. CNV lesions' formation was validated on days 5 and 14 post laser injury, though FA showed leakage on as early as day 1. The number of laser hits was significantly correlated with the CNV area. CNV growth was successfully inhibited by both anti-human and mouse VEGF antibodies. The mobile laser indirect ophthalmoscope can serve as a feasible and a reliable alternative method for the CNV induction in a mouse model.

  10. Evaluation of 10 AMD Associated Polymorphisms as a Cause of Choroidal Neovascularization in Highly Myopic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Velazquez-Villoria

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascularization (CNV commonly occurs in age related macular degeneration and pathological myopia patients. In this study we conducted a case-control prospective study including 431 participants. The aim of this study was to determine the potential association between 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in 4 different genetic regions (CFI, COL8A1, LIPC, and APOE, and choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration and the development of choroidal neovascularization in highly myopic eyes of a Caucasian population. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and hypertension was performed for each allele, genotype and haplotype frequency analysis. We found that in the univariate analysis that both single-nucleotide polymorphisms in COL8A1 gene (rs13095226 and rs669676 together with age, sex and hypertension were significantly associated with myopic CNV development in Spanish patients (p0.05; however, analysis of the axial length between genotypes of rs13095226 revealed an important influence of COL8A1 in the development of CNV in high myopia. Furthermore we conducted a meta-analysis of COL8A1, CFI and LIPC genes SNPs (rs669676, rs10033900 and rs10468017 and found that only rs669676 of these SNPs were associated with high myopia neovascularization.

  11. Choroid plexus metastasis of renal-cell carcinoma. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemori, Minoru; Shimamoto, Houtetsu; Noguchi, Shinji; Yoshitake, Yasuhiro; Sugita, Yasuo; Kuramoto, Shinken

    1987-10-01

    A rare case of the choroid plexus metastasis of renal-cell carcinoma is reported. A 58-year-old man was admitted on March 3, 1982, with complaints of mild headache and a transient attack of muscle weakness of the left upper extremity. He had undergone a left nephrectomy because of renal-cell carcinoma 2 years before this admission. A CT scan revealed a small mass in the right lateral ventricle that was markedly enhanced by the contrast medium. A carotid angiogram was normal, but a left vertebral angiogram showed a round tumor stain in the distal portion of the right posterior choroidal artery. To determine the nature of the tumor, it was successfully removed via the right frontal transventricular approach. The immediate recovery from the operation was uneventful, but the patient became semicomatose 6 hours later because of a large subdural hematoma over the left hemisphere. An emergency operation for clot removal and external decompression failed to improve the patient's status, and he died on the 3rd postoperative day. An histological examination of the tumor determined the diagnosis of clear-cell-type renal-cell carcinoma. The CT demonstration of choroid plexus metastasis is quite rare. To our knowledge, only two cases have been described.

  12. X-ray induced dysplasia in the developing telencephalic choroid plexus of mice exposed in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzmann, U.

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant NMRI-mice were X-irradiated with single doses of 0.95 Gy (100 R) and 1.9 Gy (200 R) on day of gestation (dg) 12. For sampling, anesthetized animals were perfused with buffered glutaraldehyde solution or fixed by immersion in Karnovsky solution. LM, SEM, and TEM studies were carried out on brains prenatally and up to the age of 20 months to follow the radiation effects on the developing lateral choroid plexus. Radiation-induced changes were found using all three methods and at all stages studied. The normally sickle-shaped and stretched choroid plexus is shortened and irregular, and the dome-shaped plexus cells are flattened. Their superficial fine structures, i.e., the microvilli and cilia, are altered. Three stages of severity can be distinguished and the internal hydromicrocephalus increases from stage I to III. Intercellular spaces of the treated plexus epithelium are often dilated, but the tight junctions at the ventricular surface seem to be intact. The interstitium shows large dilations in comparison with the controls. Thus, gross changes and alterations in the fine structure can be induced in the choroid plexus by doses of 0.95 Gy and 1.9 Gy, which persist throughout postnatal life

  13. Comparison of calcification of pineal, habenular commissure and choroid plexus on plain films and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, P.; Matheson, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Skull radiographs and CT scans of 1,000 consecutive patients were examined for evidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexuses. Plain film results were in agreement with previous surveys suggesting that the CT scan results may be accepted as general findings. Pineal calcification was seen on films in 61% and on CT scans in 83% of those over 30. On both films and CT scans calcification was 10% higher in males. Only 1% had a pineal 12 mm or larger on films. In at least 5% it was impossible to separate the habenula from the pineal by CT: including these, 5% had pineals larger than the accepted upper limit of normal. Measurements from males were 0.4 mm larger than for females on films and 0.2 mm larger on CT scans. Habenular commissure calcification was seen on films in 13% and on CT in 15% of those over 30, being 10% higher in males. Bilateral choroid plexus calcification was seen on frontal films in 15% and on CT in 77% of those over 30. On skull films the frequency of calcification was 2%-3% higher for adult males than females and on CT 7% higher. Calcification was seen on the lateral but not the frontal film in 128 patients. One choroid plexus only was seen on 14/ frontal films and on 49 CT scans. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  14. Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of ginkgo biloba extract(EGb 761on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization(CNVin rats.METHODS: Totally 60 BN rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, model group, experimental group, physiological saline group with 15 in each group. All CNV models were made by krypton laser. Rats in experimental group were intraperitoneally injected with 0.35% EGb761(100mg/kgevery day after laser exposure until they were sacrificed. Rats in physiological saline group were intraperitoneally injected physiological saline every day after laser exposure until they were sacrificed. Fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAwas performed on every rat on the 7th day, 14th day and the 21st day after laser exposure, then the rats were sacrificed immediately. The eyes were enucleated and processed for histopathologic examination.RESULTS: There was no choroidal fluorescein leakage staining in normal rats. There were obviously less choroidal fluorescein leakage points in experimental groups than that in the corresponding model groups(PCONCLUSION: EGb761 len inhibit the formation of laser-induced CNV in rats. The longer the time, the better curative effect.

  15. Hedgehog Signaling Components Are Expressed in Choroidal Neovascularization in Laser-induced Retinal Lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochioka, Katsunori; Okuda, Hiroaki; Tatsumi, Kouko; Morita, Shoko; Ogata, Nahoko; Wanaka, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization is one of the major pathological changes in age-related macular degeneration, which causes devastating blindness in the elderly population. The molecular mechanism of choroidal neovascularization has been under extensive investigation, but is still an open question. We focused on sonic hedgehog signaling, which is implicated in angiogenesis in various organs. Laser-induced injuries to the mouse retina were made to cause choroidal neovascularization. We examined gene expression of sonic hedgehog, its receptors (patched1, smoothened, cell adhesion molecule down-regulated by oncogenes (Cdon) and biregional Cdon-binding protein (Boc)) and downstream transcription factors (Gli1-3) using real-time RT-PCR. At seven days after injury, mRNAs for Patched1 and Gli1 were upregulated in response to injury, but displayed no upregulation in control retinas. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Patched1 and Gli1 proteins were localized to CD31-positive endothelial cells that cluster between the wounded retina and the pigment epithelium layer. Treatment with the hedgehog signaling inhibitor cyclopamine did not significantly decrease the size of the neovascularization areas, but the hedgehog agonist purmorphamine made the areas significantly larger than those in untreated retina. These results suggest that the hedgehog-signaling cascade may be a therapeutic target for age-related macular degeneration

  16. Transport of cefodizime, a novel third generation cephalosporin antibiotic, in isolated rat choroid plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohjoh, T.; Suzuki, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sugiyama, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1989-01-01

    To characterize the transport system by which cephalosporin antibiotics are accumulated by the choroid plexus, kinetic analysis of cefodizime transport was performed. Accumulation of cefodizime was against an electrochemical potential gradient via a saturable process (Km = 470 microM, Vmax = 174 nmol/ml of tissue per min) that was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors (KCN and 2,4-dinitrophenol), hypothermia, a sulfhydryl reagent (p-hydroxymer-curibenzoic acid) and anion transport inhibitors (probenecid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene -2,2'-disulfonic acid). Accumulation of cefodizime was inhibited competitively by benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of aproximately 100 microM. Cefodizime inhibited competitively the accumulation of benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of approximately 500 microM. Kinetic analysis using 16 kinds of beta-lactam antibiotics also supported the view (1) that the transport system of cefodizime is shared by benzylpenicillin and (2) that these beta-lactam antibiotics are transported via a common transport system. These findings indicate that the major transport system of cephalosporin antibiotics in the rat choroid plexus is via a carrier-mediated active anion transport process. The affinity of beta-lactam antibiotics for this transport system in the choroid plexus may be a major factor in determining their pharmacokinetics in the cerebrospinal fluid

  17. Lesões expansivas do plexo coróide Choroid plexus mass lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lima Araújo Melo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As lesões expansivas do plexo coróide constituem um grupo bastante amplo e heterogêneo de doenças e seus simuladores. Tumores, infecções, anomalias congênitas, hemorragias, cistos e fenômenos degenerativos são alguns dos exemplos de causas de lesões expansivas do plexo coróide. No presente trabalho fizemos revisão da literatura pertinente, descrevendo os achados de imagem e ilustrando-os com alguns casos do nosso serviço. Apesar de não existir na literatura descrição de sinais patognomônicos, a avaliação criteriosa e sistemática das características das lesões pode sugerir determinada etiologia.Choroid plexus mass lesions encompass a broad and heterogeneous group of diseases and their simulators. Tumors, infections, congenital anomalies, hemorrhage, cysts and degenerative diseases are some examples of mass lesions affecting the choroid plexus. In this article we review the current literature, describing the imaging findings and illustrating choroid plexus mass lesions with some cases diagnosed at our facility. Despite the inexistence of pathognomonic signs, a careful and systematic evaluation of the imaging characteristics may suggest many etiologies.

  18. Retinopathy of prematurity: inflammation, choroidal degeneration, and novel promising therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, José Carlos; Holm, Mari; Austeng, Dordi; Morken, Tora Sund; Zhou, Tianwei Ellen; Beaudry-Richard, Alexandra; Sierra, Estefania Marin; Dammann, Olaf; Chemtob, Sylvain

    2017-08-22

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an important cause of childhood blindness globally, and the incidence is rising. The disease is characterized by initial arrested retinal vascularization followed by neovascularization and ensuing retinal detachment causing permanent visual loss. Although neovascularization can be effectively treated via retinal laser ablation, it is unknown which children are at risk of entering this vision-threatening phase of the disease. Laser ablation may itself induce visual field deficits, and there is therefore a need to identify targets for novel and less destructive treatments of ROP. Inflammation is considered a key contributor to the pathogenesis of ROP. A large proportion of preterm infants with ROP will have residual visual loss linked to loss of photoreceptor (PR) and the integrity of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the macular region. Recent studies using animal models of ROP suggest that choroidal degeneration may be associated with a loss of integrity of the outer retina, a phenomenon so far largely undescribed in ROP pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight inflammatory and neuron-derived factors related to ROP progression, as well, potential targets for new treatment strategies. We also introduce choroidal degeneration as a significant cause of residual visual loss following ROP. We propose that ROP should no longer be considered an inner retinal vasculopathy only, but also a disease of choroidal degeneration affecting both retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor integrity.

  19. A novel, microscope based, non invasive Laser Doppler flowmeter for choroidal blood flow assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmaier, C; Werkmeister, RM; Bogner, B; Runge, C; Schroedl, F; Brandtner, H; Radner, W; Schmetterer, L; Kiel, JW; Grabnerand, G; Reitsamer, HA

    2015-01-01

    Impaired ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous ocular diseases like glaucoma or AMD. The purpose of the present study was to introduce and validate a novel, microscope based, non invasive laser Doppler flowmeter (NILDF) for measurement of blood flow in the choroid. The custom made NI-LDF was compared with a commercial fiber optic based laser Doppler flowmeter (Perimed PF4000). Linearity and stability of the NI-LDF were assessed in a silastic tubing model (i.d. 0.3 mm) at different flow rates (range 0.4 – 3 ml/h). In a rabbit model continuous choroidal blood flow measurements were performed with both instruments simultaneously. During blood flow measurements ocular perfusion pressure was changed by manipulations of intraocular pressure via intravitreal saline infusions. The NILDF measurement correlated linearly to intraluminal flow rates in the perfused tubing model (r = 0.99, p<0.05) and remained stable during a 1 hour measurement at a constant flow rate. Rabbit choroidal blood flow measured by the PF4000 and the NI-LDF linearly correlated with each other over the entire measurement range (r = 0.99, y = x* 1,01 – 12,35 P.U., p < 0,001). In conclusion, the NI-LDF provides valid, semi quantitative measurements of capillary blood flow in comparison to an established LDF instrument and is suitable for measurements at the posterior pole of the eye. PMID:21443871

  20. Prolonged delirium misdiagnosed as a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium can be conceptualized as an acute decline in cognitive function that typically lasts from hours to a few days. Prolonged delirium can also affect patients with multiple predisposing and/or precipitating factors. In clinical practice, prolonged delirium is often unrecognized, and can be misdiagnosed as other psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that was first misdiagnosed as a mood disorder in a general hospital setting. After prolonged delirium due to multiple factors was confirmed, the patient was treated accordingly with symptomatic management. He evolved with progressive improvement of his clinical status. Early diagnosis and management of prolonged delirium are important to improve patient prognosis and avoid iatrogenic measures.

  1. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Kulairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  2. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  3. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    ) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... an ultrasound scan in the first or second trimester, or menstrual history was best at predicting the day of delivery; 5) to study the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner, social status and municipality; and 6) to detect prenatal risk indicators of prolonged...... of perinatal and obstetrical complications was high in post-term delivery compared to term delivery (OR between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death (OR=1.36 (1.08-1.72)) was also higher in the post-term group (I). The self-reported gestational ages in the National Birth Cohort correlated well with data...

  4. Selection and specification criteria for fills for cut-and-fill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E. G.

    1980-05-15

    Because of significant differences in placement and loading conditions, the ideal fill material for a cut-and-fill operation has different characteristics to those for a fill for a filled open stoping operation. The differing requirements of the two mining operations must be understood and accounted for in establishing fill selection and specification criteria. Within the paper, aspects of the particular requirements of cut-and-fill mining are analyzed and related to the specific fill tests and properties required. Emphasis is placed upon the role of fill in ground support, though this cannot be isolated from overall fill performance. Where appropriate, test data are introduced and areas requiring continuing research highlighted.

  5. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.72 Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels...

  6. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  7. Effect of duration and severity of migraine on retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and choroidal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Mona K; Fouad, Mohamed M

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the factors in migraine that have the highest significance on retinal and choroidal layers' thickness. Ninety patients with migraine and 40 age-matched healthy participants were enrolled in this observational, cross-sectional study. After full ophthalmological examination, spectral domain-optical coherence tomography was done for all patients measuring the thickness of ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer. Enhanced depth imaging technique was used to measure the choroidal thickness. There was significant thinning in the superior and inferior ganglion cell layers, all retinal nerve fiber layer quadrants, and all choroidal quadrants (except for the central subfield) in migraineurs compared to controls. The duration of migraine was significantly correlated with ganglion cell layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, and all choroidal quadrants, while the severity of migraine was significantly correlated with ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer only. Multiregression analysis showed that the duration of migraine is the most important determinant factor of the superior retinal nerve fiber layer quadrant (β = -0.375, p = 0.001) and in all the choroidal quadrants (β = -0.531, -0.692, -0.503, -0.461, -0.564, respectively, p  layer quadrants (β = -0.256, -0.335, -0.308; p  = 0.036, 0.005, 0.009, respectively) and the inferior ganglion cell layer hemisphere (β = -0.377 and p = 0.001). Ganglion cell layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, and choroidal thickness are significantly thinner in patients with migraine. The severity of migraine has more significant influence in the thinning of ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer, while the duration of the disease affected the choroidal thickness more.

  8. A pilot study of morphometric analysis of choroidal vasculature in vivo, using en face optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sohrab

    Full Text Available To study the ability of volumetric spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT to perform quantitative measurement of the choroidal vasculature in vivo.Choroidal vascular density and vessel size were quantified using en face choroidal scans from various depths below the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE in 58 eyes of 58 patients with either epiretinal membranes (ERM, early age-related macular degeneration (AMD, or reticular pseudo-drusen (RPD. For each patient, we used the macular volume scan (6×6 mm cube for vessel quantification, while high-definition (HD cross-section raster scans were used to qualitatively assess vascularity of the choroidal sub-layers, and measure choroidal thickness.Of the 58 patients, more were female (66% versus 34% male, of whom 14 (24% had ERM, 11 (19% early AMD, and 33 (57% RPD. Compared to intact choriocapillaris in all ERM (100%, none of the RPD and only 5/11 (45% early AMD eyes had visible choriocapillaris on either cross section or C-scans (p-value<0.001. When comparing select regions from the most superficial C-scans, early AMD group had lowest vascular density and RPD had highest (p-value 0.04. Qualitative evaluation of C-scans from all three groups revealed a more granular appearance of the choriocapillaris in ERM versus increased stroma and larger vessels in the RPD eyes.SD-OCT can be used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess choroidal vascularity in vivo. Our findings correlate to previously reported histopathologic studies. Lack of choriocapillaris on HD cross-sections or C-scans in all RPD and about half of early AMD eyes suggests earlier choroidal involvement in AMD and specifically, RPD.

  9. Technology of hardening fills for mined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simek, P.; Holas, M.; Chyla, A.; Pech, P.

    1985-01-01

    The technology is described of hardening fills for mined spaces of uranium deposits in North Bohemian chalk. A special equipment was developed for the controlled preparation of a hardening mixture. The composition of the fill is determined by the strength of the filled rock, expecially by the standard strength, i.e., the minimal strength of the filling under uniaxial pressure. The said parameter determines the consumption of binding materials and thereby the total costs of the filling. A description is presented of the filling technology, including rabbit tube transport of the mixture and quality control. (Pu)

  10. Development of the lateral ventricular choroid plexus in a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddelow, Shane A; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Vandeberg, John L; Saunders, Norman R

    2010-10-05

    Choroid plexus epithelial cells are the site of blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and regulate molecular transfer between the two compartments. Their mitotic activity in the adult is low. During development, the pattern of growth and timing of acquisition of functional properties of plexus epithelium are not known. Numbers and size of choroid plexus epithelial cells and their nuclei were counted and measured in the lateral ventricular plexus from the first day of its appearance until adulthood. Newborn Monodelphis pups were injected with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at postnatal day 3 (P3), P4 and P5. Additional animals were injected at P63, P64 and P65. BrdU-immunopositive nuclei were counted and their position mapped in the plexus structure at different ages after injections. Double-labelling immunocytochemistry with antibodies to plasma protein identified post-mitotic cells involved in protein transfer. Numbers of choroid plexus epithelial cells increased 10-fold between the time of birth and adulthood. In newborn pups each consecutive injection of BrdU labelled 20-40 of epithelial cells counted. After 3 injections, numbers of BrdU positive cells remained constant for at least 2 months. BrdU injections at an older age (P63, P64, P65) resulted in a smaller number of labelled plexus cells. Numbers of plexus cells immunopositive for both BrdU and plasma protein increased with age indicating that protein transferring properties are acquired post mitotically. Labelled nuclei were only detected on the dorsal arm of the plexus as it grows from the neuroependyma, moving along the structure in a 'conveyor belt' like fashion. The present study established that lateral ventricular choroid plexus epithelial cells are born on the dorsal side of the structure only. Cells born in the first few days after choroid plexus differentiation from the neuroependyma remain present even two months later. Protein-transferring properties are acquired post-mitotically and relatively

  11. Development of the lateral ventricular choroid plexus in a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VandeBerg John L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choroid plexus epithelial cells are the site of blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF barrier and regulate molecular transfer between the two compartments. Their mitotic activity in the adult is low. During development, the pattern of growth and timing of acquisition of functional properties of plexus epithelium are not known. Methods Numbers and size of choroid plexus epithelial cells and their nuclei were counted and measured in the lateral ventricular plexus from the first day of its appearance until adulthood. Newborn Monodelphis pups were injected with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU at postnatal day 3 (P3, P4 and P5. Additional animals were injected at P63, P64 and P65. BrdU-immunopositive nuclei were counted and their position mapped in the plexus structure at different ages after injections. Double-labelling immunocytochemistry with antibodies to plasma protein identified post-mitotic cells involved in protein transfer. Results Numbers of choroid plexus epithelial cells increased 10-fold between the time of birth and adulthood. In newborn pups each consecutive injection of BrdU labelled 20-40 of epithelial cells counted. After 3 injections, numbers of BrdU positive cells remained constant for at least 2 months. BrdU injections at an older age (P63, P64, P65 resulted in a smaller number of labelled plexus cells. Numbers of plexus cells immunopositive for both BrdU and plasma protein increased with age indicating that protein transferring properties are acquired post mitotically. Labelled nuclei were only detected on the dorsal arm of the plexus as it grows from the neuroependyma, moving along the structure in a 'conveyor belt' like fashion. Conclusions The present study established that lateral ventricular choroid plexus epithelial cells are born on the dorsal side of the structure only. Cells born in the first few days after choroid plexus differentiation from the neuroependyma remain present even two months later. Protein

  12. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  13. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information regarding QT-prolongation in the drug label may vary between products. This could lead to suboptimal risk minimization strategies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the variation in the extent and content of information on QT prolongation in the summary of product......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...

  14. Bio-inspired dental fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

    2009-08-01

    Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 μm range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

  15. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  16. Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Methods in Measuring Choroidal Vascularization Volumes Using a Subretinal Injection Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Nie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vivo quantification of choroidal neovascularization (CNV based on noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT examination and in vitro choroidal flatmount immunohistochemistry stained of CNV currently were used to evaluate the process and severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD both in human and animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between these two methods in murine CNV models induced by subretinal injection. Methods: CNV was developed in 20 C57BL6/j mice by subretinal injection of adeno-associated viral delivery of a short hairpin RNA targeting sFLT-1 (AAV.shRNA.sFLT-1, as reported previously. After 4 weeks, CNV was imaged by OCT and fluorescence angiography. The scaling factors for each dimension, x, y, and z (μm/pixel were recorded, and the corneal curvature standard was adjusted from human (7.7 to mice (1.4. The volume of each OCT image stack was calculated and then normalized by multiplying the number of voxels by the scaling factors for each dimension in Seg3D software (University of Utah Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, available at http://www.sci.utah.edu/cibc-software/seg3d.html. Eighteen mice were prepared for choroidal flatmounts and stained by CD31. The CNV volumes were calculated using scanning laser confocal microscopy after immunohistochemistry staining. Two mice were stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin for observing the CNV morphology. Results: The CNV volume calculated using OCT was, on average, 2.6 times larger than the volume calculated using the laser confocal microscopy. The correlation statistical analysis showed OCT measuring of CNV correlated significantly with the in vitro method (R 2 =0.448, P = 0.001, n = 18. The correlation coefficient for CNV quantification using OCT and confocal microscopy was 0.693 (n = 18, P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a fair linear correlation on CNV volumes between in vivo and in vitro methods in CNV models induced by subretinal

  17. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any way...

  18. Long-term Results of the UCSF-LBNL Randomized Trial: Charged Particle With Helium Ion Versus Iodine-125 Plaque Therapy for Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kavita K., E-mail: Kavita.mishra@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Quivey, Jeanne M.; Daftari, Inder K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cole, Tia B. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Patel, Kishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Char, Devron H. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Relevant clinical data are needed given the increasing national interest in charged particle radiation therapy (CPT) programs. Here we report long-term outcomes from the only randomized, stratified trial comparing CPT with iodine-125 plaque therapy for choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. Methods and Materials: From 1985 to 1991, 184 patients met eligibility criteria and were randomized to receive particle (86 patients) or plaque therapy (98 patients). Patients were stratified by tumor diameter, thickness, distance to disc/fovea, anterior extension, and visual acuity. Tumors close to the optic disc were included. Local tumor control, as well as eye preservation, metastases due to melanoma, and survival were evaluated. Results: Median follow-up times for particle and plaque arm patients were 14.6 years and 12.3 years, respectively (P=.22), and for those alive at last follow-up, 18.5 and 16.5 years, respectively (P=.81). Local control (LC) for particle versus plaque treatment was 100% versus 84% at 5 years, and 98% versus 79% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.0006). If patients with tumors close to the disc (<2 mm) were excluded, CPT still resulted in significantly improved LC: 100% versus 90% at 5 years and 98% versus 86% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.048). Enucleation rate was lower after CPT: 11% versus 22% at 5 years and 17% versus 37% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.01). Using Cox regression model, likelihood ratio test, treatment was the most important predictor of LC (P=.0002) and eye preservation (P=.01). CPT was a significant predictor of prolonged disease-free survival (log rank: P=.001). Conclusions: Particle therapy resulted in significantly improved local control, eye preservation, and disease-free survival as confirmed by long-term outcomes from the only randomized study available to date comparing radiation modalities in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma.

