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  1. The international nuclear non-proliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, T.

    1985-01-01

    This volume focuses upon the issues raised at this Conference, and attempts to address the international diplomatic, political and trading, rather than technical, questions which surround nuclear non-proliferation policies. It does so by bringing together chapters contributed by participants in non-proliferation diplomacy, those with experience in shaping International Atomic Energy Agency and national policies and academic observers of non-proliferation activities and the international nuclear industry. An analysis is provided of past non-proliferation policies and activities and current issues, and an attempt is made to offer ideas for new initiatives which may sustain the non-proliferation system in the future

  2. The International Atomic Energy Agency shows keen interest. Innovative warning system for nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, S.; Van der Meer, K.

    2011-01-01

    In order to prevent nuclear proliferation, nuclear fuels and other strategic materials have to be responsibly managed. Non-proliferation aims to counteract the uncontrolled proliferation of nuclear materials worldwide. SCK-CEN is developing an innovative nuclear warning system based on political and economic indicators. Such a system should allow the early detection of the development of a nuclear weapons programme.

  3. Reforming the non-proliferation system in the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmshurst, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The non-proliferation policies of the 1970s were based largely on the misconception that the main danger lay in the possible misuse of civil nuclear-power plants for the production of weapon materials. In consequence their aim, whether by means of denial or control, was to ensure that such misuse was made more difficult in all countries with nuclear-power industries. Less attention was paid to the potential for misuse of the nuclear-research plants in the handful of countries outside the non-proliferation system. The resulting difficulties placed in the way of countries developing their nuclear-power industries damaged relations between the supplier and the consumer states, and discredited any new efforts aimed at strengthening the non-proliferation system. By contrast, the 1980s began, first in INFCE and then in the Committee on Assurances of Supply, with a concerted attempt to re-establish a dialogue based on a relationship of trust between the supplier and the customer states. But a restored consensus will not, on its own, deal with the problem of those states that are outside the non-proliferation system and that have the capability to produce nuclear weapons. The outcome of the work of the Committee on Assurances of Supply may help to attract some of those states into the system, but more needs to be done either by adapting the NPT, making adherence to it appear more attractive, or by devising some alternative code of behaviour for states not party to the Treaty and by seeking to remove the political obstacles that lie in the way of at least some of the potential weapon states adhering to the Treaty

  4. The international nuclear non-proliferation system: Challenges and choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    When a topic has been under discussion for almost 40 years there is a danger that the literature will become excessively esoteric and that, as Philip Grummett suggests, '...a new scholasticism will arise' (p.79). Originating in a November l982 seminar co-sponsored by the British International Studies Association and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this volume is a refreshing, well conceived, and well written antidote to that trend. It is also well timed for the 1985 NPT Review Conference. The eight chapters of the volume are divided into three sections. Following an introduction by Anthony McGrew that touches on all the major themes of the volume, the first section deals with the existing non-proliferation system. In three chapters the historical, institutional and policy-making elements of the present system are outlined. There is a vignette on the Nuclear Suppliers Group in Wilmshurst's chapter one (pp. 28-33). Fischer's informative chapter on the IAEA is followed by Gummett's examination of policy options, including, for example, the linking of conventional weapons transfer to non-proliferation policies. The second section, also of three chapters, examines current issues: the state of the international nuclear industry, and the non-proliferation policies of the United States and Britain. Walker's chapter focuses chiefly on change in the industry-from monopoly to pluralism in suppliers, the effect of the economic recession, and the combined effect of these two factors on international politics. Devine's American non-proliferation chapter is a statement of the State Department view, whilst Keohane's chapter on Britain attempts to put the Trident procurement into a proliferation context. The British chapter is present because of ethnocentric considerations

  5. The international nuclear non-proliferation system: Challenges and choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    When a topic has been under discussion for almost 40 years there is a danger that the literature will become excessively esoteric and that, as Philip Grummett suggests, '...a new scholasticism will arise' (p.79). Originating in a November l982 seminar co-sponsored by the British International Studies Association and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this volume is a refreshing, well conceived, and well written antidote to that trend. It is also well timed for the 1985 NPT Review Conference. The eight chapters of the volume are divided into three sections. Following an introduction by Anthony McGrew that touches on all the major themes of the volume, the first section deals with the existing non-proliferation system. In three chapters the historical, institutional and policy-making elements of the present system are outlined. There is a vignette on the Nuclear Suppliers Group in Wilmshurst's chapter one (pp. 28-33). Fischer's informative chapter on the IAEA is followed by Gummett's examination of policy options, including, for example, the linking of conventional weapons transfer to non-proliferation policies. The second section, also of three chapters, examines current issues: the state of the international nuclear industry, and the non-proliferation policies of the United States and Britain. Walker's chapter focuses chiefly on change in the industry-from monopoly to pluralism in suppliers, the effect of the economic recession, and the combined effect of these two factors on international politics. Devine's American non-proliferation chapter is a statement of the State Department view, whilst Keohane's chapter on Britain attempts to put the Trident procurement into a proliferation context. The British chapter is present because of ethnocentric considerations.

  6. The zinc finger transcription factor 191 is required for early embryonic development and cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianzhong; Chen Xia; Yang Hua; Wang Shuiliang; Guo Baoyu; Yu Long; Wang Zhugang; Fu Jiliang

    2006-01-01

    Human zinc finger protein 191 (ZNF191/ZNF24) was cloned and characterized as a SCAN family member, which shows 94% identity to its mouse homologue zinc finger protein 191 (Zfp191). ZNF191 can specifically interact with an intronic polymorphic TCAT repeat (HUMTH01) in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. Allelic variations of HUMTH01 have been stated to have a quantitative silencing effect on TH gene expression and to correlate with quantitative and qualitative changes in the binding by ZNF191. Zfp191 is widely expressed during embryonic development and in multiple tissues and organs in adult. To investigate the functions of Zfp191 in vivo, we have used homologous recombination to generate mice that are deficient in Zfp191. Heterozygous Zfp191 +/- mice are normal and fertile. Homozygous Zfp191 -/- embryos are severely retarded in development and die at approximately 7.5 days post-fertilization. Unexpectedly, in Zfp191 -/- and Zfp191 +/- embryos, TH gene expression is not affected. Blastocyst outgrowth experiments and the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of ZNF191 in cultured cells revealed an essential role for Zfp191 in cell proliferation. In further agreement with this function, no viable Zfp191 -/- cell lines were obtained by derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from blastocysts of Zfp191 +/- intercrosses or by forced homogenotization of heterozygous ES cells at high concentrations of G418. These data show that Zfp191 is indispensable for early embryonic development and cell proliferation

  7. Mild myelin disruption elicits early alteration in behavior and proliferation in the subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth A; Busquet, Nicolas; Shepherd, Douglas; Dietz, Robert M; Herson, Paco S; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M; Li, Anan; George, Nicholas M; Restrepo, Diego; Macklin, Wendy B

    2018-02-13

    Myelin, the insulating sheath around axons, supports axon function. An important question is the impact of mild myelin disruption. In the absence of the myelin protein proteolipid protein (PLP1), myelin is generated but with age, axonal function/maintenance is disrupted. Axon disruption occurs in Plp1 -null mice as early as 2 months in cortical projection neurons. High-volume cellular quantification techniques revealed a region-specific increase in oligodendrocyte density in the olfactory bulb and rostral corpus callosum that increased during adulthood. A distinct proliferative response of progenitor cells was observed in the subventricular zone (SVZ), while the number and proliferation of parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells was unchanged. This SVZ proliferative response occurred prior to evidence of axonal disruption. Thus, a novel SVZ response contributes to the region-specific increase in oligodendrocytes in Plp1 -null mice. Young adult Plp1- null mice exhibited subtle but substantial behavioral alterations, indicative of an early impact of mild myelin disruption. © 2018, Gould et al.

  8. Proliferation of endogenous retroviruses in the early stages of a host germ line invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire-dam-progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5'- and 3'-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5'-LTR sequence was identical to the 3'-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200-49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Proliferation of Endogenous Retroviruses in the Early Stages of a Host Germ Line Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D.; Roca, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire–dam–progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5′- and 3′-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5′-LTR sequence was identical to the 3′-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200–49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. PMID:25261407

  10. Spatiotemporal distribution of proliferation, proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors in the early human limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bečić, Tina; Bilan, Kanito; Mardešić, Snježana; Vukojević, Katarina; Saraga-Babić, Mirna

    2016-06-01

    Involvement of proliferation and apoptosis in the human limb development was analyzed electronmicroscopically and immunohistochemically in histological sections of 8 human embryos, 4(th) -10(th) week old, using apoptotic (caspase-3, AIF, BAX), anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and proliferation (Ki-67) markers, and TUNEL method. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post hoc test. Initially, developing human limbs consisted of mesenchymal core and surface ectoderm with apical ectodermal ridge (AER). During progression of development, strong proliferation activity gradually decreased in the mesenchyme (from 78% to 68%) and in the epithelium (from 62% to 42%), while in the differentiating finger cartilages proliferation was constantly low (26-7%). Apoptotic caspase-3 and AIF-positive cells characterized mesenchyme and AER at earliest stages, while during digit separation they appeared in interdigital mesenchyme as well. Strong Bcl-2 expression was observed in AER, subridge mesenchyme and phalanges, while BAX expression charaterized limb areas undergoing apoptosis. Ultrastructurally, proliferating cells showed mitotic figures, while apoptotic cells were characterized by nuclear fragmentation. Macrophages were observed around the apoptotic cells. We suggest that intense proliferation enables growth and elongation of human limb primordia, and differential growth of digits. Both caspase-3 and AIF-dependant pathways of cell death control the extent of AER and numer of cells in the subridge mesenchyme at earliest developmental stages, as well as process of digit separation at later stages of limb development. Spatio-temporal co-expresson of Bcl-2 and BAX indicates their role in suppression of apoptosis and selective stimulation of growth during human limb morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-Proliferation, the IAEA Safeguards System, and the importance of nuclear material measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Rebecca S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this project is to explain the contribution of nuclear material measurements to the system of international verification of State declarations and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  12. A strategic framework for proliferation resistance: a systematic approach for the identification and evaluation of technology opportunities to enhance the proliferation resistance of civilian nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Isaac, T.; Schock, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    The United State Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee recently completed a study ''Technological Opportunities To Increase The Proliferation Resistance Of Global Civilian Nuclear Power Systems (TOPS)''. That effort included the development of a set of both intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to proliferation that technologies can directly impact. In this paper we will review these barriers as and framework for assisting in the evaluation of the relative proliferation resistance of various nuclear fuel cycles, technologies and alternatives. (author)

  13. Using proliferation risk as a design metric in the development of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, C.; Lebouf, R.

    2001-01-01

    The necessity has arisen for newly proposed nuclear systems to be evaluated with regard to their potential aid to any proliferation. Thus, a mechanism is needed to introduce nonproliferation as a measure in the design phase of a new nuclear system. To accomplish this, a methodology for quantifying and measuring the proliferation risk of proposed system options is required. Such quantification has its difficulties due to inherent uncertainty, e.g. what is the probability that a quantity of material will be stolen in a given situation? Also, the lack of data on such occurrences makes the task of quantification nearly insurmountable. A systematic approach is necessary to estimate the proliferation risk. Currently, an advanced nuclear power system, the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program has been initiated to develop a system that will concurrently generate electricity while destroying long-lived radioactive isotopes. Therefore, because of the issues noted above, an effort to introduce proliferation risk into the design phase has been started. The purpose of this paper is to review previous work in quantification of proliferation risk in an effort to develop the proper basis for the current work. It should be noted that while proliferation on a national level has been studied extensively, efforts to quantify proliferation risk of individual nuclear systems or processes have been limited. Consequently, the available literature base is relatively sparse. (author)

  14. Using proliferation risk as a design metric in the development of nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, C.; Lebouf, R. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab.

    2001-07-01

    The necessity has arisen for newly proposed nuclear systems to be evaluated with regard to their potential aid to any proliferation. Thus, a mechanism is needed to introduce nonproliferation as a measure in the design phase of a new nuclear system. To accomplish this, a methodology for quantifying and measuring the proliferation risk of proposed system options is required. Such quantification has its difficulties due to inherent uncertainty, e.g. what is the probability that a quantity of material will be stolen in a given situation? Also, the lack of data on such occurrences makes the task of quantification nearly insurmountable. A systematic approach is necessary to estimate the proliferation risk. Currently, an advanced nuclear power system, the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program has been initiated to develop a system that will concurrently generate electricity while destroying long-lived radioactive isotopes. Therefore, because of the issues noted above, an effort to introduce proliferation risk into the design phase has been started. The purpose of this paper is to review previous work in quantification of proliferation risk in an effort to develop the proper basis for the current work. It should be noted that while proliferation on a national level has been studied extensively, efforts to quantify proliferation risk of individual nuclear systems or processes have been limited. Consequently, the available literature base is relatively sparse. (author)

  15. A study on the proliferation resistance evaluation methodology for nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Su

    2007-02-01

    The framework of proliferation resistance evaluation methodology, based on attribute analysis and scenario analysis, for nuclear energy system is suggested in order to allow for the comprehensive assessment of proliferation resistance by addressing the intrinsic and extrinsic features of nuclear energy system. Proliferation resistance is viewed within the context of the success tree model of proliferator's diversion attempt and expressed by the value of top event probability of the success tree model. This study focused on the method that the value of top event is estimated. The methodology uses two different methods to quantify the likelihood of basic events constituting the top event. The likelihood of basic event success affected by intrinsic feature of nuclear energy system was assessed by using multi-attribute utility theory and likelihood of basic event related to the diversion detection measures was assessed by direct expert elicitation. The value of top event was calculated based on the intersection of probabilities of basic event success. Feasibility of the methodology was explored by applying it to selected reference nuclear energy systems. System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART) system and Light Water Reactor (LWR) were chosen as reference systems and the value proliferation resistance of SMART and LWR were evaluated. Characteristics of inherent features and hypothesized safeguards measures of both systems were identified and used as input data to evaluate proliferation resistance. The results and conclusions are applicable only within the context of subjectivity of this methodology

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities

  17. Non-genotoxic carcinogens: early effects on gap junctions, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mally, Angela; Chipman, James Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens are thought to induce tumour formation by disturbing the balance between cell growth and cell death. Gap junctions (GJ) contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by allowing the intercellular exchange of growth regulatory signals and potential inhibition of GJ intercellular communication through loss of connexin (Cx) plaques has been shown to be involved in the cancer process. We have investigated the time- and dose-dependent effects of the non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens Wy-14,643, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, methapyrilene and hexachlorobenzene and the male rat kidney carcinogens chloroform, p-dichlorobenzene and d-limonene on gap junction plaque expression in relation to proliferation and apoptosis. With the exception of limonene, all non-genotoxic carcinogens significantly reduced the expression of GJ plaques containing Cx32 in their respective target tissue. No dose-dependent, significant effects were seen in non-target organs. Although alteration of Cx32 expression did not appear to correlate with induction of cell proliferation, out data suggest that the interaction of both processes--interference of GJ coupled with a proliferative stimulus (at the carcinogenic dose)--may be important in non-genotoxic carcinogenesis and provide a potential alert for non-genotoxic carcinogens in short-term toxicity tests

  18. Early Effects of Altered Gravity Environments on Plant Cell Growth and Cell Proliferation: Characterization of Morphofunctional Nucleolar Types in an Arabidopsis Cell Culture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano, Ana I.; Herranz, Raúl; Manzano, Aránzazu [Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Dutch Experiment Support Center, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam (Netherlands); ESA-ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Medina, F. Javier, E-mail: fjmedina@cib.csic.es [Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-05

    Changes in the cell growth rate of an in vitro cellular system in Arabidopsis thaliana induced by short exposure to an altered gravity environment have been estimated by a novel approach. The method consisted of defining three structural nucleolar types which are easy and reliable indicators of the ribosome biogenesis activity and, consequently, of protein biosynthesis, a parameter strictly correlated to cell growth in this cellular system. The relative abundance of each nucleolar type was statistically assessed in different conditions of gravity. Samples exposed to simulated microgravity for 200 min showed a significant decrease in nucleolar activity compared to 1g controls, whereas samples exposed to hypergravity (2g) for the same period showed nucleolar activity slightly increased. These effects could be considered as an early cellular response to the environmental alteration, given the short duration of the treatment. The functional significance of the structural data was validated by a combination of several different well-known parameters, using microscopical, flow cytometry, qPCR, and proteomic approaches, which showed that the decreased cell growth rate was decoupled from an increased cell proliferation rate under simulated microgravity, and the opposite trend was observed under hypergravity. Actually, not all parameters tested showed the same quantitative changes, indicating that the response to the environmental alteration is time-dependent. These results are in agreement with previous observations in root meristematic cells and they show the ability of plant cells to produce a response to gravity changes, independently of their integration into plant organs.

  19. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Joyce C G; Van Calster, Joachim; Pulido, Jose S; Miles, Sarah L; Vile, Richard G; Van Bergen, Tine; Cassiman, Catherine; Spielberg, Leigh H; Leys, Anita M

    2015-07-01

    Paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation (bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation, BDUMP) is a rare but devastating disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients who usually have an occult malignancy. Visual loss occurs as a result of paraneoplastic changes in the uveal tissue. In a masked fashion, the serum of two patients with BDUMP was evaluated for the presence of cultured melanocyte elongation and proliferation (CMEP) factor using cultured human melanocytes. We evaluated the efficacy of plasmapheresis as a treatment modality early in the disease in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy. The serum of the first case patient was investigated after plasmapheresis and did not demonstrate proliferation of cultured human melanocytes. The serum of the second case was evaluated prior to treatment with plasmapheresis and did induce this proliferation. These findings are in accordance with the diminution of CMEP factor after plasmapheresis. Treatment with plasmapheresis managed to stabilise the ocular disease progression in both patients. In the past, visual loss due to paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation was considered progressive and irreversible. We treated two patients successfully with plasmapheresis and demonstrated a relation between CMEP factor in the serum of these patients and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  1. A collaboration on development of requirements and guidelines for proliferation resistance of future nuclear system in the IAEA INPRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Kim, Hyun Jun; Jeong, Ik; Yang, Myung Seung; Ko, Won Il

    2003-10-01

    This study surveyed and analyzed the existing activities and international status concerning proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems, reviewed the features of proliferation resistance, and derived the requirements of future innovative nuclear energy systems. In IAEA INPRO, guidance for the evaluation of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles on proliferation resistance was finalized through collaboration of member countries including Korea in reviewing technological status and developing the methodology for evaluation of proliferation resistance. This report, first, describes the progress of INPRO and the participation status of Korea in the project, and briefly summarizes the report of phase IA of INPRO. Next, features of proliferation resistance of nuclear systems, collaboration in the GIF and the INPRO for development of requirements and guidelines for proliferation resistance, and the final result of guidance for the evaluation of proliferation resistance were described. Finally, this study proposed measures for participation of further progress of the INPRO

  2. Effects of the isoflavone genistein in early life stages of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: role of the Survivin and proliferation versus apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasquete, Carmen; Úbeda-Manzanaro, María; Ortiz-Delgado, Juan B

    2018-01-17

    Phytochemical flavonoids are widely distributed in the environment and are derived from many anthropogenic activities. The isoflavone genistein is a naturally occurring compound found in soya products that are habitual constituents of the aquafeeds. This isoflavone possesses oestrogenic biological activity and also apoptotic properties. The present study has been performed to determine the effects of the genistein in the early life stages of the flatfish Senegalese sole during the first month of larval life, and it is focused especially at the metamorphosis, analysing the expression transcript levels and the immunohistochemical protein patterns implicated in the cell proliferation and apoptosis pathways (proliferation cellular/PCNA, anti-apoptosis Survivin/BIRC-5, death receptors/Fas, and Caspases). The isoflavone genistein induced some temporal disrupting effects in several pro-apoptotic signalling pathways (Fas, CASP-6) at both genistein doses (3 mg/L and 10 mg/L), with increased Fas transcripts and also decreasing CASP-6 mRNA expression levels during metamorphic and post-metamorphic stages of the Senegalese sole. On the other hand, the anti-apoptotic BIRC-5 expression levels were weakly down-regulated with both the highest and lowest doses, but all of these imbalances were stabilised to the baseline levels. In early life stages of the controls, the constitutive basal transcript levels were temporarily and differentially expressed, reaching the highest levels at the pre-metamorphosis phase, as especially in endotrophic larvae (i.e. BIRC-5 mRNA), as well as in the metamorphic (i.e. CASP-6 mRNA) and post-metamorphic stages (i.e. Fas mRNA). In general, through development, continuous and progressive increases in the protein patterns of cell proliferation-PCNA (e.g. mitotic nuclei), anti-apoptotic Survivin (e.g. haematopoietic system, brain, digestive system, gills) and CASP-2 and -6 (e.g. brain, gills, kidney, digestive system, vascular systems, among others

  3. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2017-08-17

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200 Danish infants (N = 290 enrolled; N = 201 all samples analyzed), as assessed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Further, we evaluated probiotic presence and proliferation by use of specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Probiotic administration did not significantly alter gut microbiota community structure or diversity as compared to placebo. The probiotic strains were detected in 91.3% of the fecal samples from children receiving probiotics and in 1% of the placebo treated children. Baseline gut microbiota was not found to predict the ability of probiotics to establish in the gut after the 6 month intervention. Within the probiotics group, proliferation of the strains LGG® and BB-12® in the gut was detected in 44.7% and 83.5% of the participants, respectively. A sub-analysis of the gut microbiota including only individuals with detected growth of the probiotics LGG® or BB-12® and comparing these to placebo revealed no differences in community structure or diversity. Six months of probiotic administration during early life did not change gut

  4. Automatic early warning systems for the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesjak Martin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Computerized, continuous monitoring environmental early warning systems are complex networks that merge measurements with the information technology. Accuracy, consistency, reliability and data quality are their most important features. Several effects may disturb their characteristics: hostile environment, unreliable communications, poor quality of equipment nonqualified users or service personnel. According to our experiences, a number of measures should be taken to enhance system performances and to maintain them at the desired level. In the paper, we are presenting an analysis of system requirements, possible disturbances and corrective measures that give the main directives for the design, construction and exploitation of the environmental early warning systems. Procedures which ensure data integrity and quality are mentioned. Finally, the contemporary system approach based on the LAN/WAN network topology with Intranet/Internet software is proposed, together with case descriptions of two already operating systems, based on computer-network principle.

  5. THE THIOREDOXIN SYSTEM IN REGULATING MCF-7 CELL PROLIFERATION UNDER REDOX STATUS MODULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Stepovaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the available data on tumor cell functioning under the conditions of free radical-mediated oxidation, the mechanisms of redox regulation, cell proliferation management and apoptosis avoidance remain understudied.The objective of the study was to identify the role of the thioredoxin system in regulating MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation under redox status modulation with 1.4-dithioerythritol.Material and methods. The studies were conducted on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, grown in adherent cell culture. Cell redox status was modulated with5 mM N-ethylmaleimide – an SH group and peptide inhibitor and5 mM 1.4-dithioerythritol – a thiol group protector. The cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry, the same technique was used to measure the reactive oxygen species concentration. The levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione and the activity of thioredoxin reductase were identified by spectrophotometry. The intracellular concentrations of thioredoxin, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were determined by Western blot analysis.Results and discussion. The essential role of the thioredoxin system in regulating MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation was exhibited. S-phase arrest under the effect of N-ethylmaleimide and G0/G1-phase arrest under the effect of 1.4-dithioerythritol are associated with the changes in the activity of redox-sensitive protein complexes (cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that regulate cell proliferation.Conclusion. Redoxdependent modulation of proliferation regulating intracellular protein activity occurs due to the thioredoxin system. This is a promising research area for seeking molecular targets of breast cell malignization. 

  6. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness

  7. Dendritic cells modulate burn wound healing by enhancing early proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinish, Monika; Cui, Weihua; Stafford, Eboni; Bae, Leon; Hawkins, Hal; Cox, Robert; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Adequate wound healing is vital for burn patients to reduce the risk of infections and prolonged hospitalization. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells that release cytokines and are central for the activation of innate and acquired immune responses. Studies have showed their presence in human burn wounds; however, their role in burn wound healing remains to be determined. This study investigated the role of DCs in modulating healing responses within the burn wound. A murine model of full-thickness contact burns was used to study wound healing in the absence of DCs (CD11c promoter-driven diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice) and in a DC-rich environment (using fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand, FL- a DC growth factor). Wound closure was significantly delayed in DC-deficient mice and was associated with significant suppression of early cellular proliferation, granulation tissue formation, wound levels of TGFβ1 and formation of CD31+ vessels in healing wounds. In contrast, DC enhancement significantly accelerated early wound closure, associated with increased and accelerated cellular proliferation, granulation tissue formation, and increased TGFβ1 levels and CD31+ vessels in healing wounds. We conclude that DCs play an important role in the acceleration of early wound healing events, likely by secreting factors that trigger the proliferation of cells that mediate wound healing. Therefore, pharmacological enhancement of DCs may provide a therapeutic intervention to facilitate healing of burn wounds. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  8. ROR2 is epigenetically inactivated in the early stages of colorectal neoplasia and is associated with proliferation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Sean S. Q.; Srivastava, Sameer; Llamosas, Estelle; Hawkins, Nicholas J.; Hesson, Luke B.; Ward, Robyn L.; Ford, Caroline E.

    2016-01-01

    . ROR2 is frequently epigenetically inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in the early stages of colorectal neoplasia and this may contribute to colorectal cancer progression by increasing cellular proliferation and migration. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2576-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  9. Proliferation and Nonproliferation in the Early Twenty-First Century. The Permanent Five Hold the Key to Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, David

    2012-01-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged that nuclear proliferation constitutes a threat to international peace and security. However little known its causes may be, this truth is so well fixed in international public consciousness that it is considered an utmost requirement to address the problem expeditiously. Is the international community indeed properly geared to respond quickly, strongly, and unanimously to proliferation? If so, how? Writing for Foreign Affairs in 1961, the late Fred Ikle asked, 'After Detection-What?'He expressed concerns that the international community focused too exclusively on how to detect violations to arms control agreements. He explained that determining the consequences of violations after detection was also essential and described 'a program to deter evasion', but remained pessimistic about its prospects for success. Four decades later, in a 2001 article for the Nonproliferation Review, Brad Roberts assessed how the problem had changed. He showed that many policy tools had been developed, but that they did not guarantee success. Anticipating many of the debates of the 2000's, he reflected on the dilemma of resorting to multilateral action (sanctioned by the UN Security Council) or US unilateral action, and concluded that there was a crisis of confidence about the nonproliferation regime and the role of the major powers. Over ten years have passed since Roberts's review article. It is now a good time to stand back and take stock of how the problem has evolved. To this end, this paper begins with an assessment of the nonproliferation landscape between 2001 and 2011 by looking at the changes that affected the proliferation problem itself, the tools to address that problem, and the actors involved in the process to solve it. Although progress was made to better tackle it, the paper suggests that pessimism is in order today. On that basis, it moves on to explore what the 'winning agenda' might be, what it entails, and what the prospects

  10. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast growth factor-2 induces glial cell proliferation in the regenerating peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-Resende Victor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the essential biological roles of bone marrow-derived cells, secretion of many soluble factors is included and these small molecules can act upon specific receptors present in many tissues including the nervous system. Some of the released molecules can induce proliferation of Schwann cells (SC, satellite cells and lumbar spinal cord astrocytes during early steps of regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve transection. These are the major glial cell types that support neuronal survival and axonal growth following peripheral nerve injury. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 is the main mitogenic factor for SCs and is released in large amounts by bone marrow-derived cells, as well as by growing axons and endoneurial fibroblasts during development and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Results Here we show that bone marrow-derived cell treatment induce an increase in the expression of FGF-2 in the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglia and the dorsolateral (DL region of the lumbar spinal cord (LSC in a model of sciatic nerve transection and connection into a hollow tube. SCs in culture in the presence of bone marrow derived conditioned media (CM resulted in increased proliferation and migration. This effect was reduced when FGF-2 was neutralized by pretreating BMMC or CM with a specific antibody. The increased expression of FGF-2 was validated by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in co-cultures of bone marrow derived cells with sciatic nerve explants and regenerating nerve tissue respectivelly. Conclusion We conclude that FGF-2 secreted by BMMC strongly increases early glial proliferation, which can potentially improve PNS regeneration.

  11. Autopoiesis of the techno-social systems as a factor of social risks proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D E Orlov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of the unpredictable proliferation and complication of techno-social systems (such as Internet and financial markets. The authors try to explicate the social risks generated by these systems with the theoretical resources of the system theory of communication (N. Luhmann, which is based on the concepts of ‘recursion’, ‘process’ (‘operation’, ‘operationally closed system’, ‘autopoiesis’, etc. The authors believe that the autopoietic system response to external stimuli cannot be predicted by classical means of sociology and cybernetics. Turbulence and continuous complication of techno-social objects let the authors suggest that the dynamics of the systems under consideration contains some features of autopoiesis. Thus, the analysis of the financial market as a complex techno-social object based on the ideas of G. Akerlof (theory of irrational economic behavior and K. Knorr Cetina (object-centric sociology allows to better understand the phenomenon of unpredictable market dynamics (the risk of proliferation of market expectations, inability to capture the control level by any of the participants, etc. The authors believe that such a conceptualization helps to bring together sociological practices of the techno-social objects research and perspective methods of applied mathematics (fractal geometry, theory of reflexive relations, ‘soft’ models, etc., as well as contributes to the search of effective tools for modeling complex techno-social objects, and, thus, social risks accompanying them.

  12. Non-Eosinophilic Nasal Polyps Shows Increased Epithelial Proliferation and Localized Disease Pattern in the Early Stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Kim

    Full Text Available Non-eosinophilic nasal polyps (NPs show less inflammatory changes and are less commonly associated with lower airway inflammatory disorders such as asthma, compared with eosinophilic NPs. However, the development of non-eosinophilic NPs which is a predominant subtype in Asian population still remains unclear.A total of 81 patients (45 with non-eosinophilic NPs and 36 with eosinophilic NPs were enrolled. Clinical information and computed tomography (CT, endoscopic, and histological findings were investigated. Tissue samples were analyzed for total IgE levels and for mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23p19, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and periostin. Immunostaining assessment of Ki-67 as a proliferation marker was performed.We found that epithelial in-growing patterns such as pseudocysts were more frequently observed in histological and endoscopic evaluations of non-eosinophilic NPs, which was linked to increase epithelial staining of Ki-67, a proliferating marker. Eosinophilic NPs were characterized by high infiltration of inflammatory cells, compared with non-eosinophilic NPs. To investigate the developmental course of each subtype, CT was analyzed according to CT scores and subtypes. Non-eosinophilic NPs showed more localized pattern and maxillary sinus involvement, but lesser olfactory involvement in early stage whereas eosinophilic NPs were characterized by diffuse ethmoidal and olfactory involvement. In addition, high ethmoidal/maxillary (E/M CT scores, indicating ethmoidal dominant involvement, were one of surrogate markers for eosinophilic NP. E/M CT scores was positively correlated with levels of TH2 inflammatory markers, including IL-4, IL-5, periostin mRNA expression and total IgE levels in NPs, whereas levels of the TH1 cytokine, IFN- γ were inversely correlated. Moreover, if the combinatorial algorithm meet the three

  13. Proliferation resistance assessment of thermal recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper examines the major proliferation aspects of thermal recycle systems and the extent to which technical or institutional measures could increase the difficulty or detectability of misuse of the system by would-be proliferators. It does this by examining the various activities necessary to acquire weapons-usable material using a series of assessment factors; resources required, time required, detectability. It is concluded that resistance to proliferation could be improved substantially by collecting reprocessing, conversion and fuel fabrication plants under multi national control and instituting new measures to protect fresh MOX fuel. Resistance to theft at sub-national level could be improved by co-location of sensitive facilities high levels of physical protection at plants and during transportation and possibly by adding a radiation barrier to MOX prior to shipment

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs

  15. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs.

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems

  17. Transactive Home Energy Management Systems: The Impact of Their Proliferation on the Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Annabelle; Krishnamurthy, Dheepak; Ruth, Mark; Wu, Hongyu; Lunacek, Monte; Vaynshenk, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 100 million singlefamily homes in the United States account for 36% of the electricity load, and often they determine the peak system load, especially on hot summer days when residential air-conditioning use is high. Traditional building power profiles are changing. Currently, there is an increased use of energy-efficient building materials and designs, which decreases building loads. In addition, there is an increased adoption of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV), which leads to bidirectional power flow and significant power ramps as PV output decreases in the late afternoon. Building power profiles are likely to change even more as residential energy storage products proliferate. Therefore, a better understanding of residential electricity demand is key to addressing the envisioned transition of the electric power system from its traditional structure to one that is transactive.

  18. The nuclear non-proliferation international system before the TNP revision conference (1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biad, A.

    1996-01-01

    This document described the international cooperation on nuclear non-proliferation. It consists of different agreements which aim at a pacific use of nuclear energy. However it is shown that many difficulties occurred during the non-proliferation treaty. Questions on equilibrium between control and cooperation, on the link between nuclear weapons reduction and countries equipped with the weapon, on the security for non-equipped countries are separately discussed. (TEC)

  19. The effects of early hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat cerebellar cortex. III. Kinetics of cell proliferation in the external granular layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, J M

    1977-04-22

    The effects of early hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the rates of cell acquisition and proliferation have been studied in the external granular layer (EGL) of the developing rat cerebellar cortex at 10 days of age using quantitative autoradiographic methods. Both altered thyroid states reduce the rate of cell acquisition in the EGL, but appear to do so for different reasons. Hyperthyroidism shortens the average length of the cell cycle by decreasing the duration of the pre-DNA synthetic phase (G1), indicating that excess thyroxine may exert a direct effect on the EGL. This action involves the early onset of neuronal differentiation (cessation of proliferation)46 which presumably leads to the observed decrease in the rate of cell acquisition (increased doubling time). Such differentiating cells do not, however, leave the proliferative zone or the EGL prematurely, resulting in a reduced labeling index, mitotic index, and growth fraction as non-dividing cells dilute the proliferating cell population. Hypothyroidism, on the other hand, leads to no significant change in the length of the cell cycle or in the mitotic index, but causes a decreased labeling index and growth fraction, as well as a reduced rate of cell acquisition (increased doubling time). No significant change in the amount of cell death in the EGL could be found to explain this apparent discrepancy between the rate of cell proliferation (cell cycle length) and cell acqusiition. The answer to this puzzle appears to lie in the mitotic index, which is not affected to the same extent as the labeling index, although it is also slightly reduced. If cells were to remain longer in mitosis, this could result in a decreased labeling index and growth fraction but nearly normal mitotic index and cell cycle length (as measured using the % labeled mitoses method), since those cells dropping out of the cycling population would be counted as mitoses...

  20. Proliferation resistance assessment of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The first part of the present paper describes the basic assessment procedure that is adopted in the analysis of the three generic nuclear systems. Once-through, fast breeder, and thermal recycle systems are then treated in Sections II, III, and IV, respectively. In each of these sections, a reference system is examined, possible technical and institutional improvements are considered, and alternative system types are indicated. Section V then discusses the relative proliferation resistance of the three generic systems. Although this paper emphasizes the analysis and comparison of individual fuel cycle alternatives, Section V indicates briefly how these analyses then have to be considered in a broader context where systems coexist

  1. Proliferation resistance assessment of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The paper focuses on examining the degree to which nuclear systems could be used to acquire nuclear weapons material. It establishes a framework for proliferation resistance assessment and illustrates its applicability through an analysis of reference systems for once-through cycles, breeder cycles and thermal recycle. On a more tentative basis, the approach is applied to various alternative technical and institutional measures. This paper was also submitted to Working Groups 5 and 8

  2. Interactions in the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormand, J.R.; Woolfson, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The capture theory of the origin of the solar system predicts protoplanets formed in near coplanar elliptical orbits with fairly high eccentricities. A resisting medium, which would be a byproduct of the capture event, would serve to round-off the orbits in a time which is short compared to the age of the solar system. It is shown that such a medium would also give rise to differential rotations of the lines of apses of the early planetary orbits, leading to a high probability of close interactions or collisions between planets. The consequences of a collision between two planets are considered. It is found that the larger planet could, in some cases, be expelled from the solar system and that the fragments of the small planet could give rise to some of the terrestrial planets. Moreover, it is suggested that the Earth-Moon system could be formed as as result of the capture of a major satellite of one of the colliding planets by a large fragment of the other planet. Mars is also identified in the satellite system of the ejected planet. Various types of debris from the collision could have produced the asteroids, meteorites and comets. An alternative explanation, in terms of the original event, is also given for the comets. The hypothesis is examined that Pluto is a byproduct of the collision, reaching its present orbit by interactions with Neptune. It is shown that as a consequence of such an interaction, Triton could have been perturbed sufficiently to reverse an initially prograde orbital motion. The transfer of Pluto from the collision region to the vicinity of Neptune could have occurred through multiple planetary perturbation. The outer satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are discussed in relation to the proposition that they originated from the debris of asteroid collisions within the spheres of influence of those planets. (author)

  3. [Function of the interleukin-1 gene system in immunomodulation, apoptosis and proliferation in the male gonad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozwadowska, Natalia; Fiszer, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2005-03-07

    Spermatogenesis is a phenomenon where two main processes proliferation and apoptosis, meet. Slight changes in their activities could lead to different pathologies, such as fertility disorder (excessive apoptosis) or testicular cancer (overproliferation). The IL-1 gene family includes genes which play important roles in both these processes and consists of IL-1?, IL-1ss, IL-18, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), two IL-1 receptors (IL-1RI, IL-1RII), the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R?), and the receptor-associated proteins - IL-1RAcP and IL-18Rss. Caspase-1 (ICE - interleukin-1 converting enzyme), directly connected with apoptosis and responsible for the cleavage of IL-1b and IL-18, is also a member of the IL-1 family. The system of the numerous IL-1 receptors and their signal transduction involving protein cascades provokes a range of gene expressions necessary for the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory reaction. In the testis, IL-1 is constitutively expressed, where it creates a unique microenvironment for diploid gametogenic cell conversion into specialized haploid spermatozoa. It may also be an element of the physiological protection from autoimmune attack by host testicular antigens and a part of immune privilege. This review is to summarize the knowledge of the local control of spermatogenesis and immunomodulation in the male gonad. As infertility is one of the main problems of industrialized countries, study of the pathophysiology of the male genital tract appears essential in future clinical practice.

  4. The self-consistent energy system with an enhanced non-proliferated core concept for global nuclear energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Masatoshi; Arie, Kazuo; Araki, Yoshio; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Mori, Kenji; Nakayama, Yoshiyuki; Nakazono, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Yuji; Ishiguma, Kazuo; Fujii-e, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    A sustainable nuclear energy system was developed based on the concept of Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES). Our study that trans-uranium (TRU) metallic fuel fast reactor cycle coupled with recycling of five long-lived fission products (LLFP) as well as actinides is the most promising system for the sustainable nuclear utilization. Efficient utilization of uranium-238 through the SCNES concept opens the doors to prolong the lifetime of nuclear energy systems towards several tens of thousand years. Recent evolution of the concept revealed compatibility of fuel sustainability, minor actinide (MA) minimization and non-proliferation aspects for peaceful use of nuclear energy systems through the discussion. As for those TRU compositions stabilized under fast neutron spectra, plutonium isotope fractions are remained in the range of reactor grade classification with high fraction of Pu240 isotope. Recent evolution of the SCNES concept has revealed that TRU recycling can cope with enhancing non-proliferation efforts in peaceful use with the 'no-blanket and multi-zoning core' concept. Therefore, the realization of SCNES is most important. In addition, along the process to the goals, a three-step approach is proposed to solve concurrent problems raised in the LWR systems. We discussed possible roles and contribution to the near future demand along worldwide expansion of LWR capacities by applying the 1st generation SCNES. MA fractions in TRU are more than 10% from LWR discharged fuels and even higher up to 20% in fuels from long interim storages. TRU recycling in the 1st generation SCNES system can reduce the MA fractions down to 4-5% in a few decades. This capability significantly releases 'MA' pressures in down-stream of LWR systems. Current efforts for enhancing capabilities for energy generation by LWR systems are efficient against the global warming crisis. In parallel to those movements, early realization of the SCNES concept can be the most viable decision

  5. Intelligent hand-portable proliferation sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckman, S.L.; Bostrom, G.A.; Waterfield, L.G.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Ahuja, S.; Raptis, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, with support from DOE's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, is currently developing an intelligent hand-portable sensor system. This system is designed specifically to support the intelligence community with the task of in-field sensing of nuclear proliferation and related activities. Based upon pulsed laser photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology, this novel sensing system is capable of quickly providing a molecular or atomic analysis of specimens. The system is capable of analyzing virtually any gas phase molecule, or molecule that can be induced into the gas phase by (for example) sample heating. This system has the unique advantages of providing unprecedented portability, excellent sensitivity, tremendous fieldability, and a high performance/cost ratio. The system will be capable of operating in a highly automated manner for on-site inspections, and easily modified for other applications such as perimeter monitoring aboard a plane or drone. The paper describes the sensing system

  6. Proliferation Potential of Accelerator-Driven Systems: Feasibility Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riendeau, C.D.; Moses, D.L.; Olson, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Accelerator-driven systems for fissile materials production have been proposed and studied since the early 1950s. Recent advances in beam power levels for small accelerators have raised the possibility that such use could be feasible for a potential proliferator. The objective of this study is to review the state of technology development for accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources and subcritical reactors. Energy and power requirements were calculated for a proton accelerator-driven neutron spallation source and subcritical reactors to produce a significant amount of fissile material--plutonium

  7. Cell cycle accumulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen PCN-1 transitions from continuous in the adult germline to intermittent in the early embryo of C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsisova, Zuzana; Kornfeld, Kerry; Schedl, Tim

    2018-05-30

    The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA or PCN-1 in C. elegans), an essential processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ, has been widely used as a marker of S-phase. In C. elegans early embryos, PCN-1 accumulation is cyclic, localizing to the nucleus during S-phase and the cytoplasm during the rest of the cell cycle. The C. elegans larval and adult germline is an important model systems for studying cell cycle regulation, and it was observed that the cell cycle regulator cyclin E (CYE-1 in C. elegans) displays a non-cyclic, continuous accumulation pattern in this tissue. The accumulation pattern of PCN-1 has not been well defined in the larval and adult germline, and the objective of this study was to determine if the accumulation pattern is cyclic, as in other cells and organisms, or continuous, similar to cyclin E. To study the larval and adult germline accumulation of PCN-1 expressed from its native locus, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer a novel allele of pcn-1 that encodes an epitope-tagged protein. S-phase nuclei were labeled using EdU nucleotide incorporation, and FLAG::PCN-1 was detected by antibody staining. All progenitor zone nuclei, including those that were not in S-phase (as they were negative for EdU staining) showed PCN-1 accumulation, indicating that PCN-1 accumulated during all cell cycle phases in the germline progenitor zone. The same result was observed with a GFP::PCN-1 fusion protein expressed from a transgene. pcn-1 loss-of-function mutations were analyzed, and pcn-1 was necessary for robust fertility and embryonic development. In the C. elegans early embryo as well as other organisms, PCN-1 accumulates in nuclei only during S-phase. By contrast, in the progenitor zone of the germline of C. elegans, PCN-1 accumulated in nuclei during all cell cycle stages. This pattern is similar to accumulation pattern of cyclin E. These observations support the model that mitotic cell cycle regulation in the germline stem and progenitor

  8. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  9. The European dimension in non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, J.

