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Sample records for proliferative signaling initiated

  1. Proliferative signaling initiated in ACTH receptors

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    C.F.P. Lotfi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent results of studies aiming to elucidate modes of integrating signals initiated in ACTH receptors and FGF2 receptors, within the network system of signal transduction found in Y1 adrenocortical cells. These modes of signal integration should be central to the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the G0->G1->S transition in the adrenal cell cycle. FGF2 elicits a strong mitogenic response in G0/G1-arrested Y1 adrenocortical cells, that includes a rapid and transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases-mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK-MAPK (2 to 10 min, b transcription activation of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc genes (10 to 30 min, c induction of c-Fos and c-Myc proteins by 1 h and cyclin D1 protein by 5 h, and d onset of DNA synthesis stimulation within 8 h. ACTH, itself a weak mitogen, interacts with FGF2 in a complex manner, blocking the FGF2 mitogenic response during the early and middle G1 phase, keeping ERK-MAPK activation and c-Fos and cyclin D1 induction at maximal levels, but post-transcriptionally inhibiting c-Myc expression. c-Fos and c-Jun proteins are mediators in both the strong and the weak mitogenic responses respectively triggered by FGF2 and ACTH. Induction of c-Fos and stimulation of DNA synthesis by ACTH are independent of PKA and are inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In addition, ACTH is a poor activator of ERK-MAPK, but c-Fos induction and DNA synthesis stimulation by ACTH are strongly inhibited by the inhibitor of MEK1 PD98059.

  2. Estrogen signaling in the proliferative endometrium: implications in endometriosis

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    Rita de Cássia Pereira da Costa e Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Even though the physiological role of estrogen in the female reproductive cycle and endometrial proliferative phase is well established, the signaling pathways by which estrogen exerts its action in the endometrial tissue are still little known. In this regard, advancements in cell culture techniques and maintenance of endometrial cells in cultures enabled the discovery of new signaling mechanisms activated by estrogen in the normal endometrium and in endometriosis. This review aims to present the recent findings in the genomic and non-genomic estrogen signaling pathways in the proliferative human endometrium specifically associated with the pathogenesis and development of endometriosis.

  3. Role of Stromal Paracrine Signals in Proliferative Diseases of the Aging Human Prostate

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    Kenichiro Ishii

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are essential for the development, differentiation, growth, and function of the prostate through epithelial–stromal interactions. However, androgen concentrations in the hypertrophic human prostate decrease significantly with age, suggesting an inverse correlation between androgen levels and proliferative diseases of the aging prostate. In elderly males, age- and/or androgen-related stromal remodeling is spontaneously induced, i.e., increased fibroblast and myofibroblast numbers, but decreased smooth muscle cell numbers in the prostatic stroma. These fibroblasts produce not only growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins, but also microRNAs as stromal paracrine signals that stimulate prostate epithelial cell proliferation. Surgical or chemical castration is the standard systemic therapy for patients with advanced prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy induces temporary remission, but the majority of patients eventually progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer, which is associated with a high mortality rate. Androgen deprivation therapy-induced stromal remodeling may be involved in the development and progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer. In the tumor microenvironment, activated fibroblasts stimulating prostate cancer cell proliferation are called carcinoma-associated fibroblasts. In this review, we summarize the role of stromal paracrine signals in proliferative diseases of the aging human prostate and discuss the potential clinical applications of carcinoma-associated fibroblast-derived exosomal microRNAs as promising biomarkers.

  4. Bilateral Proliferative Retinopathy as the Initial Presentation of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

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    Macedo, Mafalda S. F.; Figueiredo, Ana R. M.; Ferreira, Natália N.; Barbosa, Irene M. A.; Furtado, Maria João F. B. S.; Correia, Nuno F. C. B. A.; Gomes, Miguel P.; Lume, Miguel R. B.; Menéres, Maria João S.; Santos, Marinho M. N.; Meireles S., M. Angelina C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of a 48-year-old male with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who initially presented with a bilateral proliferative retinopathy. The patient complained of recent visual loss and floaters in both eyes (BE). Ophthalmologic evaluation revealed a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/50 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left eye (LE). Fundoscopy showed the presence of bilateral peripheral capillary dropout with multiple retinal sea fan neovascularisations, which were confirmed on fluorescein angiography. Full blood count revealed hyperleukocytosis, thrombocytosis, anemia, and hyperuricemia. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed the reciprocal chromosomal translocation t (9;22), diagnostic of CML. The patient was started on hydroxyurea, allopurinol and imatinib mesylate. He received bilateral panretinal laser photocoagulation and a vitrectomy was performed in the LE. The patient has been in complete hematologic, cytogenetic, and major molecular remission while on imatinib and his BCVA is 20/25 in BE. PMID:24339689

  5. The potential for chemical mixtures from the environment to enable the cancer hallmark of sustained proliferative signalling.

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    Engström, Wilhelm; Darbre, Philippa; Eriksson, Staffan; Gulliver, Linda; Hultman, Tove; Karamouzis, Michalis V; Klaunig, James E; Mehta, Rekha; Moorwood, Kim; Sanderson, Thomas; Sone, Hideko; Vadgama, Pankaj; Wagemaker, Gerard; Ward, Andrew; Singh, Neetu; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Colacci, Anna Maria; Vaccari, Monica; Mondello, Chiara; Scovassi, A Ivana; Raju, Jayadev; Hamid, Roslida A; Memeo, Lorenzo; Forte, Stefano; Roy, Rabindra; Woodrick, Jordan; Salem, Hosni K; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Brown, Dustin G; Bisson, William H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work is to review current knowledge relating the established cancer hallmark, sustained cell proliferation to the existence of chemicals present as low dose mixtures in the environment. Normal cell proliferation is under tight control, i.e. cells respond to a signal to proliferate, and although most cells continue to proliferate into adult life, the multiplication ceases once the stimulatory signal disappears or if the cells are exposed to growth inhibitory signals. Under such circumstances, normal cells remain quiescent until they are stimulated to resume further proliferation. In contrast, tumour cells are unable to halt proliferation, either when subjected to growth inhibitory signals or in the absence of growth stimulatory signals. Environmental chemicals with carcinogenic potential may cause sustained cell proliferation by interfering with some cell proliferation control mechanisms committing cells to an indefinite proliferative span. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. High fructose-mediated attenuation of insulin receptor signaling does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells.

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    Osman, Islam; Poulose, Ninu; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Segar, Lakshman

    2016-11-15

    Insulin resistance is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Although high fructose is known to induce insulin resistance, it remains unclear as to how fructose regulates insulin receptor signaling and proliferative phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which play a major role in atherosclerosis. Using human aortic VSMCs, we investigated the effects of high fructose treatment on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, insulin versus platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phosphorylation of Akt, S6 ribosomal protein, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cell cycle proteins. In comparison with PDGF (a potent mitogen), neither fructose nor insulin enhanced VSMC proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. d-[ 14 C(U)]fructose uptake studies revealed a progressive increase in fructose uptake in a time-dependent manner. Concentration-dependent studies with high fructose (5-25mM) showed marked increases in IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, a key adapter protein in insulin receptor signaling. Accordingly, high fructose treatment led to significant diminutions in insulin-induced phosphorylation of downstream signaling components including Akt and S6. In addition, high fructose significantly diminished insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation. Nevertheless, high fructose did not affect PDGF-induced key proliferative signaling events including phosphorylation of Akt, S6, and ERK and expression of cyclin D1 protein. Together, high fructose dysregulates IRS-1 phosphorylation state and proximal insulin receptor signaling in VSMCs, but does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling. These findings suggest that systemic insulin resistance rather than VSMC-specific dysregulation of insulin receptor signaling by high fructose may play a major role in enhancing atherosclerosis and neointimal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. E1(-)E4(+) adenoviral gene transfer vectors function as a "pro-life" signal to promote survival of primary human endothelial cells.

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    Ramalingam, R; Rafii, S; Worgall, S; Brough, D E; Crystal, R G

    1999-05-01

    Although endothelial cells are quiescent and long-lived in vivo, when they are removed from blood vessels and cultured in vitro they die within days to weeks. In studies of the interaction of E1(-)E4(+) replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors and human endothelium, the cells remained quiescent and were viable for prolonged periods. Evaluation of these cultures showed that E1(-)E4(+) Ad vectors provide an "antiapoptotic" signal that, in association with an increase in the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax levels, induces the endothelial cells to enter a state of "suspended animation," remaining viable for at least 30 days, even in the absence of serum and growth factors. Although the mechanisms initiating these events are unclear, the antiapoptoic signal requires the presence of E4 genes in the vector genome, suggesting that one or more E4 open reading frames of subgroup C Ad initiate a "pro-life" program that modifies cultured endothelial cells to survive for prolonged periods.

  8. Cell type-specific roles of Jak3 in IL-2-induced proliferative signal transduction

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    Fujii, Hodaka

    2007-01-01

    Binding of interleukin-2 (IL-2) to its specific receptor induces activation of two members of Jak family protein tyrosine kinases, Jak1 and Jak3. An IL-2 receptor (IL-2R)-reconstituted NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell line proliferates in response to IL-2 only when hematopoietic lineage-specific Jak3 is ectopically expressed. However, the mechanism of Jak3-dependent proliferation in the fibroblast cell line is not known. Here, I showed that Jak3 expression is dispensable for IL-2-induced activation of Jak1 and Stat proteins and expression of nuclear proto-oncogenes in the IL-2R-reconstituted fibroblast cell line. Jak3 expression markedly enhanced these IL-2-induced signaling events. In contrast, Jak3 expression was essential for induction of cyclin genes involved in the G1-S transition. These data suggest a critical role of Jak3 in IL-2 signaling in the fibroblast cell line and may provide further insight into the cell type-specific mechanism of cytokine signaling

  9. Cell type-specific roles of Jak3 in IL-2-induced proliferative signal transduction

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    Fujii, Hodaka

    2007-01-01

    Binding of IL-2 to its specific receptor induces activation of two members of Jak family protein tyrosine kinases, Jak1 and Jak3. An IL-2R-reconstituted NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell line proliferates in response to IL-2 only when hematopoietic lineage-specific Jak3 is ectopically expressed. However, the mechanism of Jak3-dependent proliferation in the fibroblast cell line is not known. Here, I showed that Jak3 expression is dispensable for IL-2-induced activation of Jak1 and Stat proteins and expression of nuclear proto-oncogenes in the IL-2R-reconstituted fibroblast cell line. However, Jak3 expression markedly enhanced these IL-2-induced signaling events. In contrast, Jak3 expression was essential for induction of cyclin genes involved in the G1-S transition. These data suggest a critical role of Jak3 in IL-2 signaling in the fibroblast cell line and may provide further insight into the cell type-specific mechanism of cytokine signaling. PMID:17266928

  10. The impact of phosphatases on proliferative and survival signaling in cancer.

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    Narla, Goutham; Sangodkar, Jaya; Ryder, Christopher B

    2018-05-03

    The dynamic and stringent coordination of kinase and phosphatase activity controls a myriad of physiologic processes. Aberrations that disrupt the balance of this interplay represent the basis of numerous diseases. For a variety of reasons, early work in this area portrayed kinases as the dominant actors in these signaling events with phosphatases playing a secondary role. In oncology, these efforts led to breakthroughs that have dramatically altered the course of certain diseases and directed vast resources toward the development of additional kinase-targeted therapies. Yet, more recent scientific efforts have demonstrated a prominent and sometimes driving role for phosphatases across numerous malignancies. This maturation of the phosphatase field has brought with it the promise of further therapeutic advances in the field of oncology. In this review, we discuss the role of phosphatases in the regulation of cellular proliferation and survival signaling using the examples of the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways, c-Myc and the apoptosis machinery. Emphasis is placed on instances where these signaling networks are perturbed by dysregulation of specific phosphatases to favor growth and persistence of human cancer.

  11. Halofuginone has anti-proliferative effects in acute promyelocytic leukemia by modulating the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway.

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    Lorena L de Figueiredo-Pontes

    Full Text Available Promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARα expression in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL impairs transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling, leading to cell growth advantage. Halofuginone (HF, a low-molecular-weight alkaloid that modulates TGFβ signaling, was used to treat APL cell lines and non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID mice subjected to transplantation with leukemic cells from human chorionic gonadotrophin-PML-RARα transgenic mice (TG. Cell cycle analysis using incorporated bromodeoxyuridine and 7-amino-actinomycin D showed that, in NB4 and NB4-R2 APL cell lines, HF inhibited cellular proliferation (P<0.001 and induced apoptosis (P = 0.002 after a 24-hour incubation. Addition of TGFβ revealed that NB4 cells were resistant to its growth-suppressive effects and that HF induced these effects in the presence or absence of the cytokine. Cell growth inhibition was associated with up-regulation of TGFβ target genes involved in cell cycle regulation (TGFB, TGFBRI, SMAD3, p15, and p21 and down-regulation of MYC. Additionally, TGFβ protein levels were decreased in leukemic TG animals and HF in vivo could restore TGFβ values to normal. To test the in vivo anti-leukemic activity of HF, we transplanted NOD/SCID mice with TG leukemic cells and treated them with HF for 21 days. HF induced partial hematological remission in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen. Together, these results suggest that HF has anti-proliferative and anti-leukemic effects by reversing the TGFβ blockade in APL. Since loss of the TGFβ response in leukemic cells may be an important second oncogenic hit, modulation of TGFβ signaling may be of therapeutic interest.

  12. The expression of the Slit-Robo signal in the retina of diabetic rats and the vitreous or fibrovascular retinal membranes of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

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    Zhou, Weiyan; Wang, Hongya; Yu, Wenzhen; Xie, Wankun; Zhao, Min; Huang, Lvzhen; Li, Xiaoxin

    2017-01-01

    The Slit-Robo signal has an important role in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Our study examined the expression of Slit2 and its receptor, Robo1, in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats via a single, intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The rats were sacrificed 1, 3 or 6 months after the injection. The expression of Slit2 and Robo1 in retinal tissue was measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and protein levels were measured by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Recombinant N-Slit2 protein was used to study the effects of Slit2 on the expression of VEGF in vivo. The concentration of Slit2 protein in human eyes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 27 eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 28 eyes in control group. The expression of Slit2, Robo1 and VEGF in the excised human fibrovascular membranes was examined by fluorescence immunostaining and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of Slit2 and Robo1 in the retina was altered after STZ injection. Recombinant N-Slit2 protein did not increase the retinal VEGF expression. Vitreous concentrations of Slit2 were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. In the human fibrovascular membranes of the study group, the co-localization of VEGF with the markers for Slit2 and Robo1was observed. The expression of Slit2 mRNA, Robo1 mRNA, and VEGF mRNA was significantly higher in human fibrovascular proliferative diabetic retinopathy membranes than in the control membranes. The alteration of Slit2 and Robo1 expression in the retinas of diabetic rats and patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy suggests a role for the Slit-Robo signal in the various stages diabetic retinopathy. Further studies should address the possible involvement of the Slit-Robo signal in the pathophysiological progress of diabetic

  13. NADPH Oxidase 1 Modulates WNT and NOTCH1 Signaling To Control the Fate of Proliferative Progenitor Cells in the Colon▿

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    Coant, Nicolas; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Tréton, Xavier; Ducroc, Robert; Freund, Jean-Noel; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Skurnik, David; Grodet, Alain; Fay, Michèle; Biard, Denis; Lesuffleur, Thécla; Deffert, Christine; Moreau, Richard; Groyer, André; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The homeostatic self-renewal of the colonic epithelium requires coordinated regulation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways to control proliferation and lineage commitment of multipotent stem cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 pathways interplay in controlling cell proliferation and fate in the colon are poorly understood. Here we show that NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing oxidase that is highly expressed in colonic epithelial cells, is a pivotal determinant of cell proliferation and fate that integrates Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signals. NOX1-deficient mice reveal a massive conversion of progenitor cells into postmitotic goblet cells at the cost of colonocytes due to the concerted repression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signaling. This conversion correlates with the following: (i) the redox-dependent activation of the dual phosphatase PTEN, causing the inactivation of the Wnt pathway effector β-catenin, and (ii) the downregulation of Notch1 signaling that provokes derepression of mouse atonal homolog 1 (Math1) expression. We conclude that NOX1 controls the balance between goblet and absorptive cell types in the colon by coordinately modulating PI3K/AKT/Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signaling. This finding provides the molecular basis for the role of NOX1 in cell proliferation and postmitotic differentiation. PMID:20351171

  14. Small molecule ErbB inhibitors decrease proliferative signaling and promote apoptosis in philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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    Mary E Irwin

    Full Text Available The presence of the Philadelphia chromosome in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+ALL is a negative prognostic indicator. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI that target BCR/ABL, such as imatinib, have improved treatment of Ph(+ALL and are generally incorporated into induction regimens. This approach has improved clinical responses, but molecular remissions are seen in less than 50% of patients leaving few treatment options in the event of relapse. Thus, identification of additional targets for therapeutic intervention has potential to improve outcomes for Ph+ALL. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2 is expressed in ~30% of B-ALLs, and numerous small molecule inhibitors are available to prevent its activation. We analyzed a cohort of 129 ALL patient samples using reverse phase protein array (RPPA with ErbB2 and phospho-ErbB2 antibodies and found that activity of ErbB2 was elevated in 56% of Ph(+ALL as compared to just 4.8% of Ph(-ALL. In two human Ph+ALL cell lines, inhibition of ErbB kinase activity with canertinib resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the phosphorylation of an ErbB kinase signaling target p70S6-kinase T389 (by 60% in Z119 and 39% in Z181 cells at 3 µM. Downstream, phosphorylation of S6-kinase was also diminished in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner (by 91% in both cell lines at 3 µM. Canertinib treatment increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim by as much as 144% in Z119 cells and 49% in Z181 cells, and further produced caspase-3 activation and consequent apoptotic cell death. Both canertinib and the FDA-approved ErbB1/2-directed TKI lapatinib abrogated proliferation and increased sensitivity to BCR/ABL-directed TKIs at clinically relevant doses. Our results suggest that ErbB signaling is an additional molecular target in Ph(+ALL and encourage the development of clinical strategies combining ErbB and BCR/ABL kinase inhibitors for this subset of ALL patients.

  15. Automatic detection of service initiation signals used in bars

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    Sebastian eLoth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognising the intention of others is important in all social interactions, especially in the service domain. Enabling a bartending robot to serve customers is particularly challenging as the system has to recognise the social signals produced by customers and respond appropriately. Detecting whether a customer would like to order is essential for the service encounter to succeed. This detection is particularly challenging in a noisy environment with multiple customers. Thus, a bartending robot has to be able to distinguish between customers intending to order, chatting with friends or just passing by. In order to study which signals customers use to initiate a service interaction in a bar, we recorded real-life customer-staff interactions in several German bars. These recordings were used to generate initial hypotheses about the signals customers produce when bidding for the attention of bar staff. Two experiments using snapshots and short video sequences then tested the validity of these hypothesised candidate signals. The results revealed that bar staff responded to a set of two non-verbal signals: first, customers position themselves directly at the bar counter and, secondly, they look at a member of staff. Both signals were necessary and, when occurring together, sufficient. The participants also showed a strong agreement about when these cues occurred in the videos. Finally, a signal detection analysis revealed that ignoring a potential order is deemed worse than erroneously inviting customers to order. We conclude that a these two easily recognisable actions are sufficient for recognising the intention of customers to initiate a service interaction, but other actions such as gestures and speech were not necessary, and b the use of reaction time experiments using natural materials is feasible and provides ecologically valid results.

  16. Automatic detection of service initiation signals used in bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Huth, Kerstin; De Ruiter, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the intention of others is important in all social interactions, especially in the service domain. Enabling a bartending robot to serve customers is particularly challenging as the system has to recognize the social signals produced by customers and respond appropriately. Detecting whether a customer would like to order is essential for the service encounter to succeed. This detection is particularly challenging in a noisy environment with multiple customers. Thus, a bartending robot has to be able to distinguish between customers intending to order, chatting with friends or just passing by. In order to study which signals customers use to initiate a service interaction in a bar, we recorded real-life customer-staff interactions in several German bars. These recordings were used to generate initial hypotheses about the signals customers produce when bidding for the attention of bar staff. Two experiments using snapshots and short video sequences then tested the validity of these hypothesized candidate signals. The results revealed that bar staff responded to a set of two non-verbal signals: first, customers position themselves directly at the bar counter and, secondly, they look at a member of staff. Both signals were necessary and, when occurring together, sufficient. The participants also showed a strong agreement about when these cues occurred in the videos. Finally, a signal detection analysis revealed that ignoring a potential order is deemed worse than erroneously inviting customers to order. We conclude that (a) these two easily recognizable actions are sufficient for recognizing the intention of customers to initiate a service interaction, but other actions such as gestures and speech were not necessary, and (b) the use of reaction time experiments using natural materials is feasible and provides ecologically valid results.

  17. Dynamic Testing of Signal Transduction Deregulation During Breast Cancer Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Std. Z39.18 Victoria Seewaldt, M.D. Dynamic Testing of Signal Transduction Deregulation During Breast Cancer Initiation Duke University Durham...attomole- zeptomole range. Internal dilution curves insure a high-dynamic calibration range. DU -26 8L DU -26 6L DU -29 5R DU -22 9.2 L DU...3: Nanobiosensor technology is translated to test for pathway deregulation in RPFNA cytology obtained from 10 high-risk women with cytological

  18. Signaling events during initiation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

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    Schmitz, Alexa M; Harrison, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Under nutrient-limiting conditions, plants will enter into symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for the enhancement of mineral nutrient acquisition from the surrounding soil. AM fungi live in close, intracellular association with plant roots where they transfer phosphate and nitrogen to the plant in exchange for carbon. They are obligate fungi, relying on their host as their only carbon source. Much has been discovered in the last decade concerning the signaling events during initiation of the AM symbiosis, including the identification of signaling molecules generated by both partners. This signaling occurs through symbiosis-specific gene products in the host plant, which are indispensable for normal AM development. At the same time, plants have adapted complex mechanisms for avoiding infection by pathogenic fungi, including an innate immune response to general microbial molecules, such as chitin present in fungal cell walls. How it is that AM fungal colonization is maintained without eliciting a defensive response from the host is still uncertain. In this review, we present a summary of the molecular signals and their elicited responses during initiation of the AM symbiosis, including plant immune responses and their suppression. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. A senescence rescue screen identifies BCL6 as an inhibitor of anti-proliferative p19(ARF)-p53 signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shvarts, Avi; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Scheeren, Ferenc; Koh, Eugene; Daley, George Q.; Spits, Hergen; Bernards, René

    2002-01-01

    Senescence limits the proliferative capacity of primary cells in culture. We describe here a genetic screen to identify genes that allow bypass of this checkpoint. Using retroviral cDNA expression libraries, we identify BCL6 as a potent inhibitor of senescence. BCL6 is frequently activated in

  20. A senescence rescue screen identifies BCL6 as an inhibitor of anti-proliferative p19ARF-p53 signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shvarts, A.; Brummelkamp, T.; Koh, E.; Daley, G.Q.; Bernards, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Senescence limits the proliferative capacity of primary cells in culture. We describe here a genetic screen to identify genes that allow bypass of this checkpoint. Using retroviral cDNA expression libraries, we identify BCL6 as a potent inhibitor of senescence. BCL6 is frequently activated in

  1. Proliferative myositis: a case report

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    Kim, Young Sook; Jeon, Ho Jong [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    We report a case of proliferative myositis arising in the pectoralis major muscle of a 59-year-old man who presented with palpable mass. The initial clinical impression was a malignant tumor. Ultrasonography revealed the lesion as a spindle-shaped hypoechoic mass, and MR imaging of the left pectoralis major muscle showed hypointensity at T1-weighted imaging, hyperintensity at T2-weighted imaging, and strong enhancement at contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging.

  2. Proliferative myositis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sook; Jeon, Ho Jong

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of proliferative myositis arising in the pectoralis major muscle of a 59-year-old man who presented with palpable mass. The initial clinical impression was a malignant tumor. Ultrasonography revealed the lesion as a spindle-shaped hypoechoic mass, and MR imaging of the left pectoralis major muscle showed hypointensity at T1-weighted imaging, hyperintensity at T2-weighted imaging, and strong enhancement at contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging

  3. Membrane-Initiated Estradiol Signaling Regulating Sexual Receptivity

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    Micevych, Paul E.; Dewing, Phoebe

    2011-01-01

    Estradiol has profound actions on the structure and function of the nervous system. In addition to nuclear actions that directly modulate gene expression, the idea that estradiol can rapidly activate cell signaling by binding to membrane estrogen receptors (mERs) has emerged. Even the regulation of sexual receptivity, an action previously thought to be completely regulated by nuclear ERs, has been shown to have a membrane-initiated estradiol signaling (MIES) component. This highlighted the question of the nature of mERs. Several candidates have been proposed, ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 (G protein coupled estrogen receptor), and a receptor activated by a diphenylacrylamide compound, STX. Although each of these receptors has been shown to be active in specific assays, we present evidence for and against their participation in sexual receptivity by acting in the lordosis-regulating circuit. The initial MIES that activates the circuit is in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Using both activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR) in the medial preoptic nucleus and lordosis behavior, we document that both ERα and the STX-receptor participate in the required MIES. ERα and the STX-receptor activation of cell signaling are dependent on the transactivation of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a) that augment progesterone synthesis in astrocytes and protein kinase C (PKC) in ARH neurons. While estradiol-induced sexual receptivity does not depend on neuroprogesterone, proceptive behaviors do. Moreover, the ERα and the STX-receptor activation of medial preoptic MORs and augmentation of lordosis were sensitive to mGluR1a blockade. These observations suggest a common mechanism through which mERs are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades, not just in regulating reproduction, but in actions throughout the neuraxis including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and dorsal root ganglias. PMID:22649369

  4. Membrane–initiated estradiol signaling regulating sexual receptivity

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    Paul E Micevych

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has profound actions on the structure and function of the nervous system. In addition to nuclear actions that directly modulate gene expression, the idea that estradiol can rapidly activate cell signaling by binding to membrane estrogen receptors (mERs has emerged. Even the regulation of sexual receptivity, an action previously thought to be completely regulated by nuclear ERs, has been shown to have a membrane-initiated estradiol signaling (MIES component. This highlighted the question of the nature of mERs. Several candidates have been proposed, ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 (G protein coupled estrogen receptor; GPER, and a receptor activated by a diphenylacrylamide compound, STX. Although each of these receptors has been shown to be active in specific assays, we present evidence for and against their participation in sexual receptivity by acting in the lordosis-regulating circuit. The initial MIES that activates the circuit is in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH. Using both activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus and lordosis behavior, we document that both ERα and the STX receptor participate in the required MIES. ERα and the STX receptor activation of cell signaling are dependent on the transactivation of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a that augment progesterone synthesis in astrocytes and protein kinase C (PKC in ARH neurons. While estradiol-induced sexual receptivity does not depend on neuroprogesterone, proceptive behaviors do. Moreover, the ERα and the STX receptor activation of medial preoptic MORs and augmentation of lordosis were sensitive to mGluR1a blockade. These observations suggest a common mechanism through which mERs are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades, not just in regulating reproduction, but in actions throughout the neuraxis including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and DRGs.

  5. Courtship initiation is stimulated by acoustic signals in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Aki Ejima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Finding a mating partner is a critical task for many organisms. It is in the interest of males to employ multiple sensory modalities to search for females. In Drosophila melanogaster, vision is thought to be the most important courtship stimulating cue at long distance, while chemosensory cues are used at relatively short distance. In this report, we show that when visual cues are not available, sounds produced by the female allow the male to detect her presence in a large arena. When the target female was artificially immobilized, the male spent a prolonged time searching before starting courtship. This delay in courtship initiation was completely rescued by playing either white noise or recorded fly movement sounds to the male, indicating that the acoustic and/or seismic stimulus produced by movement stimulates courtship initiation, most likely by increasing the general arousal state of the male. Mutant males expressing tetanus toxin (TNT under the control of Gr68a-GAL4 had a defect in finding active females and a delay in courtship initiation in a large arena, but not in a small arena. Gr68a-GAL4 was found to be expressed pleiotropically not only in putative gustatory pheromone receptor neurons but also in mechanosensory neurons, suggesting that Gr68a-positive mechanosensory neurons, not gustatory neurons, provide motion detection necessary for courtship initiation. TNT/Gr68a males were capable of discriminating the copulation status and age of target females in courtship conditioning, indicating that female discrimination and formation of olfactory courtship memory are independent of the Gr68a-expressing neurons that subserve gustation and mechanosensation. This study suggests for the first time that mechanical signals generated by a female fly have a prominent effect on males' courtship in the dark and leads the way to studying how multimodal sensory information and arousal are integrated in behavioral decision making.

  6. Proliferative retinopathy predicts nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Charlotte; Falk, Christine; Green, Anders

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to examine proliferative retinopathy as a marker of incident nephropathy in a 25-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Danish type 1 diabetic patients and to examine cross-sectional associations between nephropathy and retinopathy in long-term surviving patients of the same...... cohort. All type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark, were identified as of 1 July 1973. One hundred and eighty four patients were examined in 1981-1982 (baseline) and in 2007-2008 (follow-up). The level of retinopathy was graded by ophthalmoscopy at baseline and nine-field digital colour fundus...... and proliferative retinopathy, respectively. In conclusion, proliferative retinopathy is an independent marker of long-term nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. Upcoming studies should examine whether these microvascular complications are also causally linked in type 1 diabetes....

  7. Estradiol Membrane-Initiated Signaling in the Brain Mediates Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micevych, Paul E; Mermelstein, Paul G; Sinchak, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Over the past few years our understanding of estrogen signaling in the brain has expanded rapidly. Estrogens are synthesized in the periphery and in the brain, acting on multiple receptors to regulate gene transcription, neural function, and behavior. Various estrogen-sensitive signaling pathways often operate in concert within the same cell, increasing the complexity of the system. In females, estrogen concentrations fluctuate over the estrous/menstrual cycle, dynamically modulating estrogen receptor (ER) expression, activity, and trafficking. These dynamic changes influence multiple behaviors but are particularly important for reproduction. Using the female rodent model, we review our current understanding of estradiol signaling in the regulation of sexual receptivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Closed Conference Signalling Using the Session Initiation Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinovic, Igor; Stadler, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Introduces an extension of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for closed multiparty conferences; the extension expands SIP for discovery of participant identities in a conference, and ensures that each participant is notified before a new participant joins. Verifies this extension by applying it to two SIP conference models. Concludes with an…

  9. Wifi-friendly building, enabling wifi signal indoor: an initial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Mubarakah, Naemah; Sagala, Romulo S.; Prayitno, Hendra

    2018-03-01

    The 802.11 network (wireless fidelity/WiFi) is the most common wireless infrastructure applied for internet access indoor. Widespread devices and installation simplicity make it better than similar technologies such as 802.16 and other 802.xx series. The access points are the most influential devices for indoor access. However, building indoor architectures contribute to the signal quality. Since WiFi installation in buildings becomes prevalent, the architecture should consider WiFi-friendliness into consideration. The more friendly the building to WiFi signal, the more efficient the 802.11 based wireless infrastructure. This paper present preliminary study how the building, specially the obstacle material, effects the WiFi signal propagation indoor. The study was performed by using ESP8266-based WiFi signal reader, to determine the impact indoor obstacles to WiFi signal propagation. The initial study shows that simple reflecting materials increase signal level about 1.14 dBm. WiFi-friendly building can be achieved by transforming building properties into signal interconnector. A simple photo frame with aluminium sheet insertion increase signal level on the second floor up to 6.56dBm.

  10. Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology ... Retinopathy Diagnosis Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Non-Proliferative Diabetic ...

  11. Proliferative glomerulonephritis and primary antiphospholipid syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, H. Abdalla; Kfoury, Hala K.; Al-Khader, Abdulla A.; Al-Suleiman, M.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known regarding the association of primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) and proliferative glomerulonephiritis (GN). We describe a biopsy-documented case with primary APLS and proliferative (GN) with no evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and in the absence of other manifestations of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). She presented initially with left popliteal deep venous thrombosis and nephrotic syndrome. Her first pregnancy at the age of 26 years resulted in the intra-uterine fetal death at term. Two subsequent pregnancies ended up with miscarriages at 3 and 4 months of gestation. Urinalysis revealed glomerular red blood cells of 1.0000.000/ml and granular cast; proteinuria of 13.4grams/24 hours, which was non-selective; hemoglobin 12 gm/dl, normal white blood cell and platelets; serum albumin 2.6gm/dl; anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti DNA were negative and complement levels normal. Lupus anticoagulant was positive leading to a diagnosis of primary APLS. The biopsy findings were consistent with membranoproliferative GN. She continued to have steroid-resistant proteinuria, but stable renal function after a 12-year follow up period. She had 2 pregnancies during this period and was delivered at term using caesarian section. She received heparin during the pregnancies. Later she developed hypertension easily controlled by atenolol. This case provides evidence that primary APLS can be associated with proliferative GN due to immune deposits and not only TMA as previously reported, and in the complete absence of SLE. Performing more renal biopsies in this group of patients may disclose a greater prevalence of proleferative GN and may help in devising a rationale for treatment. (author)

  12. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kourouniotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF to EGF receptor (EGFR stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis.

  13. Lifespan extension by preserving proliferative homeostasis in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Biteau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative processes are critical to maintain tissue homeostasis in high-turnover tissues. At the same time, proliferation of stem and progenitor cells has to be carefully controlled to prevent hyper-proliferative diseases. Mechanisms that ensure this balance, thus promoting proliferative homeostasis, are expected to be critical for longevity in metazoans. The intestinal epithelium of Drosophila provides an accessible model in which to test this prediction. In aging flies, the intestinal epithelium degenerates due to over-proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs and mis-differentiation of ISC daughter cells, resulting in intestinal dysplasia. Here we show that conditions that impair tissue renewal lead to lifespan shortening, whereas genetic manipulations that improve proliferative homeostasis extend lifespan. These include reduced Insulin/IGF or Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK signaling activities, as well as over-expression of stress-protective genes in somatic stem cell lineages. Interestingly, proliferative activity in aging intestinal epithelia correlates with longevity over a range of genotypes, with maximal lifespan when intestinal proliferation is reduced but not completely inhibited. Our results highlight the importance of the balance between regenerative processes and strategies to prevent hyperproliferative disorders and demonstrate that promoting proliferative homeostasis in aging metazoans is a viable strategy to extend lifespan.

  14. Signals for the initiation and termination of synthesis of the viral strand of bacteriophage f1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotto, G.P.; Horiuchi, K.; Jakes, K.S.; Zinder, N.D.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the sequence around the plus origin that is required for efficient plus-strand synthesis as well as that necessary for gene-II-protein recognition is described. Results which demonstrate that the nucleotide sequence of the f1 plus origin contains two overlapping but distinct signals, one for initiation and the other for termination of plus-strand synthesis is presented. 29 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  15. The Role of nAChR and Calcium Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaal, Courtney [Department of Tumor Biology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Padmanabhan, Jaya [Department of Molecular Medicine and USF Health Byrd Alzheimer’s Institute, University of South Florida, 4001 E. Fletcher Ave., Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Chellappan, Srikumar, E-mail: Srikumar.Chellappan@moffitt.org [Department of Tumor Biology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Pancreatic cancer shows a strong correlation with smoking and the current therapeutic strategies have been relatively ineffective in improving the survival of patients. Efforts have been made over the past many years to understand the molecular events that drive the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, especially in the context of smoking. It has become clear that components of tobacco smoke not only initiate these cancers, especially pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) through their mutagenic properties, but can also promote the growth and metastasis of these tumors by stimulating cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Studies in cell culture systems, animal models and human samples have shown that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation enhances these tumor-promoting events by channeling signaling through multiple pathways. In this context, signaling through calcium channels appear to facilitate pancreatic cancer growth by itself or downstream of nAChRs. This review article highlights the role of nAChR downstream signaling events and calcium signaling in the growth, metastasis as well as drug resistance of pancreatic cancer.

  16. The Role of nAChR and Calcium Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation and Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaal, Courtney; Padmanabhan, Jaya; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer shows a strong correlation with smoking and the current therapeutic strategies have been relatively ineffective in improving the survival of patients. Efforts have been made over the past many years to understand the molecular events that drive the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, especially in the context of smoking. It has become clear that components of tobacco smoke not only initiate these cancers, especially pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) through their mutagenic properties, but can also promote the growth and metastasis of these tumors by stimulating cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Studies in cell culture systems, animal models and human samples have shown that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation enhances these tumor-promoting events by channeling signaling through multiple pathways. In this context, signaling through calcium channels appear to facilitate pancreatic cancer growth by itself or downstream of nAChRs. This review article highlights the role of nAChR downstream signaling events and calcium signaling in the growth, metastasis as well as drug resistance of pancreatic cancer

  17. Proliferative activity as a prognostic factor of a human tumor radiation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakulov, R.K.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    The following questions are considered: 1) whether cell proliferation initial parameters can serve for predicting the tumor radial reaction; 2) whether proliferative activity change can be a criterion for estimating the treatment efficiency; 3) acquisition of data on biological peculiarities of different types of tumors. Connection between proliferative activity drop and clinical reaction under tumor radiotherapy is ascertained

  18. Initiation and patterning of the snake dentition are dependent on Sonic hedgehog signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchtová, Marcela; Handrigan, Gregory R; Tucker, Abigail S; Lozanoff, Scott; Town, Liam; Fu, Katherine; Diewert, Virginia M; Wicking, Carol; Richman, Joy M

    2008-07-01

    Here we take the first look at cellular dynamics and molecular signaling in the developing snake dentition. We found that tooth formation differs from rodents in several respects. The majority of snake teeth bud off of a deep, ribbon-like dental lamina rather than as separate tooth germs. Prior to and after dental lamina ingrowth, we observe asymmetries in cell proliferation and extracellular matrix distribution suggesting that localized signaling by a secreted protein is involved. We cloned Sonic hedgehog from the African rock python Python sebae and traced its expression in the species as well as in two other snakes, the closely-related Python regius and the more derived corn snake Elaphe guttata (Colubridae). We found that expression of Shh is first confined to the odontogenic band and defines the position of the future dental lamina. Shh transcripts in pythons are progressively restricted to the oral epithelium on one side of the dental lamina and remain in this position throughout the prehatching period. Shh is expressed in the inner enamel epithelium and the stellate reticulum of the tooth anlagen, but is absent from the outer enamel epithelium and its derivative, the successional lamina. This suggests that signals other than Shh are responsible for replacement tooth formation. Functional studies using cyclopamine to block Hh signaling during odontogenesis prevented initiation and extension of the dental lamina into the mesenchyme, and also affected the directionality of this process. Further, blocking Hh signaling led to disruptions of the inner enamel epithelium. To explore the role of Shh in lamina extension, we looked at its expression in the premaxillary teeth, which form closer to the oral surface than elsewhere in the mouth. Oral ectodermal Shh expression in premaxillary teeth is lost soon after the teeth form reinforcing the idea that Shh is controlling the depth of the dental lamina. In summary, we have found diverse roles for Shh in patterning the

  19. T2 map signal variation predicts symptomatic osteoarthritis progression: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Haoti; Miller, David J. [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Electrical Engineering, University Park, PA (United States); Urish, Kenneth L. [Magee Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, The Bone and Joint Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this work is to use quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify patients at risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) progression. We hypothesized that classification of signal variation on T2 maps might predict symptomatic OA progression. Patients were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a prospective cohort. Two groups were identified: a symptomatic OA progression group and a control group. At baseline, both groups were asymptomatic (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis [WOMAC] pain score total <10) with no radiographic evidence of OA (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] score ≤ 1). The OA progression group (n = 103) had a change in total WOMAC score greater than 10 by the 3-year follow-up. The control group (n = 79) remained asymptomatic, with a change in total WOMAC score less than 10 at the 3-year follow-up. A classifier was designed to predict OA progression in an independent population based on T2 map cartilage signal variation. The classifier was designed using a nearest neighbor classification based on a Gaussian Mixture Model log-likelihood fit of T2 map cartilage voxel intensities. The use of T2 map signal variation to predict symptomatic OA progression in asymptomatic individuals achieved a specificity of 89.3 %, a sensitivity of 77.2 %, and an overall accuracy rate of 84.2 %. T2 map signal variation can predict symptomatic knee OA progression in asymptomatic individuals, serving as a possible early OA imaging biomarker. (orig.)

  20. Initial assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-3: new-generation navigation signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wu, Mingkui; Liu, Wanke; Li, Xingxing; Yu, Shun; Lu, Cuixian; Wickert, Jens

    2017-10-01

    The successful launch of five new-generation experimental satellites of the China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, namely BeiDou I1-S, I2-S, M1-S, M2-S, and M3-S, marks a significant step in expanding BeiDou into a navigation system with global coverage. In addition to B1I (1561.098 MHz) and B3I (1269.520 MHz) signals, the new-generation BeiDou-3 experimental satellites are also capable of transmitting several new navigation signals in space, namely B1C at 1575.42 MHz, B2a at 1176.45 MHz, and B2b at 1207.14 MHz. For the first time, we present an initial characterization and performance assessment for these new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites and their signals. The L1/L2/L5 signals from GPS Block IIF satellites, E1/E5a/E5b signals from Galileo satellites, and B1I/B2I/B3I signals from BeiDou-2 satellites are also evaluated for comparison. The characteristics of the B1C, B1I, B2a, B2b, and B3I signals are evaluated in terms of observed carrier-to-noise density ratio, pseudorange multipath and noise, triple-frequency carrier-phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, and double-differenced carrier-phase and code residuals. The results demonstrate that the observational quality of the new-generation BeiDou-3 signals is comparable to that of GPS L1/L2/L5 and Galileo E1/E5a/E5b signals. However, the analysis of code multipath shows that the elevation-dependent code biases, which have been previously identified to exist in the code observations of the BeiDou-2 satellites, seem to be not obvious for all the available signals of the new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites. This will significantly benefit precise applications that resolve wide-lane ambiguity based on Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena linear combinations and other applications such as single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) based on the ionosphere-free code-carrier combinations. Furthermore, with regard to the triple-frequency carrier-phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, it is found

  1. The antidepressant sertraline inhibits translation initiation by curtailing mammalian target of rapamycin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Ju; Robert, Francis; Sukarieh, Rami; Michnick, Stephen; Pelletier, Jerry

    2010-04-15

    Sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is a widely used antidepressant agent. Here, we show that sertraline also exhibits antiproliferative activity. Exposure to sertraline leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in protein synthesis. Moreover, polysome profile analysis of sertraline-treated cells shows a reduction in polysome content and a concomitant increase in 80S ribosomes. The inhibition in translation caused by sertraline is associated with decreased levels of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F complex, altered localization of eIF4E, and increased eIF2alpha phosphorylation. The latter event leads to increased REDD1 expression, which in turn impinges on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by affecting TSC1/2 signaling. Sertraline also independently targets the mTOR signaling pathway downstream of Rheb. In the Emu-myc murine lymphoma model where carcinogenesis is driven by phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) inactivation, sertraline is able to enhance chemosensitivity to doxorubicin. Our results indicate that sertraline exerts antiproliferative activity by targeting the mTOR signaling pathway in a REDD1-dependent manner. (c) 2010 AACR.

  2. β-arrestin regulates estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in hypothalamic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Wong

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 action in the nervous system is the result of both direct nuclear and membrane-initiated signaling (EMS. E2 regulates membrane estrogen receptor-α (ERα levels through opposing mechanisms of EMS-mediated trafficking and internalization. While ß-arrestin-mediated mERα internalization has been described in the cortex, a role of ß-arrestin in EMS, which underlies multiple physiological processes, remains undefined. In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH, membrane-initiated E2 signaling modulates lordosis behavior, a measure of female sexually receptivity. To better understand EMS and regulation of ERα membrane levels, we examined the role of ß-arrestin, a molecule associated with internalization following agonist stimulation. In the present study, we used an immortalized neuronal cell line derived from embryonic hypothalamic neurons, the N-38 line, to examine whether ß-arrestins mediate internalization of mERα. β-arrestin-1 (Arrb1 was found in the ARH and in N-38 neurons. In vitro, E2 increased trafficking and internalization of full-length ERα and ERαΔ4, an alternatively spliced isoform of ERα, which predominates in the membrane. Treatment with E2 also increased phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 in N-38 neurons. Arrb1 siRNA knockdown prevented E2-induced ERαΔ4 internalization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In vivo, microinfusions of Arrb1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN into female rat ARH knocked down Arrb1 and prevented estradiol benzoate-induced lordosis behavior compared with nonsense scrambled ODN (lordosis quotient: 3 ± 2.1 vs. 85.0 ± 6.0; p < 0.0001. These results indicate a role for Arrb1 in both EMS and internalization of mERα, which are required for the E2-induction of female sexual receptivity.

  3. Hedgehog-GLI signaling drives self-renewal and tumorigenicity of human melanoma-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Roberta; Vinci, Maria C; Pandolfi, Silvia; Penachioni, Junia Y; Montagnani, Valentina; Olivito, Biagio; Gattai, Riccardo; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Gerlini, Gianni; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Stecca, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    The question of whether cancer stem/tumor-initiating cells (CSC/TIC) exist in human melanomas has arisen in the last few years. Here, we have used nonadherent spheres and the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activity to enrich for CSC/TIC in a collection of human melanomas obtained from a broad spectrum of sites and stages. We find that melanomaspheres display extensive in vitro self-renewal ability and sustain tumor growth in vivo, generating human melanoma xenografts that recapitulate the phenotypic composition of the parental tumor. Melanomaspheres express high levels of Hedgehog (HH) pathway components and of embryonic pluripotent stem cell factors SOX2, NANOG, OCT4, and KLF4. We show that human melanomas contain a subset of cells expressing high ALDH activity (ALDH(high)), which is endowed with higher self-renewal and tumorigenic abilities than the ALDH(low) population. A good correlation between the number of ALDH(high) cells and sphere formation efficiency was observed. Notably, both pharmacological inhibition of HH signaling by the SMOOTHENED (SMO) antagonist cyclopamine and GLI antagonist GANT61 and stable expression of shRNA targeting either SMO or GLI1 result in a significant decrease in melanoma stem cell self-renewal in vitro and a reduction in the number of ALDH(high) melanoma stem cells. Finally, we show that interference with the HH-GLI pathway through lentiviral-mediated silencing of SMO and GLI1 drastically diminishes tumor initiation of ALDH(high) melanoma stem cells. In conclusion, our data indicate an essential role of the HH-GLI1 signaling in controlling self-renewal and tumor initiation of melanoma CSC/TIC. Targeting HH-GLI1 is thus predicted to reduce the melanoma stem cell compartment. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Cell-autonomous intracellular androgen receptor signaling drives the growth of human prostate cancer initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Griend, Donald J; D'Antonio, Jason; Gurel, Bora; Antony, Lizamma; Demarzo, Angelo M; Isaacs, John T

    2010-01-01

    The lethality of prostate cancer is due to the continuous growth of cancer initiating cells (CICs) which are often stimulated by androgen receptor (AR) signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for such AR-mediated growth stimulation are not fully understood. Such mechanisms may involve cancer cell-dependent induction of tumor stromal cells to produce paracrine growth factors or could involve cancer cell autonomous autocrine and/or intracellular AR signaling pathways. We utilized clinical samples, animal models and a series of AR-positive human prostate cancer cell lines to evaluate AR-mediated growth stimulation of prostate CICs. The present studies document that stromal AR expression is not required for prostate cancer growth, since tumor stroma surrounding AR-positive human prostate cancer metastases (N = 127) are characteristically AR-negative. This lack of a requirement for AR expression in tumor stromal cells is also documented by the fact that human AR-positive prostate cancer cells grow equally well when xenografted in wild-type versus AR-null nude mice. AR-dependent growth stimulation was documented to involve secretion, extracellular binding, and signaling by autocrine growth factors. Orthotopic xenograft animal studies documented that the cellautonomous autocrine growth factors which stimulate prostate CIC growth are not the andromedins secreted by normal prostate stromal cells. Such cell autonomous and extracellular autocrine signaling is necessary but not sufficient for the optimal growth of prostate CICs based upon the response to anti-androgen plus/or minus preconditioned media. AR-induced growth stimulation of human prostate CICs requires AR-dependent intracellular pathways. The identification of such AR-dependent intracellular pathways offers new leads for the development of effective therapies for prostate cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Targeting cytokine signaling checkpoint CIS activates NK cells to protect from tumor initiation and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Eva M.; Guillerey, Camille; Kos, Kevin; Stannard, Kimberley; Miles, Kim; Delconte, Rebecca B.; Nicholson, Sandra E.; Huntington, Nicholas D.; Smyth, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cytokine-induced SH2-containing protein CIS belongs to the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) protein family. Here, we show the critical role of CIS in suppressing natural killer (NK) cell control of tumor initiation and metastasis. Cish-deficient mice were highly resistant to methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma formation and protected from lung metastasis of B16F10 melanoma and RM-1 prostate carcinoma cells. In contrast, the growth of primary subcutaneous tumors, including those expressing the foreign antigen OVA, was unchanged in Cish-deficient mice. The combination of Cish deficiency and relevant targeted and immuno-therapies such as combined BRAF and MEK inhibitors, immune checkpoint blockade antibodies, IL-2 and type I interferon revealed further improved control of metastasis. The data clearly indicate that targeting CIS promotes NK cell antitumor functions and CIS holds great promise as a novel target in NK cell immunotherapy. PMID:28344878

  6. Proliferative and non-proliferative lesions of the rat and mouse integument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenburg, Lars; Kusewitt, Donna; Kolly, Carine; Treumann, Silke; Adams, E Terence; Diegel, Kelly; Yamate, Jyoji; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Müller, Susanne; Danilenko, Dimitry; Bradley, Alys

    2013-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the societies of toxicological pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP). Its aim is to develop an internationally-accepted nomenclature for proliferative and non-proliferative lesions in laboratory rodents. A widely accepted international harmonization of nomenclature in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and will provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopical lesions observed in the integument of laboratory rats and mice. Example colour images are provided for most lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document and additional colour images are also available electronically at http://www.goreni.org. The nomenclature presented herein is based on histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world, and covers lesions that develop spontaneously as well as those induced by exposure to various test materials. (DOI: 10.1293/tox.26.27S; J Toxicol Pathol 2013; 26: 27S-57S).

  7. Matriptase activation connects tissue factor-dependent coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Sylvain M; Szabo, Roman; Lee, Melody; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Craik, Charles S; Bugge, Thomas H; Camerer, Eric

    2016-06-23

    The coagulation cascade is designed to sense tissue injury by physical separation of the membrane-anchored cofactor tissue factor (TF) from inactive precursors of coagulation proteases circulating in plasma. Once TF on epithelial and other extravascular cells is exposed to plasma, sequential activation of coagulation proteases coordinates hemostasis and contributes to host defense and tissue repair. Membrane-anchored serine proteases (MASPs) play critical roles in the development and homeostasis of epithelial barrier tissues; how MASPs are activated in mature epithelia is unknown. We here report that proteases of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation transactivate the MASP matriptase, thus connecting coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling. Exposure of TF-expressing cells to factors (F) VIIa and Xa triggered the conversion of latent pro-matriptase to an active protease, which in turn cleaved the pericellular substrates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and pro-urokinase. An activation pathway-selective PAR2 mutant resistant to direct cleavage by TF:FVIIa and FXa was activated by these proteases when cells co-expressed pro-matriptase, and matriptase transactivation was necessary for efficient cleavage and activation of wild-type PAR2 by physiological concentrations of TF:FVIIa and FXa. The coagulation initiation complex induced rapid and prolonged enhancement of the barrier function of epithelial monolayers that was dependent on matriptase transactivation and PAR2 signaling. These observations suggest that the coagulation cascade engages matriptase to help coordinate epithelial defense and repair programs after injury or infection, and that matriptase may contribute to TF-driven pathogenesis in cancer and inflammation.

  8. Effect of spatial inhomogeneities on the membrane surface on receptor dimerization and signal initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romica Kerketta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Important signal transduction pathways originate on the plasma membrane, where microdomains may transiently entrap diffusing receptors. This results in a non-random distribution of receptors even in the resting state, which can be visualized as clusters by high resolution imaging methods. Here, we explore how spatial in-homogeneities in the plasma membrane might influence the dimerization and phosphorylation status of ErbB2 and ErbB3, two receptor tyrosine kinases that preferentially heterodimerize and are often co-expressed in cancer. This theoretical study is based upon spatial stochastic simulations of the two-dimensional membrane landscape, where variables include differential distributions and overlap of transient confinement zones (domains for the two receptor species. The in silico model is parameterized and validated using data from single particle tracking experiments. We report key differences in signaling output based on the degree of overlap between domains and the relative retention of receptors in such domains, expressed as escape probability. Results predict that a high overlap of domains, which favors transient co-confinement of both receptor species, will enhance the rate of hetero-interactions. Where domains do not overlap, simulations confirm expectations that homo-interactions are favored. Since ErbB3 is uniquely dependent on ErbB2 interactions for activation of its catalytic activity, variations in domain overlap or escape probability markedly alter the predicted patterns and time course of ErbB3 and ErbB2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results implicate membrane domain organization as an important modulator of signal initiation, motivating the design of novel experimental approaches to measure these important parameters across a wider range of receptor systems.

  9. A cascade of morphogenic signaling initiated by the meninges controls corpus callosum formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Youngshik; Siegenthaler, Julie A; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2012-02-23

    The corpus callosum is the most prominent commissural connection between the cortical hemispheres, and numerous neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with callosal agenesis. By using mice either with meningeal overgrowth or selective loss of meninges, we have identified a cascade of morphogenic signals initiated by the meninges that regulates corpus callosum development. The meninges produce BMP7, an inhibitor of callosal axon outgrowth. This activity is overcome by the induction of expression of Wnt3 by the callosal pathfinding neurons, which antagonize the inhibitory effects of BMP7. Wnt3 expression in the cingulate callosal pathfinding axons is developmentally regulated by another BMP family member, GDF5, which is produced by the adjacent Cajal-Retzius neurons and turns on before outgrowth of the callosal axons. The effects of GDF5 are in turn under the control of a soluble GDF5 inhibitor, Dan, made by the meninges. Thus, the meninges and medial neocortex use a cascade of signals to regulate corpus callosum development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Initiation of Antiviral B Cell Immunity Relies on Innate Signals from Spatially Positioned NKT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Mauro; Barral, Patricia; Burbage, Marianne; Aggarwal, Shweta; Montaner, Beatriz; Warren Navia, Andrew; Aid, Malika; Tsui, Carlson; Maldonado, Paula; Nair, Usha; Ghneim, Khader; Fallon, Padraic G; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Barouch, Dan H; Shalek, Alex K; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Strid, Jessica; Batista, Facundo D

    2018-01-25

    B cells constitute an essential line of defense from pathogenic infections through the generation of class-switched antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in germinal centers. Although this process is known to be regulated by follicular helper T (TfH) cells, the mechanism by which B cells initially seed germinal center reactions remains elusive. We found that NKT cells, a population of innate-like T lymphocytes, are critical for the induction of B cell immunity upon viral infection. The positioning of NKT cells at the interfollicular areas of lymph nodes facilitates both their direct priming by resident macrophages and the localized delivery of innate signals to antigen-experienced B cells. Indeed, NKT cells secrete an early wave of IL-4 and constitute up to 70% of the total IL-4-producing cells during the initial stages of infection. Importantly, the requirement of this innate immunity arm appears to be evolutionarily conserved because early NKT and IL-4 gene signatures also positively correlate with the levels of neutralizing antibodies in Zika-virus-infected macaques. In conclusion, our data support a model wherein a pre-TfH wave of IL-4 secreted by interfollicular NKT cells triggers the seeding of germinal center cells and serves as an innate link between viral infection and B cell immunity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the clinical effect of vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR.METHODS: The clinical data of 55 cases(65 eyes, underwent vitrectomy, membrane peeling, endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil or C3F8 injection, were retrospectively studied. During 6 months to 1 year follow-up period, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, retinal conditions and complications were observed.RESULTS: All 65 eyes received vitrectomy, of which silicone oil was tamponaded in 32 eyes, C3F8 was injected in 8 eyes, BBS was filled in 25 eyes. Visual improvement achieved in 42 eyes. Two eyes were manually vision, form count fingers to 0.05 in 18 eyes, >0.05-0.1 in 28 eyes, >0.1-0.3 in 12 eyes and >0.3 in 5 eyes. Retinal hole was occurred in 7 eyes, limitations fibrosis membrane remained in 8 eyes, retinal detachment appeared in 5 eyes, IOP increased in 18 eyes, vitreous hemorrhage relapsed in 12 eyes, 36 eyes received supplemental photocoagulation treatment 1-3 times after operation.CONCLUSION:Vitrectomy combined endophotocoagulation is an effective treatment for PDR. Silicone oil tamponade can limit the hemorrhage.

  12. Proliferative lifespan is conserved after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A John; Ferrier, Patricia; Aslam, Samena; Burl, Sarah; Denning, Chris; Wylie, Diana; Ross, Arlene; de Sousa, Paul; Wilmut, Ian; Cui, Wei

    2003-06-01

    Cultured primary cells exhibit a finite proliferative lifespan, termed the Hayflick limit. Cloning by nuclear transfer can reverse this cellular ageing process and can be accomplished with cultured cells nearing senescence. Here we describe nuclear transfer experiments in which donor cell lines at different ages and with different proliferative capacities were used to clone foetuses and animals from which new primary cell lines were generated. The rederived lines had the same proliferative capacity and rate of telomere shortening as the donor cell lines, suggesting that these are innate, genetically determined, properties that are conserved by nuclear transfer.

  13. Steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 mediate fetal-to-maternal signaling that initiates parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H; Condon, Jennifer C; Renthal, Nora E; Johnston, John M; Mitsche, Matthew A; Chambon, Pierre; Xu, Jianming; O'Malley, Bert W; Mendelson, Carole R

    2015-07-01

    The precise mechanisms that lead to parturition are incompletely defined. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A), which is secreted by fetal lungs into amniotic fluid (AF) near term, likely provides a signal for parturition; however, SP-A-deficient mice have only a relatively modest delay (~12 hours) in parturition, suggesting additional factors. Here, we evaluated the contribution of steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 (SRC-1 and SRC-2), which upregulate SP-A transcription, to the parturition process. As mice lacking both SRC-1 and SRC-2 die at birth due to respiratory distress, we crossed double-heterozygous males and females. Parturition was severely delayed (~38 hours) in heterozygous dams harboring SRC-1/-2-deficient embryos. These mothers exhibited decreased myometrial NF-κB activation, PGF2α, and expression of contraction-associated genes; impaired luteolysis; and elevated circulating progesterone. These manifestations also occurred in WT females bearing SRC-1/-2 double-deficient embryos, indicating that a fetal-specific defect delayed labor. SP-A, as well as the enzyme lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase-1 (LPCAT1), required for synthesis of surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and the proinflammatory glycerophospholipid platelet-activating factor (PAF) were markedly reduced in SRC-1/-2-deficient fetal lungs near term. Injection of PAF or SP-A into AF at 17.5 days post coitum enhanced uterine NF-κB activation and contractile gene expression, promoted luteolysis, and rescued delayed parturition in SRC-1/-2-deficient embryo-bearing dams. These findings reveal that fetal lungs produce signals to initiate labor when mature and that SRC-1/-2-dependent production of SP-A and PAF is crucial for this process.

  14. Elimination of head and neck cancer initiating cells through targeting glucose regulated protein78 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chih-Yang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is a highly lethal cancer that contains cellular and functional heterogeneity. Previously, we enriched a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic head and neck cancer initiating cells (HN-CICs from HNSCC. However, the molecular mechanisms by which to govern the characteristics of HN-CICs remain unclear. GRP78, a stress-inducible endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, has been reported to play a crucial role in the maintenance of embryonic stem cells, but the role of GRP78 in CICs has not been elucidated. Results Initially, we recognized GRP78 as a putative candidate on mediating the stemness and tumorigenic properties of HN-CICs by differential systemic analyses. Subsequently, cells with GRP78 anchored at the plasma membrane (memGRP78+ exerted cancer stemness properties of self-renewal, differentiation and radioresistance. Of note, xenotransplantation assay indicated merely 100 memGRP78+ HNSCCs resulted in tumor growth. Moreover, knockdown of GRP78 significantly reduced the self-renewal ability, side population cells and expression of stemness genes, but inversely promoted cell differentiation and apoptosis in HN-CICs. Targeting GRP78 also lessened tumorigenicity of HN-CICs both in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, co-expression of GRP78 and Nanog predicted the worse survival prognosis of HNSCC patients by immunohistochemical analyses. Finally, depletion of GRP78 in HN-CICs induced the expression of Bax, Caspase 3, and PTEN. Conclusions In summary, memGRP78 should be a novel surface marker for isolation of HN-CICs, and targeting GRP78 signaling might be a potential therapeutic strategy for HNSCC through eliminating HN-CICs.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol rely on estrogen receptor membrane initiated signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eFiocchetti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2 exerts protective effects in the central nervous system besides its crucial role in many physiological and pathological events. E2 effects are not restricted to the brain areas related with the control of the reproductive function, but rather are widespread throughout the developing and the adult brain. E2 actions are mediated by estrogen receptors (i.e., ERα and ERβ belonging to the nuclear receptor super family. As members of the ligand-regulated transcription factor family, the actions of ERs in the brain were thought to mediate only the E2 long-term transcriptional effects. However, a growing body of evidence has emerged indicating the presence of rapid, membrane initiated E2 effects in the brain which result independent from ER transcriptional activities and involved in E2-induced neuroprotection. Aim of this review is to focus on the rapid effects of E2 in the brain taking into account the specific contribution of the signaling pathway of ERβ subtype in neuroprotective actions of E2.