  19. Neural retina-specific Aldh1a1 controls dorsal choroidal vascular development via Sox9 expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, So; Onishi, Akishi; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sugita, Sunao; Ito, Hiromi; Ohigashi, Yoko; Ema, Masatsugu; Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Nishida, Kohji; Takahashi, Masayo

    2018-04-03

    VEGF secreted from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is responsible for the choroidal vascular development; however, the molecular regulatory mechanism is unclear. We found that Aldh1a1 -/- mice showed choroidal hypoplasia with insufficient vascularization in the dorsal region, although Aldh1a1, an enzyme that synthesizes retinoic acids (RAs), is expressed in the dorsal neural retina, not in the RPE/choroid complex. The level of VEGF in the RPE/choroid was significantly decreased in Aldh1a1 -/- mice, and RA-dependent enhancement of VEGF was observed in primary RPE cells. An RA-deficient diet resulted in dorsal choroidal hypoplasia, and simple RA treatment of Aldh1a1 -/- pregnant females suppressed choroid hypoplasia in their offspring. We also found downregulation of Sox9 in the dorsal neural retina and RPE of Aldh1a1 -/- mice and RPE-specific disruption of Sox9 phenocopied Aldh1a1 -/- choroidal development. These results suggest that RAs produced by Aldh1a1 in the neural retina directs dorsal choroidal vascular development via Sox9 upregulation in the dorsal RPE cells to enhance RPE-derived VEGF secretion. © 2018, Goto et al.

  20. Microhardness of bulk-fill composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fil (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and ...

  1. Review of fill mining technology in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. H.; Hedley, D. G.F.

    1980-05-15

    The Canadian mining industry has a long history of being in the fore-front in developing new technology in underground hardrock mines. Examples include the development of hydraulic and cemented fills, undercut-and-fill, mechanized cut-and-fill, post pillar, vertical retreat and blasthole mining methods. The evolution of this technology is briefly described in an historical review. Backfill serves many functions, although it is generally considered in terms of its support capabilities. These functions, mainly related to the mining method used, are evaluated in regard to regional support, pillar support, fill roof, working floor, dilution control and waste disposal. With the advent of blasthole and vertical retreat methods for pillar recovery operations, the freestanding height of backfill walls has assumed greater importance. Consequently, more attention is being given to what fill properties are required to achieve fill wall exposures up to 25 m wide by 90 m high. With the large increases in energy costs, alternatives to partially replace Portland cement in fill are being examined. The validation of mining concepts and the interaction of backfill is perhaps best evaluated by in-situ measurements. Examples are given of stress, deformation and fill pressure measurements in longitudinal cut-and-fill, post pillar mining and blasthole stoping with delayed fill which were taken in several mines in Canada. Finally, the overall design procedure used in deciding mining method, stope and pillar dimensions, sequence of extraction, fill properties and support systems at a new mine is described.

  2. Atypical choroid plexus papilloma: spontaneous resolution of diffuse leptomeningeal contrast enhancement after primary tumor removal in 2 pediatric cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Marcello; Morana, Giovanni; Milanaccio, Claudia; Pavanello, Marco; Nozza, Paolo; Garrè, Maria Luisa

    2017-09-01

    Atypical choroid plexus papillomas can metastasize in the form of leptomeningeal seeding. Postoperative chemotherapy is the recommended first-line treatment when gross-total removal is not achieved or in cases of disseminated disease. Here the authors report on 2 children with atypical choroid plexus papillomas and MRI findings of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement at diagnosis, later presenting with spontaneous resolution of the leptomeningeal involvement after removal of the primary lesions. Observations in this report expand our knowledge about the natural history and biological behavior of these tumors and highlight the role of close neuroimaging surveillance in the management of atypical choroid plexus papillomas in cases with MRI evidence of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement at presentation.

  3. Measurement of Acute Changes in Choroid Thickness in Healthy Eyes During Posture Change Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Connor R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    The Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome affects 60% of astronauts returning from long-duration missions and is characterized by structural and functional changes of the eye (3). Upon entry into weightlessness, approximately two liters of fluid translocates from the lower body to the thorax and cephalad regions, potentially contributing to elevated intracranial and intraocular pressures. The choroid is the vasculature that supplies blood flow to the posterior part of the retina and has limited autoregulation. As a consequence these vessels may engorge during a cephalad fluid shift, contributing to structural changes in the retina. The purpose of this experiment was to quantify changes in choroid thickness during a fluid shift. In order to fulfill this objective, it was also necessary to improve the measurement technique for assessing choroid thickness.

  4. Cellular specificity of the blood-CSF barrier for albumin transfer across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane A Liddelow

    Full Text Available To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse and exogenous (human albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA, and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood-CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood-CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub

  5. Association of choroidal thickness with early stages of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun; Shen; Xiu-Fen; Yang; Jun; Xu; Chong-Yang; She; Wen-Wen; Wei; Wan-Lu; Zhu; Ning-Pu; Liu

    2017-01-01

    AIM:To assess the correlation between choroidal thickness(CT) and the early stages of diabetic retinopathy(DR) in type 2 diabetic patients.METHODS:We divided 83 diabetic patients(51-80 years of age;50 females) into non diabetic retinopathy group(NDR) and mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDR) group,and compared them with 26 non-diabetic control subjects(51-78 years of age;16 females).Subfoveal choroidal thickness(SFCT) and parafoveal choroidal thickness(PFCT) were measured using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography(EDI-OCT).Ocular health status,disease duration,body mass index,and hemoglobin A1c(Hb A1c) were recorded.RESULTS:The mean ages of the NDR,NPDR,and control groups were 68.0±6.9y,67.8±6.4y,and 65.1±6.3y,respectively(P=0.17).Pearson correlation of the right and left eyes for the control subjects was 0.95 and for the NDR subjects was 0.93.SFCT for the right eyes of the controls was 252.77± 41.10 μm,which was significantly thicker than that of the right eyes in NDR group(221.51±46.56 μm) and the worse eyes of the NPDR group(207.18±61.87 μm;ANOVA,P<0.01).In the diabetic patients pooled together,age was the only variable significantly associated with SFCT(multiple linear regression analysis,P=0.01).CONCLUSION:CT decreased significantly in the NDR and mild/moderate NPDR eyes compared with the control eyes.Age is significantly associated with SFCT in the diabetic patients.Diabetic choroidopathy may be present before clinical retinopathy.

  6. Disease susceptibility of the human macula: differential gene transcription in the retinal pigmented epithelium/choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeke, Monte J; Peterson, Katie E; Johnson, Lincoln V; Anderson, Don H

    2007-09-01

    The discoveries of gene variants associated with macular diseases have provided valuable insight into their molecular mechanisms, but they have not clarified why the macula is particularly vulnerable to degenerative disease. Its predisposition may be attributable to specialized structural features and/or functional properties of the underlying macular RPE/choroid. To examine the molecular basis for the macula's disease susceptibility, we compared the gene expression profile of the human RPE/choroid in the macula with the profile in the extramacular region using DNA microarrays. Seventy-five candidate genes with differences in macular:extramacular expression levels were identified by microarray analysis, of which 29 were selected for further analysis. Quantitative PCR confirmed that 21 showed statistically significant differences in expression. Five genes were expressed at higher levels in the macula. Two showed significant changes in the macular:extramacular expression ratio; another two exhibited changes in absolute expression level, as a function of age or AMD. Several of the differentially expressed genes have potential relevance to AMD pathobiology. One is an RPE cell growth factor (TFPI2), five are extracellular matrix components (DCN, MYOC, OGN, SMOC2, TFPI2), and six are related to inflammation (CCL19, CCL26, CXCL14, SLIT2) and/or angiogenesis (CXCL14, SLIT2, TFPI2, WFDC1). The identification of regional differences in gene expression in the RPE/choroid is a first step in clarifying the macula's propensity for degeneration. These findings lay the groundwork for further studies into the roles of the corresponding gene products in the normal, aged, and diseased macula.

  7. Stereotactic Fractionated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma: The McGill University Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wassia, Rolina; Dal Pra, Alan; Shun, Kitty; Shaban, Ahmed; Corriveau, Christine; Edelstein, Chaim; Deschenes, Jean; Ruo, Russel; Patrocinio, Horacio; Cury, Fabio L.B.; DeBlois, François; Shenouda, George

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report our experience with linear accelerator-based stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy in the treatment of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 50 consecutive patients diagnosed with juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma and treated with linear accelerator-based stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy between April 2003 and December 2009. Patients with small to medium sized lesions (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study classification) located within 2 mm of the optic disc were included. The prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy in 10 fractions. The primary endpoints included local control, enucleation-free survival, and complication rates. Results: The median follow-up was 29 months (range, 1–77 months). There were 31 males and 29 females, with a median age of 69 years (range, 30–92 years). Eighty-four percent of the patients had medium sized lesions, and 16% of patients had small sized lesions. There were four cases of local progression (8%) and three enucleations (6%). Actuarial local control rates at 2 and 5 years were 93% and 86%, respectively. Actuarial enucleation-free survival rates at 2 and 5 years were 94% and 84%, respectively. Actuarial complication rates at 2 and 5 years were 33% and 88%, respectively, for radiation-induced retinopathy; 9.3% and 46.9%, respectively, for dry eye; 12% and 53%, respectively, for cataract; 30% and 90%, respectively, for visual loss [Snellen acuity (decimal equivalent), <0.1]; 11% and 54%, respectively, for optic neuropathy; and 18% and 38%, respectively, for neovascular glaucoma. Conclusions: Linear accelerator-based stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy using 60 Gy in 10 fractions is safe and has an acceptable toxicity profile. It has been shown to be an effective noninvasive treatment for juxtapapillary choroidal melanomas.

  8. Stereotactic Fractionated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma: The McGill University Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Wassia, Rolina; Dal Pra, Alan; Shun, Kitty; Shaban, Ahmed [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Corriveau, Christine [Department of Ophthalmology, Notre Dame Hospital, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Edelstein, Chaim; Deschenes, Jean [Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ruo, Russel; Patrocinio, Horacio [Department of Medical Physics, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L.B. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); DeBlois, Francois [Department of Medical Physics, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Shenouda, George, E-mail: george.shenouda@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To report our experience with linear accelerator-based stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy in the treatment of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 50 consecutive patients diagnosed with juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma and treated with linear accelerator-based stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy between April 2003 and December 2009. Patients with small to medium sized lesions (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study classification) located within 2 mm of the optic disc were included. The prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy in 10 fractions. The primary endpoints included local control, enucleation-free survival, and complication rates. Results: The median follow-up was 29 months (range, 1-77 months). There were 31 males and 29 females, with a median age of 69 years (range, 30-92 years). Eighty-four percent of the patients had medium sized lesions, and 16% of patients had small sized lesions. There were four cases of local progression (8%) and three enucleations (6%). Actuarial local control rates at 2 and 5 years were 93% and 86%, respectively. Actuarial enucleation-free survival rates at 2 and 5 years were 94% and 84%, respectively. Actuarial complication rates at 2 and 5 years were 33% and 88%, respectively, for radiation-induced retinopathy; 9.3% and 46.9%, respectively, for dry eye; 12% and 53%, respectively, for cataract; 30% and 90%, respectively, for visual loss [Snellen acuity (decimal equivalent), <0.1]; 11% and 54%, respectively, for optic neuropathy; and 18% and 38%, respectively, for neovascular glaucoma. Conclusions: Linear accelerator-based stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy using 60 Gy in 10 fractions is safe and has an acceptable toxicity profile. It has been shown to be an effective noninvasive treatment for juxtapapillary choroidal melanomas.

  9. [Choroidal thickness assessment with SD-OCT in high myopia with dome-shaped macula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebil, A; Ben Achour, B; Chaker, N; Jedidi, L; Mghaieth, F; El Matri, L

    2014-03-01

    To measure macular choroidal thickness (CT) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula (DSM), and to investigate whether the choroid is thicker in these eyes compared to highly myopic eyes without MB. A cross-sectional study of 200 eyes was performed between January 2010 and June 2012. Twenty-four highly myopic eyes (12%) had a dome-shaped macula. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, SD-OCT (TOPCON 2000), and B-scan ultrasonography. OCT scans were analyzed in 7 sections, and subfoveal CT was measured manually between the Bruch's membrane and the internal aspect of the sclera. The 20 eyes with isolated dome-shaped macular were paired by age and axial length (AL) with 20 eyes without macular involvement. In the subgroup with isolated MB, the mean subfoveal CT was 101.86 μm (± 21.35 μm). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between CT and AL (r=-0.623, P=0.0001). The regression equation demonstrated a decrease of 8.3 μm per mm of AL. In the subgroup without MB, matched with the subgroup with MB by age (P=0.591), and AL (P=0.815), the mean subfoveal CT was 89.54 μm (± 20.12 μm). The comparison between the two subgroups found a statistically significant difference in subfoveal CT (Pmacula compared to highly myopic eyes without dome-shaped macula. These findings suggest that abnormalities of the choroid may play a role in the pathogenesis of dome-shaped macula. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Atypical retardation patterns in scanning laser polarimetry are associated with low peripapillary choroidal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Ralf P; Schrems, Wolfgang A; Bendschneider, Delia; Horn, Folkert K; Mayer, Markus; Mardin, Christian Y; Lämmer, Robert

    2011-09-29

    Scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) results can be affected by an atypical retardation pattern (ARP). One reason for an ARP is the birefringence of the sclera. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the peripapillary choroidal thickness (pChTh) on the occurrence of ARP. One hundred ten healthy subjects were investigated with SLP and spectral domain OCT. pChTh was measured in B-scan images at 768 positions using semiautomatic software. Values were averaged to 32 sectors and the total peripapillary mean. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the typical scan score (TSS) provided by the GDxVCC: group 1 TSS, 100; group 2 TSS, 90-99; group 3 TSS, 80-89; group 4 TSS, <80. Mean pChTh (± SD) in 110 healthy subjects was 141 μm (±49 μm). There was a significant correlation between pChTh and TSS (r = 0.608; P < 0.001). In TSS groups 1 to 4, mean pChTh was 168 μm (±38 μm), 148 μm (± 48 μm), 119 μm (±35 μm), and 92 (±42 μm). Mean pChTh of TSS groups 3 and 4 was significantly lower than that of TSS group 1 (P < 0.001). Low values of TSS resulting from the appearance of ARP in SLP are associated with low peripapillary choroidal thickness. Reduced choroidal thickness may result in an increased amount of confounding light getting to the SLP light detectors.

  11. Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters in duodenum, collecting ducts and choroid plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    Epithelia cover the internal and external surfaces of the organism and form barriers between the various compartments. Some of these epithelia are specialized for effective transmembrane or even transepithelial movement of acid-base equivalents. Certain epithelia with a high rate of HCO3- transport express a few potent Na+-coupled acid-base transporters to gain a net HCO3- movement across the epithelium. Examples of such epithelia are renal proximal tubules and pancreatic ducts. In contrast, multiple Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters are expressed in other HCO3- secreting epithelia, such as the duodenal mucosa or the choroid plexus, which maintain suitable intracellular pH despite a variable demand for secreting HCO3-. In the duodenum, the epithelial cells must secrete HCO3- for neutralization of the gastric acid, and at the same time prevent cellular acidification. During the neutralization, large quantities of CO2 are formed in the duodenal lumen, which enter the epithelial cells. This would tend to lower intracellular pH and require effective counteracting mechanisms to avoid cell death and to maintain HCO3- secretion. The choroid plexus secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and controls the pH of the otherwise poorly buffered CSF. The pCO2 of CSF fluctuates with plasma pCO2, and the choroid plexus must regulate the HCO3- secretion to minimize the effects of these fluctuations on CSF pH. This is done while maintaining pH neutrality in the epithelial cells. Thus, the Na+-HCO3- cotransporters appear to be involved in HCO3- import in more epithelia, where Na+/H+ exchangers were until recently thought to be sufficient for maintaining intracellular pH.

  12. CHANGES IN CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN AND OUTSIDE THE MACULA AFTER HEMODIALYSIS IN PATIENTS WITH END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, In Boem; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Jae Suk

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate changes in choroidal thickness in and outside the macula as a result of hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease. Patients with end-stage renal disease treated with maintenance HD in the Dialysis Unit of Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, South Korea, were included in this study. The choroidal thickness was measured in and outside the macula before and after HD (paired t-test). Choroidal thickness in the macula was measured at the foveal center and 1.5 mm temporal to the foveal center and outside the macula was measured at superior, inferior, and nasal area 3.5 mm from the optic disk margin. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and systemic parameters such as serum osmolarity and blood pressure (BP) were measured before and after HD (paired t-test). We divided patients into two groups, diabetic and nondiabetic groups to compare the changes in choroidal thickness. Patients with diabetes were subdivided into two groups: severe retinal change group and moderate retinal change group (Mann-Whitney test). Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between choroidal thickness and changes in serum osmolarity, BP, and body weight loss. Choroidal thickness and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Fifty-four eyes of 31 patients with end-stage renal disease were included. After HD, the mean intraocular pressure was significantly decreased from 14.8 ± 2.5 mmHg to 13.0 ± 2.6 mmHg (P macula.

  13. Stereotactic radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma: analysis of eye movement during treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Felipe Marques Lucas de; Gonçalves, Odair Dias; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho, E-mail: felipemlucas@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to analyze the eye’s movement during radiotherapy treatment for choroidal melanoma, as well as the methodology used in the repositioning of the patient between treatments sessions. For this purpose, the procedures used by the hospital staff were analyzed on site and videos were recorded during the treatments. The methodology for the fixation of the eye is correct in its objective. However, the repositioning needs improvements in its reproducibility. It is recommended the study to fix the eye by the healthy eye and the feasibility study for the development of a software that assists in patient repositioning. (author)

  14. Stereotactic radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma: analysis of eye movement during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Felipe Marques Lucas de; Gonçalves, Odair Dias; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the eye’s movement during radiotherapy treatment for choroidal melanoma, as well as the methodology used in the repositioning of the patient between treatments sessions. For this purpose, the procedures used by the hospital staff were analyzed on site and videos were recorded during the treatments. The methodology for the fixation of the eye is correct in its objective. However, the repositioning needs improvements in its reproducibility. It is recommended the study to fix the eye by the healthy eye and the feasibility study for the development of a software that assists in patient repositioning. (author)

  15. Prognostic value of nucleolar size and size pleomorphism in choroidal melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Gamel, J W; Jensen, O A

    1993-01-01

    Morphometric estimates of nucleolar size have been shown to possess a high prognostic value in patients with uveal melanomas. The authors investigated various quantitative estimators of the mean size and pleomorphism of nucleoli in choroidal melanomas from a consecutive series of 95 Danish patients...... of melanoma, and largest macroscopic tumor dimension (LTD), the following histomorphometric estimates were obtained: mean diameter of the 10 largest nucleoli (MLN), point-sampled mean nucleolar profile area (nucleolar ao) and the associated standard deviation of nucleolar ao, the volume-weighted mean...

  16. Surgical choroidal neovascular membrane removal in the era of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagpal Manish

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents have obtained acceptance as the mainstay in the management strategy of subfoveal choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM due to varying etiologies. Few drawbacks include need for repeated intravitreal injections, with its adjunct risks, and the lack of a predefined treatment end point, which can cause doubts and uncertainty in the mind of the patient. Furthermore, it remains a significant financial burden for the patient. Herein we report our data of three patients who were reluctant for further re-injections of anti-VEGF agents and were therefore offered surgical removal of the CNVM by submacular surgery as an alternative treatment plan.

  17. Vestibular syndrome due to a choroid plexus papilloma in a ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne; Schoemaker, Nico; Passon-Vastenburg, Maartje; Kik, Marja

    2009-01-01

    A 6-year-old, castrated male ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was presented with progressive neurological signs consisting of a right-sided head tilt and ataxia. Neurological examination revealed hemiparesis and absence of proprioception on the right side, consistent with central vestibular syndrome. Measurement of blood glucose excluded hypoglycemia due to insulinoma. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed the presence of an intracranial mass, consistent with either granuloma or neoplasia. Palliative treatment with prednisolone yielded no improvement. At postmortem examination, a final diagnosis of a choroid plexus papilloma originating from the fourth ventricle was made. This is the first report of such a tumor in a ferret.

  18. Surgery with radioguided location of a liver metastasis of melanoma choroid: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Marcelo; Miranda, Mario Henrique Furlanetto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of radioguided occult lesion localization prior to surgical excision is increasing, mainly due to the development of new probes and the use of PET-CT. Case report: A 70-year-old male who presented with a metastatic lesion in his liver from a choroidal melanoma. This was located using PET-CT and subsequently located with a low-energy intraoperative gamma probe during the laparotomy. Conclusion: The present case shows that it is possible to excise a hepatic metastasis utilizing the principles of radioguided surgery, even in centers without access to high energy probes. (author)

  19. Stereotactic radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma: analysis of eye movement during treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, F. M. L.; Gonçalves, O. D.; Batista, D. V. S.; Cardoso, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyse the eye’s movement during radiotherapy treatment for choroidal melanoma, as well as the methodology used in the repositioning of the patient between treatments sessions. For this purpose, the procedures used by the hospital staff were analysed on site and videos were recorded during the treatments. The methodology for the fixation of the eye is correct in its objective. However, the repositioning needs improvements in its reproducibility. It is recommended the study to fix the eye by the healthy eye and the feasibility study for the development of a software that assists in patient repositioning.

  20. Preoperative and early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging in two cases of childhood choroid plexus carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Jarosz, J.M. [Department of Neuroradiology, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Chandler, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Bodi, I.; Robinson, S. [Department of Neuropathology, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    We present and illustrate the MRI appearances of two children with choroid plexus carcinoma. The MRI characteristics of these rare tumours are reviewed. Since total surgical resection is a significant prognostic factor, early postoperative MRI was performed in both cases to ensure surgical clearance. In one case a complete resection was documented and this patient remains well at short-term follow-up. Residual tumour was noted in the second case, but despite ''second look'' surgery there was subsequent local relapse. (orig.)

  1. Choroidal and Cutaneous Metastasis from Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder after Radical Cystectomy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yozo Mitsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary malignancy and has variable metastatic potential; however, choroidal and cutaneous metastases are extremely rare. Generally, a patient with these uncommon metastases has a very poor prognosis. We present a bladder cancer patient with a visual disorder in the right eye and multiple nodules on head and lower abdomen that developed 17 months after a radical cystectomy. These symptoms were determined to be caused by choroidal and cutaneous metastasis of bladder cancer. Although two cycles of combination chemotherapy were performed, the patient died 5 months after diagnosis of multiple metastases.

  2. A specific, nonproliferative role for E2F-5 in choroid plexus function revealed by gene targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Dagnino, Lina; Gaubatz, Stefan; Xu, Yuhui; Bronson, Roderick T.; Warren, Henry B.; Livingston, David M.

    1998-01-01

    Homozygous E2F-5 knockout embryos and mice have been generated. Although embryonic development appeared normal, newborn mice developed nonobstructive hydrocephalus, suggesting excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production. Although the CSF-producing choroid plexus displayed normal cellular organization, it contained abundant electron-lucent epithelial cells, consistent with excessive CSF secretory activity. Moreover, E2F-5 CNS expression in normal animals was largely confined to the choroid plexus. Cell cycle kinetics were not perturbed in homozygous knockout embryo fibroblasts. Thus, E2F-5 is not essential for cell proliferation. Rather, it affects the secretory behavior of a differentiated neural tissue. PMID:9553039

  3. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  4. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  5. Prolonged Cholestatic Jaundice Associated With Flurbiprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Serkan; Celikbilek, Mehmet; Demirkan, Kutay; Yilmaz, Semih; Deniz, Kemal; Gursoy, Sebnem; Yucesoy, Mehmet

    2014-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed drugs throughout the world for pain relief. Although the adverse effects of NSAIDs to the liver are well known, flurbiprofen-induced liver cholestasis is extremely rare. Herein, we present a patient with prolonged icterus that is associated with the use of flurbiprofen without causing ductopenia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  7. Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Complicating Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of transient right ventricular dysfunction associated with prolonged cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of uncertain etiology. We believe that in this case dynamic coronary flow restriction resulted in ischemic injury and stunning of the right ventricle. Other possible causes are briefly reviewed. Right ...