    1996-01-01

    Europe was for decades the focal point of efforts to prevent or constrain nuclear proliferation and the first region in which non-proliferation efforts failed. Paper deals with current proliferation problems in Europe, namely, diversion of weapons, diversion from dismantling, production over-capacity, security concerns. Legal instruments against proliferation in Europe described here include development of international norms; instruments of security assurance and cooperation; disarmament assistance; fissile material management; assistance in creating export control systems; improving and harmonizing export controls for dual-purpose items. Problems in implementing non-proliferation instruments are described separately

  10. The Sargassum Early Advisory System (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D.; Gallegos, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Sargassum Early Advisory System (SEAS) web-app was designed to automatically detect Sargassum at sea, forecast movement of the seaweed, and alert users of potential landings. Inspired to help address the economic hardships caused by large landings of Sargassum, the web app automates and enhances the manual tasks conducted by the SEAS group of Texas A&M University at Galveston. The SEAS web app is a modular, mobile-friendly tool that automates the entire workflow from data acquisition to user management. The modules include: 1) an Imagery Retrieval Module to automatically download Landsat-8 Operational Land Imagery (OLI) from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), 2) a Processing Module for automatic detection of Sargassum in the OLI imagery, and subsequent mapping of theses patches in the HYCOM grid, producing maps that show Sargassum clusters; 3) a Forecasting engine fed by the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) model currents and winds from weather buoys; and 4) a mobile phone optimized geospatial user interface. The user can view the last known position of Sargassum clusters, trajectory and location projections for the next 24, 72 and 168 hrs. Users can also subscribe to alerts generated for particular areas. Currently, the SEAS web app produces advisories for Texas beaches. The forecasted Sargassum landing locations are validated by reports from Texas beach managers. However, the SEAS web app was designed to easily expand to other areas, and future plans call for extending the SEAS web app to Mexico and the Caribbean islands. The SEAS web app development is led by NASA, with participation by ASRC Federal/Computer Science Corporation, and the Naval Research Laboratory, all at Stennis Space Center, and Texas A&M University at Galveston.

  11. The role of accelerator-based systems for optimal elimination of plutonium to minimize global proliferation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, W.; Glaser, A.; Pistner, C.

    1997-01-01

    The new proliferation dangers associated with plutonium coming out of the dismantlement of nuclear warheads and the fact that nearly all mixtures of plutonium isotopes are weapon-usable highlight the need for a sustainable disposition option. This paper gives an overview on existing military as well as civilian plutonium stocks worldwide and estimates their future development. An assessment of pros and cons of disposition options discussed so far shows that only the capability of an accelerator-based system to eliminate the plutonium virtually completely makes it attractive from the non-proliferator's point of view. We propose a set of criteria to guide the development of an appropriate system. Special attention is directed on overall proliferation resistance and safety aspects without being compromised by power generation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Nuclear energy and non-proliferation in Latin America: the constitution of Tlatelolco system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armanet, P.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear energy as alternative energy resource and its military use are analysed. Then the main characteristics of the Tratelolco treaty and non-proliferation in Latin America are discussed. Finally the importance of the nuclear-weapons-free zone in Latin America is shown. (A.B.T.) [pt

  13. Magnetic fields in the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangway, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the terrestrial planets and the meteorites contain records of early magnetic fields. In the Allende meteorite some of the chondrules were magnetized in fields of about 10 Oe. When assembled into the meteorite, they remained randomly oriented but were partially remagnetized in a field of 1 Oe at temperatures of 200-300 0 C. They present dipole moment of Mercury and the weak dipole moment of Mars may be due to the cooling of a crust in the presence of early magnetic fields. The Earth on the other hand, has had an active dynamo for at least 3 Ga and probably longer, although there is no discernible record of earlier fields due to extensive reheating of the magnetic carriers. Venus has no dynamo field and its surface temperature is too high to carry a crustal remanence. The Moon has no dipole, but local islands of magnetization are believed to be the results of breccias cooling in the presence of an early field, possibly in itself a crustal memory. As we learn about the fields of the planets and the magnetic record contained in their samples we may be able to put sharp constraints on the earliest history of planet formation and evolution. (Auth.)

  14. The nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, F.

    1995-04-01

    In this book is detailed the beginning of nuclear military power, with the first bomb of Hiroshima, the different ways of getting uranium 235 and plutonium 239, and how the first countries (Usa, Ussr, China, United kingdom, France) got nuclear weapons. Then the most important part is reviewed with the details of non-proliferation treaty and the creation of IAEA to promote civilian nuclear power in the world and to control the use of plutonium and uranium in nuclear power plants. The cases of countries who reached the atom mastery, such Israel, South Africa, Pakistan, Iraq, North Korea, Argentina, Brazil, Iran, Algeria, Taiwan and the reasons which they wanted nuclear weapon for or why they gave up, are exposed

  15. The handbook of nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Lee, B. W.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, K. S.

    2003-07-01

    This report analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This report took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and current status. It is here divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this report dealt four multilateral treaties concluded for international non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. And international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are also analyzed focused on UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, regional safeguards system and international conferences. In addition, this report reviewed the nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is a important tool for bilateral regime

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume I. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. The introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings, and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volumn II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  17. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP.

  18. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  19. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous...... gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic...... intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200...

  20. Proliferation during early phases of bronchiolar repair in neonatal rabbits following lung injury by 4-ipomeanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M.; Plopper, Charles G.

    2003-01-01

    Nonciliated bronchiolar (Clara cells) are progenitor cells during development. During differentiation, they are more susceptible to injury by environmental toxicants metabolized by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, and injury results in altered bronchiolar repair and development. Squamous cells and abnormal cuboidal epithelium persist into early adulthood. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the failure of bronchiolar epithelium to repair normally in neonates following injury is due to an inhibition of proliferation. A model of differential repair in rabbit kits was used. Proliferation was followed for 1 week post injury in rabbit kits treated with a single dose of the P450-mediated cytotoxicant 4-ipomeanol (IPO) at 7 days old (repair abnormal) and compared to rabbits treated with a single dose of IPO at 21 days old (repair normal). Proliferation was measured by the nuclear incorporation of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) within epithelium at the target site (terminal bronchiole). The repair pattern between the two age groups was histologically defined. There was no difference in the CdlU labeling index during the week of repair between the two age groups, even though the bronchiolar epithelium did not return to normal in the animals treated at 7 days old. In summary, proliferation (through S-phase) is not inhibited during repair in neonatal rabbits treated with IPO at 7 days old compared to animals treated at 21 days old, and we conclude that other factors may be responsible for the altered repair in the young neonates injured by a P450-mediated cytotoxicant

  1. The Telemetric Early Warning Environmental Radiation Monitoring System of Cyprus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the hardware design, the development of the software and the use of the Telemetric Early Warning Environmental Radiation Monitoring System (TEWERMS) of Cyprus. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs.

  2. Novel, Moon and Mars, partial gravity simulation paradigms and their effects on the balance between cell growth and cell proliferation during early plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Aránzazu; Herranz, Raúl; den Toom, Leonardus A; Te Slaa, Sjoerd; Borst, Guus; Visser, Martijn; Medina, F Javier; van Loon, Jack J W A

    2018-01-01

    Clinostats and Random Positioning Machine (RPM) are used to simulate microgravity, but, for space exploration, we need to know the response of living systems to fractional levels of gravity (partial gravity) as they exist on Moon and Mars. We have developed and compared two different paradigms to simulate partial gravity using the RPM, one by implementing a centrifuge on the RPM (RPM HW ), the other by applying specific software protocols to driving the RPM motors (RPM SW ). The effects of the simulated partial gravity were tested in plant root meristematic cells, a system with known response to real and simulated microgravity. Seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were germinated under simulated Moon (0.17  g ) and Mars (0.38  g ) gravity. In parallel, seeds germinated under simulated microgravity (RPM), or at 1  g control conditions. Fixed root meristematic cells from 4-day grown seedlings were analyzed for cell proliferation rate and rate of ribosome biogenesis using morphometrical methods and molecular markers of the regulation of cell cycle and nucleolar activity. Cell proliferation appeared increased and cell growth was depleted under Moon gravity, compared with the 1  g control. The effects were even higher at the Moon level than at simulated microgravity, indicating that meristematic competence (balance between cell growth and proliferation) is also affected at this gravity level. However, the results at the simulated Mars level were close to the 1  g static control. This suggests that the threshold for sensing and responding to gravity alteration in the root would be at a level intermediate between Moon and Mars gravity. Both partial g simulation strategies seem valid and show similar results at Moon g -levels, but further research is needed, in spaceflight and simulation facilities, especially around and beyond Mars g levels to better understand more precisely the differences and constrains in the use of these facilities for the space biology community.

  3. Emerging nuclear energy systems and nuclear weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gsponer, A.; Sahin, S.; Jasani, B.

    1983-01-01

    Generally when considering problems of proliferation of nuclear weapons, discussions are focused on horizontal proliferation. However, the emerging nuclear energy systems currently have an impact mainly on vertical proliferation. The paper indicates that technologies connected with emerging nuclear energy systems, such as fusion reactors and accelerators, enhance the knowledge of thermonuclear weapon physics and will enable production of military useful nuclear materials (including some rare elements). At present such technologies are enhancing the arsenal of the nuclear weapon states. But one should not forget the future implications for horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons as some of the techniques will in the near future be within the technological and economic capabilities of non-nuclear weapon states. Some of these systems are not under any international control. (orig.) [de

  4. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  5. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Gaudiot, G.

    1990-10-01

    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  6. Pathway Aggregation in the Risk Assessment of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) of Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The framework for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR & PP) evaluation is to define a set of challenges, to obtain the system responses, and to assess the outcomes. The assessment of outcomes heavily relies on pathways, defined as sequences of events or actions that could potentially be followed by a State or a group of individuals in order to achieve a proliferation objective, with the defined threats as initiating events. There may be large number of segments connecting pathway stages (e.g. acquisition, processing, and fabrication for PR) which can lead to even larger number of pathways or scenarios through possible different combinations of segment connections, each with associated probabilities contributing to the overall risk. Clustering of these scenarios in specified stage attribute intervals is important for their tractable analysis and outcome assessment. A software tool for scenario generation and clustering (OSUPR) is developed that utilizes the PRCALC code developed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for scenario generation and the K- means, mean shift and adaptive mean shift algorithms as possible clustering schemes. The results of the study using the Example Sodium Fast Breeder as an example system show that clustering facilitates the probabilistic or deterministic analysis of scenarios to identify system vulnerabilities and communication of the major risk contributors to stakeholders. The results of the study also show that the mean shift algorithm has the most potential for assisting the analysis of the scenarios generated by PRCALC.

  7. Pathway Aggregation in the Risk Assessment of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) of Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldemir, Tunc [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Denning, Richard [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Catalyurek, Umit [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yilmaz, Alper [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cheng, Lap-Yan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-23

    The framework for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR & PP) evaluation is to define a set of challenges, to obtain the system responses, and to assess the outcomes. The assessment of outcomes heavily relies on pathways, defined as sequences of events or actions that could potentially be followed by a State or a group of individuals in order to achieve a proliferation objective, with the defined threats as initiating events. There may be large number of segments connecting pathway stages (e.g. acquisition, processing, and fabrication for PR) which can lead to even larger number of pathways or scenarios through possible different combinations of segment connections, each with associated probabilities contributing to the overall risk. Clustering of these scenarios in specified stage attribute intervals is important for their tractable analysis and outcome assessment. A software tool for scenario generation and clustering (OSUPR) is developed that utilizes the PRCALC code developed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for scenario generation and the K- means, mean shift and adaptive mean shift algorithms as possible clustering schemes. The results of the study using the Example Sodium Fast Breeder as an example system show that clustering facilitates the probabilistic or deterministic analysis of scenarios to identify system vulnerabilities and communication of the major risk contributors to stakeholders. The results of the study also show that the mean shift algorithm has the most potential for assisting the analysis of the scenarios generated by PRCALC.

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations.

  9. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations

  10. Realizing the world economic, environmental and non-proliferation benefits of the ALMR actinide recycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) Actinide Recycle System has enormous potential to: positively impact the global environment; extend currently known energy resources; and assist developing/undeveloped countries' energy resource access. A global vision of the benefits of developing and deploying this system, including the role of highly developed countries is presented. In this vision, the ALMR System is heavily used, in conjunction with light water reactors (LWRs), in highly developed countries thus displacing fossil fuel demand in those economies, and making them more available for developing/undeveloped countries. In addition, LWRs in developing countries can further reduce global fossil fuel demand. This vision provides quality of life and standard of living improvements in these developing/undeveloped economies, which should lead to more political stability. (author)

  11. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  12. Aluminum-26 in the early solar system - Fossil or fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Mg was measured in different phases of a Ca-Al-rich inclusion in the Allende meteorite. Large excesses of Mg-26 of up to 10% were found. These excesses correlate strictly with the Al-27/Mg-24 ratio for four coexisting phases with distinctive chemical compositions. Models of in situ decay of Al-26 within the solar system and of mixing of interstellar dust grains containing fossil Al-26 with normal solar system material are presented. The observed correlation provides definitive evidence for the presence of Al-26 in the early solar system. This requires either injection of freshly synthesized nucleosynthetic material into the solar system immediately before condensation and planet formation, or local production within the solar system by intense activity of the early sun. Planets promptly produced from material with the inferred Al-26/Al-27 would melt within about 300,000 years.

  13. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenou...... of the healthy infant gut microbiota is not likely to be a prominent mechanism by which these specific probiotics works to exert beneficial effects on host health. NCT02180581 . Registered 30 June 2014....

  14. The Food Early Warning System Project in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  15. Technical features to enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that proliferation resistance is an essential issue for the continued development and sustainability of nuclear energy. Several comprehensive assessment activities on the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle have previously been completed, notably the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) carried out under the auspices of the IAEA, and the Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) review carried out by the USA. There have been, however, relatively few comprehensive treatments of the issue following these efforts in the 1970s. However, interest in and concern about this issue have increased recently, particularly because of greater interest in innovative nuclear fuel cycles and systems. In 2000, the IAEA initiated the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) and the US Department of Energy initiated the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). These projects are aimed at the selection and development of concepts of innovative nuclear energy systems and fuel cycles. Proliferation resistance is one of the fundamental considerations for both projects. In this context, the IAEA in 2001 initiated a study entitled 'Technical Aspects of Increasing Proliferation Resistance of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle'. This task is not intended as an effort to assess the merits of a particular fuel cycle system for the future, but to describe a qualitative framework for an examination of the proliferation resistance provided by the intrinsic features of an innovative nuclear energy system and fuel cycle. This task also seeks to provide a high level survey of a variety of innovative nuclear energy systems and fuel cycles with respect to that framework. The concept of proliferation resistance is considered in terms of intrinsic features and extrinsic measures. The intrinsic features, sometimes referred to as the physical/technical aspects, are those features that result from the

  16. UBE2S associated with OSCC proliferation by promotion of P21 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shusaku; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Iyoda, Manabu; Kasama, Hiroki; Saito, Tomoaki; Takahara, Toshikazu; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S (UBE2S), a family of E2 protein in the ubiquitin-proteasome system, is highly expressed in several types of cancers; however, its roles in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have not yet been well elucidated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the functional activities of UBE2S in OSCCs. We analyzed the expression levels of UBE2S in nine OSCC cell lines and primary OSCC tissues by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The correlations between UBE2S expression and clinical classifications of OSCCs were analyzed using the IHC scoring system. We also used UBE2S knockdown OSCC cells for functional assays (proliferation assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting). UBE2S was overexpressed in OSCCs in vitro and in vivo and was correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with the primary tumoral size. The cellular growth was decreased and the cell-cycle was arrested in the G2/M phase in the UBE2S knockdown (shUBE2S) cells. The expression level of P21, a target of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, was increased in the shUBE2S cells because of lower anaphase activity that promotes complex subunit 3 (APC3), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, compared with shMock cells. These findings might promote the understanding of the relationship between UBE2S overexpression and oral cancer proliferation, indicating that UBE2S would be a potential biomarker of and therapeutic target in OSCCs. - Highlights: • UBE2S contributes to tumor progression in OSCCs. • UBE2S regulated the cell-cycle arrest at G2/M phase in OSCC cells. • UBE2S and APC3 co-regulate the expression level of P21 at G2/M check point via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. • P21 is one of the proliferation-regulating factors in OSCC. • UBE2S would be a potential therapeutic target for OSCCs.

  17. MEHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE FOR ADVANCE NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YUE, M.; CHANG, L.Y.; BARI, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Technology Goals for Generation IV nuclear energy systems highlight Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PRandPP) as one of the four goal areas for Generation 1V nuclear technology. Accordingly, an evaluation methodology is being developed by a PRandPP Experts Group. This paper presents a possible approach, which is based on Markov modeling, to the evaluation methodology for Generation IV nuclear energy systems being developed for PRandPP. Using the Markov model, a variety of proliferation scenarios can be constructed and the proliferation resistance measures can be quantified, particularly the probability of detection. To model the system with increased fidelity, the Markov model is further developed to incorporate multiple safeguards approaches in this paper. The approach to the determination of the associated parameters is presented. Evaluations of diversion scenarios for an example sodium fast reactor (ESFR) energy system are used to illustrate the methodology. The Markov model is particularly useful because it can provide the probability density function of the time it takes for the effort to be detected at a specific stage of the proliferation effort

  18. Modeling and evaluating proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems for strategy switching proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, M.; Cheng, L.-Y.; Bari, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sensitivity analysis is carried out for the model and physical input parameters. ► Interphase drag has minor effect on the dryout heat flux (DHF) in 1D configuration. ► Model calibration on pressure drop experiments fails to improve prediction of DHF. ► Calibrated classical model provides the best agreement with DHF data from 1D tests. ► Further validation of drag models requires data from 2D and 3D experiments on DHF. - Abstract: This paper reports a Markov model based approach to systematically evaluating the proliferation resistance (PR) of nuclear energy systems (NESs). The focus of the study is on the development of the Markov models for a class of complex PR scenarios, i.e., mixed covert/overt strategy switching proliferation, for NESs with two modes of material flow, batch and continuous. In particular, a set of diversion and/or breakout scenarios and covert/overt misuse scenarios are studied in detail for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) system. Both probabilistic and deterministic PR measures are calculated using a software tool that implements the proposed approach and can be used to quantitatively compare proliferation resistant characteristics of different scenarios for a given NES, according to the computed PR measures

  19. Systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor in pigs induces ductal proliferations in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Juhl, C O; Teglbjaerg, P S

    1997-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), and the EGF receptor are often overexpressed in chronic pancreatitis and in malignant pancreatic growth. Transgenic mice overexpressing TGF-alpha develop tissue changes in the pancrease resembling changes found in chronic...... pancreatitis. The effects of systemic treatment with EGF on the porcine pancrease were investigated in this study....

  20. Designing the upgrade of the Early Warning System in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cindro, M.; Mitic, D.; Stritar, A.

    2004-01-01

    When designing an upgrade of early warning network for radiological emergencies one has to consider physical criteria as well as technical and financial possibilities, making the system the best possible compromise between the above mentioned aspects. In the case of the Slovenian Early Warning System (EWS) upgrade, the design was even harder because of the need to implement the existing measuring sites into the new scheme. We plan to add 35 new locations with external radiation and meteorology measurements to the 42 already existing sites. In the article we will describe the selection criteria for measuring sites and the requirements for the measuring equipment as well as a discussion of the physical quantities that need to be measured. In addition to gamma dose rate measurements, which are essential for radiological emergencies, meteorological measurements also provide vital information for the assessment of the situation. Especially we describe an additional necessary meteorological equipment which has to be installed. Today's communication technologies offer many possibilities for data transfer from the measuring site to the central data gathering unit and one has to choose the most appropriate one, primarily considering reliability but also cost effectiveness. For that reason new measuring sites will be at the locations already used for meteorological measurements by the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia. The Central Unit (CU) of such a network is the core of the system were all data have to be controlled, analysed and presented to the operator providing him with as much data as possible in a simple and clear fashion. (author)

  1. Effect of microinjections of subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase on development, proliferation, and RNA synthesis in early embryos of the loach Misgurnus fossilis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glukhov, A.I.; Benyumov, A.O.; Nesterova, M.V.; Severin, E.S.; Gazaryan, K.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II on development, proliferation, and RNA synthesis was studied in loach embryos. It was found that injection of the catalytic subunit in a physiological concentration leads to a disturbance in the course of development and inhibits proliferation and RNA synthesis in the embryos. An increase in the concentration of this protein above the physiological level leads to death of the embryos in the first hours of development. Injection of the regulatory subunit stimulated the incorporation of labeled uridine into the acid-insoluble fraction of the embryos, beginning with the gastrula stage. The cell nuclei of loach embryos injected with subunits of protein kinase type II were transplanted into activated loach egg cells: subunits of protein kinase type I had no effect on the ability of nuclei of undetermined loach embryo cells to provide de novo development and their effect was reversible

  2. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations. While any final assessment of such measures and alternatives would have to examine the circumstances particular to each nation, it is hoped that the more generic assessments conducted here will be useful in suggesting guidelines for developing an improved nonproliferation regime which also helps to meet nuclear-energy needs. One chapter outlines the existing nonproliferation regime, including the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, bilateral and multilateral requirements for agreements of cooperation and transfers of technology, and existing provisons for sanctions for violation of nonproliferation commitments. The chapter then proceeds to an assessment of various alternatives for providing assurance of fuel supply in light of this current regime. Another chapter examines a set of technical and institutional measures and alternatives for various components of once-through and closed fuel cycles. The components of the once-through fuel cycle assessed are enrichment services and spent-fuel management; the components of closed fuel cycles assessed are reprocessing and plutonium management and fast-breeder reactor (FBR) deployment

  4. A tsunami early warning system for the coastal area modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebroto, Arief Andy; Sunaryo, Suhartanto, Ery

    2015-04-01

    The tsunami disaster is a potential disaster in the territory of Indonesia. Indonesia is an archipelago country and close to the ocean deep. The tsunami occurred in Aceh province in 2004. Early prevention efforts have been carried out. One of them is making "tsunami buoy" which has been developed by BPPT. The tool puts sensors on the ocean floor near the coast to detect earthquakes on the ocean floor. Detection results are transmitted via satellite by a transmitter placed floating on the sea surface. The tool will cost billions of dollars for each system. Another constraint was the transmitter theft "tsunami buoy" in the absence of guard. In this study of the system has a transmission system using radio frequency and focused on coastal areas where costs are cheaper, so that it can be applied at many beaches in Indonesia are potentially affected by the tsunami. The monitoring system sends the detection results to the warning system using a radio frequency with a capability within 3 Km. Test results on the sub module sensor monitoring system generates an error of 0.63% was taken 10% showed a good quality sensing. The test results of data transmission from the transceiver of monitoring system to the receiver of warning system produces 100% successful delivery and reception of data. The test results on the whole system to function 100% properly.

  5. BCG strain S4-Jena: An early BCG strain is capable to reduce the proliferation of bladder cancer cells by induction of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Inge-Marie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravesical immunotherapy with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin has been established as the most effective adjuvant treatment for high risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. We investigated the differences between the S4-Jena BCG strain and commercially available BCG strains. We tested the genotypic varieties between S4-Jena and other BCG strains and analysed the effect of the BCG strains TICE and S4-Jena on two bladder cancer cell lines. Results In contrast to commercially available BCG strains the S4-Jena strain shows genotypic differences. Spoligotyping verifies the S4-Jena strain as a BCG strain. Infection with viable S4-Jena or TICE decreased proliferation in the T24 cell line. Additionally, hallmarks of apoptosis were detectable. In contrast, Cal29 cells showed only a slightly decreased proliferation with TICE. Cal29 cells infected with S4-Jena, though, showed a significantly decreased proliferation in contrast to TICE. Concordantly with these results, infection with TICE had no effect on the morphology and hallmarks of apoptosis of Cal29 cells. However, S4-Jena strain led to clearly visible morphological changes and caspases 3/7 activation and PS flip. Conclusions S4-Jena strain has a direct influence on bladder cancer cell lines as shown by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. The data implicate that the T24 cells are responder for S4-Jena and TICE BCG. However, the Cal29 cells are only responder for S4-Jena and they are non-responder for TICE BCG. S4-Jena strain may represent an effective therapeutic agent for NMIBC.

  6. 182Hf: a new stopwatch for the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.; Schramm, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    It is now well established that live 26 Al (t/sub 1/2/ = 7.2 x 10 5 yr) and 107 Pd (t/sub 1/2/ = 6.5 x 10 6 yr) were present in the early solar system. Thus, the nucleosynthetic vent (supernova) responsible for the production of these nuclei must have occurred no more than a few million years prior to the formation of solid bodies. It is possible that this event also produced the 129 I known to be present in the early solar system. However, the last event to contribute 244 Pu to the solar system occurred approx. 10 8 yr prior to the time of solidification. This latter time scale is also consistent with the lack of evidence for a 247 Cm chronometer. In this letter, we propose that 182 Hf (t/sub 1/2/ = 9 x 10 6 yr) can resolve the question of whether heavy-element non-actinide nucleosynthesis occurred during the 26 Al-producing event. The answer to this question will help to clarify the chronology of the formation of the solar system and will help to determine the astrophysical sites of heavy-element nucleosynthesis

  7. The DinJ/RelE Toxin-Antitoxin System Suppresses Bacterial Proliferation and Virulence of Xylella fastidiosa in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2017-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapes, is a slow-growing, xylem-limited, bacterial pathogen. Disease progression is characterized by systemic spread of the bacterium through xylem vessel networks, causing leaf-scorching symptoms, senescence, and vine decline. It appears to be advantageous to this pathogen to avoid excessive blockage of xylem vessels, because living bacterial cells are generally found in plant tissue with low bacterial cell density and minimal scorching symptoms. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin system is characterized here for a role in controlling bacterial proliferation and population size during plant colonization. The DinJ/RelE locus is transcribed from two separate promoters, allowing for coexpression of antitoxin DinJ with endoribonuclease toxin RelE, in addition to independent expression of RelE. The ratio of antitoxin/toxin expressed is dependent on bacterial growth conditions, with lower amounts of antitoxin present under conditions designed to mimic grapevine xylem sap. A knockout mutant of DinJ/RelE exhibits a hypervirulent phenotype, with higher bacterial populations and increased symptom development and plant decline. It is likely that DinJ/RelE acts to prevent excessive population growth, contributing to the ability of the pathogen to spread systemically without completely blocking the xylem vessels and increasing probability of acquisition by the insect vector.

  8. Methodological considerations in evaluating a proliferation resistance of innovative nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Takaki, Naoyuki; Murajiri, Masahiro; Nakagome, Yoshihiro; Tokiwai, Moriyasu

    2004-01-01

    Over 25 years ago, INFCE studied the evaluation methodology of proliferation resistance. Recently, INPRO and GEN-IV coordinated by the IAEA and the USDOE respectively seek an appropriate innovative fuel cycle system for next generation that is furnished safer, sustainable, economical and reliable features. The evaluation methodology of the proliferation resistance is also assigned as an essential part of both studies. The IAEA established and has been strictly implementing the verification measures with accurate material accountancy system from the early of the 1970s in order to detect diversion of plutonium that is individually separated from irradiated nuclear material and recycled as MOX fuel. This paper firstly identifies the impedibility of intrinsic features of innovative fuel cycles and the safeguardability of selected nonproliferation measures as two individual essential parameters for evaluation of a proliferation resistance capability. As a next step, this paper also shows methodological considerations in evaluating the proliferation resistance levels as a multiple model of several clusters that are identified the ability of each parameter. (author)

  9. The thioredoxin-1 system is essential for fueling DNA synthesis during T-cell metabolic reprogramming and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Jonathan; Heer, Sebastian; Matsushita, Mai; Pohlmeier, Lea; Tortola, Luigi; Fuhrer, Tobias; Conrad, Marcus; Zamboni, Nicola; Kisielow, Jan; Kopf, Manfred

    2018-05-10

    The thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) system is an important contributor to cellular redox balance and is a sensor of energy and glucose metabolism. Here we show critical c-Myc-dependent activation of the Trx1 system during thymocyte and peripheral T-cell proliferation, but repression during T-cell quiescence. Deletion of thioredoxin reductase-1 (Txnrd1) prevents expansion the CD4 - CD8 - thymocyte population, whereas Txnrd1 deletion in CD4 + CD8 + thymocytes does not affect further maturation and peripheral homeostasis of αβT cells. However, Txnrd1 is critical for expansion of the activated T-cell population during viral and parasite infection. Metabolomics show that TrxR1 is essential for the last step of nucleotide biosynthesis by donating reducing equivalents to ribonucleotide reductase. Impaired availability of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides induces the DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest of Txnrd1-deficient T cells. These results uncover a pivotal function of the Trx1 system in metabolic reprogramming of thymic and peripheral T cells and provide a rationale for targeting Txnrd1 in T-cell leukemia.

  10. Report on the bill project related to the struggle against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In a first part presenting the various forms of proliferations, the author first gives a quantitative overview of illegal activities concerning nuclear materials, and then discusses the existence and activities of proliferation networks, explaining how international trade liberalization creates a favourable context for proliferations of any kind, and describing how a typical network is organised. He also discusses the example of Iraq and the case of the network created by the Pakistani scientist Abdul Q. Khan. The risk created by the hypothetical relationship between terrorism and nuclear weapon of mass destruction is also questioned. Then, after having recalled the existing international texts and the present national legislation, the author comments the contribution on the bill project and outlines aspects which are not dealt with by this bill project: radiological devices and cybernetic attacks. Then he reports the comments made by the commission on the bill project articles which define interdictions, sanctions and sentences, or procedures against people or organisations involved in the financing or the use of weapons of mass destruction (biological and chemical). A table gives a comparison between the bill project text and the commission's propositions

  11. Multicriteria Early Warning System of Enterprises against the Bankruptcy Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Korol

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issue of forecasting the bankruptcy risk of the enterprises. In the article author compares the effectiveness of multicriteria early warning system with the traditional discriminant analysis model of forecasting the risks of bankruptcy of companies. In the conducted research author has used data on 185 companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange Market. This population of firms was divided into learning and testing setdata. Each company has been analyzed using the absolute values of 14 financial ratios and the dynamics of change of these ratios. Additionally, author has used the macroeconomic variables in developed multicriteria system. The author’s developed models are characterized by high efficiency. These studies are the first attempt to use fuzzy logic to predict the bankruptcy of companies in Poland and one of the first in the world. Obtained results demonstrate the great potential of this method.  

  12. A microculture system for the measurement of antigen-induced murine lymphocyte proliferation: advantages of 5% horse serum and 5 X 10(-5) M mercaptoethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, E; Vris, T W; Lawrence, H S

    1977-01-01

    Short term microculture systems which measure murine lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens are well established. We demonstrate here that these microculture methods are not suitable for antigen-induced responses because of the high levels of murine lymphocyte proliferation in control cultures associated with the use of fetal calf serum or human serum. We also show that this problem can be eliminated with the use of a combination of 5% horse serum and 5 X 10(-5) M mercaptoethanol. We describe an antigen-induced murine lymphocyte proliferation microculture system in which good stimulation indices are achieved and the lymphocyte proliferation in control cultures remain at a low level throughout the 7 day culture period.

  13. Ctr9, a Key Component of the Paf1 Complex, Affects Proliferation and Terminal Differentiation in the Developing Drosophila Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bahrampour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Paf1 protein complex (Paf1C is increasingly recognized as a highly conserved and broadly utilized regulator of a variety of transcriptional processes. These include the promotion of H3K4 and H3K36 trimethylation, H2BK123 ubiquitination, RNA Pol II transcriptional termination, and also RNA-mediated gene silencing. Paf1C contains five canonical protein components, including Paf1 and Ctr9, which are critical for overall complex integrity, as well as Rtf1, Leo1, and Cdc73/Parafibromin(Hrpt2/Hyrax. In spite of a growing appreciation for the importance of Paf1C from yeast and mammalian studies, there has only been limited work in Drosophila. Here, we provide the first detailed phenotypic study of Ctr9 function in Drosophila. We found that Ctr9 mutants die at late embryogenesis or early larval life, but can be partly rescued by nervous system reexpression of Ctr9. We observed a number of phenotypes in Ctr9 mutants, including increased neuroblast numbers, increased nervous system proliferation, as well as downregulation of many neuropeptide genes. Analysis of cell cycle and regulatory gene expression revealed upregulation of the E2f1 cell cycle factor, as well as changes in Antennapedia and Grainy head expression. We also found reduction of H3K4me3 modification in the embryonic nervous system. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis points to additional downstream genes that may underlie these Ctr9 phenotypes, revealing gene expression changes in Notch pathway target genes, cell cycle genes, and neuropeptide genes. In addition, we find significant effects on the gene expression of metabolic genes. These findings reveal that Ctr9 is an essential gene that is necessary at multiple stages of nervous system development, and provides a starting point for future studies of the Paf1C in Drosophila.

  14. The USA and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    United States policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia poses a test of balance between general US global non-proliferation goals and specific US regional security goals for Northeast Asia. US policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia further poses a test of priorities for US bilateral relations with the key Northeast Asian states, as non-proliferation and regional security goals must be weighed against other (e.g., economic, human rights) declared US policy goals. The result is a US policy equation for Northeast Asia proliferation that is considerably more complex in execution than might be expected from the simple statement of the US goal to avoid nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. The question of security assurances - both negative and positive - may be closely related to US policies to avoid proliferation in Northeast Asia

  15. Mapping the Early Intervention System in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the wide range of early intervention services across the province of Ontario. The services are mapped across the province showing geographic information as well as the scope of services (clinical, family-based, resource support, etc.), the range of early intervention professionals, sources of funding and the populations served…

  16. Upgrade of the early warning system in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvari, A.; Cindro, M.; Krizman, M.; Mitic, D.

    2003-01-01

    The main task of the Early Warning System in Slovenia is to warn the competent authorities of the increase of external radiation. Only an efficient Ewes can cope with the situation that we have in case of nuclear or radiation accident. For such purposes the measuring locations have to fulfil some basic radiation monitoring criteria (population density, distance from NPP, precipitation, land use). In this article the results of each criterion as well as the total set is described. The results of the applied criteria are presented with colour contour images. The purpose of this article is to allocate the critical areas on the territory of Slovenia that have to be considered in final determination of the appropriate measuring locations. (author)

  17. Perspectives and benefits of the non-proliferating fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.

    2012-01-01

    The world community has faced the issues of nuclear non-proliferation for decades. Frank Parker, Emeritus Distinguished Professor at Vanderbilt University, has proposed a non-proliferating fuel cycle, which greatly reduces the risk of use of nuclear materials for military purpose. A simplified fuel cycle with reduced opportunities for proliferation of nuclear weapons and permanent disposal of radioactive wastes as well as a reference sub-seabed HLW disposal system are described [ru

  18. Assessment of proliferation resistance of thermal recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    An assessment is made of the proliferation resistance of thermal recycle systems. The safeguards aspects are not addressed. Three routes to the acquisition of materials for nuclear weapons are addressed namely; a deliberate political decision by a government involving the use of dedicated facilities, a deliberate political decision by government involving abuse of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and theft by a subnational group. The most sensitive parts of the reference fuel cycle and the alternative technical measures are examined to judge their relative sensitivity. This is done by examining the difference forms in which plutonium can exist in the fuel cycle. The role which different institutional arrangements can play is also evaluated. From this comparative assessment it is concluded that, taking into account the qualitative nature of the assessment, the different stages of development of the various fuel cycles, the various realizations possible in respect of the deployment of facilities within individual countries and the evolutionary nature of the technical and institutional improvements foreseeable no fuel cycle can be made completely free from abuse. Furthermore it appears that following progressive introduction of features that will improve proliferation resistance there will not be significant differences between the various fuel cycles when compared at the point in time when they are introduced into widespread use. Provided such features are developed and implemented there is no reason on proliferation grounds to prefer one cycle to another

  19. Early solar system. Early accretion of water in the inner solar system from a carbonaceous chondrite-like source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; McCubbin, Francis M; Monteleone, Brian D

    2014-10-31

    Determining the origin of water and the timing of its accretion within the inner solar system is important for understanding the dynamics of planet formation. The timing of water accretion to the inner solar system also has implications for how and when life emerged on Earth. We report in situ measurements of the hydrogen isotopic composition of the mineral apatite in eucrite meteorites, whose parent body is the main-belt asteroid 4 Vesta. These measurements sample one of the oldest hydrogen reservoirs in the solar system and show that Vesta contains the same hydrogen isotopic composition as that of carbonaceous chondrites. Taking into account the old ages of eucrite meteorites and their similarity to Earth's isotopic ratios of hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen, we demonstrate that these volatiles could have been added early to Earth, rather than gained during a late accretion event. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiqiang; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Schleif, William A.; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4 + T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection

  1. Astrobiology and the Chemistry of the Early Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elsila

    2011-01-01

    The field of astrochemistry investigates the origin of the chemicals necessary for the formation of life. Astrochemists use remote observations, laboratory simulations, and analysis of extraterrestrial samples to understand the inventory of pre biotic chemicals present on the early Earth. Among the problems investigated by astrochemists is the origin of homo chirality in terrestrial life. Analysis of meteorites shows that they may have delivered an excess of L-amino acids to the Earth's surface, perhaps leading to homochirality.

  2. The Namibia Early Flood Warning System, A CEOS Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Sohlberg, Robert; Handy, Matthew; Grossman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year few years, an international collaboration has developed a pilot project under the auspices of Committee on Earth Observation Satellite (CEOS) Disasters team. The overall team consists of civilian satellite agencies. For this pilot effort, the development team consists of NASA, Canadian Space Agency, Univ. of Maryland, Univ. of Colorado, Univ. of Oklahoma, Ukraine Space Research Institute and Joint Research Center(JRC) for European Commission. This development team collaborates with regional , national and international agencies to deliver end-to-end disaster coverage. In particular, the team in collaborating on this effort with the Namibia Department of Hydrology to begin in Namibia . However, the ultimate goal is to expand the functionality to provide early warning over the South Africa region. The initial collaboration was initiated by United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs and CEOS Working Group for Information Systems and Services (WGISS). The initial driver was to demonstrate international interoperability using various space agency sensors and models along with regional in-situ ground sensors. In 2010, the team created a preliminary semi-manual system to demonstrate moving and combining key data streams and delivering the data to the Namibia Department of Hydrology during their flood season which typically is January through April. In this pilot, a variety of moderate resolution and high resolution satellite flood imagery was rapidly delivered and used in conjunction with flood predictive models in Namibia. This was collected in conjunction with ground measurements and was used to examine how to create a customized flood early warning system. During the first year, the team made use of SensorWeb technology to gather various sensor data which was used to monitor flood waves traveling down basins originating in Angola, but eventually flooding villages in Namibia. The team made use of standardized interfaces such as those articulated

  3. The possibility of life proliferation from Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Enceladus is a medium-sized icy satellite (MIS) of Saturn. MIS are built of mixtures of rocks and ices. Enceladus with its radius of 250 km is one of the smallest of MIS, however, it is geologically active. According to [1]: "For life to have emerged […] on the early Earth, a sustained source of chemically transducible energy was essential. The serpentinization process is emerging as an increasingly likely source of that energy. Serpentinization of ultramafic crust would have continuously supplied hydrogen, methane, […] to off-ridge alkaline hydrothermal springs that interfaced with the metal-rich carbonic Hadean Ocean" (see also [2]). We consider here conditions for origin of life in early Enceladus and possible proliferation of the life from this satellite to the rest of Solar System. Mass of serpentinite: The serpentinization on the Earth is found in neovolcanic zones along mid-oceanic spreading centers. However, only in small part of them the hydrothermal activity really occurs. After [3] we consider the following reaction: Mg2SiO4 + MgSiO3 + 2H2O -> Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 . This reaction releases 241 000 J per kg of serpentine produced. Simple calculations (e.g. [4]) indicate that mass fraction of silicatesfmas in Enceladus is ˜0.646, hence the total mass of its silicate is ˜6.97 1019 kg. [4] found that the early core in Enceladus was a relatively cold structure built from loosely packed grains with water between them. At that time, there was not mechanism of removing the water. Since rocks are permeable up to the pressure of ˜300 MPa then the entire core of Enceladus was probably permeable for liquids. This could lead to formation of extensive hydrothermal convective systems. T-p conditions in Enceladus: The pressure in the center of Enceladus is ˜2.3 107 Pa that corresponds to pressure on the depth 2300 m in a terrestrial ocean. The evolution of temperature in the Enceladus interior for the first a few hundreds Myr is considered by [4]. If

  4. ASSESSING THE PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE OF INNOVATIVE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARI, R.; ROGLANS, J.; DENNING, R.; MLADINEO, S.

    2003-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration is developing methods for nonproliferation assessments to support the development and implementation of U.S. nonproliferation policy. This paper summarizes the key results of that effort. Proliferation resistance is the degree of difficulty that a nuclear material, facility, process, or activity poses to the acquisition of one or more nuclear weapons. A top-level measure of proliferation resistance for a fuel cycle system is developed here from a hierarchy of metrics. At the lowest level, intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to proliferation are defined. These barriers are recommended as a means to characterize the proliferation characteristics of a fuel cycle. Because of the complexity of nonproliferation assessments, the problem is decomposed into: metrics to be computed, barriers to proliferation, and a finite set of threats. The spectrum of potential threats of nuclear proliferation is complex and ranges from small terrorist cells to industrialized countries with advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Two general categories of methods have historically been used for nonproliferation assessments: attribute analysis and scenario analysis. In the former, attributes of the systems being evaluated (often fuel cycle systems) are identified that affect their proliferation potential. For a particular system under consideration, the attributes are weighted subjectively. In scenario analysis, hypothesized scenarios of pathways to proliferation are examined. The analyst models the process undertaken by the proliferant to overcome barriers to proliferation and estimates the likelihood of success in achieving a proliferation objective. An attribute analysis approach should be used at the conceptual design level in the selection of fuel cycles that will receive significant investment for development. In the development of a detailed facility design, a scenario approach should be undertaken to reduce the potential for design vulnerabilities

  5. Development of bioengineering system for stem cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. S.; Shah, R.; Shah, C.