  16. Intravitreal methotrexate infusion for proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaka A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ama Sadaka,1 Robert A Sisk,1–3 James M Osher,1,3 Okan Toygar,4 Melinda K Duncan,5 Christopher D Riemann1,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 2Department of Opthalmology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Bahcesehir University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal methotrexate infusion (IMI during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV for retinal detachment in patients with high risk for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR.Methods: Patients presenting with severe recurrent PVR with tractional retinal detachment and/or a history of severe ocular inflammation were treated with IMI. Clinical outcomes were determined from a retrospective medical chart review.Results: Twenty-nine eyes presenting with either tractional retinal detachment and recurrent PVR (n=22 or a history of severe inflammation associated with high PVR risk (n=7 received IMI during PPV. Best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months was ≥20/200 in 19 of 29 eyes (66% and remained stable or improved compared with initial presentation in 24 of 29 eyes (83%. At the last follow-up examination, the retinas of 26 of 29 eyes (90% remained attached after IMI while three eyes required another reattachment procedure. Three additional eyes (10% developed recurrent limited PVR without recurrent RD and were observed. No complications attributable to IMI occurred during a mean follow-up of 27 months.Conclusion: Eyes at high risk for PVR development due to a history of prior PVR or intraocular inflammation had a low incidence of PVR following IMI at the time of PPV for RD repair. No significant safety issues from IMI were observed in this series. Keywords: tractional retinal detachment, recurrent retinal detachment, pars

  17. Proliferative capacity of murine hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, S.; Botnick, L.E.; Hannon, E.C.; Vigneulle, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a decrease in self-renewal capacity with serial transfer of murine hematopoietic stem cells. Production of differentiated cell progeny is maintained longer than stem cell self-renewal. In normal animals the capacity for self-renewal is not decreased with increasing donor age. The stem cell compartment in normal animals, both young and old, appears to be proliferatively quiescent. After apparent recovery from the alkylating agent busulfan, the probability of stem cell self-renewal is decreased, there is a permanent defect in the capacity of the bone marrow for serial transplantation, and the stem cells are proliferatively active. These findings support a model of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment as a continuum of cells with decreasing capacities for self-renewal, increasing likelihood for differentiation, and increasing proliferative activity. Cells progress in the continuum in one direction and such progression is not reversible

  18. Anti-proliferative effect of RCE-4 from Reineckia carnea on human cervical cancer HeLa cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Caihong; Yang, Xiaojiao; Zou, Kun; He, Haibo; Wang, Junzhi; Qin, Huilin; Yu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chengxiong; Zheng, Juyan; Cheng, Fan; Chen, Jianfeng

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. In recent years, the studies find that inflammation is a critical component of tumor progression, and the ideal therapeutic methods should be aimed at the inflammation reaction triggers. (1β,3β,5β,25S)-spirostan-1,3-diol1-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside] (RCE-4) was the main active composition of Reineckia carnea (Andr.) Kunth. It significantly induced apoptosis in cervical cancer Caski cells through the mitochondrial pathway in our previous studies; however, its underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. This study aimed to further evaluate the effect of RCE-4 on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Based on this observation, we investigated the anti-cervical cancer effect of RCE-4 by modulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, and inflammation-related key factors in HeLa cells. The results indicated that the HeLa cell was the most sensitive with an IC50 of 7.01 μM; RCE-4 significantly promoted the release of cellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); increased DNA fragmentation and apoptosis; reduced PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and NF-κBp65 phosphorylation levels; increased the Bax and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein levels; suppressed Bcl-2 protein expression; elevated the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio; and decreased the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions in HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that RCE-4 exerted beneficially anti-cervical cancer effect on HeLa cells, mainly inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway phosphorylation and NF-κB activation, promoting HeLa cell apoptosis. Graphical abstract Anti-tumor effect of RCE-4 on HeLa cells.

  19. Neurotrophin Signaling via TrkB and TrkC Receptors Promotes the Growth of Brain Tumor-initiating Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Samuel; Krishna, Niveditha; Pisklakova, Alexandra; Qu, Xiaotao; Fenstermacher, David A.; Fournier, Michelle; Vrionis, Frank D.; Tran, Nam; Chan, Jennifer A.; Kenchappa, Rajappa S.; Forsyth, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophins and their receptors are frequently expressed in malignant gliomas, yet their functions are largely unknown. Previously, we have shown that p75 neurotrophin receptor is required for glioma invasion and proliferation. However, the role of Trk receptors has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the importance of TrkB and TrkC in survival of brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs). Here, we show that human malignant glioma tissues and also tumor-initiating cells isolated from fresh human malignant gliomas express the neurotrophin receptors TrkB and TrkC, not TrkA, and they also express neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, and neurotrophin 3 (NT3). Specific activation of TrkB and TrkC receptors by ligands BDNF and NT3 enhances tumor-initiating cell viability through activation of ERK and Akt pathways. Conversely, TrkB and TrkC knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of Trk signaling decreases neurotrophin-dependent ERK activation and BTIC growth. Further, pharmacological inhibition of both ERK and Akt pathways blocked BDNF, and NT3 stimulated BTIC survival. Importantly, attenuation of BTIC growth by EGFR inhibitors could be overcome by activation of neurotrophin signaling, and neurotrophin signaling is sufficient for long term BTIC growth as spheres in the absence of EGF and FGF. Our results highlight a novel role for neurotrophin signaling in brain tumor and suggest that Trks could be a target for combinatorial treatment of malignant glioma. PMID:25538243

  20. G-Protein Gαs controls medulloblastoma initiation by suppressing sonic hedgehog signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuelian; Lu, Q Richard

    2015-01-01

    We identify Gαs as a novel tumor suppressor in medulloblastoma that functions principally by inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling. Gαs not only stimulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling but also inhibits ciliary trafficking of hedgehog components. Elevation of cAMP inhibits medulloblastoma growth and augments inhibition of smoothened to decrease tumor cell proliferation, thus highlighting Gαs as a potential therapeutic target.

  1. The impact of cow's milk-mediated mTORC1-signaling in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnik Bodo C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa is dependent on androgen receptor signaling and aberrations of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 pathway mediating excessive and sustained growth signaling. The nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1 is upregulated in nearly 100% of advanced human PCas. Oncogenic mTORC1 signaling activates key subsets of mRNAs that cooperate in distinct steps of PCa initiation and progression. Epidemiological evidence points to increased dairy protein consumption as a major dietary risk factor for the development of PCa. mTORC1 is a master regulator of protein synthesis, lipid synthesis and autophagy pathways that couple nutrient sensing to cell growth and cancer. This review provides evidence that PCa initiation and progression are promoted by cow´s milk, but not human milk, stimulation of mTORC1 signaling. Mammalian milk is presented as an endocrine signaling system, which activates mTORC1, promotes cell growth and proliferation and suppresses autophagy. Naturally, milk-mediated mTORC1 signaling is restricted only to the postnatal growth phase of mammals. However, persistent consumption of cow´s milk proteins in humans provide highly insulinotropic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs provided by milk´s fast hydrolysable whey proteins, which elevate postprandial plasma insulin levels, and increase hepatic IGF-1 plasma concentrations by casein-derived amino acids. BCAAs, insulin and IGF-1 are pivotal activating signals of mTORC1. Increased cow´s milk protein-mediated mTORC1 signaling along with constant exposure to commercial cow´s milk estrogens derived from pregnant cows may explain the observed association between high dairy consumption and increased risk of PCa in Westernized societies. As well-balanced mTORC1-signaling plays an important role in appropriate prostate morphogenesis and differentiation, exaggerated mTORC1-signaling by high cow´s milk consumption predominantly during critical growth phases of prostate development and

  2. The impact of cow's milk-mediated mTORC1-signaling in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is dependent on androgen receptor signaling and aberrations of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 pathway mediating excessive and sustained growth signaling. The nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1 is upregulated in nearly 100% of advanced human PCas. Oncogenic mTORC1 signaling activates key subsets of mRNAs that cooperate in distinct steps of PCa initiation and progression. Epidemiological evidence points to increased dairy protein consumption as a major dietary risk factor for the development of PCa. mTORC1 is a master regulator of protein synthesis, lipid synthesis and autophagy pathways that couple nutrient sensing to cell growth and cancer. This review provides evidence that PCa initiation and progression are promoted by cow´s milk, but not human milk, stimulation of mTORC1 signaling. Mammalian milk is presented as an endocrine signaling system, which activates mTORC1, promotes cell growth and proliferation and suppresses autophagy. Naturally, milk-mediated mTORC1 signaling is restricted only to the postnatal growth phase of mammals. However, persistent consumption of cow´s milk proteins in humans provide highly insulinotropic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) provided by milk´s fast hydrolysable whey proteins, which elevate postprandial plasma insulin levels, and increase hepatic IGF-1 plasma concentrations by casein-derived amino acids. BCAAs, insulin and IGF-1 are pivotal activating signals of mTORC1. Increased cow´s milk protein-mediated mTORC1 signaling along with constant exposure to commercial cow´s milk estrogens derived from pregnant cows may explain the observed association between high dairy consumption and increased risk of PCa in Westernized societies. As well-balanced mTORC1-signaling plays an important role in appropriate prostate morphogenesis and differentiation, exaggerated mTORC1-signaling by high cow´s milk consumption predominantly during critical growth phases of prostate development and differentiation may exert long

  3. The EGF receptor and notch signaling pathways control the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow during Drosophila eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J P; Moses, K

    2001-07-01

    The onset of pattern formation in the developing Drosophila retina begins with the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow, the leading edge of a wave of retinal development that transforms a uniform epithelium, the eye imaginal disc into a near crystalline array of ommatidial elements. The initiation of this wave of morphogenesis is under the control of the secreted morphogens Hedgehog (Hh), Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Wingless (Wg). We show that the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Notch signaling cascades are crucial components that are also required to initiate retinal development. We also show that the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow is the sum of two genetically separable processes: (1) the 'birth' of pattern formation at the posterior margin of the eye imaginal disc; and (2) the subsequent 'reincarnation' of retinal development across the epithelium.

  4. Proliferative Activity and Neuroprotective Effect of Ligustrazene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proliferative Activity and Neuroprotective Effect of. Ligustrazene Derivative by Irritation of Vascular. Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Middle Cerebral. Artery Occlusion Rats. Zhang Huazheng1, Wang Penglong2, Ren Liwei1, Wang Xiaobo2, Li Guoliang2,. Wang Mina1, Chu Fuhao2, Gong Yan2, Xu Bing2, Bi Siling1, ...

  5. Integration of Nuclear- and Extranuclear-Initiated Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madak Erdogan, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    Estrogenic hormones exert their effects through binding to Estrogen Receptors (ERs), which work in concert with coregulators and extranuclear signaling pathways to control gene expression in normal as well as cancerous states, including breast tumors. In this thesis, we have used multiple genome-wide analysis tools to elucidate various ways that…

  6. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Mediates Proliferative GN via CD74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djudjaj, Sonja; Lue, Hongqi; Rong, Song; Papasotiriou, Marios; Klinkhammer, Barbara M.; Zok, Stephanie; Klaener, Ole; Braun, Gerald S.; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Cohen, Clemens D.; Bucala, Richard; Tittel, Andre P.; Kurts, Christian; Moeller, Marcus J.; Floege, Juergen; Ostendorf, Tammo

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic proliferation of mesangial and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) is a hallmark of various glomerulonephritides. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that mediates inflammation by engagement of a receptor complex involving the components CD74, CD44, CXCR2, and CXCR4. The proliferative effects of MIF may involve CD74 together with the coreceptor and PEC activation marker CD44. Herein, we analyzed the effects of local glomerular MIF/CD74/CD44 signaling in proliferative glomerulonephritides. MIF, CD74, and CD44 were upregulated in the glomeruli of patients and mice with proliferative glomerulonephritides. During disease, CD74 and CD44 were expressed de novo in PECs and colocalized in both PECs and mesangial cells. Stress stimuli induced MIF secretion from glomerular cells in vitro and in vivo, in particular from podocytes, and MIF stimulation induced proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells via CD74. In murine crescentic GN, Mif-deficient mice were almost completely protected from glomerular injury, the development of cellular crescents, and the activation and proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells, whereas wild-type mice were not. Bone marrow reconstitution studies showed that deficiency of both nonmyeloid and bone marrow–derived Mif reduced glomerular cell proliferation and injury. In contrast to wild-type mice, Cd74-deficient mice also were protected from glomerular injury and ensuing activation and proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells. Our data suggest a novel molecular mechanism and glomerular cell crosstalk by which local upregulation of MIF and its receptor complex CD74/CD44 mediate glomerular injury and pathologic proliferation in GN. PMID:26453615

  7. Initiation of Recent Debris Flows on Mount Rainier, Washington: A Climate Warming Signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, E. A.; Kennard, P.; Nolin, A. W.; Lancaster, S. T.; Grant, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    The first week of November 2006 an intense rainstorm inundated the Pacific Northwest and triggered debris flows on many large volcanoes in the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon. At Mount Rainier, Washington, 45.7 cm of rain was recorded in 36 hours; the storm was preceded by a week of light precipitation and moderate temperatures, so that rain fell on nearly-saturated ground with minimal snow cover. The November 2006 storm was exceptional in that it resulted in a 100-year flood and caused an unprecedented six-month closure of Mount Rainier National Park. It also focused inquiry as to whether debris flows from Cascade volcanoes are likely to occur more frequently in the future as glaciers recede due to climate warming, leaving unstable moraines and sediment that can act as initiation sites. We examined the recent history of debris flows from Mount Rainier using aerial photographs and field surveyed debris flow tracks. Prior to 2001, debris flows were recorded in association with rainfall or glacial outburst floods in 4 drainages, but 3 additional drainages were first impacted by debris flows in 2001, 2005, and 2006, respectively. We discovered that most of the recent debris flows initiated as small gullies in unconsolidated material at the edge of fragmented glaciers or areas of permanent snow and ice. Other initiation sites occur on steep-sided un-vegetated moraines. Of the 28 named glaciers on Mount Rainier, debris flows initiated near five glaciers in the exceptional storm of 2006 (Winthrop, Inter, Kautz-Success, Van Trump, Pyramid, and South Tahoma). Less exceptional storms, however, have also produced wide-spread debris flows: in September 2005, 15.3 cm of rain fell in 48 hours on minimal snow cover and caused debris flows in all except 2 of the glacier drainages that initiated in 2006. Debris flows from both storms initiated at elevations of 1980 to 2400 m, traveled 5 to 10 kilometers, and caused significant streambed aggradation. These results suggest a

  8. Steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 mediate fetal-to-maternal signaling that initiates parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Lu; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H.; Condon, Jennifer C.; Renthal, Nora E.; Johnston, John M.; Mitsche, Matthew A.; Chambon, Pierre; Xu, Jianming; O’Malley, Bert W.; Mendelson, Carole R.

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms that lead to parturition are incompletely defined. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A), which is secreted by fetal lungs into amniotic fluid (AF) near term, likely provides a signal for parturition; however, SP-A–deficient mice have only a relatively modest delay (~12 hours) in parturition, suggesting additional factors. Here, we evaluated the contribution of steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 (SRC-1 and SRC-2), which upregulate SP-A transcription, to the parturition process...

  9. High-density transcriptional initiation signals underline genomic islands in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianli Huang

    Full Text Available Genomic islands (GIs, frequently associated with the pathogenicity of bacteria and having a substantial influence on bacterial evolution, are groups of "alien" elements which probably undergo special temporal-spatial regulation in the host genome. Are there particular hallmark transcriptional signals for these "exotic" regions? We here explore the potential transcriptional signals that underline the GIs beyond the conventional views on basic sequence composition, such as codon usage and GC property bias. It showed that there is a significant enrichment of the transcription start positions (TSPs in the GI regions compared to the whole genome of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. There was up to a four-fold increase for the 70% GIs, implying high-density TSPs profile can potentially differentiate the GI regions. Based on this feature, we developed a new sliding window method GIST, Genomic-island Identification by Signals of Transcription, to identify these regions. Subsequently, we compared the known GI-associated features of the GIs detected by GIST and by the existing method Islandviewer to those of the whole genome. Our method demonstrates high sensitivity in detecting GIs harboring genes with biased GI-like function, preferred subcellular localization, skewed GC property, shorter gene length and biased "non-optimal" codon usage. The special transcriptional signals discovered here may contribute to the coordinate expression regulation of foreign genes. Finally, by using GIST, we detected many interesting GIs in the 2011 German E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain TY-2482, including the microcin H47 system and gene cluster ycgXEFZ-ymgABC that activates the production of biofilm matrix. The aforesaid findings highlight the power of GIST to predict GIs with distinct intrinsic features to the genome. The heterogeneity of cumulative TSPs profiles may not only be a better identity for "alien" regions, but also provide hints to the special

  10. A Plant Phytosulfokine Peptide Initiates Auxin-Dependent Immunity through Cytosolic Ca2+ Signaling in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Hu, Zhangjian; Lei, Cui; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Jiao; Shao, Shujun; Li, Xin; Xia, Xiaojian; Cai, Xinzhong; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Foyer, Christine H; Shi, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a disulfated pentapeptide that is an important signaling molecule. Although it has recently been implicated in plant defenses to pathogen infection, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Using surface plasmon resonance and gene silencing approaches, we showed that the tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) PSK receptor PSKR1, rather than PSKR2, functioned as the major PSK receptor in immune responses. Silencing of PSK signaling genes rendered tomato more susceptible to infection by the economically important necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea Analysis of tomato mutants defective in either defense hormone biosynthesis or signaling demonstrated that PSK-induced immunity required auxin biosynthesis and associated defense pathways. Here, using aequorin-expressing tomato plants, we provide evidence that PSK perception by tomato PSKR1 elevated cytosolic [Ca 2+ ], leading to auxin-dependent immune responses via enhanced binding activity between calmodulins and the auxin biosynthetic YUCs. Thus, our data demonstrate that PSK acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern and is perceived mainly by PSKR1, which increases cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] and activates auxin-mediated pathways that enhance immunity of tomato plants to B. cinerea . © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurotrophin signaling via TrkB and TrkC receptors promotes the growth of brain tumor-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Samuel; Krishna, Niveditha; Pisklakova, Alexandra; Qu, Xiaotao; Fenstermacher, David A; Fournier, Michelle; Vrionis, Frank D; Tran, Nam; Chan, Jennifer A; Kenchappa, Rajappa S; Forsyth, Peter A

    2015-02-06

    Neurotrophins and their receptors are frequently expressed in malignant gliomas, yet their functions are largely unknown. Previously, we have shown that p75 neurotrophin receptor is required for glioma invasion and proliferation. However, the role of Trk receptors has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the importance of TrkB and TrkC in survival of brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs). Here, we show that human malignant glioma tissues and also tumor-initiating cells isolated from fresh human malignant gliomas express the neurotrophin receptors TrkB and TrkC, not TrkA, and they also express neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, and neurotrophin 3 (NT3). Specific activation of TrkB and TrkC receptors by ligands BDNF and NT3 enhances tumor-initiating cell viability through activation of ERK and Akt pathways. Conversely, TrkB and TrkC knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of Trk signaling decreases neurotrophin-dependent ERK activation and BTIC growth. Further, pharmacological inhibition of both ERK and Akt pathways blocked BDNF, and NT3 stimulated BTIC survival. Importantly, attenuation of BTIC growth by EGFR inhibitors could be overcome by activation of neurotrophin signaling, and neurotrophin signaling is sufficient for long term BTIC growth as spheres in the absence of EGF and FGF. Our results highlight a novel role for neurotrophin signaling in brain tumor and suggest that Trks could be a target for combinatorial treatment of malignant glioma. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  13. Study of the electrical signals observed during the initial stage in a coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, C.; Vieytes, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this work high frequency oscillations further experimental data, along with its theoretical modeling will be given for initial phase in a coaxial gun constructed to be used in technological applications of plasma. Particular attention was devoted to find any dependence between the measured frequencies and the operating pressure and voltage. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Initial steps of signal generation in photoactive yellow protein revealed with femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.L.; van Wilderen, L.; Larsen, D.S.; Horst, M.A.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2003-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is a bacterial blue light sensor that induces Halorhodospira halophila to swim away from intense blue light. Light absorption by PYP's intrinsic chromophore, p-coumaric acid, leads to the initiation of a photocycle that comprises several distinct intermediates. Here

  15. Wingless promotes proliferative growth in a gradient-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Lopez, Luis Alberto; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2009-10-06

    Morphogens form concentration gradients that organize patterns of cells and control growth. It has been suggested that, rather than the intensity of morphogen signaling, it is its gradation that is the relevant modulator of cell proliferation. According to this view, the ability of morphogens to regulate growth during development depends on their graded distributions. Here, we describe an experimental test of this model for Wingless, one of the key organizers of wing development in Drosophila. Maximal Wingless signaling suppresses cellular proliferation. In contrast, we found that moderate and uniform amounts of exogenous Wingless, even in the absence of endogenous Wingless, stimulated proliferative growth. Beyond a few cell diameters from the source, Wingless was relatively constant in abundance and thus provided a homogeneous growth-promoting signal. Although morphogen signaling may act in combination with as yet uncharacterized graded growth-promoting pathways, we suggest that the graded nature of morphogen signaling is not required for proliferation, at least in the developing Drosophila wing, during the main period of growth.

  16. Distribution and Variability of Satellite-Derived Signals of Isolated Convection Initiation Events Over Central Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yipeng; Meng, Zhiyong; Li, Jing; Li, Wanbiao; Bai, Lanqiang; Zhang, Murong; Wang, Xi

    2017-11-01

    This study combined measurements from the Chinese operational geostationary satellite Fengyun-2E (FY-2E) and ground-based weather radars to conduct a statistical survey of isolated convection initiation (CI) over central eastern China (CEC). The convective environment in CEC is modulated by the complex topography and monsoon climate. From May to August 2010, a total of 1,630 isolated CI signals were derived from FY-2E using a semiautomated method. The formation of these satellite-derived CI signals peaks in the early afternoon and occurs with high frequency in areas with remarkable terrain inhomogeneity (e.g., mountain, water, and mountain-water areas). The high signal frequency areas shift from northwest CEC (dry, high altitude) in early summer to southeast CEC (humid, low altitude) in midsummer along with an increasing monthly mean frequency. The satellite-derived CI signals tend to have longer lead times (the time difference between satellite-derived signal formation and radar-based CI) in the late morning and afternoon than in the early morning and night. During the early morning and night, the distinction between cloud top signatures and background terrestrial radiation becomes less apparent, resulting in delayed identification of the signals and thus short and even negative lead times. A decline in the lead time is observed from May to August, likely due to the increasing cloud growth rate and warm-rain processes. Results show increasing lead times with increasing landscape elevation, likely due to more warm-rain processes over the coastal sea and plain, along with a decreasing cloud growth rate from hill and mountain to the plateau.

  17. Proliferative myositis in a patient with AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovska, B.; Deux, J.F.; Marsault, C.; Le Breton, C. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Tenon, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020, Paris (France); Abraham, B. [Department of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France); Sibony, M. [Department of Anatomy, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France)

    2004-04-01

    We report a case of proliferative myositis in the right biceps of a 56-year-old man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Imaging methods included sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis was made by a core-cut biopsy and fine needle aspiration biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis. The lesion disappeared after 2 months without treatment. It is particularly important to determine whether intramuscular masses arising in patients with AIDS are due to an infectious or malignant process. (orig.)

  18. Proliferative myositis in a patient with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlachovska, B.; Deux, J.F.; Marsault, C.; Le Breton, C.; Abraham, B.; Sibony, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of proliferative myositis in the right biceps of a 56-year-old man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Imaging methods included sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis was made by a core-cut biopsy and fine needle aspiration biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis. The lesion disappeared after 2 months without treatment. It is particularly important to determine whether intramuscular masses arising in patients with AIDS are due to an infectious or malignant process. (orig.)

  19. Standard effective doses for proliferative tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.C.; Hoban, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the treatment schedules used clinically for highly proliferative tumours, particularly with reference to the effects of fraction size, fraction number and treatment duration. The linear quadratic model (with time component) is used here to compare non-standard treatment regimens (e.g. accelerated and hyperfractionated schedules), currently the focus of randomized trials, with each other and some common 'standard regimens'. To ensure easy interpretation of results, two parameters known as proliferative standard effective dose one (PSED 1 ) and proliferative standard effective dose two (PSED 2 ) have been calculated for each regimen. Graphs of PSED 1 and PSED 2 versus potential doubling time (T p ) have been generated for a range of fractionation regimens which are currently under trial in various randomized studies. From these graphs it can be seen that the highly accelerated schedules (such as CHART) only show advantages for tumours with very short potential doubling times. Calculations for most of the schedules considered showed at least equivalent tumour control expected for the trial schedule compared with the control arm used and these values agree quite well with clinical results. These calculations are in good agreement with clinical results available at present. The greater the PSED 1 or PSED 2 for the schedule considered the greater the tumour control, which can be expected. However, as has been seen with clinical trials, this higher cell kill also results in higher acute effects which have proved too great for some accelerated schedules to continue. (author)

  20. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter K-Band (26 GHz) Signal Analysis: Initial Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D. D.; Heckman, D.

    2017-11-01

    Lower frequency telemetry bands are becoming more limited in bandwidth due to increased competition between flight projects and other entities. Higher frequency bands offer significantly more bandwidth and hence the prospect of much higher data rates. Future or prospective flight projects considering higher frequency bands such as Ka-band (32 GHz) for deep-space and K-band (26 GHz) for near-Earth telemetry links are interested in past flight experience with available received data at these frequencies. Given that there is increased degradation due to the atmosphere at these higher frequencies, there is an effort to retrieve flight data of received signal strength to analyze performance under a variety of factors. Such factors include elevation angle, season, and atmospheric conditions. This article reports on the analysis findings of over 10 million observations of received signal strength of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft collected between 2014 and 2017. We analyzed these data to characterize link performance over a wide range of weather conditions, season, and as a function of elevation angle. Based on this analysis, we have confirmed the safety of using a 3-dB margin for preflight planning purposes. These results suggest that a 3-dB margin with respect to adverse conditions will ensure a 98 to 99 percent data return under 95 percent weather conditions at 26 GHz (K-band), thus confirming expectations from link budget predictions. The results suggest that this margin should be applicable for all elevation angles above 10 deg. Thus, missions that have sufficient power for their desired data rates may opt to use 10 deg as their minimum elevation angle. Limitations of this study include climate variability and the fact that the observations require removal of hotbody noise in order to perform an adequate cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis, which is planned for a future comprehensive study. Flight projects may use other link margins

  1. Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A case report with an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Issrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White lesions both physiologic as well as pathologic are relatively frequent in the oral cavity, the most common pathology being oral leukoplakia (OL. There are many variants of OL, one of which is oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (OPVL. OPVL is a rare clinico-pathological entity, which is slow growing, long-term progressive lesion, but remains an enigmatic and difficult to define. The etiology of OPVL remains still unclear. Tobacco use does not seem to have a significant influence on the appearance of OPVL. These lesions may occur both in smokers and non-smokers. It is observed more frequently in women and elderly patients over 60 years at the time of diagnosis. The buccal mucosa and tongue are the most frequently involved sites. It develops initially as a white plaque of hyperkeratosis that eventually becomes a multifocal disease with confluent, exophytic and proliferative features. Various published case series have presented OPVL as a disease with aggressive biological behavior due to its high probability of recurrence and a high rate of malignant transformation. Prognosis is poor for this seemingly harmless-appearing white lesion of the oral mucosa. This article describes the clinical aspects and histologic features of an OPVL case that demonstrated the typical behavior pattern in a long-standing, persistent lesion and discusses this relatively rare entity in light of current information.

  2. Proliferative response of the murine esophageal epithelium to radiation: Modification by food consumption patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burholt, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The single layer of proliferative epithelial cells of the murine esophagus undergoes a sequence of damage and recovery following cytotoxic insult. The modification of both damage and proliferative recovery by the alteration of animal eating patterns was investigated following thoracic field irradiation through the determination of /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation into the esophagus along with selective counting of labeled nuclei and mitotic figures. Initial radiation-induced damage, as determined by /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation suppression and mitotic delay, is under normal conditions dependent on the time of day of treatment. This circadian sensitivity may be altered by changing the eating pattern of the animal. The proliferative recovery following single dose irradiation is also dependent on food consumption patterns: fasting immediately following treatment and then refeeding 2 days later results in a more rapid proliferative recovery than observed under control eating conditions, while reduced food consumption during the period of proliferative hyperplasia reduces the extent of recovery. During multifraction radiation schedules both the damage produced by a subsequent dose and recovery capacity are influenced by the food consumption pattern between fractions

  3. Canonical and Non-Canonical NF-κB Signaling Promotes Breast Cancer Tumor-Initiating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendellen, Megan F.; Bradford, Jennifer W.; Lawrence, Cortney L.; Clark, Kelly S.; Baldwin, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a sub-population of cells that exhibit a robust ability to self-renew and contribute to the formation of primary tumors, the relapse of previously treated tumors, and the development of metastases. TICs have been identified in various tumors, including those of the breast, and are particularly enriched in the basal-like and claudin-low subtypes of breast cancer. The signaling pathways that contribute to the function and maintenance of TICs are under intense study. We explored the potential involvement of the NF-κB family of transcription factors in TICs in cell lines that are representative of basal-like and claudin-low breast cancer. NF-κB was found to be activated in breast cancer cells that form tumorspheres efficiently. Moreover, both canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling is required for these cells to self-renew in vitro and to form xenograft tumors efficiently in vivo using limiting dilutions of cells. Consistent with this, canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling is activated in TICs isolated from breast cancer cell lines. Experimental results indicate that NF-κB promotes the function of TICs by stimulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and by upregulating the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. The results suggest the use of NF-κB inhibitors for clinical therapy of certain breast cancers. PMID:23474754

  4. Converging Light, Energy and Hormonal Signaling Control Meristem Activity, Leaf Initiation, and Growth1[CC-BY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Binish; Bilooei, Sara Farahi; Grove, Elliot; Railo, Saana; Palme, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The development of leaf primordia is subject to light control of meristematic activity. Light regulates the expression of thousands of genes with roles in cell proliferation, organ development, and differentiation of photosynthetic cells. Previous work has highlighted roles for hormone homeostasis and the energy-dependent Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase in meristematic activity, yet a picture of how these two regulatory mechanisms depend on light perception and interact with each other has yet to emerge. Their relevance beyond leaf initiation also is unclear. Here, we report the discovery that the dark-arrested meristematic region of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) experiences a local energy deprivation state and confirm previous findings that the PIN1 auxin transporter is diffusely localized in the dark. Light triggers a rapid removal of the starvation state and the establishment of PIN1 polar membrane localization consistent with auxin export, both preceding the induction of cell cycle- and cytoplasmic growth-associated genes. We demonstrate that shoot meristematic activity can occur in the dark through the manipulation of auxin and cytokinin activity as well as through the activation of energy signaling, both targets of photomorphogenesis action, but the organ developmental outcomes differ: while TOR-dependent energy signals alone stimulate cell proliferation, the development of a normal leaf lamina requires photomorphogenesis-like hormonal responses. We further show that energy signaling adjusts the extent of cell cycle activity and growth of young leaves non-cellautonomously to available photosynthates and leads to organs constituted of a greater number of cells developing under higher irradiance. This makes energy signaling perhaps the most important biomass growth determinant under natural, unstressed conditions. PMID:29284741

  5. Cetuximab-Associated Crescentic Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukesh Manthri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cetuximab-induced nephrotoxicity is very rare, occurring in less than 1% of colorectal cancer patients and not defined in other populations. We report a rare case of crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN that developed in close temporal association with cetuximab treatment. A 65-year-old female recently completed chemotherapy with cetuximab treatment for moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. She was admitted with acute renal failure and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Laboratory data showed serum creatinine of 6.6 mg/dl and urinalysis showed proteinuria, moderate hemoglobinuria, hyaline casts (41/LPF, WBC (28/HPF, and RBC (81/HPF. Serologic studies were negative for ANA, anti-GBM, ANCA, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Serum C3 and C4 level were normal. Renal biopsy showed crescentic diffuse proliferative GN with focal features of thrombotic microangiopathy. Patient was started on cyclophosphamide and steroids. Her renal function did not improve on day 8 and she was started on hemodialysis. Previous reports suggest that EGFR-targeting medications can possibly trigger or exacerbate an IgA-mediated glomerular process leading to renal failure. This case suggests that cetuximab therapy may have triggered or exacerbated a severe glomerular injury with an unfavorable outcome. Treating physicians should maintain a high degree of caution and monitor renal function in patients on EGFR inhibitors.

  6. Thrombopoietin/MPL participates in initiating and maintaining RUNX1-ETO acute myeloid leukemia via PI3K/AKT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulikkan, John Anto; Madera, Dmitri; Xue, Liting; Bradley, Paul; Landrette, Sean Francis; Kuo, Ya-Huei; Abbas, Saman; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Valk, Peter; Castilla, Lucio Hernán

    2012-07-26

    Oncogenic mutations in components of cytokine signaling pathways elicit ligand-independent activation of downstream signaling, enhancing proliferation and survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene, MPL, a homodimeric receptor activated by thrombopoietin (THPO), is mutated in myeloproliferative disorders but rarely in AML. Here we show that wild-type MPL expression is increased in a fraction of human AML samples expressing RUNX1-ETO, a fusion protein created by chromosome translocation t(8;21), and that up-regulation of Mpl expression in mice induces AML when coexpressed with RUNX1-ETO. The leukemic cells are sensitive to THPO, activating survival and proliferative responses. Mpl expression is not regulated by RUNX1-ETO in mouse hematopoietic progenitors or leukemic cells. Moreover, we find that activation of PI3K/AKT but not ERK/MEK pathway is a critical mediator of the MPL-directed antiapoptotic function in leukemic cells. Hence, this study provides evidence that up-regulation of wild-type MPL levels promotes leukemia development and maintenance through activation of the PI3K/AKT axis, and suggests that inhibitors of this axis could be effective for treatment of MPL-positive AML.

  7. The N-terminal region of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A signals to nuclear localization of the protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T.; Gomes, Marcelo D.; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.

    2007-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a ubiquitous protein of eukaryotic and archaeal organisms which undergoes hypusination, a unique post-translational modification. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against murine eIF5A, which in immunocytochemical assays in B16-F10 cells revealed that the endogenous protein is preferentially localized to the nuclear region. We therefore analyzed possible structural features present in eIF5A proteins that could be responsible for that characteristic. Multiple sequence alignment analysis of eIF5A proteins from different eukaryotic and archaeal organisms showed that the former sequences have an extended N-terminal segment. We have then performed in silico prediction analyses and constructed different truncated forms of murine eIF5A to verify any possible role that the N-terminal extension might have in determining the subcellular localization of the eIF5A in eukaryotic organisms. Our results indicate that the N-terminal extension of the eukaryotic eIF5A contributes in signaling this protein to nuclear localization, despite of bearing no structural similarity with classical nuclear localization signals

  8. A Predictive Model for Estimation Risk of Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ni Chen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: This study developed and validated a model including demographic and clinical indices to evaluate the probability of presenting proliferative LN to guide therapeutic decisions and outcomes.

  9. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  10. Correlation of proliferative and clonogenic tumor cells in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, J.E.; Burke, P.J.; Saylor, P.L.; Humphrey, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    To expand on the findings from previous clinical trials that the growth of residual tumor is increased at a predictable time following initial drug administration, malignant plasma cells from bone marrows of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were examined for changes in proliferation and clonogenicity induced in vivo by cyclophosphamide and in vitro by drug-induced humoral stimulatory activity. Peak plasma cell [ 3 H]thymidine labeling index (LI) occurred predictably following drug and paralleled changes in agar colony formation by marrow cells obtained during therapy. Colony-forming capacity of pretreatment MM marrow populations was enhanced when those cells were cultured with humoral stimulatory activity, similar to the increased colony formation detected in Day 9 postcyclophosphamide marrows at the time of peak plasma cell LI. To further define a relationship between proliferative plasma cells and colony-forming tumor cells, MM marrows were fractionated by sedimentation on an isokinetic gradient. Enrichment of a proliferative tumor cell cohort was achieved, evidenced by [ 3 H]thymidine LI. Colony-forming cells were also enriched by isokinetic gradient sedimentation, and agar colony formation by MM marrow cell fractions correlated with the kinetic characteristics of the isolated subpopulations. These studies of whole and fractionated human MM marrow cell populations suggest that the kinetically active cells which are induced to proliferate in vivo and in vitro are closely related to the clonogenic tumor cells which produce colonies in agar and which, like those cells measured by [ 3 H]thymidine LI, respond to growth stimulation by drug-induced humoral stimulatory activity

  11. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukovaara, Sirpa; Piippo, Niina; Kinnunen, Kati; Hytti, Maria; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2017-12-01

    Innate immunity and dysregulation of inflammatory processes play a role in vascular diseases like atherosclerosis or diabetes. Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich repeat Receptor containing a Pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes are pro-inflammatory signalling complexes that were found in 2002. In addition to pathogens and other extracellular threats, they can be activated by various endogenous danger signals. The purpose of this study was to find out whether NLRP3 activation occurs in patients with sight-threatening forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Inflammasome components NLRP3 and caspase-1, inflammasome-related pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), acute-phase cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as adaptive immunity-related cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were measured from the vitreous samples of 15 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (non-PDR) and 23 proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) was determined using the Western blot technique. Inflammasome components were present in the vitreous of DR patients. Along with VEGF, the levels of caspase-1 and IL-18 were significantly increased, especially in PDR eyes. Interestingly, clearly higher levels of NLRP3 were found in the PDR eyes with tractional retinal detachment (TRD) than from PDR eyes with fully attached retina. There were no significant differences in the amounts of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ that were detectable in the vitreous of both non-PDR and PDR patients. Our results suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation can be associated especially with the pathogenesis of PDR. The lack of differences in TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ also alludes that acute inflammation or T-cell-mediated responses do not dominate in PDR pathogenesis. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation

  12. Autologous proliferative therapies in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetschke, Elisa; Rudolf, Margit; Lohmann, Christoph H; Stärke, Christian

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the clinical effects of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) injections and low-level laser application as therapy options for chronic lateral epicondylitis. A total of 52 patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were evaluated in this study; 26 of these patients received three ACP injections and the control group, with 26 patients, received 12 laser applications, with standardized physical therapy for all patients afterward. Control examinations took place before treatment, after 2 and 6 mos, and in the 1 yr final follow-up. The control examination included the visual analog scale for pain and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand outcome measure scores. The analysis at final follow-up after 1 yr showed that both treatment options resulted in successful therapy outcome for the patients. In total, 63.5 % were successfully treated. Successful treatment was defined as more than 30% improvement in the visual analog score and more than 10.2 points in the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score. Both groups showed a significant improvement in time response. This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of autologous proliferative therapies in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. The data show that laser application and ACP therapy lead to a clinical improvement in epicondylopathia. Especially the new treatment with ACP can be highlighted as an alternative and as an easy-to-apply therapy option for clinical practice.

  13. Leptin: A proliferative factor for breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldefie-Chezet, F.; Damez, M.; Latour, M. de; Konska, G.; Mishellani, F.; Fusillier, C.; Guerry, M.; Penault-Llorca, F.; Guillot, J.; Vasson, M.-P.

    2005-01-01

    Mammary adipose tissue is an important source of paracrine mitogens and anti-mitogens, including insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factors, and cytokines (especially, TNFα and IL-1β). Nevertheless, it is also an important source of the adipocytokine, leptin. Recently, leptin was reported to stimulate the proliferation of various cell types (pancreatic β cells, prostate, colorectal, lung, etc.) as a new growth factor. It was also shown to stimulate the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of leptin expression in normal tissue and benign and malignant ductal breast cell, representing the different states of the invasion process. We determined for the first time that leptin is expressed both by ductal breast tumors and by benign lesions as atypical hyperplasia. This suggests that leptin may be taken up or synthesized by all modified ductal breast cells, and may prove a proliferative factor. Moreover, leptin is unexpressed by normal tissue in the healthy breast but is exhibited by the normal tissue in near vicinity of the malignant ductal breast lesions. We also postulated that leptin may be a prognostic or diagnostic factor for ductal breast cancer. These putative hypotheses require further study

  14. Lack of a differential radiation response for proliferative and non-proliferative rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosing, J.W.; Giese, W.L.; Mulcahy, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    FRTL-5 rat thyroid epithelial cells maintain normal thyroid function and morphology in vitro, exhibit an absolute requirement for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) for proliferation and display radiation dose response characteristics indistinguishable from those of rat thyroid epithelial cells in vivo. In TSH-free medium cells remain in a non-proliferative, yet viable, state for prolonged periods of time and respond to TSH re-stimulation by a return to exponential growth. Flow cytometric analysis using two-step acridine orange (AO) staining revealed an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle accompanied by a pronounced reduction in red fluorescence (indicative of RNA content) in FRTL-5 cells cultured in the absence of TSH. The response of proliferative and non-proliferative FRTL-5 cells to single dose, split dose and fractionated radiation was compared to determine whether proliferative status was an important response determinant. The response of FRTL-5 cells was not influenced by proliferative status at the time of irradiation. Additionally, dose response was not altered by variable (12 hr-8 days) non-proliferative intervals before or after irradiation. As revealed by split dose experiments, the rate and extent of sublethal damage repair was likewise similar for proliferative and non-proliferative cells. Multifraction experiments employing three fractions separated by 6 hr intervals indicate that non-proliferative FRTL-5 cells completely repair sublethal damage between fractions. These results indicate that the radiation response of FRTL-5 cells is not influenced by the proliferative status of the cells prior to or post-irradiation

  15. Proliferative and inflammatory factors in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Chernykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to measure the concentrations of various cytokines and growth factors (including vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and pigment epithelium-derived factor [PEDF] in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and to investigate interaction between inflammatory and proliferative factors in the genesis of PDR. Materials and Methods : Vitreous samples from 32 eyes with PDR and 25 eyes without diabetes mellitus and signs of DR (control were collected. Vitreous concentrations of VEGF, PEDF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA were simultaneously measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results : Vitreous levels of VEGF, PEDF, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, and sIgA were significantly (Π < 0.05 higher in eyes with PDR compared to control. The concentration of VEGF was more than 17-times higher than in control, and the concentration of PEDF was not changed oppositely and was also higher (1.45-times compared to control, that may indicate disturbances of compensatory mechanisms in angiogenesis regulation in PDR. Significant (Π < 0.05 positive correlations were observed between vitreous concentrations of VEGF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.45, VEGF and IL-8 (r = 0.48, VEGF and IL-4 (r = 0.51, PEDF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.48, PEDF and IL-8 (r = 0.59, MCP-1 and PEDF (r = 0.72, MCP-1 and IL-8 (r0 = 0.45, IL-4 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.65, IL-4 and IL-8 (r = 0.71, IL-8 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.59. Conclusions: Significantly raised levels of inflammatory and proliferative factors and numerous positive correlations between them may demonstrate a significant role of activation of vascular proliferation and local inflammation in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  16. Changes in the Proliferative Program Limit Astrocyte Homeostasis in the Aged Post-Traumatic Murine Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Gábor; Canhos, Luisa L; Frik, Jesica; Jäger, Gabriele; Lepko, Tjasa; Ninkovic, Jovica; Götz, Magdalena; Sirko, Swetlana

    2017-08-01

    Aging leads to adverse outcomes after traumatic brain injury. The mechanisms underlying these defects, however, are not yet clear. In this study, we found that astrocytes in the aged post-traumatic cerebral cortex develop a significantly reduced proliferative response, resulting in reduced astrocyte numbers in the penumbra. Moreover, experiments of reactive astrocytes in vitro reveal that their diminished proliferation is due to an age-related switch in the division mode with reduced cell-cycle re-entry rather than changes in cell-cycle length. Notably, reactive astrocytes in vivo and in vitro become refractory to stimuli increasing their proliferation during aging, such as Sonic hedgehog signaling. These data demonstrate for the first time that age-dependent, most likely intrinsic changes in the proliferative program of reactive astrocytes result in their severely hampered proliferative response to traumatic injury thereby affecting astrocyte homeostasis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. The fast ratio: A rapid measure for testing the dominance of the fast component in the initial OSL signal from quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcan, Julie A.; Duller, Geoff A.T.

    2011-01-01

    The signal from the fast component is usually considered preferable for quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, however its presence in a continuous wave (CW) OSL signal is often assumed, rather than verified. This paper presents an objective measure (termed the fast ratio) for testing the dominance of the fast component in the initial part of a quartz OSL signal. The ratio is based upon the photo ionisation cross-sections of the fast and medium components and the power of the measurement equipment used to record the OSL signal, and it compares parts of the OSL signal selected to represent the fast and medium components. The ability of the fast ratio to distinguish between samples whose CW-OSL signal is dominated by the fast and non-fast components is demonstrated by comparing the fast ratio with the contribution of the fast component calculated from curve deconvolution of measured OSL signals and from simulated data. The ratio offers a rapid method for screening a large number of OSL signals obtained for individual equivalent dose estimates, it can be calculated and applied as easily as other routine screening methods, and is transferrable between different aliquots, samples and measurement equipment. - Highlights: → Fast ratio is a measure which tests dominance of fast component in quartz OSL signals. → A fast ratio above 20 implies a CW-OSL signal is dominated by fast component. → Fast ratio can be easily and rapidly applied to a large number of OSL signals. → Uses include signal comparison, data screening, identify need for further analysis.

  18. OM-101 Decreases the Fibrotic Response Associated with Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvashi, Zeev; Ben-Yaakov, Keren; Weinberg, Tamir; Greenwald, Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the effect of OM-101 on the fibrotic response occurring in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in an animal model. Methods Antifibrotic effect of OM-101 was investigated in vivo. As control, eight weeks old c57black mice underwent intravitreal injection with Hepes (group A) or dispase (0.3 units), to induce retinal detachment (RD) and PVR. The dispase-injected mice were randomly divided into two groups B and C (N = 25 mice); in group C, the eyes were treated with intravitreal injection of OM-101 (3 μl), and group B with PBS, as a control. After additional five days, mice were injected with the same initial treatment. Three days later, mice were euthanized, and the eyes were enucleated and processed for histological analysis. Results Intravitreal injection of dispase caused RD in 64% of the mice in group B, and 93% of those mice had PVR. Only 32% of mice treated with OM-101 and dispase (group C) developed RD, and only 25% of those developed PVR. Conclusions OM-101 was found effective in reducing the incidence of RD and PVR maintaining the normal architecture of the retina. This study suggests that OM-101 is a potentially effective and safe drug for the treatment of PVR patients. PMID:29109865

  19. Inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferative response by serum from Plasmodium falciparum infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Svenson, M; Bygbjerg, I C

    1987-01-01

    initiation of treatment suppressed the in vitro lymphocyte proliferative response to both Plasmodium-derived antigens and an unrelated antigen (PPD-tuberculin). The suppressive effect was lost if the serum was incubated at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and the effect was not HLA-restricted since the inhibition...

  20. Delineation of the preferences and requirements of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dimerization initiation signal by using an in vivo cell-based selection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, Islam T M; Ni, Na; Galli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 packages two copies of RNA into one particle, and the dimerization initiation signal (DIS) in the viral RNA plays an important role in selecting the copackaged RNA partner. We analyzed the DIS sequences of the circulating HIV-1 isolates in the GenBank database and observed that, in addition...

  1. Treatment effects of captopril on non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; ZHENG Zhi; JIN Hui-yi; XU Xun

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes.Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor is thought to play an important role in preventing and treating retinal diseases in animal models of DR.The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI,captopril) in the treatment of patients with non-proliferative DR.Methods Three hundred and seventeen type 2 diabetic patients (88.05% of participants) without or with mild to moderate non-proliferative retinopathy were randomly divided into captopril group (n=202) and placebo group (n=115).All subjects received 24-month follow-up.General clinical examinations,including blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin,as well as comprehensive standardized ophthalmic examinations were performed.Color fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to grade diabetic retinopathy and detect macular edema respectively.Results The levels of blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin in the two groups of patients remained within the normal range during the entire follow-up and no significant difference was found between the initial and last visits,suggesting that ACEI drugs play a protective role on the DR patients independent of its anti-blood pressure role.DR classification showed that 169 eyes (83.66%) remained unchanged and the DR grade of 33 eyes (16.34%) increased in captopril group,while 84 eyes (73.04%) remained unchanged and the grade of 31 eyes (26.96%) increased in placebo group (P=0.024).Captopril treatment improved macular edema in 55.45% eyes,which was significantly higher than the 37.39% improvement in placebo group (P=0.002).No significant difference was found in the visual acuity between the two groups (P=0.271).Conclusion Captopril can improve or delay the development of DR and macular edema,which can be used in the early treatment of DR patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus.

  2. Bilateral proliferative retinopathy in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Kumawat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old child with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with vitreous hemorrhage due to proliferative retinopathy in both eyes. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed in both eyes to clear nonresolving vitreous hemorrhage after systemic stabilization. Visual recovery was limited by the disc drag in the right eye and subfoveal exudation in the left eye. Etiopathogenesis and management of proliferative retinopathy in acute leukemias are discussed.

  3. CD274 promotes cell cycle entry of leukemia-initiating cells through JNK/Cyclin D2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Fang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD274 (programmed death ligand 1, also known as B7H1 is expressed in both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies and is of critical importance for the escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance by inhibiting T cell function via its receptor, programmed death 1 (PD-1. Increasing evidence indicates that functional monoclonal antibodies of CD274 may potently enhance the antitumor effect in many cancers. However, the role of CD274 in leukemia-initiating cells (LICs remains largely unknown. Methods We established an MLL-AF9-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML model with wild-type (WT and CD274-null mice to elucidate the role of CD274 in the cell fates of LICs, including self-renewal, differentiation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. RNA sequencing was performed to reveal the potential downstream targets, the results of which were further validated both in vitro and in vivo. Results In silico analysis indicated that CD274 level was inversely correlated with the overall survival of AML patients. In Mac-1+/c-Kit+ mouse LICs, CD274 was expressed at a much higher level than in the normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. The survival of the mice with CD274-null leukemia cells was dramatically extended during the serial transplantation compared with that of their WT counterparts. CD274 deletion led to a significant decrease in LIC frequency and arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, CD274 is not required for the maintenance of HSC pool as shown in our previous study. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that the levels of both phospho-JNK and Cyclin D2 were strikingly downregulated in CD274-null LICs. The overexpression of Cyclin D2 fully rescued the loss of function of CD274. Moreover, CD274 was directly associated with JNK and enhanced the downstream signaling to increase the Cyclin D2 level, promoting leukemia development. Conclusions The surface immune molecule CD274 plays a critical role in the proliferation of LICs

  4. Benign Proliferative Breast Lesions and Risk of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Benign breast lesions (BBL includes a wide variety of histologic entities, which have been broadly classified into non-proliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia, and hyperplasia with atypia. With the increased use of mammography, more benign lesions are being detected, and in order to estimate the risk of breast cancer for specific histologic categories is of great importance to guide clinical management. Women with proliferative lesions without atypia are at slightly increased risk of subsequent breast cancer, whereas women with proliferative lesions with atypia have a higher risk. The risk is 1.5- 2-fold in women with proliferative lesions without atypia, 4-5-fold in women with proliferative lesions with atypia, and 8-10 fold in women with ductal carcinoma in situ. Age at diagnosis of BBL, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative, and time since BBL diagnosis on risk of breast cancer are important for risk evaluation. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(3.000: 155-167

  5. New advances of TMEM88 in cancer initiation and progression, with special emphasis on Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun-Xuan; Wang, Chang-Hui; Hu, Fu-Yong; Pan, Lin-Xin; Min, Jie; Niu, Kai-Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jun; Xu, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Transmembrane protein 88 (TMEM88), a newly discovered protein localized on the cell membrane. Recent studies showed that TMEM88 was involved in the regulation of several types of cancer. TMEM88 was expressed at significantly higher levels in breast cancer (BC) cell line than in normal breast cell line with co-localized with Dishevelled (DVL) in the cytoplasm of BC cell line. TMEM88 silencing in the ovarian cancer cell line CP70 resulted in significant upregulation of Wnt downstream genes (c-Myc, cyclin-D1) and other Wnt target genes including JUN, PTIX2, CTNNB1 (β-catenin), further supporting that TMEM88 inhibits canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Wnt signaling pathway has been known to play important roles in many diseases, especially in cancer. For instance, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become one of the most common tumors harboring mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. As the inhibitor of Wnt signaling, TMEM88 has been considered to act as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor. Up-regulated TMEM88 or gene therapy approaches could be an effective therapeutic approach against tumor as TMEM88 inhibits Wnt signaling through direct interaction with DVL. Here, we review the current knowledge on the functional role and potential clinical application of TMEM88 in the control of various cancers. Highlights Wnt signaling displays an important role in several pathogenesis of cancer. Wnt signaling pathway is activated during cancer development. TMEM88 has an impact on cancer by inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. We discuss the importance and new applications of TMEM88 in cancer therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy versus proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Kabatas, Emrah Utku; Batman, Cosar; Akin, Kadir Okhan; Kabatas, Naciye

    2012-01-01

    To assess vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in comparison to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Vitreous samples were collected from 69 eyes of 69 patients with traumatic lens dislocation (n = 10), grade B PVR with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 13), grade C PVR with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 14), PDR with vitreous hemorrhage (n = 18), and PDR with vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment (n = 14). Vitreous fluid samples were obtained at vitrectomy, and the levels of VEGF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean vitreous level of VEGF was 15.14 ± 5.22 pg/ml in eyes with grade B PVR, 99.15 ± 38.58 pg/ml in eyes with grade C PVR, 4,534.01 ± 1,193.28 pg/ml in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage secondary to PDR, 5,157.29 ± 969.44 pg/ml in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment secondary to PDR, and 16.19 ± 5.76 pg/ml in eyes of the control group with traumatic lens dislocation. Vitreous VEGF concentrations were significantly higher in the patients with grade C PVR, PDR with vitreous hemorrhage and PDR with vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment in comparison to the control patients (p < 0.05). A significant alteration was not observed in patients with grade B PVR (p = 0.55). Vitreous VEGF concentrations are increased in PDR and grade C PVR. The high VEGF concentrations could suggest a possible effect of VEGF on advanced PVR. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Rap1 signaling is required for suppression of Ras-generated reactive oxygen species and protection against oxidative stress in T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remans, Philip H. J.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.; van Laar, Jacob M.; Sanders, Marjolein E.; Papendrecht-van der Voort, Ellen A. M.; Zwartkruis, Fried J. T.; Levarht, E. W. Nivine; Rosas, Marcela; Coffer, Paul J.; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Bos, Johannes L.; Tak, Paul P.; Verweij, Cornelis L.; Reedquist, Kris A.

    2004-01-01

    Transient production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in optimizing transcriptional and proliferative responses to TCR signaling in T lymphocytes. Conversely, chronic oxidative stress leads to decreased proliferative responses and enhanced transcription of inflammatory gene

  8. Possible mechanisms for arsenic-induced proliferative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterhahn, K.E.; Dudek, E.J.; Shumilla, J.A. [Dartmouth College and Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Possible mechanisms for cardiovascular diseases and cancers which have been observed on chronic exposure to arsenic have been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that nonlethal levels of arsenic are mitogenic, cause oxidative stress, increase nuclear translocation of trans-acting factors, and increase expression of genes involved in proliferation. Cultured porcine vascular (from aorta) endothelial cells were used as a model cell system to study the effects of arsenic on the target cells for cardiovascular diseases. Treatment of postconfluent cell cultures with nonovertly toxic concentrations of arsenite increased DNA synthesis, similar to the mitogenic response observed with hydrogen peroxide. Within 1 hour of adding noncytotoxic concentrations of arsenite, cellular levels of oxidants increased relative to control levels, indicating that arsenite promotes cellular oxidations. Arsenite treatment increased nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, an oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor, in a manner similar to that observed with hydrogen peroxide. Pretreatment of intact cells with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dimethylfumarate prevented the arsenite-induced increases in cellular oxidant formation and NF-KB translocation. Arsenite had little or no effect on binding of NF-KB to its DNA recognition sequence in vitro, indicating that it is unlikely that arsenite directly affects NF-KB. The steady-state mRNA levels of intracellular adhesion molecule and urokinase-like plasminogen activator, genes associated with the active endothelial phenotype in arteriosclerosis and cancer metastasis, were increased by nontoxic concentrations of arsenite. These data suggest that arsenite promotes proliferative diseases like heart disease and cancer by activating oxidant-sensitive endothelial cell signaling and gene expression. It is possible that antioxidant therapy would be useful in preventing arsenic-induced cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  9. Anatomical and functional outcomes of retinectomies in retinal detachments complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Idrees Adhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study anatomical and functional outcomes of retinectomies in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Methods: This is a retrospective interventional consecutive case series of eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments complicated by advanced proliferative vitreoretinopathy and managed by relaxing retinectomy over a period of seventeen years. Three-port pars plana vitrectomy included core vitrectomy and removal of all epi-retinal membranes. On failure to flatten, retina was cut and excised. Basal vitrectomy and removal of anterior flap of retina then followed. Silicone oil was used as temponade in majority of cases. The dependent variables were anatomical and functional outcomes. The statistical analysis was performed on SPSS 21. Results: Series included 370 eyes of 337 patients. Mean follow up was 39 months. Scleral explant was used in 90(24.39% cases. Two hundred and nine (56.49% eyes were operated with trans conjunctival sutureless vitrectomy technique. Procedure was bilateral in 33 patients (09.79%. Retina attached in 311(84.05% eyes after initial surgery. Final re-attachment after one or more surgeries was achieved in 344(92.97% eyes. Two hundred and eleven (57.02% cases achieved visual acuity of 6/60 or better. Conclusion: Relaxing retinectomies have good and encouraging anatomical and functional outcomes. This surgery can be effectively carried out with trans conjunctival sutureless vitrectomy technique. Keywords: Retinotomy and retinectomy, Proliferative vitreoretinopathy, Trans conjunctival sutureless vitrectomy, Silicone oil

  10. Proliferative changes in nonpalpable breast lesions detected by mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, A.; Delgado, A.; Ortega, E.; Garijo, F.; Mosquera, J.; Sogo, C.; Alvarez, A.

    2000-01-01

    To analyze retrospectively the radiological findings in nonpalpable breast lesions detected by mammography that lead to the performance of surgical biopsy, resulting in a histological diagnosis of proliferative breast disease with and without atypia. From two Spanish hospitals, 421 women with 429 biopsies indicative of the presence of proliferative breast disease with and without atypia were selected out of a total of 1252 surgical biopsies in nonpalpable lesions that proved to be benign. Age, personal and familial history of breast cancer, reason for requesting the mammography and radiological findings that had indicated the need for surgical biopsy were recorded for each patient. The diagnosis was proliferative breast disease (epithelial hyperplasia) in 347 women with 354 biopsies and atypical hyperplasia in the remaining 74 women with 75 biopsies, representing 28% and 6%, respectively, of the 1252 biopsies of lesions found to be benign. In 221 of the 354 cases of epithelial hyperplasia (62%) and 45 of the 75 cases of atypical hyperplasia (60%), the presence of calcifications was the most common radiological findings leading to biopsy (p<0.05). Parenchymal distortion, with or without calcifications, was the second most common radiological sign. The histological study revealed a close relationship between these proliferative events and radial scars. Calcifications are the radiological finding that most frequently indicate the need for surgical biopsy in nonpalpable lesions that results in a diagnosis of proliferative breast disease with and without atypia. (Author) 12 refs

  11. Common genomic signaling among initial DNA damage and radiation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes from locally advanced breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Pinar, Beatriz; Carmona-Vigo, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the genomic signaling that defines sensitive lymphocytes to radiation and if such molecular profiles are consistent with clinical toxicity; trying to disclose the radiobiology mechanisms behind these cellular processes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve consecutive patients...... suffering from locally advanced breast cancer and treated with high-dose hyperfractionated radiotherapy were recruited. Initial DNA damage was measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and radiation-induced apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Gene expression was assessed by DNA microarray. RESULTS...

  12. Nonredundant roles of Src-family kinases and Syk in the initiation of B-cell antigen receptor signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Ondřej; Dráber, Peter; Drobek, Aleš; Hořejší, Václav; Brdička, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 4 (2013), s. 1807-1818 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA ČR GAP302/12/1712 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : BCR signaling * Src family kinases * Syk Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.362, year: 2013

  13. Lamotrigine blocks NMDA receptor-initiated arachidonic acid signalling in rat brain: Implications for its efficacy in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Epolia; Basselin, Mireille; Rao, Jagadeesh S.; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2011-01-01

    An upregulated brain arachidonic acid (AA) cascade and a hyperglutamatergic state characterize bipolar disorder (BD). Lamotrigine (LTG), a mood stabilizer approved for treating BD, is reported to interfere with glutamatergic neurotransmission involving N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). NMDARs allow extracellular calcium into the cell, thereby stimulating calcium-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) to release arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipid. We hypothesized that LTG, like other approved mood stabilizers, would reduce NMDAR-mediated AA signaling in rat brain. An acute subconvulsant dose of NMDA (25 mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally to unanesthetized rats that had been treated p.o. daily for 42 days with vehicle or a therapeutically relevant dose of LTG (10 mg/kg/.d). Regional brain AA incorporation coefficients k* and rates Jin, AA signals, were measured using quantitative autoradiography after intravenous [1-14C]AA infusion, as were other AA cascade markers. In chronic vehicle-treated rats, acute NMDA compared to saline increased k* and Jin in widespread regions of the brain, as well as prostaglandin (PG)E2 and thromboxane B2 concentrations. Chronic LTG treatment compared to vehicle reduced brain cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, PGE2 concentration, and DNA binding activity of the COX-2 transcription factor, NF-κB. Pretreatment with chronic LTG blocked the acute NMDA effects on AA cascade markers. In summary, chronic LTG like other mood stabilizers blocks NMDA-mediated signaling involving the AA metabolic cascade. Since markers of the AA cascade and of NMDAR signaling are up-regulated in the postmortem BD brain, mood stabilizers generally may be effective in BD by dampening NMDAR signalling and the AA cascade. PMID:21733229

  14. CD133+ brain tumor-initiating cells are dependent on STAT3 signaling to drive medulloblastoma recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, N; Bakhshinyan, D; Venugopal, C; Mahendram, S; Rosa, D A; Vijayakumar, T; Manoranjan, B; Hallett, R; McFarlane, N; Delaney, K H; Kwiecien, J M; Arpin, C C; Lai, P-S; Gómez-Biagi, R F; Ali, A M; de Araujo, E D; Ajani, O A; Hassell, J A; Gunning, P T; Singh, S K

    2017-02-02

    Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant paediatric brain tumor, is currently treated using a combination of surgery, craniospinal radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Owing to MB stem cells (MBSCs), a subset of MB patients remains untreatable despite standard therapy. CD133 is used to identify MBSCs although its functional role in tumorigenesis has yet to be determined. In this work, we showed enrichment of CD133 in Group 3 MB is associated with increased rate of metastasis and poor clinical outcome. The signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway are selectively activated in CD133 + MBSCs and promote tumorigenesis through regulation of c-MYC, a key genetic driver of Group 3 MB. We screened compound libraries for STAT3 inhibitors and treatment with the selected STAT3 inhibitors resulted in tumor size reduction in vivo. We propose that inhibition of STAT3 signaling in MBSCs may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to treat patients with recurrent MB.

  15. COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE NON-PROLIFERATIVE AND PROLIFERATIVE THERAPY IN FIBROCYSTIC MASTOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carauleanu, A; Socolov, R; Rugina, V; Gabia, O; Carauleanu, Daniela Mihaela; Lupascu, Ivona Anghlcelache; Socolov, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    Fibrocystic mastosis (FCM) is the most frequent benign breast lesion. Most treatments for fibrocystic mastosis are: hormonl, with beneficial results and non-hormonal, with fluctuating results. A number of 210 cases were studied, which were divided into 7 groups. The study lasted for 9 months and it was carried out on the basis of a personal examination sheet. The following were monitored: age groups, mastodynia, reducing breast nodules, a significant reduction in the volume of the mastosic cysts, reducion of the fibrous tissue, medication tolerance. Mastodynia has declined by 90% in the cases treated with Tamoxifen and Danazol, by 70% in the case of Lynestrenol and Bromocriptine, by 50% in the 15 patients who were given Utrogestan. Knowing the advantages and disadvantages of drugs (contraindications, side effects), age category, breast pain reduction, antiproliferative activity, tolerability, relapse allow us to assess the benefit-risk. Even in those circumstances that remained incompletely clarified for objective reasons, related to the inaccurate/incorrect reporting by the patients, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the frequency of relapses following the treatment with Tamoxifen and the other categories of drugs who were administered. Our study shows that in the groups that were administered Logest, Utrogestan and Bromocriptine, only antalgic effects were achieved (disappearance or only decrease of mastodynia) and no anti-proliferative effects were obtained. Basically, hormone treatment should be made based on a histopathological examination.

  16. Hyperintense signal alteration in the suprapatellar fat pad on MRI is associated with degeneration of the patellofemoral joint over 48 months. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, Benedikt J.; Gersing, Alexandra S.; Mbapte Wamba, John; Facchetti, Luca; Link, Thomas M.; Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E.