  8. Operation feedback of hydrogen filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregassame, S.; Barral, K.; Allidieres, L.; Charbonneau, T.; Lacombe, Y.

    2004-01-01

    One of the technical challenges of hydrogen technology is the development of hydrogen infrastructures which satisfy either safety requirements and reliability of filling processes. AIR LIQUIDE realized an hydrogen filling station in Sassenage (France) operational since September 2003. This station is able to fill 3 buses a day up to 350bar by equilibrium with high pressure buffers. In parallel with commercial stations, the group wanted to create a testing ground in real conditions running with several objectives: validate on a full scale bench a simulation tool able to predict the temperature of both gas and cylinder's materials during filling processes; define the best filling procedures in order to reach mass, temperature and filling time targets; analyse the temperature distribution and evolution inside the cylinder; get a general knowledge about hydrogen stations from safety and reliability point of view; operate the first full scale refuelling station in France. The station is also up-graded for 700bar filling from either a liquid hydrogen source or a gas booster, with cold filling possibility. This paper presents the results concerning 350bar filling : thermal effects, optimal filling procedures and influence of parameters such as climatic conditions are discussed. (author)

  9. Dielectric-filled radiofrequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Pogue, E W [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High current, high brightness electron beam accelerators promise to open up dramatic new applications. Linear induction accelerators are currently viewed as the appropriate technology for these applications. A concept by Humphries and Hwang may permit radiofrequency accelerators to fulfill the same functions with greater simplicity and enhanced flexibility. This concept involves the replacement of vacuum rf cavities with dielectric filled ones. Simple analysis indicates that the resonant frequencies are reduced by a factor of ({epsilon}{sub 0}/{epsilon}){sup 1/2} while the stored energy is increased by {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}. For a high dielectric constant like water, this factor can approach 80. A series of numerical calculations of simple pill-box cavities was performed. Eigenfunctions and resonant frequencies for a full system configuration, including dielectric material, vacuum beamline, and a ceramic window separating the two have been computed. These calculations are compared with the results of a small experimental cavity which have been constructed and operated. Low power tests show excellent agreement. (author). 4 figs., 8 refs.

  10. Prolonged QRS Widening After Aripiprazole Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Porter, Robert; Dewey, Kayla

    2018-05-05

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with a long half-life. Overdose can result in protracted somnolence and cardiac disturbances, particularly QT interval prolongation. This is a single case report of a 14-year-old boy who took an overdose of aripiprazole and developed QRS widening. A 14-year-old boy intentionally ingested 20 tablets of aripiprazole (5 mg). He was brought to the emergency department when his ingestion was discovered. The patient's vital signs were as follows: temperature, 37.7°C; heart rate, 108 beats/min; blood pressure, 138/98 mm Hg; and respirations, 16 breaths/min. Activated charcoal was administered within 90 minutes of ingestion. Initial electrocardiogram (EKG) showed sinus tachycardia, with a QRS of 138 ms and QT interval of 444 ms. QRS duration was 90 ms on an EKG performed 3 months earlier. A bolus of sodium bicarbonate was administered, and the patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. Repeat EKG demonstrated a QRS of 156 ms, and a sodium bicarbonate infusion was initiated. The patient continued to have QRS prolongation for the next 8 days, reaching a peak of 172 ms 3 days postingestion. Despite aggressive treatment with sodium bicarbonate, there was persistent QRS prolongation; however, the patient did not have any dysrhythmias and remained hemodynamically stable. The patient was discharged 9 days postingestion when the QRS duration normalized to 82 ms. Genetic testing revealed that the patient was a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. This case suggests that aripiprazole toxicity may possibly be associated with QRS prolongation without associated dysrhythmias or cardiovascular compromise. In addition, toxicity may be prolonged in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

  11. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants; Les prolongations de licence des centrales nucleaires americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  12. Feast to famine: Sediment supply control on Laramide basin fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Alan R.; Chetel, Lauren M.; Elliot Smith, M.

    2006-03-01

    Erosion of Laramide-style uplifts in the western United States exerted an important first-order influence on Paleogene sedimentation by controlling sediment supply rates to adjacent closed basins. During the latest Cretaceous through Paleocene, these uplifts exposed thick intervals of mud-rich Upper Cretaceous foreland basin fill, which was quickly eroded and redeposited. Cretaceous sedimentary lithologies dominate Paleocene conglomerate clast compositions, and the volume of eroded foreland basin strata is approximately twice the volume of preserved Paleocene basin fill. As a result of this sediment oversupply, clastic alluvial and paludal facies dominate Paleocene strata, and are associated with relatively shallow and ephemeral freshwater lake facies. In contrast, large, long-lived, carbonate-producing lakes occupied several of the basins during the Eocene. Basement-derived clasts (granite, quartzite, and other metamorphic rocks) simultaneously became abundant in lower Eocene conglomerate. We propose that Eocene lakes developed primarily due to exposure of erosion-resistant lithologies within cores of Laramide uplifts. The resultant decrease in erosion rate starved adjacent basins of sediment, allowing the widespread and prolonged deposition of organic-rich lacustrine mudstone. These observations suggest that geomorphic evolution of the surrounding landscape should be considered as a potentially important influence on sedimentation in many other interior basins, in addition to more conventionally interpreted tectonic and climatic controls.

  13. Update on visual function and choroidal-retinal thickness alterations in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obis, J; Satue, M; Alarcia, R; Pablo, L E; Garcia-Martin, E

    2018-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative process that affects 7.5 million people around the world. Since 2004, several studies have demonstrated changes in various retinal layers in PD using optical coherence tomography (OCT). However, there are some discrepancies in the results of those studies. Some of them have correlated retinal thickness with the severity or duration of the disease, demonstrating that OCT measurements may be an innocuous and easy biomarker for PD progression. Other studies have demonstrated visual dysfunctions since early phases of the disease. Lastly, the most recent studies that use Swept Source OCT technology, have found choroidal thickness increase in PD patients and provide new information related to the retinal degenerative process in this disease. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on OCT and PD, in order to determine the altered retinal and choroidal parameters in PD and their possible clinical usefulness, and also the visual dysfunctions with higher impact in these patients. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunohistochemistry of a choroidal melanoma: nestin, CD34 and CD117÷c-kit labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrapciu, Alexandra Diana; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Voinea, Liliana Mary

    2014-01-01

    In a case of choroidal melanoma (CM) in a 70-year-old male patient, was firstly aimed at studying the processes of angiogenesis by use of nestin and CD34 antibodies. Anti-CD117÷c-kit antibodies were further considered for their progenitor cells specificity. Choroidal melanoma was histopathologically confirmed. Nestin-positive endothelia were found in the CM and the adjacent retina, but not in endothelia elsewhere in that eye. Nestin-positive non-pigmentary cells were found within the CM. Filopodia-projecting endothelial tip cells (ETCs), nestin- and CD34-positive were found in the CM. CD34-positive ETCs were also found in the iridial stroma. There were found two different immune patterns of the retinal Müller cells (MCs). They were nestin-positive in the retina adjacent to the tumor, but negative in any other part of retina. On the other hand, CD117÷c-kit antibodies labeled MCs as follows: (a) discontinuously, or continuously, in the retina adjacent to the CM; (b) only the inner segments of the MCs were labeled in the retina unrelated to the CM. While nestin could be a reliable marker for retinal damage, the CD117÷c-kit phenotype of MCs still needs further investigations. Antiangiogenic therapy appears as a good choice for tumor therapy.

  15. Role of optical coherence tomography angiography in myopic choroidal neovascularization after intravitreal injections of Ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the change of myopic choroidal neovascularization treated by ranibizumab and evaluate their value in monitoring the effect of anti- vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFtherapy.METHODS: The study enrolled 30 patients(30 eyesdiagnosed with myopic choroidal neovascularization. All affected eyes were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab 0.05mL(10mg/mL. Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, non-contact tonometer, ophthalmoscope, fundus fluorescein angiograph(FFAand OCTA were evaluated monthly until 6mo. The changes of BCVA and central macular thickness(CMTwere compared at 1, 3 and 6mo after treatment.RESULTS: All patients received an average of 1.70±0.65 injections. BCVA was 0.96±0.17(LogMARbefore therapy, and BCVA 1, 3 and 6mo after treatment respectively improved by 0.23±0.09, 0.34±0.07, 0.38±0.11. The differences were significant(t=5.461, 8.191, 8.894; Pt=12.007, 13.360, 9.531; PCONCLUSION: Intravitreal ranibizumab for CNV secondary to pathologic myopia is effective and safe; OCTA is a noninvasive and time-saving new technology, and it also is a promising tool for clinicians to make preliminary diagnosis and assess treatment efficacy in the follow-up visits.

  16. Retina nerve fiber layer and choroidal thickness changes in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Gokhan; Dogan, Deniz; Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Ayyildiz, Onder; Akincioglu, Dorukcan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on the submacular and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness (ChT). Eighty-four eyes of 42 male patients with OSAS and 112 eyes of 56 aged-matched and body mass index-matched healthy male subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The ChT and peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. The ChT and RNFL thickness measurements of the groups were compared, and correlations among the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) values and these measurements were calculated. Right and left eyes were separately evaluated. There were no significant differences in the subfoveal and temporal ChT between the groups (p > 0.05). The OSAS group had significantly thicker ChT at 0.5 and 1.5 mm nasal to the fovea in both eyes than the control group (p 0.05). Between AHI and mean RNFL thickness showed a median negative correlation (r = - 0.411, p = 0.001). The choroidal thickening in patients with OSAS may be associated with the pathophysiology of the neurodegeneration process of the disease.

  17. Inhibition of the recombinant human endostatin adenavirus on experimental choroidal neovascularization in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the inhibition of the recombinant human endostatin adenavirus(Ad-Eson the experimental choroidal neovascularization(CNVmodels by intravitreous injection. METHODS: Experimental CNV models were induced by semiconductor laser in 30 male Brown Norway(BNrats and randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 rats in each group. At 21d after photocoagulation, the single administration group were given intravitreous injection with Ad-Es 0.01mL; the repeated administration group were given intravitreous injection with Ad-Es 0.01mL and a repeated injection 7d later; the saline control group were given intravitreous injection with saline 0.01mL. At 7d after final administration, the leakage of fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAwas observed. Various CNV areas were measured by using laser confocal microscopy of choroidal flatmount method. Pathology and ultrastructure were observed with light microscopy, the expressions of CD105 were measured by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The leakage of CNV of the administration group abviously decreased as compared with those in the saline group, the leakage of repeated administration group decreased compared with that of single administration group(PPCONCLUSION: Ad-Es can effectively inhibit semiconductor laser induced CNV in BN rats, and the inhibition effect of repeated administration group is better than that of single administration group. It may be a useful new method in the treatment of CNV.

  18. Targeting choroid plexus epithelia and ventricular ependyma for drug delivery to the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopa Edward G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because the choroid plexus (CP is uniquely suited to control the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, there may be therapeutic benefits to increasing the levels of biologically active proteins in CSF to modulate central nervous system (CNS functions. To this end, we sought to identify peptides capable of ligand-mediated targeting to CP epithelial cells reasoning that they could be exploited to deliver drugs, biotherapeutics and genes to the CNS. Methods A peptide library displayed on M13 bacteriophage was screened for ligands capable of internalizing into CP epithelial cells by incubating phage with CP explants for 2 hours at 37C and recovering particles with targeting capacity. Results Three peptides, identified after four rounds of screening, were analyzed for specific and dose dependant binding and internalization. Binding was deemed specific because internalization was prevented by co-incubation with cognate synthetic peptides. Furthermore, after i.c.v. injection into rat brains, each peptide was found to target phage to epithelial cells in CP and to ependyma lining the ventricles. Conclusion These data demonstrate that ligand-mediated targeting can be used as a strategy for drug delivery to the central nervous system and opens the possibility of using the choroid plexus as a portal of entry into the brain.

  19. [Choroidal thickness after scleral buckling surgery in macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyun, I; Pınarcı, E Y; Yesilirmak, N; Yılmaz, G

    2014-10-01

    Enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-definition cross-sectional images of the choroid. Information on alterations in choroidal thickness (CT) after scleral buckling surgery (SBS) is rare. The medical charts of 122 patients (122 eyes) who underwent SBS for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with a follow-up ≥ 6 months were included. Postoperative EDI-OCT images concerning CT were evaluated 1 week, 1 month and 6 months postoperatively in 4 groups: group 1 cerclage + cryopexy (n = 39 eyes), group 2 cerclage + cryopexy + sponge (n = 28 eyes), group 3 SBS + subretinal fluid drainage (SRD) (n = 25 eyes) and group 4 SBS + sponge + SRD (n = 30 eyes). Subfoveal CT was compared between the groups and with the non-operated fellow eye. Subfoveal CT in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 was thicker 1 week postoperatively. There were no significant differences between the groups or when comparing the operated eye with the fellow eye 1 and 6 months postoperatively. There were no differences in subfoveal CT 1 and 6 months after SBS between the eye with macula-off RRD and the fellow eye. The use of a sponge or SRD induced no differences concerning subfoveal CT.

  20. Low-dose radiation therapy for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Hideaki; Takahashi, Daisuke; Mariya, Yasushi; Tarusawa, Nobuko; Yoshimoto, Hiroshi; Matsuyama, Shuichi; Noda, Yasuko.

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy of low-dose radiation was evaluated in the treatment of eyes with subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. Ten eyes of ten patients received a total dose of 14 Gy of 10 MV X-rays in seven fractions and the mean follow-up time was 12 months (range 9-18 months). Thirteen control eyes of thirteen patients were followed for an average of 18 months (range 12-24 months). Visual acuity was improved in 2 eyes (20%), unchanged in 3 eyes (30%), and deteriorated in 5 eyes (50%) of treated patients, and it was improved in no eyes (0%), unchanged in 5 eyes (32%), and deteriorated in 8 eyes (50%) of the control patients at their last follow-up examinations. Funduscopic and angiographic findings were improved in 3 eyes (30%), unchanged in 2 eyes (20%), and deteriorated in 5 eyes (50%) of treated patients, and they were improved in no eyes (0%), unchanged in 5 eyes (32%), and deteriorated in 8 eyes (50%) of the control patients. These results suggested that low-dose radiation is beneficial for the management of subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. (author)

  1. Dose rate effect of 125I irradiation on normal rabbit eyes and experimental choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.M.; Olsen, K.R.; Schwade, J.G.; Houdek, P.V.; Markoe, A.M.; Pisciotta, V.; Xiaodong Wu

    1993-01-01

    The dose rate effect of radiation by 125 I plaque on choroidal melanoma and normal intraocular tissue was studied. In the first part of the experiment, high activity plaques (HAP) and low activity plagues (LAP) were implanted on rabbit eyes with experimental Greene choroidal melanoma to deliver a total dose of 10 000 cGy to the tumor apex. The mean dose rate calculated at 0.5 mm from the inner sclera in eight eyes with high activity plaques was 3341.5 cGy hr -1 while that in ten eyes with low activity plaques was 239.9 cGy hr -1 . For tumors less than 1.0 mm in height, both groups showed complete tumor regression at the tumor implantation site after plaque treatment. For tumours more than 1.0 mm in height, two out of two eyes in the low activity plaque group and one of four eyes in the high activity plaque group failed to show complete tumor regression. In the second part of the experiment, 125 I plaques were implanted on the sclera of 12 normal rabbits' eyes. Six received high dose rate plaque treatment, while the other six received low dose rate plaque treatment. Clinical and histologic examinations demonstrated more damaging effects to the normal chorioretinal tissues at the plaque implantation site in the high dose rate plaque group. These results suggest that high dose rate plaques are more effective than low dose rate plaques when tumor height is statistically controlled. (Author)

  2. Radiation therapy for small choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Hideaki; Noda, Yasuko; Takahashi, Daisuke; Mariya, Yasushi

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiation therapy on age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization ≤1 disc area. Fourteen patients (14 eyes) received a total radiation dose of 10-20 Gy in 5-10 fractions. The mean follow-up time was 22 months. Ten patients (10 eyes) in a control group were followed up for an average of 16 months without treatment. At a 12-month posttreatment examination, funduscopic and angiographic findings showed improvement in 7 eyes (50%), no change in 1 eye (7%), and deterioration in 6 eyes (43%) among the treated patients. The same findings demonstrated improvement in 1 eye (10%), no change in 2 eyes (20%), and deterioration in 7 eyes (70%) among the control patients. This difference was determined to be statistically significant between the two groups by the Mann-Whitney U-test. Visual acuity had improved in 4 eyes (29%), was unchanged in 6 eyes (43%), and had declined in 4 eyes (29%), among the treated patients. Among the control patients, visual acuity had improved in none of the eyes (0%), was unchanged in 6 eyes (60%), and had declined in 4 eyes (40%). The difference in visual acuity between the two groups was not statistically significant. Radiation therapy inhibited small choroidal neovascularization, as seen by funduscopy and angiography, but its effectiveness in improving visual prognosis was not always evident. (author)

  3. Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid ( 3 H-PAH) and rubidium ( 86 Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either 3 H-PAH or 86 Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing

  4. Radiation therapy for small choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Hideaki; Noda, Yasuko; Takahashi, Daisuke; Mariya, Yasushi [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiation therapy on age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization {<=}1 disc area. Fourteen patients (14 eyes) received a total radiation dose of 10-20 Gy in 5-10 fractions. The mean follow-up time was 22 months. Ten patients (10 eyes) in a control group were followed up for an average of 16 months without treatment. At a 12-month posttreatment examination, funduscopic and angiographic findings showed improvement in 7 eyes (50%), no change in 1 eye (7%), and deterioration in 6 eyes (43%) among the treated patients. The same findings demonstrated improvement in 1 eye (10%), no change in 2 eyes (20%), and deterioration in 7 eyes (70%) among the control patients. This difference was determined to be statistically significant between the two groups by the Mann-Whitney U-test. Visual acuity had improved in 4 eyes (29%), was unchanged in 6 eyes (43%), and had declined in 4 eyes (29%), among the treated patients. Among the control patients, visual acuity had improved in none of the eyes (0%), was unchanged in 6 eyes (60%), and had declined in 4 eyes (40%). The difference in visual acuity between the two groups was not statistically significant. Radiation therapy inhibited small choroidal neovascularization, as seen by funduscopy and angiography, but its effectiveness in improving visual prognosis was not always evident. (author)

  5. Low-dose radiation therapy for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Hideaki; Takahashi, Daisuke; Mariya, Yasushi; Tarusawa, Nobuko; Yoshimoto, Hiroshi; Matsuyama, Shuichi [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine; Noda, Yasuko

    1996-10-01

    The efficacy of low-dose radiation was evaluated in the treatment of eyes with subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. Ten eyes of ten patients received a total dose of 14 Gy of 10 MV X-rays in seven fractions and the mean follow-up time was 12 months (range 9-18 months). Thirteen control eyes of thirteen patients were followed for an average of 18 months (range 12-24 months). Visual acuity was improved in 2 eyes (20%), unchanged in 3 eyes (30%), and deteriorated in 5 eyes (50%) of treated patients, and it was improved in no eyes (0%), unchanged in 5 eyes (32%), and deteriorated in 8 eyes (50%) of the control patients at their last follow-up examinations. Funduscopic and angiographic findings were improved in 3 eyes (30%), unchanged in 2 eyes (20%), and deteriorated in 5 eyes (50%) of treated patients, and they were improved in no eyes (0%), unchanged in 5 eyes (32%), and deteriorated in 8 eyes (50%) of the control patients. These results suggested that low-dose radiation is beneficial for the management of subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. (author)

  6. Radiation therapy for small choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Hideaki; Noda, Yasuko; Takahashi, Daisuke; Mariya, Yasushi [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization smaller than or equal to 1 disc area was evaluated. Fourteen eyes received a total radiation dose of 10-20 Gy in 5-10 fractions. The mean follow-up time was 22 months. Ten eyes in a control group were followed for an average of 16 months without any treatment. At a 12-month follow-up examination, funduscopic and angiographic findings had improved in 7 eyes (50%), were unchanged in 1 eye (7%) and, had deteriorated in 6 eyes (43%) among the treated patients. The same findings had improved in 1 eye (10%), were unchanged in 2 eyes (20%), and had deteriorated in 7 eyes (70%) among the control patients. There was a statistically significant difference by Mann-Whitney U test between the two groups. Visual acuity had improved in 4 eyes (29%), was unchanged in 6 eyes (43%), and had declined in 4 eyes (29%) among the treated patients. Among the control patients visual acuity had improved in none of the eyes (0%), was unchanged in 6 eyes (60%), and had declined in 4 eyes (40%). The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Of the 7 cases whose fundus had improved by 12 months, 4 cases maintained a favorable status through the following 2 years. Radiation therapy had an inhibitory effect on small choroidal neovascularization when viewed by funduscopy and angiography, but, the efficacy for visual prognosis was not always identified. (author)

  7. Proton beam radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma: The Liverpool-Clatterbridge experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, Bertil; Kacperek, Andrzej; Chopra, Mona; Campbell, Ian R.; Errington, R. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma using a 62-MeV cyclotron in patients considered unsuitable for other forms of conservative therapy. Methods and Materials A total of 349 patients with choroidal melanoma referred to the Liverpool Ocular Oncology Centre underwent proton beam radiotherapy at Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology (CCO) between January 1993 and December 2003. Four daily fractions of proton beam radiotherapy were delivered, with a total dose of 53.1 proton Gy, and with lateral and distal safety margins of 2.5 mm. Outcomes measured were local tumor recurrence; ocular conservation; vision; and metastatic death according to age, gender, eye, visual acuity, location of anterior and posterior tumor margins, quadrant, longest basal tumor dimension, tumor height, extraocular extension, and retinal invasion. Results The 5-year actuarial rates were 3.5% for local tumor recurrence, 9.4% for enucleation, 79.1% for conservation of vision of counting fingers or better, 61.1% for conservation of vision of 20/200 or better, 44.8% for conservation of vision of 20/40 or better, and 10.0% for death from metastasis. Conclusion Proton beam radiotherapy with a 62 MeV cyclotron achieves high rates of local tumor control and ocular conservation, with visual outcome depending on tumor size and location

  8. Iron filled carbon nanostructures from different precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Ruemmeli, M.H.; Gemming, T.; Kalenczuk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present a study on the synthesis of different nanostructures with one single-step in situ filling (encapsulation) via carbon vapor deposition (CVD). Ferrocene, acetylferrocene and iron (II) nitrate as iron precursors were explored. The application of each of these compounds resulted in different carbon nanomaterials such as: iron filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a low filling ratio (Fe-MWCNT), iron filled nanocapsules and unfilled MWCNT. The as-produced samples were purified by high temperature annealing and acid treatment. The purified materials were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  9. Characterization of Low Density Glass Filled Epoxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quesenberry, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the experimental determination and modeling of several thermophysical and mechanical properties of glass filled epoxy composite systems for potential use as electronic potting compounds...