    2016-08-01

    From last decades, intensive research in the field of stem cells proliferation had been promoted due to the unique property of stem cells to self-renew themselves into multiples and has potential to replicate into an organ or tissues and so it's highly demanding though challenging. Bioreactor, a mechanical device, works as a womb for stem cell proliferation by providing nutritious environment for the proper growth of stem cells. Various factors affecting stem cells growth are the bioreactor mechanism, feeding of continuous nutrients, healthy environment, etc., but it always remains a challenge for controlling biological parameters. The present paper unveils the design of mechanical device commonly known as bioreactor in tissues engineering and biotech field, use for proliferation of stem cells and imparts the proper growing condition for stem cells. This high functional bioreactor provides automation mixing of cell culture and stem cells. This design operates in conjunction with mechanism of reciprocating motion. Compare to commercial bioreactors, this proposed design is more convenient, easy to operate and less maintenance is required as bioreactor culture bag is made of polyethylene which is single use purpose. Development of this bioengineering system will be beneficial for better growth and expansion of stem cell

  6. Strengthening the non proliferation regime: French views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, P.

    2013-01-01

    3 main issues can be identified in the French policy concerning the backing of non proliferation: 1) responding resolutely to proliferation crises, 2) reinforcing substantive efforts to prevent and impede proliferation, and 3) strengthening the non-proliferation regime. The first issue is very important because combating proliferation is vital to the security of all. Concerning the second issue, France attaches particular importance to strengthening specific measures to prevent and check proliferation. Let me mention a few proposals that we put forward: exports need to be controlled more effectively, proliferation activities have to be criminalized, or the development of proliferation-resistant technologies should be supported. Concerning the third issue it means the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, France proposes several means: -) aiming at the universalization of the additional protocol; -) ensuring that the Agency continues to have sufficient human, financial and technical resources to fulfill its verification mission effectively; -) encouraging the IAEA to make full use of the authority available to it; -) enhancing the use of information relevant to the delivery of the IAEA mandate; and -) sharing more accurate information concerning the breaches of commitments that happen. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  7. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  8. The challenges of nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guelte, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The author of this article first outlines that the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a tool of domination used by nuclear powers: they can keep and even develop their own nuclear arsenal, while other countries who sign this treaty commit themselves not to try to acquire nuclear weapons. The USA and USSR kept on persuading various countries to sign this treaty, but eventually let some countries develop their military nuclear programme (Israel, Pakistan, or India). He evokes technical difficulties in the application of the Treaty, notably for the control of centrifugation activities. He outlines that the USA have now a dominant position with respect to this Treaty and its application, but that the Treaty remains a major safety element for the world. He evokes more recent and negative evolutions: the withdrawal of North Korea from the Treaty, the destruction of an Iraqi nuclear reactor by Israel (i.e. the destruction of a nuclear installation belonging to a country who signed the NPT by a country who did not sign it). He proposes an overview of the Iranian issue (history of the Iranian nuclear programme, of the nuclear crisis, of the still going on negotiations), and describes what could be the worst possible scenario

  9. Evaluation of proliferation resistance using the INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, Joo Hwan; Ko, Won Il; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Kun Mo; Kim, Jin Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA launched the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) and developed the INPRO Methodology to provide guidelines and to assess the characteristics of a future innovative nuclear energy system in areas such as safety, economics, waste management, and proliferation resistance. The proliferation resistance area of the INPRO Methodology is reviewed here, and modifications for further improvements are proposed. The evaluation metrics including the evaluation parameters, evaluation scales and acceptance limits are developed for a practical application of the methodology to assess the proliferation resistance. The proliferation resistant characteristics of the DUPIC fuel cycle are assessed by applying the modified INPRO Methodology based on the developed evaluation metrics and acceptance criteria. The evaluation procedure and the metrics can be utilized as a reference for an evaluation of the proliferation resistance of a future innovative nuclear energy system

  10. Uranium dependence and the proliferation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    A 20-year ''breathing space'' of adequate uranium supplies is felt to warrant delaying breeder technology until the threat of proliferation can be met with adequate internationally controlled stockpiles and marketing. Although a shift to breeder reactors developed as concern grew over the possibility of depleted uranium reserves, U.S. policy has now reversed this trend in favor of nuclear systems with a lower risk of proliferation. A review of uranium dependence analyzes the fuel cycle, current and projected reserves, reliable enrichment services, and international effects of proliferation and market disruptions. Uranium supply forecasts are more positive now because overstated reactor buildup projections led utilities to order more fuel than they will need until the late 1980s. These surpluses of light-water reactor fuel could be stockpiled at a cost of $20 billion, felt to be a relatively modest figure in terms of the total cost of nuclear power. A stockpile able to meet demand levels could offer the security of domestic supplies with trade opportunities and would retain levels of exploration and extraction. Several strategies for managing stockpiles are possible, but international control is seen as the best way to maintain reliable prices and uniform supply policies for all nations

  11. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation.

  12. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Guo, Wenjie; Li, Wenjuan; Cheng, Meng; Hu, Ying; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation. PMID:27872858

  13. 1995 - a pivotal year for nuclear nonproliferation. German nonproliferation policy in the runup to the extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preisinger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the non-proliferation as a task of preventive security policy, the non-proliferation instruments, the content of an extended non-proliferation system, and tasks of German non-proliferation policy. (DG)

  14. Status of Methodology Development for the Evaluation of Proliferation Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Ko, Won Il; Lee, Jung Won

    2010-01-01

    Concerning the increasing energy demand and green house effect, nuclear energy is now the most feasible option. Therefore, recently, oil countries even have a plan to build the nuclear power plant for energy production. If nuclear systems are to make a major and sustainable contribution to the worlds energy supply, future nuclear energy systems must meet specific requirements. One of the requirements is to satisfy the proliferation resistance condition in an entire nuclear system. Therefore, from the beginning of future nuclear energy system development, it is important to consider a proliferation resistance to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials. The misuse of a nuclear system must be considered as well. Moreover, in the import and export of nuclear system, the evaluation of the proliferation resistance on the nuclear system becomes a key factor The INPRO (International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) program initiated by the IAEA proposed proliferation resistance (PR) as a key component of a future innovative nuclear system (INS) with a sustainability, economics, safety of nuclear installation and waste management. The technical goal for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems (NESs) highlights a Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP), sustainability, safety, reliability and economics as well. Based on INPRO and Gen IV study, the methodology development for the evaluation of proliferation resistance has been carried out in KAERI. Finally, the systematic procedure for methodology was setup and the indicators for the procedure were decided. The methodology involves the evaluation from total nuclear system to individual process. Therefore, in this study, the detailed procedure for the evaluation of proliferation resistance and the newly proposed additional indicators are described and several conditions are proposed to increase the proliferation resistance in the future nuclear system. The assessment of PR

  15. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  16. Early irrigation systems in southeastern Arizona: the ostracode perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Fest, Manuel R.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; Nials, Fred; Holmlund, James P.; Miksa, Elizabeth; Davis, Owen K.

    2001-10-01

    For the first time, the Early Agricultural Period (1200 BC-150 AD) canal irrigation in the Santa Cruz River Valley, southeastern Arizona, is documented through ostracode paleoecology. Interpretations based on ostracode paleoecology and taphonomy are supported by anthropological, sedimentological, geomorphological, and palynological information, and were used to determine the environmental history of the northern Tucson Basin during the time span represented by the sequence of canals at Las Capas (site AZ AA:12:753 ASM). We also attempt to elucidate based on archaeological artifacts if the Hohokam or a previous civilization built the canals. Between 3000 and 2400 radiocarbon years BP, at least three episodes of canal operation are defined by ostracode assemblages and pollen records. Modern (mid-late 20th century) canals supported no ostracodes, probably because of temporally brief canal operation from local wells. Three stages of water management are well defined during prehistoric canal operation. Ostracode faunal associations indicate that prehistoric peoples first operated their irrigation systems in a simple, 'opportunistic' mode (diversion of ephemeral flows following storms), and later in a complex, 'functional' mode (carefully timed diversions of perennial flows). The geomorphological reconstruction indicates that these canals had a minimum length of 1.1 km, and were possibly twice as long. The hydraulic reconstruction of these canals suggests that they had similar gradients (0.05-0.1%) to later prehistoric canals in the same valley. Discharges were also respectable. When flowing at bank-full, the largest canal provided an acre-foot of water in about 2.3 h; when flowing half-full (probably a more realistic assumption), it produced an acre-foot of water in about 8.6 h. Palynological records of the oldest canals (here identified as Features 3 and 4; 3000-2500 years BP) indicate they were used temporarily, since riparian vegetation did not grow consistently in

  17. The non-proliferation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    On September 22, 1993, the Department of Energy detonated more than 1.2 million kg of blasting agent in a tunnel in Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. The resulting explosion generated seismic, electromagnetic, and air pressure signals that were recorded on instruments deployed at distances ranging from a few meters to hundreds and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers. More than 12 organizations made measurements before, during, and after the explosions. The explosion and its associated experiments are known as the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). Analyses of the measurements made during the NPE and comparisons with similar measurements made on previous nearly nuclear explosions and on a co-located smaller explosion detonated at the same site are providing basic phenomenological insights into what is potentially one of the comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)-distinguishing between nuclear explosions and some of the many conventional explosions that occur each year. The NPE is also providing information on the use of chemical explosions to develop empirical discriminants in regions where no nuclear explosions have been recorded. In another verification application, several NPE projects are examining the utility of on-site, pre-shot, shot-time, and post-shot measurements of gas seepage, seismic activity, and other observables as a means of identifying the source of signals that appear like nuclear explosions at regional distances. Two related activities are being considered. First, challenge on-site inspections, conducted after an event has occurred, may be able to use the characteristics of phenomena that persist after the explosion to detect and identify the source of the signals that appeared ambiguous or explosion-like to remote sensors. Second, cooperative, on-site measurements made at the time of a pre-nounced conventional explosion may provide assurance that a nuclear explosion did not occur as part of or in place of the pre-announced explosion.

  18. Experience in non-proliferation verification: The Treaty of Raratonga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The verification provisions of the Treaty of Raratonga are subdivided into two categories: those performed by IAEA and those performed by other entities. A final provision of the Treaty of Raratonga is relevant to IAEA safeguards according to support of the continued effectiveness of the international non-proliferation system based on the Non-proliferation Treaty and the IAEA safeguards system. The non-IAEA verification process is described as well

  19. Assessment of Proliferation Resistance of Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle System with Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Using INPRO Evaluation Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee; Won, Byung Chool; Lee, Dong Uk

    2007-11-15

    Using the INPRO methodology, the proliferation resistance of an innovative nuclear energy system(INS) defined as a closed nuclear fuel cycle system consisting of KALIMER and pyroprocessing, has been assessed. Considering a very early development stage of the INS concept, the PR assessment is carried out based on intrinsic features, if required information and data are not available. The PR assessment of KALIMER and JSFR using the INPRO methodology affirmed that an adequate proliferation resistance has been achieved in both INSs CNFC-SFR, considering the assessor's progress and maturity of design development. KALIMER and JSFR are developed or being developed conforming to the targets and criteria defined for developing Gen IV nuclear reactor system. Based on these assessment results, proliferation resistance and physical protection(PR and PP) of KALIMER and JSFR are evaluated from the viewpoint of requirements for future nuclear fuel cycle system. The envisioned INSs CNFC-SFR rely on active plutonium management based on a closed fuel cycle, in which a fissile material is recycled in an integrated fuel cycle facility within proper safeguards. There is no isolated plutonium in the closed fuel cycle. The material remains continuously in a sequence of highly radioactive matrices within inaccessible facilities. The proliferation resistance assessment should be an ongoing analysis that keeps up with the progress and maturity of the design of Gen IV SFR.

  20. Assessment of Proliferation Resistance of Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle System with Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Using INPRO Evaluation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee; Won, Byung Chool; Lee, Dong Uk

    2007-11-01

    Using the INPRO methodology, the proliferation resistance of an innovative nuclear energy system(INS) defined as a closed nuclear fuel cycle system consisting of KALIMER and pyroprocessing, has been assessed. Considering a very early development stage of the INS concept, the PR assessment is carried out based on intrinsic features, if required information and data are not available. The PR assessment of KALIMER and JSFR using the INPRO methodology affirmed that an adequate proliferation resistance has been achieved in both INSs CNFC-SFR, considering the assessor's progress and maturity of design development. KALIMER and JSFR are developed or being developed conforming to the targets and criteria defined for developing Gen IV nuclear reactor system. Based on these assessment results, proliferation resistance and physical protection(PR and PP) of KALIMER and JSFR are evaluated from the viewpoint of requirements for future nuclear fuel cycle system. The envisioned INSs CNFC-SFR rely on active plutonium management based on a closed fuel cycle, in which a fissile material is recycled in an integrated fuel cycle facility within proper safeguards. There is no isolated plutonium in the closed fuel cycle. The material remains continuously in a sequence of highly radioactive matrices within inaccessible facilities. The proliferation resistance assessment should be an ongoing analysis that keeps up with the progress and maturity of the design of Gen IV SFR

  1. Andrographolide suppresses preadipocytes proliferation through glutathione antioxidant systems abrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Feng, Lina; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to play a profound role in lipid storage and whole-body energy homeostasis. Inhibition of preadipocytes proliferation by natural products is one of the strategies to prevent obesity. Andrographolide, a small molecule, has been reported to possess versatile bioactivities. However, molecular mechanism underlying the potential effect of andrographolide on preadipocytes proliferation remains obscure. In the present study, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were employed to determine whether andrographolide could affect the proliferation of preadipocytes. Our results demonstrated andrographolide suppressed 3T3-L1 preadipocytes proliferation. The casual relationship analysis indicated that andrographolide (10 and 20μg/ml) appeared to exert the proliferation inhibitory effect through suppression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) activity and depleting GSH by promoting its efflux in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which subsequently resulted in 2.06-2.41 fold increase in ROS accumulation. Excessive ROS eruption could account for oxidative damage to mitochondrial membranes as well as ultimately inhibition of cell proliferation. Taken together, our study reveals that suppression of GPX1 and GSH depletion by andrographolide seems to play a critical role in the inhibition of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes proliferation, which might have implication for obesity prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Systems Advocacy in the Professional Practice of Early Childhood Teachers: From the Antithetical to the Ethical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Marianne; Lotz, Mianna

    2018-01-01

    Dominant constructions of professionalism in early childhood education can diminish early childhood teachers' and educators' undertaking of advocacy at the systems or political level. In this paper, we propose an ethically grounded construction of professionalism that provides space for professional practice to move beyond the classroom and into…

  3. Proliferation after the Iraq war; La proliferation apres la guerre d'Irak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daguzan, J.F

    2004-09-15

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  4. Perspectives of the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koungou, Leon

    2004-01-01

    To join traditional methods and new approaches of 'non-proliferation'. This is a technical method and the best way to fight against 'non-proliferation' which is facing few preoccupations: knowledge's disseminations; technologies; equipments and weapons that should be stopped. As it's important to note the return of nuclear danger as the end of confrontation between west-east which should be reduce. As the adaptation of mechanisms is necessary today, as it is important to react about states' incitations to violate international engagement of non-proliferation. Areas control allows finding out change and evolution, but more insufficient. Functional difficulties show that the IAEA (International Agency of Atomic Energy) does not work good. Safeguard system does not allow to respect 'non-proliferation' engagements; for instance 'junkies states' that they cannot dissuade traditional methods. The fight of 'non-proliferation' shows new progresses with fearing methods of prevention actions and heaviest international controls of exportation. The target of this is very ambitious. This new method is self-successful because it contributes to re-enforce international security when defeating acquisition of nuclear and mass destruction weapons by non-states factors. Therefore non-proliferation regime and especially 'non-proliferation treaty' remains delicate as long as some militaries state such USA will reject their 'non-proliferation' engagement. (author) [fr

  5. Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumour presenting early in life: An uncommon feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalinee Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumour is a rare cutaneous malignant neoplasm usually occurring in elderly women. We present a case of malignant trichilemmal tumour in a young lady of 26 years of age with a previous history of proliferating trichilemmal tumour at the same site.

  6. Reduced miR-433 expression is associated with advanced stages and early relapse of colorectal cancer and restored miR-433 expression suppresses the migration, invasion and proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Tong; Dong, Xin-Min; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Long-Hua

    2018-05-01

    The expression of microRNA (miR-433) is altered in various types of human cancer. The present study analyzed the prognostic and biological value of miR-433 expression in colorectal cancer using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 125 colorectal tissue specimens (including a test cohort of 40 cases of paired colorectal cancer and adjacent normal mucosae and a confirmation cohort of 85 cases of stage I-III colorectal cancer). In vitro and nude mouse xenograft experiments were subsequently used to assess the effects of miR-433 expression on the regulation of colorectal cancer cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion. The data indicated that miR-433 expression was significantly downregulated in colorectal cancer tissues in the test and confirmation patient cohorts and that low miR-433 expression was associated with advanced tumor stage and early relapse. Furthermore, the restoration of miR-433 expression was able to significantly inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing G1-S cell cycle arrest, suppressing cyclinD1 and CDK4 expression, and markedly inhibited the migratory and invasive capacities of tumor cells in vitro . The restoration of miR-433 expression or liposome-based delivery of miR-433 mimics suppressed the growth of colorectal cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, miR-433 may be a putative tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, and the detection of low miR-433 expression will be investigated in further studies as a putative biomarker for the detection of early relapse in patients with colorectal cancer.

  7. The role of glutathione in lymphocyte activation and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messina, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The object of this work was to establish the requirement for GSH and cystine during the activation and proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the author's initial experiments the intracellular GSH content of PBMC was altered by continuous culture or pretreatment with BSO, a specific inhibitor of GSH synthesis. His results demonstrate that, continuous culture of mitogen stimulated PBMC in the presence of BSO inhibited entry into S-phase of the cell cycle and produced a simultaneous decrease in intracellular GSH. The influence of BSO on early activation events were determined by BSO pretreatment. Extensive depletion (>90%) of the intracellular GSH level prior to mitogenic stimulation did not impair the ability of these cells to produce IL-2 and express IL-2R, indicating that GSH may not be involved in the generation and response to early activation signals. Furthermore, the removal of BSO from these cultures rapidly reversed its inhibitory effects on DNA and GSH synthesis. Cystine transport activities and metabolism by PBMC were characterized in order to examine its contributions to intracellular GSH and early activation proteins. In spite of the ability of cystine to sustain the proliferative response of PBMC, differences in the kinetics of cystine and cysteine uptake indicated that separate transport systems may be operational. Treatment with 2ME enhanced cystine uptake, but lowered the proliferative responses of these cells. Metabolic studies with [ 35 S] cystine demonstrated that mitogen stimulation of PBMC enhance cystine uptake

  8. Proliferation resistance of the lithium reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Ha, J. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Song, D. Y.; Kim, H. D.; Park, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the characteristics of proliferation resistance of the lithium reduction process and international domestic safeguarding methods. In addition to dealing with qualitative features of the proliferation resistance, this study is emphasizing on the quantitative analysis of radiation barrier, which could be a significant accessibility barrier if the field is high enough to force a theft to shield the object during a theft. From the radiation barrier analysis, it is indicated that whole-body radiation dose is about 20 rem/hr at one meter of smelt and ingot metal of 40 kgHM, which could be considered to be a significant reduction in risk of theft. For safeguarding of this process, we propose a NDA concept for nuclear material accounting which is to measure the amount of curium in the reduction metal and associated process samples using a neutron coincidence counter and then to convert the curium mass into special nuclear material with predetermined curium ratios. For this, a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect the system from high gamma radiation is conceptually designed

  9. Nuclear proliferation and the near-nuclear countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwah, O.; Schulz, A.

    1975-01-01

    The process of nuclear proliferation and its consequences for the international political system is examined by focusing on the issues in the nuclear-strategic debate that divide first and second order states. Information is included on: the US-USSR arms race; SALT agreement; the Non-Proliferation Treaty; the nuclear aspirations and policies of India, Middle Eastern countries, South Africa, Japan, Brazil, and Argentina; and assessment of the risks related to the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons

  10. The future of non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper comprises two parts. The first part makes a status of the non-proliferation policy: problems of ratification of Start 2 and CTBT treaties, nuclear tests in India and Pakistan in May 1998 etc. The second part makes a prospective reflexion on the evolution of the position of nuclearized countries at the 2015-2030 vista: role of Asia, nuclear perception, evolution of the US perception of non-proliferation, military strategy and European unification. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear power and the proliferation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of the lecture is to discuss nuclear proliferation, analyse which problems are real and which are a misapprehension, and to suggest a way forward which retains the benefits of nuclear power while providing a more certain protection against undesirable proliferation. After an introductory section the lecture continues under the following headings: plutonium production and accessibility; the use of plutonium; fast reactor fuel; the interim period; conclusions. (U.K.)

  12. Implementing paediatric early warning scores systems in the Netherlands: future implications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.F. de; Damen, N.; Loos, E. de; Steeg, L. van de; Rosias, P.; Bruijn, M.; Goorhuis, J.; Wagner, C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Paediatric Early Warning Scores (PEWS) are increasingly being used for early identification and management of clinical deterioration in paediatric patients. A PEWS system includes scores, cut-off points and appropriate early intervention. In 2011, The Dutch Ministry of Health advised

  13. Strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Although the nuclear non-proliferation regime has enjoyed considerable success, today the regime has never been under greater threat. Three states have challenged the objectives of the NPT, and there is a technology challenge - the spread of centrifuge enrichment technology and know-how. A major issue confronting the international community is, how to deal with a determined proliferator? Despite this gloomy scenario, however, the non-proliferation regime has considerable strengths - many of which can be developed further. The regime comprises complex interacting and mutually reinforcing elements. At its centre is the NPT - with IAEA safeguards as the Treaty's verification mechanism. Important complementary elements include: restraint in the supply and the acquisition of sensitive technologies; multilateral regimes such as the CTBT and proposed FMCT; various regional and bilateral regimes; the range of security and arms control arrangements outside the nuclear area (including other WMD regimes); and the development of proliferation-resistant technologies. Especially important are political incentives and sanctions in support of non-proliferation objectives. This paper outlines some of the key issues facing the non-proliferation regime

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Volume IV provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest

  15. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A

    2001-08-01

    -protection metrics; b) a highly aggregated 'cost-equal-effort' or comparative-value method was applied to an array of commercial nuclear fuel forms in an effort to rank the attractiveness (to a proliferating agent) in terms of required effort as gauged through commercial costs; and c) the extension, if not actual application, of the system of Attractiveness Levels recommended by the USDOE as an extension and refinement of related IAEA protection-category guidelines. The Attractiveness-Level methodology, when compared to similar protection categories suggested by the IAEA, highlighted differences in required protection of specific source materials, with the IAEA being more conservative. From the viewpoint of a utility or research institute dealing with potential source materials, these differences can be important in budgetary terms. Both the 'cost-equal-effort' and the Attractiveness-Level methodologies were pursued to deal with conceptual and evaluation impasses encountered with the 'four-factor' formulation that were related primarily to the material-protection term necessary for its evaluation. The development, analyses, and evaluations performed to date on all three, inter-related approaches to simplified proliferation-risk metrics, as applied to the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, is reported. Key questions are discussed that must be resolved before a useful and simplified evaluation 'recipe' with which to evaluate proliferation risk and required protection levels (and cost) to nullify that risk is made available to the operator of a nuclear power plant and the total fuel cycle supporting it. (author)

  16. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A.

    2001-08-01

    ) a highly aggregated 'cost-equal-effort' or comparative-value method was applied to an array of commercial nuclear fuel forms in an effort to rank the attractiveness (to a proliferating agent) in terms of required effort as gauged through commercial costs; and c) the extension, if not actual application, of the system of Attractiveness Levels recommended by the USDOE as an extension and refinement of related IAEA protection-category guidelines. The Attractiveness-Level methodology, when compared to similar protection categories suggested by the IAEA, highlighted differences in required protection of specific source materials, with the IAEA being more conservative. From the viewpoint of a utility or research institute dealing with potential source materials, these differences can be important in budgetary terms. Both the 'cost-equal-effort' and the Attractiveness-Level methodologies were pursued to deal with conceptual and evaluation impasses encountered with the 'four-factor' formulation that were related primarily to the material-protection term necessary for its evaluation. The development, analyses, and evaluations performed to date on all three, inter-related approaches to simplified proliferation-risk metrics, as applied to the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, is reported. Key questions are discussed that must be resolved before a useful and simplified evaluation 'recipe' with which to evaluate proliferation risk and required protection levels (and cost) to nullify that risk is made available to the operator of a nuclear power plant and the total fuel cycle supporting it. (author)

  17. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  18. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future

  19. Isotopic anomalies and the early history of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann, F.

    1981-01-01

    Three elements are discussed in some detail. Inclusions from carbonaceous chondrites contain quite normal minerals where the oxygen is enriched by up to 5% in 16 O. The oxygen is neither in isotopic equilibrium with that of the bulk meteorites nor are the different minerals of a single inclusion isotopically homogenized. The xenon in acid-insoluble residues from carbonaceous chondrites contains at least two distinct anomalous components. One consists essentially of the middle-weight isotopes only; the abundance pattern is as expected for Xe produced in the s-process of nucleosynthesis. The second type is to some extent complementary to this s-xenon; it is characterized by an overabundance of the light and the heavy isotopes by up to 100%. Its origin is controversial. Direct production in a supernova has been suggested as well as a superposition of strongly mass-fractionated xenon, favouring the light isotopes, and fission xenon from the decay of (a) superheavy element (s), which in turn would presumably have to be produced in a supernova as well. Neon being more than 99% pure 22 Ne is most convincingly accounted for by in situ-decay of 2.6a 22 Na which implies a condensation of Na-bearing host phases within 10 years or so of the production of 22 Na. It is not clear at present whether this condensation took place in the expanding envelope of an exploding star or within the solar system, with the onset of the collapse of the pre-solar nebula being triggered by such an explosion. (orig./WL)

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  1. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest

  2. Frequent mild head injury promotes trigeminal sensitivity concomitant with microglial proliferation, astrocytosis, and increased neuropeptide levels in the trigeminal pain system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburski, Ashley L; Cheng, Lan; Assari, Soroush; Darvish, Kurosh; Elliott, Melanie B

    2017-12-01

    Frequent mild head injuries or concussion along with the presence of headache may contribute to the persistence of concussion symptoms. In this study, the acute effects of recovery between mild head injuries and the frequency of injuries on a headache behavior, trigeminal allodynia, was assessed using von Frey testing up to one week after injury, while histopathological changes in the trigeminal pain pathway were evaluated using western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry.  RESULTS: A decreased recovery time combined with an increased mild closed head injury (CHI) frequency results in reduced trigeminal allodynia thresholds compared to controls. The repetitive CHI group with the highest injury frequency showed the greatest reduction in trigeminal thresholds along with greatest increased levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Repetitive CHI resulted in astrogliosis in the central trigeminal system, increased GFAP protein levels in the sensory barrel cortex, and an increased number of microglia cells in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Headache behavior in rats is dependent on the injury frequency and recovery interval between mild head injuries. A worsening of headache behavior after repetitive mild head injuries was concomitant with increases in CGRP levels, the presence of astrocytosis, and microglia proliferation in the central trigeminal pathway. Signaling between neurons and proliferating microglia in the trigeminal pain system may contribute to the initiation of acute headache after concussion or other traumatic brain injuries.

  3. Inhibition of non-neuronal cell proliferation in the goldfish visual pathway affects the regenerative capacity of the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, D.; Yerushalmi, A.; Schwartz, M.

    1983-01-01

    Proliferating cells associated with the visual pathway were found in the present study of affect the regenerative capacity of the goldfish retina following optic nerve injury. The contribution of these cells to the process of regeneration was investigated in the goldfish visual system by reducing their proliferation in the optic tract and tecta, using X-irradiation. The regenerative ability of the retina was then evaluated by the following parameters: sprouting from retinal explants, protein synthesis in the retina and accumulation of radiolabeled transported components in the tectum. X-irradiation of the visual system at an early stage of the regeneration process had a promoting effect whereas irradiation at a later stage resulted in a reduced capacity to regenerate. The results are discussed with respect to the possibility that proliferating cells, possibly glia, exert two contradictory contributions: an inhibitory effect at the site of injury, whereas distal to it, a supportive, perhaps trophic effect. (Auth.)

  4. Inhibition of non-neuronal cell proliferation in the goldfish visual pathway affects the regenerative capacity of the retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, D.; Yerushalmi, A.; Schwartz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel))

    1983-08-08

    Proliferating cells associated with the visual pathway were found in the present study of affect the regenerative capacity of the goldfish retina following optic nerve injury. The contribution of these cells to the process of regeneration was investigated in the goldfish visual system by reducing their proliferation in the optic tract and tecta, using X-irradiation. The regenerative ability of the retina was then evaluated by the following parameters: sprouting from retinal explants, protein synthesis in the retina and accumulation of radiolabeled transported components in the tectum. X-irradiation of the visual system at an early stage of the regeneration process had a promoting effect whereas irradiation at a later stage resulted in a reduced capacity to regenerate. The results are discussed with respect to the possibility that proliferating cells, possibly glia, exert two contradictory contributions: an inhibitory effect at the site of injury, whereas distal to it, a supportive, perhaps trophic effect.

  5. Taurine Induces Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells and Synapse Development in the Developing Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraj, Mattu Chetana; Marcy, Guillaume; Low, Guoliang; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Zhao, Xianfeng; Rosales, Francisco J.; Goh, Eyleen L. K.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. It has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in hippocampal neurogenesis during brain development is still unknown. Here we show that taurine regulates neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the developing brain as well as in cultured early postnatal (P5) hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal slices derived from P5 mice brains. Taurine increased cell proliferation without having a significant effect on neural differentiation both in cultured P5 NPCs as well as cultured hippocampal slices and in vivo. Expression level analysis of synaptic proteins revealed that taurine increases the expression of Synapsin 1 and PSD 95. We also found that taurine stimulates the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 indicating a possible role of the ERK pathway in mediating the changes that we observed, especially in proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for taurine in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in developing brain and suggest the involvement of the ERK1/2 pathways in mediating these actions. Our study also shows that taurine influences the levels of proteins associated with synapse development. This is the first evidence showing the effect of taurine on early postnatal neuronal development using a combination of in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems. PMID:22916184

  6. The US proliferation security initiative (PSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, B.

    2004-01-01

    The proliferation security initiative (PSI), launched by President Bush on May 31, 2003, aims at intercepting any transfer of mass destruction weapons, of their vectors and related equipments, towards or coming from countries or organizations suspected to have a proliferation activity. This initiative, which involves coercive means to fight against proliferation, raises international lawfulness and legal questions, the answers of which are today under construction. This article analyzes the place of the European Union in the PSI, the action means (optimization of existing means, cooperation between intelligence and interception services), and the PSI stakes (lawfulness with respect to the international law, bilateral agreements, draft boarding agreement, sustain of the United Nations, widening of the partnership and of the field of action). (J.S.)

  7. The economics of proliferation and counterproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, B.L.; Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    On June 2, 1993, the fourth meeting of the seminar series on open-quotes Proliferation of Ballistic Missiles and Weapons of Mass Destruction and Implications for Regional Stabilityclose quotes was held at SAIC in McLean, Virginia. This series is sponsored by the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and is cosponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, the Defense Nuclear Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy. The June seminar, open-quotes The Economics of Proliferation and Counterproliferation,close quotes discussed how economic issues and interests affect proliferation judgments. Seminar participants also examined three economic tools for advancing counterproliferation objectives: Economic Development Assistance, Export Controls, and Economic open-quotes Burdensharingclose quotes and Conversion Assistance

  8. Early life stress sensitizes the renal and systemic sympathetic system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Analia S; Brands, Michael W; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2013-08-01

    We hypothesized that maternal separation (MS), an early life stress model, induces a sensitization of the sympathetic system. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the renal and systemic sympathetic system in 12- to 14-wk-old male control or MS rats with the following parameters: 1) effect of renal denervation on conscious renal filtration capacity, 2) norepinephrine (NE) content in key organs involved in blood pressure control, and 3) acute systemic pressor responses to adrenergic stimulation or ganglion blockade. MS was performed by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h/day from day 2 to 14; controls were nonhandled littermates. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was examined in renal denervated (DnX; within 2 wk) or sham rats using I¹²⁵-iothalamate plasma clearance. MS-DnX rats showed significantly increased GFR compared with MS-SHAM rats (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 ml/min, respectively, P renal nerves regulate GFR in MS rats. NE content was significantly increased in organ tissues from MS rats (P renal and systemic sympathetic system. Conscious MS rats displayed a significantly greater increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to NE (2 μg/kg ip) and a greater reduction in MAP in response to mecamylamine (2 mg/kg ip, P renal and systemic sympathetic system ultimately impairing blood pressure regulation.

  9. The G8 global partnership against proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, O.

    2003-01-01

    Launched in 2002, the G8 global partnership against the proliferation of massive destruction weapons will contribute up to 20 billion dollars to the dismantling of the nuclear and chemical weapons of the former USSR (20000 nuclear warheads stored in 123 sites, 1350 tons of weapon grade plutonium and enriched uranium, 40000 tons of chemical agents, 190 decommissioned nuclear submarines etc..). This partnership, which has entered its realization phase, inaugurates a new cooperation with the Russian Federation. I could be used tomorrow in other regions of the world and become an instrument of the international community for the fight against proliferation. (J.S.)

  10. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Barradas

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase, that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions.

  11. Printed Proliferation: The Implications of Additive Manufacturing and Nuclear Weapons Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, Nicholas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-26

    The growth of additive manufacturing as a disruptive technology poses nuclear proliferation concerns worthy of serious consideration. Additive manufacturing began in the early 1980s with technological advances in polymer manipulation, computer capabilities, and computer-aided design (CAD) modeling. It was originally limited to rapid prototyping; however, it eventually developed into a complete means of production that has slowly penetrated the consumer market. Today, additive manufacturing machines can produce complex and unique items in a vast array of materials including plastics, metals, and ceramics. These capabilities have democratized the manufacturing industry, allowing almost anyone to produce items as simple as cup holders or as complex as jet fuel nozzles. Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing as it is commonly called, relies on CAD files created or shared by individuals with additive manufacturing machines to produce a 3D object from a digital model. This sharing of files means that a 3D object can be scanned or rendered as a CAD model in one country, and then downloaded and printed in another country, allowing items to be shared globally without physically crossing borders. The sharing of CAD files online has been a challenging task for the export controls regime to manage over the years, and additive manufacturing could make these transfers more common. In this sense, additive manufacturing is a disruptive technology not only within the manufacturing industry but also within the nuclear nonproliferation world. This paper provides an overview of additive manufacturing concerns of proliferation.

  12. The Early Years: The Earth-Sun System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    We all experience firsthand many of the phenomena caused by Earth's Place in the Universe (Next Generation Science Standard 5-ESS1; NGSS Lead States 2013) and the relative motion of the Earth, Sun, and Moon. Young children can investigate phenomena such as changes in times of sunrise and sunset (number of daylight hours), Moon phases, seasonal…

  13. Revised INPRO Methodology in the Area of Proliferation Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Lee, Y.D.; Yang, M.S.; Kim, J.K.; Haas, E.; Depisch, F.

    2008-01-01

    The official INPRO User Manual in the area of proliferation resistance is being processed for the evaluation of innovative nuclear energy systems. Proliferation resistance is one of the goals to be satisfied for future nuclear energy systems in INPRO. The features of currently updated and released INPRO methodology were introduced on basic principles, user requirements and indicators. The criteria for an acceptance limit were specified. The DUPIC fuel cycle was evaluated based on the updated INPRO methodology for the applicability of the INPRO User Manual. However, the INPRO methodology has some difficulty in quantifying the multiplicity and robustness as well as the total cost to improve proliferation resistance. Moreover, the integration method for the evaluation results still needs to be improved.

  14. EMP at the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J. [AWE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    This experiment presented an opportunity to field customized equipment designed to detect and record electromagnetic pulse (EMP) emanations from an explosion over a wide frequency range. Any data recorded could be used in conjunction with the seismic methods to further non-proliferation studies. No EMP emanations were detectable from the four sensors deployed outside the tunnel confines.

  15. A Novel Drug Delivery System for Preventing the Extension of the Telomeric Ends of DNA and Preventing the Unlimited Proliferation of Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laster, Brenda; Issacson, Carol; Msamra, Maha; Perez, Ekterina; Kost, Jospeh

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase is an enzyme present in the majority of malignant tumors. It is well-documented that radiotherapy and chemotherapy activate the enzyme telomerase that immortalizes cancer cells . Telomerase prevents the shortening of the telomeric ends of DNA that is required for cell lethality; therefore, inhibiting its activation would be a useful approach to cancer treatment. However, inhibiting telomerase activation (TA) is no easy task. Despite the plethora of new drugs synthesized as potential clinical candidates for telomerase inhibition, their success or failure in the medical clinic will probably be more a function of their mode of administration once they have demonstrated TI in the research laboratory. A major physiological barrier to TI is the absolute requirement for the inhibitor to remain continuously present in the tumor throughout the long term treatment period. This is due to both the reactivation of telomerase that occurs upon the removal of the inhibitor, and the re-lengthening of the telomeres in the absence of the inhibitor. Because the systemic i.v. administration of drugs is associated with their rapid clearance from the body, the effectiveness of the inhibitor drug would be dramatically reduced due to telomerase re-activation. Under normal conditions, when telomerase is inactive, the telomeres shorten with each cell division until such time as the cell reaches its normal life expectancy. The unrestricted proliferation of cancer cells, after treatments that activate telomerase, poses a risk for local recurrence, invasion, metastases, or even second primaries and present an issue that must be addressed. Therefore, critical for clinical success is the identification of an agent whose mechanism of action has been proven to inhibit TA and whose toxicity is negligible. Equally important is the development of a drug delivery system that assures the continuous long-term presence of the drug in the tumor. The latter criterion is required to compensate for

  16. ShakeAlert—An earthquake early warning system for the United States west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

    2014-08-29

    Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with several partners, has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

  17. The Asian countries and the non-proliferation treaty prorogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, N.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the non-proliferation treaty prorogation of Asia. The position of the asian countries under the old non-proliferation treaty is given. It includes the 1968 non-proliferation treaty signatories, the calling in question again and the criticisms revealed by the asian countries. The positions and the open forecasts expressed on the non-proliferation treaty prorogation and the article on the elimination of the nuclear weapons are also given. (O.L.)

  18. The Non-Proliferation Malaise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Issues pertaining to nuclear weapons no longer occupy more than a relatively modest position in the international security field, which is more significantly threatened by recent forms of conflict - particularly asymmetrical -, the contemporary challenges posed by terrorism, the collapse of States and ensuing civil violence, organised crime, massacres, regional destabilisation, and the emerging threats related to deleterious uses of the Internet. Analysing these challenges and threats, and defining and implementing effective responses constitutes the priorities of the international agenda and mobilizes the energy and capabilities of States, alliances and coalitions, and international organisations. The time when the nuclear arms race between the United States and the USSR and the arms control efforts that attempted to frame and control it dominated the international relations scene has passed. This duo has been succeeded by a relative lack of interest on the part of nuclear powers towards their own arms. (author)

  19. John Dewey's Influence on Turkish Education System in the Early Republic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the influence of John Dewey's visit to Turkey in 1924, his report on Turkish education system and its influence on Turkish education system in the early republic era were discussed. John Dewey was invited by Ministry of Education in 1924. He made investigations concerning the education system, participated in interviews, and…

  20. Precondensed matter: Key to the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic anomalies in meteorites may be understandable in terms of the chemical fractionation routinely expected in the interstellar medium (ISM). Dust of distinct composition is idealized as being of three types: (1) thermal supernova condensates (SUNOCONS), (2) thermal condensation during other stellar mass-loss processes (STARDUST), and (3) nonthermal sticking processes in cold nebulae (NEBCONS). Great depletions in ISM of Ca Al Ti are due to SUNOCONS although STARDUST is about twice as abundant. An abundance table of interstellar SUNOCONS is presented. Parent bodies in the solar system are accumulated directly from the ISM. No hot solar condensation sequence is assumed. Only relatively volatile elements within NEBOCONS are vaporized in the warm solar accretion disk. Variations in the relative amounts of these components during accumulation processes plus subsequent solid chemistry may have profduced such chemical anomalies as the meteorite fractionation patterns and the Ca Al-rich inclusions. Isotopic anomalies result from four processes that selectively site specific isotopes: (1) extinct radioactivities, (2) distinct supernova shells, (3) gas-dust separation, and (4) gas-dust age difference. Planetary accumulation will have been fingerprinted by the chemical state of the ISM if this picture is correct. (Auth.)

  1. Corruption Early Prevention: Decision Support System for President of the Republic of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmoko; Widhoyoko, S. A.; Ariyanto, S.; Indrianti, Y.; Noerlina; Muqsith, A. M.; Alamsyah, M.

    2017-01-01

    Corruption is an extraordinary crime, and then the prevention must also be extraordinary, simultaneously (national) in the form of early warning that involves all elements; government, industry, and society. To realize it the system needs to be built which in this study is called the Corruption Early Prevention (CEP) as a Decision Support System for President of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to examine 1) how is the construct of the Corruption Early Prevention as a Decision Support System for President of the Republic of Indonesia?, and 2) how is the design form of the system of Corruption Early Prevention as a Decision Support System for President of Republic of Indonesia? The research method is using Neuro-Research which is the collaboration of qualitative and quantitative research methods and the model development of Information Technology (IT). The research found that: 1) the construct of CEP is theoretically feasible, valid and reliable by content to be developed in the context of the prevention of corruption in Indonesia as an early prevention system that diagnoses Indonesia simultaneously and in real time, and 2) the concept of system design and business process of CEP is predicted to be realized in the IT-based program.

  2. MARKOV Model Application to Proliferation Risk Reduction of an Advanced Nuclear System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) emphasizes proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) as a main goal for future nuclear energy systems. The GIF PR and PP Working Group has developed a methodology for the evaluation of these systems. As an application of the methodology, Markov model has been developed for the evaluation of proliferation resistance and is demonstrated for a hypothetical Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) system. This paper presents the case of diversion by the facility owner/operator to obtain material that could be used in a nuclear weapon. The Markov model is applied to evaluate material diversion strategies. The following features of the Markov model are presented here: (1) An effective detection rate has been introduced to account for the implementation of multiple safeguards approaches at a given strategic point; (2) Technical failure to divert material is modeled as intrinsic barriers related to the design of the facility or the properties of the material in the facility; and (3) Concealment to defeat or degrade the performance of safeguards is recognized in the Markov model. Three proliferation risk measures are calculated directly by the Markov model: the detection probability, technical failure probability, and proliferation time. The material type is indicated by an index that is based on the quality of material diverted. Sensitivity cases have been done to demonstrate the effects of different modeling features on the measures of proliferation resistance

  3. Nuclear power and the non-proliferation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This leaflet, issued by the British Nuclear Forum on behalf of the industry, seeks first to place the problem of reconciling the need for nuclear power with its possible weapon uses in a historical perspective. Secondly, it describes the technical and political measures which are now taken, and others which could be introduced in order to ensure that nuclear power, which offers the cheapest and safest large-scale energy source for the future, can be made available without contributing to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Headings are: introduction; the early years; the IAEA; uranium enrichment; plutonium; secrecy has failed; the Non-Proliferation Treaty; the London Suppliers Group; the situation today; the British position; conclusions. (U.K.)

  4. Inferences on the evidence for radioactive 53Mn in the early Solar System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typhoon Lee

    1986-01-01

    Time-scales for various processes during the formation of the early Solar System have been inferred from data on several now-extinct radionuclides. The author examines recently reported data on an extinct nuclide, 53 Mn, and shows that the data are inconsistent with the predictions of a single-stage evolution model. Alternative interpretations of the inconsistency are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Interleukin 22 early affects keratinocyte differentiation, but not proliferation, in a three-dimensional model of normal human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donetti, Elena, E-mail: elena.donetti@unimi.it [Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Cornaghi, Laura; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Landoni, Federica [Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Romagnoli, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50125 Florence (Italy); Mastroianni, Nicolino [Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pescitelli, Leonardo [Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50125 Florence (Italy); Baruffaldi Preis, Franz W. [I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, 20161 Milan (Italy); Prignano, Francesca [Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine driving the progression of the psoriatic lesion with other cytokines, as Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-17. Our study was aimed at evaluating the early effect of IL-22 alone or in combination with TNF-alpha and IL-17 by immunofluorescence on i) keratinocyte (KC) proliferation, ii) terminal differentiation biomarkers as keratin (K) 10 and 17 expression, iii) intercellular junctions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was performed. A model of human skin culture reproducing a psoriatic microenvironment was used. Plastic surgery explants were obtained from healthy young women (n=7) after informed consent. Fragments were divided before adding IL-22 or a combination of the three cytokines, and harvested 24 (T24), 48 (T48), and 72 (T72) h later. From T24, in IL-22 samples we detected a progressive decrease in K10 immunostaining in the spinous layer paralleled by K17 induction. By TEM, after IL-22 incubation, keratin aggregates were evident in the perinuclear area. Occludin immunostaining was not homogeneously distributed. Conversely, KC proliferation was not inhibited by IL-22 alone, but only by the combination of cytokines. Our results suggest that IL-22 affects keratinocyte terminal differentiation, whereas, in order to induce a proliferation impairment, a more complex psoriatic-like microenvironment is needed.