    2018-01-01

    To analyze associations of suprapatellar fat pad (SPFP) hyperintense signal alterations and mass effect with progression of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) and clinical symptoms over 48 months. Subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (n = 426; 51.8 ± 3.8 years; 49.8% women) without radiographic tibiofemoral OA underwent 3T-MRI of their right knees and clinical evaluation using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score at baseline and at 48 months. Elevated SPFP signal was assessed on intermediate-weighted, fat-saturated turbo spin-echo (TSE) images. Mass effect was defined as a convex posterior contour. Patellofemoral cartilage, bone marrow lesions (BML), and subchondral cysts were assessed using the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS). Associations of SPFP imaging findings with MRI and clinical progression were assessed using general linear models and logistic regressions. Baseline SPFP signal alterations were found in 51% of the subjects (n = 217), of whom 11% (n = 23) additionally had a mass effect. Progression of cartilage lesions was significantly higher in subjects with signal alteration versus without (adjusted mean increases, 95% CI; patella: 0.29, -0.07 to 0.64 vs -0.04, -0.40 to 0.31; p < 0.001; trochlea: 0.47, 0.16 to 0.77 vs 0.31, 0.01 to 0.61; p = 0.007). BML progression was also more likely in subjects with signal alteration (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.82; p = 0.021). Mass effect was not associated with joint degeneration and SPFP findings were not associated with clinical worsening (p > 0.18 for all). Patellofemoral joint degeneration over 48 months was significantly increased in subjects with SPFP signal alteration, suggesting an association between SPFP abnormalities and the progression of patellofemoral OA. (orig.)

  17. Hyperintense signal alteration in the suprapatellar fat pad on MRI is associated with degeneration of the patellofemoral joint over 48 months. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaiger, Benedikt J.; Gersing, Alexandra S. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Mbapte Wamba, John; Facchetti, Luca; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E. [University of California, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2018-03-15

    To analyze associations of suprapatellar fat pad (SPFP) hyperintense signal alterations and mass effect with progression of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) and clinical symptoms over 48 months. Subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (n = 426; 51.8 ± 3.8 years; 49.8% women) without radiographic tibiofemoral OA underwent 3T-MRI of their right knees and clinical evaluation using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score at baseline and at 48 months. Elevated SPFP signal was assessed on intermediate-weighted, fat-saturated turbo spin-echo (TSE) images. Mass effect was defined as a convex posterior contour. Patellofemoral cartilage, bone marrow lesions (BML), and subchondral cysts were assessed using the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS). Associations of SPFP imaging findings with MRI and clinical progression were assessed using general linear models and logistic regressions. Baseline SPFP signal alterations were found in 51% of the subjects (n = 217), of whom 11% (n = 23) additionally had a mass effect. Progression of cartilage lesions was significantly higher in subjects with signal alteration versus without (adjusted mean increases, 95% CI; patella: 0.29, -0.07 to 0.64 vs -0.04, -0.40 to 0.31; p < 0.001; trochlea: 0.47, 0.16 to 0.77 vs 0.31, 0.01 to 0.61; p = 0.007). BML progression was also more likely in subjects with signal alteration (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.82; p = 0.021). Mass effect was not associated with joint degeneration and SPFP findings were not associated with clinical worsening (p > 0.18 for all). Patellofemoral joint degeneration over 48 months was significantly increased in subjects with SPFP signal alteration, suggesting an association between SPFP abnormalities and the progression of patellofemoral OA. (orig.)

  18. Anti-proliferative effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro anti-proliferative effect and mechanism of action of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on human colon carcinoma HCT116 cell line. Methods: M. oleifera leaves were extracted with methanol. It was fractionated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Several fractions were identified ...

  19. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytotoxic potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partitioned aqueous and chloroform fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaf of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius were examined for anti-proliferative (1-30 mg/mL) and cytotoxic activities (20-400 μg/mL) using the seed radicle inhibition and tadpole mortality assays over a period of 24 and 96 h respectively.

  20. Treatment and prevention of porcine proliferative enteropathy with oral tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOrist, S; Smith, S H; Shearn, M F; Carr, M M; Miller, D J

    The effect of an oral treatment or prevention programme, incorporating the antibiotic tiamulin, on the development of proliferative enteropathy in experimentally challenged pigs was studied. Twenty weaner pigs were challenged orally with a virulent inoculum of Lawsonia intracellularis strain LR189/5/83, a British isolate of the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy, and seven control pigs were dosed with a buffer solution. Seven of the 20 challenged pigs were left untreated; they gained less weight than the controls and three of them developed mild to moderate diarrhoea two weeks after the challenge. All seven developed lesions, six visible grossly, of proliferative enteropathy, and numerous intracellular L intracellularis were detected in sections of the intestines examined three weeks after the challenge. To test a 'prevention' dosing strategy for tiamulin, six of the challenged pigs were dosed orally with 50 ppm tiamulin, incorporated in a 2 per cent stabilised premix, given from two days before the challenge until they were euthanased. To test a 'treatment' strategy, the remaining group of seven challenged pigs were dosed orally with 150 ppm tiamulin given in the premix from seven days after challenge until they were euthanased. All the control pigs and the 13 pigs treated with tiamulin, either before or after challenge, remained clinically normal and had no specific lesions of proliferative enteropathy in sections of the intestines examined post mortem.

  1. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia; a critical appraisal of the diagnostic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrard, V.C.; Brouns, E.R.E.A.; van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Since its introduction in the literature in 1985, the term proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) has been the subject of an ongoing discussion with regard to its definition. Widespread or multifocal occurrence of oral leukoplakia is not just synonymous to PVL. In the present treatise the

  2. Anti-proliferative activity of recombinant melittin expressed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant melittin was then successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The activity of affinity-purified recombinant melittin was determined in human leukemic U937 cells. Results show that the recombinant melittin had the same anti-proliferative activity in human leukemic U937 cells in vitro as natural one. This shows the ...

  3. Dutch guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of proliferative lupus nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tellingen, A.; Voskuyl, A. E.; Vervloet, M. G.; Bijl, M.; de Sevaux, R. G. L.; Berger, S. P.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.; Berden, J. H. M.

    Proliferative lupus nephritis is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Despite improvements in the management of lupus nephritis, a significant number of the patients do not respond to immunosuppressive therapy and progress to end-stage renal

  4. Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Activities of Flavonoids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata. Sch Bip. (BP), as well as its antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. Methods: The whole herb of BP was extracted with 95 % ethanol, which was then partitioned sequentially with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butyl alcohol to obtain ...

  5. Prolonged effect of fluid flow stress on the proliferative activity of mesothelial cells after abrupt discontinuation of fluid streaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigehisa; Ikeda, Satoshi; Takezawa, Toshiaki; Kishi, Tomoya; Makino, Junichi; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Matsunobu, Aki; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Sugihara, Hajime; Toda, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Late-onset peritoneal fibrosis leading to EPS remains to be elucidated. ► Fluid streaming is a potent factor for peritoneal fibrosis in PD. ► We focused on the prolonged effect of fluid streaming on mesothelial cell kinetics. ► A history of fluid streaming exposure promoted mesothelial proliferative activity. ► We have thus identified a potent new factor for late-onset peritoneal fibrosis. -- Abstract: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) often develops after transfer to hemodialysis and transplantation. Both termination of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and transplantation-related factors are risks implicated in post-PD development of EPS, but the precise mechanism of this late-onset peritoneal fibrosis remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that fluid flow stress induced mesothelial proliferation and epithelial–mesenchymal transition via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Therefore, we speculated that the prolonged bioactive effect of fluid flow stress may affect mesothelial cell kinetics after cessation of fluid streaming. To investigate how long mesothelial cells stay under the bioactive effect brought on by fluid flow stress after removal of the stress, we initially cultured mesothelial cells under fluid flow stress and then cultured the cells under static conditions. Mesothelial cells exposed to fluid flow stress for a certain time showed significantly high proliferative activity compared with static conditions after stoppage of fluid streaming. The expression levels of protein phosphatase 2A, which dephosphorylates MAPK, in mesothelial cells changed with time and showed a biphasic pattern that was dependent on the duration of exposure to fluid flow stress. There were no differences in the fluid flow stress-related bioactive effects on mesothelial cells once a certain time had passed. The present findings show that fluid flow stress exerts a prolonged bioactive effect on mesothelial cells after termination

  6. Cdc6 is a rate-limiting factor for proliferative capacity during HL60 cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkley, Laura R.; Hong, Hye Kyung; Kingsbury, Sarah R.; James, Michelle; Stoeber, Kai; Williams, Gareth H.

    2007-01-01

    The DNA replication (or origin) licensing pathway represents a critical step in cell proliferation control downstream of growth signalling pathways. Repression of origin licensing through down-regulation of the MCM licensing factors (Mcm2-7) is emerging as a ubiquitous route for lowering proliferative capacity as metazoan cells exit the cell division cycle into quiescent, terminally differentiated and senescent 'out-of-cycle' states. Using the HL60 monocyte/macrophage differentiation model system and a cell-free DNA replication assay, we have undertaken direct biochemical investigations of the coupling of origin licensing to the differentiation process. Our data show that down-regulation of the MCM loading factor Cdc6 acts as a molecular switch that triggers loss of proliferative capacity during early engagement of the somatic differentiation programme. Consequently, addition of recombinant Cdc6 protein to in vitro replication reactions restores DNA replication competence in nuclei prepared from differentiating cells. Differentiating HL60 cells over-expressing either wild-type Cdc6 or a CDK phosphorylation-resistant Cdc6 mutant protein (Cdc6A4) exhibit an extended period of cell proliferation compared to mock-infected cells. Notably, differentiating HL60 cells over-expressing the Cdc6A4 mutant fail to down-regulate Cdc6 protein levels, suggesting that CDK phosphorylation of Cdc6 is linked to its down-regulation during differentiation and the concomitant decrease in cell proliferation. In this experimental model, Cdc6 therefore plays a key role in the sequential molecular events leading to repression of origin licensing and loss of proliferative capacity during execution of the differentiation programme

  7. Klf5 deletion promotes Pten deletion-initiated luminal-type mouse prostate tumors through multiple oncogenic signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Changsheng; Ci, Xinpei; Sun, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhiqian; Dong, Eric N; Hao, Zhao-Zhe; Dong, Jin-Tang

    2014-11-01

    Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) regulates multiple biologic processes. Its function in tumorigenesis appears contradictory though, showing both tumor suppressor and tumor promoting activities. In this study, we examined whether and how Klf5 functions in prostatic tumorigenesis using mice with prostate-specific deletion of Klf5 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten), both of which are frequently inactivated in human prostate cancer. Histologic analysis demonstrated that when one Pten allele was deleted, which causes mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), Klf5 deletion accelerated the emergence and progression of mPIN. When both Pten alleles were deleted, which causes prostate cancer, Klf5 deletion promoted tumor growth, increased cell proliferation, and caused more severe morphologic and molecular alterations. Homozygous deletion of Klf5 was more effective than hemizygous deletion. Unexpectedly, while Pten deletion alone expanded basal cell population in a tumor as reported, Klf5 deletion in the Pten-null background clearly reduced basal cell population while expanding luminal cell population. Global gene expression profiling, pathway analysis, and experimental validation indicate that multiple mechanisms could mediate the tumor-promoting effect of Klf5 deletion, including the up-regulation of epidermal growth factor and its downstream signaling molecules AKT and ERK and the inactivation of the p15 cell cycle inhibitor. KLF5 also appears to cooperate with several transcription factors, including CREB1, Sp1, Myc, ER and AR, to regulate gene expression. These findings validate the tumor suppressor function of KLF5. They also yield a mouse model that shares two common genetic alterations with human prostate cancer-mutation/deletion of Pten and deletion of Klf5.

  8. Disruption of estrogen receptor signaling and similar pathways in the efferent ductules and initial segment of the epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Seminiferous tubular atrophy may involve indirectly the disruption of estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) function in efferent ductules of the testis. ESR1 helps to maintain fluid resorption by the ductal epithelium and the inhibition or stimulation of this activity in rodent species will lead to fluid accumulation in the lumen. If not resolved, the abnormal buildup of fluid in the head of the epididymis and efferent ductules becomes a serious problem for the testis, as it leads to an increase in testis weight, tubular dilation and seminiferous epithelial degeneration, as well as testicular atrophy. The same sequence of pathogenesis occurs if the efferent ductule lumen becomes occluded. This review provides an introduction to the role of estrogen in the male reproductive tract but focuses on the various overlapping mechanisms that could induce efferent ductule dysfunction and fluid backpressure histopathology. Although efferent ductules are difficult to find, their inclusion in routine histological evaluations is recommended, as morphological images of these delicate tubules may be essential for understanding the mechanism of testicular injury, especially if dilations are observed in the rete testis and/or seminiferous tubules. Signature Lesion : The rete testis and efferent ductules can appear dilated, as if the lumens were greatly expanded with excess fluid or the accumulation of sperm. Because the efferent ductules resorb most of the fluid arriving from the rete testis lumen, one of two mechanisms is likely to be involved: a) reduced fluid uptake, which has been caused by the disruption in estrogen receptor signaling or associated pathways; or b) an increased rate of fluid resorption, which results in luminal occlusion. Both mechanisms can lead to a temporary increase in testicular weight, tubular dilation and atrophy of the seminiferous tubules.

  9. Different proliferative capacity of lung fibroblasts obtained from control subjects and patients with emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhoek, JA; Postma, DS; Chong, LL; Vos, JTWM; Kauffman, HF; Timens, W; van Straaten, JFM

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the possible role of a dysregulated proliferative capacity of pulmonary fibroblasts in insufficient tissue repair in lungs from patients with pulmonary emphysema, the authors undertook in vitro proliferative studies with pulmonary fibroblasts obtained from lung tissue of patients

  10. ZEB2 drives immature T-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia development via enhanced tumour-initiating potential and IL-7 receptor signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Steven; Radaelli, Enrico; Blanchet, Odile; Durinck, Kaat; Van der Meulen, Joni; Peirs, Sofie; Taghon, Tom; Tremblay, Cedric S.; Costa, Magdaline; Ghahremani, Morvarid Farhang; De Medts, Jelle; Bartunkova, Sonia; Haigh, Katharina; Schwab, Claire; Farla, Natalie; Pieters, Tim; Matthijssens, Filip; Van Roy, Nadine; Best, J. Adam; Deswarte, Kim; Bogaert, Pieter; Carmichael, Catherine; Rickard, Adam; Suryani, Santi; Bracken, Lauryn S.; Alserihi, Raed; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Haenebalcke, Lieven; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Rondou, Pieter; Slowicka, Karolina; Huylebroeck, Danny; Goldrath, Ananda W.; Janzen, Viktor; McCormack, Matthew P.; Lock, Richard B.; Curtis, David J.; Harrison, Christine; Berx, Geert; Speleman, Frank; Meijerink, Jules P. P.; Soulier, Jean; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Haigh, Jody J.

    2015-01-01

    Early T-cell precursor leukaemia (ETP-ALL) is a high-risk subtype of human leukaemia that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report translocations targeting the zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor ZEB2 as a recurrent genetic lesion in immature/ETP-ALL. Using a conditional gain-of-function mouse model, we demonstrate that sustained Zeb2 expression initiates T-cell leukaemia. Moreover, Zeb2-driven mouse leukaemia exhibit some features of the human immature/ETP-ALL gene expression signature, as well as an enhanced leukaemia-initiation potential and activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signalling through transcriptional activation of IL7R. This study reveals ZEB2 as an oncogene in the biology of immature/ETP-ALL and paves the way towards pre-clinical studies of novel compounds for the treatment of this aggressive subtype of human T-ALL using our Zeb2-driven mouse model. PMID:25565005

  11. Synthesis and Anti-Proliferative Effects of Mono- and Bis-Purinomimetics Targeting Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bistrović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of mono-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 4a–4k, unsymmetrical bis-purine isosteres 5a–5e and symmetrical bis-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 6a and 6b connected via di(1,2,3-triazolylphenyl linker were synthesized by click chemistry. Whereas mono- 4g and bis-pseudopurine 5e showed selective inhibitory activities on cervical carcinoma (HeLa cells, bis-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine 6b exhibited potent and selective anti-proliferative effect in the nanomolar range on pancreatic carcinoma (CFPAC-1 cells. Among these, compound 6b induced a significant reduction in the expression level of CDK9 (cyclin-dependent kinase 9/cyclin T1 in CFPAC-1 cells concomitant with attenuation of proliferative signaling mediated by c-Raf (rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma and p38 MAP (mitogen-activated protein kinases. Our findings encourage further development of novel structurally related analog of 6b to obtain more selective anticancer agent for treating pancreatic cancer.

  12. The use of analogy in pro-life argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mazilu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with how analogy is strategically used in pro-life argumentation on abortion. Pragma-dialectics (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992 offers a set of critical questions by means of which I will evaluate the use of the argumentation based on a relation of analogy in terms of dialectical soundness. Examining various pro-life texts, I have noticed that the analogies employed remain unexplained. Therefore, despite the apparent similarities between abortion and the German holocaust or slavery, for instance, there are essential differences which are not mentioned. I claim that these analogies mainly have a rhetorical function, to operate what has been called by Micheli (2007: 960 “a transfer of emotional consensus”.

  13. Scoring radiologic characteristics to predict proliferative potential in meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiba, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Naoya; Maruno, Motohiko; Izumoto, Shuichi; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Naoki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using radiologic characteristics to predict the proliferative potential in meningiomas. Our statistical analysis revealed that the presence of peritumoral edema, an ambiguous brain-tumor border, and irregular tumor shape were significantly correlated with a higher MIB-1 staining index (SI) value. We developed the following scoring system for specific features in each tumor: peritumoral edema (tumor with edema=1, tumor without edema=0); brain-tumor border (tumor with any ambiguous border=1, tumor circumscribed by a distinct rim=0); and tumor shape (tumor with irregular shape=1, tumor with smooth shape=0). Using Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis, we found a significant correlation (P<0.005) between total score calculated for each patient and SI value. Our findings suggest that the proliferative potential of meningiomas can be predicted using a less invasive preoperative examination focusing on the presence of peritumoral edema, ambiguous brain-tumor border, and irregular tumor shape. (author)

  14. Activation by insulin and amino acids of signaling components leading to translation initiation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renan A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S; Fleming, Jillian R; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-12-01

    Insulin and amino acids act independently to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs, and the responses decrease with development. The purpose of this study was to compare the separate effects of fed levels of INS and AA on the activation of signaling components leading to translation initiation and how these responses change with development. Overnight-fasted 6- (n = 4/group) and 26-day-old (n = 6/ group) pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemiceuaminoacidemic conditions (controls), 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemichyperaminoacidemic clamps (AA), and 3) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps (INS). INS, but not AA, increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2). Both INS and AA increased protein synthesis and the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1, and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and these responses were higher in 6-day-old compared with 26-day-old pigs. Both INS and AA decreased the binding of 4E-BP1 to eIF4E and increased eIF4E binding to eIF4G; these effects were greater in 6-day-old than in 26-day-old pigs. Neither INS nor AA altered the composition of mTORC1 (raptor, mTOR, and GbetaL) or mTORC2 (rictor, mTOR, and GbetaL) complexes. Furthermore, neither INS, AA, nor age had any effect on the abundance of Rheb and the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and eukaryotic elongation factor 2. Our results suggest that the activation by insulin and amino acids of signaling components leading to translation initiation is developmentally regulated and parallels the developmental decline in protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs.

  15. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: an aggressive form of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopper, Thomas P; Brannon, Robert B; Stalker, William H

    2004-01-01

    Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is an aggressive form of oral leukoplakia that is persistent, often multifocal, and refractory to treatment with a high risk of recurrence and malignant transformation. This article describes the clinical aspects and histologic features of a case that demonstrated the typical behavior pattern in a long-standing, persistent lesion of PVL of the mandibular gingiva and that ultimately developed into squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis is poor for this seemingly harmless-appearing white lesion of the oral mucosa.

  16. Prolific plant regeneration through organogenesis from scalps of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four types of potting media comprising of sand, peat, sand + top soil + goat dung (3:2:1 v/v) and top soil + sand (1:1 v/v) were evaluated during acclimatization of the plantlets. Prolific shoot regeneration from scalps was obtained on MS medium containing 2.5 mM BAP, at 9.61 and 40.6 shoots per explant after 4 and 8 weeks ...

  17. Atypical hyperplasia, proliferative fibrocystic change, and exogenous hormone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, R T; Danielson, D; Van Camp, J M; Schmidt-Steinbrunn, B; Hong, J; McCoy, M; Anderson, W R; Linzie, B M; Rodriguez, J L

    2001-10-01

    The association between breast cancer development and exogenous hormone use (EHU) is suggested by indirect clinical evidence. We undertook this study to better define the relationship that EHU has with proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) and atypical hyperplasia (AH). Women diagnosed with AH without associated carcinoma from January 1990 to December 1999 were compared with control subjects who underwent breast biopsy procedures during the same interval and who were diagnosed with either a proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) or a nonproliferative fibrocystic change (NPFC). EHU was defined as the use of estrogen or progesterone taken together or separately within 3 months of biopsy. EHU was significantly higher in patients with AH compared with women with NPFC (P =.01). This observation was also significant if all proliferative change (both AH and PFC) was compared with NPFC (P =.03); it was not significant when PFC alone was compared with NPFC. No significant difference in EHU was demonstrated between women with AH and those with PFC. There is strong association between AH and EHU. These results support the theory that a continuum exists between hyperplasia and carcinoma and that EHU may influence the transition from one to the other in an undefined subset of women. We encourage our patients with AH to discontinue EHU.

  18. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P J

    1985-06-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence.

  19. Proliferation Index and Karyometric Features of Pancreatic Intraductal Proliferative Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Tomaszewska

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer prompt us to search for morphological lesions being a substrate for its development. Studies of autopsy and surgically resected material as well as recent molecular studies have proved that one of the possible pathways of pancreatic neoplasia is the intraepithelial proliferation – dysplasia – cancer sequence. In the present paper we studied the proliferative activity (Ki‐67 index in pancreatic intraepithelial proliferative lesions and its correlation with geometric features of cell nuclei as signs of increasing dysplasia. The studies were carried out in a group of 35 patients operated on for pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and other conditions not associated with the pancreas. We used immunohistochemical methods and basic morphometric parameters. The results of our studies indicate that the cell proliferative activity depends both on the type of epithelial proliferation and underlying pancreatic disease. The values of Ki‐67 index are significantly different in low‐grade proliferation (flat and papillary hyperplasia and high‐grade proliferation (atypical papillary hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ. A set of karyometric features correlates with Ki‐67 index but there is no single feature which would have a diagnostic value.

  20. Tamponade in surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W; Lee, Wen-Hsiang; Wang, Xue

    2014-02-14

    Retinal detachment (RD) with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) often requires surgery to restore normal anatomy and to stabilize or improve vision. PVR usually occurs in association with recurrent RD (that is, after initial retinal re-attachment surgery) but occasionally may be associated with primary RD. Either way, a tamponade agent (gas or silicone oil) is needed during surgery to reduce the rate of postoperative recurrent RD. The objective of this review was to assess the relative safety and effectiveness of various tamponade agents used with surgery for retinal detachment (RD) complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 26 June 2013. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of participants undergoing surgery for RD associated with PVR that compared various tamponade agents. Two review authors screened the search results independently. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. The review included 516 participants from three RCTs. One study was conducted in the USA and consisted of two trials: the first trial randomized 151 adults to receive either silicone oil or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas tamponades; and the second trial randomized 271 adults to receive either

  1. Alternative translation initiation of Caveolin-2 desensitizes insulin signaling through dephosphorylation of insulin receptor by PTP1B and causes insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hayeong; Jang, Donghwan; Choi, Moonjeong; Lee, Jaewoong; Jeong, Kyuho; Pak, Yunbae

    2018-06-01

    Insulin resistance, defined as attenuated sensitivity responding to insulin, impairs insulin action. Direct causes and molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance have thus far remained elusive. Here we show that alternative translation initiation (ATI) of Caveolin-2 (Cav-2) regulates insulin sensitivity. Cav-2β isoform yielded by ATI desensitizes insulin receptor (IR) via dephosphorylation by protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and subsequent endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of IR, causing insulin resistance. Blockage of Cav-2 ATI protects against insulin resistance by preventing Cav-2β-PTP1B-directed IR desensitization, thereby normalizing insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Our findings show that Cav-2β is a negative regulator of IR signaling, and identify a mechanism causing insulin resistance through control of insulin sensitivity via Cav-2 ATI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyper-activation of Notch3 amplifies the proliferative potential of rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Salvo

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is a pediatric myogenic-derived soft tissue sarcoma that includes two major histopathological subtypes: embryonal and alveolar. The majority of alveolar RMS expresses PAX3-FOXO1 fusion oncoprotein, associated with the worst prognosis. RMS cells show myogenic markers expression but are unable to terminally differentiate. The Notch signaling pathway is a master player during myogenesis, with Notch1 activation sustaining myoblast expansion and Notch3 activation inhibiting myoblast fusion and differentiation. Accordingly, Notch1 signaling is up-regulated and activated in embryonal RMS samples and supports the proliferation of tumor cells. However, it is unable to control their differentiation properties. We previously reported that Notch3 is activated in RMS cell lines, of both alveolar and embryonal subtype, and acts by inhibiting differentiation. Moreover, Notch3 depletion reduces PAX3-FOXO1 alveolar RMS tumor growth in vivo. However, whether Notch3 activation also sustains the proliferation of RMS cells remained unclear. To address this question, we forced the expression of the activated form of Notch3, Notch3IC, in the RH30 and RH41 PAX3-FOXO1-positive alveolar and in the RD embryonal RMS cell lines and studied the proliferation of these cells. We show that, in all three cell lines tested, Notch3IC over-expression stimulates in vitro cell proliferation and prevents the effects of pharmacological Notch inhibition. Furthermore, Notch3IC further increases RH30 cell growth in vivo. Interestingly, knockdown of Notch canonical ligands JAG1 or DLL1 in RMS cell lines decreases Notch3 activity and reduces cell proliferation. Finally, the expression of Notch3IC and its target gene HES1 correlates with that of the proliferative marker Ki67 in a small cohort of primary PAX-FOXO1 alveolar RMS samples. These results strongly suggest that high levels of Notch3 activation increase the proliferative potential of RMS cells.

  3. Resveratrol Inhibits the Invasion of Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells via Down-Regulation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Jiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasion and metastasis of glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs are thought to be responsible for the progression and recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. A safe drug that can be applied during the rest period of temozolomide (TMZ maintenance cycles would greatly improve the prognosis of GBM patients by inhibiting GIC invasion. Resveratrol (RES is a natural compound that exhibits anti-invasion properties in multiple tumor cell lines. The current study aimed to evaluate whether RES can inhibit GIC invasion in vitro and in vivo. GICs were identified using CD133 and Nestin immunofluorescence staining and tumorigenesis in non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID mice. Invasive behaviors, including the adhesion, invasion and migration of GICs, were determined by tumor invasive assays in vitro and in vivo. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs was measured by the gelatin zymography assay. Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to determine the expression of signaling effectors in GICs. We demonstrated that RES suppressed the adhesion, invasion and migration of GICs in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we proved that RES inhibited the invasion of GICs via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signal transduction and the subsequent suppression of MMP-2 expression.

  4. Serum MiRNA Biomarkers serve as a Fingerprint for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Qing

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a retinopathy resulting from diabetes mellitus (DM which was classified into non-proliferative DR (NPDR and proliferative DR (PDR. Without an early screening and effective diagnosis, patients with PDR will develop serious complications. Therefore, we sought to identify special serum microRNAs (miRNAs that can serve as a novel non-invasive screening signature of PDR and test its specificity and sensitivity in the early diagnosis of PDR. Methods: In total, we obtained serum samples from 90 PDR cases, 90 matched NPDR patients and 20 controls. An initial screening of miRNA expression was performed through TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA. The candidate miRNAs were validated by individual reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR arranged in an initial and a two-stage validation sets. Moreover, additional double-blind testing was performed in 20 patients clinically suspected of having DR to evaluate the diagnostic value and accuracy of the serum miRNA profiling system in predicting PDR. Results: Three miRNAs were significantly increased in patients with PDR compared with NPDR after the multiple stages. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of the validated three-serum miRNAs signature were 0.830, 0.803 and 0.873 in the initial and two validation sets, respectively. Combination of miR-21, miR-181c, and miR-1179 possessed a moderate ability to discrimination between PDR and NPDR with an area under ROC value of 0.89. The accuracy rate of the three-miRNA profile as PDR signature was 82.6%. Conclusions: These data provide evidence that serum miRNAs have the potential to be sensitive, cost-effective biomarkers for the early detection of PDR. These biomarkers could serve as a dynamic monitoring factor for detecting the progression of PDR from NPDR.

  5. Intestinal Hedgehog signaling in tumors and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, N.V.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the role of Hedgehog signaling in tumors and inflammation. By using an inducible Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) knockout mouse we show that Ihh signals via the mesenchyme to the proliferating cells in the crypt to attenuate proliferation. Despite its anti-proliferative role in

  6. VISUAL OUTCOME FOLLOWING PANRETINAL PHOTOCOAGULATION IN PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellaye Mani Sindhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus can be called as a noninfectious pandemic and the incidence of diabetic retinopathy is also uncontrollable. This vision-threatening complication can be treated by early diagnosis and effective treatment like panretinal photocoagulation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of panretinal photocoagulation on visual acuity, colour vision, contrast sensitivity and severity of visual field changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective study of visual outcome following panretinal photocoagulation in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy conducted in Retina Clinic, RIO, Trivandrum, during the time period one year from April 2008. Inclusion Criteria- Eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, visual acuity better than or equal to 6/60, a follow up of at least 6 months after panretinal photocoagulation. Exclusion Criteria- Eyes with cataractous changes in the lens, eyes, which would be undergoing or have undergone focal photocoagulation eyes, which undergone barrage or sectoral retinal photocoagulation, patients with colour blindness, eyes with vitreous haemorrhage and macular preretinal haemorrhage, glaucomatous patients with peripheral field loss. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 52 years. Male patients (30 outnumbered the female patients (23. Mean duration of diabetes was 14.42 years. Though, there is a statistically significant reduction in visual acuity in the first followup, which was improved and stabilised by 6 months. There is a statistically significant reduction in the contrast sensitivity, which was stabilised after 3 months. Only, 9.5% patients had peripheral constrictions of visual field and no significant change in the colour vision. CONCLUSION We recommend panretinal photocoagulation for all patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Antibacterial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties of Coccinia grandis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sakharkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Little knowledge is available on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Coccina grandis fruits and no study has reported on its cell proliferative property. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell proliferative property of fruits of C. grandis. Material and Methods: Fruits of C. grandis were extracted using water; ethanol and acetone by cold and hot Soxhlet extraction. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the modified Kirby-Bauer diffusion method and compared against erythromycin. The antioxidant property was determined using Cayman's antioxidant assay; whereas cell proliferation/cytotoxic properties were evaluated using the Cell Titer 96 Aqueous One Solution Cell MTS assay with MDA-MB 321 breast cancer cells. Data were analyzed for correlation and differences using unpaired student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. A p value of Results: Both cold and hot ethanol and acetone extracts of C. grandis fruits showed some degree of bacterial growth inhibition. Acetone extracts exhibited higher antibacterial activity. Both ethanol extracts showed antioxidant property when compared with standard Trolox. In contrary to cytotoxicity, all four extracts showed cell proliferation compared to controls at different concentrations. However, acetone extracts exhibited greater cell proliferation compared to ethanol extracts and cold extracts performed better than the hot extracts. Conclusion: C. grandis fruits exhibited some degree of antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties. Further investigation is warranted to isolate, confirm and characterize phytochemicals that are responsible for the medicinal properties observed.

  8. β-catenin/Wnt signaling controls progenitor fate in the developing and regenerating zebrafish retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Jason R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebrafish retina maintains two populations of stem cells: first, the germinal zone or ciliary marginal zone (CMZ contains multipotent retinal progenitors that add cells to the retinal periphery as the fish continue to grow; second, radial glia (Müller cells occasionally divide asymmetrically to generate committed progenitors that differentiate into rod photoreceptors, which are added interstitially throughout the retina with growth. Retinal injury stimulates Müller glia to dedifferentiate, re-enter the cell cycle, and generate multipotent retinal progenitors similar to those in the CMZ to replace missing neurons. The specific signals that maintain these two distinct populations of endogenous retinal stem cells are not understood. Results We used genetic and pharmacological manipulation of the β-catenin/Wnt signaling pathway to show that it is required to maintain proliferation in the CMZ and that hyperstimulation of β-catenin/Wnt signaling inhibits normal retinal differentiation and expands the population of proliferative retinal progenitors. To test whether similar effects occur during regeneration, we developed a method for making rapid, selective photoreceptor ablations in larval zebrafish with intense light. We found that dephosphorylated β-catenin accumulates in Müller glia as they re-enter the cell cycle following injury, but not in Müller glia that remain quiescent. Activation of Wnt signaling is required for regenerative proliferation, and hyperstimulation results in loss of Müller glia from the INL as all proliferative cells move into the ONL. Conclusions β-catenin/Wnt signaling is thus required for the maintenance of retinal progenitors during both initial development and lesion-induced regeneration, and is sufficient to prevent differentiation of those progenitors and maintain them in a proliferative state. This suggests that the β-catenin/Wnt cascade is part of the shared molecular circuitry that

  9. Chronic proliferative synovitis of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannegieter, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    Chronic proliferative synovitis of 27 metacarpophalangeal joints in 16 horses is described. The diagnosis was based on a history of lameness and, or, poor performance, pain on flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint, the response to intra-articular anaesthesia, and plain and contrast radiography. Radiographic findings included concavity of the distal dorsal metacarpus proximal to the sagittal ridge, and an increase in size of the synovial tissue adjacent to the proximal, dorsal attachment of the joint capsule. Mineralisation of the synovial tissue was present in some joints, and chip fractures from the dorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx were also occasionally seen. Treatment by arthroscopic resection of the tissue gave excellent results

  10. Comments on 'Standard effective doses for proliferative tumours'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasu, Iuliana Livia; Dasu, Alexandru; Denekamp, Juliana; Fowler, Jack F.

    2000-01-01

    We should like to make some comments on the paper published by Jones et al (1999). The paper presents some interesting and useful contributions on the theoretical evaluation of different fractionated schedules used now. The use of the linear quadratic equation has been very useful in focusing attention on the differences in fractionation responses of fast and slow proliferating normal tissues and tumours. Unfortunately the BED 10 or BED 3 units for (α/β ratios of 10 Gy and 3 Gy respectively) do not directly relate to anything used in routine clinical practice. The purpose of the paper by Jones et al (1999) is to covert any new schedule into the equivalent total dose as if it was given in the same size fractions as are in common use in that department. They illustrate that, if proliferation is taken into account for the altered schedule, it can be compared in two ways with the standard conventional schedule: (a) the proliferative standard effective dose one (PSED 1 ) in which the proliferation correction is applied in the altered schedule, but not in the standard schedule; (b) the proliferative standard effective dose two (PSED 2 ) in which the proliferation correction is applied to both schedules using the same proliferation parameters. This is expected to provide a better evaluation of the response of a 'real' tumour (i.e. a tumour that also proliferates during the standard treatment). However, there seem to be two errors in the paper. First, the authors quoted a wrong equation for calculating the proliferative standard effective dose two (PSED 2 ) (equations (2) and (A6) in their paper). There are also some special cases with respect to the time available for proliferation and the duration of the treatment that have been neglected in their paper and which require further specification. Therefore, we should like to give the full mathematical derivation of the correct equations for calculating the proliferative standard effective doses. We would also like to make

  11. Proliferative and nonproliferative breast disease in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Land, C.E.; Aoki, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Asano, Masahide; Sato, Eiichi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sakamoto, Goi; Page, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The risk of female breast cancer in association with radiation exposure is well established, on the basis of follow-up studies of the atomic-bomb survivors and other exposed populations. This association is especially strong for women exposed before age 20 yr and appears to be much weaker among women exposed after age 40 yr. In this study, breast-tissue autopsy samples from high-dose and low-dose individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study sample were examined in detail to determine whether nonproliferative or proliferative breast lesions are associated with radiation exposure. The results suggest that proliferative disease in general and atypical hyperplasia in particular are associated with radiation exposure and that the risk is strongest for subjects who were ages 40-49 yr at the time of the bombings. It is hypothesized that this finding may be related to the age dependence of radiation-induced breast cancer, in the sense that potential cancers reflecting early-stage changes induced at these ages by radiation exposure may receive too little hormonal promotion to progress to frank cancers. (author)

  12. Neoplastic and proliferative disorders of the perinephric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.T.; Haarer, K.A.; Thomas, E.; Thaete, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    The perinephric space is a well-marginated central compartment of the retroperitoneum, located between the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces. Various neoplastic and proliferative disorders can affect the perinephric space, and there is a wide array of imaging findings. Although many perinephric lesions may extend directly from the kidney and adrenal gland, other lesions occur in the perinephric space due to haematogenous spread, as part of a systemic disease, or by extension from an adjacent retroperitoneal compartment. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of perinephric diseases, as many of the disease processes affecting this space will not result in clinical signs or symptoms until the disease is at an advanced stage. Despite the often shared non-specific clinical and imaging findings among these disease processes, application of a categorical differential diagnosis based on the imaging characteristics will serve to narrow the differential diagnosis and direct further evaluation and treatment. In this article, the lesions have been categorized as soft-tissue rind [nephroblastomatosis, fibrosis, Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD), extramedullary haematopoiesis, lymphoma, infiltrating metastases], focal solid lesions (extension of renal or adrenal malignancies, melanoma metastases, treated lymphoma), fat-containing lesions (angiomyolipoma, liposarcoma, myelolipoma), and cystic lesions (lymphangiomas, abscesses). The aim of this article is to demonstrate and describe the key imaging features of several neoplastic and proliferative disorders that affect the perinephric space.

  13. Amniocar as a proliferative medium for mesenchymal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chestkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To develop the Amniocar nutrient medium that contains fetal calf serum (FCS and growth factors cocktail for mass cultivation of human fibroblasts. To study proliferative activity of the medium on cultures of HUVEC cells of mesenchymal origin and mesenchymal stromal cells, as well as on cell culture of human amniotic fluid.Materials and methods. Determination of the rate of accumulation of the cellular mass and cell morphology in the course of cultivation of cells of various histogenesis in the Amniocar medium and nutrient medium that contains 10 % of FCS.Results. It has been demonstrated that the Amniocar medium is prevalent as compared to the standard DMEM medium with 10 % of FCS by 2 to 5 times for cultivation of skin fibroblasts, HUVEC, and mesenchymal stem cells. The Amniocar medium increased the quantity of endothelial cells that enter mitosis and maintained the culture of HUVEC cells with prolonged passaging in vitro. Clonal cultivation of human amniotic fluid cells in the Amniocar medium secured development of colonies of both fibroblast and epithelial type.Conclusions. Proliferative Amniocar medium is efficient for mass cultivation of various cells of mesenchymal origin and can be used for diagnostic purposes in medical genetics, oncology, etc.

  14. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the initial characterization of non-fatty soft tissue tumors: correlation between T2 signal intensity and ADC values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto [Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, CHU Nancy, Nancy (France); Universite de Lorraine, IADI, UMR S 947, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Gay, Frederique; Blum, Alain [Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, CHU Nancy, Nancy (France); Chen, Bailiang; Felblinger, Jacques [Universite de Lorraine, IADI, UMR S 947, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Zins, Marie [University Versailles St-Quentin, Versailles (France); Inserm, Centre for research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), U1018, Villejuif (France); Sirveaux, Francois [Centre Chirurgical Emile Galle, Service de Chirurgie Traumatologique et Orthopedique, Nancy (France)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate the performance of quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) correlated with T2 signal in differentiating non-fatty benign from malignant tumors. A total of 76 patients with a histologically confirmed non-fatty soft tissue tumors (46 benign and 30 malignant) were prospectively included in this ethics committee approved study. All patients signed an informed consent and underwent MRI with DWI with two b values (0 and 600). ADC values from the solid components of these tumors were obtained and were correlated with the lesion's signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-saturated sequences. ADC values were obtained from adjacent normal muscle to allow calculation of tumor/muscle ADC ratios. There were 58 hyperintense and 18 iso or hypointense lesions. All hypointense lesions were benign. The mean ADC values for benign and malignant tumors were 1.47 ± 0.54 x 10{sup -3} and 1.17 ± 0.38 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively (p < 0.005). The mean ADC ratio in benign iso or hypointense tumors was significantly lower than that of hyperintense ones (0.76 ± 0.21 versus 1.58 ± 0.82 - p < 0.0001). An ADC ratio lower than 0.915 was highly specific for malignancy (96.4 %), whereas an ADC ratio higher than 1.32 was highly sensitive for benign lesions (90 %). ADC analysis can be useful in the initial characterization of T2 hyperintense non-fatty soft tissue masses, although this technique alone is not likely to change patient management. (orig.)

  15. The neuropeptide catestatin promotes vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through the Ca{sup 2+}-calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaoxia [Department of Cardiology, People' s Hospital, Peking University, No. 11 South Avenue, Xi Zhi Men Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhou, Chunyan, E-mail: chunyanzhou@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, Ningling, E-mail: nlsun@263.net [Department of Cardiology, People' s Hospital, Peking University, No. 11 South Avenue, Xi Zhi Men Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Catestatin stimulates proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. {yields} Catestatin provokes sustained increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. {yields} Catestatin produces increased activation of calcineurin and promotes NFATc1 translocation into the nucleus. -- Abstract: The Chromogranin A-derived neuropeptide catestatin is an endogenous nicotinic cholinergic antagonist that acts as a pleiotropic hormone. Since catestatin shares several functions with other members derived from the chromogranin/secretogranin protein family and other neuropeptides which exert proliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we therefore hypothesized that catestatin would regulate VSMC proliferation. The present study demonstrates that catestatin caused a dose-dependent induction of proliferation in rat aortic smooth muscle cells and furthermore evoked a sustained increase in intracellular calcium. This subsequently leaded to enhanced activation of the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin and resulted in an activation of the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), initiating transcription of proliferative genes. In addition, cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent inhibitor of calcineurin, abrogated catestatin-mediated effect on VSMCs, indicating that the calcineurin-NFAT signaling is strongly required for catestatin-induced growth of VSMCs. The present study establishes catestatin as a novel proliferative cytokine on vascular smooth muscle cells and this effect is mediated by the Ca{sup 2+}-calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway.

  16. C-terminal region of the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 initiates signaling through interaction with the COP1 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloix, Catherine; Kaiserli, Eirini; Heilmann, Monika; Baxter, Katherine J.; Brown, Bobby A.; O’Hara, Andrew; Smith, Brian O.; Christie, John M.; Jenkins, Gareth I.

    2012-01-01

    UV-B light initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. Arabidopsis UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) specifically mediates these responses by functioning as a UV-B photoreceptor. UV-B exposure converts UVR8 from a dimer to a monomer, stimulates the rapid accumulation of UVR8 in the nucleus, where it binds to chromatin, and induces interaction of UVR8 with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 to control photomorphogenic UV-B responses. Although the crystal structure of UVR8 reveals the basis of photoreception, it does not show how UVR8 initiates signaling through interaction with COP1. Here we report that a region of 27 amino acids from the C terminus of UVR8 (C27) mediates the interaction with COP1. The C27 region is necessary for UVR8 function in the regulation of gene expression and hypocotyl growth suppression in Arabidopsis. However, UVR8 lacking C27 still undergoes UV-B–induced monomerization in both yeast and plant protein extracts, accumulates in the nucleus in response to UV-B, and interacts with chromatin at the UVR8-regulated ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) gene. The UV-B–dependent interaction of UVR8 and COP1 is reproduced in yeast cells and we show that C27 is both necessary and sufficient for the interaction of UVR8 with the WD40 domain of COP1. Furthermore, we show that C27 interacts in yeast with the REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS proteins, RUP1 and RUP2, which are negative regulators of UVR8 function. Hence the C27 region has a key role in UVR8 function. PMID:22988111

  17. Isoliquiritigenin exhibits anti-proliferative properties in the pituitary independent of estrogen receptor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Karen E.; Raetzman, Lori T.

    2016-01-01

    The plant flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a botanical estrogen widely taken as an herbal supplement to ease the symptoms of menopause. ISL has been also shown to have anti-tumor properties in a number of cancer cell backgrounds. However, the effects of ISL on normal cells are less well known and virtually unstudied in the context of the pituitary gland. We have established a pituitary explant culture model to screen chemical agents for gene expression changes within the pituitary gland during a period of active proliferation and differentiation. Using this whole-organ culture system we found ISL to be weakly estrogenic based on its ability to induce Cckar mRNA expression, an estrogen receptor (ER) mediated gene. Using a range of ISL from 200 nM to 200 μM, we discovered that ISL promoted cell proliferation at a low concentration, yet potently inhibited proliferation at the highest concentration. ICI 182,780 failed to antagonize ISL's repression of pituitary cell proliferation, indicating the effect is independent of ER signaling. Coincident with a decrease in proliferating cells, we observed down-regulation of transcript for cyclin D2 and E2 and a strong induction of mRNA and protein for the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn1a (p21). Importantly, high dose ISL did not alter the balance of progenitor vs. differentiated cell types within the pituitary explants and they seemed otherwise healthy; however, TUNEL staining revealed an increase in apoptotic cell death in ISL treated cultures. Our results merit further examination of ISL as an anti-tumor agent in the pituitary gland. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin possesses weak estrogenic activity based on induction of Cckar. • ISL can be anti-proliferative in pituitary explants without altering cell lineages. • Anti-proliferative behavior of ISL is not estrogen receptor mediated. • ISL induces p21 expression leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  18. ARTEMIS stabilizes the genome and modulates proliferative responses in multipotent mesenchymal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tompkins Kathleen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unrepaired DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs cause chromosomal rearrangements, loss of genetic information, neoplastic transformation or cell death. The nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ pathway, catalyzing sequence-independent direct rejoining of DSBs, is a crucial mechanism for repairing both stochastically occurring and developmentally programmed DSBs. In lymphocytes, NHEJ is critical for both development and genome stability. NHEJ defects lead to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and lymphoid cancer predisposition in both mice and humans. While NHEJ has been thoroughly investigated in lymphocytes, the importance of NHEJ in other cell types, especially with regard to tumor suppression, is less well documented. We previously reported evidence that the NHEJ pathway functions to suppress a range of nonlymphoid tumor types, including various classes of sarcomas, by unknown mechanisms. Results Here we investigate roles for the NHEJ factor ARTEMIS in multipotent mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs, as putative sarcomagenic cells of origin. We demonstrate a key role for ARTEMIS in sarcoma suppression in a sensitized mouse tumor model. In this context, we found that ARTEMIS deficiency led to chromosomal damage but, paradoxically, enhanced resistance and proliferative potential in primary MSCs subjected to various stresses. Gene expression analysis revealed abnormally regulated stress response, cell proliferation, and signal transduction pathways in ARTEMIS-defective MSCs. Finally, we identified candidate regulatory genes that may, in part, mediate a stress-resistant, hyperproliferative phenotype in preneoplastic ARTEMIS-deficient MSCs. Conclusions Our discoveries suggest that Art prevents genome damage and restrains proliferation in MSCs exposed to various stress stimuli. We propose that deficiency leads to a preneoplastic state in primary MSCs and is associated with aberrant proliferative control and cellular stress

  19. Isoliquiritigenin exhibits anti-proliferative properties in the pituitary independent of estrogen receptor function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Karen E.; Raetzman, Lori T., E-mail: raetzman@life.illinois.edu

    2016-12-15

    The plant flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a botanical estrogen widely taken as an herbal supplement to ease the symptoms of menopause. ISL has been also shown to have anti-tumor properties in a number of cancer cell backgrounds. However, the effects of ISL on normal cells are less well known and virtually unstudied in the context of the pituitary gland. We have established a pituitary explant culture model to screen chemical agents for gene expression changes within the pituitary gland during a period of active proliferation and differentiation. Using this whole-organ culture system we found ISL to be weakly estrogenic based on its ability to induce Cckar mRNA expression, an estrogen receptor (ER) mediated gene. Using a range of ISL from 200 nM to 200 μM, we discovered that ISL promoted cell proliferation at a low concentration, yet potently inhibited proliferation at the highest concentration. ICI 182,780 failed to antagonize ISL's repression of pituitary cell proliferation, indicating the effect is independent of ER signaling. Coincident with a decrease in proliferating cells, we observed down-regulation of transcript for cyclin D2 and E2 and a strong induction of mRNA and protein for the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn1a (p21). Importantly, high dose ISL did not alter the balance of progenitor vs. differentiated cell types within the pituitary explants and they seemed otherwise healthy; however, TUNEL staining revealed an increase in apoptotic cell death in ISL treated cultures. Our results merit further examination of ISL as an anti-tumor agent in the pituitary gland. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin possesses weak estrogenic activity based on induction of Cckar. • ISL can be anti-proliferative in pituitary explants without altering cell lineages. • Anti-proliferative behavior of ISL is not estrogen receptor mediated. • ISL induces p21 expression leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  20. Atypical proliferative myositis: original MR description with pathologic correlation: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Boston, MA (United States); Parva, Pedram [VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA (United States); Stone, Michael [Stamford Hospital, Department of Surgery, Stamford, CT (United States); Klein, Michael J. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Proliferative myositis (PM) along with proliferative fasciitis and nodular fasciitis are a group of pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations. Although the histologic presentation of each is almost identical, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of proliferative myositis is closer to that of inflammatory myopathies. We report a case of PM in which the imaging and histologic features combine typical findings of PM with unusual imaging features, suggesting of reactive (or nodular) fasciitis. (orig.)

  1. Atypical proliferative myositis: original MR description with pathologic correlation: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Guermazi, Ali; Parva, Pedram; Stone, Michael; Klein, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Proliferative myositis (PM) along with proliferative fasciitis and nodular fasciitis are a group of pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations. Although the histologic presentation of each is almost identical, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of proliferative myositis is closer to that of inflammatory myopathies. We report a case of PM in which the imaging and histologic features combine typical findings of PM with unusual imaging features, suggesting of reactive (or nodular) fasciitis. (orig.)

  2. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  3. Cancer dormancy and cell signaling: Induction of p21waf1 initiated by membrane IgM engagement increases survival of B lymphoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marches, Radu; Hsueh, Robert; Uhr, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    The p21WAF1 (p21) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor plays a major role in regulating cell cycle arrest. It was recently reported that the p53-independent elevation of p21 protein levels is essential in mediating the G1 arrest resulting from signal transduction events initiated by the crosslinking of membrane IgM on Daudi Burkitt lymphoma cells. Although the role of p21 in cell cycle regulation is well documented, there is little information concerning its role in antibody-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the involvement of p21 in the regulation of apoptosis by suppressing its induction in anti-IgM-treated Daudi cells through a p21 antisense expression construct approach. Reduction in induced p21 protein levels resulted in diminished G1 arrest and increased apoptosis. The increased susceptibility to anti-IgM-mediated apoptosis was associated with increased caspase-3-like activity and poly-(ADP)ribose polymerase cleavage. These data suggest that p21 may directly interfere with the caspase cascade, thus playing a dual role in regulating both cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:10411940

  4. Heme oxygenase is not involved in the anti-proliferative effects of statins on pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanova, K.; Boukalova, S.; Gbelcova, H.; Muchova, L.; Neuzil, J.; Gurlich, R.; Ruml, T.; Vitek, L.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is recognized as one of the most fatal tumors due to its aggressiveness and resistance to therapy. Statins were previously shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells via various signaling pathways. In healthy tissues, statins activate the heme oxygenase pathway, nevertheless the role of heme oxygenase in pancreatic cancer is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate, whether anti-proliferative effects of statins in pancreatic cancer cells are mediated via the heme oxygenase pathway. In vitro effects of various statins and hemin, a heme oxygenase inducer, on cell proliferation were evaluated in PA-TU-8902, MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. The effect of statins on heme oxygenase activity was assessed and heme oxygenase-silenced cells were used for pancreatic cancer cell proliferation studies. Cell death rate and reactive oxygen species production were measured in PA-TU-8902 cells, followed by evaluation of the effect of cerivastatin on GFP-K-Ras trafficking and expression of markers of invasiveness, osteopontin (SPP1) and SOX2. While simvastatin and cerivastatin displayed major anti-proliferative properties in all cell lines tested, pravastatin did not affect the cell growth at all. Strong anti-proliferative effect was observed also for hemin. Co-treatment of cerivastatin and hemin increased anti-proliferative potential of these agents, via increased production of reactive oxygen species and cell death compared to individual treatment. Heme oxygenase silencing did not prevent pancreatic cancer cells from the tumor-suppressive effect of cerivastatin or hemin. Cerivastatin, but not pravastatin, protected Ras protein from trafficking to the cell membrane and significantly reduced expressions of SPP1 (p < 0.05) and SOX2 (p < 0.01). Anti-proliferative effects of statins and hemin on human pancreatic cancer cell lines do not seem to be related to the heme oxygenase pathway. While hemin triggers reactive

  5. T-cell proliferative responses following sepsis in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal, Ousama; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kohn, Annamarie; Muraskas, Jonathan K; Namak, Shahla Y; Alattar, Mohammad H; Sayeed, Mohammed M

    2003-01-01

    Both experimental and clinical evidence suggest a suppression of T-cell function in burn and sepsis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate splenocyte and purified T-cell proliferative response and IL-2 production in septic neonatal rats. We also examined if alterations in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production in neonatal sepsis is due to elevation in PGE2. PGE2 is known to play a significant role in T-cell suppression during sepsis in adults. Sepsis was induced in 15-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by implanting 0.1 cm3 of fecal pellet impregnated with Escherichia coli (50 CFU) and Bacteroides fragilis (10(3) CFU). Animals receiving fecal pellets without the bacteria were designated as sterile. A group of septic and sterile rats were treated with PGE2 synthesis inhibitors, NS398 and resveratrol. These treatments of animals allowed us to evaluate the role of PGE2 in T-cell suppression during neonatal sepsis. Splenocytes as well as purified T cells were prepared and then proliferative response and IL-2 productive capacities were measured. A significant suppression of splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production was noticed in both sterile and septic animals compared to the T cells from unoperated control rats. In contrast, the proliferation and IL-2 production by nylon wool purified T cells in sterile rats was not significantly different from control rats, whereas, a significant suppression in Con A-mediated T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production noticed in septic rat T cells compared to the sterile and control rat T cells. Such decrease in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production was accompanied with 20-25% deaths in neonates implanted with septic pellets. No mortality was noted in sterile-implanted neonates. Treatment of animals with COX-1 inhibitor had no effect on T-cell proliferation response in both septic and sterile groups, whereas COX-2 inhibitor abrogated the decrease in T-cell proliferative response in the septic group. The treatment

  6. Thrombopoietin/MPL participates in initiating and maintaining RUNX1-ETO acute myeloid leukemia via PI3K/AKT signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Pulikkan (John); D. Madera (Dmitri); L. Xue (Liting); P. Bradley (Paul); S.F. Landrette (Sean Francis); Y.-H. Kuo (Ya-Huei); S. Abbas (Saman); L.J. Zhu (Lihua Julie); P.J.M. Valk (Peter); L.H. Castilla (Lucio)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOncogenic mutations in components of cytokine signaling pathways elicit ligand-independent activation of downstream signaling, enhancing proliferation and survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene, MPL, a homodimeric receptor activated by

  7. AC Initiation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ac initiation system is described which uses three ac transmission signals interlocked for safety by frequency, phase, and power discrimination...The ac initiation system is pre-armed by the application of two ac signals have the proper phases, and activates a load when an ac power signal of the proper frequency and power level is applied. (Author)

  8. The proliferative human monocyte subpopulation contains osteoclast precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Roya; Kitchener, Peter D; Hamilton, John A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Immediate precursors of bone-resorbing osteoclasts are cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Particularly during clinical conditions showing bone loss, it would appear that osteoclast precursors are mobilized from bone marrow into the circulation prior to entering tissues undergoing such loss. The observed heterogeneity of peripheral blood monocytes has led to the notion that different monocyte subpopulations may have special or restricted functions, including as osteoclast precursors. Methods Human peripheral blood monocytes were sorted based upon their degree of proliferation and cultured in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Results The monocyte subpopulation that is capable of proliferation gave rise to significantly more multinucleated, bone-resorbing osteoclasts than the bulk of the monocytes. Conclusions Human peripheral blood osteoclast precursors reside in the proliferative monocyte subpopulation. PMID:19222861

  9. Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fietkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1 Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2 We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3 We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further.

  10. Proliferative activity of stomach cancer and assessment of individual radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chissov, V.I.; Sergeeva, N.S.; Dar'yalova, S.L.; Petrov, A.N.; Repina, A.G.; Belous, T.A.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescent method with polyclonal antibodies to thymidine was used to assess the proliferative activity (PA-percent of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle) of 79 stomach tumors from primary cancer patients. Stomach cancer PA was shown to vary from 0.1 to 69.7%. Stomach cancer PA did not depend either on a tumor size or a degree of the involvement of regional lymph nodes. The mean PA of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma was slightly lower (14.9±4.7%) than that of low differentiated ones. Of 79 patients a tumor process was interpreted as a resectable one in 62. They were given preoperative irradiation at a total focal dose of 36 Gy followed by operation. It was shown that tumor radioresistance could be predicted in unchanged PA indices of their increase at the beginning of a course of irradiation with the probability of 95%

  11. Anticardiolipin antibodies in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: An additional risk factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Maha; ElDiasty, Amany M; Mabed, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    To report the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) having high-risk criteria (HRC). Diabetic patients having PDR with HRC and diabetics free of retinopathy were compared for the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies. Among the 34 patients, 6 (17.7%) of diabetics having PDR with HRC were positive for anticardiolipin antibodies. There was no significant association of aCL antibodies with sex or type of diabetes. Using Pearson's correlation test, no significant associations of aCL antibodies with duration of diabetes or age of patients were found. All patients who were positive for anticardiolipin antibodies had PDR with HRC. The difference was statistically significant. Presence of anticardiolipin antibodies may represent an additional risk factor for PDR. (author)

  12. Accounting for treatment delays when treating highly proliferative tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.; Metcalfe, P.; Hoban, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the possibility of increasing the dose per fraction or increasing the number of fractions to account for treatment delays occurring during radiotherapy treatments for highly proliferative tumours. The linear quadratic model with time was used to determine the difference in biological effective dose (BED) for the original schedule and the schedule including a treatment delay. Tables of extra fractions and extra dose per fraction required to account for a number of possible delays have been determined. It has been shown that for tumours with very short potential doubling times it is best to deliver the extra dose as an increase in dose per fraction rather than an increase in the number of fractions, while for tumours with moderately short potential doubling times (above 7 days) the reverse is true. The equivalent uninterrupted schedules, which would have delivered the same effects to the tumour, have also been determined. (author)

  13. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  14. Retinitis pigmentosa reduces the risk of proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Fang Chen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the association between retinitis pigmentosa (RP and the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR. METHODS: Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 of Taiwan, we identified individuals with an initial diagnosis for RP during the period of 1997-2008. A non-RP comparison group, 10-fold frequency matched by sex, age, index year and the year of diabetes diagnosed, were randomly selected from the same database. The occurrence of DR was observed for all subjects until the end of 2009. The Kaplan-Meier curves were used to illustrate the cumulative probability of developing DR for the RP group and comparison groups. The hazard ratio (HR of DR for the RP group relative to the comparison group was estimated using Cox proportional hazards model after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier curves were not statistically significant different between the RP group and the comparison group. However, the RP group had a higher cumulative probability of developing DR during the first six to seven years. The cumulative probability kept increasing and became higher in the comparison group but remained unchanged in the RP group. The HR for the RP patients comparing with the comparison group was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.43-2.14. Stratified by severity, RP was associated with a non-statistically significant reduced risk of proliferative DR (PDR (HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.16-3.14. The HR for non-proliferative DR (NPDR was 1.08 (95% CI = 0.40-2.86. CONCLUSION: In this study, RP was not statistically significant associated with the incidence of DR.

  15. Anti-Myeloperoxidase Antibodies Associate with Future Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Olson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The subclinical pathophysiology of proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN has not been fully elucidated. Myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA is associated with PLN, but prediagnostic levels have not been reported. Methods. We performed a retrospective case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR study comparing MPO-ANCA levels in longitudinal prediagnostic serum samples for 23 biopsy confirmed proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN patients to DoDSR identified age, sex, race, and age of serum matched healthy and SLE without LN disease controls. We also compared the temporal relationship of MPO-ANCA to anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (dsDNAab. Results. A greater proportion of PLN patients had prediagnostic MPO-ANCA levels above ≥3 U/mL and ≥6 U/mL compared to SLE without LN (91% versus 43%, p<0.001; 57% versus 5%, p<0.001, resp.. In subgroup analysis, the MPO-ANCA threshold of ≥3 U/mL was significant at <1 year (88% versus 39%, p=0.007 and 1–4 years (87% versus 38%, p=0.009 prior to diagnosis. Statistically significant subclinical MPO-ANCA levels (≥3 U/mL occurred prior to statistically significant dsDNAab ≥ 3 IU/ml (89% versus 11%, p=0.003. Conclusions. Subclinical MPO-ANCA levels could distinguish future PLN from SLE without LN. MPO-ANCA manifests prior to clinical disease and subclinical dsDNAab to suggest that it may contribute directly to PLN pathogenicity.

  16. Regional control of Drosophila gut stem cell proliferation: EGF establishes GSSC proliferative set point & controls emergence from quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Marie; Micchelli, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells vary widely in their rates of proliferation. Some stem cells are constitutively active, while others divide only in response to injury. The mechanism controlling this differential proliferative set point is not well understood. The anterior-posterior (A/P) axis of the adult Drosophila midgut has a segmental organization, displaying physiological compartmentalization and region-specific epithelia. These distinct midgut regions are maintained by defined stem cell populations with unique division schedules, providing an excellent experimental model with which to investigate this question. Here, we focus on the quiescent gastric stem cells (GSSCs) of the acidic copper cell region (CCR), which exhibit the greatest period of latency between divisions of all characterized gut stem cells, to define the molecular basis of differential stem cell activity. Our molecular genetic analysis demonstrates that the mitogenic EGF signaling pathway is a limiting factor controlling GSSC proliferation. We find that under baseline conditions, when GSSCs are largely quiescent, the lowest levels of EGF ligands in the midgut are found in the CCR. However, acute epithelial injury by enteric pathogens leads to an increase in EGF ligand expression in the CCR and rapid expansion of the GSSC lineage. Thus, the unique proliferative set points for gut stem cells residing in physiologically distinct compartments are governed by regional control of niche signals along the A/P axis.

  17. Regional control of Drosophila gut stem cell proliferation: EGF establishes GSSC proliferative set point & controls emergence from quiescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Strand

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells vary widely in their rates of proliferation. Some stem cells are constitutively active, while others divide only in response to injury. The mechanism controlling this differential proliferative set point is not well understood. The anterior-posterior (A/P axis of the adult Drosophila midgut has a segmental organization, displaying physiological compartmentalization and region-specific epithelia. These distinct midgut regions are maintained by defined stem cell populations with unique division schedules, providing an excellent experimental model with which to investigate this question. Here, we focus on the quiescent gastric stem cells (GSSCs of the acidic copper cell region (CCR, which exhibit the greatest period of latency between divisions of all characterized gut stem cells, to define the molecular basis of differential stem cell activity. Our molecular genetic analysis demonstrates that the mitogenic EGF signaling pathway is a limiting factor controlling GSSC proliferation. We find that under baseline conditions, when GSSCs are largely quiescent, the lowest levels of EGF ligands in the midgut are found in the CCR. However, acute epithelial injury by enteric pathogens leads to an increase in EGF ligand expression in the CCR and rapid expansion of the GSSC lineage. Thus, the unique proliferative set points for gut stem cells residing in physiologically distinct compartments are governed by regional control of niche signals along the A/P axis.