  10. A Proinflammatory Function of Toll-Like Receptor 2 in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium as a Novel Target for Reducing Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Ju, Meihua; Lee, Kei Ying V; Mackey, Ashley; Evangelista, Mariasilvia; Iwata, Daiju; Adamson, Peter; Lashkari, Kameran; Foxton, Richard; Shima, David; Ng, Yin Shan

    2017-10-01

    Current treatments for choroidal neovascularization, a major cause of blindness for patients with age-related macular degeneration, treat symptoms but not the underlying causes of the disease. Inflammation has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization. We examined the inflammatory role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in age-related macular degeneration. TLR2 was robustly expressed by the retinal pigment epithelium in mouse and human eyes, both normal and with macular degeneration/choroidal neovascularization. Nuclear localization of NF-κB, a major downstream target of TLR2 signaling, was detected in the retinal pigment epithelium of human eyes, particularly in eyes with advanced stages of age-related macular degeneration. TLR2 antagonism effectively suppressed initiation and growth of spontaneous choroidal neovascularization in a mouse model, and the combination of anti-TLR2 and antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 yielded an additive therapeutic effect on both area and number of spontaneous choroidal neovascularization lesions. Finally, in primary human fetal retinal pigment epithelium cells, ligand binding to TLR2 induced robust expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and end products of lipid oxidation had a synergistic effect on TLR2 activation. Our data illustrate a functional role for TLR2 in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization, likely by promoting inflammation of the retinal pigment epithelium, and validate TLR2 as a novel therapeutic target for reducing choroidal neovascularization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  12. Age, Sex, and Ethnic Variations in Inner and Outer Retinal and Choroidal Thickness on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafiq, Rinoza; Mathew, Raeba; Pearce, Elizabeth; Abdel-Hey, Ahmed; Richardson, Matthew; Bailey, Thomas; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate age, sex, and ethnic variations in inner and outer retinal and choroidal thickness and foveal pit, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Single-center observational cross-sectional study. Ninety randomly selected, healthy individuals of white, black, and South Asian origin underwent SD OCT raster and enhanced depth imaging scan. Manual measurements of inner and outer retinal thickness and choroidal thickness up to 3 mm nasal and temporal to the fovea were performed. The age, sex, and ethnic differences in these parameters were analyzed. The mean inner retinal thickness was lower by approximately 12 μm in black subjects across the central retina compared to white subjects (P ethnic groups but the temporal choroid was significantly thinner in black subjects (P < .05). The choroid showed an age-related decline in thickness of 2 μm per year of age of the subjects. Interethnic differences include wider fovea, lower central foveal thickness, and thinner inner retina in eyes of black subjects compared to their white and South Asian counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Retinal and choroidal expression of BMP-2 in lens-induced myopia and recovery from myopia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honghui; Wu, Juan; Cui, Dongmei; Zeng, Junwen

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the retinal and choroidal expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in myopia and in myopia recovery in a guinea pig model. For this investigation, two groups of guinea pigs, lens‑induced myopia and recovery from myopia, were used, and defocused myopia was induced the guinea pigs wearing ‑4.00 D lenses on the right eyes for 3 weeks, with the left eyes serving as the contralateral. In the following week, the lenses of the guinea pigs in the recovery group were removed, and the refractive power and axial length were measured. The expression of BMP‑2 in the eyeballs was observed using immunohistochemistry and analyzed using Western blot analysis. After 3 weeks, the eyes acquired relative myopia and longer axial lengths in the two groups of guinea pigs. After 1 week without lenses in the recovery group, the myopia and axial lengths regressed. Immunofluorescence staining showed that BMP‑2 was expressed in the posterior retina, RPE, choroid and sclera. The expression of BMP‑2 decreased in the myopic retina of the guinea pigs. Following the regression of myopia in the recovery group, no difference in the expression of BMP‑2 was observed between the recovered treated eyes and the contralateral eyes. The choroidal expression level of BMP‑2 in the treated eyes showed no significant changes in either group. Therefore, BMP‑2 may be involved in the development of myopia, however, it does not have a primary role in the retinal and choroidal signals regulating scleral remodeling.

  14. Autologous Translocation of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Choroid in the Treatment of Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J.M. Maaijwee (Kristel Johanna Maria)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most important cause of irreversible legal blindness in elderly persons in industrialized countries. AMD has two forms: atrophic (dry) and exudative (wet). In the wet form, abnormal blood vessels, arising from the choriocapillaris (choroidal

  15. Semi-automated software to measure luminal and stromal areas of choroid in optical coherence tomographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Shozo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Kakiuchi, Naoko; Shiihara, Hideki; Sakoguchi, Tomonori; Tomita, Masatoshi; Yamashita, Takehiro; Uchino, Eisuke

    2018-03-01

    To determine the capabilities of "EyeGround" software in measuring the choroidal cross sectional areas in optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images. Cross sectional, prospective study. The cross-sectional area of the subfoveal choroid within a 1500 µm diameter circle centered on the fovea was measured both with and without using the EyeGround software in the OCT images. The differences between the evaluation times and the results of the measurements were compared. The inter-rater, intra-rater, inter-method agreements were determined. Fifty-one eyes of 51 healthy subjects were studied: 24 men and 27 women with an average age of 35.0 ± 8.8 years. The time for analyzing a single image was significantly shorter with the software at 3.2±1.1 min than without the software at 12.1±5.1 min (P software, the inter-rater correlation efficient was significantly high [0.997, 95% CI (0.995-0.999)], and the intra-rater correlation efficient was also significantly high [0.999, 95% CI (0.999-1.0)]. The EyeGround software can measure the choroidal area in the OCT cross sectional images with good reproducibility and in a significantly shorter times. It can be a valuable tool for analyzing the choroid.

  16. Discrepancy in compliance between the clinical and genetic diagnosis of choroidal hypoplasia in Danish Rough Collies and Shetland Sheepdogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredholm, Merete; Larsen, R. C.; Jönsson, M.

    2016-01-01

    Collie eye anomaly (CEA) is a congenital, inherited ocular disorder which is widespread in herding breeds. Clinically, the two major lesions associated with CEA are choroidal hypoplasia (CH) and coloboma, and both lesions are diagnosed based on ophthalmological examination. A 7.8-kb intronic dele...

  17. Variation in Definition of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McGinlay, Michael; Amin, Reshma; Burns, Karen Ea; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Jouvet, Philippe; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; McAuley, Danny F; Schultz, Marcus J; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-10-01

    Consistency of definitional criteria for terminology applied to describe subject cohorts receiving mechanical ventilation within ICU and post-acute care settings is important for understanding prevalence, risk stratification, effectiveness of interventions, and projections for resource allocation. Our objective was to quantify the application and definition of terms for prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a scoping review of studies (all designs except single-case study) reporting a study population (adult and pediatric) using the term prolonged mechanical ventilation or a synonym. We screened 5,331 references, reviewed 539 full-text references, and excluded 120. Of the 419 studies (representing 38 countries) meeting inclusion criteria, 297 (71%) reported data on a heterogeneous subject cohort, and 66 (16%) included surgical subjects only (46 of those 66, 70% cardiac surgery). Other studies described COPD (16, 4%), trauma (22, 5%), neuromuscular (17, 4%), and sepsis (1, 0.2%) cohorts. A total of 741 terms were used to refer to the 419 study cohorts. The most common terms were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (253, 60%), admission to specialized unit (107, 26%), and long-term mechanical ventilation (79, 19%). Some authors (282, 67%) defined their cohorts based on duration of mechanical ventilation, with 154 studies (55%) using this as the sole criterion. We identified 37 different durations of ventilation ranging from 5 h to 1 y, with > 21 d being the most common (28 of 282, 7%). For studies describing a surgical cohort, minimum ventilation duration required for inclusion was ≥ 24 h for 20 of 66 studies (30%). More than half of all studies (237, 57%) did not provide a reason/rationale for definitional criteria used, with only 28 studies (7%) referring to a consensus definition. We conclude that substantial variation exists in the terminology and definitional criteria for cohorts of subjects receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Standardization of

  18. Prolonged Exposure: a Rapid Treatment for Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. P.; Gaind, R.; Marks, I. M.

    1971-01-01

    Ten adult patients with long-standing specific phobias were treated by prolonged continuous exposure to their phobic objects in fantasy and reality without avoidance. All patients were greatly helped by four to five hours' treatment in two or three sessions, and all improved more after practice than after imaginal sessions. The treatment method is more economical and efficient than other methods described so far. PMID:5539135

  19. Color stability and staining of silorane after prolonged chemical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Nata Luiz; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged chemical challenges on color stability and staining susceptibility of a silorane-based composite material when compared to methacrylate-based composites. Methods: Cylindrical specimens (n=24) were fabricated from...... methacrylate (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE; Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE; Master Fill, Biodinâmica) or silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) composite materials. Initial color was registered in a spectrophotometer. Specimens were divided in four groups and individually stored at 37°C in 0.02N citric acid, 0.02N phosphoric...... acid, 75% ethanol or distilled water (control) for 7, 14, 21, and 180 days, when new measurements were performed. A staining test was performed (n=12) after 21 days of chemical challenge by immersion in coffee during 3 weeks at 37°C. Color changes (¿E) were characterized using the CIEL*a*b* color...

  20. The diagnostic use of choroidal thickness analysis and its correlation with visual field indices in glaucoma using spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjing Lin

    Full Text Available To evaluate the quantitative characteristics of choroidal thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, normal tension glaucoma (NTG and in normal eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. To evaluate the diagnostic ability of choroidal thickness in glaucoma and to determine the correlation between choroidal thickness and visual field parameters in glaucoma.A total of 116 subjects including 40 POAG, 30 NTG and 46 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Choroidal thickness measurements were acquired in the macular and peripapillary regions using SD-OCT. All subjects underwent white-on-white (W/W and blue-on-yellow (B/Y visual field tests using Humphrey Field Analyzer. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and the area under curve (AUC were generated to assess the discriminating power of choroidal thickness for glaucoma. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the structure function correlation for glaucoma patients.No significant differences were observed for macular choroidal thickness among the different groups (all P > 0.05. Regarding the peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPCT, significant differences were observed among the three groups (all P 0.05, but showed significant correlations with B/Y MD (all P < 0.05. In the early glaucomatous eyes, PPCT showed significant correlations with W/W MD and B/Y MD (all P < 0.05.In our study, peripapillary choroidal thickness measured on OCT showed a low to moderate but statistically significant diagnostic power and a significant correlation with blue-on-yellow visual field indices in glaucoma. This may indicate a potential adjunct for peripapillary choroidal thickness in glaucoma diagnosis.

  1. 7 CFR 58.730 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.730 Section 58.730 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.730 Filling containers. Hot fluid cheese from the cookers may be held in hotwells or hoppers... shall effectively measure the desired amount of product into the pouch or container in a sanitary manner...

  2. Selective filling of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Noordegraaf, Danny; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    A model for calculating the time necessary for filling one or more specific holes in a photonic crystal fibre is made. This model is verified for water, and its enabling potential is illustrated by a polymer application. Selective filling of the core in an air-guide photonic crystal fibre...

  3. Arterial supply and venous drainage of the choroid plexus of the human lateral ventricle in the prenatal period as revealed by vascular corrosion casts and SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagórska-Swiezy, K; Litwin, J A; Gorczyca, J; Pityński, K; Miodoński, A J

    2008-08-01

    The topography of the arterial supply and venous drainage was visualised by corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy in the human foetal (20 weeks) choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. Although secondary villi were not yet present at that developmental stage, the topography of the large arteries and veins almost fully corresponded to that described in adult individuals. The only major difference observed was a lack of the typical tortuosity of the lateral branch of the anterior choroidal artery and of the superior choroidal vein, which probably develops during further expansion of the vascular system associated with the formation of secondary villi.

  4. Raman spectra of filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.M.; Behera, S.N.; Sarangi, S.N.; Entel, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Raman spectra of a metallic carbon nanotube filled with atoms or molecules have been investigated theoretically. It is found that there will be a three way splitting of the main Raman lines due to the interaction of the nanotube phonon with the collective excitations (plasmons) of the conduction electrons of the nanotube as well as its coupling with the phonon of the filling material. The positions and relative strengths of these Raman peaks depend on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, phonon frequency of the filling atom and the strength of interaction of the nanotube phonon and the phonon of the filling atoms. Careful experimental studies of the Raman spectra of filled nanotubes should show these three peaks. It is also shown that in a semiconducting nanotube the Raman line will split into two and should be observed experimentally

  5. T-Lymphocytes Traffic into the Brain across the Blood-CSF Barrier: Evidence Using a Reconstituted Choroid Plexus Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazielle, Nathalie; Creidy, Rita; Malcus, Christophe; Boucraut, José; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    An emerging concept of normal brain immune surveillance proposes that recently and moderately activated central memory T lymphocytes enter the central nervous system (CNS) directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via the choroid plexus. Within the CSF space, T cells inspect the CNS environment for cognate antigens. This gate of entry into the CNS could also prevail at the initial stage of neuroinflammatory processes. To actually demonstrate T cell migration across the choroidal epithelium forming the blood-CSF barrier, an in vitro model of the rat blood-CSF barrier was established in an "inverse" configuration that enables cell transmigration studies in the basolateral to apical, i.e. blood/stroma to CSF direction. Structural barrier features were evaluated by immunocytochemical analysis of tight junction proteins, functional barrier properties were assessed by measuring the monolayer permeability to sucrose and the active efflux transport of organic anions. The migratory behaviour of activated T cells across the choroidal epithelium was analysed in the presence and absence of chemokines. The migration pathway was examined by confocal microscopy. The inverse rat BCSFB model reproduces the continuous distribution of tight junction proteins at cell margins, the restricted paracellular permeability, and polarized active transport mechanisms, which all contribute to the barrier phenotype in vivo. Using this model, we present experimental evidence of T cell migration across the choroidal epithelium. Cell migration appears to occur via a paracellular route without disrupting the restrictive barrier properties of the epithelial interface. Apical chemokine addition strongly stimulates T cell migration across the choroidal epithelium. The present data provide evidence for the controlled migration of T cells across the blood-CSF barrier into brain. They further indicate that this recruitment route is sensitive to CSF-borne chemokines, extending the relevance of this

  6. Transcriptomic analysis across nasal, temporal, and macular regions of human neural retina and RPE/choroid by RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, S. Scott; Wagner, Alex H.; DeLuca, Adam P.; Drack, Arlene V.; Stone, Edwin M.; Tucker, Budd A.; Zeng, Shemin; Braun, Terry A.; Mullins, Robert F.; Scheetz, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    Proper spatial differentiation of retinal cell types is necessary for normal human vision. Many retinal diseases, such as Best disease and male germ cell associated kinase (MAK)-associated retinitis pigmentosa, preferentially affect distinct topographic regions of the retina. While much is known about the distribution of cell-types in the retina, the distribution of molecular components across the posterior pole of the eye has not been well-studied. To investigate regional difference in molecular composition of ocular tissues, we assessed differential gene expression across the temporal, macular, and nasal retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid of human eyes using RNA-Seq. RNA from temporal, macular, and nasal retina and RPE/choroid from four human donor eyes was extracted, poly-A selected, fragmented, and sequenced as 100 bp read pairs. Digital read files were mapped to the human genome and analyzed for differential expression using the Tuxedo software suite. Retina and RPE/choroid samples were clearly distinguishable at the transcriptome level. Numerous transcription factors were differentially expressed between regions of the retina and RPE/choroid. Photoreceptor-specific genes were enriched in the peripheral samples, while ganglion cell and amacrine cell genes were enriched in the macula. Within the RPE/choroid, RPE-specific genes were upregulated at the periphery while endothelium associated genes were upregulated in the macula. Consistent with previous studies, BEST1 expression was lower in macular than extramacular regions. The MAK gene was expressed at lower levels in macula than in extramacular regions, but did not exhibit a significant difference between nasal and temporal retina. The regional molecular distinction is greatest between macula and periphery and decreases between different peripheral regions within a tissue. Datasets such as these can be used to prioritize candidate genes for possible involvement in retinal diseases with

  7. Transcriptomic analysis across nasal, temporal, and macular regions of human neural retina and RPE/choroid by RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, S Scott; Wagner, Alex H; DeLuca, Adam P; Drack, Arlene V; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A; Zeng, Shemin; Braun, Terry A; Mullins, Robert F; Scheetz, Todd E

    2014-12-01

    Proper spatial differentiation of retinal cell types is necessary for normal human vision. Many retinal diseases, such as Best disease and male germ cell associated kinase (MAK)-associated retinitis pigmentosa, preferentially affect distinct topographic regions of the retina. While much is known about the distribution of cell types in the retina, the distribution of molecular components across the posterior pole of the eye has not been well-studied. To investigate regional difference in molecular composition of ocular tissues, we assessed differential gene expression across the temporal, macular, and nasal retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid of human eyes using RNA-Seq. RNA from temporal, macular, and nasal retina and RPE/choroid from four human donor eyes was extracted, poly-A selected, fragmented, and sequenced as 100 bp read pairs. Digital read files were mapped to the human genome and analyzed for differential expression using the Tuxedo software suite. Retina and RPE/choroid samples were clearly distinguishable at the transcriptome level. Numerous transcription factors were differentially expressed between regions of the retina and RPE/choroid. Photoreceptor-specific genes were enriched in the peripheral samples, while ganglion cell and amacrine cell genes were enriched in the macula. Within the RPE/choroid, RPE-specific genes were upregulated at the periphery while endothelium associated genes were upregulated in the macula. Consistent with previous studies, BEST1 expression was lower in macular than extramacular regions. The MAK gene was expressed at lower levels in macula than in extramacular regions, but did not exhibit a significant difference between nasal and temporal retina. The regional molecular distinction is greatest between macula and periphery and decreases between different peripheral regions within a tissue. Datasets such as these can be used to prioritize candidate genes for possible involvement in retinal diseases with

  8. Prolonged labour as indication for emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Sorensen, B L; Onesmo, R

    2012-01-01

    To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour.......To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour....

  9. Laryngotracheal Injury following Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mehdizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation

  10. Regression of peripapillary choroidal neovascular membrane in a patient with sarcoidosis after oral steroid therapy☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S.; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O.; Tabbara, Khalid F.

    2014-01-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) may occur in patients with posterior uveitis. Treatment of patients with corticosteroids induces regression of the inflammation in the posterior pole with downregulation of many cytokines including vascular endothelial growth factors. We report herewith, a case of biopsy proven sarcoidosis that developed posterior uveitis and peripapillary CNV membrane and subretinal hemorrhage with fluid. The patient was treated with systemic steroids. She demonstrated progressive regression of the CNV membrane and complete resolution of the subretinal hemorrhage and fluids. In conclusion, control of the posterior segment inflammation is crucial in the resolution of the CNV membrane in uveitis and the intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor may not be always indicated. PMID:24843312

  11. Regression of peripapillary choroidal neovascular membrane in a patient with sarcoidosis after oral steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2014-04-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) may occur in patients with posterior uveitis. Treatment of patients with corticosteroids induces regression of the inflammation in the posterior pole with downregulation of many cytokines including vascular endothelial growth factors. We report herewith, a case of biopsy proven sarcoidosis that developed posterior uveitis and peripapillary CNV membrane and subretinal hemorrhage with fluid. The patient was treated with systemic steroids. She demonstrated progressive regression of the CNV membrane and complete resolution of the subretinal hemorrhage and fluids. In conclusion, control of the posterior segment inflammation is crucial in the resolution of the CNV membrane in uveitis and the intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor may not be always indicated.

  12. Ocular pulsation correlates with ocular tension: the choroid as piston for an aqueous pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C I; Tsukahara, S; Hosaka, O; Adams, W

    1992-01-01

    In 26 random out-patients, including 13 treated glaucoma patients and ocular hypertensives, the higher the ocular tension, the greater the pulse amplitude, by Alcon pneumotonometry, at a statistically significant level. In a single untreated hypertensive, when 2-hourly pneumotonometry was done for 24 h, the correlation was similar and significant. The higher the diastolic blood pressure, the higher the ocular pulsation, also significantly. Pulsation is suggested to be a pump, the choroid being the piston, contributing (1) to an increase in the outflow of aqueous humour and (2) to a homeostatic mechanism contributing to normalization of the intra-ocular pressure, wherein pulsation increases or decreases, as the intraocular pressure increases or decreases, respectively.

  13. Multifocal Choroiditis with Retinal Vasculitis, Optic Neuropathy, and Keratoconus in a Young Saudi Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhafiri, Yousef; Al Rubaie, Khalid; Kirat, Omar; May, William N; Nguyen, Quan D; Kozak, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe an association of unilateral multifocal choroiditis (MFC), retinal vasculitis, optic neuropathy, and bilateral keratoconus in a young Saudi male. A 27-year-old male patient with stable bilateral keratoconus presented with a painless vision loss in his left eye. Ophthalmic examinations revealed multiple foci of idiopathic chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and mild optic disc leakage on fluorescein angiography, all of which resolved on systemic therapy with mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone after 3 months. Systemic medication was stopped after 8 months. One year after presentation, patient's visual acuity has improved and remained stable. Systemic immunomodulatory therapy can be effective in managing and leading to resolution of MFC, retinal vasculitis, and optic disc leak in young patients.

  14. An unusual, duplicate origin of the anterior choroidal artery with aneurysm: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenin, Louis; Chivot, Cyril; Toussaint, Patrick; Deramond, Hervé; Peltier, Johann

    2015-12-01

    Aneurysms of the anterior choroidal artery (AChoA) are rare and often difficult to treat. Variations may be present and must be identified prior to treatment. We report a unique case of a ruptured aneurysm located at the origin of a duplicate branch of the AChoA. A 56-year-old male was admitted to our university hospital for coma. A brain CT scan showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, and CT angiography revealed a duplication of the right AChoA, with an aneurysm located at the branch's origin. We decided to embolize this aneurysm. Four weeks later, our patient was able to transfer to the rehabilitation unit. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first descriptions of an aneurysm located at the origin of a duplicate branch of the AChoA.

  15. Cellular Specificity of the Blood-CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liddelow, Shane A; Dzięgielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used in vivo physiological measurements...... of transfer of endogenous (mouse) and exogenous (human) albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA), and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood-CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave...... positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only...

  16. The anterior choroidal artery syndrome. Pt. 2. CT and/or MR in angiographically verified cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, S.; Ishii, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Higano, S.; Ishibashi, T.; Suzuki, M.; Sakamoto, K.

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed 12 cases of infarcts in the territory of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) on CT and/or MRI. In each case vascular occlusion in the region was verified angiographically. Although the extent of the lesion on CT/MR images was variable, all were located on the axial images within an arcuate zone between the striatium anterolaterally and the thalamus posteromedially. The distribution of the lesions on mutiplanar MRI conformed well to the territory of the AChA demonstrated microangiographically. The variability of the extent of the infarcts may be explained by variations in the degree of occlusive changes in the AChA or the development of collateral circulation through anastomoses between the AChA and the posterior communicating and posterior cerebral arteries. The extent of the lesion appeared to be closely related to the degree of neurological deficit. (orig.)

  17. Chorioretinal anastomosis after photodynamic therapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: CRA after PDT for PCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodoi, Yuko; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Otani, Atsushi; Aikawa, Hiroko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2008-08-01

    An 80-year-old woman was treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) to the left eye for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). About 3 months after PDT, her left eye developed a chorioretinal anastomosis with severe atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium in the macula; visual acuity in this eye was 20/1000. She received a second session of PDT, plus an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. About 3 months after the second treatment, the chorioretinal anastomosis was enlarged and the retinal vessels involved in the anastomosis were more dilated. About 1 year after the first PDT, visual acuity in the left eye had stabilized at 20/400. Development of a chorioretinal anastomosis is a distinct possibility following PDT in eyes with PCV, and can lead to poor visual recovery.

  18. Choroid plexus papilloma in an adult ewe – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose María González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary neoplasms of the central nervous system have been rarely reported in sheep. A three-year-old Rasa Aragonesa ewe was admitted to the small ruminant external consultancy at the Veterinary Faculty of University of Zaragoza, Spain. Clinical, haematological and neurological examinations were performed. Neurological examination showed signs of ataxia, hyperextension of the right front limb and abnormal postural reactions. The animal was unable to stand and walk, even with help. Patellar and flexor reflexes were normal and superficial sensation was present but decreased. Humanitarian sacrifice was carried out one month later. Gross and histopathological findings revealed a choroid plexus papilloma located in the fourth ventricle of the brain. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first description of this neoplastic disorder in sheep.

  19. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  20. Droplet Measurement below Single-Layer Grid Fill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitkovic Pavol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of the heat transfer in a cooling tower is in a fill zone. This one is consist of a cooling fill. For the cooling tower is used a film fill or grid fill or splash fill in the generally. The grid fill has lower heat transfer performance like film fill usually. But their advantage is high resistance to blockage of the fill. The grid fill is consisted with independent layers made from plastic usually. The layers consist of several bars connected to the different shapes. For experiment was used the rhombus shape. The drops diameter was measured above and below the Grid fill.

  1. Evaluation of Macular Ganglion Cell-inner Plexiform Layer and Choroid in Psoriasis Patients Using Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersan, Ismail; Kilic, Sevilay; Arikan, Sedat; Kara, Selcuk; Işik, Selda; Gencer, Baran; Ogretmen, Zerrin

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate changes in the thickness of the central macula, macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL), and subfoveal choroid in patients with psoriasis using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The measurements of macular, mGCIPL thicknesses and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) obtained by SD-OCT of psoriasis patients (n = 46). These measurements were compared with those of 50 healthy controls. The macular, mGCIPL, and choroidal thicknesses did not differ between the controls and psoriatic subjects (p>0.05). When the patients were divided into two distinct groups, only the SFCT was significantly thicker in the severe psoriasis group compared with the mild psoriasis group (p = 0.003). These findings suggest that choroidal alterations are seen without macular changes in patients with psoriasis. Severe psoriasis appears to be related to increases in SFCT as a consequence of possible inflammatory cascades that are part of the disease's pathogenesis.