  6. Interleukin 22 early affects keratinocyte differentiation, but not proliferation, in a three-dimensional model of normal human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donetti, Elena; Cornaghi, Laura; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Landoni, Federica; Romagnoli, Paolo; Mastroianni, Nicolino; Pescitelli, Leonardo; Baruffaldi Preis, Franz W.; Prignano, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine driving the progression of the psoriatic lesion with other cytokines, as Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-17. Our study was aimed at evaluating the early effect of IL-22 alone or in combination with TNF-alpha and IL-17 by immunofluorescence on i) keratinocyte (KC) proliferation, ii) terminal differentiation biomarkers as keratin (K) 10 and 17 expression, iii) intercellular junctions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was performed. A model of human skin culture reproducing a psoriatic microenvironment was used. Plastic surgery explants were obtained from healthy young women (n=7) after informed consent. Fragments were divided before adding IL-22 or a combination of the three cytokines, and harvested 24 (T24), 48 (T48), and 72 (T72) h later. From T24, in IL-22 samples we detected a progressive decrease in K10 immunostaining in the spinous layer paralleled by K17 induction. By TEM, after IL-22 incubation, keratin aggregates were evident in the perinuclear area. Occludin immunostaining was not homogeneously distributed. Conversely, KC proliferation was not inhibited by IL-22 alone, but only by the combination of cytokines. Our results suggest that IL-22 affects keratinocyte terminal differentiation, whereas, in order to induce a proliferation impairment, a more complex psoriatic-like microenvironment is needed.

  7. Proliferation resistance characteristics of advanced nuclear energy systems: a safeguard ability point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevini, F.; Cojazzi, G.G.M.; Renda, G.

    2008-01-01

    Among the international community there is a renewed interest in nuclear power systems as a major source for energy production in the near to mid future. This is mainly due to concerns connected with future availability of conventional energy resources, and with the environmental impact of fossil fuels. International initiatives have been set up like the Generation 4. International Forum (GIF), the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (IAEA-INPRO), and, partially, the US driven Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), aimed at defining and evaluating the characteristics, in which future innovative nuclear energy systems (INS) will have to excel. Among the identified characteristics, Proliferation Resistance plays an important role for being able to widely deploy nuclear technology worldwide in a secure way. Studies having the objective to assess Proliferation Resistance of nuclear fuel cycles have been carried out since the nineteen seventies, e.g., the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) and the Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) initiatives, and all agree in stating that absolute intrinsic proliferation resistance, although desirable, is not achievable in the foreseeable future. The above finding is still valid; as a consequence, every INS will have to comply with agreements related to the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and will require safeguards measures, implemented through extrinsic measures. This consideration led to a renewed interest in the Safeguard ability concept which can be seen as a bridge between intrinsic features and extrinsic features and measures.

  8. Enhancement by Enlargement: The Proliferation Security Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Minister Mahathir Mohammad. In any event, Malaysia’s expressions of common interest with the United States in cooperative efforts to combat terrorism...instances 10 The sharp change in the current Malaysian government’s stance toward cooperation with the United States from that of the preceding, Mahathir ...preceding prime minister, Mahathir , Malaysia was implicated in the proliferation network of Pakistan’s A. Q. Khan. As part of that network

  9. The motivations of proliferating countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, Jean-Claude; Daguzan, Jean-Francois; Pasco, Xavier; Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This report is based on previous works made by the GSPP group (GSPP stands for geographic-social-psychological-political) which defined conceptual backgrounds for a new approach to nuclear proliferation, notably by introducing an associated method, the GSPP method, which is used in this study. Thus, this report first presents the GSPP method through its application to the analysis of the decision dynamics in the case of a proliferating State, a discussion of the seven determining factors (national resources, history and strategic context, type of political regime, leader's history and personal typology, international dependencies and alliances, elites and mediators, public opinions), a discussion of the interactions between these factors, an application of the first determining factor, and an application of the GSPP method to the case of biological and chemical proliferation. In the next part, the authors propose sheets which report the application of the method to different countries (Iran, Israel, Iraq, Algeria, Libya, China, India, Pakistan, North and South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Australia, Indonesia, South Africa). The content and the exploitation of these sheets is then discussed, and the authors address the perspective of development of a GSPP model, notably by using the Maslowe pyramid. They propose an application of this model to the case of Iran

  10. The Non-Proliferation Treaty increases security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahiluoto, K.

    1995-01-01

    Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty indefinitely was a historic decision. The Treaty is the most extensive international agreement on security policy to date; now its obligations have become a permanent part of international justice. Moreover, the NPT represents a political and moral obligation. Through the NPT, the international community has made a permanent commitment to restrict the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Increasing pressures will be applied to the few countries still outside the NPT, making it more likely that these countries will eventually change their views. The likelihood of regional bans on nuclear weapons in the Middle East and in Asia, too, will increase. The Treaty promotes the establishment of new nuclear-free zones. The nuclear-free zone in Latin America - the countries covered by the Tlatelolco Treaty - is already very close to its full implementation. Finland is firmly committed to the obligations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The NPT Conference of 1995 was among the first international meetings in which Finland participated, and took an active role, as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.)

  11. Quantitative Validation of the Presto Blue Metabolic Assay for Online Monitoring of Cell Proliferation in a 3D Perfusion Bioreactor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan Ir

    2015-06-01

    As the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine mature toward clinical applications, the need for online monitoring both for quantitative and qualitative use becomes essential. Resazurin-based metabolic assays are frequently applied for determining cytotoxicity and have shown great potential for monitoring 3D bioreactor-facilitated cell culture. However, no quantitative correlation between the metabolic conversion rate of resazurin and cell number has been defined yet. In this work, we determined conversion rates of Presto Blue, a resazurin-based metabolic assay, for human periosteal cells during 2D and 3D static and 3D perfusion cultures. Our results showed that for the evaluated culture systems there is a quantitative correlation between the Presto Blue conversion rate and the cell number during the expansion phase with no influence of the perfusion-related parameters, that is, flow rate and shear stress. The correlation between the cell number and Presto Blue conversion subsequently enabled the definition of operating windows for optimal signal readouts. In conclusion, our data showed that the conversion of the resazurin-based Presto Blue metabolic assay can be used as a quantitative readout for online monitoring of cell proliferation in a 3D perfusion bioreactor system, although a system-specific validation is required.

  12. Quantitative Validation of the Presto Blue™ Metabolic Assay for Online Monitoring of Cell Proliferation in a 3D Perfusion Bioreactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Luyten, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    As the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine mature toward clinical applications, the need for online monitoring both for quantitative and qualitative use becomes essential. Resazurin-based metabolic assays are frequently applied for determining cytotoxicity and have shown great potential for monitoring 3D bioreactor-facilitated cell culture. However, no quantitative correlation between the metabolic conversion rate of resazurin and cell number has been defined yet. In this work, we determined conversion rates of Presto Blue™, a resazurin-based metabolic assay, for human periosteal cells during 2D and 3D static and 3D perfusion cultures. Our results showed that for the evaluated culture systems there is a quantitative correlation between the Presto Blue conversion rate and the cell number during the expansion phase with no influence of the perfusion-related parameters, that is, flow rate and shear stress. The correlation between the cell number and Presto Blue conversion subsequently enabled the definition of operating windows for optimal signal readouts. In conclusion, our data showed that the conversion of the resazurin-based Presto Blue metabolic assay can be used as a quantitative readout for online monitoring of cell proliferation in a 3D perfusion bioreactor system, although a system-specific validation is required. PMID:25336207

  13. Polo-Like Kinase 2 is Dynamically Regulated to Coordinate Proliferation and Early Lineage Specification Downstream of Yes-Associated Protein 1 in Cardiac Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Michika; Lorenz, Vera; Ivanek, Robert; Della Verde, Giacomo; Gaudiello, Emanuele; Marsano, Anna; Pfister, Otmar; Kuster, Gabriela M

    2017-10-24

    Recent studies suggest that adult cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) can produce new cardiac cells. Such cell formation requires an intricate coordination of progenitor cell proliferation and commitment, but the molecular cues responsible for this regulation in CPCs are ill defined. Extracellular matrix components are important instructors of cell fate. Using laminin and fibronectin, we induced two slightly distinct CPC phenotypes differing in proliferation rate and commitment status and analyzed the early transcriptomic response to CPC adhesion (<2 hours). Ninety-four genes were differentially regulated on laminin versus fibronectin, consisting of mostly downregulated genes that were enriched for Yes-associated protein (YAP) conserved signature and TEA domain family member 1 (TEAD1)-related genes. This early gene regulation was preceded by the rapid cytosolic sequestration and degradation of YAP on laminin. Among the most strongly regulated genes was polo-like kinase 2 ( Plk2 ). Plk2 expression depended on YAP stability and was enhanced in CPCs transfected with a nuclear-targeted mutant YAP. Phenotypically, the early downregulation of Plk2 on laminin was succeeded by lower cell proliferation, enhanced lineage gene expression (24 hours), and facilitated differentiation (3 weeks) compared with fibronectin. Finally, overexpression of Plk2 enhanced CPC proliferation and knockdown of Plk2 induced the expression of lineage genes. Plk2 acts as coordinator of cell proliferation and early lineage commitment in CPCs. The rapid downregulation of Plk2 on YAP inactivation marks a switch towards enhanced commitment and facilitated differentiation. These findings link early gene regulation to cell fate and provide novel insights into how CPC proliferation and differentiation are orchestrated. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System with instant Tsunami Propagation Calculations in the GPU Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Spazier, J.; Reißland, S.

    2014-12-01

    Usually, tsunami early warning and mitigation systems (TWS or TEWS) are based on several software components deployed in a client-server based infrastructure. The vast majority of systems importantly include desktop-based clients with a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operators in early warning centers. However, in times of cloud computing and ubiquitous computing the use of concepts and paradigms, introduced by continuously evolving approaches in information and communications technology (ICT), have to be considered even for early warning systems (EWS). Based on the experiences and the knowledge gained in three research projects - 'German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System' (GITEWS), 'Distant Early Warning System' (DEWS), and 'Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises' (TRIDEC) - new technologies are exploited to implement a cloud-based and web-based prototype to open up new prospects for EWS. This prototype, named 'TRIDEC Cloud', merges several complementary external and in-house cloud-based services into one platform for automated background computation with graphics processing units (GPU), for web-mapping of hazard specific geospatial data, and for serving relevant functionality to handle, share, and communicate threat specific information in a collaborative and distributed environment. The prototype in its current version addresses tsunami early warning and mitigation. The integration of GPU accelerated tsunami simulation computations have been an integral part of this prototype to foster early warning with on-demand tsunami predictions based on actual source parameters. However, the platform is meant for researchers around the world to make use of the cloud-based GPU computation to analyze other types of geohazards and natural hazards and react upon the computed situation picture with a web-based GUI in a web browser at remote sites. The current website is an early alpha version for demonstration purposes to give the

  15. Early Training Estimation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    first year efforts in CTES development were Cecil Wakelin, Gavin Livingstone, Ray Walsh« Peter Weddle, David Herlihy, Laurel Brown, Drs. Paul Ronco...and Society, 1980, pp. 1067-1974. David , J., Price, J. Successful communication in full scale engineering development statements of work. Air Force...1980, U.S. Army Engineering Laboratory. Shrier , S. Algorithms for system design. Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and

  16. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Catherine J.; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; Wit, Martine de; Bonde, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  17. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Catherine J., E-mail: cjwalsh@mote.org [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Butawan, Matthew, E-mail: mattbutawan@outlook.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Yordy, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.e.balmer@gmail.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Ball, Ray, E-mail: Ray.Ball@lowryparkzoo.com [Lowry Park Zoo, 1101 W Sligh Ave, Tampa, FL 33604 (United States); Flewelling, Leanne, E-mail: Leanne.Flewelling@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Wit, Martine de, E-mail: Martine.deWit@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Bonde, Robert K., E-mail: rbonde@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Sirenia Project, 7920 NE 71st Street, Gainesville, FL 32653 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor improves proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells by inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Whasun; Bae, Hyocheol; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2017-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family binds to two transmembrane receptors; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (NTRK2) with high affinity and p75 with low affinity. Although BDNF-NTRK2 signaling in the central nervous system is known, signaling in the female reproductive system is unknown. Therefore, we determined effects of BDNF on porcine endometrial luminal epithelial (pLE) cells isolated from Day 12 of pregnancy, as well as expression of BDNF and NTRK2 in endometria of cyclic and pregnant pigs. BDNF-NTRK2 genes were expressed in uterine glandular (GE) and luminal (LE) epithelia during early pregnancy. In addition, their expression in uterine GE and LE decreased with increasing parity of sows. Recombinant BDNF increased proliferation in pLE cells in a dose-dependent, as well as expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1 in nuclei of pLE cells. BDNF also activated phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2, JNK, P38 proteins in pLE cells. In addition, cell death resulting from tunicamycin-induced ER stress was prevented when pLE cells were treated with the combination of tunicamycin and BDNF which also decreased cells in the Sub-G 1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response genes were mostly down-regulated to the basal levels as compared to non-treated pLE cells. Our finding suggests that BDNF acts via NTRK2 to induce development of pLE cells for maintenance of implantation and pregnancy by activating cell signaling via the PI3K and MAPK pathways and by inhibiting ER stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The non-proliferation regime, vertical proliferation and the interests of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    1988-12-01

    The disarmament orientation of the NPT, which stands beside the central aim of avoiding horizontal proliferation, raises a question: Does a compatibility exist between the non-proliferation policy of the Federal Republic and its security policy, which has its basic pillar in the nuclear deterrence strategy? Critics of this deterrence policy therefore, hinting to the disarmament determination of the NPT, demand that the Federal Republic should exercise its influence for the conclusion of a 'Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty' (CTBT), the establishment of a 'Nuclear-Weapons-Free-Zones' (NWFZ) in Europe, a 'No First Use'-Treaty (NFU) and finally the abolishment of all atomic weapons ('Zero Solution'). According to them such disarmament 'remedies' can reestablish or assure the waning or damaged international consensus for horizontal non-proliferation. This is a contribution for the establishment of a stable world order and will smooth the way for a prolongation of the NPT in the year 1995. An analysis of the history and the structure of interests shows that the policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is deeply rooted in the NPT and that a prolongation of the treaty and its own membership is a substantial object of the foreign and security policy. Consequently the Federal Republic has to face the demands for an intensification of 'anti-nuclear measures' and has to examine their acceptability and their usefulness with respect to non-proliferation. The structure of the problem encloses the following aspects: The security conception of the Federal Republic with its military-strategic essence; the provisions in article VI NPT for negotiations with the object of a world free of atomic weapons; the derived disarmament 'remedies' for strengthening the consensus for horizontal non-proliferation and, finally, the real interface between horizontal and vertical proliferation. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Proliferation: does the peaceful use of nuclear energy have to lead to proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Stein, G.

    The question of whether the proliferation of nuclear weapons is promoted by an increasing use of peaceful nuclear energy can be answered with a well-founded no. Even a regional renouncing of the peaceful use of nuclear energy would not reduce the worldwide problem of nuclear weapons' proliferation. Therefore, joint efforts must be aimed at promoting trust between peoples in the nuclear sphere and the political reasons for the proliferation of nuclear weapons must be reduced in order also to promote international harmony

  1. Developing a drought early warning information system for coastal ecosystems in the Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten Lackstrom; Amanda Brennan; Paul Conrads; Lisa Darby; Kirstin Dow; Daniel Tuford

    2016-01-01

    The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) and the Carolinas Integrated Sciences and Assessments (CISA), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)- funded Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program, are partnering to develop and support a Carolinas Drought Early Warning System pilot program. Research and projects focus on...

  2. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis-The "Restaurant" Hypothesis Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael J; Frank, Daniel N; Friedman, Jacob E

    2017-01-01

    The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the "Restaurant" hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate's gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research.

  3. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis—The “Restaurant” Hypothesis Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Nash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the “Restaurant” hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate’s gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research.

  4. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis—The “Restaurant” Hypothesis Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2017-01-01

    The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the “Restaurant” hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate’s gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research. PMID:29326657

  5. Which future for the nuclear counter-proliferation?; Quel avenir pour la contre-proliferation nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M

    2004-10-01

    After a recall of the permanent data about proliferation and of the safeguards implemented by the international community, the author demonstrates that proliferation has moved towards Asia where a real 'black market' has been created. Then he analyzes the consequences of this change on the future of nuclear deterrent. Finally, he expresses his nostalgia in front of this drift and worries about the future uselessness of the means devoted to this 'pacifying' strategy. (J.S.)

  6. A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    density on each feature across wafer production is the key for stable array production. 2. We invented a method ( patent pending) for increasing the...under a sublicense. The invention of the method to increase length of the peptides was filed on as patent and will likely be licensed by HealthTell...s) or other Internet site(s)  Technologies or techniques  Inventions, patent applications, and/or licenses Nothing to report Nothing to report

  7. The Chemistry of Early Self-Replicating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) in Exobiology is a consortium of scientists at the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), The Salk Institute for Biological Studies (Salk) and The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI). All three institutions are located in close geographical proximity in La Jolla, California. The NSCORT/Exobiology is administered through the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Since its inception in January 1992, the NSCORT in Exobiology has made major contributions with respect to the question of how life began on Earth. The Principal Investigators (PIs) and their associated Fellows have published numerous articles in peer reviewed journals on topics relevant to Exobiology. They have presented papers and sponsored symposia at several meetings of national and international scientific societies. A total of 30 undergraduate, 12 graduate and 15 postdoctoral Fellows have been supported by the NSCORT. The Fellows have met on their own at least once a month to discuss Exobiology topics and research progress. The NSCORT has arranged seminars and evening discussion meetings, and offered an undergraduate class on "Biochemical Evolution" as well as graduate courses dealing with topics in Exobiology. A visiting scientist program has allowed 11 scientists from the U.S. and 4 foreign countries to conduct cooperative research with the various PIs. An active outreach program has been initiated, which includes an Exobiology high school level teaching module and curriculum guide, and an elementary school level booklet about basic atomic structure and formation of the universe, Sun and Earth. A World Wide Web Homepage (http://www-chem.ucsd.edu/-nscort/ NSCORT.html) has been developed, which describes the NSCORT activities, research programs and Fellowship opportunities. The various activities of the NSCORT in Exobiology have received wide-spread coverage in both the scientific and public media. The major function of the NSCORT is the

  8. Non-equilibrium chemistry of the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    This final report contains a list of publications supported in whole or part by NAG9-108 in the time period 1 May 1985 to 30 April 1994. Also contained is a list of invited papers with abstracts supported in whole or part by this grant in the same time period. A copy of the 1993 paper by Ronald G. Prinn, 'Protostars and Planets III', is attached since it had not previously been sent to NASA.

  9. Analysis of the Reliable STING Early Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    verr much appreciated. II .. . . . . . . . . . iV, , . . .l . . al I ll I III I I I III - 7 --7 ,,- ..11! I. INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND The U.S. Army is...information to a variety of elements ranging from the division staff to de ~loyed maneuver units, this study will focus on the air defense information...aircraft type . TABLE I Example Track Report ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION EXAMPLE IDENTIFICATION .................... HOSTILE TRACK DESIGNATOR

  10. [The brothers of Jumiege--the peripheral nervous system in early French mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brean, Are

    2002-03-20

    This article reviews the process of discovery of the nervous system from Pythagoras (570-500 BC) to Galen (130-201 AD). After Galen, no anatomical studies were performed before the renaissance. According to a legend, probably produced for political reasons, two brothers, sons of the French king Clovis II, revolted against their father and were sentenced to loose their physical powers by having the nerves of their arms and legs cut. They were then set adrift on the river Seine, stranding at the Jumiège monastery. The earliest written version of this legend stems from the fourteenth century; it was probably a part of the local French mythology. This indicates that the existence of the peripheral nervous system, and therefore also in part the knowledge contained in the early anatomical works, quite early may have been more or less known outside academic circles.

  11. The risk of nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    During the later years the risks of nuclear proliferation have again become a major topic of interest. This is primarily due to the acute problems caused by Iraq, North Korea, and the 3 new states of the former USSR, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Analysis shows that security problems and prestige are the two most important motives, when the risks of proliferation are considered. But motives are not enough. To produce nuclear weapons a number of technological requirements must also be fulfilled. The country must be able to produce almost pure fissile material, i.e. 235 U or 239 Pu. It must also be able to solve a number of metallurgical, explosive, ignition, physics and other problems. These are in particular non-trivial, if a implosion weapon is to be designed. A review is made of the nuclear facilities in a number of the countries which have been suggested as possible future nuclear weapons countries. In particular facilities which can produce almost pure fissile materials, 235 U and 239 Pu, are considered. The possibility of nuclear terrorists have often been discussed in the media. However, it seems very unlikely that even a major terrorist or mafia organization will be able to solve all the weapons design problems, even if they could steal the fissile material. It is finally discussed what can be done to reduce the risk of further nuclear proliferation. Political pressure can be brought to bear on countries outside the NPT to join it, but it can be counter-productive, and sometimes the countries that are able to exert such pressure, are not willing to do so for other political reasons. The problem of countries which are party to the NPT, but which are believed to acquire nuclear weapons capability in violation of the treaty, can be countered by unannounced inspections of non-declared facilities. However, such inspections can only be meaningfully performed if the necessary intelligence is available. (EG)

  12. Proliferation prevention in the commercial fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    This website contains the papers presented on November 17, 1998 during the session, ''Proliferation Prevention in the Commercial Fuel Cycle,'' at the American Nuclear Society meeting in Washington, DC. The abstracts are in a separate section; individual papers also contain the author's bio and e-mail address. In the session planning phase, it was suggested that the following questions and other relevant issues be addressed: * What are the difficulties and issues with defining and enforcing international standards for the physical protection of Pu and HEU (beyond the Convention on the Physical protection of Nuclear Material, which primarily addresses transportation)? * How do we (or can we) keep nuclear technology in general, and reprocessing and enrichment technologies in particular, from spreading to undesirable organizations (including governments), in light of Article IV of the NPT? Specifically, can we (should we) prevent the construction of light-water reactors in Iran; and should we support the construction of light-water reactors in North Korea? * Are there more proliferation-resistant fuel cycles that would be appropriate in developing countries? * Can the concept of ''nonproliferation credentials'' be defined in a useful way? * Is there historical evidence to indicate that reprocessing (or enrichment of HEU) in the US, Japan, or the EURATOM countries has impacted the acquisition (or attempted acquisition) of nuclear weapons by other nations or groups? * What is the impact of a fissile material cutoff treaty (FMCT) be on commercial nuclear fuel cycles? * Does MOX spent fuel present a greater proliferation risk than LEU spent fuel? Although the authors did not explicitly attempt to answer all these questions, they did enlighten us about a number of these and related issues

  13. Nuclear power and the proliferation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1978-02-01

    This lecture addresses the question of ''accessibility'' of plutonium as it would arise in fully commercial LMFBR and LWR once-through operations. It is pointed out that the storage of spent LWR fuel results in the progressive accumulation of plutonium which becomes increasingly accessible with time (the ''plutonium mine'') whereas with the LMFBR, economic considerations demand the rapid recycle of plutonium. Furthermore, the fast breeder reactor is primarily a plutonium incinerator, the net production of plutonium being rather small and controllable so as not to exceed society's needs for new energy supplies. An eight-point world nuclear development programme is suggested, taking full note of non-proliferation considerations

  14. Food Security, Decision Making and the Use of Remote Sensing in Famine Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2008-01-01

    Famine early warning systems use remote sensing in combination with socio-economic and household food economy analysis to provide timely and rigorous information on emerging food security crises. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is the US Agency for International Development's decision support system in 20 African countries, as well as in Guatemala, Haiti and Afghanistan. FEWS NET provides early and actionable policy guidance for the US Government and its humanitarian aid partners. As we move into an era of climate change where weather hazards will become more frequent and severe, understanding how to provide quantitative and actionable scientific information for policy makers using biophysical data is critical for an appropriate and effective response.

  15. Hydrocephalus in mice following X-irradiation at early gestational stage. Possibly due to persistent deceleration of cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aolad, H.M.; Inouye, Minoru; Darmanto, W.; Hayasaka, Shizu; Murata, Yoshiharu

    2000-01-01

    The pathogenesis of X-ray-induced congenital hydrocephalus was studied. Pregnant mice were irradiated at 1.4 Gy on gestational day 7 (G7). Four hours after irradiation, extensive cell death was evident in the neuroepithelium and underlying mesoderm of the head region, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells almost disappeared. Embryos with thinner lamina terminalis of the telecephalon, when compared with that of the control, were found in the irradiated group on G9. As early as G11 in some irradiated embryos the telencephalic wall was thinner and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. The choroid invagination from the lamina terminalis began on G11 in the control brain, but not in the affected brain. During the following development, fetuses with readily apparent hydrocephalus were consistently found among irradiated fetuses. In these brains the brain mantle was thinner, the corpus striatum and thalamic regions were smaller, and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. Even on G11 and G13 the frequencies of PCNA-positive cells in the brain mantle and other brain regions were lower in the hydrocephalic brain than those of the control, suggesting a decelerated proliferation of successive cell generations following exposure to X-rays. The cerebral aqueduct was open in the hydrocephalic brain during the fetal period when the lateral ventricles were dilated. The head was vaulted after birth but the cerebral aqueduct was not completely occluded even in these animals. These findings suggested that cell death in the neuroepithelium followed by a persistent deceleration of neural cell proliferation, resulting in the hypoplasia of brain parenchyma with compensatory ventricular dilatation, is important for the establishment of hydrocephalus. (author)

  16. Hydrocephalus in mice following X-irradiation at early gestational stage. Possibly due to persistent deceleration of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aolad, H.M.; Inouye, Minoru; Darmanto, W.; Hayasaka, Shizu; Murata, Yoshiharu [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    2000-09-01

    The pathogenesis of X-ray-induced congenital hydrocephalus was studied. Pregnant mice were irradiated at 1.4 Gy on gestational day 7 (G7). Four hours after irradiation, extensive cell death was evident in the neuroepithelium and underlying mesoderm of the head region, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells almost disappeared. Embryos with thinner lamina terminalis of the telecephalon, when compared with that of the control, were found in the irradiated group on G9. As early as G11 in some irradiated embryos the telencephalic wall was thinner and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. The choroid invagination from the lamina terminalis began on G11 in the control brain, but not in the affected brain. During the following development, fetuses with readily apparent hydrocephalus were consistently found among irradiated fetuses. In these brains the brain mantle was thinner, the corpus striatum and thalamic regions were smaller, and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. Even on G11 and G13 the frequencies of PCNA-positive cells in the brain mantle and other brain regions were lower in the hydrocephalic brain than those of the control, suggesting a decelerated proliferation of successive cell generations following exposure to X-rays. The cerebral aqueduct was open in the hydrocephalic brain during the fetal period when the lateral ventricles were dilated. The head was vaulted after birth but the cerebral aqueduct was not completely occluded even in these animals. These findings suggested that cell death in the neuroepithelium followed by a persistent deceleration of neural cell proliferation, resulting in the hypoplasia of brain parenchyma with compensatory ventricular dilatation, is important for the establishment of hydrocephalus. (author)

  17. The separation of nuclear power from nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1979-01-01

    There exists world wide a strong common desire to limit nuclear weapons proliferation so as to inhibit or remove the threat of nuclear warfare. While this is a primary international political objective, there has also developed a secondary objective to limit any potential contribution to such nuclear weapons proliferation which might arise by the diversion of weapons material from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle. This secondary objective is the basis of the present US government policy to defer the reprocessing of nuclear fuels anywhere. This policy has been generally recognized as a temporary expedient to provide time for international reexamination of the problems of weapons proliferation associated with nuclear power. A successful development of the proposed combination of the Fast Breeder Reactor and the Civex fuel reprocessing facility would provide an economical nuclear power source for many centuries which inherently separates nuclear power from the issue of weapons material diversion and proliferation. Further, by so doing, it permits great flexibility in international and national planning for nuclear power, as the issues of fuel dependence and terrorist and subnational diversions disappear. In addition, the expansion of the FBR/Civex system would eat into the LWR spent fuel stockpile, diminishing steadily this relatively accessible plutonium source. And finally, a rapid development of the FBR/Civex for the above reasons would substantially reduce the worldwide concern as to the adequacy of uranium ore supply. (Auth.)

  18. A Study on the Improvement of the INPRO Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Chang, Hong Lae

    2010-07-01

    Within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), a methodology for evaluating proliferation resistance (INPRO PR methodology) has been developed. However, User Requirement (UR) 4 regarding multiplicity and robustness of barriers against proliferation ('innovative nuclear energy systems should incorporate multiple proliferation resistance features and measures') remains to be developed. Because the development of a methodology for evaluating User Requirement 4 requires an acquisition/diversion pathway analysis, a systematic approach was developed for the identification and analysis of pathways for the acquisition of weapons-useable nuclear material. This approach was applied to the DUPIC fuel cycle which identified several proliferation target materials and plausible acquisition/diversion pathways. Based on these results, proliferation strategies that a proliferant State could adopt for undeclared removal of nuclear material from the DUPIC fuel cycle have been developed based on the objectives of the proliferation of the State, the quality and quantity of the target material, the time required to acquire the material for the proliferation, and the technical and financial capabilities of the potential proliferant State. The diversion pathway for fresh DUPIC fuel was analyzed using the INPRO User Requirements 1, 2 and 3, and based on these results an assessment procedure and metrics for evaluating the multiplicity and robustness of proliferation barriers has been developed. In conclusion, the multiplicity and robustness of proliferation barriers is not a function of the number of barriers, or of their individual characteristics but is an integrated function of the whole. The robustness of proliferation barriers is measured by determining whether the safeguards goals can be met. The harmonization of INPRO PR methodology with the GIF PR and PP methodology was also considered. It was suggested that, as also confirmed by IAEA

  19. Forests and Phenology: Designing the Early Warning System to Understand Forest Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, T.; Phillips, M. B.; Hargrove, W. W.; Dobson, G.; Hicks, J.; Hutchins, M.; Lichtenstein, K.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetative phenology is the study of plant development and changes with the seasons, such as the greening-up and browning-down of forests, and how these events are influenced by variations in climate. A National Phenology Data Set, based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite images covering 2002 through 2009, is now available from work by NASA, the US Forest Service, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This new data set provides an easily interpretable product useful for detecting changes to the landscape due to long-term factors such as climate change, as well as finding areas affected by short-term forest threats such as insects or disease. The Early Warning System (EWS) is a toolset being developed by the US Forest Service and the University of North Carolina-Asheville to support distribution and use of the National Phenology Data Set. The Early Warning System will help research scientists, US Forest Service personnel, forest and natural resources managers, decision makers, and the public in the use of phenology data to better understand unexpected change within our nation’s forests. These changes could have multiple natural sources such as insects, disease, or storm damage, or may be due to human-induced events, like thinning, harvest, forest conversion to agriculture, or residential and commercial use. The primary goal of the Early Warning System is to provide a seamless integration between monitoring, detection, early warning and prediction of these forest disturbances as observed through phenological data. The system consists of PC and web-based components that are structured to support four user stages of increasing knowledge and data sophistication. Building Literacy: This stage of the Early Warning System educates potential users about the system, why the system should be used, and the fundamentals about the data the system uses. The channels for this education include a website, interactive tutorials, pamphlets, and other technology

  20. Structuring the analysis of human concerns at an early stage of system development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belyavin, A.J.; Tyler, S.; Lotens, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a new approach to risk analysis applied to the investigation of how inserting new technologies in systems may induce positive and negative human impacts. The current approach employed by the UK Ministry of Defence, and embodied in the Early Human Factors

  1. Early accretion of water and volatile elements to the inner Solar System: evidence from angrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Hauri, Erik H; McCubbin, Francis M; Lapen, Thomas J; Berger, Eve L; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; Gaetani, Glenn A; Righter, Kevin; Sarafian, Emily

    2017-05-28

    Inner Solar System bodies are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrite meteorites, yet the source(s) and mechanism(s) of volatile-element depletion and/or enrichment are poorly constrained. The timing, mechanisms and quantities of volatile elements present in the early inner Solar System have vast implications for diverse processes, from planetary differentiation to the emergence of life. We report major, trace and volatile-element contents of a glass bead derived from the D'Orbigny angrite, the hydrogen isotopic composition of this glass bead and that of coexisting olivine and silicophosphates, and the 207 Pb- 206 Pb age of the silicophosphates, 4568 ± 20 Ma. We use volatile saturation models to demonstrate that the angrite parent body must have been a major body in the early inner Solar System. We further show via mixing calculations that all inner Solar System bodies accreted volatile elements with carbonaceous chondrite H and N isotope signatures extremely early in Solar System history. Only a small portion (if any) of comets and gaseous nebular H species contributed to the volatile content of the inner Solar System bodies.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Plutonium, proliferation, and the price of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilinsky, V.

    1978-01-01

    France and Britain disagree with the US on whether deferring fuel reprocessing that provides plutonium for export can help contain proliferation. The US has veto power over reprocessing of US-supplied fuels for non-EURATOM countries, but exceptions will be made for movement within the EURATOM community. Political issues will be influenced by the magnitude of the financial investments, however, and commercial considerations have until recently dominated and complicated international safeguards. The author notes that US policy was reversed by the gradual acknowledgment that the same international inspection of plutonium stockpiles would not work as it had for low-enriched fuel and that economic interests must have a lower priority to avoiding proliferation. He cites the combination of sudden policy shifts, failure to prove that present reactors are best, and long-term distrust of US economic motives as failing to persuade either the French or British, who feel the best safeguard is provided by their high-security reprocessing facilities. Still to be resolved are the conditions under which plutonium must be returned to its owners, a problem that must determine safe international transport and storage and international management. Technical fixes, such as the CIVEX process, cannot contribute to the solution for several decades, while reprocessing is no longer considered a first step in waste disposal and would be more expensive and complicated than present waste disposal procedures. The author concedes merit in President Carter's requirement of separating ''the legitimate and necessary use of uranium'' and nuclear fuels that are also explosives

  3. Early Life Experience and Gut Microbiome: The Brain-Gut-Microbiota Signaling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Henderson, Wendy A; Graf, Joerg; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decades, advances in neonatal care have led to substantial increases in survival among preterm infants. With these gains, recent concerns have focused on increases in neurodevelopment morbidity related to the interplay between stressful early life experiences and the immature neuroimmune systems. This interplay between these complex mechanisms is often described as the brain-gut signaling system. The role of the gut microbiome and the brain-gut signaling system have been found to be remarkably related to both short- and long-term stress and health. Recent evidence supports that microbial species, ligands, and/or products within the developing intestine play a key role in early programming of the central nervous system and regulation of the intestinal innate immunity. The purpose of this state-of-the-science review is to explore the supporting evidence demonstrating the importance of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in regulation of early life experience. We also discuss the role of gut microbiome in modulating stress and pain responses in high-risk infants. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate the regulation mechanisms involved in early life experience. The science in this area is just beginning to be uncovered; having a fundamental understanding of these relationships will be important as new discoveries continue to change our thinking, leading potentially to changes in practice and targeted interventions.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, R.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts, such as Generation IV systems. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum, the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology of the U.S. DOE, the Office of Nonproliferation Policy of the National Nuclear Security Administration, and participating organizations from six other countries are sponsoring an international working group to develop an evaluation methodology for PR and PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR and PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems (e.g., different reactor types or fuel cycles) and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The paper summarizes the proposed assessment methodology including the assessment framework, measures used to express the PR and PP characteristics of the system, threat definition, system element and target identification, pathway identification and analysis, and estimation of the measures

  5. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki, E-mail: yasukiishizaki@gunma-u.ac.jp

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  6. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-01-01

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture

  7. Meteorites and cosmic dust: Interstellar heritage and nebular processes in the early solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engrand C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small solar system bodies like asteroids and comets have escaped planetary accretion. They are the oldest and best preserved witnesses of the formation of the solar system. Samples of these celestial bodies fall on Earth as meteorites and interplanetary dust. The STARDUST mission also recently returned to Earth cometary dust from comet 81P/Wild 2, a Jupiter Family Comet (JFC. These samples provide unique insights on the physico-chemical conditions and early processes of the solar system. They also contain some minute amount of materials inherited from the local interstellar medium that have survived the accretion processes in the solar system.

  8. Geospatiotemporal data mining in an early warning system for forest threats in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.M. Hoffman; R.T. Mills; J. Kumar; S.S. Vulli; W.W. Hargrove

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of geospatiotemporal data mining of multi-year land surface phenology data (250 m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in this study) for the conterminous United States as part of an early warning system to identify threats to forest ecosystems. Cluster...

  9. Beyond institutional capacity: political motivation and parliamentary behaviour in the early warning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gattermann, K.; Hefftler, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Early Warning System gives national parliaments the right to intervene in European Union policy-making. This article investigates their incentives to submit reasoned opinions. It analyses the reactions of 40 parliamentary chambers to 411 draft legislative acts between 1 January 2010 and 31

  10. Incidence and predictors of cutaneous manifestations during the early course of systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Elina G; Jaeger, Veronika K; Allanore, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To longitudinally map the onset and identify risk factors for skin sclerosis and digital ulcers (DUs) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) from an early time point after the onset of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in the European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) cohort. METHODS...

  11. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning

  12. Role of early growth response 1 in arteriogenesis: impact on vascular cell proliferation and leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Judith-Irina; Ziegelhoeffer, Tibor; Heil, Matthias; Fischer, Silvia; Fernández, Borja; Schaper, Wolfgang; Preissner, Klaus T; Deindl, Elisabeth

    2012-03-01

    Based on previous findings that early growth response 1 (Egr-1) participates in leukocyte recruitment and cell proliferation in vitro, this study was designed to investigate its mode of action during arteriogenesis in vivo. In a model of peripheral arteriogenesis, Egr-1 was significantly upregulated in growing collaterals of wild-type (WT) mice, both on mRNA and protein level. Egr-1(-/-) mice demonstrated delayed arteriogenesis after femoral artery ligation. They further showed increased levels of monocytes and granulocytes in the circulation, but reduced levels in adductor muscles under baseline conditions. After femoral artery ligation, elevated numbers of macrophages were detected in the perivascular zone of collaterals in Egr-1(-/-) mice and mRNA of leukocyte recruitment mediators was upregulated. Other Egr family members (Egr-2 to -4) were significantly upregulated only in Egr-1(-/-) mice, suggesting a mechanism of counterbalancing Egr-1 deficiency. Moreover, splicing factor-1, downregulated in WT mice after femoral artery ligation in the process of increased vascular cell proliferation, was upregulated in Egr-1(-/-) mice. αSM-actin on the other hand, significantly downregulated in WT mice, showed no differential expression in Egr-1(-/-) mice. While cell cycle regulator cyclin E and cdc20 were upregulated in Egr-1(-/-) mice, cyclin D1 expression decreased below the detection limit in collaterals, and the proliferation marker ki67 was not differentially expressed. In conclusion, compensation for deficiency in Egr-1 function in leukocyte recruitment can presumably be mediated by other transcription factors; however, Egr-1 is indispensable for effective vascular cell cycle progression in arteriogenesis.

  13. Early Notification Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulic, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear accidents are unexpected events characterized by losing of control over the sources of radiation. This may, , directly or indirectly create a danger to human life, health or property. In certain nuclear accidents, such dangers may be of a limited scope, which means that they constitute a threat only to those persons who work directly with the sources of radiation, or the equipment that comprises such sources, and their immediate working environment. Under certain conditions, as a consequence of major nuclear accidents, the broader population and considerable property might be endangered as well. The way in which nuclear accidents with the sources of ionising radiation may occur, the intensity of doses that may exist in the radiation source environment, the nature and quantities of radioactive materials which might spread in the environment, the level of radiation exposure of the staff and the population due to a nuclear accident - all these may be considerably different in case of a nuclear accident with different radiation sources. Depending on the category of nuclear accident, major environmental pollutant releases are possible in such situations. (author)

  14. The search for and analysis of direct samples of early Solar System aqueous fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E; Bodnar, Robert J; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Itoh, Shoichi; Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew; Chan, Queenie H-S; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Kebukawa, Yoko; Ito, Motoo

    2017-05-28

    We describe the current state of the search for direct, surviving samples of early, inner Solar System fluids-fluid inclusions in meteorites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are not rare, but they are very tiny and their characterization is at the state of the art for most analytical techniques. Meteoritic fluid inclusions offer us a unique opportunity to study early Solar System brines in the laboratory. Inclusion-by-inclusion analyses of the trapped fluids in carefully selected samples will, in the immediate future, provide us detailed information on the evolution of fluids as they interacted with anhydrous solid materials. Thus, real data can replace calculated fluid compositions in thermochemical calculations of the evolution of water and aqueous reactions in comets, asteroids, moons and the terrestrial planets.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  16. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    are needed and appropriate to enable determination of obtainable product quality. In order to meet this challenge, it is suggested that a visual modelling framework be adopted that clarifies which product and production features are known at a specific time of the project and which features will be worked...... on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature......This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...

  17. The approximate number system and its relation to early math achievement: evidence from the preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Justin W; Lourenco, Stella F

    2013-03-01

    Humans rely on two main systems of quantification; one is nonsymbolic and involves approximate number representations (known as the approximate number system or ANS), and the other is symbolic and allows for exact calculations of number. Despite the pervasiveness of the ANS across development, recent studies with adolescents and school-aged children point to individual differences in the precision of these representations that, importantly, have been shown to relate to symbolic math competence even after controlling for general aspects of intelligence. Such findings suggest that the ANS, which humans share with nonhuman animals, interfaces specifically with a uniquely human system of formal mathematics. Other findings, however, point to a less straightforward picture, leaving open questions about the nature and ontogenetic origins of the relation between these two systems. Testing children across the preschool period, we found that ANS precision correlated with early math achievement but, critically, that this relation was nonlinear. More specifically, the correlation between ANS precision and math competence was stronger for children with lower math scores than for children with higher math scores. Taken together, our findings suggest that early-developing connections between the ANS and mathematics may be fundamentally discontinuous. Possible mechanisms underlying such nonlinearity are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hygiene and other early childhood influences on the subsequent function of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Graham A W; Lowry, Christopher A; Raison, Charles L

    2015-08-18

    The immune system influences brain development and function. Hygiene and other early childhood influences impact the subsequent function of the immune system during adulthood, with consequences for vulnerability to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Inflammatory events during pregnancy can act directly to cause developmental problems in the central nervous system (CNS) that have been implicated in schizophrenia and autism. The immune system also acts indirectly by "farming" the intestinal microbiota, which then influences brain development and function via the multiple pathways that constitute the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota also regulates the immune system. Regulation of the immune system is crucial because inflammatory states in pregnancy need to be limited, and throughout life inflammation needs to be terminated completely when not required; for example, persistently raised levels of background inflammation during adulthood (in the presence or absence of a clinically apparent inflammatory stimulus) correlate with an increased risk of depression. A number of factors in the perinatal period, notably immigration from rural low-income to rich developed settings, caesarean delivery, breastfeeding and antibiotic abuse have profound effects on the microbiota and on immunoregulation during early life that persist into adulthood. Many aspects of the modern western environment deprive the infant of the immunoregulatory organisms with which humans co-evolved, while encouraging exposure to non-immunoregulatory organisms, associated with more recently evolved "crowd" infections. Finally, there are complex interactions between perinatal psychosocial stressors, the microbiota, and the immune system that have significant additional effects on both physical and psychiatric wellbeing in subsequent adulthood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard [ENS High Scientific Council, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  20. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  1. Sensing the danger. Can tsunami early warning systems benefit from test ban monitoring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbo, L.