  18. Androgen signaling promotes translation of TMEFF2 in prostate cancer cells via phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F Overcash

    Full Text Available The type I transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2, is expressed mainly in brain and prostate. Expression of TMEFF2 is deregulated in prostate cancer, suggesting a role in this disease, but the molecular mechanism(s involved in this effect are not clear. Although androgens promote tmeff2 transcription, androgen delivery to castrated animals carrying CWR22 xenografts increases TMEFF2 protein levels in the absence of mRNA changes, suggesting that TMEFF2 may also be post-transcriptionally regulated. Here we show that translation of TMEFF2 is regulated by androgens. Addition of physiological concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT to prostate cancer cell lines increases translation of endogenous TMEFF2 or transfected TMEFF2-Luciferase fusions, and this effect requires the presence of upstream open reading frames (uORFs in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR of TMEFF2. Using chemical and siRNA inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR, we show that the androgen effect on TMEFF2 translation is mediated by the AR. Importantly, DHT also promotes phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α in an AR-dependent manner, paralleling the effect on TMEFF2 translation. Moreover, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress conditions, which promote eIF2α phosphorylation, also stimulate TMEFF2 translation. These results indicate that androgen signaling promotes eIF2α phosphorylation and subsequent translation of TMEFF2 via a mechanism that requires uORFs in the 5'-UTR of TMEFF2.

  19. Proliferative and anti-proliferative effects of dietary levels of phytoestrogens in rat pituitary GH3/B6/F10 cells - the involvement of rapidly activated kinases and caspases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeng, Yow-Jiun; Watson, Cheryl S

    2009-01-01

    Phytoestogens are a group of lipophillic plant compounds that can have estrogenic effects in animals; both tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic effects have been reported. Prolactin-secreting adenomas are the most prevalent form of pituitary tumors in humans and have been linked to estrogen exposures. We examined the proliferative effects of phytoestrogens on a rat pituitary tumor cell line, GH 3 /B 6 /F 10 , originally subcloned from GH 3 cells based on its ability to express high levels of the membrane estrogen receptor-α. We measured the proliferative effects of these phytoestrogens using crystal violet staining, the activation of several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and their downstream targets via a quantitative plate immunoassay, and caspase enzymatic activities. Four phytoestrogens (coumestrol, daidzein, genistein, and trans-resveratrol) were studied over wide concentration ranges. Except trans-resveratrol, all phytoestrogens increased GH 3 /B 6 /F 10 cell proliferation at some concentration relevant to dietary levels. All four phytoestrogens attenuated the proliferative effects of estradiol when administered simultaneously. All phytoestrogens elicited MAPK and downstream target activations, but with time course patterns that often differed from that of estradiol and each other. Using selective antagonists, we determined that MAPKs play a role in the ability of these phytoestrogens to elicit these responses. In addition, except for trans-resveratrol, a serum removal-induced extrinsic apoptotic pathway was blocked by these phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens can block physiological estrogen-induced tumor cell growth in vitro and can also stimulate growth at high dietary concentrations in the absence of endogenous estrogens; these actions are correlated with slightly different signaling response patterns. Consumption of these compounds should be considered in strategies to control endocrine tumor cell growth, such as in the pituitary

  20. Membrane-initiated non-genomic signaling by estrogens in the hypothalamus: cross-talk with glucocorticoids with implications for behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eRainville

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The estrogen receptor (ER and glucocorticoid receptor (GR are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that can signal using both non-genomic and genomic transcriptional modes. Though genomic modes of signaling have been well characterized and several behaviors attributed to this signaling mechanism, the physiological significance of non-genomic modes of signaling has not been well understood. This has partly been due to the controversy regarding the identity of the membrane ER (mER or membrane GR (mGR that may mediate rapid, non-genomic signaling and the downstream signaling cascades that may result as a consequence of steroid ligands binding the mER or the mGR. Both estrogens and glucocorticoids exert a number of actions on the hypothalamus, including feedback. This review focuses on the various candidates for the mER or mGR in the hypothalamus and the contribution of non-genomic signaling to classical hypothalamically-driven behaviors and changes in neuronal morphology. It also attempts to categorize some of the possible functions of non-genomic signaling at both the cellular level and at the organismal level that are relevant for behavior, including some behaviors that are regulated by both estrogens and glucocorticoids in a potentially synergistic manner. Lastly, it attempts to show that steroid signaling via non-genomic modes may provide the organism with rapid behavioral responses to stimuli.

  1. Correlation between proliferative activity and cellular thickness of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hirose, Motohiro; Nakamura, Chikashi; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    A cell's shape is known to be related to its proliferative activity. In particular, large and flat mammalian adult stem cells seem to show slow proliferation, however using quantitative analysis to prove the phenomenon is difficult. We measured the proliferation and cellular thickness of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by atomic force microscopy and found that MSCs with high proliferative activity were thick while those with low proliferative activity were thin, even though these MSCs were early passage cells. Further, low proliferative MSCs contained many senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells together with high senescence-associated gene expression. These findings suggest that the measurement of cellular thickness is useful for estimating the proliferative activity of human MSCs and is expected to be a practical tool for MSC applications in regenerative medicine

  2. GTP depletion synergizes the anti-proliferative activity of chemotherapeutic agents in a cell type-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tao; Meng, Lingjun; Tsai, Robert Y.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Strong synergy between mycophenolic acid (MPA) and 5-FU in MDA-MB-231 cells. → Cell type-dependent synergy between MPA and anti-proliferative agents. → The synergy of MPA on 5-FU is recapitulated by RNA polymerase-I inhibition. → The synergy of MPA on 5-FU requires the expression of nucleostemin. -- Abstract: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) depletes intracellular GTP by blocking de novo guanine nucleotide synthesis. GTP is used ubiquitously for DNA/RNA synthesis and as a signaling molecule. Here, we made a surprising discovery that the anti-proliferative activity of MPA acts synergistically with specific chemotherapeutic agents in a cell type-dependent manner. In MDA-MB-231 cells, MPA shows an extremely potent synergy with 5-FU but not with doxorubicin or etoposide. The synergy between 5-FU and MPA works most effectively against the highly tumorigenic mammary tumor cells compared to the less tumorigenic ones, and does not work in the non-breast cancer cell types that we tested, with the exception of PC3 cells. On the contrary, MPA shows the highest synergy with paclitaxel but not with 5-FU in SCC-25 cells, derived from oral squamous cell carcinomas. Mechanistically, the synergistic effect of MPA on 5-FU in MDA-MB-231 cells can be recapitulated by inhibiting the RNA polymerase-I activity and requires the expression of nucleostemin. This work reveals that the synergy between MPA and anti-proliferative agents is determined by cell type-dependent factors.

  3. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy after vitrectomy early factors affect IOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bo Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore possible causes of early postoperative elevated intraocular pressure caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRvitrectomy. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(100 eyeswhich have performed vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy were retrospectively analyzed to observe the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension, and the relevant factors that caused postoperative high intraocular pressure were statistically analyzed. Early postoperative ocular hypertension diagnostic criteria: any time after 2 weeks of non-contact tonometer measured IOP> 25mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa. RESULTS:High intraocular pressure after vitrectomy occurred in 27 eyes(27%, the incidence of male and female were 27.27%, 26.79%, the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. Eyes filled with balanced liquid filling incidence rate of 30.95%, 6.25%, and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05. Incidences of intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation and additional retinal photocoagulation group were 41%, 20%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Preoperative retinopathy of four, five, six groups of incidence were 9.52%, 23.81%, 40.56%, and the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05. Unconsolidated preoperative retinal detachment and retinal detachment incidence rate of 19%, 41%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Surgery in the united lens resection with intraoperative unfederated lens the resection group's incidence rate of 34%, 15%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling were independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. CONCLUSION:Post-operative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is related to preoperative retinal detachment, intraoperative lensectomy, intraoperative intraocular filling, and intraoperative

  4. Glomerular Damage in Experimental Proliferative Glomerulonephritis Under Glomerular Capillary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Rong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Immunologically and hemodynamically mediated the destruction of glomerular architecture is thought to be the major causes of end-stage renal failure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of glomerular hypertension on glomerular injury and the progression of glomerular sclerosis after Thy-1 nephritis was induced. Method: Thy-1 nephritis was induced in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat strain (SHR-SP (group SP and in age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY (group WKY rats, following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX, and a vehicle was injected alone in UNX SHR-SP as control (group SC. Result: The degree of glomerular damage in response to a single dose of anti-thy-1 antibody, and its functional consequences (eg. proteinuria, diminished GFR are more pronounced in group SP than normotensive group WKY and hypertensive group SC without mesangial cell injury. While normotensive group WKY rats recovered completely from mesangial cell injury on day 28-42, glomeruli in group SP kept on persistent macrophage infiltration, α-SMA expression on day 42-56. In addition, glomerular capillary repair with the GECs was rarely seen in pronouncedly proliferative and sclerostic areas. The incidence of glomerular sclerosis and the level of proteinuria were markedly increased by day 56 in the group SP. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that glomerular hypertension aggravate glomerular damage and glomerulosclerosis in this model of Thy 1 nephritis.

  5. Subretinal Perfluorocarbon Liquid for Dissection of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

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    Jose Dalma-Weiszhausz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR is a frequent condition following complex retinal detachments or trauma, and subretinal PVR is a common cause of retinal redetachment. Subretinal PVR removal is challenging and may require creating multiple or large retinotomies, making manipulation of the retina difficult and sometimes hazardous. We propose a novel surgical technique that may facilitate subretinal removal of PVR. After peripheral retinotomy of 180 degrees or greater, perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL is carefully introduced into the subretinal space as a single bubble which provides space to perform the maneuvers. The PFCL serves as a second hand which folds the retina over, thereby allowing better visualization for safer and easier subretinal PVR removal. PFCL in then removed by direct aspiration as a single bubble while still under balanced salt solution, taking advantage of its high surface tension which prevents leaving bubbles behind. The described technique allows adequate exposure of the subretinal space for proper dissection of difficult-to-reach subretinal PVR. We applied this technique in five patients with chronic retinal detachment, extensive subretinal PVR and poor visual potential. The utilization of subretinal PFCL can assist dissection of subretinal PVR and may be useful in eyes with complicated retinal detachment and poor visual prognosis.

  6. Health assessment of environmental pollutants: proliferative and degenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.O.

    1988-01-01

    In order to achieve a balanced approach to risk assessment between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects one must examine the risk of disease or death in the general population exposed to a particular air pollutant that can be related quantitatively to intensity and duration of exposures (National Academy of Sciences, 1983). Such risk assessment should be based upon careful evaluation of scientific findings of dose-response relationships in the chronically exposed population. Quantitative assessment of environmentally produced disease in man has proven to be complex and demanding. A variety of factors play important roles in this task. As an example, there are induction-latency periods for chronic diseases, including cancer, which may range from five to twenty-five years. The diseases themselves, whether proliferative or degenerative, may follow several stages of progression. There is only sparse epidemiological data on serious health effects that may be due to environmental as compared to occupational exposures. Exposures to chemical or radiological air contaminants do not occur singly but to a multiplicity of agents, and disease processes are frequently markedly affected by the interaction of a variety of factors, particularly that of cigarette smoking. There is growing recognition of potentially sensitive subpopulations, including the elderly and the very young, but adequate techniques for assessing the magnitude of increased risks to these groups have not yet been developed

  7. Subretinal Perfluorocarbon Liquid for Dissection of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalma-Weiszhausz, Jose; Franco-Cardenas, Valentina; Dalma, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a frequent condition following complex retinal detachments or trauma, and subretinal PVR is a common cause of retinal redetachment. Subretinal PVR removal is challenging and may require creating multiple or large retinotomies, making manipulation of the retina difficult and sometimes hazardous. We propose a novel surgical technique that may facilitate subretinal removal of PVR. After peripheral retinotomy of 180 degrees or greater, perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) is carefully introduced into the subretinal space as a single bubble which provides space to perform the maneuvers. The PFCL serves as a second hand which folds the retina over, thereby allowing better visualization for safer and easier subretinal PVR removal. PFCL in then removed by direct aspiration as a single bubble while still under balanced salt solution, taking advantage of its high surface tension which prevents leaving bubbles behind. The described technique allows adequate exposure of the subretinal space for proper dissection of difficult-to-reach subretinal PVR. We applied this technique in five patients with chronic retinal detachment, extensive subretinal PVR and poor visual potential. The utilization of subretinal PFCL can assist dissection of subretinal PVR and may be useful in eyes with complicated retinal detachment and poor visual prognosis. PMID:23502847

  8. Coordination Skills during Vitrectomy in Treatment of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehong Chen; Shanshan Luo; Yanchan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To discuss effective nursing and coordination skills for vitrectomy in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Fifty patients (51 eyes) with diabetic retinopathy required vitrectomy were enrolled in this study..Individual nursing service was delivered by strengthening preoperative preparation, providing psychological nursing, and intraopera-tive observation of the severity of diseases by circulating nurses;meticulous nursing was given postoperatively. Results:All 50 patients underwent surgery successfully..Intra-operatively,.patients had stable physical signs..Five patients had postoperative visual acuity0.3..No complicated infection was seen. Conclusion: For patients diagnosed with proliferative diabetic retinopathy requiring vitrectomy,.full preparations should be made and psychological nursing should be delivered preopera-tively, the severity of diseases and clinical reactions should be closely observed intraoperatively,.and proper processing and nursing measures should be taken postoperatively,.which col-lectively enhance surgical success rate,.decrease surgical com-plications,.and attain favorable treatment efficacy.(Eye Science 2014; 29:55-58).

  9. Automated detection of neovascularization for proliferative diabetic retinopathy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Koozekanani, Dara D; Parhi, Keshab K

    2016-08-01

    Neovascularization is the primary manifestation of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) that can lead to acquired blindness. This paper presents a novel method that classifies neovascularizations in the 1-optic disc (OD) diameter region (NVD) and elsewhere (NVE) separately to achieve low false positive rates of neovascularization classification. First, the OD region and blood vessels are extracted. Next, the major blood vessel segments in the 1-OD diameter region are classified for NVD, and minor blood vessel segments elsewhere are classified for NVE. For NVD and NVE classifications, optimal region-based feature sets of 10 and 6 features, respectively, are used. The proposed method achieves classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for NVD and NVE of 74%, 98.2%, 87.6%, and 61%, 97.5%, 92.1%, respectively. Also, the proposed method achieves 86.4% sensitivity and 76% specificity for screening images with PDR from public and local data sets. Thus, the proposed NVD and NVE detection methods can play a key role in automated screening and prioritization of patients with diabetic retinopathy.

  10. Dysregulation of T lymphocyte proliferative responses in autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney K Elizer

    Full Text Available T cells are critically dependent on cellular proliferation in order to carry out their effector functions. Autoimmune strains are commonly thought to have uncontrolled T cell proliferation; however, in the murine model of autoimmune diabetes, hypo-proliferation of T cells leading to defective AICD was previously uncovered. We now determine whether lupus prone murine strains are similarly hyporesponsive. Upon extensive characterization of T lymphocyte activation, we have observed a common feature of CD4 T cell activation shared among three autoimmune strains-NOD, MRL, and NZBxNZW F1s. When stimulated with a polyclonal mitogen, CD4 T cells demonstrate arrested cell division and diminished dose responsiveness as compared to the non-autoimmune strain C57BL/6, a phenotype we further traced to a reliance on B cell mediated costimulation, which underscores the success of B cell directed immune therapies in preventing T cell mediated tissue injury. In turn, the diminished proliferative capacity of these CD4 T cells lead to a decreased, but activation appropriate, susceptibility to activation induced cell death. A similar decrement in stimulation response was observed in the CD8 compartment of NOD mice; NOD CD8 T cells were distinguished from lupus prone strains by a diminished dose-responsiveness to anti-CD3 mediated stimulation. This distinction may explain the differential pathogenetic pathways activated in diabetes and lupus prone murine strains.

  11. Mechanisms of Inflammation in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy: From Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros N. Moysidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR is a vision-threatening disease and a common complication of surgery to correct rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Several models of the pathogenesis of this disease have been described with some of these models focusing on the role of inflammatory cells and other models focusing on the role of growth factors and cytokines in the vitreous which come into contact with intraretinal and retinal pigment epithelial cells. New experiments have shed light on the pathogenesis of PVR and offer promising avenues for clinical intervention before PVR develops. One such target is the indirect pathway of activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGRα, which plays an important role in PVR. Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH, daunorubicin, and 13-cis-retinoic acid, among other therapies, have yielded mixed results. Here we review inflammatory and other mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of PVR, we highlight important clinical trials, and we discuss how findings at the bench have the potential to be translated to the bedside.

  12. Proliferative Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Cerebral Microbleeds, Which Is Part of Generalized Microangiopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdeman, J.P.; van Duinkerken, E.; Wattjes, M.P.; Barkhof, F.; Snoek, F.J.; Moll, A.C.; Klein, M.; de Boer, M.P.; IJzerman, R.G.; Serne, E.H.; Diamant, M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetic patients can be generalized to cerebral small vessel disease and whether it is associated with impaired peripheral microvascular function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with proliferative

  13. Anti-proliferative effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone in a lepidopteran cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Hatt, Philippe-Jacques; Porcheron, Patrick

    2002-02-01

    Ecdysteroids are steroid hormones involved in the epidermal growth of arthropods, controlling cell proliferation and further differentiation of target cells. The epidermal cell line IAL-PID2, established from imaginal discs of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella kept its sensitivity to ecdysteroids in vitro, cells being able to respond to them by cytological and biochemical changes. When added to the culture medium, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) stopped cell proliferation and induced formation of epithelial-like aggregates. In order to better understand the cellular sequence of ecdysteroids signalling in epidermal cells we used the IAL-PID2 cell line for in vitro investigations of cytological events induced by the moulting hormone. After a 40 h serum deprivation, formazan assay (XTT) was routinely used to evaluate anti-proliferative effects of 20E during cell cycle. We established a more precise timing of the period of cell sensitivity to the hormone during the cell cycle, by the use of the mitotic index and the BrdU incorporation test. These in vitro assays were performed in parallel with the description of some hormone dependant cytological events, using immunofluorescent labelling with anti-beta tubulin/FITC antibodies and DNA staining.

  14. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity regulates the proliferative potential of growth plate chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwei; Ahrens, Molly J; Wu, Amy; Liu, Jennifer; Dudley, Andrew T

    2011-01-01

    For tissues that develop throughout embryogenesis and into postnatal life, the generation of differentiated cells to promote tissue growth is at odds with the requirement to maintain the stem cell/progenitor cell population to preserve future growth potential. In the growth plate cartilage, this balance is achieved in part by establishing a proliferative phase that amplifies the number of progenitor cells prior to terminal differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we show that endogenous calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamkII, also known as Camk2) activity is upregulated prior to hypertrophy and that loss of CamkII function substantially blocks the transition from proliferation to hypertrophy. Wnt signaling and Pthrp-induced phosphatase activity negatively regulate CamkII activity. Release of this repression results in activation of multiple effector pathways, including Runx2- and β-catenin-dependent pathways. We present an integrated model for the regulation of proliferation potential by CamkII activity that has important implications for studies of growth control and adult progenitor/stem cell populations.

  15. Curcumin Conjugated with PLGA Potentiates Sustainability, Anti-Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghela, Bhargav N.; Sharma, Anupama; Dhumale, Suhashini; Pandey, Shashibahl M.; Pathak, Chandramani

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric, exhibits a variety of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Despite its imperative biological activities, chemical instability, photo-instability and poor bioavailability limits its utilization as an effective therapeutic agent. Therefore, enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin may improve its therapeutic index for clinical setting. In the present study, we have conjugated curcumin with a biodegradable polymer Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and evaluated its apoptotic potential in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). The results show that curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently inhibits cell proliferation and cell survival in human colon carcinoma cells as compared to native curcumin. Additionally, curcumin conjugated with PLGA shows improved cellular uptake and exhibits controlled release at physiological pH as compared to native curcumin. The curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently activates the cascade of caspases and promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, the results suggest that conjugation potentiates the sustainability, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of curcumin. This approach could be a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic index of cancer therapy. PMID:25692854

  16. Endothelin-1 is associated with fibrosis in proliferative diabetic retinopathy membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, William; Lajko, Michelle; Fawzi, Amani A

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the relationship between endothelin-1 and fibrosis in epiretinal membranes in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and explore the role of endothelial-mesenchymal transition in these membranes. Membranes were obtained from eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy or idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Through standard immunohistochemical techniques, we labeled membranes to explore the distribution of endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor B, comparing proliferative diabetic retinopathy and idiopathic epiretinal membranes. In addition, membranes were also labeled with markers for fibroblasts, endothelial, and glial cells and studied with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The intensity of endothelin-1 labeling was quantified using standard image analysis software. Fourteen membranes were included in the analysis, nine from eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and five idiopathic membranes. Flatmount diabetic membranes showed co-localization of endothelin-1 with S100A4 and CD31. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis of cross-sectional membranes showed significantly higher endothelin-1 labeling in proliferative diabetic retinopathy membranes compared to idiopathic membranes (pmembranes showed more elements staining positive for S100A4 compared to idiopathic membranes. Epiretinal membrane formation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy involves higher tissue levels of endothelin-1 and fibroblastic activity. Furthermore, endothelin-1, endothelial and fibroblastic staining appear to be correlated, suggestive of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  17. In vitro anti-proliferative effect of interferon alpha in solid tumors: A potential predicative test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchsberger, N.; Kubes, M.; Kontsek, P.; Borecky, L.; Hornak, M.; Silvanova; Godal, A.; Svec, J.

    1993-01-01

    An in vitro test for the anti-proliferative effect of human leukocyte interferon (IFN-alpha) was performed in primary cultures of tumor cells obtained from 32 patients with either malignant melanoma (13), renal carcinoma (4) or bladder carcinoma (15). Our results demonstrated activity of IFN in all three groups of solid tumors. However, appreciable differences in sensitivity to anti-proliferative effect of IFN between individual tumors of the same type were found. The potential of this anti-proliferative test for prediction of treatment response in IFN-therapy is discussed. (author)

  18. Retinal vessel caliber as a potential marker of treatment outcome in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian

    Title of abstract: Retinal vessel caliber as a potential marker of treatment outcome in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy Design of study: Three months prospective, interventional clinical study. Purpose: The retinal vascular tree can be measured non-invasively and summarized...... into the central retinal artery and vein equivalent (CRAE and CRVE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal calibers as biomarkers for disease activity 3 months after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Methods: Fifty one eyes from 40 newly...... with proliferative diabetic retinopathy....

  19. MicroRNA-124 controls the proliferative, migratory, and inflammatory phenotype of pulmonary vascular fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daren; Zhang, Hui; Li, Min; Frid, Maria G; Flockton, Amanda R; McKeon, B Alexandre; Yeager, Michael E; Fini, Mehdi A; Morrell, Nicholas W; Pullamsetti, Soni S; Velegala, Sivareddy; Seeger, Werner; McKinsey, Timothy A; Sucharov, Carmen C; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2014-01-03

    Pulmonary hypertensive remodeling is characterized by excessive proliferation, migration, and proinflammatory activation of adventitial fibroblasts. In culture, fibroblasts maintain a similar activated phenotype. The mechanisms responsible for generation/maintenance of this phenotype remain unknown. We hypothesized that aberrant expression of microRNA-124 (miR-124) regulates this activated fibroblast phenotype and sought to determine the signaling pathways through which miR-124 exerts effects. We detected significant decreases in miR-124 expression in fibroblasts isolated from calves and humans with severe pulmonary hypertension. Overexpression of miR-124 by mimic transfection significantly attenuated proliferation, migration, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression of hypertensive fibroblasts, whereas anti-miR-124 treatment of control fibroblasts resulted in their increased proliferation, migration, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression. Furthermore, the alternative splicing factor, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1, was shown to be a direct target of miR-124 and to be upregulated both in vivo and in vitro in bovine and human pulmonary hypertensive fibroblasts. The effects of miR-124 on fibroblast proliferation were mediated via direct binding to the 3' untranslated region of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 and subsequent regulation of Notch1/phosphatase and tensin homolog/FOXO3/p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 signaling. We showed that miR-124 directly regulates monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression in pulmonary hypertension/idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension fibroblasts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-124 expression is suppressed by histone deacetylases and that treatment of hypertensive fibroblasts with histone deacetylase inhibitors increased miR-124 expression and decreased proliferation and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production. Stable decreases in miR-124 expression contribute to an epigenetically reprogrammed, highly

  20. Neurotrophins and Neurotrophin Receptors in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M.; Mohammad, Ghulam; De Hertogh, Gert; Nawaz, Mohd Imtiaz; Van Den Eynde, Kathleen; Siddiquei, Mohammad Mairaj; Struyf, Sofie; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Geboes, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) are emerging as important mediators of angiogenesis and fibrosis. We investigated the expression of the NTs nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) and their receptors TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). As a comparison, we examined the expression of NTs and their receptors in the retinas of diabetic rats. Vitreous samples from 16 PDR and 15 nondiabetic patients were studied by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Epiretinal membranes from 17 patients with PDR were studied by immunohistochemistry. Rats were made diabetic with a single high dose of streptozotocin and retinas of rats were examined by Western blot analysis. Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of NT-3 and NT-4 and the shedding of receptors TrkA and TrkB in vitreous samples from PDR patients compared to nondiabetic controls, whereas NGF and BDNF and the receptor TrkC were not detected with the use of Western blot analysis and ELISA. In epiretinal membranes, vascular endothelial cells and myofibroblasts expressed NT-3 and the receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC in situ, whereas NT-4 was not detected. The expression levels of NT-3 and NT-4 and the receptors TrkA and TrkB, both in intact and solubilized forms, were upregulated in the retinas of diabetic rats, whereas the receptor TrkC was not detected. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed binding between NT-3 and the receptors TrkA and TrkB in the retinas of diabetic rats. Our findings in diabetic eyes from humans and rats suggest that the increased expression levels within the NT-3 and NT-4/Trk axis are associated with the progression of PDR. PMID:23762379

  1. The impact of octreotide in experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Evren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aims to investigate the effects of intravitreal octreotide on the growth factors, which have significant roles in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Settings and Design: An experimental trial. Materials and Methods: 21 guinea pigs were randomly assigned to form 3 groups each including 7 animals. In group 1 (the control group, 0.2 ml saline solution was applied intravitreally in a location of 1.5 mm behind the limbus. In group 2 (the sham group, 0.07 IU dispase in 0.1 ml and 0.1 ml saline solution were applied via the same route. The guinea pigs in group 3 (the treatment group were applied 0.07 IU dispase in 0.1 ml and 1 mg octreotide in 0.1 ml via the same route. Octreotide injection was applied twice during the period of 10 weeks of the experiment. At the end of the 10 weeks, eyes were enucleated and retinal homogenates were prepared. The platelet derivated growth factor (PDGF, insulin-like growth factor (IGF 1 and transforming growth factor (TGF ß levels in homogenized retina tissue were measured by Enzyme Linked-Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA method. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In the treatment group, a significant decrease was observed in retinal PDGF levels (P 0.05. Conclusions: Intravitreally applied octreotide at a dose of 1 mg has a highly strong effect on PDGF. This study suggests that intravitreal octreotide may suppress PVR development and that octreotide may merit investigation for PVR prophylaxis.

  2. Tamponade in surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W; Lee, Wen-Hsiang; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Ervin, Ann-Margret

    2009-10-07

    Retinal detachment (RD) with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) often requires surgery. During surgery, a tamponade agent is needed to reduce the rate of recurrent retinal detachment. The objective of this review was to evaluate the benefits and adverse outcomes of surgery with various tamponade agents. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Latin America and Carribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) and the UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG). There were no language or date restrictions in the search for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 July 2009. We included randomized clinical trials comparing patients treated with various tamponade agents. Two individuals screened the search results independently. One study with two trials was eligible for inclusion in the review. One study with two trials was included in the review. The first trial randomized 151 eyes to receive either silicone oil or sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) gas tamponades; the second trial randomized 271 eyes to receive either silicone oil or perfluropropane (C(3)F(8)) gas tamponades. In patients with RD associated with PVR, pars plana vitrectomy and infusion of either silicone oil or perfluropropane gas appear comparable for a broad variety of cases. Sulfur hexafluoride gas was associated with worse anatomic and visual outcomes than either silicone oil or perfluropropane gas. The use of either C(3)F(8) or silicone oil appears reasonable for most patients with RD associated with PVR. Because there do not appear to be any major differences in outcomes between the two agents, the choice of a tamponade agent should be individualized for each patient.

  3. Ki67 Proliferative Index in Carcinoid Tumors Involving Ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotun; Jones, Andrea; Jenkins, Sarah M; Huang, Yajue

    2018-03-01

    Primary ovarian carcinoid tumors are rare neoplasms that constitute less than 0.1% of all ovarian carcinomas. However, carcinoid tumors metastatic to ovaries are more common. Cell proliferative rate is an important factor in the determination of neuroendocrine tumor prognosis. Limited data are available as regards Ki67 proliferation index in predicting the physiological features of carcinoid tumors involving the ovary. Pathology files of Mayo Clinic Rochester (1995-2014) were searched, and clinical information was collected from medical records. All cases were stained with an antibody against Ki67, and digital analysis was performed with digital imaging analysis. A total of 36 cases (median age 64 years, range 33-83 years), including 9 primary (median age 68 years, range 33-73 years) and 27 metastatic carcinoid cases (median age 64 years, range 36-83 years), were investigated in the current study. Seven out of nine (77.8%) primary ovarian carcinoids are associated with mature teratoma. Twenty two metastatic carcinoids (81.5%) were from the GI tract, four (14.8%) from the pancreas, and one (3.7%) from the posterior thorax location. There was significant difference of Ki67 index between primary (median 2.3%, range, 0.6-8.4%) and metastatic carcinoid tumors (median 9.7%, range, 1.3-46.7%) (p = 0.002). The survival time is much shorter among patients with metastatic carcinoid tumor (median survival 5.8 years) comparing to primary ovarian carcinoid tumor (median 14.2 years) (p = 0.0005). A strong association between Ki67 index and patient survival time was identified (Hazard ratio for 1-percentage point increase 1.11, p = 0.001). Comparing to primary ovarian carcinoid tumor, metastatic carcinoid usually exhibits a higher Ki67 index and a worse outcome.

  4. Identification of Genetic on Blood Serum Protein of Prolific Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiyono; Ondho, Y. S.; Setiatin, E. T.; Sutopo; Laily, A. N.; Prasetyowati, D. E.; Noviani, F.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to identify the genetic specification of blood plasma protein in ewes that are prolific. The material of study of local sheep in Bawen and Jambu Sub-district of Semarang Regency is 132 which is determined by purposive sampling that have been give lambing three times. Ewes were divided into three groups that always has a single child (L1), ever had twins (L2) and twins more than two (LM2). Blood sampling was performed using dispossible syringe in jugular vein as much as 5 ml per ewe. Blood plasma was analyzed by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis-Thin Layer (PAGETLE) method in Biochemistry Laboratory of Veterinary Faculty of Gadjah Mada University. Data analysis is using descriptive statistics and the laws of equilibrium Hardy-Weberg. The research parameters were comparison type of ewes and frequency genetic of protein of blood serum. The results showed that the parent comparisons of L1, L2 and LM2 were 66 (50.00%), 49 (37.12%) and 17 (12.88%), respectively. The frequency genes haven a high propensity to relationship of prolificacy nature parent are Pal2, AlbB, CPF, TFB, PTFS and AmlB on pointes, 67.65, 55.88, 91.17, 70.59, 79.41 and 91.18%. Conclusion the mostly LM2 ewes have genotypes Pal1Pal2, AlbBAlbC, CpFCpF, TfATfB, PtfSPtfS and AmlBAmlB whit frequency are 52.94%, 52.94%, 88.24, 47.06, 64.71 and 88.24% respectively.

  5. Blocking Modification of Eukaryotic Initiation 5A2 Antagonizes Cervical Carcinoma via Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK Signal Transduction Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiamei; Chu, Zhangtao; Liu, Dongli

    2017-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death for female worldwide. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 belongs to the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A family and is proposed to be a key factor involved in the development of diverse cancers. In the current study, a series of in vivo and in vitro investigations were performed to characterize the role of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in oncogenesis and metastasis of cervical carcinoma. The expression status of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in 15 cervical carcinoma patients was quantified. Then, the effect of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown on in vivo tumorigenicity ability, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell mobility of HeLa cells was measured. To uncover the mechanism driving the function of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma, expression of members within RhoA/ROCK pathway was detected, and the results were further verified with an RhoA overexpression modification. The level of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma samples was significantly higher than that in paired paratumor tissues ( P cycle arrest ( P ROCK I, and ROCK II were downregulated. The above-mentioned changes in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells were alleviated by the overexpression of RhoA. The major findings outlined in the current study confirmed the potential of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 as a promising prognosis predictor and therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma treatment. Also, our data inferred that eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 might function in carcinogenesis of cervical carcinoma through an RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner.

  6. Proliferative kidney disease in brown trout: infection level, pathology and mortality under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Hirschi, Regula; Schneider, Ernst

    2015-05-21

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease threatening wild salmonid populations. In temperature-controlled aquaria, PKD can cause mortality rates of up to 85% in rainbow trout. So far, no data about PKD-related mortality in wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario are available. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rates and pathology in brown trout kept in a cage within a natural river habitat known to harbor Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout, free of T. bryosalmonae, were exposed in the River Wutach, in the northeast of Switzerland, during 3 summer months. Samples of wild brown trout caught by electrofishing near the cage location were examined in parallel. The incidence of PKD in cage-exposed animals (69%) was not significantly different to the disease prevalence of wild fish (82 and 80% in the upstream and downstream locations, respectively). The mortality in cage-exposed animals, however, was as low as 15%. At the termination of the exposure experiment, surviving fish showed histological lesions typical for PKD regression, suggesting that many YOY brown trout survive the initial infection. Our results at the River Wutach suggest that PKD in brown trout does not always result in high mortality under natural conditions.

  7. A synthetic cryptochrome inhibitor induces anti-proliferative effects and increases chemosensitivity in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Sung Kook [Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology, Daegu, 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sooyoung [Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Dae [Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Hyung [Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jaebong [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeongah; Kim, Doyeon [Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology, Daegu, 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gi Hoon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young J. [Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Young-Ger [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Soon [Gachon Clinical Trials Center, Gachon University, Incheon, 417-842 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-11-13

    Disruption of circadian rhythm is a major cause of breast cancer in humans. Cryptochrome (CRY), a circadian transcription factor, is a risk factor for initiation of breast cancer, and it is differentially expressed between normal and breast cancer tissues. Here, we evaluated the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of KS15, a recently discovered small-molecule inhibitor of CRY, in human breast cancer cells. First, we investigated whether KS15 treatment could promote E-box-mediated transcription by inhibiting the activity of CRY in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Protein and mRNA levels of regulators of cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as core clock genes, were differentially modulated in response to KS15. Next, we investigated whether KS15 could inhibit proliferation and increase sensitivity to anti-tumor drugs in MCF-7 cells. We found that KS15 decreased the speed of cell growth and increased the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 cells to doxorubicin and tamoxifen, but had no effect on MCF-10A cells. These findings suggested that pharmacological inhibition of CRY by KS15 exerts an anti-proliferative effect and increases sensitivity to anti-tumor drugs in a specific type of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Cryptochrome inhibitor (KS15) has anti-tumor activity to human breast cancer cells. • KS15 induces differential changes in cell cycle regulators and pro-apoptotic genes. • KS15 inhibits MCF-7 cell growth and enhances susceptibility to anti-tumor drugs.

  8. A synthetic cryptochrome inhibitor induces anti-proliferative effects and increases chemosensitivity in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Sung Kook; Chung, Sooyoung; Kim, Hee-Dae; Lee, Ju Hyung; Jang, Jaebong; Kim, Jeongah; Kim, Doyeon; Son, Gi Hoon; Oh, Young J.; Suh, Young-Ger; Lee, Cheol Soon

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythm is a major cause of breast cancer in humans. Cryptochrome (CRY), a circadian transcription factor, is a risk factor for initiation of breast cancer, and it is differentially expressed between normal and breast cancer tissues. Here, we evaluated the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of KS15, a recently discovered small-molecule inhibitor of CRY, in human breast cancer cells. First, we investigated whether KS15 treatment could promote E-box-mediated transcription by inhibiting the activity of CRY in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Protein and mRNA levels of regulators of cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as core clock genes, were differentially modulated in response to KS15. Next, we investigated whether KS15 could inhibit proliferation and increase sensitivity to anti-tumor drugs in MCF-7 cells. We found that KS15 decreased the speed of cell growth and increased the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 cells to doxorubicin and tamoxifen, but had no effect on MCF-10A cells. These findings suggested that pharmacological inhibition of CRY by KS15 exerts an anti-proliferative effect and increases sensitivity to anti-tumor drugs in a specific type of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Cryptochrome inhibitor (KS15) has anti-tumor activity to human breast cancer cells. • KS15 induces differential changes in cell cycle regulators and pro-apoptotic genes. • KS15 inhibits MCF-7 cell growth and enhances susceptibility to anti-tumor drugs.

  9. Epithelial cell proliferative activity of Barrett's esophagus : methodology and correlation with traditional cancer risk markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, FTM; Ganesh, S; Kuipers, EJ; De Jager-Krikken, A; Karrenbeld, A; Harms, Geert; Sluiter, WJ; Koudstaal, J; Klinkenberg-Knol, EC; Lamers, CBHW; Kleibeuker, JH

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition, due to chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Effective antireflux therapy may diminish cancer risk. To evaluate this option an intermediate marker is needed. We developed a methodology for measurement of epithelial cell proliferative activity of

  10. Prevalence and 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy among Danish type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of retinopathy in long-surviving type 1 diabetic patients. It also investigated the 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy and associated risk factors in a Danish population-based cohort. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 727...... type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark, was identified in 1973. In 1981-1982, baseline retinopathy was graded and other risk factors were assessed in 573 patients. Twenty-five years later, 308 patients were still alive. Of these, 201 (65.3%) were re-examined at follow-up in 2007......-2008. RESULTS: The median age and duration of diabetes at follow-up were 58.8 and 43 years, respectively. At follow-up, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 97.0%. Non-proliferative retinopathy was found in 45.8%, and 51.2% had proliferative retinopathy. The 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy...

  11. The pool of preactivated Lck in the initiation of T-cell signaling: a critical re-evaluation of the Lck standby model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ballek, Ondřej; Valečka, Jan; Manning, Jasper; Filipp, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2015), s. 384-395 ISSN 0818-9641 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/2084 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Lck, T- cell * proximal TCR * signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.473, year: 2015

  12. Effect of С(60 fullerene on metabolic and proliferative activity of PKE cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Belochkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of С60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C60FAS on activity of redox and proliferative processes in PKE (transplantable cell line of pig kidney embryo cells has been studied. In particular, it was established that the presence of С60 fullerene (127 μМ in culturing medium of PKE cells during 48 h did not change their ability to reduce non-toxic АlamarBlue redox indicator and proliferative acti­vity.

  13. Imaging findings in children with proliferative disorders following multivisceral transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryhorczuk, Anastasia L. [Tufts Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, Heung Bae [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Harris, Marian H.; Vargas, Sara O. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Multivisceral transplantation represents an important treatment option for children with intestinal failure. The attendant immunosuppression can lead to a spectrum of cellular proliferations including benign and malignant smooth muscle tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders, many related to cellular dysregulation from Epstein-Barr virus infection. The purpose of this study is to investigate the rates of post-transplantation proliferative disorders among children with multivisceral transplantation and to characterize the imaging and pathological features of these disorders. We identified all consecutive children who underwent multivisceral transplant from August 2004 to October 2011 with at least 27 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. We reviewed medical records to determine the underlying causes of the multivisceral transplant, age at transplantation, onset of neoplasm development, and outcome. Two pediatric radiologists reviewed all imaging studies independently and diagnosis of disease was made by consensus interpretation. Pathological specimens were reviewed for histopathological findings of post-transplantation neoplasm in this pediatric patient population. The study population consisted of 14 consecutive pediatric patients (7 boys and 7 girls; mean age 26 months, range 4-113 months). Of these 14 children, 4 (29%) developed histologically confirmed post-transplant neoplasms at a mean time of 2.4 years after multivisceral transplantation. Types of neoplasms included post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in three (21%) and Epstein-Barr-virus-associated smooth muscle tumor in two (14%). (One child developed both neoplasms following transplantation). Both children with smooth muscle tumor associated with Epstein-Barr virus presented with characteristic hypointense solid masses with peripheral rim enhancement on cross-sectional imaging studies. The mortality rate of children who developed post-transplant neoplasms was higher than that of those

  14. Imaging findings in children with proliferative disorders following multivisceral transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hryhorczuk, Anastasia L.; Kim, Heung Bae; Harris, Marian H.; Vargas, Sara O.; Zurakowski, David; Lee, Edward Y.

    2015-01-01

    Multivisceral transplantation represents an important treatment option for children with intestinal failure. The attendant immunosuppression can lead to a spectrum of cellular proliferations including benign and malignant smooth muscle tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders, many related to cellular dysregulation from Epstein-Barr virus infection. The purpose of this study is to investigate the rates of post-transplantation proliferative disorders among children with multivisceral transplantation and to characterize the imaging and pathological features of these disorders. We identified all consecutive children who underwent multivisceral transplant from August 2004 to October 2011 with at least 27 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. We reviewed medical records to determine the underlying causes of the multivisceral transplant, age at transplantation, onset of neoplasm development, and outcome. Two pediatric radiologists reviewed all imaging studies independently and diagnosis of disease was made by consensus interpretation. Pathological specimens were reviewed for histopathological findings of post-transplantation neoplasm in this pediatric patient population. The study population consisted of 14 consecutive pediatric patients (7 boys and 7 girls; mean age 26 months, range 4-113 months). Of these 14 children, 4 (29%) developed histologically confirmed post-transplant neoplasms at a mean time of 2.4 years after multivisceral transplantation. Types of neoplasms included post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in three (21%) and Epstein-Barr-virus-associated smooth muscle tumor in two (14%). (One child developed both neoplasms following transplantation). Both children with smooth muscle tumor associated with Epstein-Barr virus presented with characteristic hypointense solid masses with peripheral rim enhancement on cross-sectional imaging studies. The mortality rate of children who developed post-transplant neoplasms was higher than that of those

  15. Proliferative activity in oral pyogenic granuloma: A comparative immunohistochemical study

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    Rezvani Gita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pyogenic granuloma (PG is one of the most common reactive vascular lesions in the oral mucosa, which has been divided into the lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH and the non lobular type (non-LCH as two distinct entities, on the basis of some investigations. Aims: This study aims to compare the proliferative and angiogenic activity of two histological types of PG to determine whether they have two distinct types of biological behavior. Settings and Design: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, immunostaining was performed on 10 cases of each type of PG. Materials and Methods: About 4μm sections were cut from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks and each specimen was stained with both anti-CD31 and anti-Ki-67 antibodies simultaneously. Labeling index (LI was determined for both types by counting Ki-67 and CD31 positive cells separately and simultaneously in 1000 stromal and luminal cells. Micro vessel count (MVC, the mean number of micro vessels in five areas at Χ200 magnification, was also determined for both groups. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Ki-67 LI in LCH (5.4 ± 2.4 was higher than non-LCH (3.9 ± 3.9. The percentage of CD31 positive cells in LCH (28.5 ± 22 was lower than non-LCH (37.1 ± 20.8 and simultaneously immunostaining for both markers in LCH type (2.4 ± 2.1 was higher than non-LCH (1.2 ± 1. The MVC was approximately 77.35 ± 34.6 and 82.6 ± 42.7 in the lobular areas of LCH and central areas of non-LCH PG, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a higher proliferation activity in endothelial cells of LCH PG than in non-LCH.

  16. Lysophosphatidic acid signaling through its receptor initiates profibrotic epithelial cell fibroblast communication mediated by epithelial cell derived connective tissue growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Norihiko; Chun, Jerold; Duffield, Jeremy S; Lagares, David; Wada, Takashi; Luster, Andrew D; Tager, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    The expansion of the fibroblast pool is a critical step in organ fibrosis, but the mechanisms driving expansion remain to be fully clarified. We previously showed that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling through its receptor LPA 1 expressed on fibroblasts directly induces the recruitment of these cells. Here we tested whether LPA-LPA 1 signaling drives fibroblast proliferation and activation during the development of renal fibrosis. LPA 1 -deficient (LPA 1 -/- ) or -sufficient (LPA 1 +/+ ) mice were crossed to mice with green fluorescent protein expression (GFP) driven by the type I procollagen promoter (Col-GFP) to identify fibroblasts. Unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced increases in renal collagen were significantly, though not completely, attenuated in LPA 1 -/- Col-GFP mice, as were the accumulations of both fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Connective tissue growth factor was detected mainly in tubular epithelial cells, and its levels were suppressed in LPA 1 -/- Col-GFP mice. LPA-LPA 1 signaling directly induced connective tissue growth factor expression in primary proximal tubular epithelial cells, through a myocardin-related transcription factor-serum response factor pathway. Proximal tubular epithelial cell-derived connective tissue growth factor mediated renal fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation. Administration of an inhibitor of myocardin-related transcription factor/serum response factor suppressed obstruction-induced renal fibrosis. Thus, targeting LPA-LPA 1 signaling and/or myocardin-related transcription factor/serum response factor-induced transcription could be promising therapeutic strategies for renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SphK1 mediates hepatic inflammation in a mouse model of NASH induced by high saturated fat feeding and initiates proinflammatory signaling in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Sutter, Alton; Harland, Michael D; Law, Brittany A; Ross, Jessica S; Lewin, David; Palanisamy, Arun; Russo, Sarah B; Chavin, Kenneth D; Cowart, L Ashley

    2015-12-01

    Steatohepatitis occurs in up to 20% of patients with fatty liver disease and leads to its primary disease outcomes, including fibrosis, cirrhosis, and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Mechanisms that mediate this inflammation are of major interest. We previously showed that overload of saturated fatty acids, such as that which occurs with metabolic syndrome, induced sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), an enzyme that generates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). While data suggest beneficial roles for S1P in some contexts, we hypothesized that it may promote hepatic inflammation in the context of obesity. Consistent with this, we observed 2-fold elevation of this enzyme in livers from humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and also in mice with high saturated fat feeding, which recapitulated the human disease. Mice exhibited activation of NFκB, elevated cytokine production, and immune cell infiltration. Importantly, SphK1-null mice were protected from these outcomes. Studies in cultured cells demonstrated saturated fatty acid induction of SphK1 message, protein, and activity, and also a requirement of the enzyme for NFκB signaling and increased mRNA encoding TNFα and MCP1. Moreover, saturated fat-induced NFκB signaling and elevation of TNFα and MCP1 mRNA in HepG2 cells was blocked by targeted knockdown of S1P receptor 1, supporting a role for this lipid signaling pathway in inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. Sepsis and mechnaical ventilation restrain translation initiation in skeletal muscle by inducing AMPK-associated TSC[2] restriction of mTOR signaling in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In skeletal muscle, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor of AMP: ATP and modulates translation by repressing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Endotoxin (LPS)-induced sepsis reduces muscle protein synthesis by blunting translation initiation. We hypothe...

  19. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane, a cruciferous vegetable derived synthetic anti-proliferative compound in thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadi, Kiranmayi; Chang Yushan; Ashok, Badithe T.; Chen, Yuangen; Moscatello, Augustine; Schaefer, Steven D.; Schantz, Stimsom P.; Policastro, Anthony J.; Geliebter, Jan; Tiwari, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable epidemiological evidence exists to link thyroid disease with differing patterns of dietary consumption, in particular, cruciferous vegetables. We have been studying the anti-thyroid cancer (TCa) activity of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) found in cruciferous vegetables and its acid catalyzed dimer, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM). There are no studies as yet to elucidate the effect of these compounds on the altered proliferative patterns in goiter or thyroid neoplasia. In this study, we tested the anti-proliferative effects of I3C and DIM on four different thyroid cancer cell lines representative of papillary (B-CPAP and 8505-C) and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid (CGTH-W-1 and ML-1), and primary human goiter cells. Cell survival and IC 50 values for I3C and DIM were calculated by the XTT assay and cell cycle distribution analysis was done by flow cytometry. DIM was found to be a better anti-proliferative agent than I3C in both papillary and follicular TCa resulting in a greater cytotoxic effect at a concentration over three fold lower than predicted by the molar ratio of DIM and I3C. The anti-proliferative activity of DIM in follicular TCa was mediated by a G1 arrest followed by induction of apoptosis. DIM also inhibited the growth of primary goiter cells by 70% compared to untreated controls. Contrary to traditional belief that cruciferous vegetables are 'goitrogenic,' DIM has anti-proliferative effects in glandular thyroid proliferative disease. Our preclinical studies provide a strong rationale for the clinical exploration of DIM as an adjuvant to surgery in thyroid proliferative disease

  20. The proliferation induced by hyperthermia in NB69 cells is offset by a radar-like signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trillo Ruiz, M. A.; Martinez Pascual, M. A.; Cid Torres, M. A.; Pague de la Vega, J. E.; Chacon Vargas, L.; Ubeda Maeso, A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the proliferative response of the cell line NB69 human neuroblastoma, the simultaneous exposure to two physical agents: mild hyperthermia (+1 degree centigrade) and a pulsed RF signal subtermica.

  1. Reduced type II interleukin-4 receptor signalling drives initiation, but not progression, of colorectal carcinogenesis: evidence from transgenic mouse models and human case?control epidemiological observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Nicola; Northwood, Emma L.; Perry, Sarah L.; Marston, Gemma; Snowden, Helen; Taylor, John C.; Scott, Nigel; Bishop, D. Timothy; Coletta, P. Louise; Hull, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of interleukin (IL)-4 receptor (IL-4R) signalling during mouse carcinogen-induced colorectal carcinogenesis and in a case-control genetic epidemiological study of IL-4Rα single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt focus (ACF; 6 weeks) and tumours (32 weeks) were analysed in wild-type (WT) BALB/c mice, as well as in IL-4Rα (-) (/-) , IL-13 (-/-) and 'double-knockout' (DKO) animals. Colorectal cancer (CRC) cases (1502) and controls (584) ...

  2. Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats

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    Hsin-Cheng Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA, which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR and rhynchophylline (RP have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy for treating epilepsy by investigating how UR and RP initiate their anticonvulsive mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered KA (12 mg/kg, i.p. to induce seizure before being sacrificed. The brain was removed 3 h after KA administration. The results indicate that pretreatment with UR (1.0 g/kg, RP (0.25 mg/kg, and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg for 3 d could reduce epileptic seizures and could also reduce the expression of c-Jun aminoterminal kinase phosphorylation (JNKp of MAPK signal pathways in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain tissues. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α remain unchanged, indicating that the anticonvulsive effect of UR and RP is initially involved in the JNKp MAPK signal pathway during the KA-induced acute seizure period.

  3. Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA), which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and rhynchophylline (RP) have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy for treating epilepsy by investigating how UR and RP initiate their anticonvulsive mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered KA (12 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce seizure before being sacrificed. The brain was removed 3 h after KA administration. The results indicate that pretreatment with UR (1.0 g/kg), RP (0.25 mg/kg), and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg) for 3 d could reduce epileptic seizures and could also reduce the expression of c-Jun aminoterminal kinase phosphorylation (JNKp) of MAPK signal pathways in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain tissues. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 β , IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- α remain unchanged, indicating that the anticonvulsive effect of UR and RP is initially involved in the JNKp MAPK signal pathway during the KA-induced acute seizure period.

  4. Collagen organization regulates stretch-initiated pain-related neuronal signals in vitro: Implications for structure-function relationships in innervated ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sijia; Singh, Sagar; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2018-02-01

    Injury to the spinal facet capsule, an innervated ligament with heterogeneous collagen organization, produces pain. Although mechanical facet joint trauma activates embedded afferents, it is unclear if, and how, the varied extracellular microstructure of its ligament affects sensory transduction for pain from mechanical inputs. To investigate the effects of macroscopic deformations on afferents in collagen matrices with different organizations, an in vitro neuron-collagen construct (NCC) model was used. NCCs with either randomly organized or parallel aligned collagen fibers were used to mimic the varied microstructure in the facet capsular ligament. Embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were encapsulated in the NCCs; axonal outgrowth was uniform and in all directions in random NCCs, but parallel in aligned NCCs. NCCs underwent uniaxial stretch (0.25 ± 0.06 strain) corresponding to sub-failure facet capsule strains that induce pain. Macroscopic NCC mechanics were measured and axonal expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and the neurotransmitter substance P (SP) was assayed at 1 day to assess neuronal activation and nociception. Stretch significantly upregulated pERK expression in both random and aligned gels (p organization. These findings suggest that collagen organization differentially modulates pain-related neuronal signaling and support structural heterogeneity of ligament tissue as mediating sensory function. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:770-777, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HISTOLOGICAL PROLIFERATIVE CHANGES IN ADJACENT AREAS OF BREAST CANCER

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    Rema Nair Sarkar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer remains a global health problem with an increasing incidence. Proliferative breast diseases are recognised as one of the risk factors in the development of carcinoma. This study was undertaken to know the frequency of proliferative lesions and other lesions in association with breast carcinomas in mastectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 cases of excised carcinoma breast sent to the Department of Pathology for a three-year period at tertiary care centre was thoroughly examined and changes adjacent to the tumour was recorded and tissue was subjected for histopathological examination and results tabulated. RESULTS Infiltrating duct cell carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified (NOS type was present in 89% of cases. Among the associated lesions, nonproliferative lesions constituted 16%, proliferative breast disease without atypia 29%, proliferative breast disease with atypia 10% and others 45%. Fibrocystic disease constituted 14% of cases, epithelial hyperplasia 15%, sclerosing adenosis 12% and atypical ductal hyperplasia in 10% of cases. Other types of associated lesions were duct carcinoma in situ in 4 cases. CONCLUSION Proliferative lesions adjacent to carcinoma breast were seen in 39% of cases. Fibrocystic disease, epithelial hyperplasia, sclerosing adenosis and atypical ductal hyperplasia being the commonest lesions adjacent to carcinoma breast in the present study.

  6. The development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia in oral lichen planus. A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Pendás, Santiago; González-Garcia, Manuel; García-Martín, José-Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Was to describe 14 cases of a proliferative verrucous leukoplakia as a clinical evolution of oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The clinical and histopathological characteristics of 14 cases of OLP that progress towards a plaque-like and verrucous form were indicated, with monitoring over a period of six to 24.3 years. Results The female/male ratio was 11/3, (78.6 and 21.4%). The mean age when the first biopsy was undertaken was 56.4 years old. None of the patients smoked during the study. As bilateral reticular was clinically diagnostic criterion, the second most frequent clinical form was the plaque form (n=10; 71.4%), followed by the atrophic (n=6; 42.8%), and erosive forms (n=4; 28.5%). Clinically it spread towards attached gingival mucosa and the hard palate. In the histopathologic study, there were a predominance of hyperkeratosis and verrucous epithelial hyperplasia. Three of the cases progressed to a squamous cell carcinoma, and one patient developed two verrucous carcinoma. Conclusions Further research is needed to demonstrate if proliferative multifocal oral lichen planus and proliferative multifocal oral leukoplakia are the same disorder but have different behaviour of malignancy for reasons of origin. Key words:Oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous oral leukoplakia, malignant oral lichen planus, multifocal verrucous oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous oral lichen planus. PMID:27031060

  7. The cognitive impact of the ANK3 risk variant for bipolar disorder: initial evidence of selectivity to signal detection during sustained attention.

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    Gaia Ruberto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in cognition have been reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD and their first degree relatives, suggesting that susceptibility genes for BD may impact on cognitive processes. Recent genome-wide genetic studies have reported a strong association with BD in a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs10994336 within ANK3, which codes for Ankyrin 3. This protein is involved in facilitating the propagation of action potentials by regulating the assembly of sodium gated ion channels. Since ANK3 influences the efficiency of transmission of neuronal impulses, allelic variation in this gene may have widespread cognitive effects. Preclinical data suggest that this may principally apply to sequential signal detection, a core process of sustained attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and eighty-nine individuals of white British descent were genotyped for the ANK3 rs10994336 polymorphism and received diagnostic interviews and comprehensive neurocognitive assessment of their general intellectual ability, memory, decision making, response inhibition and sustained attention. Participants comprised euthymic BD patients (n = 47, their unaffected first-degree relatives (n = 75 and healthy controls (n = 67. The risk allele T was associated with reduced sensitivity in target detection (p = 0.0004 and increased errors of commission (p = 0.0018 during sustained attention regardless of diagnosis. We found no effect of the ANK3 genotype on general intellectual ability, memory, decision making and response inhibition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that allelic variation in ANK3 impacts cognitive processes associated with signal detection and this mechanism may relate to risk for BD. However, our results require independent replication and confirmation that ANK3 (rs10994336 is a direct functional variant.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid signaling modulates cell survival in experimental ischemic stroke penumbra and initiates long-term repair in young and aged rats.

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    Tiffany N Eady

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid, a major omega-3 essential fatty acid family member, improves behavioral deficit and reduces infarct volume and edema after experimental focal cerebral ischemia. We hypothesize that DHA elicits neuroprotection by inducing AKT/p70S6K phosphorylation, which in turn leads to cell survival and protects against ischemic stroke in young and aged rats.Rats underwent 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. DHA, neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1 or vehicle (saline was administered 3 h after onset of stroke. Neurological function was evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, and 7. DHA treatment improved functional recovery and reduced cortical, subcortical and total infarct volumes 7 days after stroke. DHA also reduced microglia infiltration and increased the number of astrocytes and neurons when compared to vehicle on days 1 and 7. Increases in p473 AKT and p308 AKT phosphorylation/activation were observed in animals treated with DHA 4 h after MCAo. Activation of other members of the AKT signaling pathway were also observed in DHA treated animals including increases in pS6 at 4 h and pGSK at 24 h. DHA or NPD1 remarkably reduced total and cortical infarct in aged rats. Moreover, we show that in young and aged rats DHA treatment after MCAo potentiates NPD1 biosynthesis. The phosphorylation of p308 AKT or pGSK was not different between groups in aged rats. However, pS6 expression was increased with DHA or NPD1 treatment when compared to vehicle.We suggest that DHA induces cell survival, modulates the neuroinflammatory response and triggers long term restoration of synaptic circuits. Both DHA and NPD1 elicited remarkable protection in aged animals. Accordingly, activation of DHA signaling might provide benefits in the management of ischemic stroke both acutely as well as long term to limit ensuing disabilities.

  9. Downregulation of TXNIP leads to high proliferative activity and estrogen-dependent cell growth in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Won; Lee, Su Hyung; Woo, Gye-Hyung; Kwon, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2018-04-06

    TXNIP is a potent tumor suppressor with reduced expression in various types of human cancer. The prognostic and predictive power of TXNIP has been recognized in human breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical relevance and functional roles of TXNIP downregulation in breast cancer. We examined TXNIP expression at the protein level in tissue microarray (TMA)-based human breast cancers and its correlation with clinical parameters and molecular markers on immunohistochemistry (IHC). Compared with normal tissues, TXNIP expression was significantly decreased in human breast cancer tissues and animal mammary tumors, along with tumor progression. TXNIP was restored immediately after histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment in breast cancer cells, implying transcriptional regulation of TXNIP by histone modification. Decreased TXNIP protein levels were more common in tumors showing high proliferative activity, such as high Ki-67 labeling indexes and low p27 expression. TXNIP knockdown led to increased in vitro and in vivo breast cancer cell growth accompanied by p27 reduction and GLUT1 induction. Interestingly, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer samples showed higher TXNIP expression compared to ER-negative samples. TXNIP expression decreased when ER signaling was activated by estradiol, while its expression increased under ER blockage by anti-estrogen fulvestrant. In addition, TXNIP knockdown in breast cancer cells caused significant reduction in the cell-growth inhibitory effect of anti-estrogen fulvestrant. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that TXNIP functions to suppress high proliferative activity and estrogen-dependent cell growth in breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic value of ductogalactography and cytology in the proliferative changes of the mammary ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessa, M.; Cerroni, L.; Bertolotti, A.

    1991-01-01

    Three hundred and thiyrty-six patients with nipple discharge and neither physical signs at breast examination nor pathological findings at mammography, were observed from 1984 to 1988 and studied by means of ductogalactography and cytology of discharge. Of this group, 76 patients (22%) underwent surgery and histology. In 65/76 cases proliferative pathologic conditions were demonstrated: 51 single/ multiple papillomas and 14 carcinomas. Ductogalactography suggested proliferative pathologic conditions in 59 cases and cytology of discharge showed blood in 44 patients, papillary clusters in 23, and atypical cells in 15 (both as single occurrences and in association). In cancer patients discharge appeared to be mostly spontaneous, monoductal and blood-stained. In papillomas, induced discharge was almost as frequent as spontaneous discharge, and milky discharge was also present. Ductogalactography confirmed its value in the diagnosis of proliferative pathologic conditions of the mammary ducts, being especially useful to detect carcinomas without palpable tumors. Cytology of discharge had poorer diagnostic significance

  11. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Regulate Tumor-Initiating Cell Plasticity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma through c-Met/FRA1/HEY1 Signaling

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    Eunice Yuen Ting Lau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Like normal stem cells, tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs are regulated extrinsically within the tumor microenvironment. Because HCC develops primarily in the context of cirrhosis, in which there is an enrichment of activated fibroblasts, we hypothesized that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs would regulate liver T-ICs. We found that the presence of α-SMA(+ CAFs correlates with poor clinical outcome. CAF-derived HGF regulates liver T-ICs via activation of FRA1 in an Erk1,2-dependent manner. Further functional analysis identifies HEY1 as a direct downstream effector of FRA1. Using the STAM NASH-HCC mouse model, we find that HGF-induced FRA1 activation is associated with the fibrosis-dependent development of HCC. Thus, targeting the CAF-derived, HGF-mediated c-Met/FRA1/HEY1 cascade may be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCC.

  12. [A correlation between diffusion kurtosis imaging and the proliferative activity of brain glioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoyan, A S; Pronin, I N; Pitshelauri, D I; Shishkina, L V; Fadeeva, L M; Pogosbekyan, E L; Zakharova, N E; Shults, E I; Khachanova, N V; Kornienko, V N; Potapov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the capabilities of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in diagnosis of the glioma proliferative activity and to evaluate a relationship between the glioma proliferative activity index and diffusion parameters of the contralateral normal appearing white matter (CNAWM). The study included 47 patients with newly diagnosed brain gliomas (23 low grade, 13 grade III, and 11 grade IV gliomas). We determined a relationship between absolute and normalized parameters of the diffusion tensor (mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities; fractional (FA) and relative (RA) anisotropies) and diffusion kurtosis (mean (MK), axial (AK), and radial (RK) kurtosis; kurtosis anisotropy (KA)) and the proliferative activity index in the most malignant glioma parts (pAK, and RK) and anisotropy (KA, FA, RA) values increased, and diffusivity (MD, AD, RD) values decreased as the glioma proliferative activity index increased. A strong correlation between the proliferative activity index and absolute RK (r=0,71; p=0.000001) and normalized values of MK (r=0.8; p=0.000001), AK (r=0.71; p=0.000001), RK (r=0.81; p=0.000001), and RD (r=-0.71; p=0.000001) was found. A weak, but statistically significant correlation between the glioma proliferative activity index and diffusion values RK (r=-0.36; p=0.014), KA (r=-0.39; p=0.007), RD (r=0.35; p=0.017), FA (r=-0.42; p=0.003), and RA (r=-0.41; p=0.004) of CNAWM was found. DKI has good capabilities to detect immunohistochemical changes in gliomas. DKI demonstrated a high sensitivity in detection of microstructural changes in the contralateral normal appearing white matter in patients with brain gliomas.

  13. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is associated with microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes

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    M.C. Boelter

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in working-age individuals. Diabetic patients with proteinuria or those on dialysis usually present severe forms of diabetic retinopathy, but the association of diabetic retinopathy with early stages of diabetic nephropathy has not been entirely established. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1214 type 2 diabetic patients to determine whether microalbuminuria is associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in these patients. Patients were evaluated by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and grouped according to the presence or absence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The agreement of diabetic retinopathy classification performed by ophthalmoscopy and by stereoscopic color fundus photographs was 95.1% (kappa = 0.735; P < 0.001. Demographic information, smoking history, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, glycemic and lipid profile, and urinary albumin were evaluated. On multiple regression analysis, diabetic nephropathy (OR = 5.18, 95% CI = 2.91-9.22, P < 0.001, insulin use (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.47-4.31, P = 0.001 and diabetes duration (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07, P = 0.011 were positively associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and body mass index (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.96, P < 0.001 was negatively associated with it. When patients with macroalbuminuria and on dialysis were excluded, microalbuminuria (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.56-6.98, P = 0.002 remained associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, type 2 diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy more often presented renal involvement, including urinary albumin excretion within the microalbuminuria range. Therefore, all patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy should undergo an evaluation of renal function including urinary albumin measurements.

  14. The Relationship between Proliferative Scars and Endothelial Function in Surgically Revascularized Patients

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    Murat Ziyrek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proliferative scars are benign fibrotic proliferations which demonstrate abnormal wound healing in response to skin injuries. As postulated in the “response to injury hypothesis”, atherosclerosis is also triggered by an endothelial injury. Keloid and atherosclerotic processes have many pathophysiological and cytological features in common. Aims: In this study, we investigated the relationship between proliferative scars and endothelial function in surgically revascularized patients. We aimed to test the hypothesis that atherosclerosis is a wound healing abnormality. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Consecutive patients who were admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinic with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting operation were evaluated. Thirty-three patients with proliferative scars at the median sternotomy site formed the keloid group, and 36 age- and sex-matched patients with no proliferative scar at the median sternotomy site formed the control group. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery via ultrasonograhic examination. Results: There is no signicant difference according to the demographic data, biochemical parameters, clinical parameters and number of grafts between keloid and control groups. Endothelial-dependent vasodilatory response was lower in the keloid group than the control group (9.30±3.5 and 18.68±8.2, respectively; p=0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that endothalial dysfunction, which is strongly correlated with atherosclerosis, was more prominent in patients with proliferative scars. As proliferative scars and atherosclerosis have many features in common, we might conclude that atherosclerosis is a wound healing abnormality.

  15. Analysis of in situ proliferative activity in oral gingival epithelium in patients with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenligil-Nazliel, Haviye; Palali, Ali; Ayhan, Ayşe; Ruacan, Sevket

    2003-02-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The relationship between xero-stomia and proliferative activity in human gingival epithelium is not known. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein associated with the cell cycle. Nuclear PCNA immunoreactivity is found in the proliferative compartment of normal tissues. The aims of this study were to evaluate PCNA expression in oral gingival epithelium of healthy and inflamed gingiva obtained from patients with Sjögren's syndrome, and to compare the results to age- and gender-matched subjects with normal salivary function. Eighteen Sjögren's syndrome patients and 28 controls (14 with chronic periodontitis and 14 with no clinical evidence of periodontal disease) were included in the study. Biopsies were obtained from both inflamed and healthy gingiva. The expression of PCNA was evaluated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gingival samples using an immunoperoxidase technique and PC10 monoclonal antibody to PCNA. PCNA expression was observed both in the basal and suprabasal layers, and was found to be more prominent in the suprabasal layers. Proliferative index (PI) in inflamed gingiva was significantly lower in the Sjögren's syndrome group. However, no significant difference was observed between the study and control groups with respect to PI in healthy gingiva. In both groups, PI was found to be increased due to inflammation. Our data indicate that proliferative activity is observed in the suprabasal layers and, less frequently, in the basal layer. Inflammation caused increased proliferative activity. However, this positive effect of inflammation on epithelial cell proliferation decreased significantly with a lack of saliva. Therefore, it appears that saliva-derived biological mediators may also contribute to increased proliferative activity observed during inflammation.

  16. Different lasers and techniques for proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutray, Tanya; Evans, Jennifer R; Lois, Noemi; Armstrong, David J; Peto, Tunde; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2018-03-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Over the years, there have been modifications of the technique and introduction of new laser technologies. To assess the effects of different types of laser, other than argon laser, and different laser protocols, other than those established by the ETDRS, for the treatment of PDR. We compared different wavelengths; power and pulse duration; pattern, number and location of burns versus standard argon laser undertaken as specified by the ETDRS. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 5); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; LILACS; the ISRCTN registry; ClinicalTrials.gov and the ICTRP. The date of the search was 8 June 2017. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) using standard argon laser for treatment of PDR compared with any other laser modality. We excluded studies of lasers that are not in common use, such as the xenon arc, ruby or Krypton laser. We followed Cochrane guidelines and graded the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. We identified 11 studies from Europe (6), the USA (2), the Middle East (1) and Asia (2). Five studies compared different types of laser to argon: Nd:YAG (2 studies) or diode (3 studies). Other studies compared modifications to the standard argon laser PRP technique. The studies were poorly reported and we judged all to be at high risk of bias in at least one domain. The sample size

  17. The structural pathway of interleukin 1 (IL-1 initiated signaling reveals mechanisms of oncogenic mutations and SNPs in inflammation and cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Ece Acuner Ozbabacan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a large cytokine family closely related to innate immunity and inflammation. IL-1 proteins are key players in signaling pathways such as apoptosis, TLR, MAPK, NLR and NF-κB. The IL-1 pathway is also associated with cancer, and chronic inflammation increases the risk of tumor development via oncogenic mutations. Here we illustrate that the structures of interfaces between proteins in this pathway bearing the mutations may reveal how. Proteins are frequently regulated via their interactions, which can turn them ON or OFF. We show that oncogenic mutations are significantly at or adjoining interface regions, and can abolish (or enhance the protein-protein interaction, making the protein constitutively active (or inactive, if it is a repressor. We combine known structures of protein-protein complexes and those that we have predicted for the IL-1 pathway, and integrate them with literature information. In the reconstructed pathway there are 104 interactions between proteins whose three dimensional structures are experimentally identified; only 15 have experimentally-determined structures of the interacting complexes. By predicting the protein-protein complexes throughout the pathway via the PRISM algorithm, the structural coverage increases from 15% to 71%. In silico mutagenesis and comparison of the predicted binding energies reveal the mechanisms of how oncogenic and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP mutations can abrogate the interactions or increase the binding affinity of the mutant to the native partner. Computational mapping of mutations on the interface of the predicted complexes may constitute a powerful strategy to explain the mechanisms of activation/inhibition. It can also help explain how an oncogenic mutation or SNP works.

  18. Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Tercia Rodrigues [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Laboratorio de Biologia da Celula Endotelial e da Angiogenese (LabAngio), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho da Fonseca, Anna Carolina [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nunes, Sara Santana; Oliveira da Silva, Aline [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Laboratorio de Biologia da Celula Endotelial e da Angiogenese (LabAngio), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dubois, Luiz Gustavo Feijo; Faria, Jane; Kahn, Suzana Assad [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Viana, Nathan Bessa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Laboratorio de Pincas Oticas, Coordenacao de Programas de Estudos Avancados, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marcondes, Jorge [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Servico de Neurocirurgia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Legrand, Chantal [Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Universite Paris-Diderot, Paris 7, INSERM U553, Paris (France); Moura-Neto, Vivaldo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); and others

    2011-09-10

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24 h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.

  19. Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Tercia Rodrigues; Carvalho da Fonseca, Anna Carolina; Nunes, Sara Santana; Oliveira da Silva, Aline; Dubois, Luiz Gustavo Feijo; Faria, Jane; Kahn, Suzana Assad; Viana, Nathan Bessa; Marcondes, Jorge; Legrand, Chantal; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24 h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.

  20. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells and associates with the nucleus in response to tumour necrosis factor α signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Sun Zhong; Cliche, Dominic O.; Ming, Hong; Eshaque, Bithi; Jin Songmu; Hopkins, Marianne T.; Thai, Boun; Thompson, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is thought to function as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein. There are reports of its involvement in cell proliferation, and more recently it has also been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the effects of eIF5A over-expression on apoptosis and of siRNA-mediated suppression of eIF5A on expression of the tumour suppressor protein, p53. Over-expression of either eIF5A or a mutant of eIF5A incapable of being hypusinated was found to induce apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells. Our results also indicate that eIF5A is required for expression of p53 following the induction of apoptosis by treatment with Actinomycin D. Depiction of eIF5A localization by indirect immunofluorescence has indicated, for the first time, that the protein is rapidly translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus by death receptor activation or following treatment with Actinomycin D. These findings collectively indicate that unhypusinated eIF5A may have pro-apoptotic functions and that eIF5A is rapidly translocated to the nucleus following the induction of apoptotic cell death

  1. Protein metabolism of prolific ewes during late gestation and early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebek, L.B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Subject headings: protein / metabolism / ewes

    Introduction of prolific crossbred ewes and a new protein evaluation system for ruminants, the DVE/OEB system, necessitate a reconsideration of ewe feeding strategies. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the amount

  2. The T309G MDM2 gene polymorphism is a novel risk factor for proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pastor-Idoate (Salvador); I. Rodriguez-Hernández (Irene); J. Rojas (Jimena); I. Fernandez (Itziar); M.T. García-Gutierrez (María Teresa); J.M. Ruiz-Moreno (Jose María); A. Rocha-Sousa (Amandio); Y. Ramkissoon (Yashin); S. Harsum (Steven); R.E. MacLaren (Robert ); D. Charteris (David); J.C. Vanmeurs (Jan C.); R. González-Sarmiento (Rogelio); J.C. Pastor (Jose Carlos)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractProliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is still the major cause of failure in retinal detachment (RD) surgery. It is believed that down-regulation in the p53 pathway could be an important key in PVR pathogenesis. The purpose was to evaluate the impact of T309G MDM2 polymorphism

  3. Automatic non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy screening system based on color fundus image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhitao; Zhang, Xinpeng; Geng, Lei; Zhang, Fang; Wu, Jun; Tong, Jun; Ogunbona, Philip O; Shan, Chunyan

    2017-10-26

    Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. Automatic detection of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is significant for clinical diagnosis, early screening and course progression of patients. This paper introduces the design and implementation of an automatic system for screening non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy based on color fundus images. Firstly, the fundus structures, including blood vessels, optic disc and macula, are extracted and located, respectively. In particular, a new optic disc localization method using parabolic fitting is proposed based on the physiological structure characteristics of optic disc and blood vessels. Then, early lesions, such as microaneurysms, hemorrhages and hard exudates, are detected based on their respective characteristics. An equivalent optical model simulating human eyes is designed based on the anatomical structure of retina. Main structures and early lesions are reconstructed in the 3D space for better visualization. Finally, the severity of each image is evaluated based on the international criteria of diabetic retinopathy. The system has been tested on public databases and images from hospitals. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system achieves high accuracy for main structures and early lesions detection. The results of severity classification for non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy are also accurate and suitable. Our system can assist ophthalmologists for clinical diagnosis, automatic screening and course progression of patients.

  4. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in the tonsils of pigs with proliferative enteropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian; Lindecrona, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    to necropsy but not in four pigs with moderate PE lesions. However, L. intracellularis was detected in the tonsils of 4/9 pigs with PE complicated with necroses and in 4/4 pigs with proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy in which L. intracellularis antigen also was demonstrated in tonsillar macrophages...

  5. APPROACHES TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE VITRECTOMY RISK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN PATIENTS WITH PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ruban

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the some approaches to create a system support of making decision during vitrectomy in patients with diabetic proliferative retinopathy, promotes objective assessment of individual risk-management for patient and allows optimize ophthalmological care for them.

  6. Evaluation of VEGF gene polymorphisms and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria C; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Canton, Virgilio; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Soberon-Ventura, Vidal R; Gonzalez, Victoria; Lechuga, Rodrigo; Garcia-Solis, Pablo; Garcia-Gutierrez, David G; Garcia-Solis, Marco Vinicio; Saenz de Viteri, Manuel; Solis-S, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    To assess if the included vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms rs3025035, rs3025021 and rs2010963 are associated to proliferative retinopathy in a Mexican population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A case-control study was conducted in adult individuals with T2DM associated to proliferative retinopathy or non-proliferative retinopathy from Oct. 2014 to Jun. 2015 from the Retina Department of the Asociation to Prevent Blindness in Mexico. The selected patients were adults with a diagnosis of T2DM ≥5y. All subjects had a comprehensive ocular examination and the classification of the retinopathy severity was made considering the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) standardization protocols. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. All samples were genotyped by qPCR for selected VEGF polymorphisms. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was calculated by comparing Chi-square values between the expected and the observed values for genotype counts. In total 142 individuals were enrolled, 71 individuals with T2DM and associated proliferative retinopathy and 71 individuals with non-proliferative retinopathy. One-sided Fisher's exact test was performed for rs3025021 [OR (95% CI)=0.44(0.08-2.2); P =0.25] and rs2010963 [OR (95% CI)=0.63(0.25-1.6); P =0.23]. The minor allelic frequencies obtained were 26% for rs3025021, 10% for rs3025035 and 61% for rs2010963. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the three SNP was assessed, and was as follows: rs3025021 vs rs3025035: D'=1.0, r 2 =0.1043, P ≤0.0001; rs3025021 vs rs2010963: D'=0.442, r 2 =0.0446, P =0.149; rs3025035 vs rs2010963: D'=0.505, r 2 =0.0214, P =0.142. This is the first analysis involving VEGF polymorphisms and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican population. A major finding of the present study is that none of the polymorphisms studied was significantly associated with proliferative retinopathy. Based on these results, we can infer that different populations

  7. An APC:WNT counter-current-like mechanism regulates cell division along the colonic crypt axis: a mechanism that explains how APC mutations induce proliferative abnormalities that drive colon cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M Boman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside. WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g. survivin are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric. APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly-proliferating cells during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes.

  8. An APC:WNT Counter-Current-Like Mechanism Regulates Cell Division Along the Human Colonic Crypt Axis: A Mechanism That Explains How APC Mutations Induce Proliferative Abnormalities That Drive Colon Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Bruce M.; Fields, Jeremy Z.

    2013-01-01

    APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT) that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs) at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside). WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside) and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g., survivin) are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric). APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly proliferating cells) during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes. PMID:24224156

  9. The differential proliferative ability of satellite cells in Lantang and Landrace pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-qi Wang

    Full Text Available Here, for the first time, we evaluate the hypothesis that the proliferative abilities of satellite cells (SCs isolated from Lantang (indigenous Chinese pigs and Landrace pigs, which differ in muscle characteristics, are different. SCs were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of neonatal Lantang and Landrace pigs. Proliferative ability was estimated by the count and proliferative activity of viable cells using a hemocytometer and MTT assay at different time points after seeding, respectively. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that there was a greater (P<0.05 number of SCs in Lantang pigs compared with Landrace pigs after 72 h of culture. The percentage of cell population in S phase and G(2/M phases in Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05, while in G(0/G(1 phase was lower (P<0.05 in comparison with the Landrace pigs. The mRNA abundances of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin and Pax7 in SCs from Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05, while those of myostatin, Smad3 and genes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway (with the exception of 4EBP1 were lower (P<0.05 than the Landrace pigs. Protein levels of MyoD, myogenin, myostatin, S6K, phosphorylated mTOR and phosphorylated eIF4E were consistent with the corresponding mRNA abundance. Collectively, these findings suggested that SCs in the two breeds present different proliferative abilities, and the proliferative potential of SCs in Lantang pigs is higher than in Landrace pigs.

  10. Proliferative status of primitive hematopoietic progenitors from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y; Hogge, D E

    2000-12-01

    One possible explanation for the competitive advantage that malignant cells in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) appear to have over normal hematopoietic elements is that leukemic progenitors proliferate more rapidly than their normal progenitor cell counterparts. To test this hypothesis, an overnight 3H-thymidine (3H-Tdr) suicide assay was used to analyze the proliferative status of malignant progenitors detected in both colony-forming cell (CFC) and long-term culture initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays from the peripheral blood of nine patients with newly diagnosed AML. Culture of AML cells in serum-free medium with 100 ng/ml Steel factor (SF), 20 ng/ml interleukin 3 (IL-3) and 20 ng/ml granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for 16-24 h maintained the number of AML-CFC and LTC-IC at near input values (mean % input +/- s.d. for CFC and LTC-IC were 78 +/- 33 and 126 +/- 53, respectively). The addition of 20 muCi/ml high specific activity 3H-Tdr to these cultures reduced the numbers of both progenitor cell types from most of the patient samples substantially: mean % kill +/- s.d. for AML-CFC and LTC-IC were 64 +/- 27 and 82 +/- 16, respectively, indicating that a large proportion of both progenitor populations were actively cycling. FISH analysis of colonies from CFC and LTC-IC assays confirmed that most cytogenetically abnormal CFC and LTC-IC were actively cycling (mean % kill +/- s.d.: 68 +/- 26 and 85 +/- 13, respectively). Interestingly, in six patient samples where a significant number of cytogenetically normal LTC-ICs were detected, the % kill of these cells (74 +/- 20) was similar to that of the abnormal progenitors. These data contrast with the predominantly quiescent cell cycle status of CFC and LTC-IC previously observed in steady-state peripheral blood from normal individuals but also provide evidence that a significant proportion of primitive malignant progenitors from AML patients are quiescent and therefore may be resistant to standard

  11. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  12. New signal acquisition and processing system for the execution of initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power in Angra-2, with the incorporation of the real time resolution of the inverse point kinetic equation - IPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Júnior, Décio Brandes M.F.; Oliveira, Mônica Georgia N.; Silva, Cristiano da, E-mail: deciobr@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: mongeor@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: cdsilva@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Departamento DDD.O - Física de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this work is present the new System of Acquisition and Signal Processing for the execution of the initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power with the incorporation of the real time resolution of Inverse Point Kinetic Equations (IPK). The system was developed using cRIO 9082 hardware (compactRIO), which is a programmable logic controller (PLC) and, the National Lab's LabVIEW programming language. The developed system enabled a better visualization and monitoring interface of the neutron flux evolution during the first criticality of cycle and following the low power physical tests, which allows the Reactor Physics Group and Reactor Operators of Angra 2 guide faster and accurately the reactivity variations at physical tests. The digital reactivity meter developed reinforces in Angra-2 the set of operational practices of reactivity management. (author)

  13. New signal acquisition and processing system for the execution of initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power in Angra-2, with the incorporation of the real time resolution of the inverse point kinetic equation - IPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Júnior, Décio Brandes M.F.; Oliveira, Mônica Georgia N.; Silva, Cristiano da

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is present the new System of Acquisition and Signal Processing for the execution of the initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power with the incorporation of the real time resolution of Inverse Point Kinetic Equations (IPK). The system was developed using cRIO 9082 hardware (compactRIO), which is a programmable logic controller (PLC) and, the National Lab's LabVIEW programming language. The developed system enabled a better visualization and monitoring interface of the neutron flux evolution during the first criticality of cycle and following the low power physical tests, which allows the Reactor Physics Group and Reactor Operators of Angra 2 guide faster and accurately the reactivity variations at physical tests. The digital reactivity meter developed reinforces in Angra-2 the set of operational practices of reactivity management. (author)

  14. Inhibition of p38/CREB phosphorylation and COX-2 expression by olive oil polyphenols underlies their anti-proliferative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona, Giulia; Deiana, Monica; Incani, Alessandra; Vauzour, David; Assunta Dessi, M.; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of an olive oil polyphenolic extract on human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Analysis indicated that the extract contained hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and the various secoiridoid derivatives, including oleuropein. This extract exerted a strong inhibitory effect on cancer cell proliferation, which was linked to the induction of a G2/M phase cell cycle block. Following treatment with the extract (50 μg/ml) the number of cells in the G2/M phase increased to 51.82 ± 2.69% relative to control cells (15.1 ± 2.5%). This G2/M block was mediated by the ability of olive oil polyphenols (50 μg/ml) to exert rapid inhibition of p38 (38.7 ± 4.7%) and CREB (28.6 ± 5.5%) phosphorylation which led to a downstream reduction in COX-2 expression (56.9 ± 9.3%). Our data suggest that olive oil polyphenols may exert chemopreventative effects in the large intestine by interacting with signalling pathways responsible for colorectal cancer development

  15. Engineering amount of cell-cell contact demonstrates biphasic proliferative regulation through RhoA and the actin cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Darren S.; Liu, Wendy F.; Shen, Colette J.; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Nelson, Celeste M.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cell-cell contact via VE-cadherin plays an important role in regulating numerous cell functions, including proliferation. However, using different experimental approaches to manipulate cell-cell contact, investigators have observed both inhibition and stimulation of proliferation depending on the adhesive context. In this study, we used micropatterned wells combined with active positioning of cells by dielectrophoresis in order to investigate whether the number of contacting neighbors affected the proliferative response. Varying cell-cell contact resulted in a biphasic effect on proliferation; one contacting neighbor increased proliferation, while two or more neighboring cells partially inhibited this increase. We also observed that cell-cell contact increased the formation of actin stress fibers, and that expression of dominant negative RhoA (RhoN19) blocked the contact-mediated increase in stress fibers and proliferation. Furthermore, examination of heterotypic pairs of untreated cells in contact with RhoN19-expressing cells revealed that intracellular, but not intercellular, tension is required for the contact-mediated stimulation of proliferation. Moreover, engagement of VE-cadherin with cadherin-coated beads was sufficient to stimulate proliferation in the absence of actual cell-cell contact. In all, these results demonstrate that cell-cell contact signals through VE-cadherin, RhoA, and intracellular tension in the actin cytoskeleton to regulate proliferation

  16. Anti-proliferative, Cytotoxic and NF-ĸB Inhibitory Properties of Spiro(Lactone-Cyclohexanone) Compounds in Human Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhenna, Mustapha M; Orlikova, Barbora; Talhi, Oualid; Schram, Ben; Pinto, Diana C G A; Taibi, Nadia; Bachari, Khaldoun; Diederich, Marc; Silva, Artur M S; Mameri, Nabil

    2017-09-01

    NF-ĸB affects most aspects of cellular physiology. Deregulation of NF-ĸB signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic and NF-ĸB inhibition potential of new spiro(lactone-cyclohexanone) compounds in two different human leukemia cell lines (U937 and K562). The anti-proliferative effects of the spiro(lactone-cyclohexanone) compounds on human K562 and U937 cell lines was evaluated by trypan blue staining, as well as their involvement in NF-kB regulation were analyzed by luciferase reporter gene assay, Caspase-3/7 activities were evaluated to analyze apoptosis induction. Both spiro(coumarin-cyclohexanone) 4 and spiro(6- methyllactone-cyclohexanone) 9 down-regulated cancer cell viability and proliferation. Compound 4 inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-ĸB activation in a dose-dependent manner and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in both leukemia cell lines. Results show that compound 4 and compound 9 have potential as anti-cancer agents. In addition, compound 4 exerted NF-kB inhibition activity in leukemia cancer cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 mediates the proliferative and invasive effects induced by hydroxytamoxifen in endometrial cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Gui-Qiang; Zhou, Long; Chen, Xiao-Yue [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital of the China Welfare Institute Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 910, Hengshan Road, Shanghai (China); Wan, Xiao-Ping, E-mail: wanxiaoping61@126.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital of the China Welfare Institute Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 910, Hengshan Road, Shanghai (China); He, Yin-Yan [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) effects in two endometrial cancer cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GPR30 mediates the proliferative effects induced by OHT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GPR30 mediates the invasive effects induced by OHT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GPR30 expression was up-regulated by OHT in endometrial cancer cell line. -- Abstract: The selective ER modulator tamoxifen (TAM) is the most widely used ER antagonist for treatment of women with hormone-dependent breast tumor. However, long-term treatment is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate new insight into the role of G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) in the activity of TAM, which promoted endometrial cancer. In endometrial cancer cell lines ISHIKAWA and KLE, the potential of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT), the active metabolite of TAM, 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and G1, a non-steroidal GPR30-specific agonist to promote cell proliferation and invasion was evaluated. All agents above induced high proliferative and invasive effects, while the down-regulation of GPR30 or the interruption of MAPK signal pathway partly or completely prevented the action of the regent. Moreover, the RNA and protein expression of GPR30 was up-regulated by G1, E2 or OHT in both cell lines. The present study provided a new insight into the mechanism involved in the agonistic activity exerted by TAM in the uterus.

  18. The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 mediates the proliferative and invasive effects induced by hydroxytamoxifen in endometrial cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Gui-Qiang; Zhou, Long; Chen, Xiao-Yue; Wan, Xiao-Ping; He, Yin-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We assessed hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) effects in two endometrial cancer cell lines. ► GPR30 mediates the proliferative effects induced by OHT. ► GPR30 mediates the invasive effects induced by OHT. ► GPR30 expression was up-regulated by OHT in endometrial cancer cell line. -- Abstract: The selective ER modulator tamoxifen (TAM) is the most widely used ER antagonist for treatment of women with hormone-dependent breast tumor. However, long-term treatment is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate new insight into the role of G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) in the activity of TAM, which promoted endometrial cancer. In endometrial cancer cell lines ISHIKAWA and KLE, the potential of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT), the active metabolite of TAM, 17β-estradiol (E2) and G1, a non-steroidal GPR30-specific agonist to promote cell proliferation and invasion was evaluated. All agents above induced high proliferative and invasive effects, while the down-regulation of GPR30 or the interruption of MAPK signal pathway partly or completely prevented the action of the regent. Moreover, the RNA and protein expression of GPR30 was up-regulated by G1, E2 or OHT in both cell lines. The present study provided a new insight into the mechanism involved in the agonistic activity exerted by TAM in the uterus.

  19. Characterization of the early proliferative response of the rodent bladder to subtotal cystectomy: a unique model of mammalian organ regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Peyton

    Full Text Available Subtotal cystectomy (STC; surgical removal of ∼75% of the rat urinary bladder elicits a robust proliferative response resulting in complete structural and functional bladder regeneration within 8-weeks. The goal of these studies was to characterize the early cellular response that mediates this regenerative phenomenon, which is unique among mammalian organ systems. STC was performed on eighteen 12-week-old female Fischer F344 rats. At 1, 3, 5 and 7-days post-STC, the bladder was harvested 2-hours after intraperitoneal injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Fluorescent BrdU labeling was quantified in cells within the urothelium, lamina propria (LP, muscularis propria (MP and serosa. Cell location was confirmed with fluorescently co-labeled cytokeratin, vimentin or smooth muscle actin (SMA, to identify urothelial, interstitial and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh, Gli-1 and bone morphogenic factor-4 (BMP-4 were evaluated with immunochemistry. Three non-operated rats injected with BrdU served as controls. Less than 1% of cells in the bladder wall were labeled with BrdU in control bladders, but this percentage significantly increased by 5-8-fold at all time points post-STC. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the proliferative response were defined by a significantly higher percentage of BrdU-labeled cells within the urothelium at 1-day than in the MP and LP. A time-dependent shift at 3 and 5-days post-STC revealed significantly fewer BrdU-labeled cells in the MP than LP or urothelium. By 7-days the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells was similar among urothelium, LP and MP. STC also caused an increase in immunostaining for Shh, Gli-1 and BMP-4. In summary, the early stages of functional bladder regeneration are characterized by time-dependent changes in the location of the proliferating cell population, and expression of several evolutionarily conserved developmental signaling proteins. This report extends

  20. Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of diabetic retinopathy on 25 year survival rate among a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark. METHODS: In 1973 all diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark with onset before the age of 30 years as of 1 July 1973...... were identified (n=727). In 1981, only 627 patients were still alive and resident in Denmark. Of these, 573 (91%) participated in a clinical baseline examination, in which diabetic retinopathy was graded and other markers of diabetes measured. Mortality rate was examined in a 25 year follow....../INTERPRETATION: Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients. In combination they act even more strongly. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy did not affect survival rate....

  1. Ocular pulse amplitude after panretinal photocoagulation in normotensive eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Marija M; Karadzic, Jelena B; Kovacevic, Igor M; Marjanovic, Ivan S

    2017-06-26

    To assess the effect of panretinal laser photocoagulation on ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) in normotensive eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Prospectively, we performed unilateral argon laser panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in 30 patients with diabetes mellitus type II and previously untreated bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Before and 7 and 30 days after the treatment, OPA was measured using dynamic contour tonometer. Compared with the untreated contralateral eyes, laser photocoagulation led to a reduction of OPA. Ocular pulse amplitude did not significantly differ in photocoagulated eyes 7 days after the treatment, but there was a significant difference in OPA 30 days after the treatment. The decrease in OPA values was 15% 7 days after PRP and 40% 30 days after PRP. Ocular pulse amplitude reduction after PRP indirectly informs us about choriocapillary closure, already reported in previous studies.

  2. Easy labeling of proliferative phase and sporogonic phase of microsporidia Nosema bombycis in host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are eukaryotic, unicellular parasites that have been studied for more than 150 years. These organisms are extraordinary in their ability to invade a wide range of hosts including vertebrates and invertebrates, such as human and commercially important animals. A lack of appropriate labeling methods has limited the research of the cell cycle and protein locations in intracellular stages. In this report, an easy fluorescent labeling method has been developed to mark the proliferative and sporogonic phases of microsporidia Nosema bombycis in host cells. Based on the presence of chitin, Calcofluor White M2R was used to label the sporogonic phase, while β-tubulin antibody coupled with fluorescence secondary antibody were used to label the proliferative phase by immunofluorescence. This method is simple, efficient and can be used on both infected cells and tissue slices, providing a great potential application in microsporidia research.

  3. Effect of postradiation bleeding on proliferative activity of cells in small intestine crypts of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, N V [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Vinca (Yugoslavia)

    1975-12-01

    The effect of postradiation bleeding on the dynamics of duodenal crypt's cell proliferation in rats was studied. The animals, females, three months old, weighing 170 or 180 g, were exposed to radiation of 800 R (115 R/min) and immediately after irradiation were bled by cardiac puncture to 50% of total blood volume. Proliferative activity of duodenal epithelium cells was monitored for a period of five days after irradiation. For control purposes normal, irradiated and only bled animals were used. The results demonstrated that although there are no significant differences in proliferative activity of duodenal epithelium cells in irradiated and bled animals and only irradiated animals, the postradiation reparative processes in irradiated and bled animals is considerably more stable. It is considered that bleeding itself by its hypoxic activity reduced the sensitivity of epithelium to the dose of radiation used. On the other hand, bleeding removed the damaging agents which appear after total body irradiation.

  4. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, A.; Funa, K.; Vassbotn, F. S.; Beausang-Linder, M.; af Ekenstam, F.; Heldin, C. H.; Westermark, B.; Nistér, M.

    1992-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is known to stimulate the proliferation of connective tissue-derived cells in vitro. Less is known about its functions in vivo, and the role of PDGF in the development of human tumors has not been clarified. The authors have investigated the occurrence of PDGF and PDGF receptors in a series of proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. High expression of PDGF beta-receptor mRNA and protei...

  5. Japan Turns Pro-Life: Recent Change in Reproductive Health Policy and Controversies over Prenatal Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Okamoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Japan, known as a pro-choice country in terms of abortion, is currently facing the increase of “selective abortions” thanks to new prenatal screening. Efforts to restrict proliferation of new technology has not been successful and it is likely that Japan will turn pro-life by strictly enforcing the Maternity Protection Act (MPA, which prohibits abortions due to “fetal cause”.

  6. Japan turns pro-life: recent change in reproductive health policy and challenges by new technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2014-01-01

    Japan, known as a pro-choice country in terms of abortion, is currently facing the increase of “selective abortions” thanks to new prenatal screening. Efforts to restrict proliferation of new technology has not been successful and it is likely that Japan will turn pro-life by strictly enforcing the Maternity Protection Act (MPA), which prohibits abortions due to “fetal cause”.

  7. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Solomon F; Ameh, Gift E

    2014-09-01

    This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment. The inhibition of the radicle growth was more after 72 h (87.42%). At a dose of 5% (v/v), the juice showed a slightly significant (P < 0.05) effect affect after 72 h; however, there was no significant effect at 48 h. The juice at doses of 10% and 20% (v/v) showed a highly significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment; however, the percentage inhibitions were higher at 72 h. At 72 h, the percentage inhibition for juice at 10% (v/v) was 72.37% and at 20% (v/v) was 91.96%. The concentrations of 40% and 60% (v/v) showed cytostatic effects as no appreciable growth of the radicles of the seeds was observed throughout the experiment. The percentage inhibition for 40% (v/v) was 100% and 99.72% for 48 and 72 h, respectively, while that for the juice concentration of 60% (v/v) was 100% throughout the study. The experiment has shown that C. sinensis fruit juice has a potential for causing both anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects on fast proliferating cells and hence cancerous cells.

  8. Erythrocyte fatty acids and risk of proliferative and nonproliferative fibrocystic disease in women in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jackilen; King, Irena B; Lampe, Johanna W; Gao, Dao Li; Ray, Roberta M; Lin, Ming-Gang; Stalsberg, Helge; Thomas, David B

    2009-01-01

    Although benign breast changes are more common than breast cancer, little evidence regarding risk factors for benign breast conditions is available. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have antiinflammatory and antiproliferative actions and may be important in reducing the risk of benign conditions. There is a lack of research on the association of n-3 fatty acids with risk of benign fibrocystic breast changes. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the role of n-3 and other fatty acids in the development of benign proliferative fibrocystic conditions (PFCs) and nonproliferative fibrocystic conditions (NPFCs) in the breast and to evaluate the progression of fibrocystic changes in breast cancer. We conducted a case-control study to determine erythrocyte fatty acid concentrations in 155 women with NPFCs, 185 women with PFCs, 241 women with breast cancer (127 with nonproliferative and 114 with proliferative changes in the noncancerous extratumoral mammary epithelium), and 1,030 control subjects. We estimated the relative risk of NPFCs, PFCs, and breast cancer with proliferative and nonproliferative changes in extratumoral tissue compared with the risk of these changes alone. Women in the highest quartile of eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations were 67% less likely to have an NPFC alone or with breast cancer and 49% less likely to have breast cancer than were women with PFCs. gamma-Linolenic acid (18:3n-6) was positively associated with all fibrocystic and cancerous conditions. Palmitic:palmitoleic acid (n-7 saturation index) was inversely associated with risk in all comparisons. Our results support a protective effects of n-3 fatty acid intake and the n-7 saturation index against benign fibrocystic breast changes and the progression of proliferative changes to breast cancer.

  9. Too much of a good thing? An observational study of prolific authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Elizabeth; Singhvi, Sanjay; Kleinert, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Researchers' productivity is usually measured in terms of their publication output. A minimum number of publications is required for some medical qualifications and professional appointments. However, authoring an unfeasibly large number of publications might indicate disregard of authorship criteria or even fraud. We therefore examined publication patterns of highly prolific authors in 4 medical specialties. Methods. We analysed Medline publications from 2008-12 using bespoke software to disambiguate individual authors focusing on 4 discrete topics (to further reduce the risk of combining publications from authors with the same name and affiliation). This enabled us to assess the number and type of publications per author per year. Results. While 99% of authors were listed on fewer than 20 publications in the 5-year period, 24 authors in the chosen areas were listed on at least 25 publications in a single year (i.e., >1 publication per 10 working days). Types of publication by the prolific authors varied but included substantial numbers of original research papers (not simply editorials or letters). Conclusions. Institutions and funders should be alert to unfeasibly prolific authors when measuring and creating incentives for researcher productivity.

  10. Too much of a good thing? An observational study of prolific authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wager

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Researchers’ productivity is usually measured in terms of their publication output. A minimum number of publications is required for some medical qualifications and professional appointments. However, authoring an unfeasibly large number of publications might indicate disregard of authorship criteria or even fraud. We therefore examined publication patterns of highly prolific authors in 4 medical specialties.Methods. We analysed Medline publications from 2008–12 using bespoke software to disambiguate individual authors focusing on 4 discrete topics (to further reduce the risk of combining publications from authors with the same name and affiliation. This enabled us to assess the number and type of publications per author per year.Results. While 99% of authors were listed on fewer than 20 publications in the 5-year period, 24 authors in the chosen areas were listed on at least 25 publications in a single year (i.e., >1 publication per 10 working days. Types of publication by the prolific authors varied but included substantial numbers of original research papers (not simply editorials or letters.Conclusions. Institutions and funders should be alert to unfeasibly prolific authors when measuring and creating incentives for researcher productivity.

  11. uPAR EXPRESSION IN CANINE NORMAL PROSTATE AND WITH PROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Faleiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic lesions such as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN and proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA are studied in human and canine species due to their malignance potential. The plasminogen activator (PA system has been suggested to play a central role in cell adhesion, angiogenesis, inflammation, and tumor invasion. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR is a component of the PA, with a range of expression in tumor and stromal cells. In this study, uPAR expression in both canine normal prostates and with proliferative disorders (benign prostatic hyperplasia-BPH, proliferative inflammatory atrophy-PIA, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-PIN, and carcinoma-PC was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA slide to establish the role of this enzyme in extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and in the processes of tissue invasion. A total of 298 cores and 355 diagnoses were obtained, with 36 (10.1% normal prostates, 46 (13.0% with BPH, 128 (36.1% with PIA, 74 (20.8% with PIN and 71 (20.0% with PC. There is variation in the expression of uPAR in canine prostate according to the lesion, with lower expression in normal tissue and with BPH, and higher expression in tissue with PIA, PIN and PC. The high expression of uPAR in inflammatory and neoplastic microenvironment indicates increased proteolytic activity in canine prostates with PIA, PIN, and PC.

  12. Protein oxidation and degradation during proliferative senescence of human MRC-5 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, N; Merker, K; von Zglinicki, T; Grune, T

    2000-03-01

    One of the highlights of age-related changes of cellular metabolism is the accumulation of oxidized proteins. The aging process on a cellular level can be treated either as the ongoing proliferation until a certain number of cell divisions is reached (the Hayflick limit) or as the aging of nondividing cells, that is, the age-related changes in cells without proliferation. The present investigation was undertaken to reveal the changes in protein turnover, proteasome activity, and protein oxidation status during proliferative senescence. We were able to demonstrate that the activity of the cytosolic proteasomal system declines dramatically during the proliferative senescence of human MRC-5 fibroblasts. Regardless of the loss in activity, it could be demonstrated that there are no changes in the transcription and translation of proteasomal subunits. This decline in proteasome activity was accompanied by an increased concentration of oxidized proteins. Cells at higher proliferation stages were no longer able to respond with increased degradation of endogenous [(35)S]-Met-radiolabeled proteins after hydrogen peroxide- or quinone-induced oxidative stress. It could be demonstrated that oxidized proteins in senescent human MRC-5 fibroblasts are not as quickly removed as they are in young cells. Therefore, our study demonstrates that the accumulation of oxidized proteins and decline in protein turnover and activity of the proteasomal system are not only a process of postmitotic aging but also occur during proliferative senescence and result in an increased half-life of oxidized proteins.

  13. Proliferative, necrotizing and crescentic immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Gross

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Case Summary A 5-year-old cat was examined for vomiting and anorexia of 2 days’ duration. Azotemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypoalbuminemia were the main biochemical findings. Serial analyses of the urine revealed isosthenuria, proteinuria and eventual glucosuria. Hyperechoic perirenal fat was detected surrounding the right kidney by ultrasonography. Histopathologic evaluation of ante-mortem ultrasound-guided needle biopsies of the right kidney was consistent with proliferative, necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis with fibrin thrombi, proteinaceous and red blood cell casts, and moderate multifocal chronic-active interstitial nephritis. Owing to a lack of clinical improvement, the cat was eventually euthanized. Post-mortem renal biopsies were processed for light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. This revealed severe focal proliferative and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with cellular crescent formation, podocyte injury and secondary segmental sclerosis. Ultrastructural analysis revealed scattered electron-dense deposits in the mesangium, and immunofluorescence demonstrated positive granular staining for λ light chains, consistent with immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Severe diffuse acute tubular epithelial injury and numerous red blood cell casts were also seen. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of naturally occurring proliferative, necrotizing and crescentic immune complex glomerulonephritis in a cat.

  14. Proliferative thyroid lesions in three diplodactylid geckos: Nephrurus amyae, Nephrurus levis, and Oedura marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Catherine A; Clayton, Leigh A; Clancy, Meredith M; Beck, Sarah E; Mangus, Lisa M; Montali, Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Over a 5-mo period, three diplodactylid geckos housed at the National Aquarium were diagnosed with proliferative thyroid lesions: a rough knob-tail gecko (Nephrurus amyae), a smooth knob-tail gecko (Nephrurus levis), and a marbled velvet gecko (Oedura marmorata). Clinical signs included an intraoral mass or ventral throat swelling (or both), oral bleeding, and weight loss. Both of the knob-tail geckos died. The histologic diagnosis for the rough knob-tail gecko was thyroid carcinoma with metastases to the liver and lungs, and thyroid carcinoma with no metastases was reported in the smooth knob-tail gecko. A thyroidectomy was performed on the marbled velvet gecko with a histologic diagnosis of adenomatous hyperplasia. Postoperative weight loss and bradycardia resolved following oral supplementation with levothyroxine. The animal is in normal health 10 mo post-surgery. Five other diplodactylid geckos in the collection remain unaffected, giving a 38% prevalence of proliferative thyroid lesions (3/8). The etiology remains undetermined. This is the first report of a cluster of proliferative thyroid lesions in geckos.

  15. Comparison of different initiation protocols in the resistant hepatocyte model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espandiari, Parvaneh; Robertson, Larry W.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Glauert, Howard P.

    2005-01-01

    Several models in rat liver have been developed to study multistage carcinogenesis, including the Solt-Farber resistant hepatocyte model. In this model, initiation consists of either a necrogenic dose of a hepatocarcinogen or a non-necrogenic dose in conjunction with partial hepatectomy (PH). As an alternative to PH, we investigated two different procedures: fasting for 96 h followed by refeeding, or the use of one-day-old neonates. Male Fisher 344 rats were injected p.o. with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (0, 20, or 100 mg/kg) 24 h after refeeding or PH (controls received DEN alone with no proliferative stimulus). For the neonatal group, male and female Fisher 344 rats were treated with DEN (0 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) at one day of age. All initiated animals were treated at the same age (11 weeks) with the following selection agents: three daily doses of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) (30 mg/kg), followed by a single dose of carbon tetrachloride (2 ml/kg), followed by three additional daily treatments of AAF (30 mg/kg). Rats were euthanized 2 weeks after the last AAF injection. The PH, neonatal male, and neonatal female groups receiving DEN developed more γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci per cubic centimeter and foci per liver as compared to untreated rats receiving the same proliferative stimulus, whereas the fasting/refeeding group and the group receiving no proliferative stimulus did not. All DEN-treated groups receiving one of the proliferative stimuli had more foci per cubic centimeter than the DEN-treated group receiving no proliferative stimulus. The volume fractions of GGT-positive foci in the PH/DEN and neonatal male/DEN groups were higher than those of both the DEN-treated group receiving no proliferative stimulus and the groups receiving the same proliferative stimulus without DEN. In neonatal females-receiving DEN, the volume fraction was not different from either neonatal females not receiving DEN or DEN-treated rats receiving no proliferative

  16. Differential expression of follistatin and FLRG in human breast proliferative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Vania F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activins are growth factors acting on cell growth and differentiation. Activins are expressed in high grade breast tumors and they display an antiproliferative effect inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cell lines. Follistatin and follistatin- related gene (FLRG bind and neutralize activins. In order to establish if these activin binding proteins are involved in breast tumor progression, the present study evaluated follistatin and FLRG pattern of mRNA and protein expression in normal human breast tissue and in different breast proliferative diseases. Methods Paraffin embedded specimens of normal breast (NB - n = 8; florid hyperplasia without atypia (FH - n = 17; fibroadenoma (FIB - n = 17; ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS - n = 10 and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC - n = 15 were processed for follistatin and FLRG immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The area and intensity of chromogen epithelial and stromal staining were analyzed semi-quantitatively. Results Follistatin and FLRG were expressed both in normal tissue and in all the breast diseases investigated. Follistatin staining was detected in the epithelial cytoplasm and nucleus in normal, benign and malignant breast tissue, with a stronger staining intensity in the peri-alveolar stromal cells of FIB at both mRNA and protein levels. Conversely, FLRG area and intensity of mRNA and protein staining were higher both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus of IDC epithelial cells when compared to NB, while no significant changes in the stromal intensity were observed in all the proliferative diseases analyzed. Conclusion The present findings suggest a role for follistatin in breast benign disease, particularly in FIB, where its expression was increased in stromal cells. The up regulation of FLRG in IDC suggests a role for this protein in the progression of breast malignancy. As activin displays an anti-proliferative effect in human mammary cells, the

  17. Proliferative activity and branching morphogenesis in the human prostate: a closer look at pre- and postnatal prostate growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y.; Sonke, G.; Schoots, C.; Schalken, J.; Verhofstad, A.; de la Rosette, J.; Smedts, F.

    2001-01-01

    To gain further insight into the molecular cell biologic features of prostate development, we investigated the proliferative activity of prostate epithelial and stromal cells and their topographic relationship with neuroendocrine (NE) cell distribution and regional heterogeneity. Consecutive

  18. Proliferative activity and branching morphogenesis in the human prostate: a closer look at pre- and postnatal prostate growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y.; Sonke, G.S.; Schoots, C.; Schalken, J.A.; Verhofstad, A.A.J.; Rosette, J.J.M.H.C. de la; Smedts, F.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To gain further insight into the molecular cell biologic features of prostate development, we investigated the proliferative activity of prostate epithelial and stromal cells and their topographic relationship with neuroendocrine (NE) cell distribution and regional heterogeneity.

  19. USPIO-enhanced MR imaging of macrophage infiltration in native and transplanted kidneys: initial results in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauger, Olivier; Grenier, Nicolas [Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte, Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle, ERT CNRS/Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux (France); Deminere, Colette [Service d' Anatomo-pathologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Lasseur, Catherine; Delmas, Yahsou; Merville, Pierre; Combe, Christian [Departement de Nephrologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detection and characterization of macrophage infiltration in native and transplanted kidneys using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO). Among 21 patients initially enrolled, 12 scheduled for renal biopsy for acute or rapidly progressive renal failure (n = 7) or renal graft rejection (n = 5) completed the study. Three magnetic resonance (MR) sessions were performed with a 1.5-T system, before, immediately after and 72 h after i.v. injection of USPIO at doses of 1.7-2.6 mg of iron/kg. Signal intensity change was evaluated visually and calculated based on a region of interest (ROI) positioned on the kidney compartments. Histological examination showed cortical macrophage infiltration in four patients (>5 macrophages/mm{sup 2}), two in native kidneys (proliferative extracapillary glomerulonephritis) and two in transplants (acute rejection). These patients showed a 33 {+-} 18% mean cortical signal loss on T2*-weighted images. In the remaining eight patients, with <5 macrophages/mm{sup 2}, there was no cortical signal loss. However, in three of these, presenting with ischemic acute tubular necrosis, a strong (42 {+-} 18%) signal drop was found in the medulla exclusively. USPIO-enhanced MR imaging can demonstrate infiltration of the kidneys by macrophages both in native and transplanted kidneys and may help to differentiate between kidney diseases. (orig.)

  20. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  1. Mitochondrial Respiration Inhibitors Suppress Protein Translation and Hypoxic Signaling via the Hyperphosphorylation and Inactivation of Translation Initiation Factor eIF2α and Elongation Factor eEF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Datta, Sandipan; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Over 20000 lipid extracts of plants and marine organisms were evaluated in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided isolation and dereplication-based structure elucidation of an active extract from the Bael tree (Aegle marmelos) afforded two protolimonoids, skimmiarepin A (1) and skimmiarepin C (2). In T47D cells, 1 and 2 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 0.063 µM and 0.068 µM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed hypoxic induction of the HIF-1 target genes GLUT-1 and VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 and 2 inhibited HIF-1 activation by blocking the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein. At the range of concentrations that inhibited HIF-1 activation, 1 and 2 suppressed cellular respiration by selectively inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I (NADH dehydrogenase). Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial respiration inhibitors such as 1 and rotenone induced the rapid hyperphosphorylation and inhibition of translation initiation factor eIF2α and elongation factor eEF2. The inhibition of protein translation may account for the short-term exposure effects exerted by mitochondrial inhibitors on cellular signaling, while the suppression of cellular ATP production may contribute to the inhibitory effects following extended treatment periods. PMID:21875114

  2. Panretinal photocoagulation versus intravitreal injection retreatment pain in high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Farias de Araújo Lucena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare pain related to intravitreal injection and panretinal photocoagulation in the management of patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Prospective study including patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and no prior laser treatment randomly assigned to receive panretinal photocoagulation (PRP group or panretinal photocoagulation plus intravitreal ranibizumab (PRPplus group. In all patients, panretinal photocoagulation was administered in two sessions (weeks 0 and 2, and intravitreal ranibizumab was administered at the end of the first laser session in the PRPplus group. Retreatment was performed at weeks 16 and 32 if active new vessels were detected at fluorescein angiography. Patients in the PRPplus group received intravitreal ranibizumab and patients in the PRP group received 500-µm additional spots per quadrant of active new vessels. After the end of retreatment, a 100-degree Visual Analog Scale was used for pain score estimation. The patient was asked about the intensity of pain during the whole procedure (retinal photocoagulation session or intravitreal ranibizumab injection. Statistics for pain score comparison were performed using a non-parametric test (Wilcoxon rank sums. RESULTS: Seventeen patients from PRPplus and 14 from PRP group were evaluated for pain scores. There were no significant differences between both groups regarding gender, glycosylated hemoglobin and disease duration. Mean intravitreal injection pain (±SEM was 4.7 ± 2.1 and was significantly lower (p<0.0001 than mean panretinal photocoagulation pain (60.8 ± 7.8. Twelve out of 17 patients from the PRPplus group referred intensity pain score of zero, while the minimal score found in PRP group was found in one patient with 10.5. CONCLUSION: In patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy who needed retreatment for persistent new vessels, there was more comfort for the patient when retreatment

  3. Synergy among rat T cells in the proliferative response to alloantigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.W.; Loop, S.M.; Bernstein, I.D.

    1979-01-01

    A synergistic interaction in the proliferative response to alloantigen is described for mixtures of rat thymus and lymph node cells. The optimal conditions for synergy are quantitatively defined. Regression analysis of the slope of the dose-response curve has been utilized to estimate the degree of interaction in thymus--lymph node cell mixtures. The slope of the response of cell mixtures was noted to be significantly greater than the slope for the response of lympth node cells alone. Irradiation was shown to have a differential effect on the response of thymus and lymph node cells in mixtures. Irradiated thymus cells retained the capacity for synergy in mixtures, whereas irradiated lymph node cells did not. Additional studies have demonstrated that both de novo protein synthesis and specific antigen recognition by both responding cell populations in mixtures was required for maximal synergy. These studies demonstrate that synergy cannot be explained as an artifact of altered cell density in vitro. They establish that thymus cells and lymph node cells represent distinct subsets which manifest qualitatively different functions in the proliferative response to alloantigen. Thymus cells can respond directly to alloantigen by proliferation but also have the capacity to amplify the proliferative response of lymph node cells, a capacity which is resistant to X irradiation but requires recognition of alloantigen and de novo protein synthesis. Lymph node cells may similarly respond by proliferation to alloantigen but lack the amplifier activity of thymus cells. Synergy for rat lymphoidcells, like mouse lymphoid cells, has been shown to involve an interaction of thymus-derived lymphocytes

  4. Long-term nonprogression and broad HIV-1-specific proliferative T-cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrina eImami

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex mechanisms underlying the maintenance of fully functional, proliferative, HIV-1-specific T-cell responses involve processes from early T-cell development through to the final stages of T-cell differentiation and antigen recognition. Virus-specific proliferative CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, important for the control of infection, are observed in some HIV-1+ patients during early stages of disease, and are maintained in long-term nonprogressing subjects. In the vast majority of HIV-1+ patients, full immune functionality is lost when proliferative HIV-1-specific T-cell responses undergo a variable progressive decline throughout the course of chronic infection. This appears irreparable despite administration of potent combination antiretroviral therapy, which to date is non-curative, necessitating life-long administration and the development of effective, novel, therapeutic interventions. While a sterilising cure, involving clearance of virus from the host, remains a primary aim, a functional cure may be a more feasible goal with considerable impact on worldwide HIV-1 infection. Such an approach would enable long-term co-existence of host and virus in the absence of toxic and costly drugs. Effective immune homeostasis coupled with a balanced response appropriately targeting conserved viral antigens, in a manner that avoids hyperactivation and exhaustion, may prove to be the strongest correlate of durable viral control. This review describes novel concepts underlying full immune functionality in the context of HIV-1 infection, which may be utilised in future strategies designed to improve upon existing therapy. The aim will be to induce long-term nonprogressor or elite controller status in every infected host, through immune-mediated control of viraemia and reduction of viral reservoirs, leading to lower HIV-1 transmission rates.

  5. Rehabilitation effect of oral drug on the patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy after operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the rehabilitation effect of oral Calcium Dobesilate Tablets and Epalrestat Tablets on the proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRpatients after vitrectomy.METHODS: After vitrectomy patients informed consent, they were randomly divided into intervention group and control group, and their vision and fundus were followed up and compared at 2d; 3, 6, 9, 12mo after operation.RESULTS: The recovery and sustainment of visual acuity, and subsiding of macular edema of patients in drug intervention group were significantly better than that in control group.CONCLUSION: PDR patients after vitrectomy actively orally take medicine to protect retina, which can improve vision and fundus rehabilitation.

  6. Cytomorphology of fibrocystic change, high-risk proliferative breast disease, and premalignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Shahla

    2005-12-01

    In a prospective study using mammographically guided fine needle aspirates in 100 nonpalpable breast lesions, the author's group assessed the reliability of a cytological grading system to define the cytological features of proliferative and nonproliferative breast disease and to differentiate between benign, premalignant and malignant breast lesions. We developed a cytological grading system evaluating the aspirates for the cellular arrangement, the degrees of cellular pleomorphism and anisonucleosis, presence of myoepithelial cells and nucleoli and the status of the chromatin pattern. This grading system, now recognized as the Masood Cytology Index, is commonly used as a surrogate end point biomarker in chemoprevention trials.

  7. Proliferative myositis of the latissimus dorsi presenting in a 20-year-old male athlete

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Hugh, N

    2017-08-01

    We describe the case of a 20-year-old rower presenting with an uncommon condition of Proliferative Myositis (PM) affecting the Latissimus Dorsi (LD). PM is a rare, benign tumour infrequently developing in the upper back. Its rapid growth and firm consistency may mistake it for sarcoma at presentation. Therefore, careful multidisciplinary work-up is crucial, and should involve appropriate radiological and histopathological investigations. Here, we propose the aetiology of LD PM to be persistent myotrauma induced by repetitive rowing motions. Symptoms and rate of progression ultimately determine the management which includes surveillance and\\/or conservative resection. There have been no documented cases of recurrence or malignant transformation.

  8. Surgical management of retinal diseases: proliferative diabetic retinopathy and traction retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Iñigo, Yousef J; Acabá, Luis A; Berrocal, Maria H

    2014-01-01

    Current indications for pars plana vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) include vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment (TRD), combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (CTRRD), diabetic macular edema associated with posterior hyaloidal traction, and anterior segment neovascularization with media opacities. This chapter will review the indications, surgical objectives, adjunctive pharmacotherapy, microincision surgical techniques, and outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy for PDR, TRD, and CTRRD. With the availability of new microincision vitrectomy technology, wide-angle microscope viewing systems, and pharmacologic agents, vitrectomy can improve visual acuity and achieve long-term anatomic stability in eyes with severe complications from PDR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase compositions and methods of use in the diagnosis and treatment of proliferative disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2005-03-22

    Disclosed are novel nucleic acid and peptide compositions comprising methythlioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) and methods of use for MTAP amino acid sequences and DNA segments comprising MTAP in the diagnosis of human cancers and development of MTAP-specific antibodies. Also disclosed are methods for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors and other proliferative cell disorders, and idenification tumor suppressor genes and gene products from the human 9p21-p22 chromosome region. Such methods are useful in the diagnosis of multiple tumor types such as bladder cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, brain tumors, lymphomas, gliomas, melanomas, and leukemias.

  10. Compositions and methods involving methyladenosine phosphorylase in the diagnosis and treatment of proliferative disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2007-03-20

    Disclosed are novel nucleic acid and peptide compositions comprising methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) and methods of use for MTAP amino acid sequences and DNA segments comprising MTAP in the diagnosis of human cancers and development of MTAP-specific antibodies. Also disclosed are methods for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors and other proliferative cell disorders, and identification of tumor suppressor genes and gene products from the human 9p21-p22 chromosome region. Such methods are useful in the diagnosis of multiple tumor types such as bladder cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, brain tumors, lymphomas, gliomas, melanomas, and leukemias.

  11. Proliferative, reparative, and reactive benign bone lesions that may be confused diagnostically with true osseous neoplasms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wick, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic problems attending intraosseous and parosteal pseudoneoplastic lesions can be radiographic, or histological, or both. Proliferations in this category may contain cellular fibro-osseous or chondro-osseous tissues that are difficult to separate microscopically from those seen in various true neoplasms of the bones. This review considers the clinicopathologic features of fibrous dysplasia, benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jawbones, osteofibrous dysplasia, metaphyseal fibrous defect, giant-cell reparative granuloma, "brown tumor" of hyperparathyroidism, synovial chondrometaplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, tumefactive chronic osteomyelitis, proliferative Paget disease, and polyvinylpyrrolidone storage disease of bone.

  12. Evaluation of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Henriette Toft; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    was a specific and sensitive method for detecting specific antibodies, and may be a good alternative to the existing serological tests for L intracellularis. It may be usable for diagnosis of proliferative enteropathy and for determination of a herd's epidemiologic status....... experimentally infected pigs and 62 serum samples from naturally infected pigs the sensitivity of the ELISA was calculated to 98.0%. The specificity of the test was 99.3%, calculated on the basis of 273 serum samples collected in six herds free of L. intracellularis after medicated eradication. The novel ELISA...

  13. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...... phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest....

  14. How dysregulated colonic crypt dynamics cause stem cell overpopulation and initiate colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Bruce M; Fields, Jeremy Z; Cavanaugh, Kenneth L; Guetter, Arthur; Runquist, Olaf A

    2008-05-01

    Based on investigation of the earliest colonic tissue alteration in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients, we present the hypothesis that initiation of colorectal cancer by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation is mediated by dysregulation of two cellular mechanisms. One involves differentiation, which normally decreases the proportion (proliferative fraction) of colonic crypt cells that can proliferate; the other is a cell cycle mechanism that simultaneously increases the probability that proliferative cells are in S phase. In normal crypts, stem cells (SC) at the crypt bottom generate rapidly proliferating cells, which undergo differentiation while migrating up the crypt. Our modeling of normal crypts suggests that these transitions are mediated by mechanisms that regulate proliferative fraction and S-phase probability. In FAP crypts, the population of rapidly proliferating cells is shifted upwards, as indicated by the labeling index (LI; i.e., crypt distribution of cells in S phase). Our analysis of FAP indicates that these transitions are delayed because the proliferative fraction and S-phase probability change more slowly as a function of crypt level. This leads to expansion of the proliferative cell population, including a subpopulation that has a low frequency of S-phase cells. We previously reported that crypt SC overpopulation explains the LI shift. Here, we determine that SCs (or cells having high stemness) are proliferative cells with a low probability of being in S phase. Thus, dysregulation of mechanisms that control proliferative fraction and S-phase probability explains how APC mutations induce SC overpopulation at the crypt bottom, shift the rapidly proliferating cell population upwards, and initiate colon tumorigenesis.

  15. Method of signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthomier, Charles

    1975-01-01

    A method capable of handling the amplitude and the frequency time laws of a certain kind of geophysical signals is described here. This method is based upon the analytical signal idea of Gabor and Ville, which is constructed either in the time domain by adding an imaginary part to the real signal (in-quadrature signal), or in the frequency domain by suppressing negative frequency components. The instantaneous frequency of the initial signal is then defined as the time derivative of the phase of the analytical signal, and his amplitude, or envelope, as the modulus of this complex signal. The method is applied to three types of magnetospheric signals: chorus, whistlers and pearls. The results obtained by analog and numerical calculations are compared to results obtained by classical systems using filters, i.e. based upon a different definition of the concept of frequency. The precision with which the frequency-time laws are determined leads then to the examination of the principle of the method and to a definition of instantaneous power density spectrum attached to the signal, and to the first consequences of this definition. In this way, a two-dimensional representation of the signal is introduced which is less deformed by the analysis system properties than the usual representation, and which moreover has the advantage of being obtainable practically in real time [fr

  16. Apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of all-trans retinoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, Monica; Ortega, Juan Alberto; Alana, Lide; Vinas, Octavi; Mampel, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    We examined the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) in HeLa cells. Our results demonstrated that HeLa cells were more sensitive to the anti-proliferative effects of atRA than to its apoptotic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that caspase inhibition attenuates cell death but does not alter the atRA-dependent reduction in cell proliferation, which suggests that atRA-induced apoptosis is independent of the arrest in cell proliferation. To check whether ANT proteins mediated these atRA effects, we transiently transfected cells with expression vectors encoding for individual ANT (adenine nucleotide translocase 1-3). Our results revealed that ANT1 and ANT3 over-expressing HeLa cells increased their atRA sensitivity. Thus, our results not only demonstrate the different functional activities of ANT isoforms, but also contribute to a better understanding of the properties of atRA as an anti-tumoral agent used in cancer therapy

  17. Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 percent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 percent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 percent and 0.06 percent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 percent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium (p less than 0.05), and the mean stromal TLI was also increased (0.16 percent, p less than 0.1). The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 percent (range 0.14 to 3.90 percent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium (p less than 0.001) or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia (p less than 0.05). Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium (mean TLI 0.02 percent) may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas

  18. Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 per cent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 per cent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 per cent and 0.06 per cent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 per cent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium, and the mean stromal TLI was also increased. The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 per cent (range 0.14 to 3.90 per cent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia. Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas

  19. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens in rats having an ancestry of a perinatal iodine-131 insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Cheng, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The possible existence of a genealogical memory consisting of altered lymphocyte proliferative responses to a perinatal iodine-131 insult has been investigated in two generations of inbred Fischer F344 rat offspring. The studies which involved exposure to the radioiodine during late pregnancy with concentrations ranging from 1.85 MBq (50 μCi) to 7.4 MBq (200 μCi) revealed that only the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of the first generation male animals were significantly affected. These animals were found to possess T lymphocytes which exhibited increased proliferative responses expressed toward the mitogens concanavalin A and phytohemagglutin; however, no significant changes were noticeable in their B cell population following exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Neither the first generation females nor the male and female offspring of the second generation developed through sibling interbreeding seemed to be affected, this was unlike the cellular, humoral, and natural immunity which had previously been observed to be changed in both the second and third generation animals. These observations suggest that the effects of the radiation insult upon immunocompetency as measured by lymphocyte proliferation do not appear to be inherited

  20. Arctigenin in combination with quercetin synergistically enhances the anti-proliferative effect in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Phan, Tien; Gordon, David; Chung, Seyung; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2014-01-01

    Scope We investigated whether a combination of two promising chemopreventive agents arctigenin and quercetin increases the anti-carcinogenic potency at lower concentrations than necessary when used individually in prostate cancer. Methods and results Androgen-dependent LAPC-4 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with low doses of arctigenin and quercetin alone or in combination for 48h. The anti-proliferative activity of arctigenin was 10-20 fold stronger than quercetin in both cell lines. Their combination synergistically enhanced the anti-proliferative effect, with a stronger effect in androgen receptor (AR) wild-type LAPC-4 cells than in AR mutated LNCaP cells. Arctigenin demonstrated a strong ability to inhibit AR protein expression in LAPC-4 cells. The combination treatment significantly inhibited both AR and PI3K/Akt pathways compared to control. A protein array analysis revealed that the mixture targets multiple pathways particularly in LAPC-4 cells including Stat3 pathway. The mixture significantly inhibited the expression of several oncogenic microRNAs including miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-148a compared to control. The mixture also enhanced the inhibition of cell migration in both cell lines compared to individual compounds tested. Conclusion The combination of arctigenin and quercetin, that target similar pathways, at low physiological doses, provides a novel regimen with enhanced chemoprevention in prostate cancer. PMID:25380086

  1. F-18-FDG positron emission tomography findings correlate pathological proliferative activity of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoizumi, Osamu; Oriuchi, Noboru; Miyakubo, Mitsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    It is still controversial whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is correlated with cellular proliferation and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSC). In this study, we performed positron emission tomography (PET) study and immunohistochemical analysis to elucidate the relationship between FDG uptake and expression of cellular proliferative markers and pathological prognostic markers in patients with OSC. FDG PET and immunohistochemical staining have been carried out in sixteen patients with OSC. Tumor uptake of FDG was expressed with standardized uptake value (SUV). The expression of Ki-67, Topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα), p53, and p63 in cancer cells was quantitatively assessed with positivity of the immunohistochemical staining. SUV was compared with the results of immunohistochemical analysis. FDG PET study revealed that SUV ranged from 3.6 to 22.1 with average of 10.4. Average positive rate of Ki-67, Topo IIα, p53, and p63 was 68.9%, 58.9%, 72.0%, and 65.2%, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient analysis revealed that SUV was significantly correlated with Ki-67 (r=0.616, p=0.01), Topo IIα (r=0.677, p=0.004), p53 (r=0.613, p=0.01), and p63 (r=0.710, p=0.002), respectively. The present preliminary study indicated that FDG uptake was closely correlated with pathological cellular proliferative and prognostic markers in patients with OSC. (author)

  2. Proliferative reactive gliosis is compatible with glial metabolic support and neuronal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fero Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of mammalian glial cells to chronic degeneration and trauma is hypothesized to be incompatible with support of neuronal function in the central nervous system (CNS and retina. To test this hypothesis, we developed an inducible model of proliferative reactive gliosis in the absence of degenerative stimuli by genetically inactivating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 (p27 or Cdkn1b in the adult mouse and determined the outcome on retinal structure and function. Results p27-deficient Müller glia reentered the cell cycle, underwent aberrant migration, and enhanced their expression of intermediate filament proteins, all of which are characteristics of Müller glia in a reactive state. Surprisingly, neuroglial interactions, retinal electrophysiology, and visual acuity were normal. Conclusion The benign outcome of proliferative reactive Müller gliosis suggests that reactive glia display context-dependent, graded and dynamic phenotypes and that reactivity in itself is not necessarily detrimental to neuronal function.

  3. Antimicrobial and Anti-Proliferative Effects of Skin Mucus Derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Fuochi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to chemotherapy occurs in various diseases (i.e., cancer and infection, and for this reason, both are very difficult to treat. Therefore, novel antimicrobial and chemotherapic drugs are needed for effective antibiotic therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative effects of skin mucus derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758. Our results showed that skin mucus exhibited a significant and specific antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria but not against Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, we also observed a significant antifungal activity against some strains of Candida spp. Concerning anti-proliferative activity, we showed that fish mucus was specifically toxic for acute leukemia cells (HL60 with an inhibition of proliferation in a dose dependent manner (about 52% at 1000 μg/mL of fish skin mucous, FSM. Moreover, we did not observe effects in healthy cells, in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, and multiple myeloma cell lines (MM1, U266. Finally, it exhibited strong expression and activity of chitinase which may be responsible, at least in part, for the aforementioned results.

  4. Evaluation of in vitro anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory activities of compounds isolated from Curcuma longa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Grace G. L.; Chan, Ben C. L.; Hon, Po-Ming; Lee, Mavis Y. H.; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara B. S.

    2010-01-01

    The rhizome of Curcuma longa (CL) has been commonly used in Asia as a potential candidate for the treatment of different diseases, including inflammatory disorders and cancers. The present study evaluated the anti-proliferative activities of the isolated compounds (3 curcuminoids and 2 turmerones) from CL, using human cancer cell lines HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The immunomodulatory activities of turmerones (α and aromatic) isolated from CL were also examined using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Our results showed that the curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and α-turmerone significantly inhibited proliferation of cancer cells in dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of these compounds in cancer cells ranged from 11.0–41.8 μg/ml. Alpha-turmerone induced MDA-MB-231 cells to undergo apoptosis, which was confirmed by annexin-V & propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assay. The caspase cascade was activated as shown by a significant decrease of procaspases-3, -8 and -9 in α-turmerone treated cells. Both α-turmerone and aromatic-turmerone showed stimulatory effects on PBMC proliferation and cytokine production. The anti-proliferative effect of α-turmerone and immunomodulatory activities of ar-turmerone were shown for the first time. The findings revealed the potential use of CL crude extract (containing curcuminoids and volatile oil including turmerones) as chemopreventive agent. PMID:20438793

  5. Developmental control of transcriptional and proliferative potency during the evolutionary emergence of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Coffman, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary It is proposed that the evolution of complex animals required repressive genetic mechanisms for controlling the transcriptional and proliferative potency of cells. Unicellular organisms are transcriptionally potent, able to express their full genetic complement as the need arises through their life cycle, whereas differentiated cells of multicellular organisms can only express a fraction of their genomic potential. Likewise, whereas cell proliferation in unicellular organisms is primarily limited by nutrient availability, cell proliferation in multicellular organisms is developmentally regulated. Repressive genetic controls limiting the potency of cells at the end of ontogeny would have stabilized the gene expression states of differentiated cells and prevented disruptive proliferation, allowing the emergence of diverse cell types and functional shapes. We propose that distal cis-regulatory elements represent the primary innovations that set the stage for the evolution of developmental gene regulatory networks and the repressive control of key multipotency and cell-cycle control genes. The testable prediction of this model is that the genomes of extant animals, unlike those of our unicellular relatives, encode gene regulatory circuits dedicated to the developmental control of transcriptional and proliferative potency. PMID:26173445

  6. The effect of irradiation on function in self-renewing normal tissues with differing proliferative organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Michalowski, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    The primary effect of irradiation on self-renewing normal tissues is sterilisation of their proliferative cells, but how this translates into failure of tissue function depends on the mode of organisation of the tissue concerned. It has recently been suggested (Michalowski, 1981) that proliferative normal tissues may be classed as ''hierarchical'' (like haemopoietic tissues) or as ''flexible'' (like liver parenchyma) and that radiation injury to tissue function develops by different pathways in these tissues. Mathematical model studies confirm the different radiation responses of differently organized tissues. Tissues of the ''flexible'' or ''F-type'' category display a variety of novel radiobiological properties, different from those of the more familiar ''hierarchical'' or ''H-type'' tissues. The ''F-type'' responses are strongly influenced by radiation-sterilised (''doomed'') cells, and is is suggested that the role of ''doomed'' cells has been undervalued relative to that of clonogenic survivors. Since ''F-type'' tissues have characteristically low rates of cell renewal, it is possible that these tissues are preferentially responsible for late effects of irradiation in clinical radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Analysis of the proliferative potential of odontogenic epithelial cells of pericoronal follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadon, Natalia; Lauxen, Isabel Silva; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Sant'Ana Filho, Manoel; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Oliveira, Márcia Gaiger

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the proliferative potential and the cell proliferation rate of odontogenic epithelial cells. Forty-two cases of pericoronal follicles of impacted third molars were submitted to silver impregnation technique for quantification of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) and immunohistochemical staining for EGFR and Ki-67. For AgNOR quantification, the mean number of active nucleolar organizer regions per nucleus (mAgNOR) and the percentage of cells with 1, 2, 3 and 4 or more AgNORs per nucleus (pAgNOR) were quantified. Ki-67 immunolabeling was quantified, whereas for EGFR, a descriptive analysis of staining patterns (membrane, cytoplasm or membrane + cytoplasm positivity) was performed. We evaluated the reduced epithelium of the enamel organ and/or islands of odontogenic epithelium present in the entire connective tissue. mAgNOR were 1.43 (1.0-2.42) and were significantly different among pericoronary follicles from upper and lower teeth (p = 0.041). Immunostaining of Ki-67 was negative in all cases. EGFR immunolabeling was found mainly in the cytoplasm and was more intense in islands and cords when compared to reduced epithelium of the enamel organ. Odontogenic epithelial cells of some pericoronal follicles have proliferative potential, suggesting their association with the development of odontogenic lesions. The authors suggest that nonerupted, especially of the lower teeth, should be monitored and if necessary removed.

  8. Dashed line relaxing retinotomy in the management of retinal detachment with anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsen CL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chui-Lien Tsen,1 Yu-Harn Horng,1 Shwu-Jiuan Sheu1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: We describe the anatomical and functional outcomes of eyes that underwent a modified technique of relaxing retinotomy, dashed line relaxing retinotomy, in the management of retinal detachment with anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 54 consecutive eyes in 52 patients who received pars plana vitrectomy with relaxing retinotomy during retinal detachment repair. Perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL was used as a standard procedure to stabilize the retina during retinotomy to prevent slippage or inversion of the posterior flap. If PFCL was not available due to economic reasons, dashed line relaxing retinotomy was performed instead. Best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, lens status, and fundus examination were analyzed. We excluded patients who were followed up <4 months.Results: Regarding anatomical success rates and visual outcomes, we found no significant differences between patients treated with intraoperative PFCL and those treated with dashed line relaxing retinotomy without PFCL.Conclusion: Compared to the simple and efficient PFCL-assisted relaxing retinotomy, dashed relaxing retinotomy is not the first choice when PFCL is available. Based on our results, this modified technique may offer an alternative in patients with anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy for whom PFCL is not available. Keywords: perfluorocarbon liquid, PFCL 

  9. Karyopherin alpha2 is essential for rRNA transcription and protein synthesis in proliferative keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Umegaki-Arao

    Full Text Available Karyopherin proteins mediate nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and are critical for protein and RNA subcellular localization. Recent studies suggest KPNA2 expression is induced in tumor cells and is strongly associated with prognosis, although the precise roles and mechanisms of KPNA2 overexpression in proliferative disorders have not been defined. We found that KPNA2 expression is induced in various proliferative disorders of the skin such as psoriasis, Bowen's disease, actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma, Paget's disease, Merkel cell carcinoma, and mycosis fungoides. siRNA-mediated KPNA suppression revealed that KPNA2 is essential for significant suppression of HaCaT proliferation under starvation conditions. Ribosomal RNA transcription and protein synthesis were suppressed by starvation combined with knockdown of KPNA (including KPNA2 expression. KPNA2 localized to the nucleolus and interacted with proteins associated with mRNA processing, ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis, chromatin modification, and transcription, as demonstrated by tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry. KPNA2 may be an important promoter of ribosomal RNA and protein synthesis in tumor cells.

  10. The anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effect of the methanol extract from brittle star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Mousavi, Marzieh

    2015-04-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy is a crucial step in cancer treatment. The discovery of new anti-angiogenic compounds from marine organisms has become an attractive concept in anti-cancer therapy. Because little data correlated to the pro- and anti-angiogenic efficacies of Ophiuroidea, which include brittle star, the current study was designed to explore the anti-angiogenic potential of brittle star methanol extract in vitro and in vivo. The anti-proliferative effect of brittle star extract on A2780cp cells was examined by MTT assays, and transcriptional expression of VEGF and b-FGF was evaluated by RT-PCR. In an in vivo model, 40 fertilized Ross eggs were divided into control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups were incubated with brittle star extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml, and photographed by photo-stereomicroscopy. Ultimately, numbers and lengths of vessels were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (pstar extract exerted a dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect on A2780cp cancer cells. In addition, VEGF and b-FGF expression decreased with brittle star methanol extract treatment. Macroscopic evaluations revealed significant changes in the second and third experimental group compared to controls (pstar methanol extract in vitro and in vivo confer novel insight into the application of natural marine products in angiogenesis-related pathologies.

  11. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  12. ATP signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas......The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas...

  13. To report a case of unilateral proliferative retinopathy following noncerebral malaria with Plasmodium falciparum in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinopathy in association with malaria fever described so far includes retinal hemorrhages, vessel changes, retinal discoloration/whitening and papilledema. Malaria retinopathy has been mostly described in severe cases, associated with Plasmodium falciparum, correlating the patho-physiology of retinal and cerebral manifestations. We report an unusual case of proliferative retinopathy as a manifestation of malaria fever, caused by P. falciparum with no cerebral involvement. The patient had features of unilateral retinal vascular occlusion with proliferative changes and vitreous hemorrhage. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has never been reported so far in the literature. This report highlights the possible occurrence of severe proliferative changes associated with malaria fever, which if diagnosed early can prevent possible blindness.

  14. ROLE OF THE MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF INTRATUMORAL MICROVESSELS AND THE PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF TUMOR CELLS IN RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis are essential factors for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis.Objective: to assess the relationship between the values of proliferative activity and the morphometric parameters of intratumoral microvessels in metastatic and localized carcinomas of the kidney.Materials and methods. Surgical specimens taken from 54 patients (32 men and 22 women aged 26 to 69 years (mean age 55 ± 1.5 years with the verified diagnosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC were studied.Conclusion. Proliferative activity and angioarchitectonics are an important biological characteristic of a tumor of unequal clinical value in RCC. Metastatic carcinoma has a higher proliferative activity and a low tumor vascularization than those of localized carcinoma.

  15. History of Psychology Publish and Perish: Psychology's Most Prolific Authors Are Not Always the Ones We Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D

    2017-01-01

    What is the relationship between being highly prolific in the realm of publication and being remembered as a great psychologist of the past? In this study, the PsycINFO database was used to identify the historical figures who wrote the most journal articles during the half-century from 1890 to 1939. Although a number of the 10 most prolific authors are widely remembered for their influence on the discipline today-E. L. Thorndike, Karl Pearson, E. B. Titchener, Henri Pi6ron-the majority are mostly forgotten. The data were also separated into the 5 distinct decades. Once again, a mixture of eminent and obscure individuals made appearances. Most striking, perhaps, was the great increase in articles published over the course of the half-century-approximately doubling each decade-and the enormous turnover in who was most prolific, decade over decade. In total, 100 distinct individuals appeared across just 5 lists of about 25 names each.

  16. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy.

  17. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Can Distinguish on a Proteomic Level Between Proliferative Nodules Within a Benign Congenital Nevus and Malignant Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazova, Rossitza; Yang, Zhe; El Habr, Constantin; Lim, Young; Choate, Keith Adam; Seeley, Erin H; Caprioli, Richard M; Yangqun, Li

    2017-09-01

    Histopathological interpretation of proliferative nodules occurring in association with congenital melanocytic nevi can be very challenging due to their similarities with congenital malignant melanoma and malignant melanoma arising in association with congenital nevi. We hereby report a diagnostically challenging case of congenital melanocytic nevus with proliferative nodules and ulcerations, which was originally misdiagnosed as congenital malignant melanoma. Subsequent histopathological examination in consultation by one of the authors (R.L.) and mass spectrometry imaging analysis rendered a diagnosis of congenital melanocytic nevus with proliferative nodules. In this case, mass spectrometry imaging, a novel method capable of distinguishing benign from malignant melanocytic lesions on a proteomic level, was instrumental in making the diagnosis of a benign nevus. We emphasize the importance of this method as an ancillary tool in the diagnosis of difficult melanocytic lesions.

  18. Bioelectric Signal Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Santana, A.; Pólo-Parada, L.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low noise measuring system based on interdigitated electrodes for sensing bioelectrical signals. The system registers differential voltage measurements in order of microvolts. The base noise during measurements was in nanovolts and thus, the sensing signals presented a very good signal to noise ratio. An excitation voltage of 1Vrms with 10 KHz frequency was applied to an interdigitated capacitive sensor without a material under test and to a mirror device simultaneously. The output signals of both devices was then subtracted in order to obtain an initial reference value near cero volts and reduce parasitic capacitances due to the electronics, wiring and system hardware as well. The response of the measuring system was characterized by monitoring temporal bioelectrical signals in real time of biological materials such as embryo chicken heart cells and bovine suprarenal gland cells.

  19. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  20. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  1. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf and fruit extracts from Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, P. (Přemysl); Skálová, L.; Boušová, I.; Kutil, Z. (Zsófia); Langhansová, L. (Lenka); Lou, J.D.; Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro anti-proliferative (tested on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-10A cell lines) and anti-inflammatory (evaluated as inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis catalyzed by cyclooxygenase-2) effect of various extracts from Vaccinium bracteatum leaves and fruits. The highest anti-proliferative effect possessed leaf dichloromethane extract with IC50 values ranging from 93 to 198 mug/mL. In the case of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition, n-hexane, dichloromethane, a...

  2. Hepatic progenitor cell resistance to TGF-β1's proliferative and apoptotic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J. Brian; Rice, Lisa; Sadiq, Tim; Brittain, Evan; Song, Lujun; Wang Jian; Gerber, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The success of hepatocellular therapies using stem or progenitor cell populations is dependent upon multiple factors including the donor cell, microenvironment, and etiology of the liver injury. The following experiments investigated the impact of TGF-β1 on a previously described population of hepatic progenitor cells (HPC). The majority of the hepatic progenitor cells were resistant to endogenously produced TGF-β1's proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects unlike more well-differentiated cellular populations (e.g., mature hepatocytes). Surprisingly, in vitro TGF-β1 supplementation significantly inhibited de novo hepatic progenitor cell colony formation possibly via an indirect mechanism(s). Therefore despite the HPC's direct resistance to supplemental TGF-β1, this cytokine's inhibitory effect on colony formation could have a potential negative impact on the use of these cells as a therapy for patients with liver disease

  3. Surgical management of fibrotic encapsulation of the fluocinolone acetonide implant in CAPN5-associated proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlucek, Paul S; Folk, James C; Sobol, Warren M; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2013-01-01

    To review fibrosis of fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implants in subjects with CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV). A retrospective case series was assembled from ADNIV patients in which there was fibrotic encapsulation of a fluocinolone acetonide implant. CAPN5 genotypes and surgical repair techniques were reviewed. Two eyes of two ADNIV patients developed a fibrotic capsule over the fluocinolone acetonide implant. Both patients had Stage IV disease. Patient A had a c.731T > C mutation in the CAPN5 gene and patient B had a c.728G > T mutation. The fibrotic membrane was surgically excised and the implant function was restored. The exuberant fibrotic response in later stages of ADNIV may be resistant to local immunosuppression with steroids. Surgical excision of fibrotic membranes over FA implants can reestablish local steroid delivery in cases of severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

  4. Mitochondrial localization of the low level p53 protein in proliferative cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferecatu, Ioana; Bergeaud, Marie; Rodriguez-Enfedaque, Aida; Le Floch, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire - CNRS UMR 8159, Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France and Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire et Physiologique, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Versailles (France); Oliver, Lisa [INSERM U601, Universite de Nantes, Faculte de Medecine, Nantes Cedex (France); Rincheval, Vincent; Renaud, Flore [Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire - CNRS UMR 8159, Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France and Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire et Physiologique, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Versailles (France); Vallette, Francois M. [INSERM U601, Universite de Nantes, Faculte de Medecine, Nantes Cedex (France); Mignotte, Bernard [Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire - CNRS UMR 8159, Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France and Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire et Physiologique, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Versailles (France); Vayssiere, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jean-luc.vayssiere@uvsq.fr [Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire - CNRS UMR 8159, Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France and Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire et Physiologique, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Versailles (France)

    2009-10-02

    p53 protein plays a central role in suppressing tumorigenesis by inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis through transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Emerging publications suggest that following stress, a fraction of p53 translocates to mitochondria to induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis. However, the localization of p53 under unstressed conditions remains largely unexplored. Here we show that p53 is localized at mitochondria in absence of apoptotic stimuli, when cells are proliferating, localization observed in various cell types (rodent and human). This is also supported by acellular assays in which p53 bind strongly to mitochondria isolated from rat liver. Furthermore, the mitochondria subfractionation study and the alkaline treatment of the mitochondrial p53 revealed that the majority of mitochondrial p53 is present in the membranous compartments. Finally, we identified VDAC, a protein of the mitochondrial outer-membrane, as a putative partner of p53 in unstressed/proliferative cells.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and anti-proliferative activity of heterocyclic hypervalent organoantimony compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Yu, Kun; Tan, Nian-Yuan; Qiu, Ren-Hua; Liu, Wei; Luo, Ning-Lin; Tong, Le; Au, Chak-Tong; Luo, Zi-Qiang; Yin, Shuang-Feng

    2014-05-22

    Three heterocyclic hypervalent organoantimony chlorides RN(CH2C6H4)2SbCl (2a R = t-Bu, 2b R = Cy, 2c R = Ph) and their chalcogenide derivatives [RN(CH2C6H4)2Sb]2O (3a R = t-Bu, 3b R = Cy, 3c R = Ph) were synthesized and characterized by techniques such as (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analysis. It is found that the anti-proliferative activity detected over these compounds can be attributed to the coordination bond between the antimony and nitrogen atoms of these compounds. Moreover, a preliminary study on mechanistic action suggests that the inhibition effect is ascribable to cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric Acid in Vitreous of Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Deng; De-Zheng Wu; Rulong Gao

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) and to investigate their roles in retinal ischemia.Method: Vitreous samples were collected from 25 patients (27 eyes) with PDR and 14patients ( 14 eyes) with idiopathic macular hole. Glutamate and GABA detection were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results: Patients with PDR had significantly higher concentrations of glutamate and GABA than the control group. The glutamate level has a significantly positive correlation with GABA level.Conclusion: Detection of glutamate and GABA in vitreous provides biochemical support for the mechanism and treatment of ischemic retinal damage in patients with PDR.

  7. Structural Changes of the Macula on Optical Coherence Tomography after Vitrectomy for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong Chan; Kim, Jong Ho; Park, Dong Ho; Shin, Jae Pil

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between macular structural changes and visual prognosis after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The study included 60 eyes that had undergone PPV. Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings were classified into 5 groups preoperatively and 10 groups postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were analyzed according to pre- and postoperative OCT. From the preoperative OCT, normal fovea with/without traction, normal fovea with preretinal hemorrhage, and tractional retinal detachment involving fovea showed an increase in BCVA after PPV (all p 20/50). Subfoveal fibrosis, macular hole, loss of foveal depression, and serous foveal detachment showed poor visual prognosis (BCVA <20/100). Macular structural changes were various after PPV, and visual prognosis correlated with these changes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Mitochondrial localization of the low level p53 protein in proliferative cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferecatu, Ioana; Bergeaud, Marie; Rodriguez-Enfedaque, Aida; Le Floch, Nathalie; Oliver, Lisa; Rincheval, Vincent; Renaud, Flore; Vallette, Francois M.; Mignotte, Bernard; Vayssiere, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    p53 protein plays a central role in suppressing tumorigenesis by inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis through transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Emerging publications suggest that following stress, a fraction of p53 translocates to mitochondria to induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis. However, the localization of p53 under unstressed conditions remains largely unexplored. Here we show that p53 is localized at mitochondria in absence of apoptotic stimuli, when cells are proliferating, localization observed in various cell types (rodent and human). This is also supported by acellular assays in which p53 bind strongly to mitochondria isolated from rat liver. Furthermore, the mitochondria subfractionation study and the alkaline treatment of the mitochondrial p53 revealed that the majority of mitochondrial p53 is present in the membranous compartments. Finally, we identified VDAC, a protein of the mitochondrial outer-membrane, as a putative partner of p53 in unstressed/proliferative cells.

  9. [Heavy silicone oil (Densiron® 68) in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: 4 years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Murelaga, B; Ruiz, M; Bascarán, L; Gibelalde, A; Aldazabal, M; Irigoyen, C

    2013-11-01

    Prospective observational study including 10 patients (age range: 27-74 years) with recurrent retinal detachment (RD) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and 2.8 mean unsatisfactory previous surgeries. Densiron® was injected in all patients, with surgical retinectomy being required in 70% of them. Minimum follow-up time was 12 months. The mean length of time before Densiron® withdrawal was 4 months. Three patients (30%) presented with a new RD. The main complication detected was cataract development. No relationship was found between re-detachments and tamponade time, baseline disease or RD evolution time. Densiron® may be a good option in cases of recurrent RD in which previous treatment with scleral buckle, gas and/or 1,000/5,000 silicone oils has proven to be unsatisfactory. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro anti-proliferative and hemolytic activity of hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, R.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAP) nanoparticles are widely used in several biomedical applications due to its compositional similarities to bone mineral, excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, osteoconductivity. In this present investigation, HAP nanoparticles synthesized by precipitation technique using calcium nitrate and di-ammonium phosphate. The crystalline nature and the functional group analysis are confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) respectively. The morphological observations are ascertained from field emission electron scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In vitro anti-proliferative and hemolytic activities are carried out on the synthesized HAP samples and the studies reveals that HAP have mild activity against erythrocytes.

  11. Temporal changes in retinal vascular parameters associated with successful panretinal photocoagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Thomas Lee; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wong, Tien Yin

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate changes in retinal vascular geometry over time after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: Thirty-seven eyes with PDR were included. Wide-field fluorescein angiography (Optomap, Optos PLC., Dunfermline......, Scotland, UK) was used to diagnose PDR at baseline and to assess activity at follow-up month three and six. At each time-point, a trained grader measured retinal vessel geometry on optic disc (OD) centred images using semiautomated software (SIVA, Singapore I Vessel Assessment, National University...... of Singapore, Singapore) according to a standardized protocol. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean age and duration of diabetes were 52.8 and 22.3 years, and 65% were male. Mean HbA1c was 69.9 mmol/mol, and blood pressure was 155/84 mmHg. Of the 37 eyes with PDR, eight (22%) eyes had progression at month three...

  12. CASE REPORT OF SEVERE PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY IN A PATIENT WITH CONGENITAL LIPODYSTROPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, Boris; Jaouni, Tareq

    2017-08-21

    A case report of a patient with severe proliferative retinopathy due to congenital lipodystrophy. We reviewed the medical history, imaging, and surgical procedures of a 25-year-old woman with a history of congenital lipodystrophy, presenting with bilateral combined tractional and exudative retinal detachment, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and extreme dislipidemia. The patient underwent retinal detachment repair surgery both eyes. On the last follow-up, both retinae were flat, and visual acuity had improved in the right eye to J3 for near and finger counting 3 m for distance. Surgery combining pars plana vitrectomy and scleral bucking successfully flattened both retinae and significantly improved visual acuity in one eye in this case of bilateral retinal detachment with combined tractional and exudative components in a patient with congenital lipodystrophy. Surgical control of retinal complications is thus possible, provided there is adequate control of the underlying risk factors.

  13. In vitro anti-proliferative activity of clove extract on human gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cancer cell resistance to common chemotherapy agents is on rise. Plants are considered valuable sources of herbal drugs for cancer therapy. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and apoptosis-inducing properties of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L. extract in human gastric carcinoma (AGS. Methods: Crude ethanol extract of S. aromaticum dried buds was prepared and  in vitro anti-proliferative effects of the extract on AGS and normal Human dermal fibroblasts (HDF cell lines were studied by MTT assay. To examine apoptosis induction, AGS cells were incubated with IC50 concentrations of the extract, stained with propidium iodide (PI and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, and analyzed by flow cytometry. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics and flavonoids contents were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Results: The IC50 of DPPH and total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the extract were 10.05±1.93 μg/mL, 225.6±40 mg GAE/g, and 29.30±2.35 mgRUT/g, respectively. The IC50 of the extract against HDFs was 649 µg/mL, higher than AGS cells, which was 118.7 g/mL at 48 h after treatment. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the extract induced cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Crude ethanol S. aromaticum extract had high total phenolics content, and suppressed the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells, likely due to apoptosis induction. Further studies should be conducted to determine the mechanisms of its anticancer effects.

  14. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  15. PECULIARITIES OF PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF CERVICAL SQUAMOUS CANCER IN HIV INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytvynenko, M; Shkolnikov, V; Bocharova, T; Sychova, L; Gargin, V

    2017-09-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have a statistically significant increased risk of developing cervical cancer. The expression of the human Ki-67 protein is strictly associated with cell proliferation. The purpose of our work was detection of proliferative activity in cervical squamous cancer in women with HIV infection. We investigated 24 cases (12 patients with HIV and 12 patients without HIV infection) of cervical carcinoma, where biopsy had been performed before the treatment. According to histopathological diagnoses, well-differentiated, moderately and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (7, 13 and 4 cases respectively) was determined. Mean age of women in the group with HIV infection was 32.7 years, and 38.2 years in the group without HIV infection. Detection of protein Ki-67 expression was performed with nuclear staining in the intermediate and superficial cells. The results of this work show that proliferative activity of cervical squamous cancer in women with HIV infection is characterized by a higher level of Ki-67 with averaging level for all histological types of squamous cell carcinoma 62.5±5.6% that is one and half times higher than in group without HIV infection. Depending on a histological type, expression of Ki-67 has increased from 4.7±3.8% in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma up to 89.2±5.1% in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma for group with HIV, and from 21.3±2.4% to 79.4±3.7 in group without HIV.

  16. Alteration of melatonin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikichi T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiichi Hikichi1, Naohiro Tateda2, Toshiaki Miura31Department of Ophthalmology, Ohtsuka Eye Hospital, Sapporo; 2Asahikawa National College of Technology, Asahikawa; 3Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of plasma melatonin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy.Methods: Plasma melatonin levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in 56 patients. Patients were divided into a diabetic group (30 patients and a nondiabetic group (26 patients. The diabetic group was divided further into a proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group (n = 14 and a nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR group (n = 16. Plasma melatonin levels obtained at midnight and 3 am were compared between the groups.Results: Nighttime melatonin levels were significantly lower in the diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (P < 0.03 and lower in the PDR group than in the nondiabetic and NPDR groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.03, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the nondiabetic and NPDR groups. The daytime melatonin level did not significantly differ between the nondiabetic and diabetic groups or between the nondiabetic, NPDR, and PDR groups.Conclusion: The nighttime melatonin level is altered in patients with diabetes and PDR but not in diabetic patients without PDR. Although patients with PDR may have various dysfunctions that affect melatonin secretion more severely, advanced dysfunction of retinal light perception may cause altered melatonin secretion. Alteration of melatonin secretion may accelerate further occurrence of complications in diabetic patients.Keywords: circadian rhythm, diabetes, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, melatonin

  17. Apoptotic Cell Death and the Proliferative Capacity of Human Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele A. Losa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferative capacity (%S‐phase fraction, DNA ploidy, apoptosis frequency (DNA fragmentation and steroid hormone receptor status (estrogen receptor, ER; progesterone receptor, PR of 110 samples of human breast tissues with ductal invasive carcinoma were measured using biochemical and cytofluorimetric procedures. The DNA fragmentation had a left‐skewed frequency distribution and an overall median value of 1.64%, whilst the median %S‐phase fraction was 8%. The median %DNA fragmentation and %S‐phase fraction were 1.96% and 16% in hyperdiploid tumours (n=29; DNA index >1.1 higher than in hypodiploid tumors (n=10; DNA index 0.96, 0.38% and 7.5%. DNA diploid tumours (n=71 had median %DNA fragmentation and %S‐phase values of 1.68% and 6%, consistently lower than the median values of DNA hyperdiploid tumours. The ER content of hypodiploid tumours was about one half (median: 5.9 fmol/mg the median values in hyperdiploid (10.6 fmol/mg and diploid tumours (14.6 fmol/mg. This may correlate with the lowest frequency of apoptosis in hypodiploid tumours, at least when measured by biochemical methods which only detect cells in the late phases of apoptosis. In contrast, the median PR was lowest in hyperdiploid tumours than in hypo and/or diploid tumours. The %S‐phase/%fragmented DNA ratio for the hypodiploid tumours was 19.7, significantly higher than the ratios for hyperdiploid (8.2 and diploid tumours (3.6. These findings indicated that there is an imbalance between proliferative capacity and cell death or growth arrest in human breast tumours. This imbalance may well be linked to a loss of steroid hormone control.

  18. Elevated Subclinical Double-Stranded DNA Antibodies and Future Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica J.; Prince, Lisa K.; Baker, Thomas P.; Papadopoulos, Patricia; Edison, Jess; Abbott, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Elevated anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody and C-reactive protein are associated with proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN). Progression of quantitative anti-dsDNA antibody in patients with PLN has not been compared with that in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without LN before diagnosis. The temporal relationship between anti-dsDNA antibody and C-reactive protein elevation has also not been evaluated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (established in 1985) study compared longitudinal prediagnostic quantitative anti-dsDNA antibody and C-reactive protein levels in 23 patients with biopsy-proven PLN (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1993–2009) with levels in 21 controls with SLE but without LN matched for patient age, sex, race, and age of serum sample. The oldest (median, 2601 days; 25%, 1245 days, 75%, 3075 days), the second to last (368; 212, 635 days), and the last (180; 135, 477 days) serum sample before diagnosis were analyzed. Results More patients with PLN had an elevated anti-dsDNA antibody level than did the matched controls at any point (78% versus 5%; P4 years (33% versus 0%; P=0.04) before diagnosis. A rate of increase >1 IU/ml per year (70% versus 0%; P<0.001) was most specific for PLN. The anti-dsDNA antibody levels increased before C-reactive protein did in most patients with an antecedent elevation (92% versus 8%; P<0.001). Conclusions Elevated anti-dsDNA antibody usually precedes both clinical and subclinical evidence of proliferative LN, which suggests direct pathogenicity. Absolute anti-dsDNA antibody level and rate of increase could better establish risk of future PLN in patients with SLE. PMID:23833315

  19. Differences In Early T-Cell Signaling In Cultures Grown In a Rotating Clinostat vs. Static Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexamder. M.; Nelman-Gonzales, M.; Penkala, J.; Sams, C.

    1999-01-01

    Altered gravity has previously been demonstrated to be a stress that can influence components of the immune system. Specifically, T-cell activation has been shown to be affected by changes in gravity, exhibiting a decrease in proliferative response to in vitro stimulation in microgravity. Subsequent ground based studies utilizing a rotating clinostat to model some of the effects of microgravity have been consistent with earlier flight based experiments. These ground and flight experiments have examined T-cell activation by measuring various responses including production of cytokines, DNA synthesis and the production of various cell surface activation markers. These indicators of T-cell activation were measured anywhere from 4 to 72 hours after stimulation. Prior to the work described here, the initial signaling events in T-cell activation had not been directly examined. The goal of this project was to determine how the process of early signal transduction was affected by growth in a rotating clinostat. Here we directly show a defect in signaling from TCR to MAPK in purified peripheral T-cells activated in the clinostat by OKT3/antiCD28 coated microbeads as compared to static controls.

  20. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Partisan Trajectory of the American Pro-Life Movement: How a Liberal Catholic Campaign Became a Conservative Evangelical Cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K. Williams

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article employs a historical analysis of the religious composition of the pro-life movement to explain why the partisan identity of the movement shifted from the left to the right between the late 1960s and the 1980s. Many of the Catholics who formed the first anti-abortion organizations in the late 1960s were liberal Democrats who viewed their campaign to save the unborn as a rights-based movement that was fully in keeping with the principles of New Deal and Great Society liberalism, but when evangelical Protestants joined the movement in the late 1970s, they reframed the pro-life cause as a politically conservative campaign linked not to the ideology of human rights but to the politics of moral order and “family values.” This article explains why the Catholic effort to build a pro-life coalition of liberal Democrats failed after Roe v. Wade, why evangelicals became interested in the antiabortion movement, and why the evangelicals succeeded in their effort to rebrand the pro-life campaign as a conservative cause.

  2. Esculetin exerts anti-proliferative effects against non-small-cell lung carcinoma by suppressing specificity protein 1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ra H; Jeon, Young-Joo; Cho, Jin H; Jang, Jeong-Yun; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Seok-Ho; Kim, MinSeok S; Chung, Hak-Jae; Oh, Keon B; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Seo, Jae-Min; Ko, Sungho; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2017-01-01

    Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, is a phenolic compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris, Citrus limonia, and Euphorbia lathyris. Although it has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative activities in several human cancers, its anti-proliferative activity against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and the molecular mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. In this study, we used two NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H358 and NCI-H1299) to investigate the anti-proliferative activity and apoptotic effect of esculetin. Our data showed that esculetin-treated cells exhibited reduced proliferation and apoptotic cell morphologies. Intriguingly, the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was significantly suppressed by esculetin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of p27 and p21, two key regulators of the cell cycle, were up-regulated by the esculetin-mediated down-regulation of Sp1; the level of a third cell-cycle regulator, survivin, was decreased, resulting in caspase-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, we conclude that esculetin could be a potent anti-proliferative agent in patients with NSCLC.

  3. Evaluation of viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells cultured onto xenogenic tissue-engineered extracellular matrices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells (HUCs) cultured on tissue-engineered extracellular matrix scaffolds and to assess the potential of extracellular matrixes to support the growth of HUCs in their expected in vivo urine environment.

  4. Ki-67 immunoreactivity in meningiomas--determination of the proliferative potential of meningiomas using the monoclonal antibody Ki-67

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Schrøder, H D

    1997-01-01

    The proliferative potential of 66 human intracranial meningiomas (15 benign, 15 atypical, 15 recurrent, 13 bone-invasive, and 8 brain-invasive) was investigated by means of immunohisto-chemistry using the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. This antibody recognizes a nuclear antigen present in human cells...

  5. Proliferative responses of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) in a cohort of elderly humans: role of lymphocyte phenotype and cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2000-01-01

    Age-related impaired T cell function is associated with increased mortality risk. The purpose of the present study was therefore to identify factors associated with the age-related decreased phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced proliferative response of lymphocytes in a cohort of 174 81-year...

  6. Effect of Enterococcus faecium EF 55 on morphometry and proliferative activity of intestinal mucosa in broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševčíková Zuzana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium EF55 on chickens, as well as its influence on proliferative activity of epithelial intestinal cells after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4. Moreover, the length and area of duodenal and jejunal villi of the birds were examined.

  7. [Prader-Willi syndrome case with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in both eyes treated by early vitrectomy under local anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hideyuki; Sato, Yukihiro; Nakashima, Motohiro; Nakajima, Motohiro

    2012-02-01

    Although patients with Prader-Willi syndrome have a high rate of diabetes, to date, there have been only 4 reported cases (6 eyes) undergoing vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we report a case of Prader-Willi syndrome with proliferative diabetic retinopathy that was treated by early vitrectomy OU under local anesthesia. A 30-year-old man was diagnosed as having Prader-Willi syndrome at the age of 2 years and diabetes at age 17. He was referred to our hospital as diabetic retinopathy had been detected in his first ophthalmological examination at age 29. Visual acuity was 0.6 bilaterally. Proliferative retinopathy, with cataract and macular edema, was identified in both eyes. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed on both eyes. However, proliferative membranes developed bilaterally, and vitreous hemorrhage occurred OS. Visual acuity decreased to 0.3 OU. The patient was hospitalized at our internal medicine department for blood glucose control. Subsequently, with an anesthesiologist on standby, a hypnotic sedative was injected intramuscularly, achieving retro-bulbar anesthesia. Combined cataract and vitreous surgery was performed on the left eye. One week later, a similar operation was performed on the right eye. The patient was discharged four days later. In the two years since these operation, visual acuity has been maintained at 0.8 OU. Patients with Prader-Willi syndrome should be examined for early detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  8. Wound healing morbidity in STS patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy in relation to in vitro skin fibroblast radiosensitivity, proliferative capacity and TGF-β activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akudugu, John M.; Bell, Robert S.; Catton, Charles; Davis, Aileen M.; Griffin, Anthony M.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John N.; Ferguson, Peter C.; Wunder, Jay S.; Hill, Richard P.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: In a recent study, we demonstrated that the ability of dermal fibroblasts, obtained from soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients, to undergo initial division in vitro following radiation exposure correlated with the development of wound healing morbidity in the patients following their treatment with preoperative radiotherapy. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is thought to play an important role in fibroblast proliferation and radiosensitivity both of which may impact on wound healing. Thus, in this study we examined the interrelationship between TGF-β activity, radiosensitivity and proliferation of cultured fibroblasts and the wound healing response of STS patients after preoperative radiotherapy to provide a validation cohort for our previous study and to investigate mechanisms. Patients and methods: Skin fibroblasts were established from skin biopsies of 46 STS patients. The treatment group consisted of 28 patients who received preoperative radiotherapy. Eighteen patients constituted a control group who were either irradiated postoperatively or did not receive radiation treatment. Fibroblast cultures were subjected to the colony forming and cytokinesis-blocked binucleation assays (low dose rate: ∼0.02 Gy/min) and TGF-β assays (high dose-rate: ∼1.06 Gy/min) following γ-irradiation. Fibroblast radiosensitivity and initial proliferative ability were represented by the surviving fraction at 2.4 Gy (SF 2.4 ) and binucleation index (BNI), respectively. Active and total TGF-β levels in fibroblast cultures were determined using a biological assay. Wound healing complication (WHC), defined as the requirement for further surgery or prolonged deep wound packing, was the clinical endpoint examined. Results: Of the 28 patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy, 8 (29%) had wound healing difficulties. Fibroblasts from patients who developed WHC showed a trend to retain a significantly higher initial proliferative ability after

  9. Chemical Constituents from Cimicifuga dahurica and Their Anti-Proliferative Effects on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Thi Thanh Huyen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to search for novel anti-cancer compounds from natural plants. The 70% ethanolic extract from the rizhomes of Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz. Maxim. (Ranunculaceae was found to possess significant in vitro anti-proliferative effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A phytochemical investigation using assay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of C. dahurica resulted in the isolation of one new phenolic amide glycoside 3, two new lignan glycosides 4 and 7, one new 9,19-cycloartane triterpenoid glycoside 6, and thirteen known constituents 1, 2, 5, and 8–17. The structures of 3, 4, 6, and 7 were established using contemporary NMR methods and from their HRESIMS data. The anti-proliferative effects of isolated compounds were evaluated using the BrdU-proliferation kit. Five among the 17 isolated compounds showed significant anti-proliferative effects (p ≤ 0.05, wherein compound 7 showed the most significant anti-proliferative and cell cycle arresting effect (p ≤ 0.05 which followed a dose dependent manner. Western blot protein expression analysis showed a down expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1 which further elucidated the anti-proliferation mechanism of compound 7 while apoptotic effects were found in association with Bcl-2 family protein expression variations. Conclusively this study reports the isolation and identification of 17 compounds from C. dahurica, including four novel molecules, in addition to the fact that compound 7 possesses significant anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in vitro that may require further exploration.

  10. Chemical Constituents from Cimicifuga dahurica and Their Anti-Proliferative Effects on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyen, Chu Thi Thanh; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Oanh, Ha Van; Hung, Ta Manh; Li, Hui-Jun; Li, Ping

    2018-05-04

    This study was designed to search for novel anti-cancer compounds from natural plants. The 70% ethanolic extract from the rizhomes of Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim. (Ranunculaceae) was found to possess significant in vitro anti-proliferative effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A phytochemical investigation using assay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of C. dahurica resulted in the isolation of one new phenolic amide glycoside 3 , two new lignan glycosides 4 and 7 , one new 9,19-cycloartane triterpenoid glycoside 6 , and thirteen known constituents 1 , 2 , 5 , and 8 ⁻ 17 . The structures of 3 , 4 , 6 , and 7 were established using contemporary NMR methods and from their HRESIMS data. The anti-proliferative effects of isolated compounds were evaluated using the BrdU-proliferation kit. Five among the 17 isolated compounds showed significant anti-proliferative effects ( p ≤ 0.05), wherein compound 7 showed the most significant anti-proliferative and cell cycle arresting effect ( p ≤ 0.05) which followed a dose dependent manner. Western blot protein expression analysis showed a down expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1 which further elucidated the anti-proliferation mechanism of compound 7 while apoptotic effects were found in association with Bcl-2 family protein expression variations. Conclusively this study reports the isolation and identification of 17 compounds from C. dahurica , including four novel molecules, in addition to the fact that compound 7 possesses significant anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in vitro that may require further exploration.

  11. Signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholomier, M.

    1985-01-01

    In a scanning electron microscope, whatever is the measured signal, the same set is found: incident beam, sample, signal detection, signal amplification. The resulting signal is used to control the spot luminosity with the observer cathodoscope. This is synchronized with the beam scanning on the sample; on the cathodoscope, the image in secondary electrons, backscattered electrons,... of the sample surface is reconstituted. The best compromise must be found between a register time low enough to remove eventual variations (under the incident beam) of the nature of the observed phenomenon, and a good spatial resolution of the image and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough. The noise is one of the basic limitations of the scanning electron microscope performance. The whose measurement line must be optimized to reduce it [fr

  12. Proliferative vitreo-retinal disorders: experimental models in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, B

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to develop, refine, and assess experimental models for the study of proliferative vitreo-retinal disorders. An intravitreal injection of a colloidal solution of microparticles was used in the primate eye to produce pathologic changes including intraocular cell invasion, cell proliferation, neovascularization, collagen synthesis, and tractional retinal detachment. In a separate primate model for laser-induced subretinal neovascularization, the origin and the occurrence of macrophages was evaluated. Examinations were performed using ophthalmoscopy, slit-lamp microscopy, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Cell cultures were employed to study the effects of vitreous humor and macrophages on the proliferation of cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and cultured fibroblasts using a Coulter counter. Morphologic changes were documented by phase micrography. A quantitative estimation of the extracellular matrix deposition of fibrous proteins by macrophage-modulated RPE cells as well as by vitreous-modulated RPE cells was done using enzymatic digestion and radioactive labeling techniques. A qualitative analysis of the types of collagen that was deposited in the extracellular matrices by vitreous modulated cultures was also made using indirect immunofluorescence. Using a newly developed RPE cell specific monoclonal antibody, the avidin-biotin-peroxidase labeling technique was finally employed to test the phenotypic epitope expression of macrophage-modulated and non-modulated RPE cells. A new experimental in vivo model for pathologic changes that characterize proliferative vitreo-retinal disorders was developed in the primate eye. In the model for laser-induced subretinal neovascularization, macrophages were shown to be principally recruited from the systemic circulation. Using cell cultures, it was found that both macrophage-conditioned medium and vitreous humor, separately or combined, exert mitogenic effects

  13. Immunochemical expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen in aging cultured astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Vanzani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell differentiation degree and mitotic activity were sequentially assessed by immunoperoxidase labeling of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, respectively, in rat brain cultured astrocytes maintained up to 60 days in vitro (DIV of first subculture, or weekly passaged until their 12th subculture. Cell count was performed through a 0.01 mm2 section reticule and morphometric analysis with a stereological grid. The number of double immunoreactive cells peaked by 2 DIV to achieve its lowest value at 60 DIV. At 24 hs of cell seeding of successive passages, such values peaked by the 6th subculture to gradually decrease thereafter. Increasing cell hypertrophy was found during the long-term first subculture but not after passaging. At the end of the observation period, doubly immunolabeled astrocytes were still recorded, thus evidencing retention of proliferative potential despite aging.El grado de diferenciación celular y la actividad mitótica fueron secuencialmente determinados mediante marcación por inmunoperoxidasa de la proteína gliofibrilar ácida (GFAP y del antígeno nuclear de proliferación celular (PCNA, respectivamente, en cultivos astrocitarios obtenidos de encéfalo de rata y mantenidos hasta 60 días in vitro (DIV de su primer subcultivo, o mediante pasajes semanales hasta el 12do subcultivo. El conteo celular se realizó mediante una retícula de 0.01-mm2 de sección y el análisis morfométrico con una grilla estereológica. El número de células doblemente inmunorreactivas alcanzó valores máximos a los 2 DIV para descender a los menores a los 60 DIV. A las 24 hs de sembrado celular de los sucesivos pasajes, esos valores ascendieron hacia el 6to subcultivo para luego declinar. En cuanto a la hipertrofia celular, se observó en todo el curso del primer subcultivo, pero no durante los posteriores pasajes. Al final del período de observación, todavía se continuaban detectando

  14. Occupational exposure to anesthetics leads to genomic instability, cytotoxicity and proliferative changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Kátina M.; Braz, Leandro G.; Nogueira, Flávia R.; Souza, Marajane B.; Bincoleto, Lahis F.; Aun, Aline G.; Corrente, José E.; Carvalho, Lídia R.; Braz, José Reinaldo C.; Braz, Mariana G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Anesthesiologists exposed to the most commonly used anesthetic gases were evaluated. • No alterations were detected for lymphocyte DNA damage detected by the comet assay. • Decreased frequencies of basal cells were detected in exfoliated buccal cells (BMCyt). • Increased frequencies of micronucleus and cytotoxicity were observed in BMCyt assay. • Anesthesiologists have genomic instability due to occupational exposure. - Abstract: Data on the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of occupational exposure to the most frequently used volatile anesthetics are limited and controversial. The current study is the first to evaluate genomic instability, cell death and proliferative index in exfoliated buccal cells (EBC) from anesthesiologists. We also evaluated DNA damage and determined the concentrations of the anesthetic gases most commonly used in operating rooms. This study was conducted on physicians who were allocated into two groups: the exposed group, which consisted of anesthesiologists who had been exposed to waste anesthetic gases (isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane and nitrous oxide − N 2 O) for at least two years; and the control group, which consisted of non-exposed physicians matched for age, sex and lifestyle with the exposed group. Venous blood and EBC samples were collected from all participants. Basal DNA damage was evaluated in lymphocytes by the comet assay, whereas the buccal micronucleus (MN) cytome (BMCyt) assay was applied to evaluate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. The concentrations of N 2 O and anesthetics were measured via a portable infrared spectrophotometer. The average concentration of waste gases was greater than 5 parts per million (ppm) for all of the halogenated anesthetics and was more than 170 ppm for N 2 O, expressed as a time-weighted average. There was no significant difference between the groups in relation to lymphocyte DNA damage. The exposed group had higher frequencies of MN, karyorrhexis and pyknosis, and

  15. Clinical and experimental study on angiopoietin-like protein 8 associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Xia Dong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To confirm the role of angiopoietin-like protein 8 (Angptl 8 in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR. METHODS: The sera and aqueous humor of 10 PDR patients and 10 non-diabetic retinopathy (NDR patients (idiopathic macular hole patients were collected and the expression of Angptl 8 was detected by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA. Experimental diabetes mice model was induced with streptozotocin. The expression of glycosylated hemoglobin and Angptl 8 in sera was detected. Recombinant Angptl 8 was re-infused into wild type (WT diabetic mice and spatial frequency threshold and contrast sensitivity were measured. In vitro retinal pigment epithelium (RPE were stimulated by recombinant Angptl 8 for 24h. MMT assay were used to detect cell proliferation. At the same time, qRT-PCR and Western blot was used to measure the expression of proliferation-related factors in PRE cells. RESULTS: The expression of Angptl 8 was markedly increased in the sera and aqueous humor of PDR patients (F=99.02, P<0.0001 in sera; t=10.42, P<0.0001 in aqueous. After successfully establishing the diabetic mice model, we found that glycosylated hemoglobin and Angptl 8 expression levels were increased. Re-infusion of recombinant Angptl 8 into WT diabetic mice could further decrease spatial frequency threshold and contrast sensitivity (P<0.01. In vitro, RPE cells stimulated by recombinant Angptl 8 could increase the relative absorbance of MMT assay (1.486±0.042 vs 1.000±0.104, P<0.05 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression (0.55±0.01 vs 0.29±0.03, P<0.05. The proliferative effect of Angptl 8 is mainly mediated by increasing the expression of proliferation-activating factors cyclin A1 (4.973±0.205 vs 2.720±0.197, P<0.05, cyclin F (5.690±0.219 vs 4.297±0.292, P<0.05 and E2F2 (2.297±0.102 vs 1.750±0.146, P<0.05, and reducing the expression of proliferation-inhibiting factors cdkn1 (2.370±0.074 vs 3.317±0.135, P<0.05 and cdkn2 (4.793±0

  16. Nuclear Morphometry in Ductal Breast Carcinoma with Correlation to Cell Proliferative Activity and Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, M.M.; Amer, K.A.; Mokhtar, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    Morphometry is the quantitative description of biologic structures. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of morphometric measurements in diagnosis and prognosis of patients with breast carcinoma. Methods: Histological samples from 61 patients of invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) of no special type (NST), 12 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 14 control breast samples taken from fibrocystic change disease were retrospectively analyzed by computerized nuclear morphometry. All IDC patients underwent modified radical mastectomy without preoperative chemotherapy. The mean follow up was 28±19 months (range] -71). In each case, 25-50 nuclei were measured and the mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), mean maximum nuclear diameter (MMNO) and mean minimal nuclear diameter (Mmnd) were measured. The mean axis ratio (MAR), mean nuclear compactness (MNC), mean nuclear size (MNS) and mean shape factor (MSHF), were calculated mathematically. To measure the nuclear diameters, a new method was employed using the AutoCAD program. Morphometric parameters were compared with different clinico pathologic features, patient's survival and cell proliferative activity as determined by Ki-67 immunostaining which was evaluated quantitatively. Most of the morphometric parameters were significantly higher in DCIS and IDC groups than benign one. In IDC group morphometric features related to nuclear size (MNA, MNP, MMNO, Mmnd and MNS) were significantly correlated to most clinico pathologic features and cell proliferative activity assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining. However, the shape factor failed to achieve this correlation. The univariate analysis using Kaplan Meier curves indicated that short survival time was correlated with high nuclear morphometric values (MNA. MNP, MMND, Mmnd, MNS and MSHF). Moreover, the Spear man correlation analysis showed that Mmnd has the highest converse correlation with survival (r= -0.75, (ρ < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis

  17. Occupational exposure to anesthetics leads to genomic instability, cytotoxicity and proliferative changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kátina M.; Braz, Leandro G.; Nogueira, Flávia R.; Souza, Marajane B.; Bincoleto, Lahis F.; Aun, Aline G. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP − Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Anestesiologia, Botucatu (Brazil); Corrente, José E.; Carvalho, Lídia R. [Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, UNESP − Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Bioestatística, Botucatu (Brazil); Braz, José Reinaldo C. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP − Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Anestesiologia, Botucatu (Brazil); Braz, Mariana G., E-mail: mgbraz@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP − Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Anestesiologia, Botucatu (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Anesthesiologists exposed to the most commonly used anesthetic gases were evaluated. • No alterations were detected for lymphocyte DNA damage detected by the comet assay. • Decreased frequencies of basal cells were detected in exfoliated buccal cells (BMCyt). • Increased frequencies of micronucleus and cytotoxicity were observed in BMCyt assay. • Anesthesiologists have genomic instability due to occupational exposure. - Abstract: Data on the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of occupational exposure to the most frequently used volatile anesthetics are limited and controversial. The current study is the first to evaluate genomic instability, cell death and proliferative index in exfoliated buccal cells (EBC) from anesthesiologists. We also evaluated DNA damage and determined the concentrations of the anesthetic gases most commonly used in operating rooms. This study was conducted on physicians who were allocated into two groups: the exposed group, which consisted of anesthesiologists who had been exposed to waste anesthetic gases (isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane and nitrous oxide − N{sub 2}O) for at least two years; and the control group, which consisted of non-exposed physicians matched for age, sex and lifestyle with the exposed group. Venous blood and EBC samples were collected from all participants. Basal DNA damage was evaluated in lymphocytes by the comet assay, whereas the buccal micronucleus (MN) cytome (BMCyt) assay was applied to evaluate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. The concentrations of N{sub 2}O and anesthetics were measured via a portable infrared spectrophotometer. The average concentration of waste gases was greater than 5 parts per million (ppm) for all of the halogenated anesthetics and was more than 170 ppm for N{sub 2}O, expressed as a time-weighted average. There was no significant difference between the groups in relation to lymphocyte DNA damage. The exposed group had higher frequencies of MN, karyorrhexis and

  18. Anti-proliferative therapy for HIV cure: a compound interest approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Daniel B; Duke, Elizabeth R; Hughes, Sean M; Prlic, Martin; Hladik, Florian; Schiffer, Joshua T

    2017-06-21

    In the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 infection is no longer tantamount to early death. Yet the benefits of treatment are available only to those who can access, afford, and tolerate taking daily pills. True cure is challenged by HIV latency, the ability of chromosomally integrated virus to persist within memory CD4 + T cells in a non-replicative state and activate when ART is discontinued. Using a mathematical model of HIV dynamics, we demonstrate that treatment strategies offering modest but continual enhancement of reservoir clearance rates result in faster cure than abrupt, one-time reductions in reservoir size. We frame this concept in terms of compounding interest: small changes in interest rate drastically improve returns over time. On ART, latent cell proliferation rates are orders of magnitude larger than activation and new infection rates. Contingent on subtypes of cells that may make up the reservoir and their respective proliferation rates, our model predicts that coupling clinically available, anti-proliferative therapies with ART could result in functional cure within 2-10 years rather than several decades on ART alone.

  19. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, A; Funa, K; Vassbotn, F S; Beausang-Linder, M; af Ekenstam, F; Heldin, C H; Westermark, B; Nistér, M

    1992-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is known to stimulate the proliferation of connective tissue-derived cells in vitro. Less is known about its functions in vivo, and the role of PDGF in the development of human tumors has not been clarified. The authors have investigated the occurrence of PDGF and PDGF receptors in a series of proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. High expression of PDGF beta-receptor mRNA and protein was found in the malignant tumors, and also in some benign lesions, such as dermatofibroma. In all these cases, benign as well as malignant, the PDGF B-chain mRNA, and less clearly, the PDGF A-chain mRNA, were coexpressed with the beta-receptor. In contrast, high expression of PDGF alpha-receptor mRNA was only found in fully malignant lesions, i.e., malignant fibrous histiocytoma. These data indicate that an autocrine growth stimulation via the PDGF beta-receptor could occur in an early phase of tumorigenesis, and may be a necessary but insufficient event for the progression into fully malignant human connective tissue lesions.

  20. Is Smoking a Risk Factor for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaedt Thorlund, Mie; Borg Madsen, Mette; Green, Anders

    2013-01-01

    were asked about their smoking habits. The level of retinopathy was evaluated by ophthalmoscopy at baseline and by nine 45-degree colour field fundus photos at the follow-up. Results: In multivariate analyses there was a trend that current smokers at baseline were more likely to develop PDR......Aim: The aim was to evaluate if smoking was a risk factor for proliferative retinopathy (PDR) in a 25-year follow-up study. Methods: 201 persons from a population-based cohort of Danish type 1 diabetic patients were examined at baseline and again 25 years later. At both examinations the patients...... at the follow-up (odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 0.88-4.11, p = 0.10). Neither smoking status at the follow-up nor pack-years of smoking were associated with PDR. Conclusions: We found neither a beneficial nor a harmful effect of smoking on long-term incidence. Selective mortality among smokers...

  1. Pattern scan laser versus single spot laser in panretinal photocoagulation treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the efficacy of 577-nm pattern scan laser in panretinal photocoagulation(PRPtreatment in newly diagnosed proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR.METHODS:Prospective and comparative observation was performed in totally 32 patients with high-risk PDR. They were randomly divided into group 1(using pattern scan laser, PSLand 2(using single spot laser, SSL, each containing 16 subjects to which totally 20 eyes received PRP. Non-perfusion region was identified with fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAbefore and 3mo after final PRP. The advantage of PSL was verified in terms of the number and the duration of PRP sessions needed for satisfactory outcomes, and the pain score.RESULTS: Three PRP sessions were needed for each eye to complete the treatment using PSL, while 4 sessions were needed using SSL. The duration of each session with PSL in group 1 was 7.3±2.3min, which was significantly shorter than that with SSL in group 2(13.2±4.1, t38=5.596, PPCONCLUSION: PSL showed clear advantages over SSL in the PRP treatment of PDR, not only in the improved efficacy, but also in the reduction of pain and the improvement of effectiveness.

  2. Curative effect of Ranibizumab combined with laser photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yi Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical efficacy of Ranibizumab combined with laser photocoagulation in the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR. METHODS: Totally 80 patients(101 eyeswith PDR admitted to our hospital from October 2014 and October 2016 were selected and divided into the observation group and the control group, with 50 eyes and 51 eyes respectively. The patients in the control group(50 eyeswere treated with panretinal photocoagulation(PRP, and the patients in observation group(51 eyeswere treated with ranibizumab on the basis of PRP treatment. Best corrected visual acuity(BCVAwas compared before and after surgery 1, 3, and 6mo. Optical coherence tomography(OCTwas used to examine the central macular thickness(CMTand the area of neovascularization at each timepoints. Then the laser spot number, laser energy and energy density were compared between the two groups and the adverse reactions were recorded. RESULTS: Postoperative BCVA of the two groups significantly increased, and the BCVA of observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group after surgery 1, 3, 6mo, the difference was statistically significant(PPPCONCLUSION: Ranibizumab combined with laser in the treatment of PDR is an effective and safe way to improve BCVA, reduce CMT, and eliminate new blood vessels with less required laser energy.

  3. Proliferative effects of apical, but not basal, matrix metalloproteinase-7 activity in polarized MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrell, Permila C.; McCawley, Lisa J.; Fingleton, Barbara; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Matrisian, Lynn M.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is primarily expressed in glandular epithelium. Therefore, its mechanism of action may be influenced by its regulated vectorial release to either the apical and/or basolateral compartments, where it would act on its various substrates. To gain a better understanding of where MMP-7 is released in polarized epithelium, we have analyzed its pattern of secretion in polarized MDCK cells expressing stably transfected human MMP-7 (MDCK-MMP-7), and HCA-7 and Caco2 human colon cancer cell lines. In all cell lines, latent MMP-7 was secreted to both cellular compartments, but was 1.5- to 3-fold more abundant in the basolateral compartment as compared to the apical. However, studies in the MDCK system demonstrated that MMP-7 activity was 2-fold greater in the apical compartment of MDCK-MMP-7 HIGH -polarized monolayers, which suggests the apical co-release of an MMP-7 activator. In functional assays, MMP-7 over-expression increased cell saturation density as a result of increased cell proliferation with no effect on apoptosis. Apical MMP-7 activity was shown to be responsible for the proliferative effect, which occurred, as demonstrated by media transfer experiments, through cleavage of an apical substrate and not through the generation of a soluble factor. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of MMP-7 secretion in relation to its mechanism of action when expressed in a polarized epithelium

  4. Macular Edema Formation and Deterioration of Retinal Function after Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisanori Imai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR showing transient macular edema (ME and deteriorated retinal function after intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB. Methods and Results: A 53-year-old man received IVB (1.25 mg/0.05 ml in both eyes for the treatment of PDR. There was no treatment-related complication. However, he complained of photopsia in both eyes 6 h after the injection. Slit-lamp examination revealed mild cellular infiltrations (1+ in the anterior chamber in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography showed ME formation in the left eye. Both full-field and multifocal electroretinography (ERG revealed the deterioration of all parameters in both eyes compared with pretreatment. The inflammation in the anterior segment and ME disappeared 1 day after the injection. ERG parameters were improved 9 days after the injection, except for the N1 and P1 amplitude of multifocal ERG in the left eye. Conclusion: We propose that patients who undergo IVB should be carefully informed and followed up for possible complications including temporal ME formation and retinal function deterioration.

  5. Medulloblastoma: evaluation of proliferative index by monoclonal antibody Mib-1, its prognostic correlation and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Antonio Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 has been used by researchers in order to retrospectively study paraffin imbibed tumor fragments. The medulloblastoma is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in childhood. The objectives were: determination of the mean Mib-1 LI value from these patients, as well as the prognostic value of the method.This retrospective study represents an analysis of the cellular proliferation index of posterior fossa medulloblastomas collected from 22 patients at A.C. Camargo Hospital, from January 1990 to December 1999. The histopathological diagnosis was confirmed by H&E and proliferative index (LI was achived with Mib-1 which detects proliferating cells during G1, G2, S and M phases.The results demostrated that the mean Mib-1 was 30,1%, and ranged from 5,2% to 62,0%.In conclusion, this method has prognostic value, has to be used as routine for patients harboring medulloblastomas and the ones who have PI greater than the mean value found in this study, should be treated aggressively.

  6. Postnatal weight gain modifies severity and functional outcome of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Andreas; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Seaward, Molly R; Krah, Nathan M; Dennison, Roberta J; Favazza, Tara; Bucher, Felicitas; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Ong, Huy; Hellström, Ann; Chemtob, Sylvain; Akula, James D; Smith, Lois E H

    2010-12-01

    In clinical studies, postnatal weight gain is strongly associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, animal studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of how postnatal weight gain affects the severity of ROP. In the present study, we identify nutritional supply as one potent parameter that affects the extent of retinopathy in mice with identical birth weights and the same genetic background. Wild-type pups with poor postnatal nutrition and poor weight gain (PWG) exhibit a remarkably prolonged phase of retinopathy compared to medium weight gain or extensive weight gain pups. A high (r(2) = 0.83) parabolic association between postnatal weight gain and oxygen-induced retinopathy severity is observed, as is a significantly prolonged phase of proliferative retinopathy in PWG pups (20 days) compared with extensive weight gain pups (6 days). The extended retinopathy is concomitant with prolonged overexpression of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor in PWG pups. Importantly, PWG pups show low serum levels of nonfasting glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 as well as high levels of ghrelin in the early postoxygen-induced retinopathy phase, a combination indicative of poor metabolic supply. These differences translate into visual deficits in adult PWG mice, as demonstrated by impaired bipolar and proximal neuronal function. Together, these results provide evidence for a pathophysiological correlation between poor postnatal nutritional supply, slow weight gain, prolonged retinal vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, protracted retinopathy, and reduced final visual outcome.

  7. Proliferative activity of elastin-like-peptides depends on charge and phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Koria, Piyush

    2016-03-01

    Elastin-like-peptides (ELPs) are stimulus-responsive protein-based polymers and are attractive biomaterials due to their biocompatibility and unique properties. This study shows that in addition to their physical properties, ELPs have biological activities that are conducive to tissue regeneration. Specifically, we found that ELPs induce fibroblast proliferation via cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Furthermore, our data suggests that ELP based materials with differential proliferative potential can be designed by controlling the interaction of ELPs with HSPGs by incorporating either hydrophobic or positively charged residues within the ELP sequence. Fibroblast proliferation is important for granulation tissue formation which is important in chronic wounds as well as in healing of other tissues. The customizable biological activity of ELPs coupled with their unique physical properties will enable us to design novel, sustainable and cost effective therapies for different tissue regeneration applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 697-706, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  9. Proliferative activity of vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramvis, A.; Garnett, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cell population cultured in Fischer's medium supplemented with 12.5% fetal calf serum and 12.5% horse serum consists of two cell shapes: fusiform (type I) and polygonal (type II). Limiting-dilution cloning of the cells suggested that the two morphologically distinct cell types belong to the same cellular system even though they differ in their proliferative capabilities. The labeling index of type II cells, as measured by autoradiography, was found to be consistently lower than that of type I cells. It is probable that these two phenotypes represent different stages of differentiation, where progenitor type I gives rise to type II cells. The bone marrow-derived adherent cells were found to be cytokinetically at rest in vivo, using the thymidine suicide test, and relatively radioresistant with a D0 = 2.1 Gy and n = 2.36 at the time of explantation from the bone. Furthermore, in culture these cells are characterized by a relatively long cell cycle of 60 h, where the length of the S phase is 30 h, G2 is 12 h, M is 6 h, and G1 is 12 h. Thus, the vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells represent a cell population with a low turnover rate both in vivo and in vitro

  10. T-dependence of human B lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, J; Samarut, C; Gueho, J P; Revillard, J P

    1976-01-01

    Human peripheral blood and tonsil lymphocytes were fractionated on anti-Ig-coated Sephadex columns or by centrifugation after rosetting with native sheep erythrocytes. Both methods allowed the recovery of B and T-enriched populations the purity of which was checked by fluorescein-labelled anti-Ig serum, E and EAC rosette formation, and heterologous antisera specific for B or T lymphocytes. The proliferative response of T cells to PHA, Con A, PWM, and ALS was not found different from that of unfractionated cells, whereas no response of the B cells could be observed to these mitogens providing that no contaminating T cells were present. Addition of T lymphocytes to these unresponsive B cells allowed them to respond to phytomitogens, but not to ALS. X-irradiated T cells could, to some extent, replace the diving T lymphocytes; no T-replacing factor could be found in cell-free supernatants from T cells, whether or not they had been activated by mitrogens. This model of B-T cooperation appears useful for studying the differentiation and maturation of human B lymphocytes.

  11. Steroid hormones as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1988-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are present in normal epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine and there have also been contentious reports of androgen, oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the epithelium of the normal large intestine. The majority of reports suggest that stimulation of the intestinal glucocorticoid receptors results in increased proliferation of epithelial cells in the small bowel, as does stimulation of androgen receptors and possibly mineralocorticoid receptors. The proliferative response of the normal intestine to oestrogens is difficult to evaluate and that to progestigens appears not to have been reported. Epidemiological studies reveal a higher incidence of bowel cancer in premenopausal women than in men of the same age and yet there is a lower incidence of these tumors in women of higher parity. These findings have been atributted to a variety of non-epithelial gender characteristic such as differences in bile metabolism, colonic bacterial and fecal transit times. In experimental animals, androgens have also been shown to influence carcinogenesis and this could well be attributed to changes in food intake etc. However, many studies have now revealed steroid hormone receptors on colorectal tumor cells and thus a direct effect of the steroid hormones on the epithelium during and after malignant transformation must now be considered.

  12. Small Interfering RNA Targeted to ASPP2 Promotes Progression of Experimental Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is vital in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR development. Apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP2 have recently been reported to participate in EMT. However, the role of ASPP2 in PVR pathogenesis has not been identified. Methods. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of ASPP2 in epiretinal membranes of PVR patients. ARPE-19 cells were transfected with ASPP2-siRNA, followed with measurement of cell cytotoxicity, proliferation, and migration ability. EMT markers and related inflammatory and fibrosis cytokines were measured by western blot or flow cytometry. Additionally, PVR rat models were induced by intravitreal injection of ARPE-19 cells transfected with ASPP2-siRNA and evaluated accordingly. Results. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed less intense expression of ASPP2 in PVR membranes. ASPP2 knockdown facilitated the proliferation and migration of RPE cells and enhanced the expression of mesenchymal markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and ZEB1. Meanwhile, ASPP2-siRNA increased EMT-related and inflammatory cytokines, including TGF-β, CTGF, VEGF, TNF-α, and interleukins. PVR severities were more pronounced in the rat models with ASPP2-siRNA treatment. Conclusions. ASPP2 knockdown promoted EMT of ARPE-19 cells in vitro and exacerbated the progression of experimental PVR in vivo, possibly via inflammatory and fibrosis cytokines.

  13. Use of tylvalosin-medicated feed to control porcine proliferative enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, R M C; França, S A; Machado, G S; Blumer, M A; da Costa Cruz, E C

    2009-09-19

    The effect of an oral treatment with the tartrate salt of tylvalosin on the development of proliferative enteropathy in 60 experimentally challenged pigs was studied. Thirty of the pigs were fed a diet medicated with 50 ppm tylvalosin and 30 were fed the unmedicated diet. The treated animals started to receive the medicated feed the day before they were inoculated, and continued to receive it for 14 days. The pigs' bodyweight, feed consumption and clinical signs were evaluated, and they were examined postmortem 20 days after inoculation, and samples of ileum were collected for immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Lawsonia intracellularis. Clinical signs of the disease were more evident in the untreated group than in the treated group. The average daily weight gain, average daily feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency were better in the treated group. The combined length of intestine with lesions was 2847 cm in the untreated group and 183 cm in the treated group. The tylvalosin treatment significantly reduced the level of L intracellularis infection; almost half of the treated pigs were IHC-negative compared with 3.3 per cent of the untreated pigs.

  14. Radial glia in the proliferative ventricular zone of the embryonic and adult turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Brian K; Cunningham, Christopher L; Kriegstein, Arnold R; Noctor, Stephen C; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role of radial glial (RG) cells in the evolution of the mammalian cerebral cortex, we investigated the role of RG cells in the dorsal cortex and dorsal ventricular ridge of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Unlike mammals, the glial architecture of adult reptile consists mainly of ependymoradial glia, which share features with mammalian RG cells, and which may contribute to neurogenesis that continues throughout the lifespan of the turtle. To evaluate the morphology and proliferative capacity of ependymoradial glia (here referred to as RG cells) in the dorsal cortex of embryonic and adult turtle, we adapted the cortical electroporation technique, commonly used in rodents, to the turtle telencephalon. Here, we demonstrate the morphological and functional characteristics of RG cells in the developing turtle dorsal cortex. We show that cell division occurs both at the ventricle and away from the ventricle, that RG cells undergo division at the ventricle during neurogenic stages of development, and that mitotic Tbr2+ precursor cells, a hallmark of the mammalian SVZ, are present in the turtle cortex. In the adult turtle, we show that RG cells encompass a morphologically heterogeneous population, particularly in the subpallium where proliferation is most prevalent. One RG subtype is similar to RG cells in the developing mammalian cortex, while 2 other RG subtypes appear to be distinct from those seen in mammal. We propose that the different subtypes of RG cells in the adult turtle perform distinct functions.

  15. Identification and characterization of proliferative retinopathy-related long noncoding RNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Rong-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Yao, Jin [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Shen, Yi; Chen, Sai-Nan [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Yang, Hong [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jqin710@vip.sina.com [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Institute of Integrated Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Institute of Integrated Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-09-25

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a serious complication of retinal detachment and vitreoretinal surgery, which can lead to severe vision reduction. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in many biological processes and disease development. We attempted to determine the role of lncRNAs in the setting of PVR. Microarray analysis revealed that 78 lncRNAs were abnormally expressed in the epiretinal membranes (ERMs) of PVR patients, including 48 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated lncRNA transcripts. We subsequently focus on one lncRNA, MALAT1, and investigated its expression pattern in the biofluid of PVR patients. MALAT1 was significantly up-regulated in the cellular and plasma fraction of peripheral blood in PVR patients. MALAT1 expression was obviously reduced after PVR operation. In vitro experiments revealed the role of MALAT1 in regulating RPE proliferation and migration, which is critical for ERMs formation. This study suggests that lncRNAs are the potential regulators of PVR pathology. MALAT1 is a potential prognostic indicator and a target for the diagnosis and gene therapy for PVR diseases. - Highlights: • 78 lncRNAs are differentially expressed between PVR-ERMs and secondary ERMs. • MALAT1 level is elevated in the ERMs of PVR patients. • Circulating MALAT1 level is up-regulated in PVR patients. • MALAT1 knockdown regulates RPE proliferation and migration.

  16. Roles of tissue plasminogen activator and its inhibitor in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Ling; Wu; Dong-Mei; Zhan; Shu-Hong; Xi; Xiang-Lian; He

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of tissue plasminogen activator(t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor(PAI)in proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) and to discuss the correlations among t-PA, PAI and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) expressions.METHODS:A total of 36 vitreous samples were collected from 36 patients with PDR(PDR group), and 17 vitreous samples from 17 patients with idiopathic macular hole were used as control. The concentrations of t-PA, PAI and VEGF in samples were determined by ELISA method. The correlations among t-PA, PAI and VEGF expressions were discussed.RESULTS:The concentrations of t-PA, PAI and VEGF in the PDR group were significantly higher than those in the control group(P <0.001). The t-PA and PAI expressions were highly correlated with the VEGF expression(P <0.001).CONCLUSION:In addition to VEGF, a variety of bioactive substances, such as t-PA and PAI, are involved in the pathogenesis involved in the angiogenesis of PDR.VEGF can activate t-PA expression, resulting in collagen tissue degradation and angiogenesis. VEGF may also activate the mechanism for endogenous anti-neovascularization.

  17. Microglia from neurogenic and non-neurogenic regions display differential proliferative potential and neuroblast support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Paul Marshall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglia isolated from the neurogenic subependymal zone (SEZ and hippocampus (HC are capable of massive in vitro population expansion that is not possible with microglia isolated from non-neurogenic regions. We asked if this regional heterogeneity in microglial proliferative capacity is cell intrinsic, or is conferred by interaction with respective neurogenic or non-neurogenic niches. By combining SEZ and cerebral cortex (CTX primary tissue dissociates to generate heterospatial cultures, we find that exposure to the SEZ environment does not enhance CTX microglia expansion; however, the CTX environment exerts a suppressive effect on SEZ microglia expansion. Furthermore, addition of purified donor SEZ microglia to either CTX- or SEZ-derived cultures suppresses the expansion of host microglia, while the addition of donor CTX microglia enhances the over-all microglia yield. These data suggest that SEZ and CTX microglia possess intrinsic, spatially restricted characteristics that are independent of their in vitro environment, and that they represent unique and functionally distinct populations. Finally, we determined that the repeated supplementation of neurogenic SEZ cultures with expanded SEZ microglia allows for sustained levels of inducible neurogenesis, provided that the ratio of microglia to total cells remains within a fairly narrow range.

  18. Identification of anti-proliferative kinase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents to treat canine osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauchle, Ulrike; Selvarajah, Gayathri T; Mol, Jan A; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Verheije, Monique H

    2015-08-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour in dogs but various forms of therapy have not significantly improved clinical outcomes. As dysregulation of kinase activity is often present in tumours, kinases represent attractive molecular targets for cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify novel compounds targeting kinases with the potential to induce cell death in a panel of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. The ability of 80 well-characterized kinase inhibitor compounds to inhibit the proliferation of four canine osteosarcoma cell lines was investigated in vitro. For those compounds with activity, the mechanism of action and capability to potentiate the activity of doxorubicin was further evaluated. The screening showed 22 different kinase inhibitors that induced significant anti-proliferative effects across the four canine osteosarcoma cell lines investigated. Four of these compounds (RO 31-8220, 5-iodotubercidin, BAY 11-7082 and an erbstatin analog) showed significant cell growth inhibitory effects across all cell lines in association with variable induction of apoptosis. RO 31-8220 and 5-iodotubercidin showed the highest ability to potentiate the effects of doxorubicin on cell viability. In conclusion, the present study identified several potent kinase inhibitors targeting the PKC, CK1, PKA, ErbB2, mTOR and NF-κB pathways, which may warrant further investigations for the treatment of osteosarcoma in dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proliferative and Invasive Effects of Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Gutiérrez-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF is a progesterone (P4 regulated protein expressed in different types of high proliferative cells including astrocytomas, the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. It has been shown that PIBF increases the number of human astrocytoma cells. In this work, we evaluated PIBF regulation by P4 and the effects of PIBF on proliferation, migration, and invasion of U87 and U251 cells, both derived from human glioblastomas. PIBF mRNA expression was upregulated by P4 (10 nM from 12 to 24 h. Glioblastoma cells expressed two PIBF isoforms, 90 and 57 kDa. The content of the shorter isoform was increased by P4 at 24 h, while progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (10 μM blocked this effect. PIBF (100 ng/mL increased the number of U87 cells on days 4 and 5 of treatment and induced cell proliferation on day 4. Wound-healing assays showed that PIBF increased the migration of U87 (12–48 h and U251 (24 and 48 h cells. Transwell invasion assays showed that PIBF augmented the number of invasive cells in both cell lines at 24 h. These data suggest that PIBF promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells.

  20. Anti-proliferative effects of Bifidobacterium adolescentis SPM0212 extract on human colon cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jung Hyun; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Kyung Jae; Ha, Nam Joo

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as anti-tumor activity. The aim of the present work was to study the growth inhibition of tumor cells by butanol extract of Bifidobacterium adolescentis isolated from healthy young Koreans. The anti-proliferative activity of B. adolescentis isolates was assessed by XTT assays on three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480). The effects of B. adolescentis SPM0212 butanol extract on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production were tested using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 dose-dependently inhibited the growth of Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480 cells by 70%, 30%, and 40%, respectively, at 200 μg/mL. Additionally, the butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 induced macrophage activation and significantly increased the production of TNF-α and NO, which regulate immune modulation and are cytotoxic to tumor cells. The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 increased activity of the host immune system and may improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer as a biological response modifier

  1. Surgical management of fibrotic encapsulation of the fluocinolone acetonide implant in CAPN5-associated proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tlucek PS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul S Tlucek,1 James C Folk,1 Warren M Sobol,2 Vinit B Mahajan1,3 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2Retina Physicians and Surgeons, Dayton, OH, USA; 3Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Objective: To review fibrosis of fluocinolone acetonide (FA implants in subjects with CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV. Methods: A retrospective case series was assembled from ADNIV patients in which there was fibrotic encapsulation of a fluocinolone acetonide implant. CAPN5 genotypes and surgical repair techniques were reviewed. Results: Two eyes of two ADNIV patients developed a fibrotic capsule over the fluocinolone acetonide implant. Both patients had Stage IV disease. Patient A had a c.731T > C mutation in the CAPN5 gene and patient B had a c.728G > T mutation. The fibrotic membrane was surgically excised and the implant function was restored. Conclusion: The exuberant fibrotic response in later stages of ADNIV may be resistant to local immunosuppression with steroids. Surgical excision of fibrotic membranes over FA implants can reestablish local steroid delivery in cases of severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Keywords: autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy, ADNIV, CAPN5, calpain-5, Retisert, fluocinolone acetonide, fibrotic encapsulation

  2. Radiation retinopathy as an experimental model for ischemic proliferative retinopathy and rubeosis iridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, A.R.; Wood, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    We produced radiation retinopathy in capuchin monkeys and studied them with fluorescein angiography and light and electron microscopy. The animals were followed up from ten days to 3 1/2 years after radiation in order to determine whether this could provide an experimental model for other chronic ischemic-proliferative retinopathies, such as diabetes. The first change detected after radiation was the focal loss of capillary endothelial cells and pericytes. As the areas of acellular capillaries became confluent, cotton-wool spots became visible ophthalmoscopically. These increased in number and then faded away, leaving large areas of retinal capillary perfusion. Histologic studies showed occlusion first of the deeper, smaller retinal vessels and then gradually of the larger vessels. Intraretinal neovascularization as well as apparent recanalization then developed, but no new vessels extended through the internal limiting lamina into the vitreous. Rubeosis iridis with neovascular glaucoma developed 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 years postirradiation, and vitreous aspirate demonstrated a high level of angiogenic factor

  3. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy symptoms detection and classification using neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jarrah, Mohammad A; Shatnawi, Hadeel

    2017-08-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) causes blindness in the working age for people with diabetes in most countries. The increasing number of people with diabetes worldwide suggests that DR will continue to be major contributors to vision loss. Early detection of retinopathy progress in individuals with diabetes is critical for preventing visual loss. Non-proliferative DR (NPDR) is an early stage of DR. Moreover, NPDR can be classified into mild, moderate and severe. This paper proposes a novel morphology-based algorithm for detecting retinal lesions and classifying each case. First, the proposed algorithm detects the three DR lesions, namely haemorrhages, microaneurysms and exudates. Second, we defined and extracted a set of features from detected lesions. The set of selected feature emulates what physicians looked for in classifying NPDR case. Finally, we designed an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier with three layers to classify NPDR to normal, mild, moderate and severe. Bayesian regularisation and resilient backpropagation algorithms are used to train ANN. The accuracy for the proposed classifiers based on Bayesian regularisation and resilient backpropagation algorithms are 96.6 and 89.9, respectively. The obtained results are compared with results of the recent published classifier. Our proposed classifier outperforms the best in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  4. Biocatalytically Oligomerized Epicatechin with Potent and Specific Anti-proliferative Activity for Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Nagarajan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Catechins, naturally occurring flavonoids derived from wine and green tea, are known to exhibit multiple health benefits. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is one of the most widely investigated catechins, but its efficacy in cancer therapy is still inconsistent and limited. The poor stability of EGCG has contributed to the disparity in the reported anti-cancer activity and other beneficial properties. Here we report an innovative enzymatic strategy for the oligomerization of catechins (specifically epicatechin that yields stable, water-soluble oligomerized epicatechins with enhanced and highly specific anti-proliferative activity for human breast cancer cells. This one-pot oxidative oligomerization is carried out in ambient conditions using Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP as a catalyst yielding water-soluble oligo(epicatechins. The oligomerized epicatechins obtained exhibit excellent growth inhibitory effects against human breast cancer cells with greater specificity towards growth-inhibiting cancer cells as opposed to normal cells, achieving a high therapeutic differential. Our studies indicate that water-soluble oligomeric epicatechins surpass EGCG in stability, selectivity and efficacy at lower doses.

  5. Extraction, purification and anti-proliferative activities of polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Ming; Wang, Jin; Wu, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Jian-Ming; Li, Wei; Shen, Li-Xia

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (LEPs) was optimized by response surface methodology, and a preliminary characterization of the extracted LEPs and their anti-proliferative activities were investigated. An orthogonal assay was constructed to determine the optimal amounts of cellulase, papain and pectinase, which were 15, 20 and 15g/kg, respectively. Then effects of extraction conditions were evaluated and optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The results showed that the highest polysaccharides yield of 15.65% was achieved with an extraction temperature of 54°C, pH 5.0, enzymatic treatment time of 93min and a liquid/material ratio of 29:1mL/g, which correlated well with the predicted yield of 15.58%. Subsequently, the crude LEPs were further purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-100 chromatography to obtain two fractions, which were designated as LEP-1 and LEP-2 and their monosaccharide compositions were characterized by GC. Fourier-transform infrared spectra demonstrated that LEP-1 and LEP-2 were distinct from each other regarding their chemical structures. In addition, the LEPs exhibited inhibition of cell proliferation on HCT-116 and HeLa cells in vitro. In summary, this study provides an efficient enzyme-assisted extraction for LEPs, which can be used as natural antitumor agents in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antigenic specificity and morphologic characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis, strain SFPD, isolated from hamsters with proliferative ileitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Stills, H F; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Yan, L; Palley, L; Prostak, K

    1993-10-01

    Profound diarrhea associated with proliferating intestinal cells containing intraepithelial campylobacter-like organisms (ICLO) occurs in a variety of mammalian hosts, particularly swine and hamsters. Recently, intracellular bacteria were isolated from proliferative intestinal tissue of hamsters and propagated in intestine cell line 407. Oral inoculation of hamsters with cell culture lysates containing these organisms reproduced the disease in susceptible hamsters. In the present study, an intracellular bacterium from the INT 407 cell line was shown by a variety of techniques to be a member of the genus Chlamydia and has been designated Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD. McCoy cells infected with Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD demonstrated bright fluorescent-stained intracytoplasmic inclusions when examined with fluorescein-labeled species-specific C. trachomatis monoclonal antibodies. The organism also reacted to fluorescein-labeled polyclonal but not monoclonal ICLO "omega" antisera. Ultrastructural examination of the Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD from McCoy cells revealed electrondense elementary bodies and a less electron-dense reticulate-like body that was circular; both features are consistent in morphology to developmental forms of Chlamydia and do not conform to ICLO morphology. Molecular studies, 16S ribosomal sequence analysis, and sequencing of the outer membrane protein confirmed that the isolate is a C. trachomatis closely related to the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis.

  7. Internal limiting membrane peeling in macula-off retinal detachment complicated by grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foveau, Pauline; Leroy, Bertrand; Berrod, Jean-Paul; Conart, Jean-Baptiste

    2018-04-02

    To investigate the clinical benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling as a surgical adjunct in the repair of primary retinal detachment (RD) complicated by grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Retrospective, interventional, comparative case series. SETTING: Institutional. 75 consecutive patients who underwent vitrectomy for primary macula off RD complicated by grade B PVR. Patients were divided into an ILM peeling (group P) and a no ILM peeling (group NP). Anatomical success rate, best-corrected visual acuity, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) characteristics were collected at 1 and 6 months. In all, 37 eyes with ILM peeling were included in group P and 38 eyes without ILM peeling were included in group NP. The anatomical success rate after single surgery was higher in group P (89%) than in group NP (66%, p=0.03). Mean final visual acuity was 0.41 ±0.40 logMAR in group P versus 0.43 ±0.22 logMAR in group NP (p=0.82). We found no epiretinal membrane (ERM) formation in group P, whereas five cases of ERM (20%) were detected in group NP (p=0.012). The two groups did not differ in terms of cystoid macular edema occurrence, macular thickness, or photoreceptor damage. ILM peeling during vitrectomy in macula off RD complicated by grade B PVR reduces the need for a second surgery for re-detachment or macular pucker. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  9. Transcriptional Regulation of Δ6-Desaturase by Peroxisome Proliferative-Activated Receptor δ Agonist in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells: Role of MEK/ERK1/2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Darabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Δ6-desaturase (Δ6D, also known as fatty acid desaturase 2, is a regulatory enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which has been linked to obesity and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor δ (PPARδ agonist and MEK/ERK1/2-dependent pathway on the expression of Δ6D in human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1. PANC-1 cells cultured in RPMI-1640 were exposed to the commonly used ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor PD98059 and PPARδ agonist GW0742. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of Δ6D were then determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The expression of Δ6D (P40%, P25%, P<0.05 pretreatment. PPARδ and MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways affect differentially the expression of Δ6D in pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, there may be an inhibitory crosstalk between these two regulatory pathways on the mRNA expression of Δ6D and subsequently on Δ6D protein expression.

  10. Initiation factor eIF2B not p70 S6 kinase is involved in the activation of the PI-3K signalling pathway induced by the v=src oncogene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtěchová, Martina; Šloncová, Eva; Kučerová, Dana; Jiřička, Jaroslav; Sovová, Vlasta; Tuháčková, Zdena

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 543, 1-3 (2003), s. 81-86 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/96/K205; GA ČR GA301/00/0269; GA MZd NC5428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling pathway * mRNA translation * 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2003

  11. Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA), which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and rhynchophylline (RP) have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore,...

  12. Anti-proliferative effects of T cells expressing a ligand-based chimeric antigen receptor against CD116 on CD34+ cells of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yozo Nakazawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML is a fatal, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm of early childhood. Patients with JMML have mutually exclusive genetic abnormalities in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptor (GMR, CD116 signaling pathway. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is currently the only curative treatment option for JMML; however, disease recurrence is a major cause of treatment failure. We investigated adoptive immunotherapy using GMR-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR for JMML. Methods We constructed a novel CAR capable of binding to GMR via its ligand, GM-CSF, and generated piggyBac transposon-based GMR CAR-modified T cells from three healthy donors and two patients with JMML. We further evaluated the anti-proliferative potential of GMR CAR T cells on leukemic CD34+ cells from six patients with JMML (two NRAS mutations, three PTPN11 mutations, and one monosomy 7, and normal CD34+ cells. Results GMR CAR T cells from healthy donors suppressed the cytokine-dependent growth of MO7e cells, but not the growth of K562 and Daudi cells. Co-culture of healthy GMR CAR T cells with CD34+ cells of five patients with JMML at effector to target ratios of 1:1 and 1:4 for 2 days significantly decreased total colony growth, regardless of genetic abnormality. Furthermore, GMR CAR T cells from a non-transplanted patient and a transplanted patient inhibited the proliferation of respective JMML CD34+ cells at onset to a degree comparable to healthy GMR CAR T cells. Seven-day co-culture of GMR CAR T cells resulted in a marked suppression of JMML CD34+ cell proliferation, particularly CD34+CD38− cell proliferation stimulated with stem cell factor and thrombopoietin on AGM-S3 cells. Meanwhile, GMR CAR T cells exerted no effects on normal CD34+ cell colony growth. Conclusions Ligand-based GMR CAR T cells may have anti-proliferative effects on stem and progenitor cells in JMML.

  13. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf and fruit extracts from Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Premysl; Skalova, Lenka; Bousova, Iva; Kutil, Zsofia; Langhansova, Lenka; Lou, Ji-Dong; Vanek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro anti-proliferative (tested on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-10A cell lines) and anti-inflammatory (evaluated as inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis catalyzed by cyclooxygenase-2) effect of various extracts from Vaccinium bracteatum leaves and fruits. The highest anti-proliferative effect possessed leaf dichloromethane extract with IC50 values ranging from 93 to 198 μg/mL. In the case of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition, n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethanol fruit extracts showed the best activity with IC50 values = 2.0, 5.4, and 12.7 μg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that V. bracteatum leaves and fruits could be useful source of anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory compounds.

  14. [Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency on the ultrastructure and proliferative activity of rat's thymus cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkevich, T I; Bokut', T B; Netukova, N I

    2001-01-01

    Effects of two types of low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) of industrial frequency (50 Hz) on the fine structure and proliferative activity of thymic cells in white rats were studied. It was found that a weak EMF with a prevailing electrical component (380-480 V/m, 120-140 nT1) did not affect the DNA synthesis intensity. An EMF with a stronger magnetic induction (10-15 V/m, 800-1500 nT1) diminished the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and proliferative processes in cultured stimulated lymphocytes. Electron microscopic investigation of the thymus after both types of exposure revealed an accumulation of lymphocytes with pyknotic nuclei and electron-dense cytoplasm, as well as hypoplasia of the vascular endothelium. At the same time, EMF with a prevailing magnetic component produced a more marked negative effect on the ultrastructure of thymic cells, which indicated a lowered secretory activity of epitheliocytes.

  15. Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hui Meng; Cheng, En-Hsiang; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2007-09-25

    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (pCactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.

  16. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf and fruit extracts from Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landa, Přemysl; Skálová, L.; Boušová, I.; Kutil, Zsófia; Langhansová, Lenka; Lou, J.D.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2014), s. 103-106 ISSN 1011-601X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08070 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : anti-proliferative activity * anti-inflammatory activity * breast cancer Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2014 http://www.pjps.pk/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/27/1/Paper-15.pdf

  17. Structural and functional development of rat and mouse gastric mucous cells in relation to their proliferative activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattel, W.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out to find a relation between the differentiation and the mitotic activity of gastric mucous cells of the rat and the mouse. It is shown that the bulk mucous production is carried out by the older, non-proliferative, surface mucous cells that line the foveolae and the gastric surface. One experiment describes the renewal of mouse gastric mucous cells following fast neutron irradiation. (C.F.)

  18. Erythrocyte fatty acids and risk of proliferative and nonproliferative fibrocystic disease in women in Shanghai, China123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jackilen; King, Irena B; Lampe, Johanna W; Gao, Dao Li; Ray, Roberta M; Lin, Ming-Gang; Stalsberg, Helge; Thomas, David B

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although benign breast changes are more common than breast cancer, little evidence regarding risk factors for benign breast conditions is available. Omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids have antiinflammatory and antiproliferative actions and may be important in reducing the risk of benign conditions. There is a lack of research on the association of n–3 fatty acids with risk of benign fibrocystic breast changes. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the role of n–3 and other fatty acids in the development of benign proliferative fibrocystic conditions (PFCs) and nonproliferative fibrocystic conditions (NPFCs) in the breast and to evaluate the progression of fibrocystic changes in breast cancer. Design: We conducted a case-control study to determine erythrocyte fatty acid concentrations in 155 women with NPFCs, 185 women with PFCs, 241 women with breast cancer (127 with nonproliferative and 114 with proliferative changes in the noncancerous extratumoral mammary epithelium), and 1030 control subjects. We estimated the relative risk of NPFCs, PFCs, and breast cancer with proliferative and nonproliferative changes in extratumoral tissue compared with the risk of these changes alone. Results: Women in the highest quartile of eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations were 67% less likely to have an NPFC alone or with breast cancer and 49% less likely to have breast cancer than were women with PFCs. γ-Linolenic acid (18:3n–6) was positively associated with all fibrocystic and cancerous conditions. Palmitic:palmitoleic acid (n–7 saturation index) was inversely associated with risk in all comparisons. Conclusion: Our results support a protective effects of n–3 fatty acid intake and the n–7 saturation index against benign fibrocystic breast changes and the progression of proliferative changes to breast cancer. PMID:19056601

  19. The evolution of the vertebrate cerebellum: absence of a proliferative external granule layer in a basal ray-finned fish

    OpenAIRE

    Butts, Thomas; Modrell, Melinda S.; Baker, Clare V. H.; Wingate, Richard J. T.

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum represents one of the most morphologically variable structures in the vertebrate brain. To shed light on its evolutionary history, we have examined the molecular anatomy and proliferation of the developing cerebellum of the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. Absence of an external proliferative cerebellar layer and the restriction of Atonal1 expression to the rhombic lip and valvular primordium demonstrate that transit amplification in a cerebellar external germinal ...

  20. Quantum signaling game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantum approach to a signaling game; a special kind of extensive game of incomplete information. Our model is based on quantum schemes for games in strategic form where players perform unitary operators on their own qubits of some fixed initial state and the payoff function is given by a measurement on the resulting final state. We show that the quantum game induced by our scheme coincides with a signaling game as a special case and outputs nonclassical results in general. As an example, we consider a quantum extension of the signaling game in which the chance move is a three-parameter unitary operator whereas the players' actions are equivalent to classical ones. In this case, we study the game in terms of Nash equilibria and refine the pure Nash equilibria adapting to the quantum game the notion of a weak perfect Bayesian equilibrium. (paper)

  1. The role of the class A scavenger receptors, SR-A and MARCO, in the immune system. Part 1. The structure of receptors, their ligand binding repertoires and ability to initiate intracellular signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Józefowski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available  Recognition of pathogens by innate immune cells is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRR, which include scavenger receptors (SR. The class A SR, SR-A/CD204 and MARCO, are characterized by the presence of collagenous and SR cysteine-rich domains in their extracellular portions. Both receptors are expressed mainly on macrophages and dendritic cells. Thanks to their ability to bind to a wide range of polyanionic ligands, the class A SR may participate in numerous functions of these cells, such as endocytosis, and adhesion to extracellular matrix and to other cells. Among SR-A ligands are oxidized lipoproteins and β-amyloid fibrils, which link SR-A to the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the demonstration of class A SR involvement in so many processes, the lack of selective ligands precluded reaching definite conclusions concerning their signaling abilities. Using specific receptor ligation with antibodies, we showed that SR-A and MARCO trigger intracellular signaling, modulating pro-inflammatory and microbicidal activities of macrophages. Surprisingly, despite similarities in structure and ligand binding repertoires, SR-A and MARCO exert opposite effects on interleukin-12 (IL-12 production in macrophages. SR-A ligation also stimulated H2O2 and IL-10 production, but had no effect on the release of several other cytokines. These limited effects of specific SR-A ligation contrast with generalized enhancement of immune responses observed in SR-A-deficient mice. Recent studies have revealed that many of these effects of SR-A deficiency may be caused by compensatory changes in the expression of other receptors and/or disinhibition of signal transduction from receptors belonging to the Toll/IL-1R family, rather than by the loss of the receptor function of SR-A.

  2. Effect of exercise on the pulmonary system in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle in a group of perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrith Pakkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal levels influence dynamic lung function parameters. Significant increase in both progesterone (37% and estradiol (13.5%; where as, no change in plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH was observed in exercising women in previous studies. Therefore, this study was intended to see the limitations of the pulmonary system in adaptability to exercise in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle in perimenopausal women. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted as a part of cardiopulmonary efficiency studies on two groups of nonathletes (n = 10 and athletes (n = 10 comparable in age and sex. Menstrual history was ascertained to confirm proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. Dynamic lung functions were measured in both groups before exercise and immediately after exercise. Results: It was observed that exercise per se does not cause a statistically significant change in dynamic lung function parameters maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and MEF 25-75% in either of the groups. Conclusion: This finding supports the hypothesis that the respiratory system is not normally the most limiting factor in the delivery of oxygen even under the predominant influence of estrogen in proliferative phase, which is further accentuated by exercise.

  3. THE BIOTIC FACTOR OF TREMATOD OPISTHORHIS FELINEUS INVASION INFLUENCE ON HOST IMMUNE STATUS AND SOMATIC CELLS PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Rybka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper confirms long-time opisthorhis invasion role as a risk factor of host immune system reconstitution as well as an important factor in holangiocarcinomas development. It was shown that opisthorhosis invasion primal stage induce host immune system reconstitution. Host immune B-cells system is activated by metacercaria antigens, while the same antigens inhibits T-cells activity. Opisthorhis metabolites stimulate proliferative mithogen-induced T-cells acti vity. Chronic opisthorchis invasion leads to immune system disbalance. It means: decrease of specific and non-speci fic natural killers activity, number of high proliferative activity T-lymphocytes and the shift of regulatory T-cells subset to suppressors prevalence. At the same time specific as well as non-specific T-suppressors functional ability is very low. It was shown T-cells helper-amplifier activation. Despite of circulating B-cells decrease the antibody produced cells number is spleen increases significantly at the same time with circulating immune complexes accumulation. Even 3–6 month after dehelmintisation the immune system disbalance decreases but lefts. In addition, chronic opisthorhis invasion leads to the proliferative processes activation in ductal epithelium, liver, lymph nodes and in other organs which leads to cancer proliferation. According to the results obtained the opisthorhis infected patients needs to be immunocorrected before as well as after dehelmintisation for holangiocancerogenesis profylaxis.

  4. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities of edible and medicinal plants from the Peruvian Amazon

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    Jan Tauchen

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among 23 extracts of medicinal and edible plants tested, Mauritia flexuosa L.f., Arecaceae, showed significant antioxidant ability (DPPH and ORAC = 1062.9 and 645.9 ± 51.4 µg TE/mg extract, respectively, while Annona montana Macfad., Annonaceae, demonstrated the most promising anti-proliferative effect (IC50 for Hep-G2 and HT-29 = 2.7 and 9.0 µg/ml, respectively. However, combinatory antioxidant/anti-proliferative effect was only detected in Oenocarpus bataua Mart., Arecaceae (DPPH = 903.8 and ORAC = 1024 µg TE/mg extract; IC50 for Hep-G2 and HT-29 at 102.6 and 38.8 µg/ml, respectively and Inga edulis Mart., Fabaceae (DPPH = 337.0 and ORAC = 795.7 µg TE/mg extract; IC50 for Hep-G2 and HT-29 at 36.3 and 57.9 µg/ml, respectively. Phenolic content was positively correlated with antioxidant potential, however not with anti-proliferative effect. None of these extracts possessed toxicity towards normal foetal lung cells, suggesting their possible use in development of novel plant-based agents with preventive and/or therapeutic action against oxidative stress-related diseases.

  5. VISUALIZATION FROM INTRAOPERATIVE SWEPT-SOURCE MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN VITRECTOMY FOR COMPLICATIONS OF PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Hesham; Chen, Xi; Zevallos-Carrasco, Oscar M; Viehland, Christian; Dandrige, Alexandria; Sarin, Neeru; Mahmoud, Tamer H; Vajzovic, Lejla; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2018-01-10

    To evaluate the use of live volumetric (4D) intraoperative swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography in vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications. In this prospective study, we analyzed a subgroup of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications who required vitrectomy and who were imaged by the research swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography system. In near real time, images were displayed in stereo heads-up display facilitating intraoperative surgeon feedback. Postoperative review included scoring image quality, identifying different diabetic retinopathy-associated pathologies and reviewing the intraoperatively documented surgeon feedback. Twenty eyes were included. Indications for vitrectomy were tractional retinal detachment (16 eyes), combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (2 eyes), and vitreous hemorrhage (2 eyes). Useful, good-quality 2D (B-scans) and 4D images were obtained in 16/20 eyes (80%). In these eyes, multiple diabetic retinopathy complications could be imaged. Swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography provided surgical guidance, e.g., in identifying dissection planes under fibrovascular membranes, and in determining residual membranes and traction that would benefit from additional peeling. In 4/20 eyes (20%), acceptable images were captured, but they were not useful due to high tractional retinal detachment elevation which was challenging for imaging. Swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography can provide important guidance during surgery for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications through intraoperative identification of different complications and facilitation of intraoperative decision making.

  6. Phytochemical properties and anti-proliferative activity of Olea europaea L. leaf extracts against pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-07-17

    Olea europaea L. leaves are an agricultural waste product with a high concentration of phenolic compounds; especially oleuropein. Oleuropein has been shown to exhibit anti-proliferative activity against a number of cancer types. However, they have not been tested against pancreatic cancer, the fifth leading cause of cancer related death in Western countries. Therefore, water, 50% ethanol and 50% methanol extracts of Corregiola and Frantoio variety Olea europaea L. leaves were investigated for their total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and oleuropein content, antioxidant capacity and anti-proliferative activity against MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. The extracts only had slight differences in their phytochemical properties, and at 100 and 200 μg/mL, all decreased the viability of the pancreatic cancer cells relative to controls. At 50 μg/mL, the water extract from the Corregiola leaves exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity with the effect possibly due to early eluting HPLC peaks. For this reason, olive leaf extracts warrant further investigation into their potential anti-pancreatic cancer benefits.

  7. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES AND ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE EFFECT OF NONI (Morinda citrifolia FRUIT EXTRACT ANALYSED BY REAL TIME-PCR

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    hermansyah hermansyah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the anti-proliferative effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia fruit extract for a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model organism, analysis of gene expression changes related to cell cycle associated with inhibition effect of noni fruit extract was carried out. Anti-proliferative of noni fruit extract was analyzed using gene expression changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strains FY833 and BY4741.  Transcriptional analysis of genes that play a role in cell cycle was conducted by growing cells on YPDAde broth medium containing 1% (w/v noni fruit extract, and then subjected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.  Transcriptional level of genes CDC6 (Cell Division Cycle-6, CDC20 (Cell Division Cycle-20, FAR1 (Factor ARrest-1, FUS3 (FUSsion-3, SIC1 (Substrate/Subunit Inhibitor of Cyclin-dependent protein kinase-1, WHI5 (WHIskey-5, YOX1 (Yeast homeobOX-1 and YHP1 (Yeast Homeo-Protein-1 increased, oppositely genes expression of DBF4 (DumbBell Forming, MCM1 (Mini Chromosome Maintenance-1 and TAH11 (Topo-A Hypersensitive-11 decreased, while the expression level of genes CDC7 (Cell Division Cycle-7, MBP1 (MIul-box Binding Protein-1 and SWI6 (SWItching deficient-6 relatively unchanged. These results indicated that gene expression changes might associate with anti-proliferative effect from noni fruit extract. These gene expressions changes lead to the growth inhibition of S.cerevisiae cell because of cell cycle defect.

  8. Coordination of Septate Junctions Assembly and Completion of Cytokinesis in Proliferative Epithelial Tissues.

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    Daniel, Emeline; Daudé, Marion; Kolotuev, Irina; Charish, Kristi; Auld, Vanessa; Le Borgne, Roland

    2018-05-07

    How permeability barrier function is maintained when epithelial cells divide is largely unknown. Here, we have investigated how the bicellular septate junctions (BSJs) and tricellular septate junctions (TSJs) are remodeled throughout completion of cytokinesis in Drosophila epithelia. We report that, following cytokinetic ring constriction, the midbody assembles, matures within SJs, and is displaced basally in two phases. In a first slow phase, the neighboring cells remain connected to the dividing cells by means of SJ-containing membrane protrusions pointing to the maturing midbody. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that SJs within the membrane protrusions correspond to the old SJs that were present prior to cytokinesis. In contrast, new SJs are assembled below the adherens junctions and spread basally to build a new belt of SJs in a manner analogous to a conveyor belt. Loss of function of a core BSJ component, the Na+/K+-ATPase pump Nervana 2 subunit, revealed that the apical-to-basal spread of BSJs drives the basal displacement of the midbody. In contrast, loss of the TSJ protein Bark beetle indicated that remodeling of TSJs is rate limiting and slowed down midbody migration. In the second phase, once the belt of SJs is assembled, the basal displacement of the midbody is accelerated and ultimately leads to abscission. This last step is temporally uncoupled from the remodeling of SJs. We propose that cytokinesis in epithelia involves the coordinated polarized assembly and remodeling of SJs both in the dividing cell and its neighbors to ensure the maintenance of permeability barrier integrity in proliferative epithelia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Systemic factors related to soluble (prorenin receptor in plasma of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

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    Keitaro Hase

    Full Text Available (Prorenin receptor [(PRR], a new component of the tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS, plays a crucial role in inflammation and angiogenesis in the eye, thus contributing to the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR. In this study, we investigated systemic factors related to plasma levels of soluble form of (PRR [s(PRR] in patients with PDR. Twenty type II diabetic patients with PDR and 20 age-matched, non-diabetic patients with idiopathic macular diseases were enrolled, and plasma levels of various molecules were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Human retinal microvascular endothelial cells were stimulated with several diabetes-related conditions to evaluate changes in gene expression using real-time quantitative PCR. Of various systemic parameters examined, the PDR patients had significantly higher blood sugar and serum creatinine levels than non-diabetic controls. Protein levels of s(PRR, prorenin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, complement factor D (CFD, and leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1 significantly increased in the plasma of PDR subjects as compared to non-diabetes, with positive correlations detected between s(PRR and these inflammatory molecules but not prorenin. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine were also correlated with plasma s(PRR, but not prorenin, levels. Among the inflammatory molecules correlated with s(PRR in the plasma, TNF-α, but not CFD or LRG1, application to retinal endothelial cells upregulated the mRNA expression of (PRR but not prorenin, while stimulation with high glucose enhanced both (PRR and prorenin expression. These findings suggested close relationships between plasma s(PRR and diabetes-induced factors including chronic inflammation, renal dysfunction, and hyperglycemia in patients with PDR.

  10. The Steroids in the Maintenance of Remission of Proliferative Lupus Nephritis (SIMPL Pilot Trial

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    Lauren Galbraith

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with proliferative lupus nephritis are at risk of frequent relapses. Whether low- dose prednisone prevents relapses is uncertain. Objectives: We undertook a pilot RCT to determine the feasibility of a larger trial. Design: Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting: Single center Canadian outpatient nephrology clinic. Patients: Participants with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and a history of class III or IV lupus nephritis that achieved at least partial remission and remained on prednisone were eligible. Measurements: Feasibility: proportion of eligible patients randomized and adherence to tapering regimen. Clinical: occurrence of renal or major non-renal flare of SLE. Methods: We conducted a blinded, two-parallel-group randomized controlled trial of prednisone 7.5 mg/day (continuation compared to a matching placebo (withdrawal. Results: Of nineteen eligible patients screened, 15 (79% were recruited and randomized; 8 to prednisone continuation and seven to withdrawal. All participants adhered to the tapering protocol to their assigned withdrawal or low-dose maintenance target. Over 36 months, the primary outcome occurred in four (50% patients in the continuation group (three renal and one major non-renal flare, compared with one patient (14% in the withdrawal group (one renal flare. Three participants (38% in the continuation group had minor flares, while no patients in the withdrawal group did. Limitations: This pilot RCT was small and not designed to assess the efficacy or safety of maintenance with low-dose prednisone. Conclusions: The high proportion of eligible patients recruited, and success of protocol adherence suggest a large trial of prednisone maintenance therapy compared to withdrawal is feasible. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31327267.

  11. A comparative study of proliferative nodules and lethal melanomas in congenital nevi from children.

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    Yélamos, Oriol; Arva, Nicoleta C; Obregon, Roxana; Yazdan, Pedram; Wagner, Annette; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

    2015-03-01

    Differentiating proliferative nodules (PNs) from melanomas arising in congenital nevi (CN) is a considerable challenge for dermatopathologists. Most of the specimens dermatopathologists assess that deal with this differential diagnosis involve proliferations of melanocytes arising in the dermis. In this study, we compare the clinical, histologic, and molecular findings of these 2 conditions. In our database, we found 22 examples of PNs arising in the dermis of CN and 2 cases of lethal melanomas arising from the dermis/epidermis of CN of children. Importantly, we found that among dermal melanocytic proliferations arising from CN in children, PNs are far more common than lethal melanomas. Clinically, multiplicity of lesions favored a diagnosis of PNs, whereas ulceration was infrequent in PNs compared with lethal melanomas. Histologically, PNs showed several distinct patterns including expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with mitotic counts lower than that seen in the melanomas (1.67 vs. 12.5 mitoses/mm), a small round blue cell pattern often highly mitotically active, neurocristic-like, blue nevus-like, a nevoid melanoma-like pattern, or an undifferentiated spindle cell pattern. The lethal melanomas both featured expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with high mitotic counts (range, 5 to 20 mitoses/mm) and an ulcerated overlying epidermis. At the molecular level, the PNs showed mostly whole chromosomal copy number aberrations, which in some cases were accompanied by rare partial chromosomal aberrations, whereas both lethal melanomas showed highly elevated copy number aberrations involving 6p25 without gains of the long arm of chromosome 6.

  12. Evaluation of cell proliferative activity after irradiation using immunohistochemical approach and flow cytometry

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    Tamada, Takashi (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    To evaluate a proliferative activity of post-irradiated malignant cells, we studied the kinetics of HeLa cells using immunohistochemical approach and flow cytometry. HeLa cells were stained with two proliferation-associated monoclonal antibodies, Ki-67 and anti-DNA polymerase {alpha} antibody. Nucleoli of non-irradiated cells were granularly stained with Ki-67. After irradiation, only the center of nuclei was diffusely stained with Ki-67. One hundred forty-four hours after low-dose irradiation, the staining patterns became the same as the control. On the other hand, after high-dose irradiation, the center of nuclei was weakly stained. DNA polymerase {alpha} was diffusely labelled with nuclei of the control. It was located around the border of nuclei of low-dose irradiated cells like a ring. But after high-dose irradiation, it was granularly distributed in the periphery of nuclei. FITC conjugated Ki-67/PI two parameter analysis was done by a single laser flow cytometer. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, DNA-histograms showed the accumulation to G{sub 2}/M phase and the increase of DNA content of G{sub 2}/M cells, as exposure dose was increased. Two parameter analysis showed the increase of FITC uptake of G{sub 2}/M phase as dose increased. These changes of flow cytometry were remarkably observed after 24 hours' incubation. It was shown that the difference of Ki-67 antigen and DNA polymerase {alpha} appearance depended on the irradiation dose. These findings suggest that immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67 or anti-DNA polymerase {alpha} antibody and flow cytometry using Ki-67 are available to evaluate cell damages after irradiation. (author).

  13. Cigarette smoking and risk of benign proliferative epithelial disorders of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohan, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    Benign proliferative epithelial disorders (BPED) of the breast are conditions which are thought to have premalignant potential. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the association between cigarette smoking and risk of BPED. The study was undertaken within the 56,837 women within Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) who completed self-administered lifestyle and dietary questionnaires. (The NBSS is a randomized controlled trial of screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-59 at recruitment.) During the course of the follow-up period, a total of 691 women in the dietary cohort were diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed incident BPED. For comparative purposes, a subcohort consisting of a random sample of 5681 women (including 65 of the subjects with BPED) was selected from the full cohort. After exclusions for various reasons, the analyses were based on 691 cases and 5443 non-cases. Overall, the results of the present study are almost uniformly null, and provide little support for an association between cigarette smoking and risk of BPED. Analyses conducted separately in the screened and control arms of the NBSS also failed to provide strong support for associations, and there was little difference between the results for screen-detected and interval-detected BPED. There was some suggestion of an increase in risk in post-menopausal ex-smokers, but the trend in risk with cigarette-years of exposure in this group was not statistically significant. Risk in ex-smokers varied little by years since smoking cessation. There was little evidence for associations with either atypical or non-atypical forms of BPED

  14. Complex interaction between proliferative kidney disease, water temperature and concurrent nematode infection in brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Steiner, Pascale; Müller, Barbara; Casanova-Nakayama, Ayako

    2013-04-29

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a temperature-dependent disease caused by the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. It is an emerging threat to wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario populations in Switzerland. Here we examined (1) how PKD prevalence and pathology in young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout relate to water temperature, (2) whether wild brown trout can completely recover from T. bryosalmonae-induced renal lesions and eliminate T. bryosalmonae over the winter months, and (3) whether this rate and/or extent of the recovery is influenced by concurrent infection. A longitudinal field study on a wild brown trout cohort was conducted over 16 mo. YOY and age 1+ fish were sampled from 7 different field sites with various temperature regimes, and monitored for infection with T. bryosalmonae and the nematode Raphidascaris acus. T. bryosamonae was detectable in brown trout YOY from all sampling sites, with similar renal pathology, independent of water temperature. During winter months, recovery was mainly influenced by the presence or absence of concurrent infection with R. acus larvae. While brown trout without R. acus regenerated completely, concurrently infected brown trout showed incomplete recovery, with chronic renal lesions and incomplete translocation of T. bryosalmonae from the renal interstitium into the tubular lumen. Water temperature seemed to influence complete excretion of T. bryosalmonae, with spores remaining in trout from summer-warm rivers, but absent in trout from summer-cool rivers. In the following summer months, we found PKD infections in 1+ brown trout from all investigated river sites. The pathological lesions indicated a re-infection rather than a proliferation of remaining T. bryosalmonae. However, disease prevalence in 1+ trout was lower than in YOY.

  15. Feeding manipulation elicits different proliferative responses in the gastrointestinal tract of suckling and weanling rats

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    Palanch A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Food deprivation has been found to stimulate cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa of suckling rats, whereas the weanling period has been reported to be unresponsive in terms of proliferative activity. In the present study we analyze regional differences in the effect of milk or food deprivation on cell proliferation of the epithelia of the esophagus and of five segments of small intestine in suckling, weanling and newly weaned Wistar rats of both sexes. DNA synthesis was determined using tritiated thymidine to obtain labeling indices (LI; crypt depth and villus height were also determined. Milk deprivation decreased LI by 50% in the esophagus (from 15 to 8.35% and small intestine (from 40 to 20% of 14-day-old rats. In 18-day-old rats, milk and food deprivation decreased LI in the esophagus (from 13 to 5% and in the distal segments of the small intestine (from 36-40 to 24-32%. In contrast, the LI of the epithelia of the esophagus (5% and of all small intestine segments (around 30% of 22-day-old rats were not modified by food deprivation. Crypt depth did not change after treatment (80 to 120 µm in 14- and 22-day-old rats, respectively. Villus height decreased in some small intestine segments of unfed 14- (from 400 to 300 µm and 18-day-old rats (from 480 to 360 µm. The results show that, contrary to the stomach response, milk deprivation inhibited cell proliferation in the esophagus and small intestine of suckling rats, demonstrating the regional variability of each segment of the gastrointestinal tract in suckling rats. In newly weaned rats, food deprivation did not alter the proliferation of these epithelia, similarly to the stomach, indicating that weanling is a period marked by the insensitivity of gastrointestinal epithelia to dietary alterations

  16. [Immunoexpression of c-erbB-2 in intraductal proliferative lesions of the female breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Agliberto Barbosa de; De Luca, Laurival Antônio; Carvalho, Grigna Teixeira; Arias, Victor Eduardo Arua; Carvalho, Lídia Raquel de; Assunção, Maria do Carmo

    2004-01-01

    Genetic modifications are related to genesis and development of cancer. Neoplasias in various organs express the c-erbB-2 oncogene. In intraductal proliferations of the breast it has been assessed as a risk factor for subsequent development of carcinoma. The c-erbB-2 immunoexpression in intraductal epithelial proliferations and the relationship with histopathological characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were evaluated. File material from 88 women, which were tissue samples formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks, was used. Of these 51 presented with DCIS and 37 with ductal hyperplasia without atypia. Ages of the women ranged from 35 to 76 years. All cases were reviewed and nuclear grade, presence of necrosis, preponderance of histological subtype and its extension were verified. Specimens were obtained for the c-erB-2 immunohistochemical study of 84 of the women in question. No expression of the oncogene was verified in the hyperplasias without atypias and in tissues adjacent to all tissue samples. Expression of c-erbB-2 was verified in 9 (19.1%) of the DCIS (p = 0.0001). Immunoexpression was not related to the extension of the lesions. The c-erbB-2 immunoexpression in DCIS was correlated to the histological subtype (p = 0.019), necrosis (p = 0.0066), nuclear grade (p = 0.0084) and Van Nuys Classification (p = 0.039). Expression of c-erbB-2 was significant in proliferative lesions with risk (DCIS) and was correlated to histopathological characteristics: high nuclear grade, presence of necrosis and comedy subtype. There was no expression in the hyperplasias without atypias and adjacent tissues.

  17. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is a potential biomarker of angiogenesis in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M; Ahmad, Ajmal; Alam, Kaiser; Siddiquei, Mohammad Mairaj; Mohammad, Ghulam; Hertogh, Gert De; Mousa, Ahmed; Opdenakker, Ghislain

    2017-11-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) promotes angiogenesis through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. We investigated the expression levels of EMMPRIN and correlated these levels with VEGF, MMP-1 and MMP-9 in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In addition, we examined the expression of EMMPRIN in the retinas of diabetic rats and the effect of EMMPRIN on the induction of angiogenesis regulatory factors in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). Vitreous samples from 40 PDR and 19 non-diabetic patients, epiretinal membranes from 12 patients with PDR, retinas of rats and HRMECs were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, zymography analysis and RT-PCR. We showed a significant increase in the expression of EMMPRIN, VEGF, MMP-1 and MMP-9 in vitreous samples from PDR patients compared with non-diabetic controls (p EMMPRIN and the levels of VEGF (r = 0.38; p = 0.003), MMP-1 (r = 0.36; p = 0.005) and MMP-9 (r = 0.46; p = 0.003). In epiretinal membranes, EMMPRIN was expressed in vascular endothelial cells and stromal cells. Significant increase of EMMPRIN mRNA was detected in rat retinas after induction of diabetes. EMMPRIN induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, VEGF and MMP-1 expression in HRMEC. These results suggest that EMMPRIN/MMPs/VEGF pathway is involved in PDR angiogenesis. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Quantitative nucleic features are effective for discrimination of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast

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    Masatoshi Yamada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intraductal proliferative lesions (IDPLs of the breast are recognized as a risk factor for subsequent invasive carcinoma development. Although opportunities for IDPL diagnosis have increased, these lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly, especially atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (LG-DCIS. In order to define the difference between these lesions, many molecular pathological approaches have been performed. However, still we do not have a molecular marker and objective histological index about IDPLs of the breast. Methods: We generated full digital pathology archives from 175 female IDPL patients, including usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH, ADH, LG-DCIS, intermediate-grade (IM-DCIS, and high-grade (HG-DCIS. After total 2,035,807 nucleic segmentations were extracted, we evaluated nuclear features using step-wise linear discriminant analysis (LDA and a support vector machine. Results: High diagnostic accuracy (81.8–99.3% was achieved between pathologists' diagnoses and two-group LDA predictions from nucleic features for IDPL discrimination. Grouping of nuclear features as size and shape-related or intranuclear texture-related revealed that the latter group was more important when distinguishing between normal duct, UDH, ADH, and LG-DCIS. However, these two groups were equally important when discriminating between LG-DCIS and HG-DCIS. The Mahalanobis distances between each group showed that the smallest distance values occurred between LG-DCIS and IM-DCIS and between ADH and Normal. On the other hand, the distance value between ADH and LG-DCIS was larger than this distance. Conclusions: In this study, we have presented a practical and useful digital pathological method that incorporates nuclear morphological and textural features for IDPL prediction. We expect that this novel algorithm is used for the automated diagnosis assisting system for breast cancer.

  19. Factors predicting visual improvement post pars plana vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

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    Evelyn Tai Li Min

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify factors predicting visual improvement post vitrectomy for sequelae of proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR.METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of pars plana vitrectomy indicated for sequelae of PDR from Jan. to Dec. 2014 in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Star, Kedah, Malaysia. Data collected included patient demographics, baseline visual acuity(VAand post-operative logMAR best corrected VA at 1y. Data analysis was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics Version 22.0. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients were included. The mean age was 51.2y. On multivariable analysis, each pre-operative positive deviation of 1 logMAR from a baseline VA of 0 logMAR was associated with a post-operative improvement of 0.859 logMAR(P0.001. Likewise, an attached macula pre-operatively was associated with a 0.374(P=0.003logMAR improvement post vitrectomy. Absence of iris neovascularisation and absence of post-operative complications were associated with a post vitrectomy improvement in logMAR by 1.126(P=0.001and 0.377(P=0.005respectively. Absence of long-acting intraocular tamponade was associated with a 0.302(P=0.010improvement of logMAR post vitrectomy.CONCLUSION: Factors associated with visual improvement after vitrectomy are poor pre-operative VA, an attached macula, absence of iris neovascularisation, absence of post-operative complications and abstaining from use of long-acting intraocular tamponade. A thorough understanding of the factors predicting visual improvement will facilitate decision-making in vitreoretinal surgery.

  20. Quantitative nucleic features are effective for discrimination of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Saito, Akira; Yamamoto, Yoichiro; Cosatto, Eric; Kurata, Atsushi; Nagao, Toshitaka; Tateishi, Ayako; Kuroda, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intraductal proliferative lesions (IDPLs) of the breast are recognized as a risk factor for subsequent invasive carcinoma development. Although opportunities for IDPL diagnosis have increased, these lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly, especially atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (LG-DCIS). In order to define the difference between these lesions, many molecular pathological approaches have been performed. However, still we do not have a molecular marker and objective histological index about IDPLs of the breast. Methods: We generated full digital pathology archives from 175 female IDPL patients, including usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH), ADH, LG-DCIS, intermediate-grade (IM)-DCIS, and high-grade (HG)-DCIS. After total 2,035,807 nucleic segmentations were extracted, we evaluated nuclear features using step-wise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and a support vector machine. Results: High diagnostic accuracy (81.8–99.3%) was achieved between pathologists’ diagnoses and two-group LDA predictions from nucleic features for IDPL discrimination. Grouping of nuclear features as size and shape-related or intranuclear texture-related revealed that the latter group was more important when distinguishing between normal duct, UDH, ADH, and LG-DCIS. However, these two groups were equally important when discriminating between LG-DCIS and HG-DCIS. The Mahalanobis distances between each group showed that the smallest distance values occurred between LG-DCIS and IM-DCIS and between ADH and Normal. On the other hand, the distance value between ADH and LG-DCIS was larger than this distance. Conclusions: In this study, we have presented a practical and useful digital pathological method that incorporates nuclear morphological and textural features for IDPL prediction. We expect that this novel algorithm is used for the automated diagnosis assisting system for breast cancer. PMID:26955499

  1. Azithromycin Synergistically Enhances Anti-Proliferative Activity of Vincristine in Cervical and Gastric Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xuezhang; Zhang, Yuyan; Li, Yong; Hao, Xiujing; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the anti-proliferative and anticancer activity of azithromycin (AZM) was examined. In the presence of AZM, cell growth was inhibited more effectively in Hela and SGC-7901 cancer cells, relative to transformed BHK-21 cells. The respective 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC 50 ) values for Hela, SGC-7901 and BHK-21 were 15.66, 26.05 and 91.00 µg/mL at 72 h post incubation, indicative of a selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Cell apoptosis analysis using Hoechst nuclear staining and annexin V-FITC binding assay further demonstrated that AZM was capable of inducing apoptosis in both cancer cells and transformed cells. The apoptosis induced by AZM was partly through a caspase-dependent mechanism with an up-regulation of apoptotic protein cleavage PARP and caspase-3 products, as well as a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins, Mcl-1, bcl-2 and bcl-X1. More importantly, a combination of AZM and a low dose of the common anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent vincristine (VCR), produced a selectively synergistic effect on apoptosis of Hela and SGC-7901 cells, but not BHK-21 cells. In the presence of 12.50 μg/mL of VCR, the respective IC 50 values of Hela, SGC-7901 and BHK-21 cells to AZM were reduced to 9.47 µg/mL, 8.43 µg/mL and 40.15 µg/mL at 72 h after the incubation, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of AZM had a selective anti-cancer effect on cancer over transformed cells in vitro. These results imply that AZM may be a potential anticancer agent for use in chemotherapy regimens, and it may minimize side effects via reduction of dosage and enhancing the effectiveness common chemotherapeutic drugs

  2. Antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties and zinc content of five south Portugal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ricardo; Pasko, Pawel; Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Szewczyk, Agnieszka; Szlosarczyk, Marek; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2017-12-01

    Crataegus monogyna L. (Rosaceae) (CM), Equisetum telmateia L. (Equisataceae) (ET), Geranium purpureum Vil. (Geraniaceae) (GP), Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (Lamiaceae) (MS), and Lavandula stoechas L. spp. luisieri (Lamiaceae) (LS) are all medicinal. To evaluate the antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities of plant extracts and quantify individual phenolics and zinc. Aerial part extracts were prepared with water (W), ethanol (E) and an 80% mixture (80EW). Antioxidant activity was measured with TAA, FRAP and RP methods. Phenolics were quantified with a HPLC. Zinc was quantified using voltammetry. Antibacterial activity (after 48 h) was tested using Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes. Antiproliferative activity (after 24 h) was tested using HEP G2 cells and fibroblasts. Solvents influenced results; the best were E and 80EW. GP had the highest antioxidant activity (TAA and FRAP of 536.90 mg AAE/g dw and 783.48 mg TE/g dw, respectively). CM had the highest zinc concentration (37.21 mg/kg) and phenolic variety, with neochlorogenic acid as the most abundant (92.91 mg/100 g dw). LS was rich in rosmarinic acid (301.71 mg/100 g dw). GP and LS inhibited the most microorganisms: B. cereus, E. coli and S. aureus. GP also inhibited E. faecalis. CM had the lowest MIC: 5830 μg/mL. The antibacterial activity is explained by the phenolics present. LS and CM showed the most significant anti-proliferative activity, which is explained by their zinc content. The most promising plants for further studies are CM, LS and GP.

  3. Increased Stiffness in Aged Skeletal Muscle Impairs Muscle Progenitor Cell Proliferative Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Lacraz

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle aging is associated with a decreased regenerative potential due to the loss of function of endogenous stem cells or myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs. Aged skeletal muscle is characterized by the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM, which in turn influences the biomechanical properties of myofibers by increasing their stiffness. Since the stiffness of the MPC microenvironment directly impacts MPC function, we hypothesized that the increase in muscle stiffness that occurs with aging impairs the behavior of MPCs, ultimately leading to a decrease in regenerative potential.We showed that freshly isolated individual myofibers from aged mouse muscles contain fewer MPCs overall than myofibers from adult muscles, with fewer quiescent MPCs and more proliferative and differentiating MPCs. We observed alterations in cultured MPC behavior in aged animals, where the proliferation and differentiation of MPCs were lower and higher, respectively. These alterations were not linked to the intrinsic properties of aged myofibers, as shown by the similar values for the cumulative population-doubling values and fusion indexes. However, atomic force microscopy (AFM indentation experiments revealed a nearly 4-fold increase in the stiffness of the MPC microenvironment. We further showed that the increase in stiffness is associated with alterations to muscle ECM, including the accumulation of collagen, which was correlated with higher hydroxyproline and advanced glycation end-product content. Lastly, we recapitulated the impaired MPC behavior observed in aging using a hydrogel substrate that mimics the stiffness of myofibers.These findings provide novel evidence that the low regenerative potential of aged skeletal muscle is independent of intrinsic MPC properties but is related to the increase in the stiffness of the MPC microenvironment.

  4. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy characterization based on fractal features: Evaluation on a publicly available dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, José Ignacio; van Keer, Karel; Barbosa Breda, João; Manterola, Hugo Luis; Blaschko, Matthew B; Clausse, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most widespread causes of preventable blindness in the world. The most dangerous stage of this condition is proliferative DR (PDR), in which the risk of vision loss is high and treatments are less effective. Fractal features of the retinal vasculature have been previously explored as potential biomarkers of DR, yet the current literature is inconclusive with respect to their correlation with PDR. In this study, we experimentally assess their discrimination ability to recognize PDR cases. A statistical analysis of the viability of using three reference fractal characterization schemes - namely box, information, and correlation dimensions - to identify patients with PDR is presented. These descriptors are also evaluated as input features for training ℓ1 and ℓ2 regularized logistic regression classifiers, to estimate their performance. Our results on MESSIDOR, a public dataset of 1200 fundus photographs, indicate that patients with PDR are more likely to exhibit a higher fractal dimension than healthy subjects or patients with mild levels of DR (P≤1.3×10-2). Moreover, a supervised classifier trained with both fractal measurements and red lesion-based features reports an area under the ROC curve of 0.93 for PDR screening and 0.96 for detecting patients with optic disc neovascularizations. The fractal dimension of the vasculature increases with the level of DR. Furthermore, PDR screening using multiscale fractal measurements is more feasible than using their derived fractal dimensions. Code and further resources are provided at https://github.com/ignaciorlando/fundus-fractal-analysis. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  6. Meningiomas: Objective assessment of proliferative indices by immunohistochemistry and automated counting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Pooja; Uppin, Megha S; Uppin, Shantveer G; Challa, Sundaram

    2017-01-01

    The most reliable histological correlate of recurrence risk in meningiomas is increased mitotic activity. Proliferative index with Ki-67 immunostaining is a helpful adjunct to manual counting. However, both show considerable inter-observer variability. A new immunohistochemical method for counting mitotic figures, using antibody against the phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) protein was introduced. Similarly, a computer based automated counting for Ki-67 labelling index (LI) is available. To study the use of these new techniques in the objective assessment of proliferation indices in meningiomas. This was a retrospective study of intracranial meningiomas diagnosed during the year 2013.The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with Ki-67 were reviewed by two pathologists. Photomicrographs of the representative areas were subjected to Ki-67 analysis by Immunoratio (IR) software. Mean Ki-67 LI, both manual and by IR were calculated. IHC with PHH3 was performed. PHH3 positive nuclei were counted and mean values calculated. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. A total of 64 intracranial meningiomas were diagnosed. Evaluation on H and E, PHH3, Ki-67 LI (both manual and IR) were done in 32 cases (22 grade I and 10 grade II meningiomas). Statistically significant correlation was seen between the mitotic count in each grade and PHH3 values and also between the grade of the tumor and values of Ki-67 and PHH3. Both the techniques used in the study had advantage over, as well as, correlated well with the existing techniques and hence, can be applied to routine use.

  7. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  8. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  9. PKD signaling and pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a serious medical disorder with no current therapies directed to the molecular pathogenesis of the disorder. Inflammation, inappropriate intracellular activation of digestive enzymes, and parenchymal acinar cell death by necrosis are the critical pathophysiologic processes of acute pancreatitis. Thus, it is necessary to elucidate the key molecular signals that mediate these pathobiologic processes and develop new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the appropriate signaling pathways in order to improve outcomes for this disease. A novel serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) family has emerged as key participants in signal transduction, and this family is increasingly being implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions and diseases. Methods This review summarizes recent findings of our group and others regarding the signaling pathway and the biological roles of the PKD family in pancreatic acinar cells. In particular, we highlight our studies of the functions of PKD in several key pathobiologic processes associated with acute pancreatitis in experimental models. Results Our findings reveal that PKD signaling is required for NF-κB activation/inflammation, intracellular zymogen activation, and acinar cell necrosis in rodent experimental pancreatitis. Novel small-molecule PKD inhibitors attenuate the severity of pancreatitis in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Further, this review emphasizes our latest advances in the therapeutic application of PKD inhibitors to experimental pancreatitis after the initiation of pancreatitis. Conclusions These novel findings suggest that PKD signaling is a necessary modulator in key initiating pathobiologic processes of pancreatitis, and that it constitutes a novel therapeutic target for treatments of this disorder. PMID:26879861

  10. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  11. Desquamation takes center stage at the origin of proliferative inflammatory atrophy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and stromal growth in benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Danilo; Biancardi, Manoel F; Nishan, Umar; Rosa-Ribeiro, Rafaela; Carvalho, Hernandes F

    2017-11-01

    In this commentary, we propose a relationship between desquamation, initially described as the collective detachment and deletion of epithelial cell in the prostate gland after castration, and proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and stromal growth in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). First, in response to diverse stimuli, including inflammatory mediators, epithelial cells desquamate and leave a large surface of the luminal side of the basement membrane (BM) exposed. Basal cells are activated into intermediate-type cells, which change morphology to cover and remodel the exposed BM (simple atrophy) to a new physiological demand (such as in the hypoandrogen environment, simulated by surgical and/or chemical castration) and/or to support re-epithelialization (under normal androgen levels). In the presence of inflammation (that might be the cause of desquamation), the intermediate-type cells proliferate and characterize PIA. Second, in other circumstances, desquamation is an early step of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which contributes to stromal growth, as suggested by some experimental models of BPH. The proposed associations correlate unexplored cell behaviors and reveal the remarkable plasticity of the prostate epithelium that might be at the origin of prostate diseases. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  13. Effects of Paclitaxel-conjugated N-Succinyl-Hydroxyethyl Chitosan Film for Proliferative Cholangitis in Rabbit Biliary Stricture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zou, Hao; Liu, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Wen

    2018-03-20

    Paclitaxel (PTX) could inhibit the growth of fibroblasts, which occurs in proliferative cholangitis and leads to biliary stricture. However, its use has been limited due to poor bioavailability and local administration for short time. This study designed and synthesized a new PTX-conjugated chitosan film (N-succinyl-hydroxyethyl chitosan containing PTX [PTX-SHEC]) and evaluated its safety and efficiency using in vivo and in vitro experiments. The SHEC conjugated with PTX was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) measurements. Drug releases in vitro and in vivo were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability in vitro was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Rabbit biliary stricture model was constructed. All rabbits randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 in each group): the sham-operated rabbits were used as control (Group A), Groups B received laparotomies and suture, Group C received laparotomies and covered SHEC suture without the PTX coating, Group D received laparotomies and covered PTX-SHEC suture, and Group E received laparotomies and 1000 μmol/L PTX administration. Liver function tests and residual dosage of PTX from each group were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Histological data and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemical staining of common bile duct were examined. NMR and FT-IR indicated that PTX was successfully introduced, based on the appearance of signals at 7.41-7.99 ppm, 1.50 ppm, and 1.03 ppm, due to the presence of aromatic protons, methylene protons, and methyl protons of PTX, respectively. No bile leak was observed. The PTX-conjugated film could slowly release PTX for 4 weeks (8.89 ± 0.03 μg at day 30). The in vitro cell viability test revealed significantly different levels of toxicity between films with and without PTX (111.7 ± 4.0% vs. 68.1 ± 6.0%, P films (67.7 ± 5.4%, 67.2 ± 3

  14. Aspirin Prevention of Colorectal Cancer: Focus on NF-κB Signalling and the Nucleolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Overwhelming evidence indicates that aspirin and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have anti-tumour activity and the potential to prevent cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain hypothetical. Dysregulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB transcription factor is a common event in many cancer types which contributes to tumour initiation and progression by driving expression of pro-proliferative/anti-apoptotic genes. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding NSAID effects on the NF-κB signalling pathway in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, and the evidence that these effects contribute to the anti-tumour activity of the agents. The nuclear organelle, the nucleolus, is emerging as a central regulator of transcription factor activity and cell growth and death. Nucleolar function is dysregulated in the majority of cancers which promotes cancer growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Hence, this organelle is emerging as a promising target for novel therapeutic agents. Here, we will also discuss evidence for crosstalk between the NF-κB pathway and nucleoli, the role that this cross-talk has in the anti-tumour effects of NSAIDs and ways forward to exploit this crosstalk for therapeutic purpose.

  15. Disrupted subject-specific gray matter network properties and cognitive dysfunction in type 1 diabetes patients with and without proliferative retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinkerken, Eelco; Ijzerman, Richard G.; Klein, Martin; Moll, Annette C.; Snoek, Frank J.; Scheltens, Philip; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Barkhof, Frederik; Diamant, Michaela; Tijms, Betty M.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, especially with concomitant microvascular disease, such as proliferative retinopathy, have an increased risk of cognitive deficits. Local cortical gray matter volume reductions only partially explain these cognitive dysfunctions, possibly because volume

  16. Daphne striata Tratt. and D. mezereum L.: a study of anti-proliferative activity towards human cancer cells and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-02-12

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of D. mezereum and D. striata. The aerial parts were extracted by maceration with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. MPLC, GC, and GC-MS were used for the phytochemical study. The anti-proliferative activity was tested against MCF-7, A549, LNCaP, ACHN, and C32 cancer human cells. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing β-carotene bleaching, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP tests. The Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was applied from the perspective of statistics. D. mezereum dichloromethane extract showed a remarkable anti-proliferative with an IC 50 of 6.08 μg/mL against LNCaP cells. Experimental data indicate that Daphne species have interesting anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties that deserve more investigations to develop novel antineoplastic drugs.

  17. Immunohistochemical Estimates of Angiogenesis, Proliferative Activity, p53 Expression, and Multiple Drug Resistance Have No Prognostic Impact in Osteosarcoma: A Comparative Clinicopathological Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jensen, Kenneth; Vaeth, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate angiogenesis, multiple drug resistance (MDR) and proliferative activity as prognostic variables in patients suffering from osteosarcoma. Methods. Histologic biopsies from 117 patients treated in the period from 1972 through 1999 were immunohistologically investigated...

  18. Ocular surface changes in type II diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect and analyze the changes on ocular surface and tear function in type II diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, an advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR, using conventional ophthalmic tests and the high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscopy. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with type II diabetes were selected. Based on the diagnostic criteria and stage classification of DR, the patients were divided into the non-DR (NDR group and the PDR group. Thirty-six patients with cataract but no other ocular and systemic disease were included as non-diabetic controls. All the patients were subjected to the conventional clinical tests of corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I Test, and corneal fluorescein staining. The non-invasive tear film break-up time (NIBUT and tear interferometry were conducted by a Tearscope Plus. The morphology of corneal epithelia and nerve fibers was examined using the high-resolution confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The NDR group exhibited significantly declined corneal sensitivity and Schirmer I test value, as compared to the non-diabetic controls (P< 0.001. The PDR group showed significantly reduced corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I test value, and NIBUT in comparison to the non-diabetic controls (P < 0.001. Corneal fluorescein staining revealed the progressively injured corneal epithelia in the PDR patients. Moreover, significant decrease in the corneal epithelial density and morphological abnormalities in the corneal epithelia and nerve fibers were also observed in the PDR patients. CONCLUSION: Ocular surface changes, including blunted corneal sensitivity, reduced tear secretion, tear film dysfunction, progressive loss of corneal epithelia and degeneration of nerve fibers, are common in type II diabetic patients, particularly in the diabetic patients with PDR. The corneal sensitivity, fluorescein staining scores, and the density of corneal epithelial cells and nerve fibers in the diabetic

  19. Anti-proliferative activity of the quassinoid NBT-272 in childhood medulloblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helson Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With current treatment strategies, nearly half of all medulloblastoma (MB patients die from progressive tumors. Accordingly, the identification of novel therapeutic strategies remains a major goal. Deregulation of c-MYC is evident in numerous human cancers. In MB, over-expression of c-MYC has been shown to correlate with anaplasia and unfavorable prognosis. In neuroblastoma – an embryonal tumor with biological similarities to MB – the quassinoid NBT-272 has been demonstrated to inhibit cellular proliferation and to down-regulate c-MYC protein expression. Methods To study MB cell responses to NBT-272 and their dependence on the level of c-MYC expression, DAOY (wild-type, empty vector transfected or c-MYC transfected, D341 (c-MYC amplification and D425 (c-MYC amplification human MB cells were used. The cells were treated with different concentrations of NBT-272 and the impact on cell proliferation, apoptosis and c-MYC expression was analyzed. Results NBT-272 treatment resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation (IC50 in the range of 1.7 – 9.6 ng/ml and in a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death in all human MB cell lines tested. Treatment with NBT-272 resulted in up to 90% down-regulation of c-MYC protein, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis, and in a significant inhibition of c-MYC binding activity. Anti-proliferative effects were slightly more prominent in D341 and D425 human MB cells with c-MYC amplification and slightly more pronounced in c-MYC over-expressing DAOY cells compared to DAOY wild-type cells. Moreover, treatment of synchronized cells by NBT-272 induced a marked cell arrest at the G1/S boundary. Conclusion In human MB cells, NBT-272 treatment inhibits cellular proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, blocks cell cycle progression, induces apoptosis, and down-regulates the expression of the oncogene c-MYC. Thus, NBT-272 may represent a novel drug candidate to inhibit

  20. Biogenic amines as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1987-01-01

    embryonic origin and that cells exhibiting an admixture of endocrine and proliferative properties exist in colonic tumours, but not in the normal intestinal epithelium. Thus, it appears that in the normal intestine a clear structural and functional distinction exists between the regulating cells (i.e. the sympathetic neurones and enteroendocrine cells) and the regulated cells (i.e. the undifferentiated crypt cells): cells that have acquired a regulating role are no longer able to divide and cells which are able to divide do not take up or store amines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  1. Ocular surface changes in type II diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Gao; Yan; Zhang; Yu-Sha; Ru; Xiao-Wu; Wang; Ji-Zhong; Yang; Chun-Hui; Li; Hong-Xing; Wang; Xiao-Rong; Li; Bing; Li

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To detect and analyze the changes on ocular surface and tear function in type II diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR), an advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy(DR), using conventional ophthalmic tests and the high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscopy.METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with type II diabetes were selected. Based on the diagnostic criteria and stage classification of DR, the patients were divided into the non-DR(NDR) group and the PDR group. Thirty-six patients with cataract but no other ocular and systemic disease were included as non-diabetic controls. All the patients were subjected to the conventional clinical tests of corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I test, and corneal fluorescein staining. The non-invasive tear film break-up time(NIBUT) and tear interferometry were conducted by a Tearscope Plus. The morphology of corneal epithelia and nerve fibers was examined using the high-resolution confocal microscopy.RESULTS: The NDR group exhibited significantly declined corneal sensitivity and Schirmer I test value, as compared to the non-diabetic controls(P <0.001). The PDR group showed significantly reduced corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I test value, and NIBUT in comparison to the non-diabetic controls(P <0.001).Corneal fluorescein staining revealed the progressively injured corneal epithelia in the PDR patients. Moreover,significant decrease in the corneal epithelial density andmorphological abnormalities in the corneal epithelia and nerve fibers were also observed in the PDR patients.CONCLUSION: Ocular surface changes, including blunted corneal sensitivity, reduced tear secretion, tear film dysfunction, progressive loss of corneal epithelia and degeneration of nerve fibers, are common in type II diabetic patients, particularly in the diabetic patients with PDR. The corneal sensitivity, fluorescein staining scores,and the density of corneal epithelial cells and nerve fibers in the diabetic patients correlate with the

  2. Diffusion is capable of translating anisotropic apoptosis initiation into a homogeneous execution of cell death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Huber, Heinrich J

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is an essential cell death process throughout the entire life span of all metazoans and its deregulation in humans has been implicated in many proliferative and degenerative diseases. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation (MOMP) and activation of effector caspases are key processes during apoptosis signalling. MOMP can be subject to spatial coordination in human cancer cells, resulting in intracellular waves of cytochrome-c release. To investigate the consequences of these spatial anisotropies in mitochondrial permeabilisation on subsequent effector caspase activation, we devised a mathematical reaction-diffusion model building on a set of partial differential equations. RESULTS: Reaction-diffusion modelling suggested that even if strong spatial anisotropies existed during mitochondrial cytochrome c release, these would be eliminated by free diffusion of the cytosolic proteins that instantiate the apoptosis execution network. Experimentally, rapid sampling of mitochondrial permeabilisation and effector caspase activity in individual HeLa cervical cancer cells confirmed predictions of the reaction-diffusion model and demonstrated that the signalling network of apoptosis execution could efficiently translate spatial anisotropies in mitochondrial permeabilisation into a homogeneous effector caspase response throughout the cytosol. Further systems modelling suggested that a more than 10,000-fold impaired diffusivity would be required to maintain spatial anisotropies as observed during mitochondrial permeabilisation until the time effector caspases become activated. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-protein diffusion efficiently contributes to eliminating spatial asynchronies which are present during the initiation of apoptosis execution and thereby ensures homogeneous apoptosis execution throughout the entire cell body. For previously reported biological scenarios in which effector caspase activity was shown to be targeted selectively to

  3. Detection of Noise in Composite Step Signal Pattern by Visualizing Signal Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman Verma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Step Composite Signals is the combination of vital informative signals that are compressed and coded to produce a predefined test image on a display device. It carries the desired sequence of information from source to destination. This information may be transmitted as digital signal, video information or data signal required as an input for the destination module. For testing of display panels, Composite Test Signals are the most important attribute of test signal transmission system. In the current research paper we present an approach for the noise detection in Composite Step Signal by analysing Composite Step Signal waveforms. The analysis of the signal waveforms reveals that the noise affected components of the signal and subsequently noise reduction process is initiated which targets noisy signal component only. Thus the quality of signal is not compromised during noise reduction process.

  4. Chir99021 and Valproic acid reduce the proliferative advantage of Apc mutant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlands, Alistair J; Carroll, Thomas D; Chen, Yu; Näthke, Inke

    2018-02-15

    More than 90% of colorectal cancers carry mutations in Apc that drive tumourigenesis. A 'just-right' signalling model proposes that Apc mutations stimulate optimal, but not excessive Wnt signalling, resulting in a growth advantage of Apc mutant over wild-type cells. Reversal of this growth advantage constitutes a potential therapeutic approach. We utilised intestinal organoids to compare the growth of Apc mutant and wild-type cells. Organoids derived from Apc Min/+ mice recapitulate stages of intestinal polyposis in culture. They eventually form spherical cysts that reflect the competitive growth advantage of cells that have undergone loss of heterozygosity (LOH). We discovered that this emergence of cysts was inhibited by Chiron99021 and Valproic acid, which potentiates Wnt signalling. Chiron99021 and Valproic acid restrict the growth advantage of Apc mutant cells while stimulating that of wild-type cells, suggesting that excessive Wnt signalling reduces the relative fitness of Apc mutant cells. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated that Chiron99021-treated Apc mutant organoids were rendered susceptible to TSA-induced apoptosis, while wild-type cells were protected.

  5. Fibrinolysis and proliferative endarteritis: two related processes in chronic infections? The model of the blood-borne pathogen Dirofilaria immitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González-Miguel

    Full Text Available The interaction between blood-borne pathogens and fibrinolysis is one of the most important mechanisms that mediate invasion and the establishment of infectious agents in their hosts. However, overproduction of plasmin (final product of the route has been related in other contexts to proliferation and migration of the arterial wall cells and degradation of the extracellular matrix. We have recently identified fibrinolysis-activating antigens from Dirofilaria immitis, a blood-borne parasite whose key pathological event (proliferative endarteritis is produced by similar mechanisms to those indicated above. The objective of this work is to study how two of this antigens [actin (ACT and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBAL] highly conserved in pathogens, activate fibrinolysis and to establish a relationship between this activation and the development of proliferative endarteritis during cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. We demonstrate that both proteins bind plasminogen, enhance plasmin generation, stimulate the expression of the fibrinolytic activators tPA and uPA in endothelial cell cultures and are located on the surface of the worm in contact with the host's blood. ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence techniques were employed for this purpose. Additionally, the implication of lysine residues in this interaction was analyzed by bioinformatics. The involvement of plasmin generated by the ACT/FBAL and plasminogen binding in cell proliferation and migration, and degradation of the extracellular matrix were shown in an "in vitro" model of endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture. The obtained results indicate that ACT and FBAL from D. immitis activate fibrinolysis, which could be used by the parasite like a survival mechanism to avoid the clot formation. However, long-term overproduction of plasmin can trigger pathological events similar to those described in the emergence of proliferative endarteritis. Due to the high degree of

  6. The Role of MKP-1 in the Anti-Proliferative Effects of Glucocorticoids in Primary Rat Pre-Osteoblasts.

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    Micheline Sanderson

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC-induced osteoporosis has been attributed to a GC-induced suppression of pre-osteoblast proliferation. Our previous work identified a critical role for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 in mediating the anti-proliferative effects of GCs in immortalized pre-osteoblasts, but we subsequently found that MKP-1 null mice were not protected against the pathological effects of GCs on bone. In order to reconcile this discrepancy, we have assessed the effects of GCs on proliferation, activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 and MKP-1 expression in primary adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs and ADSC-derived pre-osteoblasts (ADSC-OBs. ADSCs were isolated by means of collagenase digestion from adipose tissue biopsies harvested from adult male Wistar rats. ADSC-OBs were prepared by treating ADSCs with osteoblast differentiation media for 7 days. The effects of increasing concentrations of the GC dexamethasone on basal and mitogen-stimulated cell proliferation were quantified by tritiated thymidine incorporation. ERK1/2 activity was measured by Western blotting, while MKP-1 expression was quantified on both RNA and protein levels, using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. GCs were strongly anti-proliferative in both naïve ADSCs and ADSC-OBs, but had very little effect on mitogen-induced ERK1/2 activation and did not upregulate MKP-1 protein expression. These findings suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of GCs in primary ADSCs and ADSC-OBs in vitro do not require the inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by MKP-1, which is consistent with our in vivo findings in MKP-1 null mice.

  7. Stochastic cellular automata model of neurosphere growth: Roles of proliferative potential, contact inhibition, cell death, and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Rifat; Zupanc, Günther K H

    2018-05-14

    Neural stem and progenitor cells isolated from the central nervous system form, under specific culture conditions, clonal cell clusters known as neurospheres. The neurosphere assay has proven to be a powerful in vitro system to study the behavior of such cells and the development of their progeny. However, the theory of neurosphere growth has remained poorly understood. To overcome this limitation, we have, in the present paper, developed a cellular automata model, with which we examined the effects of proliferative potential, contact inhibition, cell death, and clearance of dead cells on growth rate, final size, and composition of neurospheres. Simulations based on this model indicated that the proliferative potential of the founder cell and its progenitors has a major influence on neurosphere size. On the other hand, contact inhibition of proliferation limits the final size, and reduces the growth rate, of neurospheres. The effect of this inhibition is particularly dramatic when a stem cell becomes encapsulated by differentiated or other non-proliferating cells, thereby suppressing any further mitotic division - despite the existing proliferative potential of the stem cell. Conversely, clearance of dead cells through phagocytosis is predicted to accelerate growth by reducing contact inhibition. A surprising prediction derived from our model is that cell death, while resulting in a decrease in growth rate and final size of neurospheres, increases the degree of differentiation of neurosphere cells. It is likely that the cellular automata model developed as part of the present investigation is applicable to the study of tissue growth in a wide range of systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. p75 neurotrophin receptor cleavage by α- and γ-secretases is required for neurotrophin-mediated proliferation of brain tumor-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Peter A; Krishna, Niveditha; Lawn, Samuel; Valadez, J Gerardo; Qu, Xiaotao; Fenstermacher, David A; Fournier, Michelle; Potthast, Lisa; Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Gibney, Geoffrey T; Zeinieh, Michele; Barker, Philip A; Carter, Bruce D; Cooper, Michael K; Kenchappa, Rajappa S

    2014-03-21

    Malignant gliomas are highly invasive, proliferative, and resistant to treatment. Previously, we have shown that p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a novel mediator of invasion of human glioma cells. However, the role of p75NTR in glioma proliferation is unknown. Here we used brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) and show that BTICs express neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR, TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) and their ligands (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin 3) and secrete NGF. Down-regulation of p75NTR significantly decreased proliferation of BTICs. Conversely, exogenouous NGF stimulated BTIC proliferation through α- and γ-secretase-mediated p75NTR cleavage and release of its intracellular domain (ICD). In contrast, overexpression of the p75NTR ICD induced proliferation. Interestingly, inhibition of Trk signaling blocked NGF-stimulated BTIC proliferation and p75NTR cleavage, indicating a role of Trk in p75NTR signaling. Further, blocking p75NTR cleavage attenuated Akt activation in BTICs, suggesting role of Akt in p75NTR-mediated proliferation. We also found that p75NTR, α-secretases, and the four subunits of the γ-secretase enzyme were elevated in glioblastoma multiformes patients. Importantly, the ICD of p75NTR was commonly found in malignant glioma patient specimens, suggesting that the receptor is activated and cleaved in patient tumors. These results suggest that p75NTR proteolysis is required for BTIC proliferation and is a novel potential clinical target.

  9. Integrin Signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Schelfaut, Roselien

    2005-01-01

    Integrins are receptors presented on most cells. By binding ligand they can generate signalling pathways inside the cell. Those pathways are a linkage to proteins in the cytosol. It is known that tumor cells can survive and proliferate in the absence of a solid support while normal cells need to be bound to ligand. To understand why tumour cells act that way, we first have to know how ligand-binding to integrins affect the cell. This research field includes studies on activation of proteins b...

  10. Resveratrol prevents oxidative stress-induced senescence and proliferative dysfunction by activating the AMPK-FOXO3 cascade in cultured primary human keratinocytes.

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    Yasuo Ido

    Full Text Available The aging process is perceived as resulting from a combination of intrinsic factors such as changes in intracellular signaling and extrinsic factors, most notably environmental stressors. In skin, the relationship between intrinsic changes and keratinocyte function is not clearly understood. Previously, we found that increasing the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK suppressed senescence in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-treated human primary keratinocytes, a model of oxidative stress-induced cellular aging. Using this model in the present study, we observed that resveratrol, an agent that increases the activities of both AMPK and sirtuins, ameliorated two age-associated phenotypes: cellular senescence and proliferative dysfunction. In addition, we found that treatment of keratinocytes with Ex527, a specific inhibitor of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, attenuated the ability of resveratrol to suppress senescence. In keeping with the latter observation, we noted that compared to non-senescent keratinocytes, senescent cells lacked SIRT1. In addition to these effects on H2O2-induced senescence, resveratrol also prevented the H2O2-induced decrease in proliferation (as indicated by 3H-thymidine incorporation in the presence of insulin. This effect was abrogated by inhibition of AMPK but not SIRT1. Compared to endothelium, we found that human keratinocytes expressed relatively high levels of Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3, a downstream target of both AMPK and SIRT1. Treatment of keratinocytes with resveratrol transactivated FOXO3 and increased the expression of its target genes including catalase. Resveratrol's effects on both senescence and proliferation disappeared when FOXO3 was knocked down. Finally, we performed an exploratory study which showed that skin from humans over 50 years old had lower AMPK activity than skin from individuals under age 20. Collectively, these findings suggest that the effects of resveratrol on keratinocyte senescence and proliferation

  11. Comparison of different cardiac MRI sequences at 1.5T/3.0T with respect to signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutberlet, M.; Spors, B.; Grothoff, M.; Freyhardt, P.; Schwinge, K.; Plotkin, M.; Amthauer, H.; Felix, R.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To compare image quality, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of different MRI sequences for cardiac imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T in volunteers. Material and Methods: 10 volunteers (5 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 33 years (±8) without any history of cardiac diseases were examined on a GE Signa 3.0 T and a GE Signa 1.5 T TwinSpeed Excite (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, USA) scanner using a 4-element phased array surface coil (same design) on the same day. For tissue characterization ECG gated Fast Spinecho (FSE) T 1 - (Double IR), T 1 -STIR (Triple IR) and T 2 -weighted sequences in transverse orientation were used. For functional analysis a steady state free precession (SSFP-FIESTA) sequence was performed in the 4-chamber, 2-chamber long axis and short axis view. The flip angle used for the SSFP sequence at 3.0 T was reduced from 45 to 30 to keep short TR times while staying within the pre-defined SAR limitations. All other sequence parameters were kept constant. Results: All acquisitions could successfully be completed for the 10 volunteers. The mean SNR 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T was remarkably increased (p 2 - (160% SNR increase), the STIR-T 1 - (123%) and the T 1 - (91%) weighted FSE. Similar results were found comparing CNR at 3.0 T and 1.5 T. The mean SNR achieved using the SSFP sequences was more than doubled by 3.0 T (150%), but did not have any significant effect on the CNR. The image quality at 3.0 T did not appear to be improved, and was considered to be significantly worse when using SSFP sequences. Artefacts like shading in the area of the right ventricle (RV) were found to be more present at 3.0 T using FSE sequences. After a localized shim had been performed in 5/10 volunteers at the infero-lateral wall of the left ventricle (LV) with the SSFP sequences at 3.0 T no significant increase in artefacts could be detected. (orig.) [de

  12. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  13. ABORTION AND VIOLENCE IN JANE MARTIN’S KEELY AND DU: PRO-CHOICE, PRO-LIFE, OR MERELY PROVOCATIVE?

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    Eta Farmacelia Nurulhady

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abortion and violence are global issues, yet different culture might respond to the issues somewhat differently. This study aims to reveal the abortion and violence issues in Jane Martin’s Keely and Du in terms of pro-choice and pro life movements and see how Indonesian students reading the play respond to the issues. In the United States of America, the discussion of abortion issue can be grouped into two major categories: the pro-life and pro-choice. In Indonesia, the majority of people would be against abortion when it is not for medical reasons. The students reading Keely and Du find the play challenging their beliefs as religious people still keeping hold of eastern values. Having discussed the nature of pro-life and pro-choice movements, it is difficult for them to decide whether they are proponent of either one. Keely and Du is successfully provocative in offering insight on how abortion and violence issues cannot be judged in a black and white manner.

  14. Anti-Proliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Beta-Ionone in Human Leukemia Cell Line K562

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    Zohreh Faezizadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Beta-ionone is an aroma compound found in the Rosaceae family. Some evidence supported that beta-ionone has a great potential for cancer prevention. To date, the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of beta-ionone in human leukemia cell line K562 were not studied. Objectives Hence, we investigated whether beta-ionone could inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in the K562 cells. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, human leukemia cell line K562 was cultured and anti-proliferation effect of beta-ionone with different doses (25 - 400 µm at different times (24 - 96 hours on treated cells was evaluated by the MTT assay. To determine apoptosis rate, the Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry was performed. Results The MTT assay showed that beta-ionone inhibited proliferation of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner significantly (P = 0.0008. Moreover, the increased apoptotic rate was found after incubation of K562 cells with 200 µm beta-ionone. The Hoechst staining and flow cytometry analysis indicated that beta-ionone could increase apoptosis of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions The results demonstrated that beta-ionone has anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on K562 cells, and in the future may be used in the treatment of some leukemia sub-types.

  15. Effects of irradiated diet on longevity and prolificity of successive generations of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domarco, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The study was done in the laboratory of Entomology of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. This research was carried out to observe the effect of irradiated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, (L.), cultivar Rosinha) on the longevity and prolificity of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). The first part of the study included the rearing of five generations of Zabrotes subfasciatus which were fed with irradiated beans (0, 10, 20, 100 e 200 krad, with a dose rate of approximately 70 krad/h). The second one consisted of growth of seven generations on irradiated beans (0, 100, 500, 1500 and 3000 krad, with a dose rate of approximately 70 krad/h). The data were obtained through daily countings of insect birth and death rates. It was concluded that irradiation modified the nutritional quality of beans, affecting the development of Zabrotes subfasciatus. This effect was studied through the longevity and prolificity, which were altered as compared with the control, once they were higher for the dosis of 1500 and 3000 krad. (author)

  16. Acute renal failure due to mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in a pregnant woman with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fatma Ulku; Torun, Dilek; Bolat, Filiz; Zumrutdal, Aysegul; Sezer, Siren; Ozdemir, Fatma Nurhan

    2006-02-01

    The most common form of renal involvement in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is tubulointerstitial nephritis. Renal dysfunction is usually mild and subclinical. Glomerulonephritis (GMN) is rare in patients with SS. We report a 28-year-old multigravida patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and associated manifestations, who presented with acute renal failure in the 20th week of her fifth pregnancy. The complaints and clinical findings, positive Schirmer's test, findings of dry eye on ophthalmologic examination, and the salivary gland biopsy were compatible with SS. The patient exhibited no other clinical or laboratory findings indicative of other collagenous disease and/or rheumatoid arthritis. She refused renal biopsy, hesitating for fear of fetal loss; thus, based on the clinical and laboratory findings indicating rapidly progressive GMN and vasculitis, prednisolone, plasmapheresis, and one dose of cyclophosphamide were administered during the pregnancy. Hemodialysis five times weekly was performed. At the 28th week of gestation, she underwent a cesarean section due to early rupture of membranes and fetal distress. A healthy male boy was delivered. The renal biopsy performed 2 weeks after labor revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. After the fourth cyclophosphamide treatment, her urinary output increased and she was discharged from the hemodialysis program. She remains in follow-up at our outpatient clinic free of hemodialysis for 4 months. This is the first report of mesangial proliferative GMN requiring dialysis in a pregnant pSS patient that has featured good maternal and fetal outcomes.

  17. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

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    Fabiana Caroline daSilva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009 was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%, followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%, gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%, and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%. Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence.

  18. Posterior subtenon triamcinolone acetonide in gas-filled eyes as an adjunctive treatment for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongeun; Kang, Seungbum; Park, Young-Hoon

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of adjunctive subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in gas-filled eyes after vitrectomy for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). This nonrandomized comparative study included 27 patients (27 eyes) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade for treatment of PDR with tractional or combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and who received subtenon injection of TA (40 mg) at the end of surgery. The study group was compared with the control group (29 eyes), which was matched with the study group for preoperative and intraoperative parameters, but underwent pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade without a subtenon injection of TA. Retinal reattachments without reoperation were achieved in 25 eyes (92.6%) and 26 eyes (89.7%) at 6 months (p = 1.000) in the study and control groups, respectively. The study group and the control group did not differ significantly in the frequency of postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy, retinal redetachment rate, reoperation rate, macular pucker formation, postoperative vitreous hemorrhage, gain in visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and intraocular inflammation (p > 0.05). The clinical results of pars plana vitrectomy for complicated PDR are not improved significantly by an adjunctive subtenon TA injection in gas-filled eyes.

  19. The outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without endotamponade for tractional retinal detachment secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy

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    Rao Muhammad Rashad Qamar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV without the use of an ocular tamponade in patients having tractional retinal detachment (TRD secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR.METHODS: It was an interventional study conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, B.V. Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, from July 2011 to July 2012. A total of 75 patients (84 eyes having TRD secondary to PDR were treated by PPV without using an ocular tamponade. All patients included in the study had a tractional retinal detachment secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy but didn’t have or develop retinal breaks before or during the study period. The surgical procedure included a PPV combined with the removal of the tractional retinal membranes and the application of endolaser photocoagulation to the retina. The mean follow-up period was 12 months.RESULTS:Successful retinal reattachement was observed in 78 of the operated eyes (92.8%. In these patients, the retina remained attached till the end of the one year follow-up period. Improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was seen in 63 eyes (75%. The visual acuity remained unchanged in 9 eyes (10.7%. Mean improvement in BCVA was 2.00+1.24 at baseline to 1.24+1.22 (PCONCLUSION: In the absence of the retinal breaks, a TRD secondary to PDR can be successfully treated by pars plana vitrectomy without the use of an ocular tamponade.

  20. Clinical significance of MCM-2 and MCM-5 expression in colon cancer: association with clinicopathological parameters and tumor proliferative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Georgiadou, Maria; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Kouraklis, Gregorios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2009-02-01

    Minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins are essential components of DNA replication, being related to cell proliferation, and serve as useful markers for cancer screening, surveillance, and prognosis. Our aim was to examine the clinical significance of MCM-2 and MCM-5 protein expression in colon cancer and to evaluate the association with various clinicopathological characteristics and tumor proliferative capacity. Immunohistochemical expression of MCM-2 and MCM-5 was performed on paraffin-embedded malignant tissue sections obtained from 96 patients with colon cancer. MCM-2 and MCM-5 expression was correlated with different clinicopathological characteristics, proliferative capacity (Ki-67 labeling index), and p53 cell-cycle regulator expression. MCM-2 and Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with the tumors' histological grade (P = 0.003), existence of nodular metastases (N) (P = 0.003 and P = 0.030, respectively), malignancy on adenoma (P = 0.029 and P = 0.024, respectively), and vascular invasion (P = 0.010 and P = 0.011, respectively). MCM-2 expression was additionally associated with Dukes' stage (P = 0.005). Significant positive relationships were found between the expression of MCM-2 or MCM-5 proteins and that of Ki-67 protein (r = 0.963, P-value characteristics examined. The current data suggest that MCM-2 protein expression is significantly associated with important clinicopathological characteristics for patients' management, being correlated with the cell proliferation state in colon cancer.

  1. Disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis in hepatocyte nodules: selective proliferative stimulus induced by fumonisin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westhuizen, Liana van der; Gelderblom, Wentzel C.A.; Shephard, Gordon S.; Swanevelder, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of sphingolipid disruption in the cancer promoting potential of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) in the development of hepatocyte nodules, male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to cancer initiation (FB 1 containing diet or diethylnitrosamine (DEN) by i.p. injection) and promotion (2-acetylaminofluorene with partial hepatectomy, 2-AAF/PH) treatments followed by a secondary FB 1 dietary regimen. Sphinganine (Sa) and sphingosine (So) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in control, surrounding and nodular liver tissues of the rats. The disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis by the secondary FB 1 treatment in the control rats was significantly (P 1 initiation and 2-AAF/PH promotion. When comparing the groups subjected to the secondary FB 1 treatment, the initiation effected by FB 1 was less (P 1 initiation was marginally increased in the nodules compared to the surrounding liver after 2-AAF/PH promotion and significantly (P 1 treatment. Although, the FB 1 -induced hepatocyte nodules were not resistant to the disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis, the nodular So levels were increased and might provide a selective growth stimulus possibly induced by bio-active sphingoid intermediates such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)

  2. Proliferative changes in nonpalpable breast lesions detected by mammography; Alteraciones profiferativas de la mama en lesiones no palpables detectadas por mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, A.; Delgado, A.; Ortega, E.; Garijo, F. [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla. Santander (Spain); Mosquera, J.; Sogo, C.; Alvarez, A. [Complejo Hospitalario Juan Canalejo. La Coruna (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To analyze retrospectively the radiological findings in nonpalpable breast lesions detected by mammography that lead to the performance of surgical biopsy, resulting in a histological diagnosis of proliferative breast disease with and without atypia. From two Spanish hospitals, 421 women with 429 biopsies indicative of the presence of proliferative breast disease with and without atypia were selected out of a total of 1252 surgical biopsies in nonpalpable lesions that proved to be benign. Age, personal and familial history of breast cancer, reason for requesting the mammography and radiological findings that had indicated the need for surgical biopsy were recorded for each patient. The diagnosis was proliferative breast disease (epithelial hyperplasia) in 347 women with 354 biopsies and atypical hyperplasia in the remaining 74 women with 75 biopsies, representing 28% and 6%, respectively, of the 1252 biopsies of lesions found to be benign. In 221 of the 354 cases of epithelial hyperplasia (62%) and 45 of the 75 cases of atypical hyperplasia (60%), the presence of calcifications was the most common radiological findings leading to biopsy (p<0.05). Parenchymal distortion, with or without calcifications, was the second most common radiological sign. The histological study revealed a close relationship between these proliferative events and radial scars. Calcifications are the radiological finding that most frequently indicate the need for surgical biopsy in nonpalpable lesions that results in a diagnosis of proliferative breast disease with and without atypia. (Author) 12 refs.

  3. Transcriptome-wide analysis of the Trypanosoma cruzi proliferative cycle identifies the periodically expressed mRNAs and their multiple levels of control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Chávez

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan parasite causing American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease, a neglected parasitosis with important human health impact in Latin America. The efficacy of current therapy is limited, and its toxicity is high. Since parasite proliferation is a fundamental target for rational drug design, we sought to progress into its understanding by applying a genome-wide approach. Treating a TcI linage strain with hydroxyurea, we isolated epimastigotes in late G1, S and G2/M cell cycle stages at 70% purity. The sequencing of each phase identified 305 stage-specific transcripts (1.5-fold change, p≤0.01, coding for conserved cell cycle regulated proteins and numerous proteins whose cell cycle dependence has not been recognized before. Comparisons with the parasite T. brucei and the human host reveal important differences. The meta-analysis of T. cruzi transcriptomic and ribonomic data indicates that cell cycle regulated mRNAs are subject to sub-cellular compartmentalization. Compositional and structural biases of these genes- including CAI, GC content, UTR length, and polycistron position- may contribute to their regulation. To discover nucleotide motifs responsible for the co-regulation of cell cycle regulated genes, we looked for overrepresented motifs at their UTRs and found a variant of the cell cycle sequence motif at the 3' UTR of most of the S and G2 stage genes. We additionally identified hairpin structures at the 5' UTRs of a high proportion of the transcripts, suggesting that periodic gene expression might also rely on translation initiation in T. cruzi. In summary, we report a comprehensive list of T. cruzi cell cycle regulated genes, including many previously unstudied proteins, we show evidence favoring a multi-step control of their expression, and we identify mRNA motifs that may mediate their regulation. Our results provide novel information of the T. cruzi proliferative proteins and the integrated levels of

  4. Integrated genomic analyses identify KDM1A's role in cell proliferation via modulating E2F signaling activity and associate with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sathiya Pandi; Singh, Smriti; Gupta, Amit; Yadav, Sandhya; Singh, Shree Ram; Shukla, Sanjeev

    2015-10-28

    The histone demethylase KDM1A specifically demethylates lysine residues and its deregulation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers. However, KDM1A's molecular role and its pathological consequences, and prognostic significance in oral cancer remain less understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression of KDM1A and its downstream role in oral cancer pathogenesis. By comparing mRNA expression profiles, we identified an elevated KDM1A expression in oral tumors when compared to normal oral tissues. In silico pathway prediction identified the association between KDM1A and E2F1 signaling in oral cancer. Pathway scanning, functional annotation analysis and In vitro assays showed the KDM1A's involvement in oral cancer cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Moreover, real time PCR and luciferase assays confirmed KDM1A's role in regulation of E2F1 signaling activity in oral cancer. Elevated KDM1A expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer. Our data indicate that deregulated KDM1A expression is positively associated with proliferative phenotype of oral cancer and confers poor clinical outcome. These cumulative data suggest that KDM1A might be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proliferative and morphological changes in the pulmonary epithelium of the Syrian golden hamster during carcinogenesis initiated by 210Po alpha alpha-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shami, S.G.; Thibodeau, L.A.; Kennedy, A.R.; Little, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The role of cellular proliferation in a two-stage model of carcinogenesis in the hamster lung was investigated. Syrian golden hamsters were treated intratracheally with either one instillation of 0.2 microCi of 210Po (Po-0 group), seven weekly instillations of BP (0-BP group), or 0.2 microCi 210Po followed 15 weeks later by either seven instillations of 0.9% NaCl solution (Po-Sal group) or seven instillations of BP (Po-BP group). All BP instillations were 3 mg each of BP:ferric oxide (1:1, w/w) carrier particles). Serial sacrifices were performed for up to 85 weeks. Two hr before sacrifice, each animal was given i.p. injections of 200 microCi of [3H]thymidine. Glycol methacrylate section autoradiographs (1 micrometer) were prepared. Labeling indices in the alveolar region, labeling of terminal bronchiolar cells, and morphological changes were examined. Equal numbers of Po-Sal and Po-BP animals developed lung tumors. No tumors were found in Po-0 or 0-BP animals. Tumor development was preceded by the appearance of hyperplastic areas of bronchiolar-type cells in the alveolar region and by changes in morphology of bronchiolar cells. Labeling indices in the alveolar region of the treated groups were slightly increased relative to untreated controls. Labeling of terminal bronchiolar cells was highest in the Po-BP and 0-BP groups and was associated with much inflammation. A single 0.9% NaCl solution instillation also increased proliferation of bronchiolar cells. We conclude that 0.9% NaCl solution instillations may potentiate carcinogenesis in the hamster lung by acting as a nonspecific stimulus to proliferation; in addition, we conclude that not all hyperplasia progresses on to form lung tumors in the Po-BP and Po-Sal groups

  6. S-nitrosylation of the IGF-1 receptor disrupts the cell proliferative action of IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazushi; Zhu, Bao-Ting

    2017-09-30

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a disulfide-linked heterotetramer containing two α-subunits and two β-subunits. Earlier studies demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) can adversely affect IGF-1 action in the central nervous system. It is known that NO can induce S-nitrosylation of the cysteine residues in proteins, thereby partly contributing to the regulation of protein function. In the present study, we sought to determine whether S-nitrosylation of the cysteine residues in IGF-1R is an important post-translational modification that regulates its response to IGF-1. Using cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells as an in vitro model, we found that treatment of cells with S-nitroso-cysteine (SNOC), a NO donor that can nitrosylate the cysteine residues in proteins, induces S-nitrosylation of the β subunit of IGF-1R but not its α-subunit. IGF-1Rβ S-nitrosylation by SNOC is coupled with increased dissociation of the IGF-1R protein complex. In addition, disruption of the IGF-1R function resulting from S-nitrosylation of the IGF-1Rβ subunit is associated with disruption of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Further, we observed that SNOC-induced IGF-1Rβ S-nitrosylation results in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and survival. Together, these results suggest that elevated nitrosative stress may result in dysfunction of cellular IGF-1R signaling through S-nitrosylation of the cysteine residues in the IGF-1Rβ subunit, thereby disrupting the downstream PI3K and MAPK signaling functions and ultimately resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation and survival. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. An evaluation of safety culture initiatives at BNSF Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Major safety culture (SC) initiatives initiated in the FRA Office of Research, Technology and Development (RT&D), such as Clear Signal for Action (CSA), the Investigation of Safety Related Occurrences Protocol (ISROP), the Participative Safety Rules ...

  8. Quorum Quenching Revisited—From Signal Decays to Signalling Confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In a polymicrobial community, while some bacteria are communicating with neighboring cells (quorum sensing, others are interrupting the communication (quorum quenching, thus creating a constant arms race between intercellular communication. In the past decade, numerous quorum quenching enzymes have been found and initially thought to inactivate the signalling molecules. Though this is widely accepted, the actual roles of these quorum quenching enzymes are now being uncovered. Recent evidence extends the role of quorum quenching to detoxification or metabolism of signalling molecules as food and energy source; this includes “signalling confusion”, a term coined in this paper to refer to the phenomenon of non-destructive modification of signalling molecules. While quorum quenching has been explored as a novel anti-infective therapy targeting, quorum sensing evidence begins to show the development of resistance against quorum quenching.

  9. Thrombin induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and collagen production by retinal pigment epithelial cells via autocrine PDGF-receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaans, Jeroen; van Meurs, Jan C; van Holten-Neelen, Conny; Nagtzaam, Nicole M A; van Hagen, P Martin; Chambers, Rachel C; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Dik, Willem A

    2013-12-19

    De-differentiation of RPE cells into mesenchymal cells (epithelial-mesenchymal transition; EMT) and associated collagen production contributes to development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In patients with PVR, intraocular coagulation cascade activation occurs and may play an important initiating role. Therefore, we examined the effect of the coagulation proteins factor Xa and thrombin on EMT and collagen production by RPE cells. Retinal pigment epithelial cells were stimulated with factor Xa or thrombin and the effect on zonula occludens (ZO)-1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B were determined by real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR), immunofluorescence microscopy, and HPLC and ELISA for collagen and PDGF-BB in culture supernatants, respectively. PDGF-receptor activation was determined by phosphorylation analysis and inhibition studies using the PDGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1296. Thrombin reduced ZO-1 gene expression (P production of α-SMA and collagen increased. In contrast to thrombin, factor Xa hardly stimulated EMT by RPE. Thrombin clearly induced PDGF-BB production and PDGF-Rβ chain phosphorylation in RPE. Moreover, AG1296 significantly blocked the effect of thrombin on EMT and collagen production. Our findings demonstrate that thrombin is a potent inducer of EMT by RPE via autocrine activation of PDGF-receptor signaling. Coagulation cascade-induced EMT of RPE may thus contribute to the formation of fibrotic retinal membranes in PVR and should be considered as treatment target in PVR.

  10. Paradoxical expression of INK4c in proliferative multiple myeloma tumors: bi-allelic deletion vs increased expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanamura Ichiro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high proliferative capacity of tumor cells usually is associated with shortened patient survival. Disruption of the RB pathway, which is critically involved in regulating the G1 to S cell cycle transition, is a frequent target of oncogenic events that are thought to contribute to increased proliferation during tumor progression. Previously, we determined that p18INK4c, an essential gene for normal plasma cell differentiation, was bi-allelically deleted in five of sixteen multiple myeloma (MM cell lines. The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible role of p18INK4c in increased proliferation of myeloma tumors as they progress. Results Thirteen of 40 (33% human myeloma cell lines do not express normal p18INK4c, with bi-allelic deletion of p18 in twelve, and expression of a mutated p18 fragment in one. Bi-allelic deletion of p18, which appears to be a late progression event, has a prevalence of about 2% in 261 multiple myeloma (MM tumors, but the prevalence is 6 to10% in the 50 tumors with a high expression-based proliferation index. Paradoxically, 24 of 40 (60% MM cell lines, and 30 of 50 (60% MM tumors with a high proliferation index express an increased level of p18 RNA compared to normal bone marrow plasma cells, whereas this occurs in only five of the 151 (3% MM tumors with a low proliferation index. Tumor progression is often accompanied by increased p18 expression and an increased proliferation index. Retroviral-mediated expression of exogenous p18 results in marked growth inhibition in three MM cell lines that express little or no endogenous p18, but has no effect in another MM cell line that already expresses a high level of p18. Conclusion Paradoxically, although loss of p18 appears to contribute to increased proliferation of nearly 10% of MM tumors, most MM cell lines and proliferative MM tumors have increased expression of p18. Apart from a small fraction of cell lines and tumors that have inactivated

  11. Upregulation of Mir-21 Levels in the Vitreous Humor Is Associated with Development of Proliferative Vitreoretinal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Usui-Ouchi

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional inhibition of mRNA translation. Dysregulation of miRNAs, including circulating miRNAs, has been reported to play an important role in the development of various diseases, including fibrotic diseases. Aberrant expression of miRNAs in the vitreous humor of vitreoretinal diseased eyes has been reported. However, the expression pattern of miRNAs present in the vitreous humor of proliferative vitreoretinal disease (PVD patients, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR, remains unknown. To investigate the factors important for the development of PVD, we characterized the miRNAs present in the vitreous humor of PVD patients and analyzed the expression profiles of 377 miRNAs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based miRNA arrays. The expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, previously reported to be associated with the development of angiogenesis and fibrosis, was significantly altered in the vitreous of PVD patients. Among these miRNAs, we identified miR-21 as a candidate fibrotic miRNA with an important role in the pathogenesis of PVD. Increased miR-21 levels in the vitreous were associated with retinal fibrosis, including PVR and PDR. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPECs plays a critical role in retinal fibrosis, the expression of miR-21 in human RPECs was determined. Its expression in RPECs was induced by transforming growth factor-β, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis, and was enhanced by high glucose culture conditions, suggesting that miR-21 expression positively correlates with disease progression. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that miR-21 promoted cell proliferation and migration of ARPE-19 cells without affecting EMT-related gene expression. Together, our studies have identified miR-21 as a potential disease

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagora Bayala

    Full Text Available This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78% and β-caryophyllene (10.54% for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%, camphor (12.730%, α-pinene (6.87% and trans α-bergamotene (5.32% for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%, α-pinene (20.11%, sabinene (10.26%, β-pinene (9.22% and α-phellandrene (7.03% for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%, β-caryophyllene (12.70%, thymol (11.88, γ-terpinene (9.17% and thymyle acetate (7.64% for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%, α-pinene (9.17% and limonene (8.76% for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%, camphene (12.70%, zingiberene (8.40%, β-bisabolene (7.83% and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34% for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides showed the

  13. In vitro anti-proliferative activity on colon cancer cell line (HT-29) of Thai medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Jantrawut, Pensak; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-02-23

    Thai/Lanna region has its own folklore wisdoms including the traditional medicinal plant recipes. Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" has been developed by Prof. Dr. Jiradej Manosroi. It consists of over 200,000 recipes for all diseases including cancer. To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) as well as the cancer cell selectivity of the methanolic extracts (MEs) and fractions of the 23 selected plants from the "MANOSROI III" database. The 23 selected plants were extracted with methanol under reflux and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity by sulforhodamine B assay. The 5 plants (Gloriosa superba, Caesalpinia sappan, Fibraurea tinctoria, Ventilago denticulata and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) with potent anti-proliferative activity were fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to give 4 fractions including each hexane (HF), methanol-water (MF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF) fractions. They were tested for anti-proliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity. The ME and fractions of G. superba which showed potent anti-proliferative activity were further examined for morphological changes and apoptotic activities by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The ME of G. superba root showed active with the highest anti-proliferative activity at 9.17 and 1.58 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition, HF of V. denticulata, MFs of F. tinctoria, V. denticulata and BF of P. tetragonolobus showed higher anti-proliferative activities than their MEs. The MF of G. superba indicated the highest anti-proliferative activity at 7.73 and 1.34 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively, but only 0.86 fold of its ME. The ME and HF, MF and BF of G. superba and MF of F. tinctoria demonstrated high cancer cell selectivity. At 50 µg/ml, ME, HF, MF and BF of G. superba demonstrated higher apoptotic activities than the two standard drugs

  14. Triterpenoid Saponins from Anemone rivularis var. Flore-Minore and Their Anti-Proliferative Activity on HSC-T6 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yang; Gao, Hui; Xie, Xiao-Jie; Jurhiin, Jirimubatu; Zhang, Mu-Zi-He; Zhou, Yan-Ping; Liu, Rui; Ning, Meng; Han, Jin; Tang, Hai-Feng

    2018-02-23

    Five previously undescribed triterpenoid saponins ( 1 - 5 ), along with eight known ones ( 6 - 13 ), were isolated from the whole plants of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore . Their structures were clarified by extensive spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. For the first time, the lupane-type saponins ( 3 and 12 ) were reported from the Anemone genus. The anti-proliferative activity of all isolated saponins was evaluated on hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). Saponins 12 and 13 , which possess more monosaccharides than the others, displayed potent anti-proliferative activity, with IC 50 values of 18.21 and 15.56 μM, respectively.

  15. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... methods for coded imaging, with the goal of making better anatomic and flow images and three-dimensional images. On the first stage, it investigates techniques for doing high-resolution coded imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional imaging. Subsequently it investigates how...... coded excitation can be used for increasing the frame rate. The work includes both simulated results using Field II, and experimental results based on measurements on phantoms as well as clinical images. Initially a mathematical foundation of signal modulation is given. Pulse compression based...

  16. Special proliferative sites are not needed for seeding and proliferation of transfused bone marrow cells in normal syngeneic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.; Ansell, J.D.; Micklem, H.S.; Tjio, J.H.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The widely held view that transfused bone marrow cells will not proliferate in normal mice, not exposed to irradiation or other forms of bone marrow ablation, was reinvestigated. Forty million bone marrow cells from male donors were given to female recipients on each of 5 consecutive days, 5 to 10 times the number customarily used in the past. When the recipients were examined 2-13 weeks after the last transfusion, donor cells were found to average 16-25% of total marrow cells. Similar percentages of donor cells were found when variants of the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase determined electrophoretically were used for identification of donor and recipient cells. Evidence is presented that the proportion of donor cells is compatible with a nonlinear dependence on the number of cells transfused over the range tested - i.e., 20-200 million bone marrow cells injected intravenously. Special proliferative sites thus do not appear to be required

  17. Long-term Behavior of Serous Borderline Tumors Subdivided Into Atypical Proliferative Tumors and Noninvasive Low-grade Carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Russell; Hannibal, Charlotte G; Junge, Jette

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) have been the subject of considerable controversy, particularly with regard to terminology and behavior. It has been proposed that they constitute a heterogenous group of tumors composed, for the most part, of typical SBTs that are benign and designated...... "atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST)" and a small subset of SBTs with micropapillary architecture that have a poor outcome and are designated "noninvasive low-grade serous carcinoma (niLGSC)". It also has been argued that the difference in behavior between the 2 groups is not due to the subtype...... of the primary tumor but rather the presence of extraovarian disease, specifically invasive implants. According to the terminology of the 2014 WHO Classification, typical SBTs are equivalent to APSTs and SBTs displaying micropapillary architecture are synonymous with niLGSC. In addition, "invasive implants" were...

  18. Two novel prenylated kaempferol derivatives from fresh bud's fur of Platanus acerifolia and their anti-proliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Bo; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Chen; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-06

    Two novel prenylated kaempferol derivatives (1, 2), together with seven known metabolites were isolated from ethanol extract of fresh Platanus acerifolia bud's fur by multistep chromatographic processing. Structure of compounds 1 and 2 was confirmed by 1D, 2D NMR spectra and HR-ESI-MS. In addition, compound 1 was further analysed by X-ray crystallography. Anti-proliferative activities in vitro against human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) cell lines for compound 1, 2 and 8 were evaluated. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxic activity towards MCF-7 and Hep-G2 cell lines with the IC 50 values 38.2 and 39.5 μM, respectively. Moreover, compound 2 showed weak cytotoxic activities against the two cell lines.

  19. Influencing factors on compliance of timely visits among patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in southern China: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fang; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Xiang; Congdon, Nathan; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Qianyun; Chen, Lingling; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiulan; Yu, Chengpu; Liu, Yizhi

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify the reasons for low adherence among patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in southern China using a qualitative method. Methods Exploratory indepth interviews were conducted in 27 diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy who required vitrectomy surgery at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, from March to August 2015. Qualitative data analysis and research software (ATLAS.ti7) was used for data processing and analysis. Results Factors influencing the occurrence of timely visits included lack of DR related knowledge, fear and worries about insulin, interactions between patients and society combined with the complexity of emotions and social culture, and the economic burden of treatment. Conclusions Although the reasons for low adherence involved social, emotional, cultural and economic factors, the key issue was the lack of awareness and knowledge of DR. Our findings have several practical implications for health policymakers and programme planners in China. PMID:28348188

  20. Inhibition of proliferative activity in tissue culture in vivo of esophagus and stomach tumour cells under preoperative irradiation