  2. Evolution of Choroidal Neovascular Membrane in Best Disease after Single Intravitreal Bevacizumab. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celea, Christiana; Pop, Mihai; Avidis-Zamfiroiu, Nicoleta; Celea, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    Best's disease is a hereditary form of macular dystrophy that starts in childhood and progresses until visual symptoms occur. In evolution it can be complicated with choroidal neovascularization, condition very rare in children. We report an important visual improvement in a 8-year-old caucasian girl after successful treatment with one intravitreal bevacizumab injection. There are few cases reported in literature (1-7), and the patient presented here have important particularities: one of the youngest children ever-mentioned with this complication, the third-member of her family with this disease and the first patient who didn't receive a second intravitreal bevacizumab at six weeks after first treatment, even though BCVA was lower than expected. The girl accused decrease of vision in the RE for the past 3-4 months. BCVA at presentation was 1/10. After 6 weeks from the intravitreal treatment, BCVA improved, but not very satisfactory (5/10). Because fundus and OCT aspects were encouraging, we waited another 4 weeks before the second injection. BCVA doubled in this period (8/10). Visual acuity, fundus and OCT aspects stabilized for 18 months of follow-up. We note that choroidal neovascular membrane associated with Best's disease can appear at such young children, this fact being very important in the phase of diagnosis, when the clinician should also take in consideration this possibility. Another important idea underlined here is the long-term efficacy of a single intravitreal anti-VEGF injection and also the no-need for imminent, fast re-treatment when the fundus and OCT aspects are encouraging through the follow-up.

  3. Optimization of an Image-Guided Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gong

    Full Text Available The mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV has been used in studies of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration using both the conventional slit lamp and a new image-guided laser system. A standardized protocol is needed for consistent results using this model, which has been lacking. We optimized details of laser-induced CNV using the image-guided laser photocoagulation system. Four lesions with similar size were consistently applied per eye at approximately double the disc diameter away from the optic nerve, using different laser power levels, and mice of various ages and genders. After 7 days, the mice were sacrificed and retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera was flat-mounted, stained with Isolectin B4, and imaged. Quantification of the area of the laser-induced lesions was performed using an established and constant threshold. Exclusion criteria are described that were necessary for reliable data analysis of the laser-induced CNV lesions. The CNV lesion area was proportional to the laser power levels. Mice at 12-16 weeks of age developed more severe CNV than those at 6-8 weeks of age, and the gender difference was only significant in mice at 12-16 weeks of age, but not in those at 6-8 weeks of age. Dietary intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid reduced laser-induced CNV in mice. Taken together, laser-induced CNV lesions can be easily and consistently applied using the image-guided laser platform. Mice at 6-8 weeks of age are ideal for the laser-induced CNV model.

  4. Choroidal thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography in branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Coban-Karatas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate central macular thickness (CMT and mean choroidal thickness (MCT in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, before and after ranibizumab treatment using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. METHODS: Forty-two patients with unilateral BRVO and macular edema were included in this study. There were 25 men and 17 women. Using SD-OCT, choroidal thickness was measured at 500 µm intervals up to 1500 µm temporal and nasal to the fovea. MCT was calculated based on the average of the 7 locations. All the eyes with BRVO were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg/0.05 mL. Comparisons between the BRVO and fellow eyes were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Pre-injection and post-injection measurements were analyzed using Wilcoxon test and repeated measure analysis. RESULTS: At baseline, there was a significant difference between the BRVO and fellow eyes in MCT [BRVO eyes 245 (165-330 µm, fellow eyes 229 (157-327 µm] and CMT [BRVO eyes 463 (266-899 µm, fellow eyes 235 (148-378 µm (P=0.041, 0.0001, respectively]. Following treatment, CMT [295 (141-558 µm] and MCT [229 (157-329 µm] decreased significantly compared to the baseline measurements (P=0.001, 0.006, respectively. Also BCVA (logMAR improved significantly (P=0.0001 in the BRVO eyes following treatment. After treatment CMT [BRVO eyes 295 (141-558 µm, fellow eyes 234 (157-351 µm] and MCT [BRVO eyes 229 (157-329 µm, fellow eyes 233 (162-286 µm] values did not reveal any significant difference in BRVO eyes and fellow eyes (P=0.051, 0.824, respectively. CONCLUSION: In eyes with BRVO, CMT and MCT values are greater than the fellow eyes, and decrease significantly following ranibizumab injection.

  5. Choroidal thinning in diabetes type 1 detected by 3-dimensional 1060 nm optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Brunner, Simon; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Shahrezaei, Siamak Ansari; Nemetz, Susanne; Povazay, Boris; Kajic, Vedran; Drexler, Wolfgang; Binder, Susanne

    2012-10-03

    To map choroidal (ChT) and retinal thickness (RT) in patients with diabetes type 1 with and without maculopathy and retinopathy in order to compare them with healthy subjects using high speed 3-dimensional (3D) 1060 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT). Thirty-three eyes from 33 diabetes type 1 subjects (23-57 years, 15 male) divided into groups of without pathology (NDR) and with pathology (DR; including microaneurysms, exudates, clinically significant macular-oedema and proliferative retinopathy) were compared with 20 healthy axial eye length and age-matched subjects (24-57 years, 9 male), imaged by high speed (60.000 A-scans/s) 3D 1060 nm OCT performed over 36° × 36° field of view. Ocular health status, disease duration, body mass index, haemoglobin-A1c, and blood pressure (bp) measurements were recorded. Subfoveal ChT, and 2D topographic maps between retinal pigment epithelium and the choroidal/scleral-interface, were automatically generated and statistically analyzed. Subfoveal ChT (mean ± SD, μm) for healthy eyes was 388 ± 109; significantly thicker than all diabetic groups, 291 ± 64 for NDR, and 303 ± 82 for DR (ANOVA P 0.05). Compared with healthy eyes and the NDR, the averaged DR ChT-map demonstrated temporal thinning that extended superiorly and temporal-inferiorly (unpaired t-test, P 0.05). ChT is decreased in diabetes type 1, independent of the absence of pathology and of diabetic disease duration. In eyes with pathology, 3D 1060 nm OCT averaged maps showed an extension of the thinning area matching retinal lesions and suggesting its involvement on onset or progression of disease.

  6. Fluorescein-methotrexate transport in dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) choroid plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Carsten H; Fricker, Gert; Miller, David S

    2006-08-01

    The vertebrate choroid plexus removes potentially toxic metabolites and xenobiotics from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to blood for subsequent excretion in urine and bile. We used confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis to characterize the mechanisms driving transport of the large organic anion, fluorescein-methotrexate (FL-MTX), from bath (CSF-side) to blood vessels in intact lateral choroid plexus from dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, an evolutionarily ancient vertebrate. With 2 microM FL-MTX in the bath, steady-state fluorescence in the subepithelium/vascular space exceeded bath levels by 5- to 10-fold, and fluorescence in the epithelial cells was slightly below bath levels. FL-MTX accumulation in both tissue compartments was reduced by NaCN, Na removal, and ouabain, but not by a 10-fold increase in medium K. Certain organic anions, e.g., probenecid, MTX, and taurocholate, reduced FL-MTX accumulation in both tissue compartments; p-aminohippurate and estrone sulfate reduced subepithelial/vascular accumulation, but not cellular accumulation. At low concentrations, digoxin, leukotriene C4, and MK-571 reduced fluorescence in the subepithelium/vascular space while increasing cellular fluorescence, indicating preferential inhibition of efflux over uptake. In the presence of 10 microM digoxin (reduced efflux, enhanced cellular accumulation), cellular FL-MTX accumulation was specific, concentrative, and Na dependent. Thus transepithelial FL-MTX transport involved the following two carrier-mediated steps: electroneutral, Na-dependent uptake at the apical membrane and electroneutral efflux at the basolateral membrane. Finally, FL-MTX accumulation in both tissue compartments was reduced by phorbol ester and increased by forskolin, indicating antagonistic modulation by protein kinase C and protein kinase A.

  7. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and choroidal thickness in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma and pseudoexfoliative syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Gokhan; Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Gundogan, Fatih Cakir; Ozgonul, Cem; Ayyildiz, Onder; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat

    2016-05-01

    To compare retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and choroidal thickness (ChT) measurements in eyes with pseudoexfoliative (PEX) glaucoma, PEX syndrome and healthy control eyes. Eighteen patients with PEX glaucoma in one eye and PEX syndrome in the fellow eye were included. The right eyes of thirty-nine age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included as control group. All participants underwent a detailed biomicroscopic and funduscopic examination. RNFLT and ChT measurements were performed with a commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). ChT measurements were performed by using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) mode. Patients with PEX underwent diurnal IOP measurements with 4-hour intervals before inclusion in the study. RNFLT results included the average measurement and 6 quadrants (temporal, inferotemporal, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal and supero-temporal). ChT measurements were performed in the subfoveal region and around the fovea (500µm and 1500 µm nasal and temporal to the fovea), as well as around the optic disc (average peripapillary and eight quadrants in the peripapillary region (temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal, superior, supero-temporal)). RNFLT in all quadrants and average thickness were significantly lower in PEX glaucoma eyes compared to PEX syndrome eyes and healthy control eyes (p0.05) except the inferotemporal quadrant. ChT measurements were similar between groups (p>0.05). Thinning of the RNFL in association with unchanged ChT may mean that the presence of PEX material is a much more significant risk factor than choroidal changes in the progression of PEX syndrome to PEX glaucoma.

  8. Clinical importance of the anterior choroidal artery: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Xu, Ning; Zhao, Ying; Yu, Jinlu

    2018-01-01

    The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) is a critical artery in brain physiology and function. The AChA is involved in many diseases, including aneurysm, brain infarct, Moyamoya disease (MMD), brain tumor, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), etc. The AChA is vulnerable to damage during the treatment of these diseases and is thus a very important vessel. However, a comprehensive systematic review of the importance of the AChA is currently lacking. In this study, we used the PUBMED database to perform a literature review of the AChA to increase our understanding of its role in neurophysiology. Although the AChA is a small thin artery, it supplies an extremely important region of the brain. The AChA consists of cisternal and plexal segments, and the point of entry into the choroidal plexus is known as the plexal point. During treatment for aneurysms, tumors, AVM or AVF, the AChA cisternal segments should be preserved as a pathway to prevent the infarction of the AChA target region in the brain. In MMD, a dilated AChA provides collateral flow for posterior circulation. In brain infarcts, rapid treatment is necessary to prevent brain damage. In Parkinson disease (PD), the role of the AChA is unclear. In trauma, the AChA can tear and result in intracranial hematoma. In addition, both chronic and non-chronic branch vessel occlusions in the AChA are clinically silent and should not deter aneurysm treatment with flow diversion. Based on the data available, the AChA is a highly essential vessel.

  9. Comparison of parameters affecting GNP-loaded choroidal melanoma dosimetry; Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabiani, Marjan; Asadi, Somayeh; Barghi, Amir Rahnamai; Vaezzadeh, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    The current study reports the results of tumor dosimetry in the presence of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different sizes and concentrations. Due to limited number of works carried out on the brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma in combination with GNPs, this study was performed to determine the optimum size and concentration for GNPs which contributes the highest dose deposition in tumor region, using two phantom test cases namely water phantom and a full Monte Carlo model of human eye. Both water and human eye phantoms were simulated with MCNP5 code. Tumor dosimetry was performed for a typical point photon source with an energy of 0.38 MeV as a high energy source and 103Pd brachytherapy source with an average energy of 0.021 MeV as a low energy source in water phantom and eye phantom respectively. Such a dosimetry was done for different sizes and concentrations of GNPs. For all of the diameters, increase in concentration of GNPs resulted in an increase in dose deposited in the region of interest. In a certain concentration, GNPs with larger diameters contributed more dose to the tumor region, which was more pronounced using eye phantom. 100 nm was reported as the optimum size in order to achieve the highest energy deposition within the target. This work investigated the optimum parameters affecting macroscopic dose enhancement in GNP-aided brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. The current work also had implications on using low energy photon sources in the presence of GNPs to acquire the highest dose enhancement. This study is conducted through four different sizes and concentrations of GNPs. Considering the sensitivity of human eye tissue, in order to report the precise optimum parameters affecting radiosensitivity, a comprehensive study on a wide range of sizes and concentrations are required.

  10. The surface topography of the choroid plexus. Environmental, low and high vacuum scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, Pedro; Pütz, Norbert; Garcia Gómez de Las Heras, Soledad; García Poblete, Eduardo; Morguet, Andrea; Laue, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) allows the examination of hydrated and dried specimens without a conductive metal coating which could be advantageous in the imaging of biological and medical objects. The aim of this study was to assess the performance and benefits of wet-mode and low vacuum ESEM in comparison to high vacuum scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the choroid plexus of chicken embryos as a model, an organ of the brain involved in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid in vertebrates. Specimens were fixed with or without heavy metals and examined directly or after critical point drying with or without metal coating. For wet mode ESEM freshly excised specimens without any pre-treatment were also examined. Conventional high vacuum SEM revealed the characteristic morphology of the choroid plexus cells at a high resolution and served as reference. With low vacuum ESEM of dried but uncoated samples the structure appeared well preserved but charging was a problem. It could be reduced by a short beam dwell time and averaging of images or by using the backscattered electron detector instead of the gaseous secondary electron detector. However, resolution was lower than with conventional SEM. Wet mode imaging was only possible with tissue that had been stabilized by fixation. Not all surface details (e.g. microvilli) could be visualized and other structures, like the cilia, were deformed. In summary, ESEM is an additional option for the imaging of bio-medical samples but it is problematic with regard to resolution and sample stability during imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Cotransport of sodium and chloride by the adult mammalian choroid plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, C.E.; Sweeney, S.M.; Parmelee, J.T.; Epstein, M.H. (Brown Univ./Rhode Island Hospital, Providence (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid formation stems primarily from the transport of Na and Cl in choroid plexus (CP). To characterize properties and modulation of choroidal transporters, we tested diuretics and other agents for ability to alter ion transport in vitro. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were the source of CPs preincubated with drug for 20 min and then transferred to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) medium containing 22Na or 36Cl with (3H)mannitol (extracellular correction). Complete base-line curves were established for cellular uptake of Na and Cl at 37 degrees C. The half-maximal uptake occurred at 12 s, so it was used to assess drug effects on rate of transport (nmol Na or Cl/mg CP). Bumetanide (10(-5) and 10(-4) M) decreased uptake of Na and Cl with maximal inhibition (up to 45%) at 10(-5) M. Another cotransport inhibitor, furosemide (10(-4) M), reduced transport of Na by 25% and Cl by 33%. However, acetazolamide (10(-4) M) and atriopeptin III (10(-7) M) significantly lowered uptake of Na (but not Cl), suggesting effect(s) other than on cotransport. The disulfonic stilbene 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS; 10(-4) M), known to inhibit Cl-HCO3 exchange, substantially reduced the transport of 36Cl. Bumetanide plus DIDS (both 10(-4) M) caused additive inhibition of 90% of Cl uptake, which provides strong evidence for the existence of both cotransport and antiport Cl carriers. Overall, this in vitro analysis, uncomplicated by variables of blood flow and neural tone, indicates the presence in rat CP of the cotransport of Na and Cl in addition to the established Na-H and Cl-HCO3 exchangers.

  12. MafB is required for development of the hindbrain choroid plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshida, Ryusuke; Oishi, Hisashi; Hamada, Michito; Takei, Yosuke; Takahashi, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    The choroid plexus (ChP) is a non-neural epithelial tissue that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The ChP differentiates from the roof plate, a dorsal midline structure of the neural tube. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ChP development are poorly understood compared to neural development. MafB is a bZip transcription factor that is known to be expressed in the roof plate. Here we investigated the role of MafB in embryonic development of the hindbrain ChP (hChP) using Mafb-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that MafB is expressed in the roof plate and early hChP epithelial cells but its expression disappears at a later embryonic stage. We also found that the Mafb-deficient hChP exhibits delayed differentiation and results in hypoplasia compared to the wild-type hChP. Furthermore, the Mafb-deficient hChP exhibits increased apoptotic cell death and decreased proliferating cells at E12.5, an early stage of hChP development. Collectively, our findings reveal that MafB play an important role in promoting hChP development during embryogenesis. - Highlights: • MafB is expressed in the roof plate and the early hindbrain choroid plexus (hChP). • Loss of MafB causes delayed differentiation and hypoplasia of the embryonic hChP. • The Mafb-deficient hChP exhibits increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation.

  13. Neovascular Glaucoma After Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma: Histopathologic and Dosimetric Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Bruno F.; Weisbrod, Daniel; Yuecel, Yeni H.; Follwell, Matthew; Krema, Hatem; Heydarian, Mostafa; Xu Wei; Payne, David; McGowan, Hugh; Simpson, Ernest R.; Laperriere, Normand; Sahgal, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Enucleation after stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma may be required because of tumor progression (TP) or the development of intractable radiation-induced neovascular glaucoma (NVG). We compare pathologic changes and dosimetric findings in those eyes enucleated secondary to NVG as opposed to TP to better understand potential mechanisms. Methods and Materials: Patients with juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma treated with SRT (70 Gy in 5 fractions, alternate days over a total of 10 days) at the Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, who underwent enucleation between 1998 and 2006 were selected. We correlated dosimetric data based on the patient's original SRT treatment plan with histopathologic findings in the retina, optic nerve head, and anterior chamber. A dedicated ocular pathologist reviewed each case in a blinded fashion. Results: Ten eyes in ten patients were enucleated after SRT. Six were enucleated secondary to NVG and four secondary to because of TP. Aggressive tumor features such as invasion of the sclera and epithelioid cell type were observed predominantly in the TP group. Retinal damage was more predominant in the NVG group, as were findings of radiation-related retinal vascular changes of fibrinoid necrosis and hyalinization. No conclusive radiation-related effects were found in the anterior chamber. The maximum point dose and dose to 0.1 cc were lower for the anterior chamber as compared with the dose to the tumor, retina, and optic nerve head. The mean 0.1-cc doses to the retina were 69.4 Gy and 73.5 Gy and to the anterior chamber were 4.9 Gy and 17.3 Gy for the NVG group and tumor progression group, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that NVG is due to radiation damage to the posterior chamber of the eye rather than primary radiation damage to the anterior segment.

  14. Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles Highlight Early Involvement of the Choroid Plexus in Central Nervous System Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Millward

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier. Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging, in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles reveal CNS (central nervous system lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset.

  15. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for the treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization

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    Tan CS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colin S Tan,1,2 SriniVas R Sadda3 1National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 2Fundus Image Reading Center, National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Singapore; 3Doheny Eye Institute, University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV is a sight-threatening condition which occurs in eyes with myopia, particularly in those with pathologic myopia. It is the most common cause of CNV among patients younger than 50 years. Hemorrhage and exudation from the CNV lesion may eventually result in scarring or chorioretinal atrophy. While myopic CNV was previously treated with focal laser photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy (PDT, the current treatment of choice is anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intravitreal anti-VEGF agents in the treatment of myopic CNV. The RADIANCE study reported that intravitreal ranibizumab was superior to PDT in eyes with myopic CNV (at 3 months, both groups receiving intravitreal ranibizumab gained 10.5 and 10.6 letters vs 2.2 letters among patients receiving PDT. In addition, the study demonstrated similar visual outcomes in eyes treated on the basis of visual acuity stabilization or disease activity criteria. Other clinical studies have provided evidence for the efficacy of ranibizumab and aflibercept in the treatment of myopic CNV. This review addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and imaging characteristics of myopic CNV, and discusses the evidence for the efficacy of anti-VEGF agents as compared to laser photocoagulation and PDT. Keywords: myopic choroidal neovascularization, ranibizumab, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

  16. High rebleeding risk associated with choroidal collateral vessels in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease: analysis of a nonsurgical cohort in the Japan Adult Moyamoya Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Jun C; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Kuroda, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Shigekazu; Fujimura, Miki; Tomata, Yasutake; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2018-03-02

    OBJECTIVE Choroidal collateral vessels typical of moyamoya disease have received attention as a potential bleeding source. The authors' previous angiographic cross-sectional analysis suggested a possible association between choroidal collaterals and posterior hemorrhage, indicating a high risk for rebleeding. The present longitudinal analysis is intended to determine whether choroidal collaterals are a predictor of rebleeding in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease. METHODS The Japan Adult Moyamoya Trial group designed an ancillary cohort study using 5-year follow-up data on 37 patients included in the nonsurgical arm of the original randomized controlled trial and compared the rebleeding rate of those with and those without choroidal collaterals, represented by the connection between the anterior or posterior choroidal arteries and the medullary arteries. An expert panel determined whether a choroidal collateral was present in each patient through the measurement of baseline angiography studies. The rebleeding rate comparison was adjusted for age, diagnosis of hypertension, and involvement of the posterior cerebral artery. RESULTS Choroidal collaterals were present in 21 patients (56.8%). The rebleeding rate was 13.1% per year in the collateral-positive group as compared with 1.3% in the negative group (p = 0.008, log-rank test). The adjusted hazard ratio for rebleeding in the collateral-positive group relative to the negative group remained statistically significant (HR 11.10, 95% CI 1.37-89.91). Radiographic assessment of the collateral-positive group revealed good correspondence between the distribution of collaterals and rebleeding sites. CONCLUSIONS Results of this study suggest that choroidal collaterals are a bleeding source with a high risk for hemorrhagic recurrence and a predictor of rebleeding in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.