    2005-01-01

    An editorial in the February 2005 edition of the Magazine for European Research pointed to the very issue of responsibility: Improvements are always possible, of course, but the very nature of a 'natural disaster' is that while not entirely absolving humans of responsibility it surpasses our means to deal with and even understand the forces at work. But science can help enhance our knowledge. For if there is one subject that the Asian tragedy has highlighted, it is the importance of putting in place coordinated early warning systems for earthquakes and, in particular, the absence of effective monitoring of tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. A concerted effort is now being made to develop a coordinated system of systems - bringing together organizations and initiatives that together can put in place an early warning system. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), set-up to monitor adherence to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, is one organization seen to contribute to a coordinated early warning system

  2. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Trinder, John; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-12-01

    To test the Rapid Response Systems programme theory against actual practice components of the Rapid Response Systems implemented to identify those contexts and mechanisms which have an impact on the successful achievement of desired outcomes in practice. Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognized using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. Realist evaluation. The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation. We used various mixed methods including individual and focus group interviews, observation of nursing practice between June-November 2010 and document analysis of Early Warning Systems audit data between May-October 2010 and hospital acute care training records over 4.5 years from 2003-2008. Data were analysed using NiVivo8 and SPPS. A cross-case analysis highlighted similar patterns of factors which enabled or constrained successful recognition, referral and response to deteriorating patients in practice. Key enabling factors were the use of clinical judgement by experienced nurses and the empowerment of nurses as a result of organizational change associated with implementation of Early Warning System protocols. Key constraining factors were low staffing and inappropriate skill mix levels, rigid implementation of protocols and culturally embedded suboptimal communication processes. Successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems was dependent on adopting organizational and cultural changes that facilitated staff empowerment, flexible implementation of protocols and ongoing experiential learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An early warning system for groundwater pollution based on the assessment of groundwater pollution risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong.; Zhao, Yongsheng; Hong, Mei; Guo, Xiaodong

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater pollution usually is complex and concealed, remediation of which is difficult, high cost, time-consuming, and ineffective. An early warning system for groundwater pollution is needed that detects groundwater quality problems and gets the information necessary to make sound decisions before massive groundwater quality degradation occurs. Groundwater pollution early warning were performed by considering comprehensively the current groundwater quality, groundwater quality varying trend and groundwater pollution risk . The map of the basic quality of the groundwater was obtained by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation or BP neural network evaluation. Based on multi-annual groundwater monitoring datasets, Water quality state in sometime of the future was forecasted using time-sequenced analyzing methods. Water quality varying trend was analyzed by Spearman's rank correlative coefficient.The relative risk map of groundwater pollution was estimated through a procedure that identifies, cell by cell,the values of three factors, that is inherent vulnerability, load risk of pollution source and contamination hazard. DRASTIC method was used to assess inherent vulnerability of aquifer. Load risk of pollution source was analyzed based on the potential of contamination and pollution degree. Assessment index of load risk of pollution source which involves the variety of pollution source, quantity of contaminants, releasing potential of pollutants, and distance were determined. The load risks of all sources considered by GIS overlay technology. Early warning model of groundwater pollution combined with ComGIS technology organically, the regional groundwater pollution early-warning information system was developed, and applied it into Qiqiha'er groundwater early warning. It can be used to evaluate current water quality, to forecast water quality changing trend, and to analyze space-time influencing range of groundwater quality by natural process and human activities. Keywords

  4. Heterochrony and Early Left-Right Asymmetry in the Development of the Cardiorespiratory System of Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J.; Metscher, Brian D.; Poelmann, Robert E.; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J.; Müller, Gerd B.; Richardson, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A ‘tracheal lung’ is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution. PMID:25555231

  5. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Metscher, Brian D; Poelmann, Robert E; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J; Müller, Gerd B; Richardson, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  6. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J van Soldt

    Full Text Available Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right. A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1 fails to develop; (2 elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a or with (2b subsequent development of faveoli; (3 or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  7. A cerebral arteriovenous malformation grading system for gamma knife radiosurgery with the aim of early obliteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Hirato, Masafumi; Yokoe, Takao; Iino, Yuichi; Ohye, Chihiro; Shibazaki, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    Bleeding in the latency period before obliteration considerably worsens the prognosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Bleeding risk should be considered and total obliteration should performed as early as possible. In this study we investigated factors related to early obliteration following Gamma Knife radiosurgery and proposed a grading system for AVMs. Forty-six patients with cerebral AVMs followed angiographically within twelve months after Gamma Knife radiosurgery were analyzed. Four factors, volume, type (categorized by our own method), location, and marginal dose were found to be correlated with early obliteration rate. We scored these factors, and categorized the scores into a grade O to 6 Gamma Knife Score (GKS), and evaluated the obliteration rate of each grade. The total obliteration rate in twelve months according to grade was: grades 0 and 1, 61.9%; grades 2 and 3, 36.0%, grades 4 and 5, 16.7%. AVMs with a low GKS (grades 0 and 1) had a high early obliteration rate and seemed suitable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Since early obliteration is difficult to obtain in the high grade group, endovascular surgery should be considered to reduce the GKS before Gamma Knife radiosurgery. (author)

  8. The early solar system abundance of 244Pu as inferred from the St. Severin chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, G.B.; Kennedy, B.M.; Podosek, F.A.; Hohenberg, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    We describe the analysis of Xe released in stepwise heating of neutron-irradiated samples of the St. Severin chondrite. This analysis indicates that at the time of formation of most chondritic meteorites, approximately 4.56 x 10 9 years ago, the atomic ratio of 244 Pu/ 238 U was 0.0068 +- 0.0010 in chondritic meteorites. We believe that this value is more reliable than that inferred from earlier analyses of St. Severin. We feel that this value is currently the best available estimate for the early solar system abundance of 244 Pu. 42 refs., 2 tabs

  9. The early solar system abundance of /sup 244/Pu as inferred from the St. Severin chondrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, G.B.; Kennedy, B.M.; Podosek, F.A.; Hohenberg, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    We describe the analysis of Xe released in stepwise heating of neutron-irradiated samples of the St. Severin chondrite. This analysis indicates that at the time of formation of most chondritic meteorites, approximately 4.56 x 10/sup 9/ years ago, the atomic ratio of /sup 244/Pu//sup 238/U was 0.0068 +- 0.0010 in chondritic meteorites. We believe that this value is more reliable than that inferred from earlier analyses of St. Severin. We feel that this value is currently the best available estimate for the early solar system abundance of /sup 244/Pu. 42 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. The effects of 3-methylcholanthrene on lymphocyte proliferation in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Deschaux, P.

    2005-01-01

    The sensitivity of lymphocyte proliferation as bioindicator of pollution stress was evaluated in the common carp (Cyrinus carpio L.). The time course response of peripheral blood leukocyte proliferation in response or not to mitogens was measured from 1 to 7 days after peritoneal injection of 3-methylcholantrene (3-MC), and compared to the time course response of a highly sensitive biomarker, induction of cytochrome P450. 3-Methylcholanthrene (40 mg kg -1 ) inhibited both B- and T-lymphocyte proliferation in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (Con A). Studies with α-naphtofiavone, suggest the lack of metabolic processes. 3-Methylcholanthrene alone strongly stimulated resting peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) proliferation. This effect was not transient. The induction of lymphocyte proliferation paralleled the increase in cytochrome P450 content in the liver. The specificity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced lymphocyte proliferation suggests that this immune activity may be an early marker of exposure to PAHs in aquatic environments. The capacity of 3-MC to induce rapid lymphocyte proliferation may be related to PAH-induced rapid clonal expansion in mammals. These results strongly suggested that the underlying mechanism might be the same in both models. More studies are needed in fish to explain this phenomenon and may be helpful in understanding the occurrence of neoplastic epizootics in fish associated with PAH exposition

  11. Korean Survivors of the Japanese "Comfort Women" System: Understanding the Lifelong Consequences of Early Life Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Hand, Michelle D; Anderson, Keith A; Schleitwiler, Tess E

    2016-01-01

    Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed comfort women, these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and people know little of the impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the comfort women system participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the trauma that these women suffered and how it impacted their lives. Results revealed the depths of the abuse these women suffered, including repeated rapes, physical beatings, humiliation, forced surgery and sterilization, and social exclusion. These early traumatic experiences appeared to reverberate throughout their lives in their family relations, their inability to marry and to conceive children, and their emotional and physical well-being throughout the life course and into later life. The experiences of these survivors illustrate the lasting impact of early-life trauma and can guide interventions with current survivors of sexual abuse or trafficking.

  12. Early Warning System for reducing disaster risk: the technological platform DEWETRA for the Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Molini, Luca; Kostic, Bojan; Campanella, Paolo; Stevanovic, Slavimir

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk reduction has long been recognized for its role in mitigating the negative environmental, social and economic impacts of natural hazards. Flood Early Warning System is a disaster risk reduction measure based on the capacities of institutions to observe and predict extreme hydro-meteorological events and to disseminate timely and meaningful warning information; it is furthermore based on the capacities of individuals, communities and organizations to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. An operational definition of an Early Warning System has been suggested by ISDR - UN Office for DRR [15 January 2009]: "EWS is the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.". ISDR continues by commenting that a people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four key elements: 1-knowledge of the risks; 2-monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; 3-communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and 4- local capabilities to respond to the warnings received." The technological platform DEWETRA supports the strengthening of the first three key elements of EWS suggested by ISDR definition, hence to improve the capacities to build real-time risk scenarios and to inform and warn the population in advance The technological platform DEWETRA has been implemented for the Republic of Serbia. DEWETRA is a real time-integrate system that supports decision makers for risk forecasting and monitoring and for distributing warnings to end-user and to the general public. The system is based on the rapid availability of different data that helps to establish up-to-date and reliable risk scenarios. The integration of all relevant data for risk management significantly

  13. Proliferation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    1998-09-01

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed

  14. Methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection of Generation IV nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Nishimura, R.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum an international experts group has been chartered to develop an evaluation methodology for PR and PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR and PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The assessment framework consists of identifying the threats to be considered, defining the PR and PP measures required to evaluate the resistance of a nuclear system to proliferation, theft or sabotage, and establishing quantitative methods to evaluate the proposed measures. The defined PR and PP measures are based on the design of the system (e.g., materials, processes, facilities), and institutional measures (e.g., safeguards, access control). The assessment methodology uses analysis of pathways' with respect to specific threats to determine the PR and PP measures. Analysis requires definition of the threats (i.e. objective, capability, strategy), decomposition of the system into its relevant elements (e.g., reactor core, fuel recycle facility, fuel storage), and identification of targets. (author)

  15. People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haß, S.; Asch, K.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Arnhardt, C.

    2009-04-01

    In the current hazard research people-centred warning becomes more and more important, because different types of organizations and groups have to be involved in the warning process. This fact has to be taken into account when developing early warning systems. The effectiveness of early warning depends not only on technical capabilities but also on the preparedness of decision makers and their immediate response on how to act in case of emergency. Hence early warning systems have to be regarded in the context of an integrated and holistic risk management. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures include people-centred, timely and understandable warning. Further responsible authorities have to be identified in advance and standards for risk communication have to be established. Up to now, hazard and risk assessment for geohazards focuses on the development of inventory, susceptibility, hazard and risk maps. But often, especially in Europe, there are no institutional structures for managing geohazards and in addition there is a lack of an authority that is legally obliged to alarm on landslides at national or regional level. One of the main characteristics within the warning process for natural hazards e.g. in Germany is the split of responsibility between scientific authorities (wissenschaftliche Fachbehörde) and enforcement authorities (Vollzugsbehörde). The scientific authority provides the experts who define the methods and measures for monitoring and evaluate the hazard level. The main focus is the acquisition and evaluation of data and subsequently the distribution of information. The enforcement authority issues official warnings about dangerous natural phenomena. Hence the information chain in the context of early warning ranges over two different institutions, the forecast service and the warning service. But there doesn't exist a framework for warning processes in terms of landslides as yet. The concept for managing natural disasters is often reduced to

  16. Early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System for the treatment of mediastinal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Taira, Masahiro; Yoshida, Koichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Usuda, Jitsuo; Uchida, Osamu; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2011-10-01

    The da Vinci Surgical System has been used in only a few cases for treating mediastinal tumors in Japan. Recently, we used the da Vinci Surgical System for various types of anterior and middle mediastinal tumors in clinical practice. We report our early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System. Seven patients gave written informed consent to undergo robotic surgery for mediastinal tumor dissection using the da Vinci Surgical System. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of this system for the surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors. Two specialists in thoracic surgery who are certified to use the da Vinci S Surgical System and another specialist acted as an assistant performed the tumor dissection. We were able to access difficult-to-reach areas, such as the mediastinum, safely. All the resected tumors were classified as benign tumors histologically. The average da Vinci setting time was 14.0 min, the average working time was 55.7 min, and the average overall operating time was 125.9 min. The learning curve for the da Vinci setup and manipulation time was short. Robotic surgery enables mediastinal tumor dissection in certain cases more safely and easily than conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and less invasively than open thoracotomy.

  17. Trends in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, A.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear and missile proliferation are neither unique nor necessarily the most imposing proliferation challenges, but they are probably the most visible and mature aspects of the proliferation problem. In nuclear proliferation there the news are very ambivalent. Today we face somewhat between 7 and 9 counties with nuclear weapons: 5 acknowledged nuclear powers, Israel and Ukraine as well as the uncertain status of Pakistan and North Korea. The growing number of countries that have given up their nuclear programs is impressive, most spectacularly Argentina, Brazil and South Africa. Recently Kazakhstan has signed the Non-proliferation Treaty, and Belarus seems certain to follow. Thus the problem list is a short one now. The remaining issues are to be treated at the 1995 Non-proliferation Treaty Extension Conference

  18. Evidence for multiple sources of 10Be in the early solar system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t 1/2 = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of 10Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We...... in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of 10Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for 10Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide...

  19. Back-end of the fuel cycle and non-proliferation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebeskov, A.N.; Oussanov, V.I.; Iougai, S.V.; Pshakin, G.M. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The paper focuses on the problem of fissile materials proliferation risk estimation. Some methodological approaches to the solution of this task and results of their application for comparison of different nuclear fuel cycle strategies are discussed. The results of comparative assessment of non-proliferation aspects of plutonium utilization alternatives in Russia using system analysis approach are presented. (author)

  20. Back-end of the fuel cycle and non-proliferation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebeskov, A.N.; Oussanov, V.I.; Iougai, S.V.; Pshakin, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper focuses on the problem of fissile materials proliferation risk estimation. Some methodological approaches to the solution of this task and results of their application for comparison of different nuclear fuel cycle strategies are discussed. The results of comparative assessment of non-proliferation aspects of plutonium utilization alternatives in Russia using system analysis approach are presented. (author)

  1. The EU and non proliferation: need for a quantum leap?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobia, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the possibilities of a strategy and all-encompassing European policy that could constitute an efficient and structured system against proliferation. This paper concentrate on actions and developments at the level of the E.U. sensu stricto, i.e. where common actions under the E.U. umbrella are set up and contribute to the efforts in non-proliferation. It does not cover all measures and mechanisms under the 'non-proliferation regime', the integrated and evolving network of unilateral, bilateral, regional, multilateral treaties and other standing-setting arrangements, which collectively provide a framework guiding the behaviour of states, international organisations, enterprises, associations and all non state actors generally active in the nuclear sector. For the purposes of this paper, the 'utilitarian and teleological' prisms are used. The 'utilitarian perspective aims to maximizing the net expectable utility for all parties affected by a decision or action knowing the that traditional utilitarianism favours the options that bring about the best consequences and aims at the 'good'. The teleological approach lies in an interpretation that favours the ultimate goals of any provision and action as well as their spirit, rather than accepting to remain in a more narrow exegetic interpretation that favours the strict letter thereof. (N.C.)

  2. Early social environment affects the endogenous oxytocin system: a review and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eAlves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g. genetic variation (of the OXTR, age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences such as social experiences, stress or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences and function. Secondly, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention.

  3. An analysis of the early-warning system in emerging markets for reducing the financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangguang; Song, Xiaozhong

    2009-07-01

    The large number of financial crises in emerging markets over the past ten years has left many observers, both from academia and financial institutions, puzzled by an apparent lack of homogenous causal relations between endogenous economic variables and the bursting of large financial shocks. The frequency of financial crises in the last 20 years can be attributed to the lack of a comprehensive theory of financial regulation to guide policy makers. Existing theories fail to define the range of regulatory models, the causes of regulatory failure, and how to measure and prevent it. Faulty design of regulatory models, and the lack of ongoing performance monitoring incorporating early warning systems, is disrupting economic and social development. The main aim of this article is to propose an early warning system (EWS) which purposes issuing warning signal against the possible financial crisis in the emerging market, and makes the emerging market survived the first wave of the crisis be able to continue their operation in the following years.

  4. Civil nuclear energy and the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The issue of whether civil nuclear programmes contribute to the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons has been discussed since civil programmes were first considered, and has always complicated public attitudes to civil nuclear energy. This paper seeks to define the extent to which there is such ''linkage''. It does not deal with the linkages that exist between nuclear weapons and other industries and activities - for example, those involved in weapons delivery systems -since these are not within the Uranium Institute's area of competence. Linkage concerns regarding civil nuclear programmes arise primarily over the possibility of their being used to produce highly enriched uranium or plutonium for use in weapons. The technologies which can give rise directly to these materials are therefore ''sensitive'' in proliferation terms. Linkage may also arise through the relevant experience of the trained workforce. Such linkage is, however, limited by institutional, technical and economic factors. First, important institutional constraints on using a civil programme for military purposes exist in the form of a network of bilateral agreements and international treaties - most particularly the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty - and the international safeguards inspections. Secondly, without access to the technologies of enrichment or reprocessing, the fissile material needed for an explosive cannot be obtained from any plant or process used to produce electricity. Finally, establishing a civil programme - with equipment whose design is optimized for electricity production - in order to develop weapons is an expensive route compared to specialized facilities. (author)

  5. A study on strengthening measures of non-proliferation regime through the export control system of sensitive materials, equipment and technology related to nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Mitsuru; Komizo, Yasuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    The strengthened safeguards caused from safeguards experiences to Iraq and DPRK leads to the expansion of the IAEA's activities for verification of all nuclear activities as well as verification of nuclear material in the States. The purpose of the activities, of course, includes detection of undeclared exports and imports of specified equipment and non-nuclear material. The Additional Protocol to the agreements between States and the IAEA for the application of safeguards requires to the States to declare the exports and imports information regarding specified equipment and non-nuclear material corresponding to the export control list that is established by the nuclear suppliers group. The Additional Protocol also insists the IAEA's right to access to the location identified by the State to resolve a question related to the declarations. Recently, the IAEA detected the black market group of the sensitive materials, equipment and technologies relevant to the nuclear proliferation through the safeguards activities to Iran and Libya. International community stated deeply concerns to the indecent facts. This paper would discuss and propose the supplemental strengthening measures of non-proliferation regime by effective combination of the safeguards activities under additional protocol and the export control regime. (author)

  6. The importance of the nuclear glutathione in the Cell Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    The present thesis offers an insight in the importance of nuclear GSH in cell proliferation. The research was performed in three different cellular models of diverse proliferating activity: immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts 3T3, mammary adenocarcinoma cell line MCF7 and primary embryonic neuralonal culture. The results presented here provide evidence that suggest that the relationship between GSH level and telomerase activity, previously described by our group for 3T3 fibroblasts is a ...

  7. The Pliocene initiation and Early Pleistocene volcanic disruption of the palaeo-Gediz fluvial system, Western Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Demir, T.; Bridgland, D.R.; Veldkamp, A.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.; Schreve, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report our latest observations concerning a Pliocene and Early Pleistocene record from Western Turkey. The sedimentary sequence described comprises the fluvial deposits of an Early Pleistocene palaeo-Gediz river system and its tributaries prior to the onset of volcanism around Kula

  8. Flaws in the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nucler Weapons has the twin objectives of stopping the further spread of nuclear weapons and ending the nuclear arms race on the one hand, and promoting peaceful uses of atomic energy on the other. In quantitative and symbolic terms the NPT is a huge success. More than two-thirds of the world's nations have signed on, making this the most popular arms control agreement on earth. Not a single nation has declared itself to be a nuclear-weapons state beyond the original five members of the ''nuclear club'' who qualified for weapons status under the terms of the Treaty itself: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, and China. No party to the Treaty has exercised the permitted option to drop out, and none has been found by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to have diverted nuclear material from civil to weapons purposes. Nor has any party been known to have violated NPT prohibitions on developing or assisting other nations to develop nuclear weapons

  9. A probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for the critical components of wind turbine generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Li, H.; Liao, X

    2016-01-01

    method of early deterioration condition for critical components based only on temperature characteristic parameters. First, the dynamic threshold of deterioration degree function was proposed by analyzing the operational data between temperature and rotor speed. Second, a probability evaluation method...... of early deterioration condition was presented. Finally, two cases showed the validity of the proposed probability evaluation method in detecting early deterioration condition and in tracking their further deterioration for the critical components.......This study determines the early deterioration condition of critical components for a wind turbine generator system (WTGS). Due to the uncertainty nature of the fluctuation and intermittence of wind, early deterioration condition evaluation poses a challenge to the traditional vibration...

  10. The WMO/IAEA rapid data exchange system in support of the early notification convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asculai, E.; Mildner, S.

    1990-01-01

    Following the adoption, in September 1986, of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, the IAEA and the WMO began work on the development of a methodology for the rapid dissemination of information and data following a nuclear accident. Expert Group meetings defined the data and information which needs to be disseminated, under the requirements of the Conventions. The Global Telecommunication System (GTS) of the WMO was identified as the suitable technical means of transmission since it combines immediate availability during times of emergency, rapidity of transmission and permanent connections to all Member States through their National Meteorological Centres. In order to utilize the GTS, special procedures and transmission formats have to be observed ad a specific code was jointly developed by WMO and IAEA to make the message Language-independent. Relevant instructions were issued in the WMO/IAEA Manual on the use of the WMO-GTS for the Early Notification Conventions. National arrangements for access by competent authorities to the information provided under the Early Notification Convention and for the provision of basic radiological data are of critical importance. Preparations are being made to provide specialized analyses and predictions on the atmospheric transport of radionuclides using the GTS and other means. The format and number of special output products is being specified in accordance with the requirements of the Member States. Requirements for meteorological and radiological data need to be kept under review in the light of model developments. The IAEA is presently engaged in the production of a software package for the coding/decoding of the data transmission

  11. From early family systems to internalizing symptoms: The role of emotion regulation and peer relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Vänskä, Mervi; Flykt, Marjo; Tolvanen, Asko; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-04-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of early family characteristics, such as the quality of caregiving, on children's later mental health. Information is, however, needed about the role of more holistic family systems and specific child-related socioemotional mechanisms. In this study, we conceptualize families as dynamic family system types, consisting of both marital and parenting trajectories over the transition to parenthood. First, we examine how early family system types predict children's anxiety, depression, peer exclusion, and emotion regulation. Second, we test whether couples' infertility history and other family related contextual factors moderate the effects of family system types on child outcomes. Third, we test whether children's emotion regulation and peer exclusion mediate the effects of family system types on anxiety and depression. The participants were 452 families representing cohesive, distant, authoritative, enmeshed, and discrepant family types, identified on the basis of relationship autonomy and intimacy from pregnancy to the child's age of 2 and 12 months. Children's anxiety, depression, emotion regulation, and peer exclusion were assessed at the age of 7-8 years. Structural equation modeling showed that distant, enmeshed, and discrepant families similarly predicted children's heightened anxiety and depression. Infertility history, parental education, and parity moderated the associations between certain family system types and child outcomes. Finally, emotion regulation, but not peer exclusion, was a common mediating mechanism between distant and enmeshed families and children's depression. The results emphasize the importance of early family environments on children's emotion regulation development and internalizing psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The challenge of nuclear proliferation control in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Prevention of nuclear weapon proliferation in South Asia is considered a a difficult challenge. The paper discusses the difficulties met in implementing the nuclear non-proliferation policy due to numerous disputes concerning China, North and South Korea, India and Pakistan, and the countries of former Soviet Union. Matters preventing proliferation are mentioned as well as obstacles to non-proliferation proposing that decisions whether voluntary or, eventually, compulsory would have to be consistently enforced by the Security Council, if states are to rely upon those methods for their security

  13. New Constraints on the Abundance of 60Fe in the Early Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappitsch, Reto; Boehnke, Patrick; Stephan, Thomas; Telus, Myriam; Savina, Michael R.; Pardo, Olivia; Davis, Andrew M.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Pellin, Michael J.; Huss, Gary R.

    2018-04-01

    Establishing the abundance of the extinct radionuclide 60Fe (half-life 2.62 Ma) in the early solar system is important for understanding the astrophysical context of solar system formation. While bulk measurements of early solar system phases show a low abundance consistent with galactic background, some in situ measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imply a higher abundance, which would require injection from a nearby supernova (SN). Here we present in situ nickel isotopic analyses by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) in a chondrule from the primitive meteorite Semarkona (LL3.00). The same chondrule had been previously analyzed by SIMS. Despite improved precision compared to SIMS, the RIMS nickel isotopic data do not reveal any resolved excesses of 60Ni that could be unambiguously ascribed to in situ 60Fe decay. Linear regression of 60Ni/58Ni versus 56Fe/58Ni yields an initial 60Fe/56Fe ratio for this chondrule of (3.8 ± 6.9) × 10‑8, which is consistent with both the low initial value found by bulk measurements and the low end of the range of initial ratios inferred from some in situ work. The same regression also gives a solar initial 60Ni/58Ni ratio, which shows that this sample was not disturbed by nickel mobilization, thus agreeing with a low initial 60Fe/56Fe ratio. These findings agree with a re-evaluation of previous SIMS measurements of the same sample. Supernova injection of 60Fe into the solar system or its parental cloud material is therefore not necessary to account for the measured solar system’s initial amount of 60Fe.

  14. An Introduction to The Interdisciplinary Concept of Risk-Informed Proliferation Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The nonproliferation community is rich in diverse attempts aimed at predicting and preventing attempts at nuclear proliferation. Such efforts, however, are rarely incorporated into a holistic approach well-suited to solving both existing and emerging proliferation dilemmas. This division is particularly apparent with respect to the partition that separates the socio-political and technical approaches to solving such problems, approaches which are very often developed and utilized in isolation. Complicating matters further, are the diverse positions taken by various entities as they relate to the secure implementation of nuclear energy world-wide. Such positions range from the obdurate belief in the supposed inherent proliferation resistance of traditional spent fuel, to those regarding all nuclear energy systems as inherently proliferation prone, given their core reliance on the sensitive technologies of enrichment and reprocessing. Accordingly, moderates have argued for a risk-informed approach to combat nuclear proliferation, combining institutional factors, such as IAEA safeguards, with innovative reactor and fuel designs to bring about an acceptable notion of proliferation resistance. To this end, methodologies have been developed, which seek to assess and score attained proliferation resistance. Most notably, these include, the Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) methodology prepared by the GEN-IV International Forum and the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Such approaches have greatly advanced the concept of proliferation resistance; however, they remain limited by their exclusive concentration on the technological determinants of proliferation and non-consideration of other, equally important, socio-political determinants. This limitation is significant as numerous incidents have illustrated the ability of atypical states to find alternate paths to proliferation, for example

  15. Availability and Reliability of Disaster Early Warning Systems and the IT Infrastructure Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, J.; Loewe, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 caused an information catastrophy. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages. A key challenge stems from the main objective of the IOC Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from sensors to Warning Centers, has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. This task is complicated by the fact that in term of ICT system life cycles tsunami are very rare event resulting in very difficult framing conditions to safeguard the availability and reliability of TWS. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CEGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already: The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a European project funded under the sixth Framework Programme (FP6). These developments are continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical

  16. Early peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulated genes involved in expansion of pancreatic beta cell mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivas Yurena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression towards type 2 diabetes depends on the allostatic response of pancreatic beta cells to synthesise and secrete enough insulin to compensate for insulin resistance. The endocrine pancreas is a plastic tissue able to expand or regress in response to the requirements imposed by physiological and pathophysiological states associated to insulin resistance such as pregnancy, obesity or ageing, but the mechanisms mediating beta cell mass expansion in these scenarios are not well defined. We have recently shown that ob/ob mice with genetic ablation of PPARγ2, a mouse model known as the POKO mouse failed to expand its beta cell mass. This phenotype contrasted with the appropriate expansion of the beta cell mass observed in their obese littermate ob/ob mice. Thus, comparison of these models islets particularly at early ages could provide some new insights on early PPARγ dependent transcriptional responses involved in the process of beta cell mass expansion Results Here we have investigated PPARγ dependent transcriptional responses occurring during the early stages of beta cell adaptation to insulin resistance in wild type, ob/ob, PPARγ2 KO and POKO mice. We have identified genes known to regulate both the rate of proliferation and the survival signals of beta cells. Moreover we have also identified new pathways induced in ob/ob islets that remained unchanged in POKO islets, suggesting an important role for PPARγ in maintenance/activation of mechanisms essential for the continued function of the beta cell. Conclusions Our data suggest that the expansion of beta cell mass observed in ob/ob islets is associated with the activation of an immune response that fails to occur in POKO islets. We have also indentified other PPARγ dependent differentially regulated pathways including cholesterol biosynthesis, apoptosis through TGF-β signaling and decreased oxidative phosphorylation.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, estrogenic responses and biotransformation system in the liver of salmon exposed to tributyltin and second messenger activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlikova, Nela; Kortner, Trond M.; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which organotin compounds produce modulations of the endocrine systems and other biological responses are not fully understood. In this study, juvenile salmon were force-fed diet containing TBT (0: solvent control, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg fish) for 72 h. Subsequently, fish exposed to solvent control and 10 mg TBT were exposed to waterborne concentration (200 μg/l) of the adenylate cyclase (AC) stimulator, forskolin for 2 and 4 h. The overall aim of the study was to explore whether TBT endocrine disruptive effects involve second messenger activation. Liver was sampled from individual fish (n = 8) at the end of the exposures. The transcription patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isotype and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1), aromatase isoform, estrogen receptor-α (ERα), pregnane X receptor (PXR), CYP3A and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Our data showed a consistent increase in PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ mRNA and protein expression after TBT exposure that were inversely correlated with ACOX1 mRNA levels. Forskolin produced PPAR isotype-specific mRNA and protein effects that were modulated by TBT. ACOX1 expression was decreased (at 2 h) and increased (at 4 h) by forskolin and the presence of TBT potentiated these effects. TBT apparently increased mRNA and protein levels of cyp19a, compared to the solvent control, whereas cyp19b mRNA levels were unaffected by TBT treatment. Combined TBT and forskolin exposure produced respective decrease and increase of mRNA levels of cyp19a and cyp19b, compared with control. TBT decreased ERα mRNA at low dose (1 mg/kg) and forskolin exposure alone produced a consistent decrease of ERα mRNA levels that were not affected by the presence of TBT. Interestingly, PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels were differentially affected, either decreased or increased, after exposure to TBT and forskolin, singly and also in combination. GST mRNA was

  18. Establishing the fundamentals for an elephant early warning and monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Stoeger, Angela S

    2015-09-04

    The decline of habitat for elephants due to expanding human activity is a serious conservation problem. This has continuously escalated the human-elephant conflict in Africa and Asia. Elephants make extensive use of powerful infrasonic calls (rumbles) that travel distances of up to several kilometers. This makes elephants well-suited for acoustic monitoring because it enables detecting elephants even if they are out of sight. In sight, their distinct visual appearance makes them a good candidate for visual monitoring. We provide an integrated overview of our interdisciplinary project that established the scientific fundamentals for a future early warning and monitoring system for humans who regularly experience serious conflict with elephants. We first draw the big picture of an early warning and monitoring system, then review the developed solutions for automatic acoustic and visual detection, discuss specific challenges and present open future work necessary to build a robust and reliable early warning and monitoring system that is able to operate in situ. We present a method for the automated detection of elephant rumbles that is robust to the diverse noise sources present in situ. We evaluated the method on an extensive set of audio data recorded under natural field conditions. Results show that the proposed method outperforms existing approaches and accurately detects elephant rumbles. Our visual detection method shows that tracking elephants in wildlife videos (of different sizes and postures) is feasible and particularly robust at near distances. From our project results we draw a number of conclusions that are discussed and summarized. We clearly identified the most critical challenges and necessary improvements of the proposed detection methods and conclude that our findings have the potential to form the basis for a future automated early warning system for elephants. We discuss challenges that need to be solved and summarize open topics in the context of

  19. Tradeoff analysis for Dependable Real-Time Embedded Systems during the Early Design Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe

    Embedded systems are becoming increasingly complex and have tight competing constraints in terms of performance, cost, energy consumption, dependability, flexibility, security, etc. The objective of this thesis is to propose design methods and tools for supporting the tradeoff analysis of competing...... to processing elements, as well as the processor voltage and frequency levels for executing each task, such that transient faults are tolerated, the real-time constraints of the application are satisfied, and the energy consumed is minimized. In this thesis, we target the early design phases, when decisions...... have a high impact on the subsequent implementation choices. However, due to a lack of information, the early design phases are characterized by uncertainties, e.g., in the worst-case execution times (WCETs), in the functionality requirements, or in the hardware component costs. In this context, we...

  20. The Early Awareness and Alert System in Sweden: History and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Eriksson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decades, early awareness and alert (EAA activities and systems have gained importance and become a key early health technology assessment (HTA tool. While a pioneer in HTA, Sweden had no national level EAA activities until 2010. We describe the evolution and current status of the Swedish EAA System.Methods: This was a historical analysis based on the knowledge and experience of the authors supplemented by a targeted review of published and gray literature as well as documents relating to EAA activities in Sweden. Key milestones and a description of the current state of the Swedish EAA System is presented.Results: Initiatives to establish a system for the identification and assessment of emerging health technologies in Sweden date back to the 1980s. In the 1990s, the Swedish Agency for HTA and Assessment of Social Services (SBU supported the development of EuroScan as one of its founder members. In the mid-2000s, an independent regional initiative, driven by the Stockholm County Drug and Therapeutics Committee, resulted in the establishment of a regional horizon scanning function. By 2009, this work had expanded to a collaboration between the four biggest counties in Sweden. The following year it was further expanded to the national level and since then the Swedish EAA System has been carrying out identification, filtration and prioritization of new medicines, early assessment of the prioritized medicines, and dissemination of information. In 2015, the EAA System was incorporated into the Swedish national process for managed introduction and follow-up of new medicines. Outputs from the EAA System are now used to select new medicines for inclusion in this process.Conclusions: The Swedish EAA System started as a regional initiative and rapidly grew to become a national level activity. An important feature of the system today is its complete integration into the national process for managed introduction and follow-up of

  1. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimeault, C.; Trudeau, V.L.; Moon, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  2. The early indicators of financial failure: a study of bankrupt and solvent health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Singh, Sher G

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of pertinent predictors of financial failure based on analysis of solvent and bankrupt health systems to identify which financial measures show the clearest distinction between success and failure. Early warning signals are evident from the longitudinal analysis as early as five years before bankruptcy. The data source includes seven years of annual statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by 13 health systems before they filed bankruptcy. Comparative data were compiled from five solvent health systems for the same seven-year period. Seven financial solvency ratios are included in this study, including four cash liquidity measures, two leverage measures, and one efficiency measure. The results show distinct financial trends between solvent and bankrupt health systems, in particular for the operating-cash-flow-related measures, namely Ratio 1: Operating Cash Flow Percentage Change, from prior to current period; Ratio 2: Operating Cash Flow to Net Revenues; and Ratio 4: Cash Flow to Total Liabilities, indicating sensitivity in the hospital industry to cash flow management. The high dependence on credit from third-party payers is cited as a reason for this; thus, there is a great need for cash to fund operations. Five managerial policy implications are provided to help health system managers avoid financial solvency problems in the future.

  3. Safeguards and non-proliferation: current challenges and the implications for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leask, A.; Carlson, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The expansion of nuclear programs raises the issue of how to ensure this does not increase the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. The non-proliferation regime - based on the NPT and its verification mechanism, the IAEA safeguards system - has been developed to provide assurance that nuclear programs are exclusively peaceful. Although to date the non-proliferation regime has been remarkably successful, in recent years it has come under serious challenge. Nuclear proliferation is emerging as one of the major issues facing the international community. Addressing technical and institutional aspects of the non-proliferation regime - especially safeguards, but also complementary measures such as export controls, proliferation-resistant technology, and an international framework on sensitive technology - is important. But proliferation is a political problem, and ultimately the success of the non-proliferation regime depends on political resolve to uphold compliance, using incentives and if necessary sanctions. These issues are vitally important to Australia's future. Being a major uranium supplier has strengthened Australia's influence in non-proliferation and safeguards developments

  4. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy of the Obama Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jin Hyun; Hwang, Ji Hwan

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze and foresee trends of international nuclear non-proliferation regimes focused on the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the Obama administration, and suggest national policy directions which promote utilization and development of nuclear energy in Korea. For the effective and efficient implementation of the national nuclear use and development program in current international nuclear environment, many efforts should be made: to actively and positively participate in the international nuclear non-proliferation regime; to strengthen nuclear diplomacy in a more systematic manner; and to strengthen the international nuclear cooperation

  5. Psychological First Aid: Rapid proliferation and the search for evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Forbes, David

    2014-01-01

    Psychological first aid (PFA) has become the flagship early intervention for disaster survivors, with recent adaptations for disaster responders, in the post-9/11 era. PFA is broadly endorsed by expert consensus and integrated into guidelines for mental health and psychosocial support in disasters and extreme events. PFA frameworks are proliferating, with increasing numbers of models developed for delivery by a range of providers for use with an expanding array of target populations. Despite popularity and promotion there remains a dearth of evidence for effectiveness and recent independent reviews of PFA have highlighted this important gap. This commentary juxtaposes the current propagation of PFA against the compelling need to produce evidence for effectiveness and suggests a series of actions to prioritize and expedite real-time, real-event field evaluation of PFA.

  6. Signalling fiscal stress in the euro area - a country-specific early warning system

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández de Cos, Pablo; Koester, Gerrit B.; Moral-Benito, Enrique; Nickel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The sovereign debt crisis in the euro area has increased the interest in early warning indicators, with the aim to indicate the build?up of fiscal stress early on and to facilitate crisis prevention by a timely counteraction of fiscal and macroeconomic policies. This paper presents possible improvements to enhance existing early warning indicators for fiscal stress, especially for the euro area. We show that a country?specific approach could strongly increase the signalling power of early war...

  7. Twenty years of the Non-proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldblat, Jozef.

    1990-01-01

    The report assesses the achievements of the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and discusses ways in which the non-proliferation regime could be strenghtened. It recommends a series of measures to be taken by the parties of the Treaty, both nuclear and non-nuclear weapons states, with a view to reinforcing the Treaty and achieving its universality. 198 refs

  8. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René

    1993-12-01

    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic-Early

  9. Congenital malformations and damage in early infancy of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, O.; Stephani, U.

    2007-01-01

    Congenital malformations and cerebral damage in early infancy cause complex morphological and clinical changes. Modern imaging techniques, and especially NMR, have provided deeper knowledge of these diseases in the past few years. Based on the neuroradiological findings, the book presents a complete picture of congenital malformations of the central nervous systems and cerebral damage in early infancy; it describes the underlying pathomechanisms, clinical symptoms and therapies. Neurologists and neuropaediatricians are enabled to diagnose malformations correctly and to develop optimal therapy strategies in cooperation with other medical disciplines. Neuroradiologists and radiologists, on the other hand, will find a manual for correct interpretation and differential diagnosis of their findings and a guide for interpreting the findings and deciding further therapeutic or diagnostic interventions. (orig.)

  10. Early alert system for oscillations detection applied to the Central of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleros M, G.; Zapata Y, M.; Avila N, A.; Herrera H, S. F.

    2011-11-01

    The code Early Alert System developed by Engineering of the Reactor of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde is presented, showing its reliability like preventive and corrective instrument to external interferences to the reactor core, due to equipment malfunction associated to the typical systems of a nuclear power plant, as those that control the reactor pressure, those that feed water to the reactor, those that control the valves of the main turbine. With this purpose, real cases of application of the System are shown where the results are compared with the independent evaluations carried out by the supplier, observing compatibility in both results. The benefits of the logarithm are discussed in the nuclear industry as soon as in non nuclear ambits. (Author)

  11. Development of an advanced safeguards system as a proliferation deterrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.A.; Barnes, L.D.

    1978-11-01

    The Advanced Safeguards System consists of Computerized Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting System, Physical Protection System, and Safeguards Coordination Center (SCC). Should all the computer-based monitoring systems be overcome (i.e., the NMC computer programmed not to recognize a materials inventory change, the SCC computer programmed to accept a falsified area and personnel authorization, and the physical security system programmed not to alarm for area intrusion), the requirements of the physical security system remain formidable barriers to successful theft since all SNM is separated from the uncontrolled areas by at least one entry control portal. An egress from the protected area--by either a vehicle through the vehicle access portal, or on foot through the personnel access portal--requires that the individuals be subjected to a search for metal and SNM before egress is permitted. The material access areas are further controlled by an interior access portal imposing the same SNM and metal search criteria. The portal search criteria are not subject to computer interpretation, but direct positive--negative indications to the portal patrolman. The physical security system then provides an independent backup should the computerized systems be defeated. Thus, the computer systems themselves will not, if defeated, guarantee an adversary success. The corollary also holds true; a defeat of the physical search elements of the physical security system will not guarantee adversary success because of the monitoring/surveillance function of the computerized systems. The complementary and overlapping nature of the safeguards systems is intended to provide multiple layers of safeguards, each layer providing an effective element of protection. Tests to date indicate that it appears feasible to meet operational objectives and maintain a high safeguards performance level using these concepts which are being incorporated into the Advanced Safeguards System.None

  12. Early-type semidetached system LY Aurigae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.F.; Leung, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to resolve a controversy regarding the configuration, mass ratio, and evolutionary status of the early-type close binary system LY Aur, the six bandpass OAO 2 observations of Heap and the ground-based observations combined by Eaton were analyzed. The Wilson and Devinney approach was used. The system is found to be semidetached, with the cooler and less massive component filling its Roche lobe, while the hotter component is close to its Roche surface. The system is not an early-type zero-age contact, as was suspected earlier. 20 references

  13. The future of nuclear non-proliferation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqa, A.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation in South Asia is currently one of the hot topics in world politics. The concern of the international community, and especially the USA, over this issue is coupled with the fear of nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan. As a result, Washington has been using its 'stick and carrot' policy to persuade the two countries involved not to develop their nuclear programs for military purposes. However both countries have not only continued to develop their nuclear ambitions, but seem to have achieved vertical nuclear proliferation. This paper examines the future non-proliferation in the South Asian region in the 1990s. This will be achieved by looking at the following: the development of the nuclear capabilities of both India and Pakistan; how these programs have been developed; the reasons for acquiring the capability for non-conventional defence; the real fear in terms of nuclear proliferation in the region; the possible options for dealing with nuclear proliferation in South Asia

  14. [Neuroendocrine tumors of digestive system: morphologic spectrum and cell proliferation (Ki67 index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delektorskaia, V V; Kushliskiĭ, N E

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with the analysis of up-to-date concepts ofdiferent types of human neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. It summarizes the information on the specifics of recent histological classifications and criteria of morphological diagnosis accounting histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical parameters. Current issues of the nomenclature as well as various systems of grading and staging are discussed. In the light of these criteria the results of the own research clinical value of the determination of cell proliferation in primary and metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms on the basis of evaluation of the Ki67 antigen expression are also presented.