  17. Topical Drug Formulations for Prolonged Corneal Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tong, Rong; Ciolino, Joseph B.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular local anesthetics (OLA’s) currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect on the duration of corneal anesthesia of the site-1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), applied with either proparacaine or the chemical permeation enhancer OTAB. The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. Methods Solutions of TTX, proparacaine, and OTAB, singly or in combination were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo following corneal debridement. Results Combination of TTX and proparacaine resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8–10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, while OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed following co-administration of TTX and proparacaine. Conclusion Co-administration of TTX and proparacaine significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia but in view of delayed corneal re-epithelialization, caution is suggested in use of the combination. PMID:23615270

  18. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  19. Olbrzymi brodawczak splotu naczyniówkowego – opis przypadku = Giant choroid plexus papilloma – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Woźniak

    2016-08-01

    Kamila Woźniak1, Dorota Ratuszek-Sadowska2, Agnieszka Nowacka1, Maciej Śniegocki1    1.        Klinika Neurochirurgii, Neurotraumatologii i Neurochirurgii Dziecięcej, Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu 2.        Katedra i Klinika Rehabilitacji, Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu       Streszczenie   Brodawczak splotu naczyniówkowego (ang. choroid plexus papilloma to rzadki nowotwór ośrodkowego układu nerwowego, wywodzący się z nabłonka splotu naczyniówkowego układu komorowego mózgowia. W 50% przypadków rozwija się w komorze bocznej, w 40% w komorze IV i w 5% w komorze III. Guzy splotu naczyniówkowego występują przede wszystkim w 1. dekadzie życia. Guz produkuje płyn mózgowo - rdzeniowy, co przyczynia się do wodogłowia i nadciśnienia śródczaszkowego. Histologicznie zbudowany jest ze struktur brodawkowatych, utworzonych przez cylindrycznego kształtu komórki spoczywające na błonie podstawnej. Autorzy przedstawiają opis przypadku klinicznego chorej leczonej operacyjnie w Klinice Neurochirurgii, Neurotraumatologii i Neurochirurgii Dziecięcej Szpitala Uniwersyteckiego nr 1 im. dr A. Jurasza w Bydgoszczy z rozpoznanym w badaniu histopatologicznym brodawczakiem splotu naczyniówkowego.   Słowa kluczowe: brodawczak splotu naczyniówkowego, nowotwór, ośrodkowy układ nerwowy, neurochirurgia.   Abstract   Choroid plexus papilloma is a rare cancer of the central nervous system, derived from epithelial cells of the choroid plexus of the ventricular system of the brain. In 50% of cases resolve the side chamber, and in 40% in the fourth chamber and 5% in the third ventricle. Choroid plexus tumors occur primarily in the first decade of life. The tumor produces cerebrospinal fluid, which contributes to hydrocephalus and brain edema. Histologically is built with papillary structures formed by the

  20. NEAR-INFRARED AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN BILATERAL DIFFUSE UVEAL MELANOCYTIC PROLIFERATION ASSOCIATED WITH ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMA AND CHOROIDAL METASTASIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Azadeh; Bornfeld, Norbert; Weinitz, Silke; Kellner, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the advantage of near-infrared autofluorescence (787 nm) for the detection of melanocytic lesions in a patient with bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation in association with esophageal carcinoma complicated by most likely unilateral choroidal metastasis. In this retrospective case report, a 55-year-old woman referred for the evaluation of sudden visual loss underwent normal ophthalmological evaluation and, in addition, was examined with near-infrared reflectance, near-infrared autofluorescence, fundus autofluorescence (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph II [HRA2; Heidelberg Engineering]), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis OCT; Heidelberg Engineering), and multifocal electroretinography (RetiScan; Roland Consult). The patient had been diagnosed with esophageal carcinoma 3 months before the onset of visual symptoms. The visual acuity was 20/40 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Bilateral patchy melanocytic proliferation was detected on ophthalmoscopy. The extent of lesions was best detected with near-infrared reflectance and near-infrared autofluorescence, whereas fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography did not reveal alterations of the outer retina or retinal pigment epithelium in this early stage of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation. The right eye showed in addition to the findings on the left eye choroidal folds in the fovea and an elevated lesion inferotemporal of the fovea suspicious of a choroidal metastasis. In the B-scan ultrasonography, a homogenous lesion was seen. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated a mild accumulation of subretinal fluid adjacent to and over the choroidal metastasis. Transretinal biopsy of this elevated lesion revealed a low differentiated carcinoma of squamous epithelium, compatible with choroidal metastasis of the esophageal carcinoma. The choroidal metastasis increased within 3 months after the first visit. The

  1. Quantitative retinal and choroidal blood flow during light, dark adaptation and flicker light stimulation in rats using fluorescent microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yen-Yu I; Wang, Lin; De La Garza, Bryan H; Li, Guang; Cull, Grant; Kiel, Jeffery W; Duong, Timothy Q

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to quantify retinal and choroidal blood flow (BF) during light, dark adaptation and flicker light stimulation using the microsphere technique. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with isoflurane. Eyes were dark (Group I, n = 8), light (Group II, n = 8) adapted or stimulated with 10 Hz flicker light (Group III, n = 10). Retinal and choroidal BF were measured by a previously established method, using a mixture of 8 µm yellow-green and 10 µm red fluorescent microspheres. The microspheres were counted ex vivo in the dissected retina and choroid and in the reference arterial blood under a fluorescent microscope. The choroidal BF was 64.8 ± 29 µl/min (mean ± SD) during dark adaptation, not significantly different from that during light adaptation (66.0 ± 17.8 µl/min). The retinal BF was 13.5 ± 3.2 µl/min during 10 Hz flickering light stimulation, significantly higher than that during dark adaptation in the control fellow eyes (9.9 ± 2.9 µl/min). The choroidal BF values were not statistically different between flicker stimulation and dark adaptation. Retinal BF was 11.6 ± 2.9 µl/min during light adaptation. Dark adaptation did not increase retinal BF (Group I, 8.2 ± 2.4 µl/min; Group II, 9.9 ± 2.9 µl/min). These findings argue against a dark-induced or flicker-induced functional hyperemia in the choroid as a result of the demands of the outer retina. Retinal BF was not higher during dark adaptation. Our data support the conclusion that the inner retina has a higher energy demand in flicker conditions relative to dark.

  2. Dural sinus filling defect: intrasigmoid encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatag, Ozan; Cosar, Murat; Kizildag, Betul; Sen, Halil Murat

    2013-01-01

    Filling defects of dural venous sinuses are considered to be a challenging problem especially in case of symptomatic patients. Many lesions have to be ruled out such as sinus thrombosis, arachnoid granulations and tumours. Encephalocele into dural sinus is also a rare cause of these filling defects of dural sinuses. Here, we report an extremely rare case with spontaneous occult invagination of temporal brain tissue into the left sigmoid sinus and accompanying cerebellar ectopia. PMID:24311424

  3. Relapse of choroidal neovascularization in Bietti's crystalline retinopathy following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui; Chen, Kang; Hu, Yuedong; Wang, Xinling; Chen, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Choroidal neovascularization secondary to retinitis pigmentosa is rarely observed in clinical practice. The present study describes a case of atypical retinitis pigmentosa, crystalline retinal pigmentary degeneration, complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a 26-year-old man presenting with blurred vision in the right eye. Heidelberg multimodality imaging was performed to achieve a confirmed diagnosis. Bevacizumab was injected once intravitreally. The 3-month follow-up included visualization of the lesion's regression with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). However, at 3 months after the injection, the CNV reoccurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a case of CNV secondary to retinitis pigmentosa, in which the diagnosis was confirmed via multimodality imaging and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by SD-OCT, has been reported in China.

  4. Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyper-ornithinemia responsive to vitamin B6: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadzadeh Alireza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gyrate atrophy of the retina and choroid is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease, characterized by progressive chorioretinal atrophy that results in progressive deterioration of peripheral and night vision and leading to blindness. Case presentation This report presents a case of a 28-year-old man consulting for a progressive fall of visual acuity with hemeralopia. Eye fundoscopy showed regions of confluent rounded chorioretinal atrophy. The visual field and retinal angiography were altered. A high level of plasma ornithine (629 nmol/mL was detected and a diagnosis of gyrate atrophy of the retina and choroid was made. The patient was treated with high dose Pyridoxine supplement (300 mg/d for 6 months and the ornithine level of his serum was successfully reduced. Conclusion The exact mechanism of chorioretinal atrophy in hyper-ornithinemia is not known and a small percentage of the affected people respond to Vitamin B6 supplementation.

  5. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was ...

  6. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

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    Michael Gysel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  7. Prolonged toxicity from Kambo cleansing ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Horng, Howard; Lynch, Kara; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-04-02

    Kambo cleanse is a purification, cleansing ritual traditionally performed by South American shaman to confer luck and health to hunters. We report a patient who presented to the emergency department with prolonged symptoms of vomiting, flushing, facial swelling, altered mental status, and agitation requiring chemical restraints, 22 h after a Kambo cleanse. The patient was found with four small, circular, superficial burns to the ankle at the site where the resin was introduced. The cleanse consists of rubbing resin obtained from the secretions of the giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) into superficial wounds to produce intense gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a sensation of increased stamina and strength. The cleanse is now being increasingly performed in Europe and USA.

  8. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  9. Neurohumoral responses during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Blomstrand, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This study examined neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise with and without hyperthermia. The cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate uptake ratio (O2/CHO = arteriovenous oxygen difference divided by arteriovenous glucose difference plus one-half lactate), the cerebral balances of dopamine......, and the metabolic precursor of serotonin, tryptophan, were evaluated in eight endurance-trained subjects during exercise randomized to be with or without hyperthermia. The core temperature stabilized at 37.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) in the control trial, whereas it increased to 39.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C...... in the hyperthermic trial, with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P exercise trials. Both the arterial and jugular venous dopamine levels...

  10. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  11. Structural defects in cilia of the choroid plexus, subfornical organ and ventricular ependyma are associated with ventriculomegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiderski Ruth E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrocephalus is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple etiologies that are not yet fully understood. Animal models have implicated dysfunctional cilia of the ependyma and choroid plexus in the development of the disorder. In this report, we sought to determine the origin of the ventriculomegaly in four Bardet Biedl syndrome (BBS mutant mouse strains as models of a ciliopathy. Methods Evans Blue dye was injected into the lateral ventricle of wild- type and BBS mutant mice to determine whether obstruction of intra- or extra-ventricular CSF flow contributed to ventriculomegaly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to examine the ultrastructure of the choroid plexus, subfornical organ (SFO, subcommisural organ (SCO, and ventricular ependyma to evaluate their ultrastructure and the morphology of their primary and motile cilia. Results and discussion No obstruction of intra- or extra-ventricular CSF flow was observed, implying a communicating form of hydrocephalus in BBS mutant mice. TEM analyses of the mutants showed no evidence of choroidal papillomas or breakdown of the blood:CSF barrier. In contrast, structural defects were observed in a subpopulation of cilia lining the choroid plexus, SFO, and ventricular ependyma. These included disruptions of the microtubular structure of the axoneme and the presence of electron-dense vesicular-like material along the ciliary shaft and at the tips of cilia. Conclusions Abnormalities in cilia structure and function have the potential to influence ciliary intraflagellar transport (IFT, cilia maintenance, protein trafficking, and regulation of CSF production. Ciliary structural defects are the only consistent pathological features associated with CSF-related structures in BBS mutant mice. These defects are observed from an early age, and may contribute to the underlying pathophysiology of ventriculomegaly.

  12. An attempt to understand flicker vertigo: changes in pupil size and choroidal blood flow under flickering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Maria Gabriella; Peretto, Lorenzo; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2010-02-01

    Light flickering at a rate of 4- 20 cycles per second can produce unpleasant reactions such as nausea and vertigo. In this paper, the possibility of achieving an objective evaluation/prediction of the physiological effects induced by flicker is investigated using a new imaging method based on the pupil size determination. This method is also compared with the blood flow analysis in the choroid.

  13. Posttreatment visual acuity in patients treated with episcleral plaque therapy for choroidal melanomas: dose and dose rate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Robert; Gore, Elizabeth; Mieler, William; Murray, Kevin; Gillin, Michael; Albano, Katherine; Erickson, Beth

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between the long-term visual function and the dose and dose rates delivered to critical ocular structures in patients with choroidal melanoma treated with 125 I episcleral plaque radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: From 1987 to 1994, 63 patients underwent 125 I episcleral plaque (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study [COMS] design) application for the treatment of choroidal melanoma. The mean tumor height was 4.5 mm (range 1.7-8.3). Doses and dose rates at the tumor apex, macula, and optic disc were calculated. Forty-three records were scored to assess whether a decrease in visual acuity of >2 lines on a standard Snellen eye chart had occurred. Patient age and the presence of hypertension or diabetes were noted. Statistical analysis was performed to assess both the rate at which visual decline had occurred and the presence of significant factors that had contributed to this decline. Results: With a median follow-up of 36 months, the 3-year actuarial survival rate was 93.6%. The 3-year actuarial local control rate was 86.9%. The median time to visual loss after therapy was 18.7 months. The 3-year actuarial rate of visual preservation was 40.5%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated higher macula dose rates (p=0.003) to forecast visual decline. Macula dose rates of 111±11.1 cGy/h were associated with a 50% risk of significant visual loss. Conclusion: Patients in our series treated with 125 I plaque brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma experienced favorable tumor control, but with a measurable incidence of visual decline. Higher dose rates to the macula correlated strongly with poorer posttreatment visual outcome. This information may be valuable in selecting the optimal dose rates to treat choroidal melanomas and to predict the risk of visual decline

  14. Adrenergic-induced enhancement of brain barrier system permeability to small nonelectrolytes: choroid plexus versus cerebral capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, V.A.; Johanson, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Acute hypertension induced by adrenergic agents opens up the blood-CSF barrier (choroid plexus) to nonelectrolyte and protein tracers. Sprague-Dawley adult rats anesthetized with ketamine were given an intravenous bolus of either epinephrine (10 micrograms/kg), phenylephrine (100 micrograms/kg), isoproterenol (10 micrograms/kg), or D,L-amphetamine (2 mg/kg). Tracers were injected simultaneously with test agents, and the animals killed 10 min later. Epinephrine raised MABP by 57 mm Hg, to a peak pressure of 160 mm Hg; and it increased the volume of distribution (Vd) of urea, mannitol, and 125 I-bovine serum albumin in CSF by 1.5-, 2.7-, and 30-fold, respectively. There was enhanced uptake by lateral and fourth ventricle choroid plexuses, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla, and thalamus. Phenylephrine also elevated MABP to 160 mm Hg, but it increased permeation of tracers into CSF (and several brain regions) to a lesser extent than epinephrine, attributable to protective vasoconstriction associated with alpha-agonist activity. Ratio analysis of Vd data provides evidence that augmented permeation of nonelectrolyte tracers in acute hypertension occurs predominantly by diffusion rather than vesicular transport. It is postulated that elevated MABP distends the central cores of choroid plexus villi and cerebral capillaries, with resultant stretching and opening of tight junctions in both barrier systems; with less hindrance to diffusion, urea and mannitol are cleared at rates closer to free diffusion. Neither isoproterenol (decreased MABP by 40 mm Hg) nor amphetamine (did not alter MABP) significantly opened the choroid plexus or blood-brain barrier to tracers

  15. Termoterapia transpupilar em melanoma maligno da coróide Transpupillary thermotherapy for malignant choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Motomo Chojniak

    2001-04-01

    ,63%, vitreite associada a tênues membranas vítreas em 1 paciente (9,09% e quemose associada a edema palpebral em 1 paciente (9,09%. Controle tumoral local com conservação do globo ocular foi observado durante este pequeno tempo de seguimento em 100% dos pacientes tratados. Por ocasião da "última revisão", 100% dos pacientes estavam vivos e sem doença metastática. Conclusão: Este estudo preliminar sugere que a termoterapia transpupilar apresenta-se como um método efetivo e seguro para o tratamento de selecionados melanomas pequenos da coróide. Para melhor avaliação é necessário tempo de seguimento prolongado.Purpose: Several methods have been used for treatment of choroidal melanoma. The purpose of this preliminary paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of transpupillary thermo- therapy (TTT as a primary treatment of small choroidal melanomas. Methods: This is a prospective nonrandomized study evaluating clinical aspects, tumor response, complications and visual outcome in patients presenting small choroidal melanomas (up to 4.0 mm thick and 12 mm base diameter treated with TTT over 810 nm laser diode applications. Results: There were 11 patients treated with trans-pupillary thermotherapy, all of them presenting pig-mented small choroidal melanomas. Growth previous to treatment was documented in 5 patients and risk factors for growth or metastatic disease was present in all the patients. After treatment the patients were followed for 3 to 8 months (mean 5.7 months. Three laser sessions were used in 5 pa-tients and 4 sessions in 6 patients. The lesions presented at the beginning of the treatment a mean thickness of 2.7 mm, with a mean larger base diameter of 7.8 mm. All the lesions responded to treatment and presented decrease of thickness and base diameters. After transpupillary thermotherapy, the lesions' mean thickness was 1.8 mm and the mean larger base diameter was 6.7 mm. The mean reduction in thickness was 0.9 mm and the mean decrease in larger base

  16. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in the choroid plexus: a potential link between vascular pro-inflammatory mediators and the CNS during peripheral tissue inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K.; Yang, H.-Y. T.; Berk, J. D.; Tran, J. H.; Iadarola, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    During peripheral tissue inflammation, inflammatory processes in the CNS can be initiated by blood-borne pro-inflammatory mediators. The choroid plexus, the site of CSF production, is a highly specialized interface between the vascular system and CNS, and thus, this structure may be an important element in communication between the vascular compartment and the CNS during peripheral tissue inflammation. We investigated the potential participation of the choroid plexus in this process during peripheral tissue inflammation by examining expression of the SCYA2 gene which codes for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). MCP-1 protein was previously reported to be induced in a variety of cells during peripheral tissue inflammation. In the basal state, SCYA2 is highly expressed in the choroid plexus as compared to other CNS tissues. During hind paw inflammation, SCYA2 expression was significantly elevated in choroid plexus, whereas it remained unchanged in a variety of brain regions. The SCYA2-expressing cells were strongly associated with the choroid plexus as vascular depletion of blood cells by whole-body saline flush did not significantly alter SCYA2 expression in the choroid plexus. In situ hybridization suggested that the SCYA2-expressing cells were localized to the choroid plexus stroma. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of SCYA2 increase, we examined genes in the NF-κβ signaling cascade including TNF-α, IL-1β and IκBα in choroid tissue. Given that we also detected increased levels of MCP-1 protein by ELISA, we sought to identify potential downstream targets of MCP-1 and observed altered expression levels of mRNAs encoding tight junction proteins TJP2 and claudin 5. Finally, we detected a substantial up-regulation of the transcript encoding E-selectin, a molecule which could participate in leukocyte recruitment to the choroid plexus along with MCP-1. Together, these results suggest that profound changes occur in the choroid plexus during

  17. Comparison of the global gene expression of choroid plexus and meninges and associated vasculature under control conditions and after pronounced hyperthermia or amphetamine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, John F; Patterson, Tucker A; Saini, Upasana T; Hanig, Joseph P; Thomas, Monzy; Camacho, Luísa; George, Nysia I; Chen, James J

    2013-03-05

    The meninges (arachnoid and pial membranes) and associated vasculature (MAV) and choroid plexus are important in maintaining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) generation and flow. MAV vasculature was previously observed to be adversely affected by environmentally-induced hyperthermia (EIH) and more so by a neurotoxic amphetamine (AMPH) exposure. Herein, microarray and RT-PCR analysis was used to compare the gene expression profiles between choroid plexus and MAV under control conditions and at 3 hours and 1 day after EIH or AMPH exposure. Since AMPH and EIH are so disruptive to vasculature, genes related to vasculature integrity and function were of interest. Our data shows that, under control conditions, many of the genes with relatively high expression in both the MAV and choroid plexus are also abundant in many epithelial tissues. These genes function in transport of water, ions, and solutes, and likely play a role in CSF regulation. Most genes that help form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and tight junctions were also highly expressed in MAV but not in choroid plexus. In MAV, exposure to EIH and more so to AMPH decreased the expression of BBB-related genes such as Sox18, Ocln, and Cldn5, but they were much less affected in the choroid plexus. There was a correlation between the genes related to reactive oxidative stress and damage that were significantly altered in the MAV and choroid plexus after either EIH or AMPH. However, AMPH (at 3 hr) significantly affected about 5 times as many genes as EIH in the MAV, while in the choroid plexus EIH affected more genes than AMPH. Several unique genes that are not specifically related to vascular damage increased to a much greater extent after AMPH compared to EIH in the MAV (Lbp, Reg3a, Reg3b, Slc15a1, Sct and Fst) and choroid plexus (Bmp4, Dio2 and Lbp). Our study indicates that the disruption of choroid plexus function and damage produced by AMPH and EIH is significant, but the changes may not be as pronounced as they are in

  18. Prolonged pain and disability are common after rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of rib fractures to prolonged pain and disability may be underappreciated and undertreated. Clinicians are traditionally taught that the pain and disability of rib fractures resolves in 6 to 8 weeks. This study was a prospective observation of 203 patients with rib fractures at a level 1 trauma center. Chest wall pain was evaluated by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Prolonged pain was defined as a PRI of 8 or more at 2 months after injury. Prolonged disability was defined as a decrease in 1 or more levels of work or functional status at 2 months after injury. Predictors of prolonged pain and disability were determined by multivariate analysis. One hundred forty-five male patients and 58 female patients with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 20 (range, 1 to 59) had a mean of 5.4 rib fractures (range, 1 to 29). Forty-four (22%) patients had bilateral fractures, 15 (7%) had flail chest, and 92 (45%) had associated injury. One hundred eighty-seven patients were followed 2 months or more. One hundred ten (59%) patients had prolonged chest wall pain and 142 (76%) had prolonged disability. Among 111 patients with isolated rib fractures, 67 (64%) had prolonged chest wall pain and 69 (66%) had prolonged disability. MPQ PPI was predictive of prolonged pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.5), and prolonged disability (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4). The presence of significant associated injuries was predictive of prolonged disability (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29). Prolonged chest wall pain is common, and the contribution of rib fractures to disability is greater than traditionally expected. Further investigation into more effective therapies that prevent prolonged pain and disability after rib fractures is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Case of Mature Natural Killer-Cell Neoplasm Manifesting Multiple Choroidal Lesions: Primary Intraocular Natural Killer-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Tagawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Natural killer (NK cell neoplasm is a rare disease that follows an acute course and has a poor prognosis. It usually emerges from the nose and appears in the ocular tissue as a metastasis. Herein, we describe a case of NK-cell neoplasm in which the eye was considered to be the primary organ. Case: A 50-year-old female displayed bilateral anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, bullous retinal detachment, and multiple white choroidal mass lesions. Although malignant lymphoma or metastatic tumor was suspected, various systemic examinations failed to detect any positive results. A vitrectomy was performed OS; however, histocytological analyses from the vitreous sample showed no definite evidence of malignancy, and IL-10 concentration was low. Enlarged choroidal masses were fused together. Three weeks after the first visit, the patient suddenly developed an attack of fever, night sweat, and hepatic dysfunction, and 5 days later, she passed away due to multiple organ failure. Immunohistochemisty and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of atypical cells positive for CD3, CD56, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs, resulting in the diagnosis of NK-cell neoplasm. With the characteristic clinical course, we concluded that this neoplasm was a primary intraocular NK-cell lymphoma. Conclusions: This is the first report to describe primary intraocular NK-cell neoplasm. When we encounter atypical choroidal lesions, we should consider the possibility of NK-cell lymphoma, even though it is a rare disease.

  20. Ranibizumab in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization on the border of an inferior staphyloma associated with tilted disc syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Luis Arias1,2, Jordi Monés21Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona; 2Institut de la Màcula i de la Retina, Centro Médico Teknon, BarcelonaPurpose: To describe a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV on the border of an inferior staphyloma associated with tilted disc syndrome treated with intravitreal ranibizumab.Patients: Observational case report.Methods: A patient with CNV on the border of an inferior staphyloma associated with tilted disc syndrome was imaged using fluorescein angiography, autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and treated with intravitreal injections of ranibizumab. Results: The patient received 3 ranibizumab injections during the 9-month follow-up. The visual acuity improved from 20/40 to 20/32 and the foveal thickness reduced from 470 microns to 248 microns. The angiograms showed resolution of leakage associated with CNV. There were no adverse events.Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab is an efficacious and safe treatment in the management of choroidal neovascularization on the border of an inferior staphyloma associated with tilted disc syndrome.Keywords: intravitreal ranibizumab, choroidal neovascularization, tilted disc syndrome, inferior staphyloma

  1. Correlation of Optical Coherence Tomography and Autofluorescence in the Outer Retina and Choroid of Patients With Choroideremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kanmin; Oldani, Marta; Jolly, Jasleen K; Edwards, Thomas L; Groppe, Markus; Downes, Susan M; MacLaren, Robert E

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the relationships between RPE, photoreceptor, and choroidal degeneration in choroideremia. Enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and autofluorescence (AF) were performed on 39 patients (78 eyes) with choroideremia. The edges of surviving outer retina on OCT and residual AF were aligned. The distribution of outer retinal tubulations was mapped over a range of ages (16-71 years), and comparison made between pre- and postsubretinal gene therapy. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was compared between 23 choroideremia patients (42 eyes) and 20 age- and refraction-matched male controls (40 eyes). The edges of RPE AF aligned with a reduction in outer nuclear layer thickness (Spearman's rho = 0.9992). Correlation was also found between the quality of AF and integrity of ellipsoid zone within islands of surviving retina. Tubulations existed in 71 of 78 (91%) eyes with choroideremia and remained stable following gene therapy. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was reduced at baseline in choroideremia (179.7 ± 17.2 μm) compared with controls (302.0 ± 4.8 μm; P retina and hence being potentially light responsive (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01461213).

  2. Comparison of peripapillary choroidal thickness measurements via spectral domain optical coherence tomography with and without enhanced depth imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Onder; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; Ozge, Gokhan; Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Ozgonul, Cem; Gokce, Gokcen; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Durukan, Ali Hakan; Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    To compare peripapillary choroidal thickness (PP-CT) measurements using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device with and without enhanced depth imaging (EDI). Sixty healthy subjects aged from 18 to 40 years were included in this study. PP-CTs were measured in the right eyes by manual segmentation via SD-OCT both with and without EDI. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each technique and comparison of PP-CT measurements between two techniques were evaluated. The correlation between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and PP-CT was also explored on images of SD-OCT without EDI. The PP-CT measurements of 55 subjects were evaluated. The ICC was 0.999 (95% CI: 0.998-1.0, p  0.05). Additionally, there was no correlation between RNFL thickness and PP-CT (r = -0.109; p = 0.335). The PP-CT measurements via SD-OCT without EDI were consistent with the measurements via SD-OCT with EDI. Ophthalmologists who do not have access to EDI technology can use images of SD-OCT without EDI to measure the peripapillary choroid for research purposes. However, thicker peripapillary choroids cannot be measured using this technique and require further modifications or newer technologies, such as SD-OCT with EDI.