  15. A Simple Early Warning System for Evaluating the Credit Portfolio's Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed the development of a vast literature devoted to the study of several phenomena like banking crises or episodes of vulnerability and distress, characterized by inadequate capitalization, impairment of the asset quality and of the credit institutions' rating. The purpose of this study is to design an early warning system in order to highlight at an earlier stage the likelihood of deterioration of the Romanian banking system credit portfolio's quality. We have applied an econometric model which constitutes a reference for this type of analysis, having as purpose the identification of a significant correlation between increasing weight of bad loans in total assets, on the one hand, and a number of macroeconomic variables and indicators of the banking system, on the other hand.

  16. The SSAC in international safeguards and non-proliferation aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bett, F.L.; Humphreys, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The history of international efforts against horizontal proliferation, including the Baruch Plan, bilateral safeguards agreement, IAEA safeguards, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Zangger Committee, the Nuclear Supplier Group guidelines and the Physical Protection Convention, is reviewed. The role of IAEA NPT safeguards in verifying nondiversion and ensuring no misuse of supplied nuclear items is discussed. The vital importance of successful performance of this role to peaceful nuclear commerce is stressed. The application of NPT safeguards by the IAEA is described, particularly the IAEA's requirement that a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material be established. Such a State System has two different but complementary areas of responsibility - ensuring that the use of nuclear material is controlled effectively and can be readily accounted for (this includes the area of physical protection), and providing accounts of nuclear material to responsible bodies such as the State's government and equally importantly to the IAEA for safeguards purpose, as the IAEA bases its conclusions about diversion on its verification of the data provided by the State System

  17. Characterizing the effects of feature salience and top-down attention in the early visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltoratski, Sonia; Ling, Sam; McCormack, Devin; Tong, Frank

    2017-07-01

    The visual system employs a sophisticated balance of attentional mechanisms: salient stimuli are prioritized for visual processing, yet observers can also ignore such stimuli when their goals require directing attention elsewhere. A powerful determinant of visual salience is local feature contrast: if a local region differs from its immediate surround along one or more feature dimensions, it will appear more salient. We used high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) at 7T to characterize the modulatory effects of bottom-up salience and top-down voluntary attention within multiple sites along the early visual pathway, including visual areas V1-V4 and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Observers viewed arrays of spatially distributed gratings, where one of the gratings immediately to the left or right of fixation differed from all other items in orientation or motion direction, making it salient. To investigate the effects of directed attention, observers were cued to attend to the grating to the left or right of fixation, which was either salient or nonsalient. Results revealed reliable additive effects of top-down attention and stimulus-driven salience throughout visual areas V1-hV4. In comparison, the LGN exhibited significant attentional enhancement but was not reliably modulated by orientation- or motion-defined salience. Our findings indicate that top-down effects of spatial attention can influence visual processing at the earliest possible site along the visual pathway, including the LGN, whereas the processing of orientation- and motion-driven salience primarily involves feature-selective interactions that take place in early cortical visual areas. NEW & NOTEWORTHY While spatial attention allows for specific, goal-driven enhancement of stimuli, salient items outside of the current focus of attention must also be prioritized. We used 7T fMRI to compare salience and spatial attentional enhancement along the early visual hierarchy. We report additive effects of

  18. THE ASTEROID BELT AS A RELIC FROM A CHAOTIC EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izidoro, André; Raymond, Sean N.; Pierens, Arnaud [Laboratoire d’astrophysique de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac (France); Morbidelli, Alessandro [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Winter, Othon C. [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista—Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital and Planetologia, Guaratinguetá, CEP 12.516-410, São Paulo (Brazil); Nesvorny' , David, E-mail: izidoro.costa@gmail.com [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    The orbital structure of the asteroid belt holds a record of the solar system’s dynamical history. The current belt only contains ∼10{sup −3} Earth masses yet the asteroids’ orbits are dynamically excited, with a large spread in eccentricity and inclination. In the context of models of terrestrial planet formation, the belt may have been excited by Jupiter’s orbital migration. The terrestrial planets can also be reproduced without invoking a migrating Jupiter; however, as it requires a severe mass deficit beyond Earth’s orbit, this model systematically under-excites the asteroid belt. Here we show that the orbits of the asteroids may have been excited to their current state if Jupiter’s and Saturn’s early orbits were chaotic. Stochastic variations in the gas giants’ orbits cause resonances to continually jump across the main belt and excite the asteroids’ orbits on a timescale of tens of millions of years. While hydrodynamical simulations show that the gas giants were likely in mean motion resonance at the end of the gaseous disk phase, small perturbations could have driven them into a chaotic but stable state. The gas giants’ current orbits were achieved later, during an instability in the outer solar system. Although it is well known that the present-day solar system exhibits chaotic behavior, our results suggest that the early solar system may also have been chaotic.

  19. Evaluating the Use of Remote Sensing Data in the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Brickley, Elizabeth B.

    2011-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) s Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to food insecurity emergencies on three continents. FEWS NET uses satellite remote sensing and ground observations of rainfall and vegetation in order to provide information on drought, floods and other extreme weather events to decision makers. Previous research has presented results from a professional review questionnaire with FEWS NET expert end-users whose focus was to elicit Earth observation requirements. The review provided FEWS NET operational requirements and assessed the usefulness of additional remote sensing data. Here we analyzed 1342 food security update reports from FEWS NET. The reports consider the biophysical, socioeconomic, and contextual influences on the food security in 17 countries in Africa from 2000-2009. The objective was to evaluate the use of remote sensing information in comparison with other important factors in the evaluation of food security crises. The results show that all 17 countries use rainfall information, agricultural production statistics, food prices and food access parameters in their analysis of food security problems. The reports display large scale patterns that are strongly related to history of the FEWS NET program in each country. We found that rainfall data was used 84% of the time, remote sensing of vegetation 28% of the time, and gridded crop models 10%, reflecting the length of use of each product in the regions. More investment is needed in training personnel on remote sensing products to improve use of data products throughout the FEWS NET system.

  20. The Early Warning System and the EU’s subsidiarity principle: the Basque Parliament’s application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis de Castro Ruano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses and evaluates the Basque Parliament’s participation in the EU’s Early Warning System (EWS for checking the application of the subsidiarity principle in the EU’s legislative process. The Early Warning System is an instrument created by the Lisbon Treaty (signed in 2007 and in force since 2009 to safeguard the subsidiarity principle. One of its most interesting innovations is that it facilitates the participation of regional parliaments in the control of the subsidiarity principle. Two years after its introduction, the Basque Parliament is one of the most active regional actors in this regard.

  1. Multi-component Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System: On proliferation resistance aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmelev, A.; Saito, M; Artisyuk, V.

    2000-01-01

    Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES) that simultaneously meets four requirements: energy production, fuel production, burning of radionuclides and safety is targeted at harmonization of nuclear energy technology with human environment. The main bulk of SCNES studies focus on a potential of fast reactor (FR) in generating neutron excess to keep suitable neutron balance. Proliferation resistance was implicitly anticipated in a fuel cycle with co-processing of Pu, minor actinides (MA) and some relatively short-lived fission products (FP). In a contrast to such a mono-component system, the present paper advertises advantage of incorporating accelerator and fusion driven neutron sources which could drastically improve characteristics of nuclear waste incineration. What important is that they could help in creating advanced Np and Pa containing fuels with double protection against uncontrolled proliferation. The first level of protection deals with possibility to approach long life core (LLC) in fission reactors. Extending the core life-time to reactor-time is beneficial from the proliferation resistance viewpoint since LLC would not necessarily require fuel management at energy producing site, with potential advantage of being moved to vendor site for spent fuel refabrication. Second level is provided by the presence of substantial amounts of 238 Pu and 232 U in these fuels that makes fissile nuclides in them isotopically protected. All this reveals an important advantage of a multi-component SCNES that could draw in developing countries without elaborated technological infrastructure. (author)

  2. Proliferation: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  3. Early experiences with the multidose drug dispensing system – A matter of trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekre, Liv Johanne; Melby, Line; Grimsmo, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study early experiences with multidose drug dispensing (MDD) among different groups of health personnel. Design Qualitative study based on focus-group interviews. Setting Primary health care, Trondheim, Norway. Main outcome The importance of trust in the technology and in collaborating partners is actualized in the early implementation of MDD. Results GPs, home-care nurses, pharmacists, and medical secretaries trusted the new MDD technology. The quality of the GPs’ medication records improved. However, health personnel, including the GPs themselves, would not always trust the medication records of the GPs. Checking the multidose bags arriving from the pharmacy was considered unnecessary in the written routines dealing with MDD. However, home-care nurses experienced errors and continued to manually check the bags. Nurses in the home-care service felt a loss of knowledge with regard to the patients’ medications and in turn experienced reduced ability to give medical information to patients and to observe the effects of the drugs. The home-care services’ routines for drug handling were not always trusted by the other groups of health personnel involved. Conclusion Health personnel faced some challenges during the implementation of the MDD system, but most of them remained confident in the new system. Building trust has to be a process that runs in parallel with the introduction of new technology and the establishment of new routines for improving the quality in handling of medicines and to facilitate better cooperation and communication. PMID:21323496

  4. Nuclear weapons proliferation and the new world order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, J.

    1994-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons has become the priority safety problem since the end of the cold war. The danger that new nuclear states may arise from the former Soviet Union, the limited effectiveness of existing control systems, the increased attractiveness of nuclear weapons for countries in which a 'safety vacuum' has developed since the withdrawal of American and Russian forces, as well as the danger that additional nuclear states (China, India, Pakistan) may become unstable or disintegrate, make it necessary to explore and show the ensuing risks. The study contains analyses from well-respected experts from Germany, Russia, Japan and the USA. They show how the changes in regional security situations could lead to nuclear risks under certain circumstances, and the likely international consequences. A second point of emphasis consens the feasibility of new approaches or instruments in international non-proliferatic policy. New possibilities for the improvement of excisting control systems and the extension of international consensus on an intensification of the non-proliferation regime are offered by the changes in world politics. (orig.) [de

  5. Early Components of the Complement Classical Activation Pathway in Human Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintner, Katherine E.; Wu, Yee Ling; Yang, Yan; Spencer, Charles H.; Hauptmann, Georges; Hebert, Lee A.; Atkinson, John P.; Yu, C. Yung

    2016-01-01

    The complement system consists of effector proteins, regulators, and receptors that participate in host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system, via the classical pathway (CP), has long been recognized in immune complex-mediated tissue injury, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Paradoxically, a complete deficiency of an early component of the CP, as evidenced by homozygous genetic deficiencies reported in human, are strongly associated with the risk of developing SLE or a lupus-like disease. Similarly, isotype deficiency attributable to a gene copy-number (GCN) variation and/or the presence of autoantibodies directed against a CP component or a regulatory protein that result in an acquired deficiency are relatively common in SLE patients. Applying accurate assay methodologies with rigorous data validations, low GCNs of total C4, and heterozygous and homozygous deficiencies of C4A have been shown as medium to large effect size risk factors, while high copy numbers of total C4 or C4A as prevalent protective factors, of European and East-Asian SLE. Here, we summarize the current knowledge related to genetic deficiency and insufficiency, and acquired protein deficiencies for C1q, C1r, C1s, C4A/C4B, and C2 in disease pathogenesis and prognosis of SLE, and, briefly, for other systemic autoimmune diseases. As the complement system is increasingly found to be associated with autoimmune diseases and immune-mediated diseases, it has become an attractive therapeutic target. We highlight the recent developments and offer a balanced perspective concerning future investigations and therapeutic applications with a focus on early components of the CP in human systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:26913032

  6. Arthropod eyes: The early Cambrian fossil record and divergent evolution of visual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Ma, Xiaoya; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Fortey, Richard A; Land, Michael F; Liu, Yu; Cong, Peiyun; Hou, Xianguang

    2016-03-01

    Four types of eyes serve the visual neuropils of extant arthropods: compound retinas composed of adjacent facets; a visual surface populated by spaced eyelets; a smooth transparent cuticle providing inwardly directed lens cylinders; and single-lens eyes. The first type is a characteristic of pancrustaceans, the eyes of which comprise lenses arranged as hexagonal or rectilinear arrays, each lens crowning 8-9 photoreceptor neurons. Except for Scutigeromorpha, the second type typifies Myriapoda whose relatively large eyelets surmount numerous photoreceptive rhabdoms stacked together as tiers. Scutigeromorph eyes are facetted, each lens crowning some dozen photoreceptor neurons of a modified apposition-type eye. Extant chelicerate eyes are single-lensed except in xiphosurans, whose lateral eyes comprise a cuticle with a smooth outer surface and an inner one providing regular arrays of lens cylinders. This account discusses whether these disparate eye types speak for or against divergence from one ancestral eye type. Previous considerations of eye evolution, focusing on the eyes of trilobites and on facet proliferation in xiphosurans and myriapods, have proposed that the mode of development of eyes in those taxa is distinct from that of pancrustaceans and is the plesiomorphic condition from which facetted eyes have evolved. But the recent discovery of enormous regularly facetted compound eyes belonging to early Cambrian radiodontans suggests that high-resolution facetted eyes with superior optics may be the ground pattern organization for arthropods, predating the evolution of arthrodization and jointed post-protocerebral appendages. Here we provide evidence that compound eye organization in stem-group euarthropods of the Cambrian can be understood in terms of eye morphologies diverging from this ancestral radiodontan-type ground pattern. We show that in certain Cambrian groups apposition eyes relate to fixed or mobile eyestalks, whereas other groups reveal concomitant

  7. The Influence of Physical Forces on Progenitor Cell Migration, Proliferation and Differentiation in Fracture Repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Steven A; Hankerson, Kurt; Kilbourn, Michael

    2006-01-01

    ... and quality of fracture repair in long bones. In support of these goals we will test the global hypothesis that the migration proliferation and differentiation of systemically or locally delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells is temporarily dependent...

  8. Non Nuclear Testing of Reactor Systems In The Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facility (EFF-TF) can assist in the design and development of systems through highly effective non-nuclear testing of nuclear systems when technical issues associated with near-term space fission systems are 'non-nuclear' in nature (e.g. system's nuclear operations are understood). For many systems, thermal simulators can be used to closely mimic fission heat deposition. Axial power profile, radial power profile, and fuel pin thermal conductivity can be matched. In addition to component and subsystem testing, operational and lifetime issues associated with the steady state and transient performance of the integrated reactor module can be investigated. Instrumentation at the EFF-TF allows accurate measurement of temperature, pressure, strain, and bulk core deformation (useful for accurately simulating nuclear behavior). Ongoing research at the EFF-TF is geared towards facilitating research, development, system integration, and system utilization via cooperative efforts with DOE laboratories, industry, universities, and other Nasa centers. This paper describes the current efforts for the latter portion of 2003 and beginning of 2004. (authors)

  9. The Effect of Activating Early Warning System on Motahari Hospital Preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Delshad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the important aspects of hospital preparedness in disasters is its rapid early warning system. In this study, the activation of early warning system was evaluated under the monitoring of disasters workgroup of the Ministry of Health based on the national program of “hospitals preparedness in disasters” in Shahid Motahari Hospital.  Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 801 adults exposed to the earthquake. Two months after the earthquake, all subjects were surveyed with measures administrated in a standard order as follows: demographic data sheet, disaster experiences scale (DES, general health questionnaire (GHQ, and symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. Results: The results revealed that 23% of the survivors in the exposed group had ASD, 10% had anxiety symptoms, 7.5% depression, 4% MADD, 5% psychosomatic disorders, 10% phobia, 7% aggressive behavior, and 10% insomnia. Conclusion: This article has summarized the current status of information on mental disorders caused by experiencing or witnessing a life threatening severe earthquake. The experience of fear, helplessness, and panic during the earthquake, and the appraisal by the victims of serious psychological, social, as well as demographical consequences after the earthquake, were positively related to the subscale scores and the total score of GHQ, SCL-90-R, and DES.

  10. The proliferation of ballistic missiles: an aggravating factor of crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Valery

    2015-01-01

    After a brief recall of the history of the development of ballistic missiles from World War II, the author discusses the various uses of these missiles, on the one hand by major powers, and on the other hand by other countries like Israel, Pakistan and India, and also Egypt and Iraq. He recalls the uses of these missiles during regional conflicts (Scuds by Iraq) and then discusses the issue of proliferation of ballistic missiles. He notices that most of these weapons are present in the arsenal of major powers under the form of intercontinental missiles, intermediate range weapons or theatre weapons. On the Third World side, proliferation concerns short- and medium-range missiles produced from technology transfers or national programmes. Mobile systems are now present in all conflicts (notably Libya, Syria) and are now based on more advanced technologies for propellers as well as for control and guidance systems. In the last part, the author discusses the perspectives associated with these missiles which are a strong offensive weapon, and are also modernised to carry nuclear warheads or multiple warheads. These evolutions could put the western superiority into question again

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, estrogenic responses and biotransformation system in the liver of salmon exposed to tributyltin and second messenger activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlikova, Nela [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); RECETOX Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, CZ62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Kortner, Trond M. [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    The mechanisms by which organotin compounds produce modulations of the endocrine systems and other biological responses are not fully understood. In this study, juvenile salmon were force-fed diet containing TBT (0: solvent control, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg fish) for 72 h. Subsequently, fish exposed to solvent control and 10 mg TBT were exposed to waterborne concentration (200 {mu}g/l) of the adenylate cyclase (AC) stimulator, forskolin for 2 and 4 h. The overall aim of the study was to explore whether TBT endocrine disruptive effects involve second messenger activation. Liver was sampled from individual fish (n = 8) at the end of the exposures. The transcription patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isotype and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1), aromatase isoform, estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}), pregnane X receptor (PXR), CYP3A and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Our data showed a consistent increase in PPAR{alpha}, PPAR{beta} and PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein expression after TBT exposure that were inversely correlated with ACOX1 mRNA levels. Forskolin produced PPAR isotype-specific mRNA and protein effects that were modulated by TBT. ACOX1 expression was decreased (at 2 h) and increased (at 4 h) by forskolin and the presence of TBT potentiated these effects. TBT apparently increased mRNA and protein levels of cyp19a, compared to the solvent control, whereas cyp19b mRNA levels were unaffected by TBT treatment. Combined TBT and forskolin exposure produced respective decrease and increase of mRNA levels of cyp19a and cyp19b, compared with control. TBT decreased ER{alpha} mRNA at low dose (1 mg/kg) and forskolin exposure alone produced a consistent decrease of ER{alpha} mRNA levels that were not affected by the presence of TBT. Interestingly, PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels were differentially affected, either decreased or increased, after exposure to TBT and forskolin, singly

  12. Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, G.; Huisman-de Waal, G.J.; Zanten, A.R. van; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Schoonhoven, L.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value of individual and combined dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators at various Early Warning Score levels, differentiating between Early Warning Scores reaching the trigger threshold to call a rapid response team and Early Warning

  13. Earthquake magnitude estimation using the τ c and P d method for earthquake early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xing; Zhang, Hongcai; Li, Jun; Wei, Yongxiang; Ma, Qiang

    2013-10-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are one of the most effective ways to reduce earthquake disaster. Earthquake magnitude estimation is one of the most important and also the most difficult parts of the entire EEW system. In this paper, based on 142 earthquake events and 253 seismic records that were recorded by the KiK-net in Japan, and aftershocks of the large Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, we obtained earthquake magnitude estimation relationships using the τ c and P d methods. The standard variances of magnitude calculation of these two formulas are ±0.65 and ±0.56, respectively. The P d value can also be used to estimate the peak ground motion of velocity, then warning information can be released to the public rapidly, according to the estimation results. In order to insure the stability and reliability of magnitude estimation results, we propose a compatibility test according to the natures of these two parameters. The reliability of the early warning information is significantly improved though this test.

  14. A kinase-dead knock-in mutation in mTOR leads to early embryonic lethality and is dispensable for the immune system in heterozygous mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavender Druie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian target of rapamycin protein (mTOR is an evolutionarily conserved kinase that regulates protein synthesis, cell cycle progression and proliferation in response to various environmental cues. As a critical downstream mediator of PI3K signaling, mTOR is important for lymphocyte development and function of mature T and B-cells. Most studies of mTOR in immune responses have relied on the use of pharmacological inhibitors, such as rapamycin. Rapamycin-FKBP12 complex exerts its immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative effect by binding outside the kinase domain of mTOR, and subsequently inhibiting downstream mTOR signaling. Results To determine the requirement for mTOR kinase activity in the immune system function, we generated knock-in mice carrying a mutation (D2338 in the catalytic domain of mTOR. While homozygous mTOR kd/kd embryos died before embryonic day 6.5, heterozygous mTOR+/kd mice appeared entirely normal and are fertile. mTOR +/kd mice exhibited normal T and B cell development and unaltered proliferative responses of splenocytes to IL-2 and TCR/CD28. In addition, heterozygousity for the mTOR kinase-dead allele did not sensitize T cells to rapamycin in a CD3-mediated proliferation assay. Unexpectedly, mTOR kinase activity towards its substrate 4E-BP1 was not decreased in hearts and livers from heterozygous animals. Conclusion Altogether, our findings indicate that mTOR kinase activity is indispensable for the early development of mouse embryos. Moreover, a single wild type mTOR allele is sufficient to maintain normal postnatal growth and lymphocyte development and proliferation.

  15. Identification of the optimal donor quality scoring system and measure of early renal function in kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2009-02-27

    The early identification of kidney allografts at risk of later dysfunction has implications for clinical practice. Donor quality scoring systems (preoperative) and measures of early allograft function (first week postoperative) have previously shown practical utility. This study aimed to determine the optimal parameter(s) (preoperative and postoperative) with greatest predictive power for the development of subsequent allograft dysfunction.

  16. The structure of German non-proliferation policy - past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1990-01-01

    West German nonproliferation policy has evolved through four phases: First German policy strived to regain the right to nuclear research and industrial development. Then West Germany struggled for participation in NATO nuclear decision-making. Following the conclusion of the NPT, the full development of a mature nuclear industry, including activities in the full fuel cycle, and the promotion of nuclear exports were the focus of national nuclear policy. Starting in the early eighties, political aspects became more important. International security, arms control and disarmament, and foreign reputation had a more prominent role than pure economic interests. In the future, the united Germany must take care not to repeat the sad scandals of the eighties. Its renunciation of nuclear weapons remains a pillar of European stability and a prerequisite for a European peace system. Together with its European partners, Germany can be expected to take a more active, supportive and effective role in international non-proliferation policy. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Early emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L; Sullivan, Kathleen R; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2016-08-23

    Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants' reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents' intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals. Infants' reasoning about food preferences is fundamentally social: They generalize food preferences across individuals who affiliate, or who speak a common language, but not across individuals who socially disengage or who speak different languages. Importantly, infants' reasoning about food preferences is flexibly calibrated to their own experiences: Tests of bilingual babies reveal that an infant's sociolinguistic background influences whether she will constrain her generalization of food preferences to people who speak the same language. Additionally, infants' systems for reasoning about food is differentially responsive to positive and negative information. Infants generalize information about food disgust across all people, regardless of those people's social identities. Thus, whereas food preferences are seen as embedded within social groups, disgust is interpreted as socially universal, which could help infants avoid potentially dangerous foods. These studies reveal an early-emerging system for thinking about food that incorporates social reasoning about agents and their relationships, and allows infants to make abstract, flexible, adaptive inferences to interpret others' food choices.

  18. Development of a hybrid safety system: Actuation of the secondary automatic depressurization system at an early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Masae; Umezawa, Shigemitsu; Okabe, Kazuharu; Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi

    1996-01-01

    A Hybrid Safety System, which is an optimum combination of active and passive safety systems, has been developed in order to improve the safety, reliability and economic features of the next generation of PWRs. The passive safety systems include Automatic primary Depressurization System (ADS), Secondary Automatic Depressurization System (SADS), advanced accumulators, gravity injection system and so on. In this study the authors have improved the actuation logic of the passive safety systems. The original logic in the previous study actuates ADS at an early stage of an event such as a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), and this is followed by the actuation of SADS. In this study they divide SADS into two systems. The first, small SADS, uses small valves corresponding to the relief valves of the conventional PWR plants. The second, large SADS, corresponds to the original SADS using multiple valves of large capacity. With the new logic, the passive systems are actuated during a typical small LOCA. Small LOCA analyses using several break areas were performed for a 1,400 MWe PWR plant with a Hybrid Safety System. The results predict that core uncovery does not occur in the case of a relatively small break area and that core heat removal during a small LOCA is improved in comparison with the analyses for conventional PWR plants, where the secondary pressure remains higher during the event. The results also predict that this new logic make it possible to reduce the ADS valve size and the actuation pressure setpoint of the passive safety systems

  19. Methodologies for evaluating the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Hori, Kei-ichiro; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) believes that the development of future nuclear fuel cycle technology should be conducted with careful consideration given to non-proliferation. JNC is studying methodologies for evaluating proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. However, it is difficult to establish the methodology for evaluating proliferation resistance since the results greatly depend on the assumption for the evaluation and the surrounding conditions. This study grouped factors of proliferation resistance into categories through reviewing past studies and studied the relationships between the factors. Then, this study tried to find vulnerable nuclear material (plutonium) in some FBR fuel cycles from the proliferation perspective, and calculated the time it takes to convert the materials from various nuclear fuel cycles into pure plutonium metal under some assumptions. The result showed that it would take a long time to convert the nuclear materials from the FBR fuel cycles without plutonium separation. While it is a preliminary attempt to evaluate a technical factor of proliferation resistance as the basis of the institutional proliferation resistance, the JNC hopes that it will contribute to future discussions in this area. (author)

  20. Proliferation Resistance: Acquisition/Diversion Pathway Analysis for the DUPIC Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Chang, Hong Lae; Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Ho Hee; Kwon, Eun Ha; Jeong, Chang Joon; Kim, Ho Dong

    2009-07-01

    Within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), a methodology for evaluating proliferation resistance (INPRO PR methodology) has been developed. However, it remains to develop the methodology to evaluate User Requirements (UR) 4 regarding multiplicity and robustness of barriers against proliferation - innovative nuclear energy systems should incorporate multiple proliferation resistance features and measures. Since this requires an acquisition/diversion pathway analysis, this report describes a systematic approach developed for the identification and analysis of pathways for the acquisition of weapons-usable nuclear material using the DUPIC fuel cycle system. At the first step, the objectives of the proliferation were identified, including the quality and quantity of the material, the time required to acquire the material for the proliferation, thr capability of the potential proliferant country, etc. At the second step, the possible strategies, which the potential proliferant country could adopt, were identified: undeclared removal of nuclear material from the fuel cycle facilities; and further treatment of the diverted nuclear materials needed to acquire weapons-usable materials. At the final step, a systematic approach to select the plausible pathways for the acquisition/diversion of nuclear material during the whole fuel cycle has been developed. The coarse material diversion pathways for the DUPIC fuel cycle and the approach developed was reviewed and discussed at the experts meeting at the IAEA for its appropriateness and comprehensiveness

  1. The International Platform on Earthquake Early Warning Systems (IP-EEWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jair; Fanchiotti, Margherita

    2017-04-01

    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 recognizes the need to "substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030" as one of its global targets (target "g"). While considerable progress has been made in recent decades, early warning systems (EWSs) continue to be less developed for geo-hazards and significant challenges remain in advancing the development of EWSs for specific hazards, particularly for fastest onset hazards such as earthquakes. An earthquake early warning system (EEWS) helps in disseminating timely information about potentially catastrophic earthquake hazards to the public, emergency managers and the private sector to provide enough time to implement automatized emergency measures. At the same time, these systems help to reduce considerably the CO2 emissions produced by the catastrophic impacts and subsequent effects of earthquakes, such as those generated by fires, collapses, and pollution (among others), as well as those produced in the recovery and reconstruction processes. In recent years, EEWSs have been developed independently in few countries: EEWSs have shown operational in Japan and Mexico, while other regions in California (USA), Turkey, Italy, Canada, South Korea and China (including Taiwan) are in the development stages or under restricted applications. Many other countries in the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Middle East, Eastern Africa, Southeast Africa, as well as Central America, South America and the Caribbean, are located in some of the most seismically active regions in the world, or present moderate seismicity but high vulnerability, and would strongly benefit from the development of EEWSs. Given that, in many instances, the development of an EEWS still requires further testing, increased density coverage in seismic observation stations, regional coordination, and further scientific

  2. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Enhancing a Facility-Level Model for Proliferation Resistance Assessment of a Nuclear Enegry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-10-26

    The Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment project (PL09-UtilSocial) investigates the use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessments, including nonproliferation assessments, Proliferation Resistance (PR) assessments, safeguards assessments, and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about a host State and its posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system (NES) to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This objective of this project is to find and integrate social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social, and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation; and to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment. This report describes a modeling approach and how it might be used to support a location-specific assessment of the PR assessment of a particular NES. The report demonstrates the use of social modeling to enhance an existing assessment process that relies on primarily technical factors. This effort builds on a literature review and preliminary assessment performed as the first stage of the project and compiled in PNNL-18438. [ T his report describes an effort to answer questions about whether it is possible to incorporate social modeling into a PR assessment in such a way that we can determine the effects of social factors on a primarily technical assessment. This report provides: 1. background information about relevant social factors literature; 2. background information about a particular PR assessment approach relevant to this particular demonstration; 3. a discussion of social modeling undertaken to find and characterize social factors that are relevant to the PR assessment of a nuclear facility in a specific location; 4. description of an enhancement concept that integrates social factors into an existing, technically

  3. Early age exposure to moisture damage and systemic inflammation at the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, A M; Tischer, C; Kirjavainen, P V; Roponen, M; Hyvärinen, A; Illi, S; Mustonen, K; Pfefferle, P I; Renz, H; Remes, S; Schaub, B; von Mutius, E; Pekkanen, J

    2018-05-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to indoor moisture damage and mold may be associated with subclinical inflammation. Our aim was to determine whether early age exposure to moisture damage or mold is prospectively associated with subclinical systemic inflammation or with immune responsiveness in later childhood. Home inspections were performed in children's homes in the first year of life. At age 6 years, subclinical systemic inflammation was measured by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood leukocytes and immune responsiveness by ex vivo production of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in whole blood cultures without stimulation or after 24 hours stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (PI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or peptidoglycan (PPG) in 251-270 children. Moisture damage in child's main living areas in infancy was not significantly associated with elevated levels of CRP or leukocytes at 6 years. In contrast, there was some suggestion for an effect on immune responsiveness, as moisture damage with visible mold was positively associated with LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α and minor moisture damage was inversely associated with PI-stimulated IL-1β. While early life exposure to mold damage may have some influence on later immune responsiveness, it does not seem to increase subclinical systemic inflammation in later life. © 2018 National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Towards the construction of a Drought Early Warning System in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, C.; Magaña, V. O.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts in Mexico are related to severe impacts in agricultural and livestock activities, water management and with the occurrence of wildfire. Droughts are recurrent, on time scales from years to decades. The impacts however, depend on the vulnerability. The negative impacts may be reduced by studying and monitoring the dynamical evolution of meteorological drought, and by identifying the factors that result in vulnerability, in the context of risk management. Considering the analysis of the vulnerability in the northern of Mexico, a semiarid region highly vulnerable to drought, a Drought Early Warning System was created based on the use of climate information. The first step was to identify the capacity to provide useful climate information to develop prevention actions. Results confirm that the drought in northern Mexico is a well-diagnosed phenomenon from the point of view of impacts in various sectors. However, the use of climate information is still very limited resulting in response to mitigate drought impacts rather than preparing for drought. Part of the problem is the limited capacity to interpret probabilistic forecasts to define actions. Therefore, a key element in a Drought Early Warning System is the development of reliable climate information and the use of indicators to determine of the onset, maximum intensity and duration of the event. The occurrence and severity of drought may be estimated using climate diagnosis and forecast. A preventive response to drought may be defined if the severity and duration surpass a threshold value after which a decision action should be made. In order to establish the relevance of indicators for drought risk management, retroactive analyses have been developed considering the case of northwestern Mexico. After a vulnerability analysis that considers the institutional capacity to make use of climate information, a Drought Early warning System has been designed that considers a number of actions that may be put

  5. Designing a Free Academic Early Alert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Welch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the development and implementation of a cloud-based, academic early alert system using Google Sheets. It was written for a non-computer savvy person to be able to develop the early alert system. By creating a Master Sheet and using the syntax from the share function of Google Sheets, a unique sheet can be created for each advisor that limits information sharing of their specific advisees. By adding a Google Form to the sheet, advisor interventions can be captured that reflect interventions made as a result of the early alert sheet. Approximately 52% of students were identified on the early alert sheet by having at least one non-passing score on an exam. There were 35-50% of faculty advisors who documented their interventions in the sheet. The template and coding used to develop this academic early alert sheet may be applied to other central documentation needs, such as professionalism early alert. Conflict of Interest Dr. Welch reports owning stock in Alphabet, Inc, however, was not involved in the selection of Google as the preferred platform at this institution.   Type: Note

  6. Early notification of the environmental radiation monitoring system to a radioactive event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Ne'eman, F; Brenner, S.

    1997-01-01

    The National Environmental Radiation Monitoring System managed by the Radiation Safety Division of the Ministry of tile Environment has been completed and is composed of a network of 10 stations; 6 terrestrial stations, 3 waterside stations and one mobile. The system was built by Rotem Co. and the control center is located at the Unit of Environmental Resources of the Ministry of the Environment in Tel Aviv University. Each station consists of a wide range Geiger Mueller detector and ambient dose rate meter that provides the level of the environmental dose rate. Low level radioactive particles are detected by air sampling with devices that collect suspended and settling particles . Each station is connected to the control center through telephone lines and RF communication system providing 24 hour a day the level of the environmental radiation. The background radiation dose rate level depends on the location of the station and varies from 8 - 16 μR/h. The system has proved its efficiency in a 'simulation like event' early detecting an unregistered gamma radiography work in the proximity of two stations performed in June 96 in Ashdod port and in December 96 at Maspenot Israel in Haifa. During the events the radiation level increased up to 20 times above the background level. Survey teams of the Ashdod port and Maspenot Israel were sent to place to check the sources for the radiation level increase. These teams found workers performing radiography work in the area of the stations. (authors)

  7. Proliferation networks at the time of targeted sanctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno; Nexon, Elisande

    2013-01-01

    After having outlined that nuclear proliferation networks are using the existing international market, the authors present the terminology associated with this field (acquisition transaction, acquisition organization) and outline that these networks are made of natural and legal persons with the objective of acquiring goods related to arm programs. They also notice that these natural and legal persons may intervene in an unwittingly way. They comment the evolution of proliferation networks during the past ten years in relationship with the worldwide development of goods flow and export controls. They outline that control measures and mechanisms must be continuously adapted to the evolution of bypassing methods used by proliferation networks

  8. Designing a Free Academic Early Alert System

    OpenAIRE

    Adam C Welch; Adam Greever; Carmen Linne

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development and implementation of a cloud-based, academic early alert system using Google Sheets. It was written for a non-computer savvy person to be able to develop the early alert system. By creating a Master Sheet and using the syntax from the share function of Google Sheets, a unique sheet can be created for each advisor that limits information sharing of their specific advisees. By adding a Google Form to the sheet, advisor interventions can be captured tha...

  9. Substance P Promotes the Proliferation, but Inhibits Differentiation and Mineralization of Osteoblasts from Rats with Spinal Cord Injury via RANKL/OPG System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Juan Liu

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI causes a significant amount of bone loss, which results in osteoporosis (OP. The neuropeptide substance P (SP and SP receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. To identify the roles of SP in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-OB in SCI rats, we investigated the expression of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R in BMSC-OB and the effects of SP on bone formation by development of BMSC-OB cultures. Sixty young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: SHAM and SCI. The expression of NK1R protein in BMSC-OB was observed using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The dose- and time-dependent effects of SP on the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of BMSC-OB and the expression of osteoblastic markers by in vitro experiments. The expression of NK1R in BMSC-OB was observed on plasma membranes and in cytoplasm. One week after osteogenic differentiation, the expression of NK1R was significantly increased after SCI at mRNA and protein levels. However, this difference was gradually attenuated at 2 or 3 weeks later. SP have the function to enhance cell proliferation, inhibite cell differentiation and mineralization at a proper concentration and incubation time, and this effect would be inhibited by adding SP or NK1R antagonist. The expression of RANKL/OPG was significantly increased in tibiae after SCI. Similarly, the RANKL/OPG expression in SCI rats was significantly increased when treating with 10-8 M SP. SP plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. The direct effect of SP may lead to increased bone resorption through the RANKL/OPG axis after SCI. In addition, high expression of SP also results in the suppression of osteogenesis in SCI rats. Then, the balance between bone resorption and bone formation was broken and finally osteoporosis occurred.

  10. THE LAND TRANSPORT SYSTEM, TO AND FROM CONSTANTA, IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOMINTE Paul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustained progress of the town of Constanta, a predominantly commercial and touristic centre, needed the support of a modern transport infrastructure, i.e. secure and quick communication networks. This is why the development of the land transportation system, technically, as well as organizationally, turned out to be just as important as the harbour’s well known commercial shipping lanes. As such, the city was among the first towns in the country to build a connecting railway with the Danube River, once the bridges over the river were put up, and, consequently, to have a direct link with Western Europe, and the Orient Express. On the other hand, the city owes much of its progress to the local authorities, for whom the transport from town to places such as the harbour, the hippodrome, the beaches at Vii and Mamaia, were not to be neglected. Overall, this progress transformed Constanta into one of the most modern and dynamic economic areas in the Romanian Old Kingdom, in the early 20th century.

  11. The Acapulco Parent Planetesimal: An Early Collisional History in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, K.; Kim, Y.

    2007-05-01

    The Acapulco, Mexico, meteorite was recovered in 1976 from a crater of approx. 30 cm diameter. An old crystallization age of 4.60 (error 0.03) Ga (Prinzhofer et al., 1992) establishes that its parent object is one of the oldest known planetesimals in the solar system, although not in a pristine form. Other dating systems indicated somewhat younger ages and isotopic variabilities in several elements documented a complex early history. The younger ages date the closure times in secondary minerals. The initial parent object was in a partially molten state when isotopically distinct foreign matter invaded the chondritic parent and some of the isotopic signatures survived. Nitrogen in the primitive achondrite Acapulco was found to have distinct isotopic signatures for the metal and silicate phases and also in different morphologies of graphites (El Goresy, 1995, 2005). The delayed collisional event probably disrupted the parent object, as Acapulco cooled very rapidly. Nitrogen in the injected metal and graphite did not isotopically exchange with the host silicates. We observed nitrogen isotopic signatures of several separated mineral phases which cover a range of delta 15N values from -150 permil to +13 permil. The lightest nitrogen signatures observed in metal separates are comparable to those in some morphologies of Acapulco graphites. The heavy N signatures observed in several silicate minerals are consistent with each other, while nitrogen in chromite is distinctly light (delta 15N of -80 permil), intermediate between those of metal and silicates. The incipient rapid cooling history is well documented down to approx. 120° C, as recorded by U/Th-4He ages in phosphates (Min et al., 2003). The history of the Acapulco parent object was uneventful after its early evolution in an environment where no perturbation by collisions occurred, until the meteorite's recent (6.0 Ma ago) injection into an earth-crossing orbit. References: El Goresy, A., Zinner, E., and Marti, K

  12. Sustaining non-proliferation in the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nye, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: introduction; the non-proliferation regime - 1950s to 1970s (IAEA safeguards; Non-proliferation Treaty; oil crisis; proposed sale of facilities for producing weapons-usable materials; USA position); the Carter Administration approach; INFCE (International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation); incentives (USA); export legislation (USA); domestic breeder policy (USA); maintaining the regime in the 1980s (safeguards; Pu and highly enriched uranium management; international spent fuel storage; fuel assurances); the problem of priority; rate vs. degree of proliferation; relations among regimes (international regimes); conclusion. (U.K.)

  13. [Ten years of early complex geriatric rehabilitation therapy in the DRG system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, G; Breuninger, K; Gronemeyer, S; van den Heuvel, D; Lübke, N; Lüttje, D; Wittrich, A; Wolff, J

    2014-01-01

    Geriatric medicine, as a specialized form of treatment for the elderly, is gaining in importance due to demographic changes. Especially important for geriatric medicine is combining acute care with the need to maintain functionality and participation. This includes prevention of dependency on structured care or chronic disability and handicap by means of rehabilitation. Ten years ago, the German DRG system tried to incorporate procedures (e.g., "early rehabilitation in geriatric medicine") in the hospital reimbursement system. OPS 8-550.x, defined by structural quality, days of treatment, and number of therapeutic interventions, triggers 17 different geriatric DRGs, covering most of the fields of medicine. OPS 8-550.x had been revised continuously to give a clear structure to quality aspects of geriatric procedures. However, OPS 8-550.x is based on proven need of in-hospital treatment. In the last 10 years, no such definition has been produced taking aspects of the German hospital system into account as well as aspects of transparency and benefit in everyday work. The German DRG system covers just basic reimbursement aspects of geriatric medicine quite well; however, a practicable and patient-oriented definition of "hospital necessity" is still lacking, but is absolutely essential for proper compensation. A further problem concerning geriatric medicine reimbursement in the DRG system is due to the different structures of providing geriatric in-hospital care throughout Germany.

  14. Communication architecture of an early warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angermann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009 on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

  15. Acquisition/Diversion Pathway Analysis of the DUPIC Fuel Cycle for the Assessment of Proliferation Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hong Lae; Ko, Won Il

    2008-01-01

    Within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) of the IAEA, a methodology for evaluating proliferation resistance (INPRO PR methodology) has been developed in order to provide guidance in using the INPRO methodology. However, it remains to develop the methodology to evaluate User Requirements (UR) 4 regarding multiplicity and robustness of barriers against proliferation (innovative nuclear energy systems should incorporate multiple proliferation resistance features and measures). To develop the assessment procedure and metrics for User Requirement 4 (UR4), the coarse acquisition/ diversion pathway analysis of the DUPIC Fuel Cycle has been performed. The most plausible pathways for the acquisition of weapons-usable nuclear material were identified and analyzed using a systematic approach herein, and future work to complete the assessment approach for the UR4 of the INPRO methodology regarding the multiplicity and robustness of barriers against proliferation are also proposed

  16. Cavity pressure/residual stress measurements from the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinle, R.A.; Hudson, B.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hatch, M.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory planned and conducted experiments on the Non-Proliferation Experiment to determine post-detonation gas pressure inside the explosive cavity and the residual rock stress in the region immediately outside the cavity. Before detonation there was significant concern that steam and detonation products would create very high temperatures and pressure in the blast cavity that would exist for weeks and months after firing. This could constitute a safety hazard to personnel re-entering the tunnel. Consequently the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was asked to field its Cavity Pressure/Residual stress monitor system on the Non-Proliferation Experiment. We obtained experimental data for the first 600 ms after the explosion and again several weeks after detonation upon tunnel re-entry. We recorded early-time cavity pressure of about 8.3 MPa. In addition we believe that the ends of our sensor hoses were subjected to an ambient driving pressure of about 0.5 MPa (absolute) that persisted until at least three weeks after zero time.

  17. GM-CSF produced by non-hematopoietic cells is required for early epithelial cell proliferation and repair of injured colonic mucosa1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Laia; McAllister, Christopher S.; Lakhdari, Omar; Minev, Ivelina; Shenouda, Steve; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    GM-CSF is a growth factor that promotes the survival and activation of macrophages and granulocytes, and dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and survival in vitro. The mechanism by which exogenous GM-CSF ameliorates the severity of Crohn’s disease in humans and colitis in murine models has been considered mainly to reflect its activity on myeloid cells. We used GM-CSF deficient (GM-CSF−/−) mice to probe the functional role of endogenous host-produced GM-CSF in a colitis model induced after injury to the colon epithelium. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) at doses that resulted in little epithelial damage and mucosal ulceration in wild type (WT) mice resulted in marked colon ulceration and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice. Colon crypt epithelial cell proliferation in vivo was significantly decreased in GM-CSF−/− mice at early times after DSS injury. This was paralleled by decreased expression of crypt epithelial cell genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and wound healing. Decreased crypt cell proliferation and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice were rescued by exogenous GM-CSF, indicating the lack of a developmental abnormality in the epithelial cell proliferative response in those mice. Non-hematopoietic cells and not myeloid cells produced the GM-CSF important for colon epithelial proliferation after DSS-induced injury as revealed by bone marrow chimera and DC depletion experiments, with colon epithelial cells being the cellular source of GM-CSF. Endogenous epithelial cell produced GM-CSF has a novel non-redundant role in facilitating epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer healing in response to injury of the colon crypt epithelium. PMID:23325885

  18. Complementary Gli activity mediates early patterning of the mouse visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Marosh; Wallace, Valerie A

    2006-03-01

    The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of the vertebrate central nervous system, including the eye. This pathway is mediated by the Gli transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) that differentially activate and repress the expression of specific downstream target genes. In this study, we investigated the roles of the three vertebrate Glis in mediating midline Shh signaling in early ocular development. We examined the ocular phenotypes of Shh and Gli combination mutant mouse embryos and monitored proximodistal and dorsoventral patterning by the expression of specific eye development regulatory genes using in situ hybridization. We show that midline Shh signaling relieves the repressor activity of Gli3 adjacent to the midline and then promotes eye pattern formation through the nonredundant activities of all three Gli proteins. Gli3, in particular, is required to specify the dorsal optic stalk and to define the boundary between the optic stalk and the optic cup.

  19. IPSN and the mastery of proliferation risks; L'IPSN et la maitrise des risques de proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-14

    Since 20 years, the French Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) works for the reinforcement of the efficiency of the actions against nuclear proliferation. This dossier takes stock of the means and action developed by the IPSN in this domain: nuclear and chemical proliferation: towards a reinforced mastery of risks (status of proliferation during the last 10 years, the aim of the international and national controls, the role of IPSN); nuclear proliferation: the technical control means of the IPSN (inspection, containment/surveillance of nuclear materials (PLUM and FUNE apparatuses), the cooperation between the IPSN and the Kurchatov institute (Russia)); the action of the IPSN in the application of international controls: example of chemistry (conventions, negotiations and expertise, inspections); appendixes: nuclear materials (declaration and permission thresholds), the different steps of the nuclear weapons non-proliferation policy. (J.S.)

  20. The Stranger within: Luxembourg's Early School System as a European Prototype of Nationally Legitimized International Blends (ca. 1794-1844)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Geert

    2013-01-01

    This comparative analysis of Luxembourg's early school (law) system reveals the extent to which European school systems reflect "national-cultural idiosyncrasies" apart from "structural isomorphism". It first examines the legal soil into which the Luxembourg school system was implanted. Legislative pendular swings, reflecting…

  1. Which future for the nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2004-01-01

    After a recall of the permanent data about proliferation and of the safeguards implemented by the international community, the author demonstrates that proliferation has moved towards Asia where a real 'black market' has been created. Then he analyzes the consequences of this change on the future of nuclear deterrent. Finally, he expresses his nostalgia in front of this drift and worries about the future uselessness of the means devoted to this 'pacifying' strategy. (J.S.)

  2. Non-equilibrium chemistry in the solar nebula and early solar system: Implications for the chemistry of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical models of solar nebula and early solar system chemistry which take into account the interplay between chemical, physical, and dynamical processes have great utility for deciphering the origin and evolution of the abundant chemically reactive volatiles (H, O, C, N, S) observed in comets. In particular, such models are essential for attempting to distinguish between presolar and solar nebula products and for quantifying the nature and duration of nebular and early solar system processing to which the volatile constituents of comets have been subjected. The diverse processes and energy sources responsible for chemical processing in the solar nebula and early solar system are discussed. The processes considered include homogeneous and heterogeneous thermochemical and photochemical reactions, and disequilibration resulting from fluid transport, condensation, and cooling whenever they occur on timescales shorter than those for chemical reactions.

  3. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and approximate number system to early mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Cargnelutti, Elisa; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2014-12-01

    Math learning is a complex process that entails a wide range of cognitive abilities to be fulfilled. There is sufficient evidence that both general and specific cognitive skills assume a fundamental role, despite the absence of shared consensus about the relative extent of their involvement. Moreover, regarding general abilities, there is no agreement about the recruitment of the different memory components or of intelligence. In relation to specific factors, great debate subsists regarding the role of the approximate number system (ANS). Starting from these considerations, we wanted to conduct a wide assessment of memory components and ANS, by controlling for the effects associated with intelligence and also exploring possible relationships between all precursors. To achieve this purpose, a sample of 157 children was tested at both beginning and end of their Grade 1. Both general (memory and intelligence) and specific (ANS) precursors were evaluated by a wide battery of tests and put in relation to concurrent and subsequent math skills. Memory was explored in passive and active aspects involving both verbal and visuo-spatial components. Path analysis results demonstrated that memory, and especially the more active processes, and intelligence were the strongest precursors in both assessment times. ANS had a milder role which lost significance by the end of the school year. Memory and ANS seemed to influence early mathematics almost independently. Both general and specific precursors seemed to have a crucial role in early math competences, despite the lower involvement of ANS. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  4. The legal points at issue concerning the Non-proliferation Treaty and the verification agreement of EURATOM with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1975-01-01

    An excellent and comprehensive but very juridicial contribution on: Development and content of the Non-proliferation Treaty, the problems which this Treaty poses for EURATOM (a common market, common supply, joint enterprises, Non-proliferation Treaty and France), the compatibility of the Non-proliferation Treaty with the EURATOM Treaty, verification agreement EURATOM - IAEA (the IAEA as the supervisory authority, the control system of the IAEA, guidelines elaborated by the IAEA to be used as the basis for negotiating safeguard agreements, national systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material IAEA supervision as a secondary control, principles of IAEA supervision, secrecy, conflict management), conclusion of the verification agreement, deviations from the guidelines elaborated by the IAEA to be used as the basis for negotiating safeguard agreements legal reflexions (verification agreement and Non-proliferation Treaty, reservations concerning the Non-proliferation Treaty, questions of competence between EURATOM and member states without nuclear weapons, problems of equal treatment). (HP/LN) [de

  5. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the

  6. The new US nuclear non-proliferation and export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welck, S. von.

    1981-01-01

    The future American nuclear non-proliferation and export policy will be determined chiefly by three elements: (1) Adherence to the former objective of nuclear non-proliferation. (2) A large and varied assortment of old and new tools for implementing this goal. (3) Much more differentiation in applying these tools in the light of the reliability, with respect to non-proliferation policy, of the respective partner. Consequently, it would make little sense for the new Administration to force upon allied industrialized countries, whose nuclear technologies are at the same level as that of the United States, restrictive rules on reprocessing and breeder technology. The new measures designed to curb proliferation are especially meant to destroy motivations that could cause states to own nuclear explosives. This also applies to the removal of economic motivations. (orig.) [de

  7. A Study about the 3S-based Great Ruins Monitoring and Early-warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuefeng, W.; Zhongyuan, H.; Gongli, L.; Li, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale urbanization construction and new countryside construction, frequent natural disasters, and natural corrosion pose severe threat to the great ruins. It is not uncommon that the cultural relics are damaged and great ruins are occupied. Now the ruins monitoring mainly adopt general monitoring data processing system which can not effectively exert management, display, excavation analysis and data sharing of the relics monitoring data. Meanwhile those general software systems require layout of large number of devices or apparatuses, but they are applied to small-scope relics monitoring only. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to make use of the stereoscopic cartographic satellite technology to improve and supplement the great ruins monitoring index system and combine GIS and GPS to establish a highly automatic, real-time and intelligent great ruins monitoring and early-warning system in order to realize collection, processing, updating, spatial visualization, analysis, distribution and sharing of the monitoring data, and provide scientific and effective data for the relics protection, scientific planning, reasonable development and sustainable utilization.

  8. Current status of and problems in ice heat storage systems contributing to improving load rate. Proliferation of the ice heat storage type air conditioning system and roles of the Heat Pump and Heat Storage Center; Fukaritsu kaizen ni kokensuru kori chikunetsu system no genjo to kadai. Kori chikunetsushiki kucho system no fukyu to heat pump chikunetsu center no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, T.

    1998-02-01

    This paper introduces the roles played by the `Heat Pump and Heat Storage Center`. This foundation had been performing research and development and international information exchange in devices and equipment as the `Heat Pump Technology Development Center`. Development of heat storage type air conditioning systems as a measure for load leveling, and efforts of their proliferation and enlightenment were added to the business activities. As a result, the foundation`s name was changed to the present name. Its activities being planned and performed include: interest supplementing operation for installation of an air conditioning system of the heat pump system using storage of latent heat such as ice heat storage, holding seminars for promoting proliferation of the ice heat storage type air conditioning system, opening the home page, participation in exhibitions of various types, and preparation of different publicity tools. More specifically, carrying series advertisements in newspapers and magazines, holding nation-wide symposiums tying up with Japan Economic Press, publishing an organ newspaper targeted at both of experts and general people, and preparation of general pamphlets to introduce comprehensively the information about heat storage. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Explosive performance on the non-proliferation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKown, T.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Explosive Effects Physics Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory planned and conducted experiments on the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) as part of its effort to define source functions for seismic waves. Since all investigations were contingent on the performance of the emplaced chemical explosive, an array of diagnostic measurements was fielded in the emplaced explosive. The CORRTEX (COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vs Time EXperiment) system was used to investigate the explosive initiation and to determine the detonation velocities on three levels and in a number of radial directions. The CORRTEX experiments fielded in the explosive chamber will be described, including a description of the explosive emplacement from the perspective of its impact on the CORRTEX results. The data obtained are reviewed and the resulting detonation velocities are reported. A variation of detonation velocity with depth in the explosive and the apparent underdetonation and overdetonation of the explosive in different radial directions is reported.

  10. Developing an early warning system for storm surge inundation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablazon, J.; Caro, C. V.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Briones, J. B. L.; Dasallas, L.; Lapidez, J. P.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Ladiero, C.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Mungcal, M. T. F.; Malano, V.

    2014-10-01

    A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water generated by an approaching storm, over and above the astronomical tides. This event imposes a major threat in the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013 where more than 6000 people lost their lives. It has become evident that the need to develop an early warning system for storm surges is of utmost importance. To provide forecasts of the possible storm surge heights of an approaching typhoon, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH) simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. Bathymetric data, storm track, central atmospheric pressure, and maximum wind speed were used as parameters for the Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge Model. The researchers calculated the frequency distribution of maximum storm surge heights of all typhoons under a specific Public Storm Warning Signal (PSWS) that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of probable area inundation and flood levels of storm surges along coastal areas for a specific PSWS using the results of the frequency distribution. These maps were developed from the time series data of the storm tide at 10 min intervals of all observation points in the Philippines. This information will be beneficial in developing early warnings systems, static maps, disaster mitigation and preparedness plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline defense efforts, and coastal protection measures. Moreover, these will support the local government units' mandate to raise public awareness, disseminate information about storm surge hazards, and implement appropriate counter

  11. Enhanced Chondrocyte Proliferation in a Prototyped Culture System with Wave-Induced Agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilarek Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the actual challenges in tissue engineering applications is to efficiently produce as high of number of cells as it is only possible, in the shortest time. In static cultures, the production of animal cell biomass in integrated forms (i.e. aggregates, inoculated scaffolds is limited due to inefficient diffusion of culture medium components observed in such non-mixed culture systems, especially in the case of cell-inoculated fiber-based dense 3D scaffolds, inside which the intensification of mass transfer is particularly important. The applicability of a prototyped, small-scale, continuously wave-induced agitated system for intensification of anchorage-dependent CP5 chondrocytes proliferation outside and inside three-dimensional poly(lactic acid (PLA scaffolds has been discussed. Fibrous PLA-based constructs have been inoculated with CP5 cells and then maintained in two independent incubation systems: (i non-agitated conditions and (ii culture with wave-induced agitation. Significantly higher values of the volumetric glucose consumption rate have been noted for the system with the wave-induced agitation. The advantage of the presented wave-induced agitation culture system has been confirmed by lower activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released from the cells in the samples of culture medium harvested from the agitated cultures, in contrast to rather high values of LDH activity measured for static conditions. Results of the proceeded experiments and their analysis clearly exhibited the feasibility of the culture system supported with continuously wave-induced agitation for robust proliferation of the CP5 chondrocytes on PLA-based structures. Aside from the practicability of the prototyped system, we believe that it could also be applied as a standard method offering advantages for all types of the daily routine laboratory-scale animal cell cultures utilizing various fiber-based biomaterials, with the use of only regular laboratory

  12. Early Communication System (ECOMM) for ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylor, Kent; Tu, Kwei

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Early Communications System (ECOMM) was a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Avionic Systems Division (ASD) in-house developed communication system to provide early communications between the ISS and the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H). This system allows for low rate commands (link rate of 6 kbps) to be transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) from MCC-H to the ISS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Forward (SSA/) link service. This system also allows for low rate telemetry (link rate of 20.48 kbps) to be transmitted from ISS to MCC-H through the TDRSS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Return (SSAR) link service. In addition this system supports a JSC developed Onboard Communications Adapter (OCA) that allows for a two-way data exchange of 128 kbps between MCC-H and the ISS through TDRSS. This OCA data can be digital video/audio (two-way videoconference), and/or file transfers, and/or "white board". The key components of the system, the data formats used by the system to insure compatibility with the future ISS S-Band System, as well as how other vehicles may be able to use this system for their needs are discussed in this paper.

  13. An 'Early Warning System' for the prevention of dredging potential impacts on sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Viviana; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Bonamano, Simone; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Albani, Marta; Stefanì, Chiara; Madonia, Alice; Fersini, Giorgio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems are increasingly subject to multiple pressures and stressors produced by the effects of human activities. Intense and frequent disturbances which affect marine environment can derive from dredging activity, which is a fundamental management for most ports and harbours. The potential environmental effects of dredging procedures are generally due to the excavation of material from the sea bottom and the relocation elsewhere for disposal, overflow from the dredger and loss of material from pipelines during transport. Depending on the location and the intensity of these activities the marine environment, particularly sensitive areas, may be affected by dredging. The main environmental effects can be associated with suspended sediments and increases in turbidity into the water column, which can have adverse effects on marine animals and plants by reducing light penetration and by physical disturbance. For this reason it is fundamental to implement a real time monitoring system to control and prevent negative effects, enabling a rapid response to adverse water quality conditions and a fast activation of mitigation procedures, in agreement with all the reference authorities. In this work we present the development of an innovative 'Early Warning System' based on fixed stations, ad hoc in situ surveys and forecasting models, which was applied to a dredging activity carried out in the Gulf of Gaeta (Latium, Italy). It represents an extension of the C-CEMS (Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System) network, which is operative in the Tyrrhenian sea since 2005.

  14. Performance of Earthquake Early Warning Systems during the Major Events of the 2016-2017 Central Italy Seismic Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Picozzi, M.; Alessandro, C.; Colombelli, S.; Cattaneo, M.; Chiaraluce, L.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Marzorati, S.; Supino, M.; Zollo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are systems nowadays contributing to the seismic risk mitigation actions, both in terms of losses and societal resilience, by issuing an alert promptly after the earthquake origin and before the ground shaking impacts the targets to be protected. EEWS systems can be grouped in two main classes: network based and stand-alone systems. Network based EEWS make use of dense seismic networks surrounding the fault (e.g. Near Fault Observatory; NFO) generating the event. The rapid processing of the P-wave early portion allows for the location and magnitude estimation of the event then used to predict the shaking through ground motion prediction equations. Stand-alone systems instead analyze the early P-wave signal to predict the ground shaking carried by the late S or surface waves, through empirically calibrated scaling relationships, at the recording site itself. We compared the network-based (PRESTo, PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem, www.prestoews.org, Satriano et al., 2011) and the stand-alone (SAVE, on-Site-Alert-leVEl, Caruso et al., 2017) systems, by analyzing their performance during the 2016-2017 Central Italy sequence. We analyzed 9 earthquakes having magnitude 5.0 security actions. PRESTo also evaluated the accuracy of location and magnitude. Both systems well predict the ground shaking nearby the event source, with a success rate around 90% within the potential damage zone. The lead-time is significantly larger for the network based system, increasing to more than 10s at 40 km from the event epicentre. The stand-alone system better performs in the near-source region showing a positive albeit small lead-time (operational in Italy, based on the available acceleration networks, by improving the capability of reducing the lead-time related to data telemetry.

  15. [Evaluation and analysis of monitoring and early warning functions of the occupational disease reporting system in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojun; Li, Tao; Liu, Mengxuan

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the monitoring and early warning functions of the occupational disease reporting system right now in China, and to analyze their influencing factors. An improved audit tool (ODIT) was used to score the monitoring and early warning functions with a total score of 10. The nine indices were completeness of information on the reporting form, coverage of the reporting system, accessibility of criteria or guidelines for diagnosis, education and training for physicians, completeness of the reporting system, statistical methods, investigation of special cases, release of monitoring information, and release of early warning information. According to the evaluation, the occupational disease reporting system in China had a score of 5.5 in monitoring existing occupational diseases with a low score for release of monitoring information; the reporting system had a score of 6.5 in early warning of newly occurring occupational diseases with low scores for education and training for physicians as well as completeness of the reporting system. The occupational disease reporting system in China still does not have full function in monitoring and early warning. It is the education and participation of physicians from general hospitals in the diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases and suspected occupational diseases that need to be enhanced. In addition, the problem of monitoring the incidence of occupational diseases needs to be solved as soon as possible.

  16. Replicating the Ice-Volume Signal of the Early Pleistocene with a Complex Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, C. R.; Poulsen, C. J.; Pollard, D.

    2013-12-01

    Milankovitch theory proposes high-latitude summer insolation intensity paces the ice ages by controlling perennial snow cover amounts (Milankovitch, 1941). According to theory, the ~21 kyr cycle of precession should dominate the ice-volume records since it has the greatest influence on high-latitude summer insolation. Modeling experiments frequently support Milankovitch theory by attributing the majority of Northern Hemisphere high-latitude summer snowmelt to changes in the cycle of precession (e.g. Jackson and Broccoli, 2003). However, ice-volume proxy records, especially those of the Early Pleistocene (2.6-0.8 Ma), display variability with a period of ~41 kyr (Raymo and Lisiecki, 2005), indicative of insolation forcing from obliquity, which has a much smaller influence on summer insolation intensity than precession. Several hypotheses attempt to explain the discrepancies between Milkankovitch theory and the proxy records by invoking phenomena such as insolation gradients (Raymo and Nisancioglu, 2003), hemispheric offset (Raymo et al., 2006; Lee and Poulsen, 2009), and integrated summer energy (Huybers, 2006); however, all of these hypotheses contain caveats (Ruddiman, 2006) and have yet to be supported by modeling studies that use a complex GCM. To explore potential solutions to this '41 kyr problem,' we use an Earth system model composed of the GENESIS GCM and Land Surface model, the BIOME4 vegetation model, and the Pennsylvania State ice-sheet model. Using an asynchronous coupling technique, we run four idealized transient combinations of obliquity and precession, representing the orbital extremes of the Pleistocene (Berger and Loutre, 1991). Each experiment is run through several complete orbital cycles with a dynamic ice domain spanning North America and Greenland, and fixed preindustrial greenhouse-gas concentrations. For all orbital configurations, model results produce greater ice-volume spectral power at the frequency of obliquity despite significantly

  17. Family Relationships from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Changes in the Family System following Firstborns' Leaving Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns' departure from their parents' home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers,…

  18. EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES OF 10Be IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielandt, Daniel; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t 1/2 = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of 10 Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li-Be-B isotope measurements of CAIs from CV chondrites, including CAIs that formed with the canonical 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio of ∼5 × 10 –5 (canonical CAIs) and CAIs with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects (FUN-CAIs) characterized by 26 Al/ 27 Al ratios much lower than the canonical value. Our measurements demonstrate the presence of four distinct fossil 10 Be/ 9 Be isochrons, lower in the FUN-CAIs than in the canonical CAIs, and variable within these classes. Given that FUN-CAI precursors escaped evaporation-recondensation prior to evaporative melting, we suggest that the 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio recorded by FUN-CAIs represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent 10 Be/ 9 Be ratios of canonical CAIs reflect additional spallogenesis, either in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of 10 Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for 10 Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle irradiation occurring on timescales significantly shorter than the formation interval of canonical CAIs.

  19. Explosive performance on the non-proliferation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKown, T.O.

    1994-03-01

    The non-proliferation experiment, originally called the chemical kiloton experiment, was planned and executed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate the seismic yield relationship and distinguishing seismic signals between a nuclear event and a large mass conventional explosion. The Los Alamos National Laboratory planned and conducted experiments to further their studies of the source function for signals observed seismically. Since all investigations were contingent on the performance of the emplaced chemical explosive, an array of diagnostic measurements was fielded in the emplaced explosive. The CORRTEX system was used to investigate the explosive initiation and to determine the detonation velocities in multiple levels and in numerous directions. A description of the CORRTEX experiments fielded, a review of the data obtained and some interpretations of the data are reported.

  20. Early emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.; Sullivan, Kathleen R.; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2016-01-01

    Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants’ reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents’ intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals. Infants’ reasoning about food preferences is fundamentally social: They generalize food preferences across individuals who affiliate, or who speak a common language, but not across individuals who socially disengage or who speak different languages. Importantly, infants’ reasoning about food preferences is flexibly calibrated to their own experiences: Tests of bilingual babies reveal that an infant’s sociolinguistic background influences whether she will constrain her generalization of food preferences to people who speak the same language. Additionally, infants’ systems for reasoning about food is differentially responsive to positive and negative information. Infants generalize information about food disgust across all people, regardless of those people’s social identities. Thus, whereas food preferences are seen as embedded within social groups, disgust is interpreted as socially universal, which could help infants avoid potentially dangerous foods. These studies reveal an early-emerging system for thinking about food that incorporates social reasoning about agents and their relationships, and allows infants to make abstract, flexible, adaptive inferences to interpret others’ food choices. PMID:27503878

  1. Mitral restenosis in the early postoperative period of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomerantzeff Pablo Maria Alberto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A forty eight year old woman, who had undergone mitral comissurotomy and subsequently developed early restenosis, presented with major comissural fusion and verrucous lesions on the cuspid edges of the mitral valve, with normal subvalvar apparatus. Patient did well for the first six months after surgery when she began to present dyspnea on light exertion. A clinical diagnosis of restenosis was made, which was confirmed by an echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. She underwent surgery, and a stenotic mitral valve with verrucous lesions suggesting Libman-Sacks' endocarditis was found. Because the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE had not been confirmed at that time, a bovine pericardium bioprosthesis (FISICS-INCOR was implanted. The patient did well in the late follow-up and is now in NYHA Class I .

  2. Mitral restenosis in the early postoperative period of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantzeff, P M; Corrêa, J D; Brandão, C M; de Assis, R V; Jatene, A D

    1999-04-01

    A forty-eight year old woman, who had undergone mitral comissurotomy and subsequently developed early restenosis, presented with major comissural fusion and verrucous lesions on the cuspid edges of the mitral valve, with normal subvalvar apparatus. Patient did well for the first six months after surgery when she began to present dyspnea on light exertion. A clinical diagnosis of restenosis was made, which was confirmed by an echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. She underwent surgery, and a stenotic mitral valve with verrucous lesions suggesting Libman-Sacks' endocarditis was found. Because the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had not been confirmed at that time, a bovine pericardium bioprosthesis (FISICS-INCOR) was implanted. The patient did well in the late follow-up and is now in NYHA Class I.

  3. Salivary proteomics: A new adjuvant approach to the early diagnosis of familial juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Aline Lauria P; Falcao, Denise Pinheiro; de Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista; Bezerra, Ana Cristina B; Pombeiro, Gilson Augusto N M; Guimarães, Luciano Junqueira; Fregni, Felipe; Silva, Luciano Paulino; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory disturbance. Pleomorphic manifestations are present and a potentially progressive and debilitating course can be detected. SLE rarely manifests before age 5, and its onset peaks is around puberty. Although clinical manifestations, immunological alterations and treatment do not differ between juvenile and adult SLE, children tend to present with a more aggressive disease course than adults. Hence, autoimmune rheumatic diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations. Blood serum analysis plays an especially important role in the detection and monitoring of autoantibodies in SLE. However, since blood sampling is an uncomfortable procedure, especially in children, novel less invasive techniques and approaches are of utmost importance to evaluate pediatric subjects. In this regard, saliva samples have several advantages, such as: easy access, fast collection, painless and riskless procedure. Saliva has antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as several other relevant features. The whole saliva is a complex mixture of major and minor salivary gland secretion, gingival crevicular fluid, transudates plasma protein, keratinocyte products and oral microbiota. This biological fluid reflects the physiological state of the body, including the emotional condition, and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic changes. Therefore, salivary proteomics is becoming increasingly used for the early diagnosis of several diseases such as breast cancer, oral cancer, Sjögren's syndrome, diffuse systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, among others. Considering the detection of some potential markers related to SLE in serum and urine, this study aims to conduct an initial evaluation of the possible presence of such biomarkers in saliva. Furthermore, it is expected to track down new salivary proteins that could be

  4. The fight against the weapons of mass destruction proliferation; La lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutherin, G. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches Internationales et Communautaires (CERIC), 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2007-07-01

    The author provides a stimulating analysis of the increasing risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, a major concern of the international community. This analysis is applied on juridical, strategical and political examinations. (A.L.B.)

  5. The nuclear non-proliferation regime: What it is and how it has evolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, J.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear non-proliferation regime commonly denotes the legal norms, voluntary undertakings and policies which the international community has developed to deal with the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. The word 'regime' suggests a legally binding order. Some components of the non-proliferation regime are indeed legally binding. Others represent essentially political rather than legal commitments. This lecture describes the various independent but mutually reinforcing components of the non-proliferation regime. It thus touches on and highlights the particular importance of political incentives - or disincentives - to the acquisition of nuclear weapons; legal undertakings in which non-proliferation commitments are anchored; verification (specifically the IAEA Safeguards System); compliance and enforcement; export controls; physical protection measures; regional nuclear non-proliferation initiatives; and measures taken to curb proliferation in general and to strive for arms control and nuclear disarmament. The purpose of the lecture is to provide an over-arching, tour d'horizon for the more specific and detailed lectures which follow. (author)

  6. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  7. An Early-Warning System for Volcanic Ash Dispersal: The MAFALDA Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, S.; Nannipieri, L.; Neri, A.

    2006-12-01

    Forecasts of the dispersal of volcanic ash is a fundamental goal in order to mitigate its potential impact on urbanized areas and transport routes surrounding explosive volcanoes. To this aim we developed an early- warning procedure named MAFALDA (Modeling And Forecasting Ash Loading and Dispersal in the Atmosphere). Such tool is able to quantitatively forecast the atmospheric concentration of ash as well as the ground deposition as a function of time over a 3D spatial domain.\\The main features of MAFALDA are: (1) the use of the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code VOL-CALPUFF able to describe both the rising column phase and the atmospheric dispersal as a function of weather conditions, (2) the use of high-resolution weather forecasting data, (3) the short execution time that allows to analyse a set of scenarios and (4) the web-based CGI software application (written in Perl programming language) that shows the results in a standard graphical web interface and makes it suitable as an early-warning system during volcanic crises.\\MAFALDA is composed by a computational part that simulates the ash cloud dynamics and a graphical interface for visualizing the modelling results. The computational part includes the codes for elaborating the meteorological data, the dispersal code and the post-processing programs. These produces hourly 2D maps of aerial ash concentration at several vertical levels, extension of "threat" area on air and 2D maps of ash deposit on the ground, in addition to graphs of hourly variations of column height.\\The processed results are available on the web by the graphical interface and the users can choose, by drop-down menu, which data to visualize. \\A first partial application of the procedure has been carried out for Mt. Etna (Italy). In this case, the procedure simulates four volcanological scenarios characterized by different plume intensities and uses 48-hrs weather forecasting data with a resolution of 7 km provided by the Italian Air Force.

  8. Wave ensemble forecast in the Western Mediterranean Sea, application to an early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Elena; Hernandez, Hector; Moré, Jordi; Espino, Manuel; Sairouni, Abdel

    2015-04-01

    between the 5th and the 8th day of the prediction. The information obtained is then included in an early warning system, designed in the framework of the European project iCoast (ECHO/SUB/2013/661009) with the aim of set alarms in coastal areas depending on the wave conditions, the sea level, the flooding and the run up in the coast.

  9. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) adaption in National Early Warning Alerting Systems of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao

    2017-04-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In China, from local communities to entire nations, there was a patchwork of specialized hazard public alerting systems. And each system was often designed just for certain emergency situations and for certain communications media. Application took place in the NEWAS (National Early Warning Alerting Systems) [2]project where CAP serves as central message to integrate all kind of hazard situations, including the natural calamity, accident disaster, public health emergency , social safety etc. Officially operated on May 2015, NEWAS now has completed docking work with 14 departments including civil administration, safety supervision, forestry, land, water conservancy, earthquake, traffic, meteorology, agriculture, tourism, food and drug supervision, public security and oceanic administration. Thus, several items in CAP has been modified, redefined and extended according to the various grading standards and publishing strategies, as well as the characteristics of Chinese Geocoding. NEWAS successfully delivers information to end users through 4 levels (i.e. State, province, prefecture and county) structure and by various means. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] http://www.12379.cn/

  10. Simulated NASA Satellite Data Products for the NOAA Integrated Coral Reef Observation Network/Coral Reef Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    This RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment will demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensor data as significant input to the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ICON/ CREWS (Integrated Coral Reef Observation System/Coral Reef Early Warning System). The project affects the Coastal Management Program Element of the Applied Sciences Program.

  11. Evaluation of earthquake parameters used in the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlazim; Prastowo, Tjipto

    2016-02-01

    Twenty-two of a total of 30 earthquake events reported by the Indonesian Agency for Geophysics, Climatology and Meteorology during the time period 2007-2010 were falsely issued as tsunamigenic by the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS). These 30 earthquakes were of different magnitudes and occurred in different locations. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Ina-TEWS using common earthquake parameters, including the earthquake magnitude, origin time, depth, and epicenter. In total, 298 datasets assessed by the Ina-TEWS and the global centroid moment tensor (CMT) method were assessed. The global CMT method is considered by almost all seismologists to be a reference for the determination of these parameters as they have been proved to be accurate. It was found that the earthquake magnitude, origin time, and depth provided by the Ina-TEWS were significantly different from those given in the global CMT catalog, whereas the latitude and longitude positions of the events provided by both tsunami assessment systems were coincident. The performance of the Ina-TEWS, particularly in terms of accuracy, remains questionable and needs to be improved.

  12. Model-Based Calculations of the Probability of a Country's Nuclear Proliferation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David N.

    2007-01-01

    The first nuclear weapon was detonated in August 1945 over Japan to end World War II. During the past six decades, the majority of the world's countries have abstained from acquiring nuclear weapons. However, a number of countries have explored the nuclear weapons option, 23 in all. Among them, 14 countries have dropped their interest in nuclear weapons after initiating some efforts. And nine of them today possess nuclear weapons. These countries include the five nuclear weapons states - U.S., Russia, U.K., France, and China - and the four non- NPT member states - Israel, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. Many of these countries initially used civilian nuclear power technology development as a basis or cover for their military program. Recent proliferation incidents in Iraq, Iran, and North Korea brought the world together to pay much attention to nuclear nonproliferation. With the expected surge in the use of nuclear energy for power generation by developing countries, the world's nuclear nonproliferation regime needs to be better prepared for potential future challenges. For the world's nuclear nonproliferation regime to effectively cope with any future proliferation attempts, early detection of potentially proliferation-related activities is highly desirable. Early detection allows the international community to respond and take necessary actions - ideally using political and diplomatic influences without resorting to harsh measures such as sanctions or military actions. In this regard, a capability to quantitatively predict the chance of a country's nuclear proliferation intent or activities is of significant interest. There have been various efforts in the research community to understand the determinants of nuclear proliferation and develop quantitative tools to predict nuclear proliferation events. These efforts have shown that information about the political issues surrounding a country's security along with economic development data can be useful to

  13. On Track for Success: The Use of Early Warning Indicator and Intervention Systems to Build a Grad Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Mary; Bridgeland, John M.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Balfanz, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, schools, districts, and states have become increasingly savvy with data collection and analysis to drive student outcomes. The development and use of Early Warning Indicator and Intervention Systems (EWS) are at the cutting edge of the data- driven, outcomes-focused, high-impact education movement. These systems can increase…

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates

  15. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates.

  16. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paez-Pereda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  17. United States Earthquake Early Warning System: How Theory and Analysis Can Save America Before the Big One Happens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Documentation for 201447 Spending more on ShakeAlert now and including sustainable operating costs can be justified. In a 2016 publication in...Seismological Research Letters, entitled “ Benefits and Costs of Earthquake Early Warning,” Strauss and Allen determine that “according to FEMA’s cost ...statistical life in the United States is USD 6.6 million.”48 As such, the benefits outweigh the costs as the earthquake early warning system alone would

  18. An Autocrine Proliferation Repressor Regulates Dictyostelium discoideum Proliferation and Chemorepulsion Using the G Protein-Coupled Receptor GrlH

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Tang; Yuantai Wu; Sarah E. Herlihy; Francisco J. Brito-Aleman; Jose H. Ting; Chris Janetopoulos; Richard H. Gomer; Scott D. Emr

    2018-01-01

    In eukaryotic microbes, little is known about signals that inhibit the proliferation of the cells that secrete the signal, and little is known about signals (chemorepellents) that cause cells to move away from the source of the signal. Autocrine proliferation repressor protein A (AprA) is a protein secreted by the eukaryotic microbe Dictyostelium discoideum. AprA is a chemorepellent for and inhibits the proliferation of D. discoideum. We previously found that cells sense AprA using G proteins...

  19. Early life environmental and pharmacological stressors result in persistent dysregulations of the serotonergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyan eWong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulations in the brain serotonergic system and exposure to environmental stressors have been implicated in the development of major depressive disorder. Here, we investigate the interactions between the stress and serotonergic systems by characterizing the behavioral and biochemical effects of chronic stress applied during early-life or adulthood in wild type (WT mice and mice with deficient tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 function. We showed that chronic mild stress applied in adulthood did not affect the behaviors and serotonin levels of WT and TPH2 knock-in (KI mice. Whereas, maternal separation (MS stress increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors of WT mice, with no detectable behavioral changes in TPH2 KI mice. Biochemically, we found that MS WT mice had reduced brain serotonin levels, which was attributed to increased expression of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A. The increased MAO A expression was detected in MS WT mice at 4 weeks old and adulthood. No change in TPH2 expression was detected. To determine whether a pharmacological stressor, dexamethasone (Dex, will result in similar biochemical results obtained from MS, we used an in vitro system, SH-SY5Y cells, and found that Dex treatment resulted in increased MAO A expression levels. We then treated WT mice with Dex for 5 days, either during postnatal days 7-11 or adulthood. Both groups of Dex treated WT mice had reduced basal corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptors expression levels. However, only Dex treatment during PND7-11 resulted in reduced serotonin levels and increased MAO A expression. Just as with MS WT mice, TPH2 expression in PND7-11 Dex-treated WT mice was unaffected. Taken together, our findings suggest that both environmental and pharmacological stressors affect the expression of MAO A, and not TPH2, when applied during the critical postnatal period. This leads to long-lasting perturbations in the serotonergic system, and results in anxiety- and depressive

  20. Acquisition/Diversion Pathway Analysis for the Assessment of Proliferation Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hong Lae; Ko, Won Il

    2009-01-01

    The INPRO methodology in the area of proliferation resistance (PR) has one basic principle and five user requirements with relevant criteria, indicators, evaluation parameters, etc. The two Korean case studies on proliferation resistance of the DUPIC fuel cycle during 2004 and 2005 and various consultancy meetings have contributed to the establishment of the assessment metrics and procedures for three user requirements regarding States' commitment, attractiveness of nuclear material and technology, and difficulty and detectability of diversion. However, the assessment indicators and procedure for user requirement 4 regarding multiplicity and robustness of barriers against proliferation still need to be developed. In this paper, a systematic approach to identify and analyze the acquisition/diversion pathways in a nuclear energy system is described, including follow-up R and D plans to assess the multiplicity and robustness of barriers against proliferation

  1. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism in the post-9/11 world

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2016-01-01

    This book fills a clear gap in the literature for a technically-focused book covering nuclear proliferation and related issues post-9/11. Using a concept-led approach which serves a broad readership, it provides detailed overview of nuclear weapons, nuclear proliferation and international nuclear policy. The author addresses topics including offensive and defensive missile systems, command and control, verification, weapon effects, and nuclear testing. A chronology of nuclear arms is presented including detailed discussion of the Cold War, proliferation, and arms control treaties. The book is tailored to courses on nuclear proliferation, and the general reader will also find it a fascinating introduction to the science and strategy behind international nuclear policy in the modern era. “Finally, a spritely, accessible overview of the nuclear world in historical context from someone who has both seen it from the U.S. State Department and Congressional policy trenches and taught it for 43 years. A gift to bot...

  2. Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles Highlight Early Involvement of the Choroid Plexus in Central Nervous System Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Millward

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier. Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging, in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles reveal CNS (central nervous system lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset.

  3. An experimental investigation of the early dynamic impact behaviour of textile armour systems: Decoupling material from system response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepus, Elvis

    This work focuses on the early impact response of textile armour systems. A relatively new data acquisition system, the Enhanced Laser Velocity Sensor (ELVS), was refined and used to generate a large database of results for a 5.57 mm diameter, 3 gram, non-deforming projectile impacting single-ply configurations of Ballistic Nylon, two weaves of Kevlar 129, and Zylon (PBO) over a range of velocities from 61 m/s to 248 m/s. In addition, one Kevlar 129 material was tested in configurations of 2, 3, 4, 8 and 16 plies over a range of strike velocities from 90 m/s to 481 m/s. ELVS results consisted of high-resolution timehistories of displacement, velocity and energy for each system tested. The strain wave velocity and ballistic performance of each system was also determined. Results taken from during the impact event were analysed up to just prior to the strain-wave rebounding from the boundary and returning to the impact point---effectively removing boundary influences. Regardless of system type, a constant rate of energy absorption within the pre-rebound timeframe was found to exist, which scales with the strike velocity to approximately the 8/3-power. Well-established single fibre theory was modified and applied to woven materials. It was assumed that three primary energy absorption mechanisms exist; elastic strain, in-plane kinetic and out-of-plane kinetic. This simple model yields the experimentally observed 8/3 exponent and parametrically predicts the difference between the different single-ply material systems, but underpredicts the observed behaviour by a factor of 2 and cannot address the performance reduction with increasing ply count. This combined experimental and analytical work confirms the long-held assumption that single fibre wave physics is applicable to multi-ply woven systems. More significantly, for the first time, it decouples material response from overall system response and provides the experimental tools and methodology required to analyse

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of the Alere q Point-of-Care System for Early Infant HIV Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Nei-yuan; Dunning, Lorna; Kroon, Max; Myer, Landon

    2016-01-01

    Early infant diagnosis (EID) and prompt linkage to care are critical to minimise the high morbidity and mortality associated with infant HIV infection. Attrition in the "EID cascade" is common; however, point-of-care (POC) EID assays with same-day result could facilitate prompt linkage of HIV-infected infant to treatment. Despite a number of POC EID assays in development, few have been independently evaluated and data on new technologies are urgently needed to inform policy. We compared Alere q 1/2 Detect POC system laboratory test characteristics with the local standard of care (SOC), Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 qualitative PCR in an independent laboratory-based evaluation in Cape Town, South Africa. Routinely EID samples collected between November 2013 and September 2014 were each tested by both SOC and POC systems. Repeat testing was done to troubleshoot any discrepancy between POC and SOC results. Overall, 1098 children with a median age of 47 days (IQR, 42-117) were included. Birth PCR (age laboratory. The high specificity and thus high positive predictive value would suggest a positive POC result may be adequate for immediate infant ART initiation. While POC testing for EID may have particular utility for birth testing at delivery facilities, the lower sensitivity and error rate requires further attention, as does field implementation of POC EID technologies in other clinical care settings.

  5. Assessing the accuracy of forecasting: applying standard diagnostic assessment tools to a health technology early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Sue; Hyde, Chris; Cook, Alison; Packer, Claire; Stevens, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Early warning systems are an integral part of many health technology assessment programs. Despite this finding, to date, there have been no quantitative evaluations of the accuracy of predictions made by these systems. We report a study evaluating the accuracy of predictions made by the main United Kingdom early warning system. As prediction of impact is analogous to diagnosis, a method normally applied to determine the accuracy of diagnostic tests was used. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the National Horizon Scanning Centre's prediction methods were estimated with reference to an (imperfect) gold standard, that is, expert opinion of impact 3 to 5 years after prediction. The sensitivity of predictions was 71 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.92), and the specificity was 73 percent (95 percent CI, 0.64-0.8). The negative predictive value was 98 percent (95 percent CI, 0.92-0.99), and the positive predictive value was 14 percent (95 percent CI, 0.06-0.3). Forecasting is difficult, but the results suggest that this early warning system's predictions have an acceptable level of accuracy. However, there are caveats. The first is that early warning systems may themselves reduce the impact of a technology, as helping to control adoption and diffusion is their main purpose. The second is that the use of an imperfect gold standard may bias the results. As early warning systems are viewed as an increasingly important component of health technology assessment and decision making, their outcomes must be evaluated. The method used here should be investigated further and the accuracy of other early warning systems explored.