  3. Massive choroidal hemorrhage after intravitreal administration of bevacizumab (Avastin® for AMD followed by controlateral sympathetic ophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Brouzas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimitrios Brouzas, Chryssanthi Koutsandrea, Marilita Moschos, Spiros Papadimitriou, Ioannis Ladas, Michael Apostolopoulos1st Eye Department , University of Athens, Athens, GreecePurpose: To report a severe ocular complication initiated ten days after intravitreal administration of bevacizumab (Avastin®, in a patient with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Patients and method: Case report.Results: Ten days after intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg Avastin®, the patient manifested acute loss of vision with excruciating pain. An extensive choroidal detachment was evident in close contact with the lens, which necessitated an emergency sclerotomy with reconstruction of the anterior chamber. Four months later, the eye proceeded to phthisis bulbi. Five months after the injection, the patient complained of mild pain, photophobia, and visual acuity deterioration from the fellow eye. The diagnosis of sympathetic ophthalmia was suggested and treated with intravitreal injections of triamcinolone acetonide every three months with good response, complicated by elevation of intraocular pressure which we managed with Ahmet valve implantation.Conclusion: Serious ocular complications after intravitreal of Avastin® can not be excluded, including massive choroidal hemorrhage and sympathetic ophthalmia of the fellow eye.Keywords: Avastin® complication, intravitreal injection, choroidal detachment, Phthisis bulbi, sympathetic ophthalmia

  4. [Krypton laser photocoagulation at low power setting for age-related macular degeneration complicated with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-fen; Jia, Yan; Li, Zhi-qing; Du, Hong; Han, Bao-ling

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of krypton laser photocoagulation for treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) complicated with mainly subfoveal classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Seventeen eyes of 17 cases, aged 50 - 74 years (averaged 60.8 years) with mainly subfoveal classic choroidal neovascularization were treated with krypton laser at lower power setting. The treatment was completed in one session. Another course of treatment was given 4 weeks later if there was active leakage demonstrated at the CNV area. Visual acuity, anterior segment and fundus examination, perimetry test, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were performed before and after treatment. The follow-up period was 3.5 years on average (1 - 8 years). There was no immediately decrease of visual acuity after treatment. All treated eyes showed absorption of hemorrhages and/or exudates and diminished leakages. Visual acuity was stable in 8 eyes; improved in 6 eyes (>/= 2 lines), and decreased in 3 eyes (Krypton laser photocoagulation at low power setting is an effective treatment for AMD with mainly classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization.

  5. Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). METHODS: A prospective study consisting of patients...... with active nAMD enrolled in the Distance of Choroid Study at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Patients underwent three 12×9 mm macular raster scans using the deep range imaging (DRI) OCT-1 SS-OCT (Topcon) device in a single imaging session. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were calculated for the ETDRS...... macular subfields. Repeatability was calculated according to methods described by Bland and Altman. RESULTS: 39 eyes of 39 patients with nAMD were included with a mean (±SD) age of 73.9 (±7.2) years. The mean (±SD) retinal thickness of the central macular subfield was 225.7 μm (±12.4 μm...

  6. Topological materials discovery using electron filling constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Po, Hoi Chun; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2018-01-01

    Nodal semimetals are classes of topological materials that have nodal-point or nodal-line Fermi surfaces, which give them novel transport and topological properties. Despite being highly sought after, there are currently very few experimental realizations, and identifying new materials candidates has mainly relied on exhaustive database searches. Here we show how recent studies on the interplay between electron filling and nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries can guide the search for filling-enforced nodal semimetals. We recast the previously derived constraints on the allowed band-insulator fillings in any space group into a new form, which enables effective screening of materials candidates based solely on their space group, electron count in the formula unit, and multiplicity of the formula unit. This criterion greatly reduces the computation load for discovering topological materials in a database of previously synthesized compounds. As a demonstration, we focus on a few selected nonsymmorphic space groups which are predicted to host filling-enforced Dirac semimetals. Of the more than 30,000 entires listed, our filling criterion alone eliminates 96% of the entries before they are passed on for further analysis. We discover a handful of candidates from this guided search; among them, the monoclinic crystal Ca2Pt2Ga is particularly promising.

  7. NSLS-II filling pattern measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Hu; Dalesio, L.B.; Kiman Ha; Pinayev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-bunch injection will be deployed at NSLS-II. High bandwidth diagnostic beam monitors with high speed digitizers are used to measure bunch-by-bunch charge variation. In order to minimize intensity-correlated orbit oscillations due to uneven bunch patterns, we need to measure the filling pattern (also named bunch pattern or bunch structure). This paper focuses on filling pattern measurements: how to measure bunch structure and make this information available in EPICS-based control system. This measurement requires combination of 3 types of beam monitors (Wall Current Monitor, Fast Current Transformer and Beam Position Monitor), data acquisition and controls (fast digitizer, EPICS software, etc.) and Event Timing system. High-bandwidth filling pattern monitor requires high-speed digitizer to sample its analog output signal. The evaluation results of commercial fast digitizer Agilent Acqiris and high bandwidth detector Bergoz FCT are presented. We have also tested the algorithm software for filling pattern measurement as well as the interface to event timing system. It appears that filling pattern measurement system is well understood and the tests for control hardware and software have given good results

  8. Improving the support characteristics of hydraulic fill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corson, D. R.; Dorman, K. R.; Sprute, R. H.

    1980-05-15

    Extensive laboratory and field testing has defined the physical properties of hydraulic fill. Effect of void ratio on percolation rate has been quantified, and tests were developed to estimate waterflow through fill material in a given state underground. Beneficial effect on fill's support capability through addition of cement alone or in conjunction with vibratory compaction has been investigated. Two separate field studies in operating cut-and-fill mines measured vein-wall deformation and loads imposed on backfilled stopes. Technology has been developed that will effectively and efficiently dewater and densify ultra-fine-grained slurries typical of metal mine hydraulic backfill. At least two operators are using this electrokinetic technique to dewater slimes collected in underground sumps or impoundments. This technique opens up the possibility of using the total unclassified tailings product as a hydraulic backfill. Theoretical enhancement of ground support and rock-burst control through improved support capability will be tested in a full-scale mine stope installation. Both a horizontal layer and a vertical column of high modulus fill will be placed in an attempt to reduce stope wall closure, support more ground pressure, and lessen rock-burst occurrence.

  9. Fissure fillings from Finnsjoen and Studsvik Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.-L.; Larsson, S.Aa.

    1982-12-01

    Samples were taken from cores and collected at different levels. The bedrock at Finnsjoen is a Svecokarelian granite-granodiorite, the most frequent mineral in the fissures being calcite. The water from boreholes have a mean S 18 O value of -12 per thousand and saturated by calcite. Isotopically three different groups of calcite have been distinguished. Ages of 29+-13x10 3 years to 79+-25x10 3 years were estimated. Two generations of quartz were recognized the minerals prehnite and lanmontite were found Most fissure filling materials have cation exchange capacities. The bedrock at Studsvik is a Svecokarelian gneiss of sedimentary type which is migmatized with calcite and chlorite as fissure filling minerals. Most fissure fillings are thin and simple Claby minerals of smectite type are also frequent. (G.B.)

  10. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  11. Outcomes of Proton Radiation Therapy for Peripapillary Choroidal Melanoma at the BC Cancer Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Eric, E-mail: etran2@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Therapy Program, BC Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ma, Roy [Radiation Therapy Program, BC Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Paton, Katherine [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Vancouver Hospital Eye Care Centre and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Blackmore, Ewart [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Pickles, Tom [Radiation Therapy Program, BC Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report toxicity, local control, enucleation, and survival rates for patients with peripapillary choroidal melanoma treated with proton therapy in Canada. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with peripapillary choroidal melanoma ({<=}2 mm from optic disc) treated between 1995 and 2007 at the only Canadian proton therapy facility. A prospective database was updated for follow-up information from a chart review. Descriptive and actuarial data are presented. Results: In total, 59 patients were treated. The median age was 59 years. According to the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification, there were 20 T1 tumors (34%), 28 T2 tumors (48%), and 11 T3 tumors (19%). The median tumor diameter was 11.4 mm, and the median thickness was 3.5 mm. Median follow-up was 63 months. Nineteen patients received 54 cobalt gray equivalents (CGE) and forty patients received 60 CGE, each in 4 fractions. The 5-year actuarial local control rate was 91% (T1, 100%; T2, 93%; and T3, 59%) (p = 0.038). There was a suggestive relationship between local control and dose. The local control rate was 97% with 60 CGE and 83% with 54 CGE (p = 0.106). The metastasis-free survival rate was 82% and related to T stage (T1, 94%; T2, 84%; and T3, 47%) (p < 0.001). Twelve patients died, including eleven with metastases. The 5-year actuarial rate of neovascular glaucoma was 31% (23% for T1-T2 and 68% for T3, p < 0.001), and that of enucleation was 0% for T1, 14% for T2, and 72% for T3 (p < 0.001). Radiation retinopathy (74%) and optic neuropathy (64%) were common within-field effects. Conclusions: Proton therapy provides excellent local control with acceptable toxicity while conserving the globe in 80% of cases. These results are consistent with other single-institution series using proton radiotherapy, and toxicity rates were acceptable. T3 tumors carry a higher rate of both local recurrence and metastasis.

  12. Outcomes of Proton Radiation Therapy for Peripapillary Choroidal Melanoma at the BC Cancer Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Eric; Ma, Roy; Paton, Katherine; Blackmore, Ewart; Pickles, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report toxicity, local control, enucleation, and survival rates for patients with peripapillary choroidal melanoma treated with proton therapy in Canada. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with peripapillary choroidal melanoma (≤2 mm from optic disc) treated between 1995 and 2007 at the only Canadian proton therapy facility. A prospective database was updated for follow-up information from a chart review. Descriptive and actuarial data are presented. Results: In total, 59 patients were treated. The median age was 59 years. According to the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification, there were 20 T1 tumors (34%), 28 T2 tumors (48%), and 11 T3 tumors (19%). The median tumor diameter was 11.4 mm, and the median thickness was 3.5 mm. Median follow-up was 63 months. Nineteen patients received 54 cobalt gray equivalents (CGE) and forty patients received 60 CGE, each in 4 fractions. The 5-year actuarial local control rate was 91% (T1, 100%; T2, 93%; and T3, 59%) (p = 0.038). There was a suggestive relationship between local control and dose. The local control rate was 97% with 60 CGE and 83% with 54 CGE (p = 0.106). The metastasis-free survival rate was 82% and related to T stage (T1, 94%; T2, 84%; and T3, 47%) (p < 0.001). Twelve patients died, including eleven with metastases. The 5-year actuarial rate of neovascular glaucoma was 31% (23% for T1–T2 and 68% for T3, p < 0.001), and that of enucleation was 0% for T1, 14% for T2, and 72% for T3 (p < 0.001). Radiation retinopathy (74%) and optic neuropathy (64%) were common within-field effects. Conclusions: Proton therapy provides excellent local control with acceptable toxicity while conserving the globe in 80% of cases. These results are consistent with other single-institution series using proton radiotherapy, and toxicity rates were acceptable. T3 tumors carry a higher rate of both local recurrence and metastasis.

  13. Does UTI cause prolonged jaundice in otherwise well infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tanzila; Kisat, Hamudi; Tullus, Kjell

    2015-07-01

    The symptoms of urinary tract infections in infants are very non-specific and have historically included prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia. We studied the results of routine urine samples in 319 infants with prolonged jaundice. Convincing findings of UTI was not found in any of these children even if one of them was treated with antibiotics after four consecutive urine cultures with different bacteria. A urine culture might thus not be an appropriate investigation in a child with prolonged jaundice without any other symptoms of UTI. • The symptoms of UTI in infancy are very non-specific. • Old studies suggest that prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia is one such symptom; more modern studies give more conflicting results. What is New: • Our study could not confirm that children with prolonged jaundice have an increased risk of UTI. • Routine urine testing is thus not needed in otherwise healthy infants with prolonged jaundice.

  14. c-FLIP and the NOXA/Mcl-1 axis participate in the synergistic effect of pemetrexed plus cisplatin in human choroidal melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofei; Kong, Feng; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Han

    2017-01-01

    Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor, and very few effective therapies are available to treat it. Our study aimed to understand whether pemetrexed plus cisplatin exerts a beneficial synergistic effect in human choroidal melanoma cells and to delineate the underlying molecular mechanism. To accomplish these aims, we treated choroidal melanoma cells with pemetrexed and cisplatin and assessed cell survival with SRB and MTT assays. Proteins were detected using western blotting analysis. NOXA and CHOP were knocked down with siRNA. We found that pemetrexed or cisplatin alone inhibited survival and induced apoptosis in human choroidal melanoma cells. Furthermore, the expression levels of c-FLIP, an anti-apoptotic protein in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, and Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic protein in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, were decreased by pemetrexed or cisplatin respectively, while the expression of a pro-apoptotic protein in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, NOXA, was up-regulated. Moreover, pemetrexed or cisplatin alone increased the protein expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers IRE1α, Bip and CHOP. Silencing CHOP expression reduced NOXA expression. These findings suggest that the pemetrexed or cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptosis via activation of the ER stress response. Importantly, combining the two compounds more strongly induced apoptosis. Following the cotreatment, CHOP and NOXA expression increased, while c-FLIP and Mcl-1 expression decreased, and these effects were more pronounced than when using either compound alone. This result suggests that pemetrexed and cisplatin synergistically activate ER stress response-induced apoptosis in choroidal melanoma cells. To summarize, the c-FLIP and NOXA/Mcl-1 axis participated in the synergistic effect of pemetrexed plus cisplatin in human choroidal melanoma cells. Intrinsic apoptosis was induced via activation of the ER stress response. Our study provides

  15. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  16. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  17. Creep of granulated loose-fill insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This report presents a proposal for a standardised method for creep tests and the necessary theoretical framework that can be used to describe creep of a granulated loose-fill material. Furthermore results from a round robin test are shown. The round robin test was carried out in collaboration...... with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...

  18. Prolonged response without prolonged chemotherapy: a lesson from PCV chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Ricard, Damien; Jouvet, Anne; Pallud, Johan; Mokhtari, Karima; Guyotat, Jacques; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Frappaz, Didier; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies with temozolomide suggest that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is important for treating low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating LGGs, but this therapy cannot be used for a prolonged period because of the cumulative toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line PCV chemotherapy on LGGs growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 21 LGGs was measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n=13), during, and after PCV onset (n=21). During PCV treatment, a decrease in the MTD was observed in all patients. After PCV discontinuation, an ongoing decrease in MTD was observed in 20 of the 21 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 3.4 years (range, 0.8–7.7) after PCV onset and 2.7 years (range, 0–7) after the end of PCV treatment with 60% of LGGs, demonstrating an ongoing and prolonged (>2 years) response despite chemotherapy no longer being administered. According to McDonald's criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 5% and 38% at the end of PCV but 38% and 42% at the time of maximal MTD decrease, which occurred after a median period of 3.4 years after PCV onset. These results challenge the idea that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is necessary for treating LGGs and raise the issue of understanding the mechanisms involved in the persistent tumor volume decrease once chemotherapy is terminated. PMID:20488959

  19. Investigation into the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of choroidal melanoma through magnetic resonance imaging and B-scan ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papayiannis V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vassilis Papayiannis,1 Konstantinos T Tsaousis,2,3 Constantinos A Kouskouras,4 Afroditi Haritanti,4 Vasilios F Diakonis,5 Ioannis T Tsinopoulos2 1Department of Radiology, Papageorgiou General Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4Department of Radiology, AHEPA Aristotle University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Objective: To investigate the homogeneity and vascularity of choroidal melanoma through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and brightness modulation (B-mode ultrasound scan and their correlation with dimensions of tumor, as well as to measure the sensitivity of both modalities in retinal detachment (RD detection.Materials and methods: This retrospective chart review included patients diagnosed with choroidal melanoma. All these patients underwent MRI scans using T2-weighted (T2-WI and T1-weighted (T1-WI sequences, before and after an intravenous injection of paramagnetic contrast material. The patients were also examined using a B-mode ultrasound scan, and the results from both modalities were compared (tumor homogeneity, tumor height, tumor base diameter, and tumor vascularity.Results: Forty-two patients (mean age =65.33±12.51 years with choroidal melanoma were included in the study. Homogeneity was confirmed in 16 patients through ultrasound scan, in 19 patients through T1-WI sequence, in 21 patients through T2-WI sequence, and in 25 patients through T1-WI sequence + contrast (gadolinium. Patients with homogenous tumors presented with lower (P=0.0045 mean height than that of those with nonhomogenous tumors, whereas no statistically significant difference was found for base diameter measurements (P=0.056. Patients with tumors of high vascularity presented with greater mean height (P=0.000638 and

  20. Investigation into the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of choroidal melanoma through magnetic resonance imaging and B-scan ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayiannis, Vassilis; Tsaousis, Konstantinos T; Kouskouras, Constantinos A; Haritanti, Afroditi; Diakonis, Vasilios F; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis T

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the homogeneity and vascularity of choroidal melanoma through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and brightness modulation (B-mode) ultrasound scan and their correlation with dimensions of tumor, as well as to measure the sensitivity of both modalities in retinal detachment (RD) detection. This retrospective chart review included patients diagnosed with choroidal melanoma. All these patients underwent MRI scans using T2-weighted (T2-WI) and T1-weighted (T1-WI) sequences, before and after an intravenous injection of paramagnetic contrast material. The patients were also examined using a B-mode ultrasound scan, and the results from both modalities were compared (tumor homogeneity, tumor height, tumor base diameter, and tumor vascularity). Forty-two patients (mean age=65.33±12.51 years) with choroidal melanoma were included in the study. Homogeneity was confirmed in 16 patients through ultrasound scan, in 19 patients through T1-WI sequence, in 21 patients through T2-WI sequence, and in 25 patients through T1-WI sequence + contrast (gadolinium). Patients with homogenous tumors presented with lower ( P =0.0045) mean height than that of those with nonhomogenous tumors, whereas no statistically significant difference was found for base diameter measurements ( P =0.056). Patients with tumors of high vascularity presented with greater mean height ( P =0.000638) and greater mean base diameter compared with those with tumors of low vascularity ( P =0.019543). RD was detected in 26 patients through T1-WI sequence, in 13 patients through T2-WI sequence, in 26 patients through T1-WI sequence + contrast, and in 32 patients through ultrasound scan, which proved to be the most sensitive modality. The height of choroidal melanoma was positively correlated with tumor's homogeneity. Melanomas of greater height were found to be less homogenous, due to increased degeneration and higher occurrence of intratumoral hemorrhage. In addition, choroidal melanoma's height was also

  1. Fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory for supernonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jipeng; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superprincipal bundle and its associated superbundle. The super(nonlinear)connection on the superfiber bundle is constructed. Then by means of the connection theory, we establish the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory of the supernonlinear evolution equation. In this geometry theory, the fermionic covariant fundamental equations determining the prolongation structure are presented. As an example, the supernonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed in the framework of this fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We obtain its Lax pairs and Baecklund transformation.

  2. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Peng-an [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Xihong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao, Juzhou, E-mail: taoj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); Lin, He, E-mail: linhe@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb L{sub Ⅲ}-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  3. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  4. Prolonged disengagement from distractors near the hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Vatterott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Because items near our hands are often more important than items far from our hands, the brain processes visual items near our hands differently than items far from our hands. Multiple experiments have attributed this processing difference to spatial attention, but the exact mechanism behind how spatial attention near our hands changes is still under investigation. The current experiments sought to differentiate between two of the proposed mechanisms: a prioritization of the space near the hands and a prolonged disengagement of spatial attention near the hands. To differentiate between these two accounts, we used the additional singleton paradigm in which observers searched for a shape singleton among homogenously shaped distractors. On half the trials, one of the distractors was a different color. Both the prioritization and disengagement accounts predict differently colored distractors near the hands will slow target responses more than differently colored distractors far from the hands, but the prioritization account also predicts faster responses to targets near the hands than far from the hands. The disengagement account does not make this prediction, because attention does not need to be disengaged when the target appears near the hand. We found support for the disengagement account: Salient distractors near the hands slowed responses more than those far from the hands, yet observers did not respond faster to targets near the hands.

  5. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  6. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  7. New Skeletal-Space-Filling Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Frank H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes plastic, skeletal molecular models that are color-coded and can illustrate both the conformation and overall shape of small molecules. They can also be converted to space-filling counterparts by the additions of color-coded polystyrene spheres. (MLH)

  8. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  9. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L 1 . The spaces L 1 are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  10. INS gas-filled recoil isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, M.; Nomura, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1986-09-01

    The characteristics and performance of a small sized gas-filled recoil isotope separator recently made at INS are described. The total efficiency and the ΔBρ/Bρ values have been measured using low velocity 16 O, 40 Ar and 68 As ions and found to be 10 and 5 %, respectively. The Z-dependence of the mean charge is discussed. (author)

  11. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  12. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi

  13. Aneurysms with persistent filling after failed treatment with the Pipeline embolization device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Badih; Atallah, Elias; Chalouhi, Nohra; Starke, Robert M; Oliver, Jeffrey; Montano, Maria; Jabbour, Pascal; Rosenwasser, Robert H; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula I

    2018-05-04

    OBJECTIVE The Pipeline embolization device (PED) has become a valuable tool in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Although failures with PED treatment have been reported, the characteristics and course of these aneurysms remain a topic of uncertainty. METHODS Electronic medical records and imaging studies were reviewed for all patients treated with the PED between July 2010 and March 2015 to identify characteristics of patients and aneurysms with residual filling after PED treatment. RESULTS Of 316 cases treated at a single institution, 281 patients had a long-term follow-up. A total of 52 (16.4%) aneurysms with residual filling were identified and constituted the study population. The mean patient age in this population was 58.8 years. The mean aneurysm size was 10.1 mm ± 7.15 mm. Twelve aneurysms were fusiform (23%). Of the aneurysms with residual filling, there were 20 carotid ophthalmic (CO) aneurysms (20% of all CO aneurysms treated), 10 other paraclinoid aneurysms (16.4% of all paraclinoid aneurysms), 7 posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (21.9% of all PCoA aneurysms), 7 cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (14.9% of all cavernous ICA aneurysms), 4 vertebrobasilar (VB) junction aneurysms (14.8% of all VB junction aneurysms), and 3 middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms (25% of all MCA aneurysms). Eleven patients underwent placement of more than one PED (21.2%), with a mean number of devices of 1.28 per case. Eight of 12 aneurysms were previously treated with a stent (15.4%). Nineteen patients underwent re-treatment (36.5%); the 33 patients who did not undergo re-treatment (63.5%) were monitored by angiography or noninvasive imaging. In multivariate analysis, age older than 65 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.33-5.28; p = 0.05), prior stent placement across the target aneurysm (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.15-7.51; p = 0.02), aneurysm location in the distal anterior circulation (MCA, PCoA, and anterior choroidal artery: OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.19-6.18; p

  14. Choroid plexus carcinoma: clinical and radiological features of four cases and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogacheski, Enio; Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de; Nascimento, Alessandra Bettega; Jacob, Graciela Vanessa Vicelli; Delle, Linei Augusta Brolini; Liu, Christian Bark; Belggi-Torres, Luis Fernando

    1998-01-01

    Choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) is rare central nervous system (CNS) tumor that accounts for nearly 0.06% of all intracranial neoplasms, most frequently occurring in patients less than 3 years of age. The authors present a clinical and radiological study of four patients with the diagnosis of CPC. The research was undertaken in the archives of radiology in the University Hospital of Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, in the period from 1990 to 1997. The exams related to the CNS were catalogued and the CPC cases were looked into. Three of the patients were male and the mean age was 13.7 months. The clinical symptoms reported were due to intracranial hypertension, and the most common location was the lateral ventricles. Computed tomography scans show hydrocephalus and a mass hyperdense to the brain parenchyma, with marked enhancement post-contrast. Surgical resection was attempted in all patients. One of them died during the procedures. All of the other underwent relapse and died within an average of 7 months after the diagnosis. (author)

  15. Valsalva-Related Subretinal Hemorrhage as a Presenting Symptom of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif Subhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a case of Valsalva-related subretinal hemorrhage as a presenting symptom of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. The patient refrained from treatment against our best advice, and thus this is also a rare case of the natural course of an untreated PCV. Methods. Case report. Results. A 66-year-old female with a respiratory infection coughed intensely until exhaustion, after which she developed visual symptoms on the right eye. Primary care ophthalmologist examined the patient on the same day of the onset of symptoms and referred her to our tertiary medical retinal service for detailed retinal diagnosis including fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. The right eye had a large subretinal hemorrhage and pigment epithelium detachment in the lower temporal arcade with foveal involvement. Against our best advice, the patient refused treatment. In the following 9 months, the BCVA decreased from 68 to 55 ETDRS letters, the subretinal hemorrhage almost regressed, pigment epithelium detachments persisted, and macular edema, intraretinal cysts, and subretinal fibrosis developed. Conclusions. Although classic Valsalva retinopathy with preretinal hemorrhage in most cases can be managed by careful observation and no treatment, this case demonstrates that Valsalva-related subretinal hemorrhage needs different attention and approach.

  16. Intravitreal injection of ziv-aflibercept in the treatment of choroidal and retinal vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HodjatJalali, Kamran; Mehravaran, Shiva; Faghihi, Hooshang; Hashemi, Hassan; Kazemi, Pegah; Rastad, Hadith

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the short-term outcomes after intravitreal injection of ziv-aflibercept in the treatment of choroidal and retinal vascular diseases. Thirty-four eyes of 29 patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) received a single dose intravitreal injection of 0.05 ml ziv-aflibercept (1.25 mg). Visual acuity, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) activity, and possible side effects were assessed before and at 1 week and 1 month after the intervention. At 1 month after treatment, mean central macular thickness (CMT) significantly decreased from 531.09 μm to 339.5 μm ( P  < 0.001), and no signs of side effects were observed in any subject. All patients responded to treatment in terms of reduction in CMT. The improvement in visual acuity was statistically non-significant. Our findings suggest that a single dose intravitreal injection of ziv-aflibercept may have acceptable relative safety and efficacy in the treatment of patients with intraocular vascular disease. The trial was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT2015081723651N1).

  17. Efficacy of intravitreal Ranibizumab injection for choroidal neovascularization secondary to pathologic myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the efficacy and safety of intravitreal Ranibizumab injection in patiens with choroidal neovascularization(CNVsecondary to pathologic myopia.METHODS:In this retrospective and comparative study,24 patients(25 eyeswith CNV secondary to pathologic myopia were enrolled. All patients were assessed by examinations of ETDRS visual acuity chart, preplaced-mirror ophthalmoscopy, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, indocyanine green angiography(ICGAand optical coherence tomography(OCT. Patiens received intravitreally injected ranibizumab 0.5mg(0.05mL. Treatments were repeated if the follow-up indicated that it was necessary. The follow-up periods were 4~10mo. Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, central macular thickness(CMTand leakage of CNV before and after the treatment were compared. RESULTS:No local or systemic complications occurred in any patients during the treatment or follow-up. The average time of injection was 1.52. The mean BCVA was 23.93±12.46 letters before the therapy. In the last follow-up, the mean BCVA was 40.63±7.25 letters, improved by 14.27±9.36 letters and the difference was statically significant(t=5.74, Pt=3.96, PCONCLUSION:Intravitreal ranibizumab injection for CNV secondary to pathologic myopia is safe and effective, and this treatment can improve visual acuity, reduce retina edema and leakage of CNV.

  18. The association of elastin gene variants with two angiographic subtypes of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suiho Yanagisawa

    Full Text Available To compare the association of elastin (ELN gene variants between two different angiographic phenotypes of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV.We included 411 treatment-naïve PCV patients and 350 controls in the present study. PCV was classified into two phenotypes (152 Type 1 and 259 Type 2 according to the presence or absence of feeding vessels found in indocyanine-green angiography. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the ELN region including rs868005, rs884843, rs2301995, rs13239907 and rs2856728 were genotyped using TaqMan Genotyping Assays.In the allelic association analyses, rs868005 showed the strongest association with Type 2 PCV (allelic odds ratio 1.56; p = 7.4x10(-6, while no SNP was significantly associated with Type 1 PCV. Genotype association analyses revealed the significant association of rs868005 with Type 2 PCV in log additive model and predominant model (odds ratio 1.75; p = 1.5x10(-6 and odds ratio 1.60; p = 0.0044, respectively, but not with Type 1 PCV. These findings were further corroborated by another control group in the literature.There may be significantly different associations in genetic variants of elastin between two angiographic phenotypes of PCV.

  19. Neural differentiation of choroid plexus epithelial cells: role of human traumatic cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the key producer of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the choroid plexus (CP provides a unique protective system in the central nervous system. CSF components are not invariable and they can change based on the pathological conditions of the central nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of non-traumatic and traumatic CSF on the differentiation of multipotent stem-like cells of CP into the neural and/or glial cells. CP epithelial cells were isolated from adult male rats and treated with human non-traumatic and traumatic CSF. Alterations in mRNA expression of Nestin and microtubule-associated protein (MAP2, as the specific markers of neurogenesis, and astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in cultured CP epithelial cells were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that treatment with CSF (non-traumatic and traumatic led to increase in mRNA expression levels of MAP2 and GFAP. Moreover, the expression of Nestin decreased in CP epithelial cells treated with non-traumatic CSF, while treatment with traumatic CSF significantly increased its mRNA level compared to the cells cultured only in DMEM/F12 as control. It seems that CP epithelial cells contain multipotent stem-like cells which are inducible under pathological conditions including exposure to traumatic CSF because of its compositions.

  20. Bevacizumab (Avastin and Thermal Laser Combination Therapy for Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascular Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D. Adrean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is a retrospective interventional case series describing the results of 5 eyes from 5 patients with symptomatic peripapillary choroidal neovascularization (CNVM receiving initial bevacizumab treatment followed by thermal laser and bevacizumab combination therapy. Methods. Patients received intravitreal bevacizumab injections until the lesions were well-defined. Thermal laser ablation was then administered and followed by an additional bevacizumab injection after one week. Visual outcomes, OCT changes, and rates of recurrence were recorded and analyzed. Results. Median visual outcomes improved from 20/50 to 20/30 (p=0.0232. Median central macular thickness decreased from 347 μm to 152 μm (p=0.0253. The mean visual improvement was 3 lines. An average of 3.8 bevacizumab injections per patient were given overall. Patients were followed for an average of 24 months, during which all eyes were absent for recurrence. Conclusion. Symptomatic peripapillary CNVM may be successfully managed with bevacizumab followed by a combination of thermal laser and bevacizumab without the need for frequent retreatment. The area requiring treatment may be better defined using bevacizumab, limiting the ablation of the healthy retina and improving treatment margins. With this treatment regimen, the patients experience improved visual outcomes and have a low rate of recurrence.

  1. Subfoveal choroidal thickness measured by Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography in myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ATM: To measure the subfoveal choroidal thickness(SFCTin myopia using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography(OCT, and to explore the relationship between the SFCT, axial length and myopic refractive spherical equivalent.METHODS: One-hundred thirty-three eyes of 70 healthy volunteers were recruited, and were divided into emmetropia group, low-degree myopia, middle-degree myopia and high-degree myopia group. SFCT were measured by Cirrus HD OCT, and the relationship between the SFCT, axial length and myopic refractive spherical equivalent were evaluated.RESULTS: 1Average SFCT was(275.91±55.74μm in normals, that in emmetropia group, low-degree myopia, middle-degree myopia and high-degree myopia group were(290.03±34.82μm,(287.64±51.51μm,(274.95±56.83μm,(248.37±67.98μm; 2the SFCT of high-degree myopia group was significant thinner than that of emmetropia group(PPPCONCLUSION: the SFCT is inversely correlated with increasing axial length and myopic refractive error.

  2. The Choroid Plexus of the Lateral Ventricle As the Origin of CSF Pulsation Is Questionable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ken; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Naokazu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Sano, Fumiya; Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Kuroda, Kagayaki

    2018-01-15

    The advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables noninvasive measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) motion, and new information about CSF motion has now been acquired. The driving force of the CSF has long been thought to be choroid plexus (CP) pulsation, but to investigate whether this phenomenon actually occurs, CSF motion was observed in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space using MRI. Eleven healthy volunteers, ranging in age from 23 to 58 years, participated in this study. The MRI sequences used were four-dimensional phase-contrast (4D-PC) and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (t-SLIP). The 4D-PC images included sagittal images in the cranial midline, coronal images focusing on the foramen of Monro (FOM), and oblique coronal images of the trigone to quantify CSF velocity and acceleration. These values were compared and analyzed as non-parametric data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Mann-Whitney U test. 4D-PC showed that the median CSF velocity was significantly lower in the posterior part of the lateral ventricle than in other regions. The quantitative analysis of velocity and acceleration showed that they were decreased around the CP in the trigone. Image analysis of both velocity mapping and t-SLIP showed suppressed CSF motion around the CP in the trigone. These findings cast doubt on CP pulsation being the driving force for CSF motion.

  3. Palladium-103 plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma: an 11-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Paul T.; Berson, Anthony; Ng, Tracy; Szechter, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To describe 11 years of experience with 103 Pd ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy for intraocular melanoma. Methods and Materials: Since 1990, 152 patients have been diagnosed with uveal melanoma, found to be negative for metastatic disease, and treated with 103 Pd radioactive plaque radiotherapy. This study presents the first 100 patients treated with 103 Pd and followed for ≥2 years. Plaques were sewn to the episclera to cover the base of the intraocular tumor. Treatment involved delivery of a mean apical radiation dose of 80.5 Gy during 5-7 days' continuous treatment. Patients were evaluated for local tumor control, visual acuity, radiation damage (retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract), and metastatic disease. Results: Patients in this series were followed for a mean of 4.6 years (55.4 months). 103 Pd seeds were found to be equivalent to 125 I with respect to plaque manufacture and ease of dosimetric calculations. We noted a local control rate of 96% and six secondary enucleations. Including the enucleated patients, the visual acuity evaluations revealed that 35% lost six or more lines of vision and 73% had vision of 20/200 or better. Conclusion: Long-term results now exist describing the use of 103 Pd plaque radiotherapy for uveal (iris, ciliary body, and choroidal) melanoma. Compared with the results from centers using 125 I, patients in this series experienced equivalent local control rates and better visual function

  4. Multifocal electroretinogram and central visual field testing in central areolar choroidal dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Fatih Cakir; Dinç, Umut Asli; Erdem, Uzeyir; Ozge, Gokhan; Sobaci, Gungor

    2010-01-01

    To study multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) and its relation to retinal sensitivity assessed by Humphrey visual field (HVF) analysis in central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). Seven eyes of 4 patients with CACD and 15 normal control subjects were examined. mfERG and central 30/2 HVF were tested for each participant. Ring analysis in mfERG was evaluated. HVF results were evaluated in 5 concentric rings in order to compare the results to concentric ring analysis in mfERG. The differences between control subjects and patients were evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test and the correlations were assessed by Spearman test. Mean Snellen acuity was 0.49+/-0.10 in patients. HVF revealed central scotoma in 6 of 7 eyes (85.7%), whereas a paracentral scotoma extending to fixation point was detected in 1 eye. The retinal sensitivities in 5 concentric rings in HVF were significantly lower (p<0.001 for ring 1 to ring 4, and p=0.017 in ring 5) in CACD patients. Similarly, CACD patients had lower P1/N1 amplitudes (p<0.05) and delayed P1/N1 implicit times (p<0.05). In CACD, in the areas of scotoma detected by HVF, mfERG values were depressed. However, both mfERG and HVF abnormalities were found outside the areas of ophthalmoscopically normal retinal areas.

  5. FIVE-YEAR OUTCOMES OF INTRAVITREAL RANIBIZUMAB FOR CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION IN PATIENTS WITH PATHOLOGIC MYOPIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yuka; Yokoi, Tae; Kasahara, Kaori; Yoshida, Takeshi; Nagaoka, Natsuko; Shinohara, Kosei; Kaneko, Yuichiro; Suga, Mitsuki; Uramoto, Kengo; Ohno-Tanaka, Akiko; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2018-05-03

    To determine the 5-year outcome of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) for myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 51 eyes of 51 consecutive patients with myopic CNV who had been treated with IVR with a minimum follow-up period of 5 years after the initial IVR injection. The factors that predicted the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 5 years after IVR were determined by multiple regression analysis. The mean age of the subjects was 63.6 years, and the mean axial length was 29.4 mm. The mean number of IVR was 1.6, and 34 eyes (66.7%) had only a single IVR. At the baseline and at the 1-year, 2-year, 4-year, and 5-year period, the mean BCVAs were 20/49, 20/37, 20/41, 20/45, and 20/42, respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the BCVA at 5-year period was significantly correlated with the baseline BCVA, the number of IVR injections, and the size of the CNV-related macular atrophy. Intravitreal ranibizumab provide a 5-year visual benefit in eyes with myopic CNV compared with the natural course. A lack of enlargement of the CNV-related macular atrophy, a better baseline BCVA, and a minimum number of IVR injections were associated with better visual outcomes.

  6. An experimental study on choroidal neovascularization induced by Krypton laser in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jingkai; Yan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the efficacy and safety of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) formation induced by Krypton laser in Brown Norway (BN) rats, and observe the trend of the change of CNV after laser photocoagulation. Twenty-five male BN rats were involved in this study. Two eyes of one rat without any laser photocoagulation were randomly selected as the control group, and the other 48 eyes of 24 rats were selected as the experimental group. Eight eyes of four rats were randomly selected to receive the examinations of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), histopathology, and transmission electron microscopy 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days after laser photocoagulation. After laser photocoagulation, the leakage appeared in burns on day 7 (59%), reached the peak on day 21 (84%), (p0.05). The thickness of CNV increased from day 7 to day 21 (p0.05). The experimental model of CNV can be successfully induced by Krypton laser in rats with a stable, long-lasting, and high success rate. After laser photocoagulation, the leakages appear on day 7, reach the peak on day 21, and remain stable after day 21.

  7. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Vascular Diseases and Choroidal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mastropasqua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the ability of optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A to show and analyze retinal vascular patterns and the choroidal neovascularization (CNV in retinal vascular diseases. Methods. Seven eyes of seven consecutive patients with retinal vascular diseases were examined. Two healthy subjects served as controls. All eyes were scanned with the SD-OCT XR Avanti (Optovue Inc, Fremont CA, USA. Split spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithm was used to identify the blood flow within the tissue. Fluorescein angiography (FA and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA with Spectralis HRA + OCT (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH were performed. Results. In healthy subjects OCT-A visualized major macular vessels and detailed capillary networks around the foveal avascular zone. Patients were affected with myopic CNV (2 eyes, age-related macular degeneration related (2, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO (2, and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO (1. OCT-A images provided distinct vascular patterns, distinguishing perfused and nonperfused areas in BRVO and BRAO and recognizing the presence, location, and size of CNV. Conclusions. OCT-A provides detailed images of retinal vascular plexuses and quantitative data of pathologic structures. Further studies are warranted to define the role of OCT-A in the assessment of retinovascular diseases, with respect to conventional FA and ICG-A.

  8. Choroid plexus carcinoma in a cow Carcinoma de plexo coróide em um bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano José Ferreira de Sant'Ana

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A red, firm 3.5x3.0x3.0cm mass was found within the right lateral ventricle, compressing the hippocampus and thalamus of the brain of a 4-year-old cow. The pituitary was enlarged and firm. Histologically, both the brain and pituitary masses consisted of moderately pleomorphic epithelial cells arranged as rosettes or sheets supported by a delicate fibrovascular stroma. Based on anatomical localization, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of choroid plexus carcinoma with pituitary metastasis was made.Um massa vermelha e firme de 3,5x3,0x3,0cm foi observada no ventrículo lateral, comprimindo o hipocampo e tálamo do cérebro de uma vaca de quatro anos de idade. A pituitária estava aumentada de volume e firme. Histologicamente, tanto a massa do cérebro, quanto da pituitária, consistiam de células epiteliais moderadamente pleomórficas, arranjadas em rosetas ou cordões e apoiadas em um delicado estroma fibrovascular. Com base na localização anatômica e nos achados histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos, foi realizado um diagnóstico de carcinoma de plexo coróide com metástase para a pituitária.

  9. DOME-SHAPED MACULA WITH THICKENED CHOROID IN AN EMMETROPIC PATIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedkovid, Napang; Afshar, Armin R; Damato, Bertil E; Stewart, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    To report a rare case of bilateral dome-shaped macula in an emmetropic patient. Clinical case report and literature review. A 42-year-old woman presented with a history of blurred vision in the right eye. Visual acuity was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Intraocular pressure and anterior segment were unremarkable. Fundus examination revealed dull macular reflex and subretinal fluid nasal to the fovea in the right eye and a hyperpigmented area inferotemporal to the fovea in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed subretinal fluid under the fovea in the right eye and elevation of the macula with increased choroidal thickness in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography revealed abnormal hyperfluorescence without any leakage in both eyes. B-scan ultrasound showed irregular globe contour with high internal reflectivity and dome-shaped lesions at the posterior pole in both eyes. Axial length was 24.6 mm in the right eye and 25.6 mm in the left eye. Although most commonly reported in myopic eyes, dome-shaped macula can occur in an emmetropic patient and can be associated with subretinal fluid.

  10. Choroidal changes in pre-eclampsia during pregnancy and the postpartum period: comparison with healthy pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Duru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT in patients with pre-eclampsia using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT. Methods: A sample of 73 pregnant women was studied over 28 weeks of gestation. The sample was divided into two groups: one comprising pre-eclamptic pregnant women (n=32, and the other comprising healthy pregnant women (n=41. The SFCT was determined for all patients using EDI-OCT during pregnancy and at the third month of the postpartum period. Results: The SFCTs in pre-eclamptic pregnant women were 351.97 ± 22.44 and 332.28 ± 20.32 µm during the pregnancy and postpartum periods (p<0.001, respectively, whereas these values in healthy pregnant women were 389.73 ± 49.64 and 329.78 ± 22.36 µm (p<0.001, respectively. During pregnancy SFCT in pre-eclamptic pregnant women was significantly thinner than that in healthy pregnant women (p<0.001. However, there was no statistically significant difference during the postpartum period (p=0.623. Conclusions: The results suggest that SFCT is significantly decreased in pre-eclamptic pregnant women than in healthy pregnant women, despite no statistically significant difference in SFCT existing between the groups during the postpartum period.

  11. Visual function after strontium-90 plaque irradiation in patients with age-related subfoveal choroidal neovascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaakkola, A.; Tarkkanen, A.; Immonen, I. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Dept. of Ophthalmology (Finland); Heikkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Dept. of Oncology (Finland)

    1999-05-01

    Purpose: To report 2-year visual and angiographic results in eyes treated with strontium plaque irradiation for subfoveal choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM) in age-related macular degeneration. Methods: Twenty eyes with recent subfoveal CNVM were treated with local irradiation. The impact of the treatment on visual function was evaluated by visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and reading speed testing. Results: At 12 months visual acuity had improved or remained the same in 9/20 eyes (45%). At 24 months visual acuity was stable in 5/18 eyes (28%). Eyes with signs of CNVM regression (13/18,72%) lost a mean of 3.3 lines, but eyes with recurrent CNVM lost a mean of 5.1 lines of vision. The mean contrast sensitivity was better in the irradiated eyes than in the fellow eyes with late age-related macular degeneration at 24 months. Six of 17 irradiated eyes (35%) could read at least some words at 24 months. Conclusion: Visual function decreases in patients treated with strontium irradiation, but less in eyes showing regression of the CNVM than in eyes with further growth of the CNVM. (au) 20 refs.

  12. Compliance between clinical and genetic diagnosis of choroidal hypoplasia in 103 Norwegian Border Collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosås, Siv; Lingaas, Frode; Prestrud, Kristin Wear; Ropstad, Ernst-Otto

    2017-11-07

    To describe the frequency of the nonhomologous end-joining factor 1 (NHEJ1) mutation and the compliance between clinical and genetic diagnosis of choroidal hypoplasia (CH) in a group of Norwegian Border Collies. Border collie puppies in the age from 5 to 8 weeks. Puppies included in the study had a complete ophthalmological examination. All findings were recorded, and an ECVO scheme form was issued for each puppy. DNA samples were achieved from buccal swabs. Genetic typing was performed for the 7.8-kb deletion in the gene encoding NHEJ1. Dogs with none, one, or two copies of the mutated allele were classified as free, carriers, and affected, respectively. 103 Border Collie puppies from 16 litters, 52 females and 51 males, were included in the study. Ages ranged from 5.1 to 8.9 weeks. One puppy had clinical findings consistent with CH and optic nerve coloboma compatible with the diagnosis Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA). Findings on ophthalmological examination of the remaining puppies were within normal limits. On genetic testing, 85 puppies were clear of the mutation in the NHEJ1 gene, 17 puppies were carriers, and one puppy was genetically affected. A good compliance between the clinical diagnosis and the genetic test results was found in all of the puppies examined. The allele frequency of the mutation was 6.3%. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Safety Distances for hydrogen filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, A. J. C. M.; Kooi, E. S.

    2005-07-01

    In the Netherlands there is a growing interest in using natural gas as a transport fuel. The most important drivers behind this development are formed by poor inner city air quality and the decision to close several LPG filling stations. Dwellings are not allowed within the safety distances of 45 or 110 meters from the tanker filling point of these LPG stations, depending on the capacity of the station. Another driver is global warming. We are carrying out a study on station supply, compression, storage and filling for natural gas stations, and a similar, simultaneous study on hydrogen as a followup to our risk analysis for the hydrogen filling station in Amsterdam. Here, three buses drive on hydrogen as part of the European CUTE project. Driving on natural gas is an important step in the transition to cars on hydrogen. This study was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment to advise on external safety aspects of future hydrogen filling stations. According to Dutch law homes may not be built within an individual risk contour of 10-6 per year of a dangerous object, such as a plant with hazardous materials or a filling station. An individual risk contour of 10-6 is represented by a line around a dangerous object that connects locations with an individual risk level of 10-6 per year. An individual 'located' within this contour line has a chance of one per million per year or more to be killed as a result of an accident caused by this object. The longest distance between the object and such a contour is called a 'safety distance'. A study on safety distances is now in progress for different kinds of hydrogen filling stations (e. g. gaseous and liquid hydrogen) and for different capacities, such as big, medium and small stations. The focus is on different kinds of hydrogen production and the hydrogen supply of the filling station. To decide on the design and supply of the hydrogen station, we examined the

  14. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  15. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level m...

  16. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  17. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2007-01-01

    to the prospects of improving the structural quality, working environment, productivity, and architectural appearance. However, especially in vertical applications there is a great unused potential. Controlling the casting process is important in many different industries such as the metal, plastic, and food...... the framework of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD is applied to simulate the homogeneous form filling characteristics, i.e. the form filling ability and flow patterns, taking into account the rheological properties and casting technique. It is assumed that the rheological properties of SCC follow...... dimensions. For the heterogeneous flow phenomena, this project focusses on the assessment of blocking, which is of special interest in relation to high quality and complicated structures with a dense reinforcement configuration. A phenomenological micro-mechanical model has been developed, which introduces...

  18. Rainwater drained through fully filled pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, B; Koestel, P

    1989-02-01

    The conventional rainwater drainage system according to DIN 1986 always seems to be a point of problemacy in the building services as far as the occupancy of installation shafts and ducts is at stake. The excavation work and the necessary gravity lines are considered to be expensive. The consideration of the necessary slope complicates the installation additionally. Basing on those considerations, the raindraining system with fully filled pipes has been developed. DIN 1986, edition June 1988, part 1, point 6.1.1 allows to install rainwater pipes operated as planned, fully filled without slope. An enterprise specialised in building services investigated all system laws because only by a hydraulically exact balance, the function of the rainwater drainage system operated by negative and positive pressure can be insured. The results of those investigations are integrated in a computer program developed for this purpose.

  19. Dysmorphic choroid plexuses and hydrocephalus associated with increased nuchal translucency: early ultrasound markers of de novo thanatophoric dysplasia type II with cloverleaf skull (Kleeblattschaedel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Palmisano, Marcella; Ginocchi, Vladimiro; Ventura, Alessandro; Baldi, Maurizia; Baffico, Ave Maria

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) type II presenting in the first trimester with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and cloverleaf skull (Kleeblattschaedel) have been scantly reported in the medical record. Abnormal choroid plexus has been seen in association with fetal anomalies. Here we described a case of increased NT associated with indented choroid plexuses, early onset hydrocephalus and cloverleaf skull in a fetus subsequently diagnosed at early second trimester to carry a de novo mutation encoding for TD type II. The findings of dysmorphic choroid plexus, early onset hydrocephalus and cloverleaf skull at first trimester scan may be early, useful ultrasound markers of TD type II. Molecular analysis to control for possible overlapping syndromes were performed and resulted negative. Postmortem X-ray and 3D-CT scan confirmed the cloverleaf skull, narrow thorax, straight femur with rhizomelic shortening of the limbs and the presence of a communicating hydrocephalus. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  20. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)