  6. TELERAD: the radiological surveillance network and early warning system in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonck, Michel; Desmedt, Michel; Claes, Jurgen; Sombre, Lionel; Vandecasteele, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The TELERAD network is primarily a measurement and early warning network. Its 212 stations constantly measure the overall radioactivity of the air, atmospheric dusts and river waters (Meuse, Sambre and Molse Nete) on the Belgian territory. These stations are linked to a centralised system that is automatically alerted in case an abnormal rise in radioactivity level is detected. The TELERAD network is supplemented by meteorological masts (10 meters and 30 meters height), which measure wind speed and direction, and by a set of mobile stations that can be deployed at any location on the territory. In the event of a nuclear accident, the discharge of radioactive substances into the atmosphere could lead to the launch of the nuclear emergency plan foreseen by the authorities. The TELERAD network would then play a crucial role in assessing the gravity of the accident, supporting decision making, optimising interventions and measures to be implemented to avert the effects of the accident and, subsequently, to remedy them, as well as informing the population on an ongoing basis. In normal circumstances, the TELERAD network measures the ambient dose rate due to external gamma radiation. This dose rate is essentially linked to the level of natural radioactivity. (author)

  7. Water in the Early Solar System: Infrared Studies of Aqueously Altered and Minimally Processed Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Margaret M.

    This thesis investigates connections between low albedo asteroids and carbonaceous chondrite meteorites using spectroscopy. Meteorites and asteroids preserve information about the early solar system including accretion processes and parent body processes active on asteroids at these early times. One process of interest is aqueous alteration. This is the chemical reaction between coaccreted water and silicates producing hydrated minerals. Some carbonaceous chondrites have experienced extensive interactions with water through this process. Since these meteorites and their parent bodies formed close to the beginning of the Solar System, these asteroids and meteorites may provide clues to the distribution, abundance and timing of water in the Solar nebula at these times. Chapter 2 of this thesis investigates the relationships between extensively aqueously altered meteorites and their visible, near and mid-infrared spectral features in a coordinated spectral-mineralogical study. Aqueous alteration is a parent body process where initially accreted anhydrous minerals are converted into hydrated minerals in the presence of coaccreted water. Using samples of meteorites with known bulk properties, it is possible to directly connect changes in mineralogy caused by aqueous alteration with spectral features. Spectral features in the mid-infrared are found to change continuously with increasing amount of hydrated minerals or degree of alteration. Building on this result, the degrees of alteration of asteroids are estimated in a survey of new asteroid data obtained from SOFIA and IRTF as well as archived the Spitzer Space Telescope data. 75 observations of 73 asteroids are analyzed and presented in Chapter 4. Asteroids with hydrated minerals are found throughout the main belt indicating that significant ice must have been present in the disk at the time of carbonaceous asteroid accretion. Finally, some carbonaceous chondrite meteorites preserve amorphous iron-bearing materials

  8. Export of nuclear equipment and materials and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteix, Simone.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is one of great concern today despite the entry into force in the early '70s of the NPT. To master civilian nuclear technology implies the ability to develop nuclear explosive devices; therefore in recent years contacts have strengthened between countries exporting nuclear equipment, specially in the frame of the 'London Club' so as to ensure that their exports will not result in disseminating nuclear weapons. (NEA) [fr

  9. The observation of early childhood physical aggression: A psychometric study of the system for coding early physical aggression (SCEPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van Zeijl, J.; Stolk, M.N.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Juffer, F.; Koot, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the reliability and (convergent and discriminant) validity of an observational measure of physical aggression in toddlers and preschoolers, originally developed by Keenan and Shaw [1994]. The observation instrument is based on a developmental definition of aggression. Physical

  10. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (Pcolloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (Pinsulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  11. Status report of the end-to-end ASKAP software system: towards early science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Juan Carlos; Chapman, Jessica; Marquarding, Malte; Whiting, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a novel centimetre radio synthesis telescope currently in the commissioning phase and located in the midwest region of Western Australia. It comprises of 36 x 12 m diameter reflector antennas each equipped with state-of-the-art and award winning Phased Array Feeds (PAF) technology. The PAFs provide a wide, 30 square degree field-of-view by forming up to 36 separate dual-polarisation beams at once. This results in a high data rate: 70 TB of correlated visibilities in an 8-hour observation, requiring custom-written, high-performance software running in dedicated High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. The first six antennas equipped with first-generation PAF technology (Mark I), named the Boolardy Engineering Test Array (BETA) have been in use since 2014 as a platform to test PAF calibration and imaging techniques, and along the way it has been producing some great science results. Commissioning of the ASKAP Array Release 1, that is the first six antennas with second-generation PAFs (Mark II) is currently under way. An integral part of the instrument is the Central Processor platform hosted at the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre in Perth, which executes custom-written software pipelines, designed specifically to meet the ASKAP imaging requirements of wide field of view and high dynamic range. There are three key hardware components of the Central Processor: The ingest nodes (16 x node cluster), the fast temporary storage (1 PB Lustre file system) and the processing supercomputer (200 TFlop system). This High-Performance Computing (HPC) platform is managed and supported by the Pawsey support team. Due to the limited amount of data generated by BETA and the first ASKAP Array Release, the Central Processor platform has been running in a more "traditional" or user-interactive mode. But this is about to change: integration and verification of the online ingest pipeline starts in early 2016, which is required to support the full

  12. Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douw, Gooske; Huisman-de Waal, Getty; van Zanten, Arthur R H; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of individual and combined dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators at various Early Warning Score levels, differentiating between Early Warning Scores reaching the trigger threshold to call a rapid response team and Early Warning Score levels not reaching this point. Dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score comprises nine indicators underlying nurses' 'worry' about a patient's condition. All indicators independently show significant association with unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality. Prediction of this outcome improved by adding the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators to an Early Warning Score based on vital signs. An observational cohort study was conducted on three surgical wards in a tertiary university-affiliated teaching hospital. Included were surgical, native-speaking, adult patients. Nurses scored presence of 'worry' and/or dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators every shift or when worried. Vital signs were measured according to the prevailing protocol. Unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality was the composite endpoint. Percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators were calculated at various Early Warning Score levels in control and event groups. Entering all dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators in a multiple logistic regression analysis, we calculated a weighted score and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value and negative predicted value for each possible total score. In 3522 patients, 102 (2·9%) had an unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admissions (n = 97) or unexpected mortality (n = 5). Patients with such events and only slightly changed vital signs had significantly higher percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators expressed than patients in the control group. Increasing number

  13. Demonstration of the Cascadia G‐FAST geodetic earthquake early warning system for the Nisqually, Washington, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Brendan; Schmidt, David; Bodin, Paul; Vidale, John; Gomberg, Joan S.; Hartog, Renate; Kress, Victor; Melbourne, Tim; Santillian, Marcelo; Minson, Sarah E.; Jamison, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    A prototype earthquake early warning (EEW) system is currently in development in the Pacific Northwest. We have taken a two‐stage approach to EEW: (1) detection and initial characterization using strong‐motion data with the Earthquake Alarm Systems (ElarmS) seismic early warning package and (2) the triggering of geodetic modeling modules using Global Navigation Satellite Systems data that help provide robust estimates of large‐magnitude earthquakes. In this article we demonstrate the performance of the latter, the Geodetic First Approximation of Size and Time (G‐FAST) geodetic early warning system, using simulated displacements for the 2001Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake. We test the timing and performance of the two G‐FAST source characterization modules, peak ground displacement scaling, and Centroid Moment Tensor‐driven finite‐fault‐slip modeling under ideal, latent, noisy, and incomplete data conditions. We show good agreement between source parameters computed by G‐FAST with previously published and postprocessed seismic and geodetic results for all test cases and modeling modules, and we discuss the challenges with integration into the U.S. Geological Survey’s ShakeAlert EEW system.

  14. Developing the remote sensing-based early warning system for monitoring TSS concentrations in Lake Mead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imen, Sanaz; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Adjustment of the water treatment process to changes in water quality is a focus area for engineers and managers of water treatment plants. The desired and preferred capability depends on timely and quantitative knowledge of water quality monitoring in terms of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations. This paper presents the development of a suite of nowcasting and forecasting methods by using high-resolution remote-sensing-based monitoring techniques on a daily basis. First, the integrated data fusion and mining (IDFM) technique was applied to develop a near real-time monitoring system for daily nowcasting of the TSS concentrations. Then a nonlinear autoregressive neural network with external input (NARXNET) model was selected and applied for forecasting analysis of the changes in TSS concentrations over time on a rolling basis onward using the IDFM technique. The implementation of such an integrated forecasting and nowcasting approach was assessed by a case study at Lake Mead hosting the water intake for Las Vegas, Nevada, in the water-stressed western U.S. Long-term monthly averaged results showed no simultaneous impact from forest fire events on accelerating the rise of TSS concentration. However, the results showed a probable impact of a decade of drought on increasing TSS concentration in the Colorado River Arm and Overton Arm. Results of the forecasting model highlight the reservoir water level as a significant parameter in predicting TSS in Lake Mead. In addition, the R-squared value of 0.98 and the root mean square error of 0.5 between the observed and predicted TSS values demonstrates the reliability and application potential of this remote sensing-based early warning system in terms of TSS projections at a drinking water intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The IAEA and non-proliferation: is quiescence progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the current status of more important non-proliferation aspects affecting or involving the IAEA. The questions dealt with cover in particular the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Tlatelolco Treaty, the Committee on Assurances of Supply established by the IAEA in 1980 and the International Plutonium Storage Study prepared by an IAEA expert group. The author concludes that in a number of areas involving this Agency, recent considerable activity at both political and technical levels has produced few tangible results althrough the situation is not static. (NEA) [fr

  16. The proliferation of massive destruction weapons and ballistic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, M.

    1996-01-01

    The author studies the actual situation of nuclear deterrence policies, the possibilities of use chemical weapons as massive destructions weapons for non nuclear governments. The situation of non proliferation of nuclear weapons took a new interest with the disintegration of the communism block, but it seems that only few nuclear matter disappeared towards proliferating countries. The denuclearization of Bielorussia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan makes progress with the START I treaty; China has signed the Non proliferation treaty in 1992, it conducts an export policy in matter of equipment and know-how, towards Iran, Pakistan, North Korea, Saudi Arabia and Syria. In a future of ten years, countries such, Iran, North Korea could catch up with Israel, India and Pakistan among non declared nuclear countries. For chemical weapon, Libya, Iran and Syria could catch up with Iraq. (N.C.)

  17. Landslide management through the design and implementation of an early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, E.; Gigli, G.; Mugnai, F.; Fanti, R.; Casagli, N.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of landslide management, early warning systems (EWSs) are an alternative and cost-effective means to reduce the risk with a low environmental and economical impact. In some cases they can even be the only solution, for instance when a landslide is so large that it cannot possibly be stabilized, when in an area there are too many unstable slopes and there are not enough financial resources to take care of them all individually, or when the residual risk after remediation works is still unacceptable. An EWS for a rockslide (at Torgiovannetto, Central Italy) has been designed after a period during which monitoring, landslide characterization and the definition of risk scenarios have been carried out. It consists in a 182 000 m3 rock wedge threatening two roads which are important for local transportation. The present work encompasses and describes all the components of the EWS, including the geological knowledge, the risk scenarios, the kinematic characterization of the landslide, the choice and installation of the monitoring system, the setting of appropriate alarm levels, the definition of plans of civil protection and so on. The focus is on practical and logistical issues met in all these phases and the counter-measures adopted. At present the system consists in 13 wire extensometers, 1 thermometer, 1 rain gauge and 3 cameras, in part connected through a wireless sensor network. Should a velocity threshold be exceeded by two or more sensors, the attention level would be entered, causing improved monitoring and surveillance. In case the behaviour of the landslide changes and, by using expert judgement and forecasting methods, an imminent failure is hinted, then an alarm is issued and the upper road is closed. The EWS has been designed by stressing the importance of redundancy, simplicity, communication and minimizing the probability of false alarms. Although site-specific, this system can be useful when facing similar situations, in particular

  18. Supporting the national energy needs for the early 21st century with the advanced liquid metal reactor system (ALMRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, B.A.; Quinn, J.E.; Thompson, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a cost effective approach to providing a major contribution to the electricity needs of the United States in the early 21st century through an integrated Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor System (ALMRS). This system has several synergistic components which are under development by the United States Department of Energy (DOE): the modular, passively safe ALMR reactor design; metal fuel recycle (aka IFR); and the processing of LWR spent fuel to use as startup fuel for the ALMR. Each of these components contributes to an overall system behavior that will be able to provide an important portion of the United States' electrical energy needs beginning about the year 2010, while at the same time translating some fuel wastes of the LWR spent fuel to an asset. This paper describes each of these components and their synergism. Economic projections and busbar costs for this system are also presented

  19. Autoradiographical investigations of the proliferation of gynaecological carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehweck, H.

    1981-01-01

    23 biopsies and operation preparations of gynaecological tumours were examined autoradiographically: 8 with an external short-time preirradiation of up to 750 R, one with a curative radiotherapy 1 1/2 years ago. Besides the determination of quantitative parameters of growth kinetics another main concern was to find out the interdependence between the proliferation behaviour of the tumour cells and the histological differentiation of the tumour parenchyma and the topographical location of the malignant cells in the tissue. Possible effects of a previous radiotherapy on the cell proliferation are discussed. (orig./MG) [de

  20. The Search for Surviving Direct Samples of Early Solar System Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. All classes of astromaterials studied show some degree of interaction with aqueous fluids. Nevertheless, we are still lacking fundamental information such as the location and timing of the aqueous alteration and the detailed nature of the aqueous fluids. Halite crystals in two meteorite regolith breccias were found to contain aqueous fluid inclusions (brines) trapped approx. 4.5 BYBP. Heating/freezing studies of the aqueous fluid inclusions in these halites demonstrated that they were trapped near 25 C. The initial results of our O and H isotopic measurements on these brine inclusions can be explained by a simple model mixing asteroidal and cometary water. We have been analyzing solids and organics trapped alongside the brines in the halites by FTIR, C-XANES, SXRD and Raman, as clues to the origin of the water. The organics show thermal effects that span the entire range witnessed by organics in all chondrite types. Since we identified water-soluble aromatics, including partially halogenated methanol, in some of the halite, we suspected amino acids were also present, but have thus far found that levels of amino acids were undetectable (which is very interesting). We have also been locating aqueous fluid inclusions in other astromaterials, principally carbonates in CI and CM chondrites. Although we have advanced slowly towards detailed analysis of these ancient brines, since they require techniques right at or just beyond current analytical capabilities, their eventual full characterization will completely open the window onto the origin and activity of early solar system water.

  1. Proliferation Networks and Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose practical solutions aimed at completing and strengthening the existing arrangement for the control of nuclear proliferation through a control of financial as well as material or immaterial flows. In a first part, the author proposes a systemic analysis of networks of suppliers and demanders. He notably evokes the Khan's network and the Iraqi acquisition network during the 1993-2001 period. He also proposes a modelling of proliferation networks (supplier networks and acquisition networks) and of their interactions. In a second part, the author examines possible means and policies aimed at neutralising proliferation networks: organisation, adaptation and improvement of intelligence tools in front of proliferation networks, and means, limitations and perspectives of network neutralisation. He also briefly addresses the possibility of military action to contain proliferation flows

  2. RAE-1 is expressed in the adult subventricular zone and controls cell proliferation of neurospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Natalia; Cedile, Oriane; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Bagnis, Claude; Durbec, Pascale; Boucraut, José

    2011-01-01

    Improving and controlling the capacity of endogenous or grafted adult neural stem cells to repair the nervous system relies on a better knowledge of interactions between immune cells and neural stem cells. Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) family members comprise numerous proteins playing either immune or nonimmune function. Among the latter, MHC functions in the central nervous system has started to receive recent interest. Here, our first goal was to investigate the potential relationship between MHC class I molecules and neurogenesis. For the first time, we report the expression of two MHC class I-related members by neural stem/progenitor cells: retinoic acid early induced transcript (RAE)-1 and CD1d. The expression of RAE-1 but not CD1d disappears when differentiation of neurosphere cells is induced. Interestingly, RAE-1 transcripts are expressed in the brain during development, and we demonstrate they persist in one of the main area of adult neurogenesis, the subventricular zone (SVZ). So far, RAE-1 is only known for its immune functions as a ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D expressed by natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T, Tγδ, and some T CD8 lymphocytes. Here, we do not detect any NKG2D expression in the SVZ either in physiological or in pathological conditions. Interestingly, inhibition of RAE-1 expression in neurosphere cells reduces cell proliferation without alteration of cell viability, which argues for a nonimmune role for RAE-1. These results reveal an unexpected role of RAE-1 in regulating adult SVZ neurogenesis by supporting stem/progenitor cells proliferation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  4. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials

  5. Nuclear energy and non proliferation. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.; Rauf, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons. The IAEA verifies States compliance with their non-proliferation commitments through the application of safeguards on their civilian nuclear programmes to ensure that they are being used solely for peaceful purposes. The IAEA safeguards have evolved in the course of five decades and have become an integral part of the international non-proliferation regime and the global security system. To continue to serve the international community, they need to continue to move with the times, especially in light of the renewed interest in nuclear energy. (Author)

  6. The gas centrifuge, uranium enrichment and nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The author considers the consequences for controlling nuclear proliferation of the emergence of the gas centrifuge method for enriching uranium and succeeds in the difficult and delicate task of saying enough about gas centrifuge techniques for readers to judge, what may be involved in fully embracing gas centrifuge enrichment within the constraints of an anti-proliferation strategy, whilst at the same time saying nothing that could be construed as encouraging an interest in the gas centrifuge route to highly enriched uranium where none had before existed. (author)

  7. Framework for evaluating public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks: recommendations from the CDC Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, James W; Hopkins, Richard S; Overhage, J Marc; Sosin, Daniel M; Tong, Van

    2004-05-07

    The threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks has drawn attention to public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks. State and local health departments are enhancing existing surveillance systems and developing new systems to better detect outbreaks through public health surveillance. However, information is limited about the usefulness of surveillance systems for outbreak detection or the best ways to support this function. This report supplements previous guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Use of this framework is intended to improve decision-making regarding the implementation of surveillance for outbreak detection. Use of a standardized evaluation methodology, including description of system design and operation, also will enhance the exchange of information regarding methods to improve early detection of outbreaks. The framework directs particular attention to the measurement of timeliness and validity for outbreak detection. The evaluation framework is designed to support assessment and description of all surveillance approaches to early detection, whether through traditional disease reporting, specialized analytic routines for aberration detection, or surveillance using early indicators of disease outbreaks, such as syndromic surveillance.

  8. Previewing the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomper, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite groundbreaking disarmament pledges and substantial effort, the Obama administration's hopes for a successful Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference may not be fully realised. Many developing countries are in no mood to grant new non-proliferation concessions, such as tightened rules on access to sensitive nuclear technologies, tougher inspection rules, or limits on withdrawing from the treaty. The non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS) remain angered by the failure to move forward on many disarmament commitments pledged at the 1995 and 2000 Conferences. Moreover, progress on disarmament measures under Obama has been slower than hoped, as he faces considerable scepticism in Washington about his strategy. (author)

  9. Tissue expander stimulated lengthening of arteries (TESLA) induces early endothelial cell proliferation in a novel rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potanos, Kristina; Fullington, Nora; Cauley, Ryan; Purcell, Patricia; Zurakowski, David; Fishman, Steven; Vakili, Khashayar; Kim, Heung Bae

    2016-04-01

    We examine the mechanism of aortic lengthening in a novel rodent model of tissue expander stimulated lengthening of arteries (TESLA). A rat model of TESLA was examined with a single stretch stimulus applied at the time of tissue expander insertion with evaluation of the aorta at 2, 4 and 7day time points. Measurements as well as histology and proliferation assays were performed and compared to sham controls. The aortic length was increased at all time points without histologic signs of tissue injury. Nuclear density remained unchanged despite the increase in length suggesting cellular hyperplasia. Cellular proliferation was confirmed in endothelial cell layer by Ki-67 stain. Aortic lengthening may be achieved using TESLA. The increase in aortic length can be achieved without tissue injury and results at least partially from cellular hyperplasia. Further studies are required to define the mechanisms involved in the growth of arteries under increased longitudinal stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bifunctional role of ephrin A1-Eph system in stimulating cell proliferation and protecting cells from cell death through the attenuation of ER stress and inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minkyung; Jeong, Wooyoung; Bae, Hyocheol; Lim, Whasun; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2018-03-01

    Structural and functional development of the mammary gland is constant in the mammary gland life cycle. Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, control events through cell-to-cell interactions during embryonic development, and adult tissue homeostasis; however, little information on participation of ephrin A1, a representative ligand of the Eph receptor, in the development and function of normal mammary glands is known. In this study, we demonstrated functional effects of the ephrin A1-Eph system and mechanisms of its action on bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells. The in vitro cultured MAC-T cells expressed the ephrin A1 ligand and EphA1, A2, A4, A7, and A8 among the eight members of the Eph A family. Our results revealed that ephrin A1 induced MAC-T cell cycle progression and stimulated cell proliferation with abundant expression of nucleic PCNA and cyclin D1 proteins. Additionally, ephrin A1 induced activation of intracellular signaling molecules involved in PI3 K/AKT and MAPK signaling, and the proliferation-stimulating effect of ephrin A1 was mediated by activation of these pathways. Furthermore, ephrin A1 influenced expression and activation of various ER stress-related proteins and protected MAC-T cells from stress-induced cell death. Finally, ephrin A1 alleviated LPS-induced cell death through down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the Eph A-ephrin A1 system is a positive factor in the increase and maintenance of epithelial cells in mammary glands of cows; the signaling system contributes to development, remodeling, and functionality of normal mammary glands and could overcome mastitis in cows and other mammals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Early Prevention Method for Power Systems Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgenia

    containing no voltage sources). The main functionality of the early prevention method is to deliver control solution allowing escape from instability on the basis of data obtained by PMU measurements. The developed algorithm performs identification of the optimal node for countermeasure application...... instability was created. Utilizing synthetic PMU data, the early prevention method proposed a location and an amount of the countermeasure which will prevent instability; the prediction of the resulting stability margins corresponding to application of the suggested countermeasure was carried out....... The predicted effect of the suggested countermeasure application is in a good agreement with the results obtained by RMS dynamic simulation. Developed method enables adaptive preventive control for near real-time stability maintenance. The achieved results are opening promising perspective for power system...

  12. The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmshurst, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the reasons of criticism and even rejection of the Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968, dealing in particular with the alledged discriminating nature of the Treaty and with the statement that the Treaty is not apt to prevent proliferation on a vertical plane. He further discusses the motives behind the efforts of potential nuclear weapons states to get nuclear weapons. The system of worldwide and bilateral safeguards and controls covering the transfer of nuclear technologies is explained. In conclusion the author suggests to pay more attention to article IV, sub-section (2) of the Non-Proliferation Treaty as this might offer a suitable approach to restricting the dissemination of nuclear explosives. (HP) [de

  13. Early-1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S G [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, P N [Tech Reps Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-07-15

    This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance-assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal (Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes). As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance and qualitative judgments. Compliance appears uncertain only in the event of human intrusion into the repository after decommissioning. Issues affecting compliance following intrusion include properties of the plugs used to seal the intruding borehole, permeability and porosity of the waste, and possible pressurization of the repository by gas generated from the organic decomposition and corrosion of the waste and containers. Research is in progress to determine the probability of intrusion and to quantify parameter uncertainties needed to include these factors in simulations of repository performance. The Department of Energy (DOE) is following two strategies to assure compliance. First, passive marker systems will be designed and implemented to reduce the likelihood of intrusion and increase the likelihood that intruders will properly reseal the repository. Second, modifications to the form of the waste and the design of the repository to achieve acceptable performance if the intruding borehole is not adequately sealed will be designed. Goals include reductions in gas generation and waste permeability and porosity. Numerous modifications are technically possible. Work in progress will evaluate proposed modifications and recommend the most promising for further testing. The DOE is confident that compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 191 can be established using a combination of the two strategies

  14. Early-1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Swift, P.N.

    1991-07-01

    This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance-assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal (Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes). As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance and qualitative judgments. Compliance appears uncertain only in the event of human intrusion into the repository after decommissioning. Issues affecting compliance following intrusion include properties of the plugs used to seal the intruding borehole, permeability and porosity of the waste, and possible pressurization of the repository by gas generated from the organic decomposition and corrosion of the waste and containers. Research is in progress to determine the probability of intrusion and to quantify parameter uncertainties needed to include these factors in simulations of repository performance. The Department of Energy (DOE) is following two strategies to assure compliance. First, passive marker systems will be designed and implemented to reduce the likelihood of intrusion and increase the likelihood that intruders will properly reseal the repository. Second, modifications to the form of the waste and the design of the repository to achieve acceptable performance if the intruding borehole is not adequately sealed will be designed. Goals include reductions in gas generation and waste permeability and porosity. Numerous modifications are technically possible. Work in progress will evaluate proposed modifications and recommend the most promising for further testing. The DOE is confident that compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 191 can be established using a combination of the two strategies

  15. Apoptosis and cell proliferation in the development of gastric carcinomas: associations with c-myc and p53 protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hideaki H; Gobé, Glenda C; Pan, Wenshen; Yoneyama, Juichi; Ebihara, Yoshiro

    2002-09-01

    Patients with gastric carcinomas have a poor prognosis and low survival rates. The aim of the present paper was to characterize cellular and molecular properties to provide insight into aspects of tumor progression in early compared with advanced gastric cancers. One hundred and nine graded gastric carcinomas (early or advanced stage, undifferentiated or differentiated type) with paired non-cancer tissue were studied to define the correlation between apoptosis (morphology, terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labeling), cell proliferation (Ki-67 expression, morphology) and expression and localization of two proteins frequently having altered expression in cancers, namely p53 and c-myc. Overall, apoptosis was lower in early stage, differentiated and undifferentiated gastric carcinomas compared with advanced-stage cancers. Cell proliferation was comparatively high in all stages. There was a high level of p53 positivity in all stages. Only the early- and advanced-stage undifferentiated cancers that were p53 positive had a significantly higher level of apoptosis (P cancers that had either c-myc or p53-positivity. The results indicate that low apoptosis and high cell proliferation combine to drive gastric cancer development. The molecular controls for high cell proliferation of the early stage undifferentiated gastric cancers involve overexpression of both p53 and c-myc. Overexpression of p53 may also control cancer development in that its expression is associated with higher levels of apoptosis in early and late-stage undifferentiated, cancers. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  16. Design and challenges for a tsunami early warning system in the Marmara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioğlu, Öcal

    2016-01-01

    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes in Turkey, with a total affected population of around 7 million and direct losses of around 25 billion USD. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and post-seismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude Mw = 7.4, Parsons (J Geophys Res. 109, 2004) concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw > 7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35 to 70 % in the next 30 years. According to a 2011 study, an earthquake with Mw = 7.25 on the Main Marmara Fault is expected to heavily damage or destroy 2 to 4 % of around 1,000,000 buildings in Istanbul with a population around 13 million, with 9 to 15 % of the buildings receiving medium damage and 20 to 34 % of the buildings damaged lightly (Erdik, Science 341:72, 2013). In the absence of adequate post-earthquake assembly areas especially in the heavily urbanized Istanbul, it is evident that after a major earthquake, especially in the coastal parts of the city, citizens would be storming to landfill assembly and recreational areas. Besides earthquakes, around 30 tsunamis have been reported by Altınok et al. (Natural Hazards Earth System Science 11:273-293, 2011) in the Marmara Sea. Among those, catastrophic earthquakes such as 1509, 1766, and 1894 resulted in considerable tsunamis and some damage. The latest tsunami observed in Marmara was due to a triggered submarine landslide of the 1999 Mw = 7.4 Kocaeli earthquake which led to reported run-up heights of 1-3 m in most places (Tinti et al., Marine Geology 225:311-330, 2006). In this study, I propose a design for a tsunami warning system specific for the Marmara region that is strongly coupled with the earthquake early warning system (due to the short arrival times of tsunami) and stakeholders of the tsunami mitigation activities, such as local and regional components of disaster and emergency management and civil protection units, to ensure that the citizens

  17. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Volume 6 of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power-generating capability and one without. This volume also provides estimates of the time required for development of large-scale commercial reactor systems to reach the construction permit application stage and for fuel-cycle facilities to reach the operating license application stage, which is a measure of the relative technical status of alternative nuclear systems

  18. EARLY DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: PINNING DOWN THE INITIAL CONDITIONS OF THE NICE MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years, the 'Nice' model of solar system formation has attained an unprecedented level of success in reproducing much of the observed orbital architecture of the solar system by evolving the planets to their current locations from a more compact configuration. Within the context of this model, the formation of the classical Kuiper Belt requires a phase during which the ice giants have a high eccentricity. An outstanding question of this model is the initial configuration from which the solar system started out. Recent work has shown that multi-resonant initial conditions can serve as good candidates, as they naturally prevent vigorous type-II migration. In this paper, we use analytical arguments, as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully resonant initial conditions, whose dynamical evolution is characterized by an eccentric phase of the ice giants, as well as planetary scattering. We find a total of eight such initial conditions. Four of these primordial states are compatible with the canonical 'Nice' model, while the others imply slightly different evolutions. The results presented here should prove useful in further development of a comprehensive model for solar system formation.

  19. Development of Hydrometeorological Monitoring and Forecasting as AN Essential Component of the Early Flood Warning System:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukalo, V.

    2012-12-01

    Defining issue The river inundations are the most common and destructive natural hazards in Ukraine. Among non-structural flood management and protection measures a creation of the Early Flood Warning System is extremely important to be able to timely recognize dangerous situations in the flood-prone areas. Hydrometeorological information and forecasts are a core importance in this system. The primary factors affecting reliability and a lead - time of forecasts include: accuracy, speed and reliability with which real - time data are collected. The existing individual conception of monitoring and forecasting resulted in a need in reconsideration of the concept of integrated monitoring and forecasting approach - from "sensors to database and forecasters". Result presentation The Project: "Development of Flood Monitoring and Forecasting in the Ukrainian part of the Dniester River Basin" is presented. The project is developed by the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Service in a conjunction with the Water Management Agency and the Energy Company "Ukrhydroenergo". The implementation of the Project is funded by the Ukrainian Government and the World Bank. The author is nominated as the responsible person for coordination of activity of organizations involved in the Project. The term of the Project implementation: 2012 - 2014. The principal objectives of the Project are: a) designing integrated automatic hydrometeorological measurement network (including using remote sensing technologies); b) hydrometeorological GIS database construction and coupling with electronic maps for flood risk assessment; c) interface-construction classic numerical database -GIS and with satellite images, and radar data collection; d) providing the real-time data dissemination from observation points to forecasting centers; e) developing hydrometeoroogical forecasting methods; f) providing a flood hazards risk assessment for different temporal and spatial scales; g) providing a dissemination of

  20. Resilience in Change: Positive Perspectives on the Dynamics of Change in Early Childhood Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Change is a central feature of the early care and education landscape today. Much of the research on educational change focuses on the negative or challenging aspects of change. This study employed a critical theory framework from the organizational sciences field, positive organizational scholarship, to offer a new way of thinking about change in…

  1. Exports and experts:proliferation risks from the new Commonwealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Ironically, given the Cold War history and Western stereotypes about Soviet misbehavior, the long-standing experience of US-Soviet cooperation on nonproliferation may have made US policy-makers less attentive to, and less concerned about, signs of change in Soviet nuclear export policy. The breakup of the Soviet Union and the nuclear inheritance of its successor states belatedly focused Western attention on the proliferation risks posed by the disintegration of central authority. Most concern to date, however, has continued to emphasize the problems of nuclear command and control. But the nonproliferation threats associated with the unregulated export of sensitive nuclear material, technology, and equipment may be equally great, and present problems that are already real. At the same time, the new nation-building process in the Soviet successor states presents opportunities for expanding the NPT and international safeguards, containing the nuclear brain drain, promoting the cleanup of hazardous nuclear waste, enhancing international capabilities for monitoring proliferation, and building new communities of nonproliferation specialists. A rare occasion now exists for Western policy-makers to have a direct impact on the long-term nuclear export and non-proliferation behavior of the successor states to the Soviet Union. The speed and seriousness with which the West undertakes this task will largely determine how much ground, if any, will be lost from its decades-long effort to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons

  2. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases. Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards

  3. Introducing the Cycle of Inquiry System: A Reflective Inquiry Practice for Early Childhood Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Jane Tingle; Hong, Seong Bock

    2011-01-01

    The Cycle of Inquiry (COI) is a tool for emergent curriculum planning and for professional development of early childhood teachers and teacher education students. The COI includes a sequence of five organizational forms connecting analysis of documentation data with intentional planning for long-term emergent inquiry inspired by the Reggio Emilia…

  4. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  5. The challenge of installing a tsunami early warning system in the vicinity of the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lauterjung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is located along the most prominent active continental margin in the Indian Ocean, the so-called Sunda Arc and, therefore, is one of the most threatened regions of the world in terms of natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. On 26 December 2004 the third largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded (magnitude 9.3, Stein and Okal, 2005 occurred off-shore northern Sumatra and triggered a mega-tsunami affecting the whole Indian Ocean. Almost a quarter of a million people were killed, as the region was not prepared either in terms of early-warning or in terms of disaster response.

    In order to be able to provide, in future, a fast and reliable warning procedure for the population, Germany, immediately after the catastrophe, offered during the UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Hyogo/Japan in January 2005 technical support for the development and installation of a tsunami early warning system for the Indian Ocean in addition to assistance in capacity building in particular for local communities. This offer was accepted by Indonesia but also by other countries like Sri Lanka, the Maldives and some East-African countries. Anyhow the main focus of our activities has been carried out in Indonesia as the main source of tsunami threat for the entire Indian Ocean. Challenging for the technical concept of this warning system are the extremely short warning times for Indonesia, due to its vicinity to the Sunda Arc. For this reason the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS integrates different modern and new scientific monitoring technologies and analysis methods.

  6. Summary of the stakeholders workshop to develop a National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Scott, William E.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Ewert, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of investing in monitoring, mitigation, and preparedness before natural hazards occur has been amply demonstrated by recent disasters such as the Indian Ocean Tsunami in December 2004 and Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Playing catch-up with hazardous natural phenomena such as these limits our ability to work with public officials and the public to lessen adverse impacts. With respect to volcanic activity, the starting point of effective pre-event mitigation is monitoring capability sufficient to detect and diagnose precursory unrest so that communities at risk have reliable information and sufficient time to respond to hazards with which they may be confronted. Recognizing that many potentially dangerous U.S. volcanoes have inadequate or no ground-based monitoring, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) and partners recently evaluated U.S. volcano-monitoring capabilities and published 'An Assessment of Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities in the United States: Framework for a National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS).' Results of the NVEWS volcanic threat and monitoring assessment are being used to guide long-term improvements to the national volcano-monitoring infrastructure operated by the USGS and affiliated groups. The NVEWS report identified the need to convene a workshop of a broad group of stakeholders--such as representatives of emergency- and land-management agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels and the aviation sector--to solicit input about implementation of NVEWS and their specific information requirements. Accordingly, an NVEWS Stakeholders Workshop was held in Portland, Oregon, on 22-23 February 2006. A summary of the workshop is presented in this document.

  7. Infrasonic measurements of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, R.W.; Noel, S.; Meadows, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Two infrasonic arrays were operated for the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). The arrays were located at the Nevada Test Site and at St. George, UT. The results were consistent with experience on underground tests, and therefore close to underground nuclear tests of similar size.

  8. British nuclear non-proliferation policy and the trident purchase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keohane, D.

    1984-01-01

    Since the mid-1950s, the UK has had a policy of making significant and sustained efforts to minimise the spread of nuclear arms. Unlike the global focus of its non-proliferation policy, the decision on Trident in centred upon national and perhaps regional requirements. At a time when non-nuclear countries are charging nuclear-weapon states with a grave failure to meet their obligations under Article VI of the NPT, Britain is making plans that would further increase the gap between the nuclear 'haves' and have-nots' and that indicate it expects to require nuclear arms in the next century. It would of course be unrealistic to expect a government to fully harmonise its manifold policies and unreasonable to suggest it should give absolute priority to one of its policy concerns, such as non-proliferation. But Britain is emphasising the high value it places upon the independent possession of strategic nuclear arms through its decision to purchase Trident, thus implicitly contradicting the logic underlying its non-proliferation policy. Compared to other factors, the influence of the Trident decision upon the non-proliferation regime appears very marginal, yet it is unlikely to strengthen that regime

  9. The world's non-proliferation regime in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, George

    2005-01-01

    The idea for a treaty to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to more countries was supported unanimously by the UN General Assembly in 1961. The NPT permits the P-5 to have nuclear weapons. All other NPT signatories are 'non-nuclear-weapon States' who are prohibited from acquiring nuclear weapons. To gain their signatures, the NPT promises assistance to them in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and negotiations toward nuclear disarmament. Besides the P-5, the treaty now has 184 countries that have promised not to have nuclear weapons and that have agreed to accept inspections by the IAEA to verify that they are carrying out their promises. However, India, Pakistan, and Israel refused to join the treaty, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) withdrew from it. Of these four countries, only India and Pakistan have tested nuclear weapons. Israel and North Korea are assumed to have them. The non-proliferation regime today includes much more than the NPT. The IAEA standards for inspection were the next most important element. The IAEA inspection requirements negotiated in the early 1970s were shown to be inadequate by Iraq's success in hiding its nuclear-weapon efforts before and during the Gulf War of 1991. The Additional Protocol of 1997 is slowly replacing these requirements, but, as of December 2004, was in effect in only 62 NPT member countries. The regime includes the agreements creating nuclear-weapon free zones in Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, the South Pacific, and Mongolia. The countries that formed these zones are also members of the NPT. The regime includes suggestions for standards and financial assistance plus requirements for physical protection of nuclear material from theft by terrorists or others. These efforts range from the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, to the technical assistance provided by the IAEA and some countries, to the financial assistance offered by the G-8 and some other IAEA

  10. Earthquake Drill using the Earthquake Early Warning System at an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Satoko; Yazaki, Yoshiaki; Koketsu, Kazuki

    2010-05-01

    economic repercussion. We provide the school kids with the "World Seismicity Map" to let them realize that earthquake disasters take place unequally. Then we let the kids jump in front of the seismometer with projecting the real-time data to the wall. Grouped kids contest the largest amplitude by carefully considering how to jump high but nail the landing with their teammates. Their jumps are printed out via portable printer and compared with the real earthquake which occurred even 600km away but still huge when printed out in the same scale. Actually, a magnitude 7 earthquake recorded 600km away needs an A0 paper when scaled with a jump of 10 kids printed in an A4 paper. They've got to understand what to do not to be killed with the great big energy. We also offer earthquake drills using the Earthquake Early Warning System (EEW System). An EEW System is officially introduced in 2007 by JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) to issue prompt alerts to provide several to several ten seconds before S-wave arrives. When hearing the alarm, school kids think fast to find a place to protect themselves. It is not always when they are in their classrooms but in the chemical lab, music room which does not have any desks to protect them, or in the PE class. Then in the science class, we demonstrate how the EEW System works. A 8m long wave propagation device made with spindles connected with springs is used to visualize the P- and S-waves. In the presentation, we would like to show the paper materials and sufficient movies.

  11. For a consistent policy in the struggle against proliferation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumberger, Guillaume; Gruselle, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation networks operate like companies. They must be capable of coordinating a series of elementary logistics, financial and technical functions. Due to the increase in worldwide exchanges, the reinforcement of existing export control tools alone will not be sufficient to face the increase in proliferation flows. Despite widespread reporting in the media, interdiction operations also can only have limited effect on networks, due to their occasional nature, if they are undertaken independently of an approach targeting other functions. It also seems hardly realistic to wish to neutralize a proliferation network only by freezing part of its credits in the framework of a repressive approach. Setting up an overall policy provides a means of coordinating intelligence actions, repression tools and interdiction means both nationally and internationally, and therefore appears as the only viable solution in the struggle against proliferation networks. This is a complex task for it requires the organization of inter-ministerial (or interagency) responsibilities, and in particular it requires an equilibrium between long term and short term actions. Finally, it depends on the reinforcement of links between the administrations involved and private participants including service companies, financial institutions and enterprises. (authors)

  12. An early warning system to forecast the close of the spring burning window from satellite-observed greenness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickell, Paul D; Coops, Nicholas C; Ferster, Colin J; Bater, Christopher W; Blouin, Karen D; Flannigan, Mike D; Zhang, Jinkai

    2017-10-27

    Spring represents the peak of human-caused wildfire events in populated boreal forests, resulting in catastrophic loss of property and human life. Human-caused wildfire risk is anticipated to increase in northern forests as fuels become drier, on average, under warming climate scenarios and as population density increases within formerly remote regions. We investigated springtime human-caused wildfire risk derived from satellite-observed vegetation greenness in the early part of the growing season, a period of increased ignition and wildfire spread potential from snow melt to vegetation green-up with the aim of developing an early warning wildfire risk system. The initial system was developed for 392,856 km 2 of forested lands with satellite observations available prior to the start of the official wildfire season and predicted peak human-caused wildfire activity with 10-day accuracy for 76% of wildfire-protected lands by March 22. The early warning system could have significant utility as a cost-effective solution for wildfire managers to prioritize the deployment of wildfire protection resources in wildfire-prone landscapes across boreal-dominated ecosystems of North America, Europe, and Russia using open access Earth observations.

  13. Molecular analysis of peroxisome proliferation in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Agharul I; Sims, Helen M; Horley, Neill J; Roberts, Ruth A; Tomlinson, Simon R; Salter, Andrew M; Bruce, Mary; Shaw, P Nicholas; Kendall, David; Barrett, David A; Bell, David R

    2004-05-15

    Three novel P450 members of the cytochrome P450 4A family were cloned as partial cDNAs from hamster liver, characterised as novel members of the CYP4A subfamily, and designated CYP4A17, 18, and 19. Hamsters were treated with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists, methylclofenapate (MCP) or Wy-14,643, and shown to develop hepatomegaly and induction of CYP4A17 RNA, and concomitant induction of lauric acid 12- hydroxylase. This treatment also resulted in hypolipidaemia, which was most pronounced in the VLDL fraction, with up to 50% reduction in VLDL-triglycerides; by contrast, blood cholesterol concentration was unaffected by this treatment. These data show that hamster is highly responsive to induction of CYP4A by peroxisome proliferators. To characterise the molecular basis of peroxisome proliferation, the hamster PPARalpha was cloned and shown to encode a 468-amino-acid protein, which is highly similar to rat and mouse PPARalpha proteins. The level of expression of hamster PPARalpha in liver is intermediate between mouse and guinea pig. These results fail to support the hypothesis that the level of PPARalpha in liver is directly responsible for species differences in peroxisome proliferation.

  14. Incidences and Risk Factors of Organ Manifestations in the Early Course of Systemic Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Veronika K; Wirz, Elina G; Allanore, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    risk factors associated with incident renal crisis. CONCLUSION: In SSc patients presenting early after RP onset, approximately half of all incident organ manifestations occur within 2 years and have a simultaneous rather than a sequential onset. These findings have implications for the design of new...

  15. Early- versus Late-Onset Systemic Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A.; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish