WorldWideScience

Sample records for projects included conservation

  1. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  2. Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Game, Edward T; Fitzsimons, James A; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner. (letter)

  3. Focus on energy conservation: a project list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    The Urban Land Institute (ULI) has prepared the following list of outstanding energy conserving projects for the US Department of Energy. As requested by the Department, the list includes descriptions of land developments and individual buildings suggested by members of ULI and by other sources. The projects have been selected to exemplify the major energy saving techniques in use today, with emphasis on those strategies most significant for people engaged in the business of land development. To make the list a useful reference for developers and public officials, ULI has attempted to cover energy conservation in the broadest sense from overall site planning to the functioning of individual building components. Focusing too closely on the myriad types of hardware available has been avoided and examples of the basic considerations important to energy-conscious planning and design are provided. Details on some heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are provided in order to acquaint readers with major innovations in the field.

  4. Nature conservation guidelines for renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    English Nature commissions this report in order to identify the likely nature conservation implications of renewable energy developments and for wind farm proposals in particular, to give guidance on siting criteria to minimise the nature conservation impact. The report is intended to be of use to developers, local planning authority staff and other interested parties in considering a renewable energy project. In consequence, the report concentrates on planning and nature conservation matters and outlines technical issues where relevant. (UK)

  5. Typology of public outreach for biodiversity conservation projects in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Amanda; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Muñoz-Santos, Maria; Martín-López, Berta; Jacobson, Susan K; Benayas, Javier

    2014-06-01

    Conservation education and outreach programs are a key approach to promote public understanding of the importance of biodiversity conservation. We reviewed 85 biodiversity conservation projects supported by the Spanish Ministry of Environment's Biodiversity Foundation. Through content analysis and descriptive statistics, we examined how the projects carried out communication, education, and public awareness and participation (CEPA) actions. We also used multivariate statistical analysis to develop a typology of 4 classes of biodiversity conservation projects on the basis of CEPA implementation. The classifications were delineated by purpose of CEPA, level of integration of CEPA actions, type of CEPA goals, main CEPA stakeholders, and aim of conservation. Our results confirm the existence of 2 key positions: CEPA has intrinsic value (i.e., they supposed the implementation of any CEPA action indirectly supported conservation) and CEPA is an instrument for achieving conservation goals. We also found that most CEPA actions addressed general audiences and school children, ignored minority groups and women, and did not include evaluation. The characteristics of the 4 types of projects and their frequency of implementation in the sample reflect the need for better integration of different types of actions (communication, education, and participation) and improved fostering of participation of multiple stakeholders in developing policy and implementing management strategies. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012, from 1 p.m. to... the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation...

  7. Hood River Conservation Project load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1987-11-01

    As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes were retrofit with conservation measures. Local weather information was also collected on a 15-min basis. This data base was used to evaluate the load savings attributable to HRCP. Two methods of weather normalization were used and showed close agreement. The weather-normalized diversified residential load savings on the Pacific Power and Light system and Hood River area peak days were >0.5 kW/household. The average spring, summer, and fall savings were much smaller, <0.1 kW/household. The load factor for the diversified residential load decreased following the conservation retrofit actions. 11 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Financial Energy Conservation Projects at Independent Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    Factors affecting financial decisions for energy conservation projects at independent colleges and universities and methods that may be used when making a financial investment decision are examined, along with sources of funding for the projects. Projects that result in the conservation of energy resources might, in a time of extreme shortages,…

  9. Readings in Wildlife and Fish Conservation, High School Conservation Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Jack

    This publication is a tentative edition of readings on Wildlife and Fish Conservation in Louisiana, and as such it forms part of one of the four units of study designed for an experimental high school course, the "High School Conservation Curriculum Project." The other three units are concerned with Forest Conervation, Soil and Water…

  10. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects to address coral reef conservation issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to address aspects of coral reef conservation: Enhancing Management of Pacific ESA-listed Corals with Improved Utility...

  11. Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: what can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesen, Anne Borge; Skonhoft, Anders [Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Dragvoll (Norway)

    2005-10-15

    Integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) have frequently been established in Africa to improve wildlife conservation and the welfare of local communities. However, their effectiveness has been hampered by conflicts and illegal harvesting. This paper focuses on the strategic interaction between the manager of a protected area and a group of local people. The park manager benefits from wildlife through tourism and hunting. The local people benefit through hunting, but also bear the wildlife damage. ICDPs relying on money transfers to the local people from the park manager may or may not promote wildlife conservation. In addition, the welfare of the local people are ambiguous. (author) [Wildlife; Conservation; Conflicts; Local welfare].

  12. Project Interface Requirements Process Including Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2010-01-01

    Most failures occur at interfaces between organizations and hardware. Processing interface requirements at the start of a project life cycle will reduce the likelihood of costly interface changes/failures later. This can be done by adding Interface Control Documents (ICDs) to the Project top level drawing tree, providing technical direction to the Projects for interface requirements, and by funding the interface requirements function directly from the Project Manager's office. The interface requirements function within the Project Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Office would work in-line with the project element design engineers early in the life cycle to enhance communications and negotiate technical issues between the elements. This function would work as the technical arm of the Project Manager to help ensure that the Project cost, schedule, and risk objectives can be met during the Life Cycle. Some ICD Lessons Learned during the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Life Cycle will include the use of hardware interface photos in the ICD, progressive life cycle design certification by analysis, test, & operations experience, assigning interface design engineers to Element Interface (EI) and Project technical panels, and linking interface design drawings with project build drawings

  13. 42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137.327 Section 137.327 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.327 May multiple projects be included in a single...

  14. To what extent do potential conservation donors value community-aspects of conservation projects in low income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard P.; Gibbons, James M.; Jones, Julia P. G.

    2018-01-01

    There is a major gap in funding required for conservation, especially in low income countries. Given the significant contribution of taxpayers in industrialized countries to funding conservation overseas, and donations from membership organisation, understanding the preferences of ordinary people in a high income country for different attributes of conservation projects is valuable for future marketing of conservation. We conducted a discrete choice experiment with visitors to a UK zoo, while simultaneously conducting a revealed preference study through a real donation campaign on the same sample. Respondents showed the highest willingness to pay for projects that have local community involvement in management (95% confidence interval £9.82 to £15.83), and for improvement in threatened species populations (£2.97 - £13.87). Both of these were significantly larger than the willingness to pay for projects involving provision of alternative livelihoods, or improving the condition of conservation sites. Results of the simultaneous donation campaign showed that respondents were very willing to donate the suggested £1 or above donation (88% made a donation, n = 1798); there was no effect of which of the two campaigns they were exposed to (threatened species management or community involvement in management). The small number of people who did not make a donation had a higher stated willingness to pay within the choice experiment, which may suggest hypothetical bias. Conservationists increasingly argue that conservation should include local communities in management (for both pragmatic and moral reasons). It is heartening that potential conservation donors seem to agree. PMID:29451923

  15. 75 FR 1651 - Multistate Conservation Grant Program; Priority List for Conservation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... of wildlife and sport fish conservation projects from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (AFWA). As required by the Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Programs Improvement Act of 2000, AFWA...: John C. Stremple, (703) 358-2156 (phone) or [email protected] (e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  16. Effect of risk aversion on prioritizing conservation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Maloney, Richard F; Joseph, Liana N; Bennett, Joseph R; Di Fonzo, Martina M I; Probert, William J M; O'Connor, Shaun M; Densem, Jodie P; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-04-01

    Conservation outcomes are uncertain. Agencies making decisions about what threat mitigation actions to take to save which species frequently face the dilemma of whether to invest in actions with high probability of success and guaranteed benefits or to choose projects with a greater risk of failure that might provide higher benefits if they succeed. The answer to this dilemma lies in the decision maker's aversion to risk--their unwillingness to accept uncertain outcomes. Little guidance exists on how risk preferences affect conservation investment priorities. Using a prioritization approach based on cost effectiveness, we compared 2 approaches: a conservative probability threshold approach that excludes investment in projects with a risk of management failure greater than a fixed level, and a variance-discounting heuristic used in economics that explicitly accounts for risk tolerance and the probabilities of management success and failure. We applied both approaches to prioritizing projects for 700 of New Zealand's threatened species across 8303 management actions. Both decision makers' risk tolerance and our choice of approach to dealing with risk preferences drove the prioritization solution (i.e., the species selected for management). Use of a probability threshold minimized uncertainty, but more expensive projects were selected than with variance discounting, which maximized expected benefits by selecting the management of species with higher extinction risk and higher conservation value. Explicitly incorporating risk preferences within the decision making process reduced the number of species expected to be safe from extinction because lower risk tolerance resulted in more species being excluded from management, but the approach allowed decision makers to choose a level of acceptable risk that fit with their ability to accommodate failure. We argue for transparency in risk tolerance and recommend that decision makers accept risk in an adaptive management

  17. Collaboration Networks in Applied Conservation Projects across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Andreea; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Manolache, Steluta; Ciocănea, Cristiana Maria; Miu, Iulia Viorica; Popescu, Viorel Dan

    2016-01-01

    The main funding instrument for implementing EU policies on nature conservation and supporting environmental and climate action is the LIFE Nature programme, established by the European Commission in 1992. LIFE Nature projects (>1400 awarded) are applied conservation projects in which partnerships between institutions are critical for successful conservation outcomes, yet little is known about the structure of collaborative networks within and between EU countries. The aim of our study is to understand the nature of collaboration in LIFE Nature projects using a novel application of social network theory at two levels: (1) collaboration between countries, and (2) collaboration within countries using six case studies: Western Europe (United Kingdom and Netherlands), Eastern Europe (Romania and Latvia) and Southern Europe (Greece and Portugal). Using data on 1261 projects financed between 1996 and 2013, we found that Italy was the most successful country not only in terms of awarded number of projects, but also in terms of overall influence being by far the most influent country in the European LIFE Nature network, having the highest eigenvector (0.989) and degree centrality (0.177). Another key player in the network is Netherlands, which ensures a fast communication flow with other network members (closeness-0.318) by staying connected with the most active countries. Although Western European countries have higher centrality scores than most of the Eastern European countries, our results showed that overall there is a lower tendency to create partnerships between different organization categories. Also, the comparisons of the six case studies indicates significant differences in regards to the pattern of creating partnerships, providing valuable information on collaboration on EU nature conservation. This study represents a starting point in predicting the formation of future partnerships within LIFE Nature programme, suggesting ways to improve transnational

  18. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Lang; Greg McCarty; Mark Walbridge; Patrick Hunt; Tom Ducey; Clinton Church; Jarrod Miller; Laurel Kluber; Ali Sadeghi; Martin Rabenhorst; Amir Sharifi; In-Young Yeo; Andrew Baldwin; Margaret Palmer; Tom Fisher; Dan Fenstermaher; Sanchul Lee; Owen McDonough; Metthea Yepsen; Liza McFarland; Anne Gustafson; Rebecca Fox; Chris Palardy; William Effland; Mari-Vaughn Johnson; Judy Denver; Scott Ator; Joseph Mitchell; Dennis Whigham

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands impart many important ecosystem services, including maintenance of water quality, regulation of the climate and hydrological flows, and enhancement of biodiversity through the provision of food and habitat. The conversion of natural lands to agriculture has led to broad scale historic wetland loss, but current US Department of Agriculture conservation programs...

  19. Mediterranean Agricultural Soil Conservation under global Change: The MASCC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclot, Damien; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2017-04-01

    The MASCC project (2016-2019, http://mascc-project.org) aims to address mitigation and adaptation strategies to global change by assessing current and future development of Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability to erosion in relation to projected land use, agricultural practices and climate change. It targets to i) assess the similarities/dissimilarities in dominant factors affecting the current Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability by exploring a wide range of Mediterranean contexts; ii) improve the ability to evaluate the impact of extreme events on both the current and projected agricultural soil vulnerability and the sediment delivery at catchment outlet; iii) evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of agricultural production to a combination of potential changes in a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, iv) and provide guidelines on sustainable agricultural conservation strategies adapted to each specific agro-ecosystem and taking into consideration both on- and off-site erosion effects and socio-economics issues. To achieve these objectives, the MASCC project consortium gather researchers from six Mediterranean countries (France, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Spain and Portugal) which monitor mid- to long-term environmental catchments and benefit from mutual knowledge created from previous projects and network. The major assets for MASCC are: i) the availability of an unrivalled database on catchment soil erosion and innovative agricultural practices comprising a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, ii) the capacity to better evaluate the impact of extreme events on soil erosion, iii) the expert knowledge of the LANDSOIL model, a catchment-scale integrated approach of the soil-landscape system that enables to simulate both the sediment fluxes at the catchment outlet and the intra-catchment soil evolving properties and iv) the multi-disciplinarity of the involved researchers with an international reputation in the fields of soil science

  20. Including the smoking epidemic in internationally coherent mortality projections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Fanny; van Wissen, Leo J. G.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new mortality projection methodology that distinguishes smoking- and non-smoking-related mortality and takes into account mortality trends of the opposite sex and in other countries. We evaluate to what extent future projections of life expectancy at birth (e 0) for the Netherlands up

  1. Including the smoking epidemic in internationally coherent mortality projections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; Kunst, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new mortality projection methodology that distinguishes smoking- and non-smoking-related mortality and takes into account mortality trends of the opposite sex and in other countries. We evaluate to what extent future projections of life expectancy at birth (e0) for the Netherlands up to

  2. Including the smoking epidemic in internationally coherent mortality projections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Fanny; van Wissen, Leo J. G.; Kunst, Anton E.

    We present a new mortality projection methodology that distinguishes smoking- and non-smoking-related mortality and takes into account mortality trends of the opposite sex and in other countries. We evaluate to what extent future projections of life expectancy at birth (e (0)) for the Netherlands up

  3. Bali beach conservation project and issues related to beach maintenance after completion of project

    OpenAIRE

    Onaka, S.; Endo, S.; Uda, T.

    2013-01-01

    Bali Island in Indonesia is a world-famous resort area, and the beaches composed of coral sand are one of the most important resources for tourism. However, serious beach erosion has occurred since the 1970s owing to the tourism development along the coastal areas. To recover previous natural sandy beaches, Bali Beach Conservation Project was undertaken by the Indonesian Government as the ODA project financed by Japan. Three seriously eroded beaches (Sanur, Nusa Dua and Kuta) with a total len...

  4. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the use...

  5. Energy secretary's priorities include San Francisco area research projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Widener, A

    2003-01-01

    "Bay Area research labs got a big boost Monday when the Secretary of Energy unveiled his priorities for major research projects his agency hopes to fund over the next two decades. Among the agency's 28 top priorities are a major computer expansion and an experiment examining the expanding universe that could be housed at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and a powerful X-ray laser planned for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center" (1 page).

  6. Reaching for 100% participation in a utility conservation programme: the Hood River project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, Eric

    1989-04-01

    The Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP) was a major residential retrofit demonstration project. The project was intended to install as many cost-effective retrofit measures in all electrically heated homes in Hood River, OR, USA. To achieve 100% participation, HRCP offered a package of 'super' retrofit measures and paid for installation of these measures. Almost all (91%) of the eligible households participated, in stark contrast to the much lower participation levels achieved in other residential conservation programmes. Also, unlike other programmes, HRCP attracted larger fractions of traditionally hard-to-reach groups: low-income households; occupants of multifamily units; and renters. The key factors leading to this phenomenal success include: the offer of free retrofits; determination on the part of staff to enlist every eligible household; the use of community-based marketing approaches; and reliance on extensive word-of-mouth among Hood River residents. (author).

  7. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  8. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  9. Multi-cooperation of Cultural Heritage Conservation: The Cangdong Project of Guangdong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, some workshops and research cases have arisen in China to seek for suitable ways for heritage conservation and development of historic villages. However, the issue of multi-cooperation has not been much mentioned in research works. The case of Cangdong Project in Guangdong Province is a social enterprise. It is a center focusing on heritage education. It organizes tailor-made workshops for interested people from all over China and Hong Kong, Macao and overseas, including university courses for credits, summer/winter camps for primary and middle school students, as well as common people who are interested in heritage conservation. The purpose of the education center is to enhance heritage/cultural interest of the younger generations and common people, and try to work with local villagers to build a wealthy community. Nowadays, more and more villagers moved out for work and the countryside population in China is decreasing, this project also aims to create work opportunities for villagers through heritage conservation projects, so that the villagers can be willing to stay. The project focuses more in a sustainable way for community development. It has been five years since the project was set up in Cangdong Village. The project team worked with villagers, city people, students, scholars, different levels of local governments, investors, Medias, charitable organizations, as well as the market of tourism. As such, a platform of multi-cooperation for the above parties has formed during the past five years. This paper takes the Project experience from 2010-2015 as the case to study multi-cooperation in the field of heritage conservation in China, as well as to discuss how to co-operate the subjective initiatives of different stokeholds.

  10. What is ′Successful Development′ in Conservation and Development Projects? Insights from Two Nicaraguan Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra K Znajda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of clear indications of success in integrated conservation and development projects has resulted in strong criticisms of these projects, and a call for the return to conservation activities that exclude local communities. Impeding this discussion is the lack of clarity around how project success is defined and measured in conservation and development projects, especially in terms of development goals. This study involved an in-depth exploration of two agroforestry-focused conservation and development projects in Nicaragua to provide insights into how success in reaching development goals is interpreted in such projects. In both projects, development was equated with increased household income, in contrast to more contemporary definitions that include aspects such as self-respect and social integration. Both projects in turn relied on income as a measure of development success, which ultimately lessened attention to impacts not easily measured quantitatively as well as participant perspectives on desired goals. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for conservation practitioners; specifically the need for better alignment of project goals with contemporary explanations of development, and a need to move beyond primarily numerical indicators to measure change through an interdisciplinary approach in order to have a more comprehensive understanding of project impacts.

  11. A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

    This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

  12. Denmark's greenhouse gas projections until 2012, an update including a preliminary projection until 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenham, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the project is to make 'with measures' projections of the emissions from Danish sources of the greenhouse gases, CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 . The 'with measures' projection encompasses currently implemented and adopted policies and measures. The time period covered is from 1972, the first year detailed Danish energy statistics were produced, until the first commitment period (2008-2012) under the Kyoto Protocol to the Climate Convention. A preliminary projection is also made for the second commitment period (2013-2017), but here no projections are available for the agricultural sector and the emissions from this sector has therefore been kept equal to the emissions in the first commitment period. Estimations of HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 -emissions and projections cover the period from 1993 until 2020. Only emissions caused by human activities are included in the calculations. However, it can sometimes be difficult to draw the borderline between emissions from nature and anthropogenic emissions. Due to small differences between the methodology used in this project and the methodology (CORINAIR) used by the National Environmental Research Institute for the purpose of annual reporting the estimated emissions presented for the period 1990-2000 may deviate from the official emission estimates report to the EU and the Climate Convention (UNFCCC). Therefore the GHG emission estimates presented in this report for the period until 2000 should only be seen as an illustration of the order of magnitude. This is also the case for the parts of the trend analyses, which are based on the historic data coming from this project. The description of the emissions in the report is structured according to the IPCC sectors: 1) Energy. 2) Industrial processes. 3) Agriculture. 4) Land use change and forestry. 5) Waste. The NMVOC emission from solvent use and other sources is included

  13. Time for Decarbonization of Conservation and Development Projects? The Political Ecology of Carbon Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre L. Ibisch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The globe's first carbon projects were designed and implemented approximately 20 years ago following scientific insights that emissions of greenhouse gases needed to be mitigated. Visible in some of these early projects were the important aspects of social governance and local benefit sharing. The projects promised to be a panacea to environmental, social and economic problems in remote rural areas of developing countries. However, it took another decade before a wave of hundreds of carbon projects were launched. Many of the projects were offered under the mechanism of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, plus the role of conservation, sustainable forest management and carbon enhancement, as well as under a variety of voluntary schemes and national programs, public-private partnerships, and forestry-based investment initiatives. As decision-makers prepare the Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change in Paris (COP21, Earthscan has released a book entitled `Carbon conflicts and forest landscapes in Africa', edited by Melissa Leach and Ian Scoones. According to the editors, the focus of the book is on what happens on the ground when carbon forestry projects arrive, what types of projects work, and, equally important, what doesn’t work.

  14. Utilizing social media for informal ocean conservation and education: The BioOceanography Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, J.

    2016-02-01

    Science communication through the use of social media is a rapidly evolving and growing pursuit in academic and scientific circles. Online tools and social media are being used in not only scientific communication but also scientific publication, education, and outreach. Standards and usage of social media as well as other online tools for communication, networking, outreach, and publication are always in development. Caution and a conservative attitude towards these novel "Science 2.0" tools is understandable because of their rapidly changing nature and the lack of professional standards for using them. However there are some key benefits and unique ways social media, online systems, and other Open or Open Source technologies, software, and "Science 2.0" tools can be utilized for academic purposes such as education and outreach. Diverse efforts for ocean conservation and education will continue to utilize social media for a variety of purposes. The BioOceanography project is an informal communication, education, outreach, and conservation initiative created for enhancing knowledge related to Oceanography and Marine Science with an unbiased yet conservation-minded approach and in an Open Source format. The BioOceanography project is ongoing and still evolving, but has already contributed to ocean education and conservation communication in key ways through a concerted web presence since 2013, including a curated Twitter account @_Oceanography and BioOceanography blog style website. Social media tools like those used in this project, if used properly can be highly effective and valuable for encouraging students, networking with researchers, and educating the general public in Oceanography.

  15. Funding Water Reuse and Conservation Projects with the Clean Water State Revolving Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet demonstrates how the CWSRF provides assistance to eligible recipients for projects promoting water reuse and conservation. It highlights successful projects for these communities in California, Virginia and Texas.

  16. 78 FR 25093 - Multistate Conservation Grant Program; Priority List and Approval for Conservation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... nongovernmental organizations that represent conservation organizations, sportsmen's and women's organizations... Regionally- coordinated Science and Collaboration. 9......... Compilation of Reservoir Habitat Arkansas Game...

  17. Conservation-reuse of water in fossil-fuel power plants including water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.S.R.

    1984-02-01

    The various areas where the conservation-reuse of water is possible are discussed. However, water conservation, especially effluent volume reduction-treatment reuse, should be seen in the light of pollution control measures. Some of the areas indicated recover a small quantity of water but they should be viewed in the light of well yield being not adequate, or having high salinity or having an increase of well water salinity after some use. Some of the methods can only be adopted at the design stage whereas others could be incorporated at the site.

  18. 42 CFR 137.329 - What environmental considerations must be included in the construction project agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be included in the construction project agreement? The construction project agreement must include..., and (d) An assurance that no action will be taken on the construction phase of the project that would... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What environmental considerations must be included...

  19. Integrating Science and Land Management for the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in Southwestern Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Heilman, P.; Nearing, M.; Speath, K.; Hernandez, M.; Wei, H.; Holifield-Collins, C.; Kautz, M.; Nichols, M.; Barlow, J.; Guertin, P.; Burns, S.; Stone, J. J.; Weltz, M.; Metz, L.; Norfleet, L.; Duriancik, L.; Johnson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Farm Bill legislation enacted by Congress in 2002 directed the U.S. Department of Agriculture to assess of the benefits and efficacy of conservation practices provided by a variety of USDA programs. Benefits include improved agricultural production, reduction of erosion and associated nutrient losses, improved water quality, improved soil resilience, and improved habitat among others. To conduct the assessment, the USDA initiated CEAP or the Conservation Effects Assessment Project in 2003, which included a national assessment complemented by small watershed studies. The national assessment started in eastern and midwestern cultivated croplands and has now progressed to western rangelands. This presentation will discuss the challenges of assessing the effects of rangeland conservation practices in a period of unusually hot and dry climatic conditions in the Cienega Creek Watershed (CCW) located southeast of Tucson, Arizona. As is common in the western U.S., the CCW consists of a patchwork of private and public lands in the west with much of the public lands leased for grazing cattle. The watershed also has high recreational value and provides many ecosystem services, including wildlife habitat qualities and flood protection to Tucson. A combination of monitoring, modeling, and remote sensing was utilized in the assessment. Conservation spending in the watershed ramped up in 1997. However, the 16-year period from 1997-2012 contains almost half of the 23 driest seasons (lowest 20 percentile) from the 117-year observed precipitation record. Initial results indicate that Landsat remotely sensed images can be effectively used to estimate both green and senescent canopy cover. This enabled detection of the impacts of drought and changes in canopy cover from practices such as prescribed fire and mechanical brush removal. Cienega Creek Watershed - Land Ownership

  20. 76 FR 793 - Multistate Conservation Grant Program; Priority List for Conservation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... conservation organizations, sportsmen's organizations, and industries that support or promote fishing, hunting...,200.00 the Industry, Federal and State Agency Coalition. 11-001 Review and AFWA 46,200.00 46,200.00 92... Incentive Program. 11-069 Operation of the Arkansas Game & 0 296,000.00 296,000.00 Reservoir Fish. Fisheries...

  1. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1997. Project Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M.; Put, van A.L.L.M.; Valkering, N.P.; Eijck, van T.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea Turtle Club Bonaire (STCB) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its main goal is the conservation of the sea turtles that occur on Bonaire. To reach this goal, annual projects are undertaken, such as research and the promotion of public awareness on sea turtle conservation. The

  2. Project 'Use of nuclear techniques in investigation, conservation and management of the cultural historical patrimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochmann, Sonnia

    2000-12-01

    This project is aimed at solving problems of conservation of the cultural historical patrimony through the active participation of the member countries of ARCAL by the application of Analytic Nuclear Techniques [es

  3. Learning based upon projects of architectural conservation: from university to real life

    OpenAIRE

    Mileto, Camilla; Vegas López-Manzanares, Fernando; Cristini, Valentina; Diodato, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Mileto, C.; Vegas López-Manzanares, F.; Cristini, V.; Diodato, M. (2011). Learning based upon projects of architectural conservation: from university to real life. IATED. 1-8. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/50072 Senia 1 8

  4. From GCM Output to Local Hydrologic and Ecological Impacts: Integrating Climate Change Projections into Conservation Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.; Micheli, L.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of climate change resilience, vulnerability, and adaptation options require downscaling of GCM outputs to local scales, and conversion of temperature and precipitation forcings into hydrologic and ecological responses. Recent work in the San Francisco Bay Area, and California demonstrate a practical approach to this process. First, climate futures (GCM x Emissions Scenario) are screened using cluster analysis for seasonal precipitation and temperature, to select a tractable subset of projections that still represent the range of climate projections. Second, monthly climate projections are downscaled to 270m and the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) applied, to generate fine-scale recharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration (AET), and climatic water deficit (CWD) accounting for soils, bedrock geology, topography, and local climate. Third, annual time-series are used to derive 30-year climatologies and recurrence intervals of extreme events (including multi-year droughts) at the scale of small watersheds and conservation parcels/networks. We take a "scenario-neutral" approach where thresholds are defined for system "failure," such as water supply shortfalls or drought mortality/vegetation transitions, and the time-window for hitting those thresholds is evaluated across all selected climate projections. San Francisco Bay Area examples include drought thresholds (CWD) for specific vegetation-types that identify leading/trailing edges and local refugia, evaluation of hydrologic resources (recharge and runoff) provided by conservation lands, and productivity of rangelands (AET). BCM outputs for multiple futures are becoming available to resource managers through on-line data extraction tools. This approach has wide applicability to numerous resource management issues.

  5. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  6. Recycling as a Teaching Strategy for Environmental Conservation (Project execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Yaneth Bonilla García

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research study will aim to implement recycling as a teaching strategy for Environmental conservation aimed at students of the state Concentrared Sabaneta School of core Rural School No. 001 pedraza Municipality, Barinas State. It will focus on the qualitative paradigm and design will use action-research participant. The techniques of collecting information to be used will be the semi-structured interview and participant observation, taking as informants 3 students 2 teachers of the institution under study, analysis of information developed through qualitative techniques that will break down the data in their respective categories and sub categories with the final purpose responding to the questions raised in the context of study. This process will seek to integrate into a coherent and logical research results with the contributions of the authors outlined the theoretical framework after work crosscheck everything. The validity and reliability will be established through an exhaustive process of triangulation, in order to establish concrete actions to address the weaknesses detected in relation to the need to implement educational strategies supported in recycling to assist in environmental conservation.

  7. A collaborative archaeological research and conservation project for Moriori carved trees (rakau momori), Rekohu (Chatham Island)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, I.; Maxwell, J.

    2011-01-01

    In January-February 2010 a conservation and site-recording project began on Rekohu (Chatham Island) to locate, assess and digitally scan archaeological carved trees known as rakau momori ('dendroglyphs'). This paper briefly considers earlier work on carved trees before reporting preliminary and anticipated outcomes from our recent collaborative rakau momori archaeological project. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Creation and conservation of energy in Japan. [Sunshine and Moonlight Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoashi, K.

    1980-03-15

    Japan needs to increase alternatve energy supply by the year 2000. For the development of new energy sources, the Sunshine Project was initiated; it covers solar, geothermal, and coal liquefaction. For conservation of energy, the Moonlight Project was also begun. Some data on the schedules and budgets are given. 4 tables. (DLC)

  9. Expanding Canadian renewable and conservation expenses class 43.1 to include solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Class 43.1 is a tax measure that allows for accelerated write-offs of renewable energy products for business use. Technologies that are included in the class for accelerated write off include renewable energy sources such as wind, small hydro, geo-thermal, fuel cells, bio-gas, cogeneration systems, and district heating and solar. In 2005, the federal budget announced 2 changes to class 43.1 The write off rate has been increased from 30 per cent to 50 per cent. This change would reduce the effective cost of solar energy for business owners. The class has also been extended to include distribution assets for district energy assets and biogas equipment. However, no changes to the restrictions for solar were announced. The Canadian Solar Industries Association (CanSIA) argues that class 43.1 currently does not help the solar industries, nor do the proposed changes solve this situation. The restrictions placed on solar eliminate about 90 per cent of the industrial applications for solar that class 43.1 should support. Class 43.1 currently covers only 1 per cent of photovoltaic applications, 2 per cent of solar hot water applications, and 9 per cent of solar air heating applications. CanSIA claims that an increase in tax write-offs for photovoltaic systems, solar hot water, and solar air heating would help increase the solar market from 1,060 kW to a market size of 11,600 kW. CanSIA has made recommendations to the federal government to remove the size restrictions for PV systems and to remove the restrictions on applications for solar thermal systems. 2 tabs

  10. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  11. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  12. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  13. Relating long-term studies to conservation practice: the case of the Serengeti Cheetah Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Sarah M; Bashir, Sultana; Maddox, Thomas; Laurenson, M Karen

    2007-06-01

    Although detailed, long-term scientific studies provide potentially crucial information for conservation, they are rare. Moreover, there is often a disjunction between scientists and managers that can affect whether scientific results are applied to help solve conservation problems. Long-term studies can promote increased communication between scientists and managers and hence offer an opportunity for constructive engagement between the two groups. We examined direct and indirect impacts of a 30-year study, the Serengeti Cheetah Project (SCP). Much of what is currently known about wild cheetahs comes from the SCP. In particular, the SCP has demonstrated that cheetahs have a combination of semisociality and ranging patterns that is unique among mammals. This system arises because cheetahs need to be mobile to avoid predators and competitors, yet maintain access to prey; this results in densities much lower than for other large carnivores and a requirement for large areas of heterogenous and connected habitat. The SCP started as a research project, but expanded into a national program, developing capacity for carnivore conservation within Tanzania. Long-term studies such as the SCP are uniquely placed to establish effective working relationships between scientists and managers, engage local and national institutions, and strengthen national capacity for biodiversity conservation. This process is best realized through the establishment of frameworks for conservation that seek to align scientific research with management needs. Long-term studies also play an important role in identifying international priorities for conservation. Nonetheless, the integration of science and management in conservation is a two-way process that requires concerted efforts by both sides to improve and maintain dialogue. Ultimately, conservation depends on people, and maintaining a commitment to a particular area over many years-such as through implementation of a long-term research project

  14. ASEAN-USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project. Final report, Volume 3: Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, J.M.; Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    The auditing subproject of the ASEAN-USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project has generated a great deal of auditing activity throughout the ASEAN region. Basic building characterisfic and energy consumption data were gathered for over 200 buildings and are presented in this volume. A large number of buildings were given more detailed audits and were modeled with either the ASEAM-2 computer program or the more complex DOE-2 program. These models were used to calculate the savings to be generated by conservabon measures. Specially audits were also conducted, including lighting and thermal comfort surveys. Many researchers in the ASEAN region were trained to perform energy audits in a series of training courses and seminars. The electricity intensifies of various types of ASEAN buildings have been calculated. A comparison to the electricity intensity of the US building stock tentatively concludes that ASEAN office buildings are comparable, first class hotels and retail stores are more ewctricity intensive than their US counterparts, and hospitals are less intensive. Philippine and Singapore lighting surveys indicate that illuminance levels in offices tend to be below the minimum accepted standard. Computer simulations of the energy use in various building types generally agree that for most ASEAN buildings, electricity consumption for air-conditioning (including fan power) consumes approximately 60% of total building electricity. A review of the many studies made during the Project to calculate the savings from energy conservation opportunities (ECOS) shows a median potential savings of approximately 10%, with some buildings saving as much as 50%. Singapore buildings, apparently as a result of previously implemented efficient energy-use practices, shows a lower potential for savings than the other ASEAN nations. Air-conditioning ECOs hold the greatest potential for savings.

  15. Project Monitor: Part II. Conservation in small business: an exploratory study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P Y

    1979-08-01

    Project Monitor examined the energy conservation attitude and behavior of small samples of small business owners/operators in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, focusing on manufacturing concerns and retailers. Section I reports the findings on the energy conserving behavior of 92 smaller manufacturers and Section II identifies the factors which affect decision making concerning energy consuming activities by the owners/operators of 94 small retail establishments. In each, the impact of Project Pacesetter and of the coal strike and the general energy situation is considered. (MCW)

  16. When the virtual influences reality. The conservation project of the Toledo Gate in Ciudad Real (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro Vidal, A.; Ramírez González, I.; Clemente San Román, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Toledo Gate of Ciudad Real, Spain, constructed between the late 13th and early 14th centuries, is the last remaining portion of a once complete medieval city wall. It represents the long history of the city and constitutes its main heritage symbol, dividing the historic city centre from the later 19th and 20th century expansions. In October 2012, the Town Hall and the Montemadrid Foundation started the conservation works to preserve this important monument. The preliminary phase of this project included an in-depth series of scientific studies which were carried out by a multidisciplinary team focusing on archival research, historic investigations, archaeological excavations as well as material composition analysis and main treatment application tests. As a result of these studies a series of virtual 3D models were created to inform, discuss and study the monument. A first digital model permitted visualization of the gate in the 19th century and how the main entrance to the city was integrated as a fundamental part of the city walls. This virtual reconstruction also became an important part of the campaign to raise awareness among the citizens towards a monument that had remained in the shadows for the last century, isolated in a roundabout after the systematic demolition of the city walls in the late 19th century. Over the last three years and as a result of these archaeological and historic investigations and subsequent virtual models, surprisingly new and interesting data were brought to light thus permitting the establishment and corroboration of a new and updated hypothesis of the Toledo Gate that goes beyond the previous ideas. As a result of these studies a new architectural typology with construction techniques of has been suggested. This paper describes how the results of this continuous and interdisciplinary documentation process have benefitted from a computer graphic reconstruction of the gate. It highlights how virtual reconstruction can be a

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  18. Forest conservation and the clean development mechanism. Lessons from the Costa Rican protected areas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voehringer, F.

    2004-01-01

    Deforestation is currently the source of about 20% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Avoided deforestation has, nonetheless, been ruled out as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) category in the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period, because several methodological issues were considered too difficult to resolve. This paper explores whether CDM issues such as (1) carbon quantification, (2) additionality and baseline setting, (3) leakage risks, (4) non-permanence risks, and (5) sustainable development can be adequately dealt with in large, diversified forest conservation projects. To this aim, it studies the case of the Costa Rican Protected Areas Project (PAP), an Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) project which was meant to consolidate the national park system to avoid deforestation, promote the growth of secondary forests and regenerate pastures on an area that, in total, covers 10% of the national territory. The case study examines how the issues mentioned above have been addressed in the project design and in the certification process. It is found that baseline uncertainties are the major problem in this case. Nonetheless, the case suggests the possibility to address CDM issues by specific requirements for project design and very conservative and temporary crediting. Provided that other case studies support this conclusion, eligibility of well-designed forest conservation projects under the CDM in the second commitment period may be worth considering, given the secondary benefits of avoided deforestation

  19. 45 CFR 1180.70 - Guidelines and standards for museum conservation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guidelines and standards for museum conservation projects. 1180.70 Section 1180.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued..., as applied to art, history, natural history, science and technology, and living collections: (1...

  20. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  1. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  2. TRANSAT-- method for detecting the conserved helices of functional RNA structures, including transient, pseudo-knotted and alternative structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Nicholas J P; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2010-06-24

    The prediction of functional RNA structures has attracted increased interest, as it allows us to study the potential functional roles of many genes. RNA structure prediction methods, however, assume that there is a unique functional RNA structure and also do not predict functional features required for in vivo folding. In order to understand how functional RNA structures form in vivo, we require sophisticated experiments or reliable prediction methods. So far, there exist only a few, experimentally validated transient RNA structures. On the computational side, there exist several computer programs which aim to predict the co-transcriptional folding pathway in vivo, but these make a range of simplifying assumptions and do not capture all features known to influence RNA folding in vivo. We want to investigate if evolutionarily related RNA genes fold in a similar way in vivo. To this end, we have developed a new computational method, Transat, which detects conserved helices of high statistical significance. We introduce the method, present a comprehensive performance evaluation and show that Transat is able to predict the structural features of known reference structures including pseudo-knotted ones as well as those of known alternative structural configurations. Transat can also identify unstructured sub-sequences bound by other molecules and provides evidence for new helices which may define folding pathways, supporting the notion that homologous RNA sequence not only assume a similar reference RNA structure, but also fold similarly. Finally, we show that the structural features predicted by Transat differ from those assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. Unlike the existing methods for predicting folding pathways, our method works in a comparative way. This has the disadvantage of not being able to predict features as function of time, but has the considerable advantage of highlighting conserved features and of not requiring a detailed knowledge of the cellular

  3. Joint optimization scheduling for water conservancy projects in complex river networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we simulated water flow in a water conservancy project consisting of various hydraulic structures, such as sluices, pumping stations, hydropower stations, ship locks, and culverts, and developed a multi-period and multi-variable joint optimization scheduling model for flood control, drainage, and irrigation. In this model, the number of sluice holes, pump units, and hydropower station units to be opened were used as decision variables, and different optimization objectives and constraints were considered. This model was solved with improved genetic algorithms and verified using the Huaian Water Conservancy Project as an example. The results show that the use of the joint optimization scheduling led to a 10% increase in the power generation capacity and a 15% reduction in the total energy consumption. The change in the water level was reduced by 0.25 m upstream of the Yundong Sluice, and by 50% downstream of pumping stations No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4. It is clear that the joint optimization scheduling proposed in this study can effectively improve power generation capacity of the project, minimize operating costs and energy consumption, and enable more stable operation of various hydraulic structures. The results may provide references for the management of water conservancy projects in complex river networks.

  4. Achieving Conservation and Equity amidst Extreme Poverty and Climate Risk: The Makira REDD+ Project in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Brimont

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving forest conservation together with poverty alleviation and equity is an unending challenge in the tropics. The Makira REDD+ pilot project located in northeastern Madagascar is a well-suited case to explore this challenge in conditions of extreme poverty and climatic vulnerability. We assessed the potential effect of project siting on the livelihoods of the local population and which households would be the most strongly impacted by conservation measures. Farmers living in hilly areas must resort to slash-and-burn agriculture (tavy since a combination of topographic and climatic constraints, such as cyclones, makes permanent rice cultivation very difficult. These are the people who suffer most from conservation-related restriction measures. For practical reasons the project, unfortunately, did not target these farmers. The main focus was on communities with a lower cyclonic risk that are able to practice permanent rice agriculture in the lowlands. To reduce deforestation without violating the principles of equity, REDD+ projects in Madagascar need to better target populations facing high climatic risks and invest in efforts to improve the farmers’ agricultural systems.

  5. Greenhouse gas and energy co-benefits of water conservation[Water Sustainability Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, C.

    2009-03-15

    Energy is needed to deliver water to, within and from communities to remove contaminants from water and wastewater, and to heat water in homes. The interconnections between water and energy are referred to as the water-energy nexus. Large volumes of water are needed to generate energy, notably to power turbines, to cool thermal or nuclear energy plants, and to extract oil from tar sands. At the same time, large amounts of energy are needed to pump, treat, heat and distribute water for urban, industrial and agricultural use and to collect and treat the resulting wastewater. The two sides of the water-energy nexus are generating new research and policy proposals to address the challenges of climate change, energy security and increasing water scarcity. This report demonstrated that a large untapped opportunity exists for water conservation to reduce energy, municipal costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The water-energy research in this study was based on a Soft Path for Water approach that incorporated facets of water demand management while moving beyond a short-term focus on cost-benefit criteria to examine how the services currently provided by water can be delivered to meet the need for economic, social and ecological sustainability. Although the research was conducted using data for municipalities in Ontario, the report is relevant to the rest of Canada and much of North America. Water conservation strategies included water efficiency measures such as high efficiency toilets and washing machines, as well as water saving measures such as xeriscaping and rainwater harvesting. The objectives of the study were to quantify the energy use associated with each component of the urban water use cycle and to determine the potential for energy and GHG emissions reductions associated with water conservation strategies. This report provided an overview of energy inputs needed for water provision. It outlined the methodology used to achieve the project objectives and

  6. Evaluating Tobacco Control Policies in 28 Countries (including 9 EU countries: The ITC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its start in 2002, the ITC Project has been conducting evaluation studies of tobacco control policies via prospective cohort surveys of tobacco users in 28 countries, including 9 EU countries. This presentation will focus on the design of the ITC Project and how it differs from and complements existing evidence-gathering systems (monitoring and surveillance systems in measuring and understanding the impact of FCTC policies. The presentation will also describe the ITC Project's most recent initiatives: (1 the EUREST-PLUS study focusing on measuring the impact of the Tobacco Products Directive, and (2 a large-scale international cohort study of e-cigarettes starting in the United States, Canada, England, and Australia.

  7. Evaluating impacts of development and conservation projects using sustainability indicators: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agol, Dorice; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in using sustainability indicators for evaluating the impacts of development and conservation projects. Past and recent experiences have shown that sustainability indicators can be powerful tools for measuring the outcomes of various interventions, when used appropriately and adequately. Currently, there is a range of methods for applying sustainability indicators for project impact evaluation at the environment–development interface. At the same time, a number of challenges persist which have implication for impact evaluation processes especially in developing countries. We highlight some key and recurrent challenges, using three cases from Kenya, Indonesia and Brazil. In this study, we have conducted a comparative analysis across multiple projects from the three countries, which aimed to conserve biodiversity and improve livelihoods. The assessments of these projects were designed to evaluate their positive, negative, short-term, long term, direct and indirect impacts. We have identified a set of commonly used sustainability indicators to evaluate the projects and have discussed opportunities and challenges associated with their application. Our analysis shows that impact evaluation processes present good opportunities for applying sustainability indicators. On the other hand, we find that project proponents (e.g. managers, evaluators, donors/funders) face challenges with establishing full impacts of interventions and that these are rooted in monitoring and evaluation processes, lack of evidence-based impacts, difficulties of measuring certain outcomes and concerns over scale of a range of impacts. We outline key lessons learnt from the multiple cases and propose ways to overcome common problems. Results from our analysis demonstrate practical experiences of applying sustainability indicators in developing countries context where there are different prevailing socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions. The

  8. Evaluating impacts of development and conservation projects using sustainability indicators: Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agol, Dorice, E-mail: d.agol@uea.a.c.uk [University of East Anglia, School of International Development, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Latawiec, Agnieszka E., E-mail: a.latawiec@iis-rio.org [International Institute for Sustainability, Estrada Dona Castorina 124, 22460-320 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Opole University of Technology, Department of Production Engineering and Logistics, Luboszycka 5, 45-036 Opole (Poland); University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Strassburg, Bernardo B.N., E-mail: b.strassburg@iis-rio.org [International Institute for Sustainability, Estrada Dona Castorina 124, 22460-320 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Geography and the Environment, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    There has been an increased interest in using sustainability indicators for evaluating the impacts of development and conservation projects. Past and recent experiences have shown that sustainability indicators can be powerful tools for measuring the outcomes of various interventions, when used appropriately and adequately. Currently, there is a range of methods for applying sustainability indicators for project impact evaluation at the environment–development interface. At the same time, a number of challenges persist which have implication for impact evaluation processes especially in developing countries. We highlight some key and recurrent challenges, using three cases from Kenya, Indonesia and Brazil. In this study, we have conducted a comparative analysis across multiple projects from the three countries, which aimed to conserve biodiversity and improve livelihoods. The assessments of these projects were designed to evaluate their positive, negative, short-term, long term, direct and indirect impacts. We have identified a set of commonly used sustainability indicators to evaluate the projects and have discussed opportunities and challenges associated with their application. Our analysis shows that impact evaluation processes present good opportunities for applying sustainability indicators. On the other hand, we find that project proponents (e.g. managers, evaluators, donors/funders) face challenges with establishing full impacts of interventions and that these are rooted in monitoring and evaluation processes, lack of evidence-based impacts, difficulties of measuring certain outcomes and concerns over scale of a range of impacts. We outline key lessons learnt from the multiple cases and propose ways to overcome common problems. Results from our analysis demonstrate practical experiences of applying sustainability indicators in developing countries context where there are different prevailing socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions. The

  9. Conservation and restoration of indigenous plants to improve community livelihoods: the Useful Plants Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulian, Tiziana; Sacandé, Moctar; Mattana, Efisio

    2014-05-01

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership (MSBP) is one of the largest ex situ plant conservation initiatives, which is focused on saving plants in and from regions most at risk, particularly in drylands. Seeds are collected and stored in seed banks in the country of origin and duplicated in the Millennium Seed Bank in the UK. The MSBP also strengthens the capacity of local communities to successfully conserve and sustainably use indigenous plants, which are important for their wellbeing. Since 2007, high quality seed collections and research information have been gathered on ca. 700 useful indigenous plant species that were selected by communities in Botswana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico and South Africa through Project MGU - The Useful Plants Project. These communities range from various farmer's groups and organisations to traditional healers, organic cotton/crop producers and primary schools. The information on seed conservation and plant propagation was used to train communities and to propagate ca. 200 species that were then planted in local gardens, and as species reintroduced for reforestation programmes and enriching village forests. Experimental plots have also been established to further investigate the field performance (plant survival and growth rate) of indigenous species, using low cost procedures. In addition, the activities support revenue generation for local communities directly through the sustainable use of plant products or indirectly through wider environmental and cultural services. This project has confirmed the potential of biodiversity conservation to improve food security and human health, enhance community livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of land and people to the changing climate. This approach of using indigenous species and having local communities play a central role from the selection of species to their planting and establishment, supported by complementary research, may represent a model for other regions of the world, where

  10. The Influence of Water Conservancy Projects on River Network Connectivity, A Case of Luanhe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Connectivity is one of the most important characteristics of a river, which is derived from the natural water cycle and determine the renewability of river water. The water conservancy project can change the connectivity of natural river networks, and directly threaten the health and stability of the river ecosystem. Based on the method of Dendritic Connectivity Index (DCI), the impacts from sluices and dams on the connectivity of river network are deeply discussed herein. DCI quantitatively evaluate the connectivity of river networks based on the number of water conservancy facilities, the connectivity of fish and geographical location. The results show that the number of water conservancy facilities and their location in the river basin have a great influence on the connectivity of the river network. With the increase of the number of sluices and dams, DCI is decreasing gradually, but its decreasing range is becoming smaller and smaller. The dam located in the middle of the river network cuts the upper and lower parts of the whole river network, and destroys the connectivity of the river network more seriously. Therefore, this method can be widely applied to the comparison of different alternatives during planning of river basins and then provide a reference for the site selection and design of the water conservancy project and facility concerned.

  11. Project conservation and handling for the multiple uses and the development of the swamps of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia the swamps are distributed in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts; they are located in areas with conditions of pluvial precipitation that varies from annual 200 mm in the Guajira department; nine species of mangroves have registered for Colombia, which are related following a zonation starting from the tide line, still when this pattern not always stays and it depends on the influence of diverse factors and local conditions. The project conservation and handling for the multiple use and the development of the swamps of Colombia, had as objectives; to watch and to control the parameters of salinity, level of water and flow to laminate and of strengthening the generation of alternative productive social and environmentally appropriate for the sustainable use, guaranteeing their conservation and preservation of the swamps. The project was developed in two phases, one of diagnostic and planning and the other of dynamics of growth, phenology and natural regeneration

  12. Performance of two Vermont elementary school integrated energy conservation/solar energy retrofit projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.W. (Marlboro College, VT); Converse, A.O.

    1980-01-01

    Two Vermont elementary school energy conservation/passive solar energy retrofit projects are described. Both masonry buildings were insulated with polystyrene on the east, north and west exterior walls. The south walls of each building were converted to Trombe walls, and, in addition, a portion of the south wall of one building was fitted with a solar greenhouse. The construction details, the predicted performance, and some actual results are reported here.

  13. Proven approaches to organise a large decommissioning project, including the management of local stakeholder interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Spanish experience holds a relatively important position in the field of the decommissioning of nuclear and radioactive facilities. Decommissioning projects of uranium concentrate mill facilities are near completion; some old uranium mine sites have already been restored; several projects for the dismantling of various small research nuclear reactors and a few pilot plants are at various phases of the dismantling process, with some already completed. The most notable Spanish project in this field is undoubtedly the decommissioning of the Vandellos 1 nuclear power plant that is currently ready to enter a safe enclosure, or dormancy, period. The management of radioactive wastes in Spain is undertaken by 'Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos, S.A.' (ENRESA), the Spanish national radioactive waste company, constituted in 1984. ENRESA operates as a management company, whose role is to develop radioactive waste management programmes in accordance with the policy and strategy approved by the Spanish Government. Its responsibilities include the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations. Decommissioning and dismantling nuclear installations is an increasingly important topic for governments, regulators, industries and civil society. There are many aspects that have to be carefully considered, planned and organised in many cases well in advance of when they really need to be implemented. The goal of this paper is describe proven approaches relevant to organizing and managing large decommissioning projects, in particular in the case of Vandellos-1 NPP decommissioning. (author)

  14. The development of biodiversity conservation measures in China's hydro projects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruiqiao; Liu, Xuehua; Liu, Xiaofei; Liu, Lanmei; Wang, Jianping; Liao, Sihui; Zhu, Annah; Li, Zhouyuan

    2017-11-01

    The hydropower capacity of China ranks first in the world and accounts for approximately 20% of the total energy production in the country. While hydropower has substantially contributed to meeting China's renewable energy targets and providing clean energy to rural areas, the development of hydropower in China has been met with significant controversy. Ecologically, hydro projects alter the landscape, with potential impacts to the country's aquatic biodiversity. Over the past four decades in China, various mainstream opinions and misunderstandings have been presented concerning how to alleviate the negative impacts of hydro projects on aquatic ecosystems. This article reviews research concerning potential mitigation measures to enhance aquatic biodiversity conservation in hydro projects in China. Based on the academic attention such research has attracted, three technical measures for aquatic biodiversity conservation are considered: (1) fish passages, (2) restocking efforts and (3) river and lake renovations. This article provides a historical comparison of these three practices in China to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The article also reviews the relevant legislation, regulations and technical guidelines concerning China's hydro projects dating back to 1979. The dynamics in research, publications, and patents concerning these three mitigation measures are summarized to demonstrate their technological developments in the context of legislative and policy advances. Data were gathered through the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database and the State Intellectual Property Office of the People's Republic of China. Based on the analysis provided, the article recommends an expansion of China's environmental certification system for hydro projects, more robust regional legislation to bolster the national framework, the cooperation between upstream and downstream conservation mechanisms, and better monitoring to determine the efficacy

  15. Social Licence to Operate through a gender lens : The challenges of including women’s interests in development assistance projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijelava, David; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the concept of social licence to operate from a gender perspective. We examine the challenges associated with obtaining a gender-aware social licence for development assistance organizations working in conservative, traditional rural societies. We argue that during project

  16. Basic survey for Joint Implementation on Jinling Petrochemical Corporation, China. Energy conservation project for Nanjing Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, the basic survey was conducted on potential energy conservation at Nanjing Refinery, Jiangsu Nanjing city, China. Investigational studies were made on the repair of the power recovery system in line with the plan to enlarge the fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and the power recovery using exhaust gas from the RFCC catalytic regeneration system. Moreover, the energy conservation technology to reduce power loads of the refining system was adopted to this project. As a result, it was found out that this repair plan makes recovery of the power equivalent to 10.6MW possible and produces the effect of reducing the fuel to be used. The realization of this project brings the CO2 reduction amount of approximately 70,000 t/y. It was also found out that this project not only reduces a large amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions, but contributes to profits of the plant concerned and helps improve the environment in the area concerned. For the implementation of this project, the detailed plan is expected to be further discussed. (NEDO)

  17. Denmark's greenhouse gas projections until 2012, an update including a preliminary projection until 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenham, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the project is to make 'with measures' projections of the emissions from Danish sources of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. The 'with measures' projection encompasses currently implemented and adopted policies and measures. The time period covered is from 1972, the first year detailed Danish energy statistics were produced, until the first commitment period (2008-2012) under the Kyoto Protocol to the Climate Convention. A preliminary projection is also made for the second commitment period (2013-2017), but here no projections are available for the agricultural sector and the emissions from this sector has therefore been kept equal to the emissions in the first commitment period. Estimations of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}-emissions and projections cover the period from 1993 until 2020. Only emissions caused by human activities are included in the calculations. However, it can sometimes be difficult to draw the borderline between emissions from nature and anthropogenic emissions. Due to small differences between the methodology used in this project and the methodology (CORINAIR) used by the National Environmental Research Institute for the purpose of annual reporting the estimated emissions presented for the period 1990-2000 may deviate from the official emission estimates report to the EU and the Climate Convention (UNFCCC). Therefore the GHG emission estimates presented in this report for the period until 2000 should only be seen as an illustration of the order of magnitude. This is also the case for the parts of the trend analyses, which are based on the historic data coming from this project. The description of the emissions in the report is structured according to the IPCC sectors: 1) Energy. 2) Industrial processes. 3) Agriculture. 4) Land use change and forestry. 5) Waste. The NMVOC emission from

  18. Energy Conservation and Solar Retrofitting for Existing Buildings in Oregon: An Architectural Design Class Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. School of Architecture and Allied Arts.

    Five privately owned homes and two university owned homes were examined by architecture students in order to formulate design alternatives to fit the houses with solar collection, storage, and control devices for supplementing domestic space and/or water heating. General principles advanced include why energy conservation and solar retrofitting…

  19. High-Quality 3d Models and Their Use in a Cultural Heritage Conservation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.

    2017-08-01

    Cultural heritage digitization and 3D modelling processes are mainly based on laser scanning and digital photogrammetry techniques to produce complete, detailed and photorealistic three-dimensional surveys: geometric as well as chromatic aspects, in turn testimony of materials, work techniques, state of preservation, etc., are documented using digitization processes. The paper explores the topic of 3D documentation for conservation purposes; it analyses how geomatics contributes in different steps of a restoration process and it presents an overview of different uses of 3D models for the conservation and enhancement of the cultural heritage. The paper reports on the project to digitize the earthenware frieze of the Ospedale del Ceppo in Pistoia (Italy) for 3D documentation, restoration work support, and digital and physical reconstruction and integration purposes. The intent to design an exhibition area suggests new ways to take advantage of 3D data originally acquired for documentation and scientific purposes.

  20. The environmental handling in the Japan: Project of conservation of lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascon Carvajal, R.

    1993-01-01

    The politics and the techniques are described continued by the Japan to conserve the fertility of the soils, avoiding their erosion, by means of projects of conservation of lands. The basic steps are indicated to continue and the alternatives to use to diminish the erosion of the soil caused by the water. The plan begins with the identification of the area to protect of the erosion, then it proceeds to its characterization by means of the investigation of the natural and socioeconomic elements that they affect the erosive processes, that which is achieved through a recognition of the area; later on the erosion degree is determined for areas using the universal equation of the erosion and its proceeds to analyze the measures to control it of agreement with the available technological packages; the selected package is analyzed in all its components and a socioeconomic evaluation is made before of the same. Once outlined in all their details it is carried out their execution

  1. Co-benefits of including CCS projects in the CDM in India's power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, R.; Murata, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Okajima, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the inclusion of the co-benefits on the potential installed capacity of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) projects with a linear programming model by the clean development mechanism (CDM) in India's power sector. It is investigated how different marginal damage costs of air pollutants affect the potential installed capacity of CCS projects in the CDM with a scenario analysis. Three results are found from this analysis. First, large quantity of IGCC with CCS becomes realizable when the certified emission reduction (CER) prices are above US$56/tCO 2 in the integrated Northern, Eastern, Western, and North-Eastern regional grids (NEWNE) and above US $49/tCO 2 in the Southern grid. Second, including co-benefits contributes to decrease CO 2 emissions and air pollutants with introduction of IGCC with CCS in the CDM at lower CER prices. Third, the effects of the co-benefits are limited in the case of CCS because CCS reduces larger amount of CO 2 emissions than that of air pollutants. Total marginal damage costs of air pollutants of US$250/t and US$200/t lead to CER prices of US$1/tCO 2 reduction in the NEWNE grid and the Southern grid. - Highlights: • We estimate effects of co-benefits on installed capacity of CCS projects in the CDM. • We develop a linear programming (LP) model of two grids of India. • Including co-benefits contributes to introduce IGCC with CCS in the CDM at lower CER prices

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field- investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans

  3. ASEAN--USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project final report. Volume 2, Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    This volume reports on research in the area of energy conservation technology applied to commercial buildings in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. Unlike Volume I of this series, this volume is a compilation of original technical papers prepared by different authors in the project. In this regard, this volume is much like a technical journal. The papers that follow report on research conducted by both US and ASEAN researchers. The authors representing Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand, come from a range of positions in the energy arena, including government energy agencies, electric utilities, and universities. As such, they account for a wide range of perspectives on energy problems and the role that technology can play in solving them. This volume is about using energy more intelligently. In some cases, the effort is towards the use of more advanced technologies, such as low-emittance coatings on window glass, thermal energy storage, or cogeneration. In others, the emphasis is towards reclaiming traditional techniques for rendering energy services, but in new contexts such as lighting office buildings with natural light, or cooling buildings of all types with natural ventilation. Used in its broadest sense, the term ``technology`` encompasses all of the topics addressed in this volume. Along with the more customary associations of technology, such as advanced materials and equipment and the analysis of their performance, this volume treats design concepts and techniques, analysis of ``secondary`` impacts from applying technologies (i.e., unintended impacts, or impacts on parties not directly involved in the purchase and use of the technology), and the collection of primary data used for conducting technical analyses.

  4. The Italian bat roost project: a preliminary inventory of sites and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruppo Italiano di Ricerca sui Chirotter GIRC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Italian bat roost project, launched by the Italian Chiroptera Research Group (GIRC, aims to develop a constantly updated national database of bat roosts. Short-term objectives are to inventory roosts and identify the most important ones from a conservation perspective, in order to set priorities for management actions. Published records and field data from 1990 onwards are filed. To date, the database contains 1243 records from 750 roosts, covering 352 10x10 km UTM grid-cells. Among roosts, 167 were used for hibernation (S roosts, 244 for breeding (R roosts and 431 as either temporary roosts or for unknown needs, not verified or not considered in the survey (X roosts. Roosting sites occurred in buildings (45.1%, caves (35.3%, artificial underground sites (10.3%, trees (5.5%, bridges (2.1%, bat boxes (1.3% and rocky cliffs (0.4%. At least 29 species were found, and the number of roosts per species ranged between 1 and 261. S and/or R roosts fulfilling certain combinations of number of species and individuals or having at least 50 individuals of species cited in Annex II of the 92/43/EEC Directive (excluding Miniopterus schreibersii, adding Myotis punicus were classified as sites of special conservation interest. When meeting at least one such conditions, type X roosts that were not classified as either S or R, were considered potential sites of special conservation interest, for which further data collection is recommended. In all, 97 roosts of special conservation interest were identified: 30 S roosts, 60 R roosts and 7 roosts selected for both hibernation and breeding. 20 X roosts were identified as potential sites of special conservation interest. For at least 93.7% of roosts, factors potentially harming the bats were documented, particularly people access to the roost, and renovation of buildings used as a roost. In almost two thirds of such cases it was judged that conservation was not ensured

  5. Terminology - glossary including acronyms and quotations in use for the conservative spinal deformities treatment: 8th SOSORT consensus paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzetti Paolo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report is the SOSORT Consensus Paper on Terminology for use in the treatment of conservative spinal deformities. Figures are provided and relevant literature is cited where appropriate. Methods The Delphi method was used to reach a preliminary consensus before the meeting, where the terms that still needed further clarification were discussed. Results A final agreement was found for all the terms, which now constitute the base of this glossary. New terms will be added after being discussed and accepted. Discussion When only one set of terms is used for communication in a place or among a group of people, then everyone can clearly and efficiently communicate. This principle applies for any professional group. Until now, no common set of terms was available in the field of the conservative treatment of scoliosis and spinal deformities. This glossary gives a common base language to draw from to discuss data, findings and treatment.

  6. Terminology - glossary including acronyms and quotations in use for the conservative spinal deformities treatment: 8th SOSORT consensus paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Theodoros B; de Mauroy, Jean Claude; Négrini, Stefano; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Zaina, Fabio; Wynne, James H; Stokes, Ian A; Knott, Patrick; Pizzetti, Paolo; Rigo, Manuel; Villagrasa, Monica; Weiss, Hans Rudolf; Maruyama, Toru

    2010-11-02

    This report is the SOSORT Consensus Paper on Terminology for use in the treatment of conservative spinal deformities. Figures are provided and relevant literature is cited where appropriate. The Delphi method was used to reach a preliminary consensus before the meeting, where the terms that still needed further clarification were discussed. A final agreement was found for all the terms, which now constitute the base of this glossary. New terms will be added after being discussed and accepted. When only one set of terms is used for communication in a place or among a group of people, then everyone can clearly and efficiently communicate. This principle applies for any professional group. Until now, no common set of terms was available in the field of the conservative treatment of scoliosis and spinal deformities. This glossary gives a common base language to draw from to discuss data, findings and treatment.

  7. A project-based system for including farmers in the EU ETS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    as ‘the missing link’ in past climate negotiations. We argue that farmers have relatively low marginal reduction costs and that consequences in terms of the effect on permit price and technology are overall positive in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). Thus, we propose a project-based system......Farmers in the EU do not trade greenhouse gases under the Kyoto agreement. This is an empirical puzzle because agriculture is a significant contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU and may harvest private net gains from trade. Furthermore, the US has strongly advocated land-use practices...... for including the farming practices in the EU ETS that reduces the uncertainty from measuring emission reduction in this sector. The system encourages GHG reduction either by introducing a new and less polluting practice or by reducing the polluting activity. When doing so, farmers will receive GHG permits...

  8. Carbon gains by conservation projects overbalance carbon losses by degradation in China's karst ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, X.; Yue, Y.; Fensholt, R.; Brandt, M.

    2017-12-01

    China's ecological restoration projects are considered as "mega-engineering" activities and the most ambitious afforestation and conservation projects in human history. The highly sensitive and vulnerable karst ecosystem in Southwest China is one of the largest exposed carbonate rock areas (more than 0.54 million km2) in the world. Accelerating desertification has been reported during the last half century, caused by the increasing intensity of human exploitation of natural resources. As a result, vast karst areas (approximately 0.12 million km2) previously covered by vegetation and soil were turned into a rocky landscape. To combat this severe form of land degradation, more than 19 billion USD have been invested in mitigation initiatives since the end of the 1990s. The costs of mega-engineering as a climate change mitigation measure are however only justified if ecosystem properties can be affected at large scales. Here we study the carbon balance of the karst regions of 8 Chinese provinces over four decades, using optical and passive microwave satellite data, supported by statistical data on project implementations. We find that most areas experiencing losses in aboveground biomass carbon are located in areas with a high standing biomass ( 95 Mg C ha-1), whereas areas with a carbon gain are mostly located in regions with a low standing biomass ( 45 Mg C ha-1). However, the overall gains in carbon stocks overbalance the losses, with an average gross loss of -0.8 Pg C and a gross gain of +2.4 Pg C (1980s to 2016), resulting in a net gain of 1.6 Pg C. Areas of carbon gains are widespread and spatially coherent with conservation projects implemented after 2001, whereas areas of carbon losses show that ongoing degradation is still happening in the western parts of the karst regions. We conclude that the impact of conservation projects on the carbon balance of China's karst ecoregions is remarkable, but biomass carbon losses caused by ongoing degradation can not be

  9. A restoration and conservation project of the “Saint Dominic” Monastery in Soriano Calabro, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazzareno Davolos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is extracted from the Master Thesis about Restoration of the Monuments at “La Sapienza”, University of the Studies of Rome. The Monastery was one of the most important of the Dominican Order in Europe. The building dates back to year 1510, it broke down almost completely in the earthquake of year 1659. It was rebuilt following the architect B. Presti’s project. At the present time the “Saint Domenic” Monastery largely seems a ruin, mainly as a consequence of the cat- N. Davolos - A restoration and conservation project of the ÒSaint DominicÓ Monastery... 185 astrophic earthquake in 1783. However, with the new look that has acquired, it still preserves an extraordinary charm that continues to astonish. The project followed the trend of the critical and conservative restoration with the safeguard of the artistic and figurative data of the “Saint Domenic” Monastery which has been analysed through an accurate historical-critical work. The idea is to preserve and transmit to the future generations the “Saint Domenic” monument in his authenticity, in its formal and material consistence, with the marks of the passing of time. The abstracts reports only the most important aspects which are representative of the project. Besides the historical analysis, laboratory examination have been executed on the material used in the construction of the ancient facade through the observation of thin sections by optic microscope and with the realization of spectrum of X-ray diffraction, in order to know the nature and composition, the state of preservation and the kinds of deterioration to support an appropriate intervention of restoration.

  10. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : January 2000-December 2002 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2003-04-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports were implemented from calendar year 2000 through 2002 in the Pataha Creek Watershed. The Pataha Creek Watershed was selected in 1993, along with the Tucannon and Asotin Creeks, as model watersheds by NPPC. In previous years, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and were the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices were the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. Prior to 2000, several bank stabilization projects were installed but the installation costs became prohibitive and these types of projects were reduced in numbers over the following years. The years 2000 through 2002 were years where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. The Pataha Creek has steelhead in the upper reaches and native and planted rainbow trout in the mid to upper portion. Suckers, pikeminow and shiners inhabit the lower portion because of the higher water temperatures and lack of vegetation. The improvement of riparian habitat will improve habitat for the desired fish species. The lower portion of the Pataha Creek could eventually develop into spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon if some migration barriers are removed and habitat is restored. The upland projects completed during 2000 through 2002 were practices that reduce erosion from the cropland. Three-year continuous no-till projects were finishing up and the monitoring of this particular practice is ongoing. Its direct impact on soil erosion along with the economical aspects is being studied. Other practices such as terrace, waterway, sediment

  11. 25 CFR 170.915 - May tribal employment taxes or fees be included in an IRR project budget?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preference § 170.915 May tribal employment taxes or fees be included in an IRR project budget? Yes. The cost of tribal employment taxes or fees may be included in the budget for an IRR program or project... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May tribal employment taxes or fees be included in an IRR...

  12. Transfer and adoption of conservation farming practices project Checua, in the municipalities of Caldas (Boyaca) and Nemocon (Cundinamarca)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamudio R, Carmen; Leon S, Tomas E

    2008-01-01

    The local environment authority of Cundinamarca (Car) through Proca (Soil and Water Conservation Program), has been working in the control of the erosion under the preventive approach, by means of the technological transference of the conservation agriculture. In the present study, using ethnographic instruments, including 44 surveys and structured interviews with 54 farmers (out of 79) and 15 surveys with local officials of PROCAR, the degree of adoption of the conservation agriculture in two user groups of the PROCAS settled down in the municipalities of Nemocon (Cundinamarca) and Caldas (Boyaca) was studied. Using like criterion the number of principles of the applied agriculture of conservation indeed, one was that in Nemocon the null (36.84%) and low adoption (31.57%) predominates whereas in Caldas a 72% of users with high degree of adoption exist. The differences found in the adoption degree are explained for many reasons: in the biophysical issues, significant agroecologic advantages for Caldas exist. In the economic issues, the own financial limitations of the small farmers and the influence of economic activities different from the farmers, limited the adoption in both municipalities. In the social issues are very important the personal initiative, the community participation and the institutional intervention through the technical consultant's office (in special the attitude of the adviser) and the time of implementation of the Checua Project in each zone. In the technological issues, the adaptation of the technology to the local conditions is determining, as well as in the symbolic issues it is it the relation of the farmer with its surroundings.

  13. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  14. Give Water a Hand. School Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  15. Give Water a Hand. Community Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  16. Give Water a Hand. Home Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water and water conservation within the home while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  17. A project-based system for including farmers in the EU ETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-04-01

    Farmers in the EU do not trade greenhouse gases under the Kyoto agreement. This is an empirical puzzle because agriculture is a significant contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU and may harvest private net gains from trade. Furthermore, the US has strongly advocated land-use practices as 'the missing link' in past climate negotiations. We argue that farmers have relatively low marginal reduction costs and that consequences in terms of the effect on permit price and technology are overall positive in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). Thus, we propose a project-based system for including the farming practices in the EU ETS that reduces the uncertainty from measuring emission reduction in this sector. The system encourages GHG reduction either by introducing a new and less polluting practice or by reducing the polluting activity. When doing so, farmers will receive GHG permits corresponding to the amount of reduction which can be stored for later use or sold in the EU ETS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance agreement...

  19. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Amstrup, Steven C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Stern, Harry; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Wiig, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Loss of Arctic sea ice owing to climate change is the primary threat to polar bears throughout their range. We evaluated the potential response of polar bears to sea-ice declines by (i) calculating generation length (GL) for the species, which determines the timeframe for conservation assessments; (ii) developing a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat; and (iii) using statistical models and computer simulation to project changes in the global population under three approaches relating polar bear abundance to sea ice. Mean GL was 11.5 years. Ice-covered days declined in all subpopulation areas during 1979–2014 (median −1.26 days year−1). The estimated probabilities that reductions in the mean global population size of polar bears will be greater than 30%, 50% and 80% over three generations (35–41 years) were 0.71 (range 0.20–0.95), 0.07 (range 0–0.35) and less than 0.01 (range 0–0.02), respectively. According to IUCN Red List reduction thresholds, which provide a common measure of extinction risk across taxa, these results are consistent with listing the species as vulnerable. Our findings support the potential for large declines in polar bear numbers owing to sea-ice loss, and highlight near-term uncertainty in statistical projections as well as the sensitivity of projections to different plausible assumptions.

  20. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V; Laidre, Kristin L; Akçakaya, H Resit; Amstrup, Steven C; Atwood, Todd C; Lunn, Nicholas J; Obbard, Martyn; Stern, Harry; Thiemann, Gregory W; Wiig, Øystein

    2016-12-01

    Loss of Arctic sea ice owing to climate change is the primary threat to polar bears throughout their range. We evaluated the potential response of polar bears to sea-ice declines by (i) calculating generation length (GL) for the species, which determines the timeframe for conservation assessments; (ii) developing a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat; and (iii) using statistical models and computer simulation to project changes in the global population under three approaches relating polar bear abundance to sea ice. Mean GL was 11.5 years. Ice-covered days declined in all subpopulation areas during 1979-2014 (median -1.26 days year -1 ). The estimated probabilities that reductions in the mean global population size of polar bears will be greater than 30%, 50% and 80% over three generations (35-41 years) were 0.71 (range 0.20-0.95), 0.07 (range 0-0.35) and less than 0.01 (range 0-0.02), respectively. According to IUCN Red List reduction thresholds, which provide a common measure of extinction risk across taxa, these results are consistent with listing the species as vulnerable. Our findings support the potential for large declines in polar bear numbers owing to sea-ice loss, and highlight near-term uncertainty in statistical projections as well as the sensitivity of projections to different plausible assumptions. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Dynamics of participation and supply of services in the Hood River Conservation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.

    1986-07-01

    The Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP) is a major residential retrofit demonstration project. HRCP is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and run by Pacific Power and Light Company. The project was conducted in the community of Hood River, Oregon, will cost $21 million, and will last for three years (mid-1983 through 1986). Installation of applicable retrofit measures was completed by the end of 1985; data collection, analysis, and report writing will continue through 1986. This report documents the extent to which households participated in HRCP. Differences between participants and eligible nonparticipants are examined. Similarly, differences among participants as a function of when they signed up for HRCP are analyzed. The report also examines the dynamics of program services (i.e., times between audit requests and audit, and between audit and installation of measures). These analyses are based on data from the roughly 3500 Hood River homes eligible for HRCP, 3189 of which received free home energy audits and 2988 of which received HRCP-financed retrofit measures.

  2. The greenGain project - Biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work for renewable energy production in the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clalüna, Aline; Baumgarten, Wibke; García Galindo, Daniel; Lenz, Klaus; Doležal, Jan; De Filippi, Federico; Lorenzo, Joaquín; Montagnoli, Louis

    2017-04-01

    The project greenGain is looking for solutions to increase the energy production with regional and local biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work, which is performed in the public interest. The relevant resources analysed in the greenGain model regions are, among others, biomass residues from clearing invasive vegetation in marginal agricultural lands in Spain, and residues from abandoned vineyards and olive groves in landscape protected areas in Italy. The main target groups are regional and local players who are responsible for maintenance and conservation work and for the biomass residue management in their regions. Moreover, the focus will be on service providers - including farmers and forest owners, their associations, NGOs, energy providers and consumers. Local companies, municipalities and public authorities are collaborating to identify the still underutilised non-food biomass resources and to discuss the way to integrate them into the local and regional biomass markets. Since the start of the three year project in January 2015, the partners from Italy, Spain, Czech Republic and Germany analysed, among other, the biomass feedstock potential coming from landscape maintenance work, and assessed various technological options to utilise this type of biomass. Further, political, legal and environmental aspects as well as awareness raising and public acceptance actions regarding the energetic use of biomass from public areas were assessed. greenGain also facilitates the exchange between model regions and other similar relevant players in the EU and shares examples of good practice. General guidelines will be prepared to guarantee a wide dissemination to other regions in the EU. Thus, the project shows how to build-up reliable knowledge on local availability of this feedstock and provides know-how concerning planning, harvesting, pre-treatment, storage and sustainable conversion pathways to a wide range of stakeholders in the EU.

  3. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake......, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion...

  4. A method for evaluating the funding of components of natural resource and conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellington, John F., E-mail: welling@ipfw.edu [Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW), Doermer School of Business, 203 Stonegate Drive Erie, PA 16505 (United States); Lewis, Stephen A., E-mail: lewis.sa07@gmail.com [Mongrel Works, LLC., Columbus, OH 43209 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Many public and private entities such as government agencies and private foundations have missions related to the improvement, protection, and sustainability of the environment. In pursuit of their missions, they fund projects with related outcomes. Typically, the funding scene consists of scarce funding dollars for the many project requests. In light of funding limitations and funder's search for innovative funding schemes, a method to support the allocation of scarce dollars among project components is presented. The proposed scheme has similarities to methods in the project selection literature but differs in its focus on project components and its connection to and enumeration of the universe of funding possibilities. The value of having access to the universe is demonstrated with illustrations. The presentation includes Excel implementations that should appeal to a broad spectrum of project evaluators and reviewers. Access to the space of funding possibilities facilitates a rich analysis of funding alternatives. - Highlights: • Method is given for allocating scarce funding dollars among competing projects. • Allocations are made to fund parts of projects • Proposed method provides access to the universe of funding possibilities. • Proposed method facilitates a rich analysis of funding possibilities. • Excel spreadsheet implementations are provided.

  5. A method for evaluating the funding of components of natural resource and conservation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellington, John F.; Lewis, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Many public and private entities such as government agencies and private foundations have missions related to the improvement, protection, and sustainability of the environment. In pursuit of their missions, they fund projects with related outcomes. Typically, the funding scene consists of scarce funding dollars for the many project requests. In light of funding limitations and funder's search for innovative funding schemes, a method to support the allocation of scarce dollars among project components is presented. The proposed scheme has similarities to methods in the project selection literature but differs in its focus on project components and its connection to and enumeration of the universe of funding possibilities. The value of having access to the universe is demonstrated with illustrations. The presentation includes Excel implementations that should appeal to a broad spectrum of project evaluators and reviewers. Access to the space of funding possibilities facilitates a rich analysis of funding alternatives. - Highlights: • Method is given for allocating scarce funding dollars among competing projects. • Allocations are made to fund parts of projects • Proposed method provides access to the universe of funding possibilities. • Proposed method facilitates a rich analysis of funding possibilities. • Excel spreadsheet implementations are provided

  6. HRTEM study of α-AlMnSi crystals including non-crystallographic projection axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, G.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of α-AlMnSi is examined by atomic resolution high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and computer-based image matching techniques. Six distinct zone axes are examined; including both normal crystallographic and non-crystallographic zones axes of the structural motifs, which have m3-bar 5 icosahedral symmetry. The results provide a sound basis for understanding HRTEM images of the quasicrystalline alloy i-AlMnSi; thus it was examined to what extent the requirements for obtaining so-called structure images of complex alloy structures may be met experimentally and define when the images may be reliably interpreted on the basis of computer simulation and image-matching at about 0.17nm resolution. Most difficulty was experienced in obtaining the experimental images, especially for the non-crystallographic zones, which are very sensitive to slight changes in orientation off the desired zone axis or projection, the rate at which the crystal thickness is increasing (wedge-angle) and the orientation of the surfaces of the specimen. Surface amorphous layers due to oxidation and/or electron-induced irradiation damage also limit the efficiency of the HRTEM analysis. For the thin specimens used for HRTEM, both the electron diffraction patterns and the HRTEM images are characteristic of Im3-bar space group symmetry. It is suggested that this Im3-bar symmetry may be an example of a statistical symmetry, where the local symmetry is close to Pm3-bar but the average symmetry is Im3-bar. The transition from Pm3-bar to Im3-bar may be understood in terms of an analysis of small changes in the outer shells of the large icosahedral structural elements which are located at the corners and body-centers of the cubic unit cell. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  7. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  8. HRTEM study of {alpha}-AlMnSi crystals including non-crystallographic projection axes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, G.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-06-01

    The structure of {alpha}-AlMnSi is examined by atomic resolution high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and computer-based image matching techniques. Six distinct zone axes are examined; including both normal crystallographic and non-crystallographic zones axes of the structural motifs, which have m3-bar 5 icosahedral symmetry. The results provide a sound basis for understanding HRTEM images of the quasicrystalline alloy i-AlMnSi; thus it was examined to what extent the requirements for obtaining so-called structure images of complex alloy structures may be met experimentally and define when the images may be reliably interpreted on the basis of computer simulation and image-matching at about 0.17nm resolution. Most difficulty was experienced in obtaining the experimental images, especially for the non-crystallographic zones, which are very sensitive to slight changes in orientation off the desired zone axis or projection, the rate at which the crystal thickness is increasing (wedge-angle) and the orientation of the surfaces of the specimen. Surface amorphous layers due to oxidation and/or electron-induced irradiation damage also limit the efficiency of the HRTEM analysis. For the thin specimens used for HRTEM, both the electron diffraction patterns and the HRTEM images are characteristic of Im3-bar space group symmetry. It is suggested that this Im3-bar symmetry may be an example of a statistical symmetry, where the local symmetry is close to Pm3-bar but the average symmetry is Im3-bar. The transition from Pm3-bar to Im3-bar may be understood in terms of an analysis of small changes in the outer shells of the large icosahedral structural elements which are located at the corners and body-centers of the cubic unit cell. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. Including Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policies in Electricity Demand Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find more information on how state and local air agencies can identify on-the-books EE/RE policies, develop a methodology for projecting a jurisdiction's energy demand, and estimate the change in power sector emissions.

  10. Preliminary Nearshore Sedimentation Rate Analysis of the Tuungane Project Northern Mahale Conservation Area, Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, R. A.; McGlue, M. M.; Yeager, K. M.; Soreghan, M. J.; Lucas, J.; Kimirei, I.; Mbonde, A.; Limbu, P.; Apse, C.

    2017-12-01

    The combined effects of climate change, overfishing, and sediment pollution are altering Lake Tanganyika's littoral fisheries in profoundly negative ways. One method for conserving critical fish resources and safeguarding biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika is by establishing small-scale nearshore protected zones, which can be administrated by lakeshore villagers organized into beach management units (BMUs). Each BMU endeavors to manage offshore "no-catch" protected zones, prohibit the use of illegal fishing gear, and promote sustainable agriculture that abates erosion in the lake watershed, in order to mitigate sediment pollution in the lake. We adopted a limnogeological approach to assist in characterizing the littoral zone associated with BMUs in the northern Mahale region of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania), a critical conservation area for the Nature Conservancy's Tuungane Project (https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/africa/wherewework/tuungane-project.xml). We hypothesized that BMUs with heavy onshore agricultural activity would experience relatively high offshore sedimentation rates, due to enhanced sediment-laden runoff in the wet season. Such changes are predicted to alter benthic substrates and degrade habitat available for fish spawning. We mapped bathymetry and sediment types along a 29 km2 area of the littoral zone using high-resolution geophysical tools, and assessed short-term sedimentation rates using sediment cores and radionuclide geochronology (210Pb). Initial results from 210Pb analyses show that sedimentation rates at the mud-line ( 85-100 m water depth) are relatively slow but spatially variable in the northern Mahale area. Offshore of the Kalilani village BMU, linear sedimentation rates are 0.50 mm/yr. By contrast, sedimentation rates offshore from the Igualula village BMU are 0.90-1.30 mm/yr. Higher sedimentation rates near Igualula are consistent with greater sediment inputs from the nearby Lagosa River and its watershed, which has been

  11. Terrestrial laser scanning for heritage conservation: the Cologne Cathedral documentation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, D.; Sperner, J.; Hoepner, S.; Tenschert, R.

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary terrestrial laser scanners and photogrammetric imaging systems are an invaluable tool in providing objectively precise, as-built records of existing architectural, engineering and industrial sites. The comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) recording of culturally important sites such as heritage buildings, monuments, and sites can serve a variety of invaluable purposes; the data can assist in the conservation, management, and repair of a structure, as well as provide a visually engaging educational resource for both the public and scholars. The acquired data acts as a form of digital preservation, a timeless virtual representation of the as-built structure. The technical capability of these systems is particularly suited for the documentation of a richly articulated and detailed building such as the high Gothic Cologne Cathedral. The 3D documentation of the Cologne Cathedral UNESCO World Heritage Site is a multiphase project developed by Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh in partnership with the Fresenius University of Applied Sciences, Cologne, and the Metropolitankapitel der Hohen Domkirche Köln Dombauhütte. The project has also received generous support from Zoller + Fröhlich (Z+F) and the City of Cologne.

  12. A project-based system for including farmers in the EU ETS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    as ‘the missing link’ in past climate negotiations. We argue that farmers have relatively low marginal reduction costs and that consequences in terms of the effect on permit price and technology are overall positive in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). Thus, we propose a project-based system...

  13. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Cooperative project on energy conservation seminar; 1999 nendo sho energy seminar kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization), from the viewpoint that the development and popularization of energy conservation technologies are extremely important as energy conservation measures, collected energy related primary information from 12 Asian countries including Japan for the development and popularization of energy conservation technologies, and has constructed a database NEDO/DB. NEDO is now propelling forward its efforts to popularize the database. For popularizing NEDO/DB in Vietnam and for rendering the people conscious of energy conservation, NEDO dispatched some lecturers to an energy conservation seminar sponsored by the Vietnamese Government. The importance of energy conservation promoting measures was highlighted at the seminar. NEDO's approach to AIJ (activities implemented jointly) and CDM (clean development mechanism) was described at the seminar, and a lecture meeting was held to explain NEDO/DB and to teach how to use the database. (NEDO)

  14. CMIP5-based global wave climate projections including the entire Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Prat, M.; Wang, X. L.; Swart, N.

    2018-03-01

    This study presents simulations of the global ocean wave climate corresponding to the surface winds and sea ice concentrations as simulated by five CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) climate models for the historical (1979-2005) and RCP8.5 scenario future (2081-2100) periods. To tackle the numerical complexities associated with the inclusion of the North Pole, the WAVEWATCH III (WW3) wave model was used with a customized unstructured Spherical Multi-Cell grid of ∼100 km offshore and ∼50 km along coastlines. The climate model simulated wind and sea ice data, and the corresponding WW3 simulated wave data, were evaluated against reanalysis and hindcast data. The results show that all the five sets of wave simulations projected lower waves in the North Atlantic, corresponding to decreased surface wind speeds there in the warmer climate. The selected CMIP5 models also consistently projected an increase in the surface wind speed in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) mid-high latitudes, which translates in an increase in the WW3 simulated significant wave height (Hs) there. The higher waves are accompanied with increased peak wave period and increased wave age in the East Pacific and Indian Oceans, and a significant counterclockwise rotation in the mean wave direction in the Southern Oceans. The latter is caused by more intense waves from the SH traveling equatorward and developing into swells. Future wave climate in the Arctic Ocean in summer is projected to be predominantly of mixed sea states, with the climatological mean of September maximum Hs ranging mostly 3-4 m. The new waves approaching Arctic coasts will be less fetch-limited as ice retreats since a predominantly southwards mean wave direction is projected in the surrounding seas.

  15. RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual progress report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress during 1988 of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 16 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility (the Solid Waste Landfill). Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 21 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Project CAPTURE: a U.S. national prioritization assessment of tree species for conservation, management, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara S. Crane; Valerie D. Hipkins

    2017-01-01

    that forest tree species will undergo population-level extirpation or species-level extinction during the next century. Project CAPTURE (Conservation Assessment and Prioritization of Forest Trees Under Risk of Extirpation) is a cooperative effort across the three U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA FS) deputy areas to establish a framework for...

  17. Project CAPTURE: using forest inventory and analysis data to prioritize tree species for conservation, management, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara S. Crane; William W. Hargrove

    2015-01-01

    A variety of threats, most importantly climate change and insect and disease infestation, will increase the likelihood that forest tree species could experience population-level extirpation or species-level extinction during the next century. Project CAPTURE (Conservation Assessment and Prioritization of Forest Trees Under Risk of Extirpation) is a cooperative effort...

  18. North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducummon, S.L. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

  19. The surgical care improvement project and prevention of post-operative infection, including surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Politano, Amani D; Sawyer, Robert G

    2011-06-01

    In response to inconsistent compliance with infection prevention measures, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services collaborated with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the Surgical Infection Prevention (SIP) project, introduced in 2002. Quality improvement measures were developed to standardize processes to increase compliance. In 2006, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) developed out of the SIP project and its process measures. These initiatives, published in the Specifications Manual for National Inpatient Quality Measures, outline process and outcome measures. This continually evolving manual is intended to provide standard quality measures to unify documentation and track standards of care. Seven of the SCIP initiatives apply to the peri-operative period: Prophylactic antibiotics should be received within 1 h prior to surgical incision (1), be selected for activity against the most probable antimicrobial contaminants (2), and be discontinued within 24 h after the surgery end-time (3); (4) euglycemia should be maintained, with well-controlled morning blood glucose concentrations on the first two post-operative days, especially in cardiac surgery patients; (6) hair at the surgical site should be removed with clippers or by depilatory methods, not with a blade; (9) urinary catheters are to be removed within the first two post-operative days; and (10) normothermia should be maintained peri-operatively. There is strong evidence that implementation of protocols that standardize practices reduce the risk of surgical infection. The SCIP initiative targets complications that account for a significant portion of preventable morbidity as well as cost. One of the goals of the SCIP guidelines was a 25% reduction in the incidence of surgical site infections from implementation through 2010. Process measures are becoming routine, and as we practice more evidence-based medicine, it falls to us, the surgeons and scientists, to be active

  20. Assessing community-based conservation projects: A systematic review and multilevel analysis of attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based conservation (CBC promotes the idea that long-term conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for local communities. Though widespread, CBC projects are not always successful or free of controversy. With criticisms on all sides of the conservation debates, it is critical to have a better understanding of (1 whether CBC is an effective conservation tool, and (2 of the factors associated with the success or failure of CBC projects, and the scale at which these factors operate. Recent CBC reviews have typically examined only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a newly coded global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic and explore synergies and tradeoffs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context (H-NC, project design (H-PD, and local community characteristics (H-CC affect these four measures of success. Methods To add to a sample of 62 projects that we used from previous systematic reviews, we systematically searched the conservation literature using six terms in four online databases. To increase the number of projects for each country in order to conduct a multilevel analysis, we also conducted a secondary search using the Advancing Conservation in a Social Context online library. We coded projects for 65 pieces of information. We conducted bivariate analyses using two-dimensional contingency tables and proportional odds logistic regression and conducted multivariate analyses by fitting reduced form proportional odds logistic regression models that were selected using a forward stepwise AIC approach. Results The primary and secondary searches produced 74 new projects to go along with the 62

  1. 42 CFR 137.275 - May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Purpose and Scope § 137.275 May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding...

  2. Basic survey project for Joint Implementation, etc. for energy conservation in ethylene production at Yangzi Petrochemical Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a potential study was conducted of energy conservation in Yangzi Petrochemical Company in Nanking City, China. The project is aimed at realizing energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions by generating power by installation of gas turbine and by using waste gas as fuel for ethylene cracking furnace. In the project, the following are carried out: introduction of 35MW gas turbine generator, and repairs of fuel burner of ethylene cracking furnace, fuel gas compressor of gas turbine, emergency use air blower, duct, etc. The construction work is to be done in 30 months from April, 2005. The initial investment is approximately 45 million US$. The energy conservation to be brought by this project is 37,958 tons/year, or 759,160 tons in the total project term. Further, the reduction amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions is 117,452 CO2 tons/year, or 2,349,040 CO2 tons in the total project term. (NEDO)

  3. Two Gonostomatid Ciliates from the Soil of Lombardia, Italy; including Note on the Soil Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Daizy; Kumar, Santosh; La Terza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Two gonostomatid ciliates, Gonostomum paronense n. sp. and G. strenuum, isolated from the soil sample of paddy field, Lombardia, Italy, were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. Gonostomum paronense n. sp. is mainly characterized by a tailed body, frontoventral cirri arranged in pairs, and presence of pretransverse and transverse cirri. Morphologically and morphometrically, the new species is similar to Gonostomum namibiense in having a tailed body and frontoventral cirral pairs; however, it differs mainly in the number of frontoventral cirral pairs (seven vs. three). Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rDNA sequences show that the new species is more closely related to G. namibiense than to G. strenuum, supporting the morphological classification based on the cirral pattern and the tailed body. However, due to the poor nodal support and absence of gene sequence of the type species Gonostomum, a more robust phylogeny of this group still remains unresolved. The biometric data of the Italian population of Gonostomum strenuum overlap with those from other known populations. Both species were collected from the industrial area of Parona, in the framework of the "Soil Mapping, Lombardia" project in which, for the first time in Italy, soil ciliates were used as bioindicators of soil quality. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  4. Basic study for Joint Implementation Pipeline System Optimization Project including rehabilitation of gas pipeline in Ukraine for greenhouse gas reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a study was conducted of a project for repair/optimization of the Shebelinka, Dikanka-Kyiv, gas pipeline system in the Republic of Ukraine. As a result of the study, the following plans were proposed. The gas turbine compressor now in use has been used more than 30 years, and is needed to be changed due to the superannuation. Changes are needed of the equipment used for pipeline inspection, corrosion prevention equipment, damaged data collecting equipment, pressure detection automatic drive valve, etc. Further needed are a portable compressor by which repair work can be done without gas release into the atmospheric air. The investment required for repair/installation of these equipment totaled approximately 216 million dollars. This brings the reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions of 512,000 tons/year, and the energy conservation of 103,000 tons/year of crude oil or its equivalent. These are estimated at about 10 million dollars in greenhouse effect gas reduction and at 15 million dollars in energy conservation. (NEDO)

  5. Propensity of farmers to conserve forest within REDD+ projects in areas affected by armed-conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Augusto Carlos Castro; Mertz, Ole; Quintero, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    design and application of forest conservation and climate change mitigation approaches such as the mechanism for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD. +) in such contexts remain little studied. Unanswered questions relate to the propensity of farmers in conflict affected...... Colombian government REDD. + activities. A household survey (n = 90) showed that four explanatory variables are significantly related to the 'propensity to conserve forest'. 'Harvest of non-timber forest products' (specifically bush meat) positively influences a farmer's propensity to conserve forest...

  6. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production flexibility contract, which is authorized by the Agricultural Marketing and Transition Act of 1996...: (1) Demonstrates innovative approaches to conservation program delivery and administration; (2...

  7. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.][Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Deringer, J.J. [Deringer Group, Riva, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  8. Pharmacological Interventions Including Medical Injections for Neck Pain: An Overview as Part of the ICON§ Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloso, Paul M; Khan, Mahweesh; Gross, Anita R; Carlesso, Lisa; Santaguida, Lina; Lowcock, Janet; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, Dave; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Langevin, Pierre; Shi, Qiyun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an overview (review-of-reviews) on pharmacological interventions for neck pain. Search Strategy: Computerized databases and grey literature were searched from 2006 to 2012. Selection Criteria: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) in adults with acute to chronic neck pain reporting effects of pharmacological interventions including injections on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Data Collection & Analysis: Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias and extracted data The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel provided critical review. Main Results: We found 26 reviews reporting on 47 RCTs. Most pharmacological interventions had low to very low quality methodologic evidence with three exceptions. For chronic neck pain, there was evidence of: a small immediate benefit for eperison hydrochloride (moderate GRADE, 1 trial, 157 participants);no short-term pain relieving benefit for botulinum toxin-A compared to saline (strong GRADE; 5 trial meta-analysis, 258 participants) nor for subacute/chronic whiplash (moderate GRADE; 4 trial meta-analysis, 183 participants) including reduced pain, disability or global perceived effect; andno long-term benefit for medial branch block of facet joints with steroids (moderate GRADE; 1 trial, 120 participants) over placebo to reduce pain or disability; Reviewers' Conclusions: While in general there is a lack of evidence for most pharmacological interventions, current evidence is against botulinum toxin-A for chronic neck pain or subacute/chronic whiplash; against medial branch block with steroids for chronic facet joint pain; but in favour of the muscle relaxant eperison hydrochloride for chronic neck pain. PMID:24155805

  9. The CEDICAE and the paper collections conservation and restoration Laboratory at CNEA : present and future organization and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Ana M.; Semino, Maria S.; Romero, Gregoria O.; Alfaro, Laura S.; Miranda, Maria V.; Chinen, Silvia P.

    2009-01-01

    In Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE), there is a working group formed by staff members from a Documentation and Information Center known as 'Lic. Maria Isabel Gonzalez' (CEDICAE) and from the CNEA Paper Collections Conservation and Restoration Laboratory. New personnel were hired in 2007, which allowed the reorganization of tasks and gave way to the creation of new projects. By conducting weekly morning meetings, the working group decided to organize and plan the activities that had to be conducted. From the first moment, the main objective of the group was to offer a service of excellence, i.e. to provide a duly and timely response to the bibliographical requests made by users, to perform tasks in the laboratory, to train members in diverse subjects of preventive conservation, surveys and evaluations of archives and libraries, and tasks of restoration of our own material and material from third parties. Among the projects carried out by the CEDICAE, the following are included: Firstly, the continuous training and education of its personnel, training of users in topics dealing with the use of the MINCyT Library, participation in the Internal Network of Libraries (REDIN) in order to adopt a joint policy by CNEA libraries, participation in the Network RRIAN (Regional Network of Information for Latin America and the Caribbean in the Nuclear Field), participation in the Federal Network of Libraries and Information, with the National Commission of Public Libraries (CONABIP) and with the Documentation Center of the Ministry of Economy and so on. It has worked in training of personnel working at the institutions that submit requests to the Laboratory (SERPAJ, Monastery of San Francisco, Ministry of Economy, CONABIP, etc) regarding topics of preventive conservation. It has realised a mockup of bibliographical recovery of damaged material after any climate disasters and has conducted surveys and evaluations from the point of view of preventive conservation. In this sense and as an

  10. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  11. A reanalysis of a behavioral intervention to prevent incident HIV infections: Including indirect effects in modeling outcomes of Project EXPLORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Kenny, David A.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Background Project EXPLORE -- a large-scale, behavioral intervention tested among men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for HIV infection --was generally deemed as ineffective in reducing HIV incidence. Using novel and more precise data analytic techniques we reanalyzed Project EXPLORE by including both direct and indirect paths of intervention effects. Methods Data from 4,296 HIV negative MSM who participated in Project EXPLORE, which included ten sessions of behavioral risk reduction counseling completed from 1999-2005, were included in the analysis. We reanalyzed the data to include parameters that estimate the overtime effects of the intervention on unprotected anal sex and the over-time effects of the intervention on HIV status mediated by unprotected anal sex simultaneously in a single model. Results We found the indirect effect of intervention on HIV infection through unprotected anal sex to be statistically significant up through 12 months post-intervention, OR=.83, 95% CI=.72-.95. Furthermore, the intervention significantly reduced unprotected anal sex up through 18 months post-intervention, OR=.79, 95% CI=.63-.99. Discussion Our results reveal effects not tested in the original model that offer new insight into the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for reducing HIV incidence. Project EXPLORE demonstrated that when tested against an evidence-based, effective control condition can result in reductions in rates of HIV acquisition at one year follow-up. Findings highlight the critical role of addressing behavioral risk reduction counseling in HIV prevention. PMID:23245226

  12. 76 FR 9346 - Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2857-000] Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Sun City...

  13. Restoration of degraded arid farmland at Project Wadi Attir: Impact of conservation on biological productivity and soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor-Mussery, Amir; Helman, David; Ben Eli, Michael; Leu, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Israeli Negev Desert, as most Mediterranean drylands, is profoundly degraded. We have been documenting degradation and successful rehabilitation approaches in recent research, aiming at maximizing environmental and economic benefits while restoring healthy dryland soils and perennial vegetation to act as carbon sinks. These methods have been implemented for rehabilitation of Project Wadi Attir's. 50 hectares of heavily degraded farmland suffering from intensive soil erosion (expressed in dense gullies net and massive overland flow). Project Wadi Attir is a groundbreaking initiative of the Bedouin community in the Negev, for establishing a model sustainable agricultural operation. The project was initiated by the US-based Sustainability Laboratory and the Hura Municipal Council. The project is designed to demonstrate implementation of holistic sustainability principles developed by The Lab. The project's ecosystem restoration component involves site development, erosion control, soil conservation and improvement, planting of native and agroforestry trees, together with conservation and protection of biodiversity hotspots and avoiding grazing have, within three years, revealed the high biodiversity and productivity potential of this arid/semi-arid landscape. A number of shrublands and loess plots were subject to strict conservation, avoiding tilling and grazing. Soil fertility, productivity and biodiversity of these conserved plots inside the farm boundaries was compared to similar unprotected plots outside the farm fences by sampling in the field and by using satellite imaging. Our findings indicate a gradual improvement of SOM content specifically in the conserved shrubland area. Water infiltration, herbaceous biomass productivity and ants' activity of the protected plots also significantly increased within 3 years compared to the unprotected control areas. Starting from similar soil organic matter content in 2013 (3.3%) in the rocky slopes, in 2016 1% higher

  14. Basic survey for promoting energy efficiency in developing countries. Database development project directory of energy conservation technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    In order to promote energy conservation in developing countries, the gist of Japanese energy saving technologies was edited into a database. The Asian territory is expected of remarkable economic development and increased energy consumption including that for fossil fuels. Therefore, this project of structuring a database has urgent importance for the Asian countries. New and wide-area discussions were given to revise the 1995 edition. The committee was composed of members from high energy consuming areas such as iron and steel, paper and pulp, chemical, oil refining, cement, electric power, machinery, electric devices, and industrial machinery industries. Technical literatures and reports were referred to, and opinions were heard from specialists and committee members representing the respective areas. In order to reflect the current status and particular conditions in specific industrial areas, additions were given under the assistance and guidance from the specialists. The energy saving technologies recorded in the database may be called small to medium scale technologies, with the target placed on saving energy by 10% or more. Small-scale energy saving technologies were omitted. Flow charts for manufacturing processes were also added. (NEDO)

  15. Conservative Overset Grids for Overflow For The Sonic Wave Atmospheric Propagation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufer, Jeff T.; Cummings, Russell M.

    1999-01-01

    Methods are presented that can be used to make multiple, overset grids communicate in a conservative manner. The methods are developed for use with the Chimera overset method using the PEGSUS code and the OVERFLOW solver.

  16. Energy conservation: model hotel project; Conservacao de energia: projeto Hotel Modelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepino, Dartes Odeniz; Sodario, Claudio Antonio [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This work has the objective to dimension each electrical installation of a hotel, from the load feeder circuits until the high voltage inlet, focalizing first energy conservation, according to the most updated technological terms 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Local Responses to Development and Conservation Projects - A case study in Río San Juan, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlbom, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study in the buffer zone to the Biological Reserve Indio-Maíz, Nicaragua, and by employing an actor-oriented approach, this thesis sets out to explore how locals respond to conservation and development projects, and what factors facilitate these responses. It will be argued that differentiation in people’s capitals, such as access to wider social networks and information, capability to adapt to changes in livelihoods and deal with project requirements, as well as coping with i...

  18. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodd, Rory L; Bourke, David; Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly

  19. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory L Hodd

    Full Text Available Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1 oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2 species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3 species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need

  20. Mitigation and Compensation under EU Nature Conservation Law in the Flemish Region: Beyond the Deadlock for Development Projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Schoukens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For years, the predicament of many of the European protected habitats and species in the Flemish Region, as in many other Member States, passed relatively unnoticed. The lack of proper rules and clear implementation rules fuelled the impression amongst project developers and planning authorities that the impacts of project developments on biodiversity did not really warrant closer assessment. However, in the past ten years, strict national case law has significantly altered this view. Faced with tighter judicial scrutiny, the Habitats and Birds Directives were seen as an important obstacle to project development. Hence mitigation and compensation have now come up as novel approaches to better align spatial aspirations with the conservation of nature. In reality, mitigation was often used as a cover-up for projects that would not fit the strict requirements enshrined in the derogatory clauses. Interestingly, the Belgian Council of State showed itself quite cautious in reasserting the lax view of some planning authorities on mitigation and compensation. In reviewing the legality of several new approaches to mitigation and compensation, the Belgian Council of State, which was initially very cautious in quashing decisions that would actually jeopardise major infrastructure developments, has rendered some compelling rulings on the specific application of mitigation and compensatory measures in a spatial planning context. By letting the objectives of EU nature conservation law prevail in the face of economic interests, the recent case law of the Belgian Council of State can be seen as a remarkable example of judicial environmental activism.

  1. Downscaled projections of Caribbean coral bleaching that can inform conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooidonk, Ruben; Maynard, Jeffrey Allen; Liu, Yanyun; Lee, Sang-Ki

    2015-09-01

    Projections of climate change impacts on coral reefs produced at the coarse resolution (~1°) of Global Climate Models (GCMs) have informed debate but have not helped target local management actions. Here, projections of the onset of annual coral bleaching conditions in the Caribbean under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 are produced using an ensemble of 33 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 models and via dynamical and statistical downscaling. A high-resolution (~11 km) regional ocean model (MOM4.1) is used for the dynamical downscaling. For statistical downscaling, sea surface temperature (SST) means and annual cycles in all the GCMs are replaced with observed data from the ~4-km NOAA Pathfinder SST dataset. Spatial patterns in all three projections are broadly similar; the average year for the onset of annual severe bleaching is 2040-2043 for all projections. However, downscaled projections show many locations where the onset of annual severe bleaching (ASB) varies 10 or more years within a single GCM grid cell. Managers in locations where this applies (e.g., Florida, Turks and Caicos, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic, among others) can identify locations that represent relative albeit temporary refugia. Both downscaled projections are different for the Bahamas compared to the GCM projections. The dynamically downscaled projections suggest an earlier onset of ASB linked to projected changes in regional currents, a feature not resolved in GCMs. This result demonstrates the value of dynamical downscaling for this application and means statistically downscaled projections have to be interpreted with caution. However, aside from west of Andros Island, the projections for the two types of downscaling are mostly aligned; projected onset of ASB is within ±10 years for 72% of the reef locations. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Main issues in research and practice of environmental protection for water conservancy and hydropower projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generally summarize the main issues in the operational period of water conservancy and hydropower projects in China over the past several decades. First, the adverse impacts of these projects since the technical guidelines were proposed in 2006 are analyzed. Then, combined with projects and experience from 2006 to 2014, the four main issues are summarized: (1 There exist many questions in the design and construction of fishways, which are useful for fish migration, and the migration effects are not as expected. (2 Temperature stratification affecting the downstream fish is the major impact of temperature, and alters fish spawning in the reproduction season. (3 Ecological base flow has been one of the primary questions of the last 30 years in China, the greatest related difficulty being quantification of the amount and flow process necessary to satisfy fish life history. (4 Fish habitat protection and restoration are popular topics in recent years with the development of river ecosystem restoration. Fish habitat loss due to the impacts of dam construction and habitat fragmentation has become more and more serious. These four issues are now the main difficulties in water project management, and interact with one another to bear combined effects on river ecosystems. The issues of eco-hydraulic consideration in the design period are the key factors. Finally, future priorities for research and practice of environmental protection for water conservancy and hydropower projects in China are proposed. The main purpose of this paper is to enhance the scientific research, monitoring, and assessment of operating effectiveness.

  3. Behind the Lines of Stone: The Social Impact of a Soil and Water Conservation Project in the Sahel

    OpenAIRE

    Atampugre, N.

    1993-01-01

    Metadata only record The Projet Agro-Forestier (PAF) in Burkina Faso was set up by Oxfam in 1979 and by 1982 had developed into a large-scale operation involved in helping farmers to conserve, protect and develop their natural-resource potential. The use of the water tube in the construction of stone diguettes or bunds has proved effective as a means of halting soil erosion. The project has been evaluated by means of written questionnaires, but oral histories have also been taken into acco...

  4. Rigorous project for existing houses. Energy conservation requires evolution; Rigoureus project voor bestaande woningen. Evolutie voor energiebesparing nodig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clocquet, R. [DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Koene, F. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    How can existing terraced houses be renovated in such a way that their energy use decreases with 75 percent? The Rigorous project of the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), TNO, Delft University of Technology and DHV, developed innovative renovation concepts that make such savings feasible by combining constructional measures with installation concepts. On top of that it is also essential that consumer behavior is addressed. [Dutch] Hoe kunnen bestaande rijtjeswoningen zo worden gerenoveerd dat het totale energiegebruik met 75 procent afneemt? In het Rigoureus-project hebben ECN, TNO, TU Delft en DHV innovatieve renovatieconcepten ontwikkeld die dat, door een combinatie van bouwkundige maatregelen en uitgeldende installatieconcepten, mogelijk maken. Daarbij blijkt het van essentieel belang ook het gebruikersgedrag aan te pakken.

  5. A high-order relaxation method with projective integration for solving nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafitte, Pauline; Melis, Ward; Samaey, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    We present a general, high-order, fully explicit relaxation scheme which can be applied to any system of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple dimensions. The scheme consists of two steps. In a first (relaxation) step, the nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law is approximated by a kinetic equation with stiff BGK source term. Then, this kinetic equation is integrated in time using a projective integration method. After taking a few small (inner) steps with a simple, explicit method (such as direct forward Euler) to damp out the stiff components of the solution, the time derivative is estimated and used in an (outer) Runge-Kutta method of arbitrary order. We show that, with an appropriate choice of inner step size, the time step restriction on the outer time step is similar to the CFL condition for the hyperbolic conservation law. Moreover, the number of inner time steps is also independent of the stiffness of the BGK source term. We discuss stability and consistency, and illustrate with numerical results (linear advection, Burgers' equation and the shallow water and Euler equations) in one and two spatial dimensions.

  6. Effectiveness of conservative interventions including exercise, manual therapy and medical management in adults with shoulder impingement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuri, Ruedi; Sattelmayer, Martin; Elsig, Simone; Kolly, Chloé; Tal, Amir; Taeymans, Jan; Hilfiker, Roger

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions for pain, function and range of motion in adults with shoulder impingement. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase and PEDro were searched from inception to January 2017. Randomised controlled trials including participants with shoulder impingement and evaluating at least one conservative intervention against sham or other treatments. For pain, exercise was superior to non-exercise control interventions (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.94, 95% CI -1.69 to -0.19). Specific exercises were superior to generic exercises (SMD -0.65, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.32). Corticosteroid injections were superior to no treatment (SMD -0.65, 95% CI -1.04 to -0.26), and ultrasound guided injections were superior to non-guided injections (SMD -0.51, 95% CI -0.89 to -0.13). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) had a small to moderate SMD of -0.29 (95% CI -0.53 to -0.05) compared with placebo. Manual therapy was superior to placebo (SMD -0.35, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.01). When combined with exercise, manual therapy was superior to exercise alone, but only at the shortest follow-up (SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.01). Laser was superior to sham laser (SMD -0.88, 95% CI -1.48 to -0.27). Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) was superior to sham (-0.39, 95% CI -0.78 to -0.01) and tape was superior to sham (-0.64, 95% CI -1.16 to -0.12), with small to moderate SMDs. Although there was only very low quality evidence, exercise should be considered for patients with shoulder impingement symptoms and tape, ECSWT, laser or manual therapy might be added. NSAIDS and corticosteroids are superior to placebo, but it is unclear how these treatments compare to exercise. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Infrastructure improvement project for rationalization of international energy use. Survey project on best practices of energy conservation for buildings in south-east Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys were performed to provide the ASEAN countries with technical assistance so that smooth promotion will be implemented on the energy conservation awards system for commercial buildings in the countries. This system has been newly established by the ASEAN Center for Energy (ACE) to suppress the energy consumption in commercial buildings, for which 11 candidates were proposed from among six countries. The EGCO Tower in Bangkok, Thailand, and the Revenue House in Singapore were selected. Japan has provided the building energy inspection technologies used in Japan, and performed the surveys on these two buildings. The surveys were performed from December 12 through 14, 2000 on the EGCO Tower, and from January 29 through 31, 2001 on the Revenue House. The surveys included checks on application forms for the buildings, measurement and analysis of energy consumption by using different measuring devices, inspection of the actual energy conservation activities done in the buildings, reports on the survey results, proposals on energy conservation promoting means, and provision of appendix materials for energy conservation. (NEDO)

  8. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, K. L.; Regehr, E. V.; Akcakaya, H. R.; Amstrup, S. C.; Atwood, T.; Lunn, N.; Obbard, M.; Stern, H. L., III; Thiemann, G.; Wiig, O.

    2016-12-01

    Loss of Arctic sea ice due to climate change is the most serious threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) throughout their circumpolar range. We performed a data-based sensitivity analysis with respect to this threat by evaluating the potential response of the global polar bear population to projected sea-ice conditions. We conducted 1) an assessment of generation length for polar bears, 2) developed of a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat characteristics for the species; and 3) performed population projections over three generations, using computer simulation and statistical models representing alternative relationships between sea ice and polar bear abundance. Using three separate approaches, the median percent change in mean global population size for polar bears between 2015 and 2050 ranged from -4% (95% CI = -62%, 50%) to -43% (95% CI = -76%, -20%). Results highlight the potential for large reductions in the global population if sea-ice loss continues. They also highlight the large amount of uncertainty in statistical projections of polar bear abundance and the sensitivity of projections to plausible alternative assumptions. The median probability of a reduction in the mean global population size of polar bears greater than 30% over three generations was approximately 0.71 (range 0.20-0.95. The median probability of a reduction greater than 50% was approximately 0.07 (range 0-0.35), and the probability of a reduction greater than 80% was negligible.

  9. Travelling energy systems: knowledge transfer for energy efficiency and conservation from European to Australian building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Tema Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency and conservation in the Australian built environment have not yet been implemented to any great extent. Despite favourable prerequisites, such as vast windswept unpopulated areas suitable for wind power and many hours of direct sunlight in most populated areas, electricity is mainly generated by burning brown coal and buildings are poorly equipped for hot summers and cool winters. Australia urgently needs to convert to alternative energy sources and implement energy efficiency measures, since its carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. In a recent major redevelopment in Sydney, the Carlton and United Brewery (CUB) site knowledge of energy efficiency and conservation measures used in European buildings was transferred and implemented in local designs and infrastructure. This knowledge came mainly from urban planning and developments in London, but also from high-profile architectural firms based in Paris and Germany. The arrival of this knowledge in Australia led to phases when the knowledge was translated and enacted in local spaces and the constituent ideas were transformed into action. The present research is based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in which the planning and design of the CUB site was observed. The results of the study identify barriers to and opportunities for energy system knowledge transfer between different cultures and local spaces. Substantial time must be spent overcoming cultural barriers, so the involved parties can start talking the same language. This is not only true for stakeholders operating in different continents, but for stakeholders operating in different local arenas in the same country.

  10. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  11. Positive impacts in soil and water conservation in an Andean region of South America: Case scenarios from a USAID multidisciplinary cooperative project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USAID-SANREM-Virginia Polytechnic Institute project has made and continues to make an excellent impact, specifically showcasing the positive results of soil and water conservation (Barrera et al. 2010a; 2010b). This project has strong international cooperation between the USA, Ecuador and Bolivi...

  12. Give Water a Hand. Farm and Ranch Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation on a farm or ranch, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  13. FY 1999 report on basic survey project for joint implementations, etc. Feasibility study on energy conservation at Norsi Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project is to link in the future to COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) joint implementations, etc. Taken up in this survey are a topping unit, vacuum distillation unit, catalytic reforming unit, and a middle cut desulfurization unit. The purpose of the refurbishment is to conserve energy. It is estimated that 48000 TOE/year of energy will be saved and that there will be a 1.2-million tons-CO2/year reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. It is predicted that an amount equivalent to 1.3% of Russia's 1997 oil consumption will be saved across Russia and that there will be a greenhouse gas reduction equivalent to 8.8% of what Japan plans to reduce. The main problem to solve before execution of this project is in the raising of funds. Although Russia hopes that Japan will invest in the project, such at the present stage will be a high-risk venture now that the Russian economic situation and the details (CO2 emission trading, etc.) of its joint implementation framework are not yet definite. The reasonable way for Japan to follow will be to support Russia as a buyer using credits with Russia acting as the principle party. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1999 report on basic survey project for joint implementations, etc. Feasibility study on energy conservation at Norsi Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project is to link in the future to COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) joint implementations, etc. Taken up in this survey are a topping unit, vacuum distillation unit, catalytic reforming unit, and a middle cut desulfurization unit. The purpose of the refurbishment is to conserve energy. It is estimated that 48000 TOE/year of energy will be saved and that there will be a 1.2-million tons-CO2/year reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. It is predicted that an amount equivalent to 1.3% of Russia's 1997 oil consumption will be saved across Russia and that there will be a greenhouse gas reduction equivalent to 8.8% of what Japan plans to reduce. The main problem to solve before execution of this project is in the raising of funds. Although Russia hopes that Japan will invest in the project, such at the present stage will be a high-risk venture now that the Russian economic situation and the details (CO2 emission trading, etc.) of its joint implementation framework are not yet definite. The reasonable way for Japan to follow will be to support Russia as a buyer using credits with Russia acting as the principle party. (NEDO)

  15. Research on Non-Destructive Testing Technology in Conservation Repair Project of Ancestral Temple in Mukden Palace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Fu, M.

    2017-08-01

    Due to the use of wood and other non-permanent materials, traditional Chinese architecture is one of the most fragile constructions in various heritage objects today. With the increasing emphasis on the protection of cultural relics, the repair project of wooden structure has become more and more important. There are various kinds of destructions, which pose a hidden danger to the overall safety of the ancient buildings, caused not only by time and nature, but also by improper repairs in history or nowadays. Today, the use of digital technology is a basic requirement in the conservation of cultural heritage. Detection technology, especially non-destructive testing technology, could provide more accurate records in capturing detailed physical characteristics of structures such as geometric deformation and invisible damage, as well as prevent a man-made destruction in the process of repair project. This paper aims to interpret with a typical example, Ancestral Temple in Mukden Palace, along with a discussion of how to use the non-destructive testing technology with ground penetrating radar, stress wave, resistograph and so on, in addition to find an appropriate protection method in repair project of traditional Chinese wooden architecture.

  16. RESEARCH ON NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING TECHNOLOGY IN CONSERVATION REPAIR PROJECT OF ANCESTRAL TEMPLE IN MUKDEN PALACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the use of wood and other non-permanent materials, traditional Chinese architecture is one of the most fragile constructions in various heritage objects today. With the increasing emphasis on the protection of cultural relics, the repair project of wooden structure has become more and more important. There are various kinds of destructions, which pose a hidden danger to the overall safety of the ancient buildings, caused not only by time and nature, but also by improper repairs in history or nowadays. Today, the use of digital technology is a basic requirement in the conservation of cultural heritage. Detection technology, especially non-destructive testing technology, could provide more accurate records in capturing detailed physical characteristics of structures such as geometric deformation and invisible damage, as well as prevent a man-made destruction in the process of repair project. This paper aims to interpret with a typical example, Ancestral Temple in Mukden Palace, along with a discussion of how to use the non-destructive testing technology with ground penetrating radar, stress wave, resistograph and so on, in addition to find an appropriate protection method in repair project of traditional Chinese wooden architecture.

  17. Conservation Through Different Lenses: Reflection, Responsibility, and the Politics of Participation in Conservation Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrash Walton, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the arenas of advocacy, politics, and self-reflection in strengthening conservation and resource management initiatives. It frames key questions that reflective conservation practitioners may address in seeking to enhance the results of conservation projects, including equity and more inclusive participation by nonprivileged groups. The essay touches on the importance of understanding conservation work within particular political and historic dynamics, including the need to understand non-Western and/or indigenous or traditional perspectives on conservation. The author makes the case that Western or privileged conservation practitioners are uniquely situated to advocate effectively for change.

  18. Systematic Environmental Impact Assessment for Non-natural Reserve Areas: A Case Study of the Chaishitan Water Conservancy Project on Land Use and Plant Diversity in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA before and after the establishment of a Water Conservancy Project (WCP is of great theoretical and practical importance for assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration efforts. WCPs rehabilitate flood-damaged areas or other regions hit by disasters by controlling and redistributing surface water and groundwater. Using Geographic Information System (GIS and Composite Evaluation Index (CEI in predictive modeling, we studied the degree to which a WCP could change land use, plant communities, and species diversity in Yunnan, China. Via modeling, we quantified likely landscape pattern changes and linked them to naturality (i.e., the percentage of secondary vegetation types, diversity, and stability together with the human interferences (e.g., conservation or restoration project of an ecosystem. The value of each index was determined by the evaluation system, and the weight percentage was decided through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. We found that minor land-use changes would occur after the Chaishitan WCP was theoretically established. The greatest decline was farmland (0.079%, followed by forest (0.066%, with the least decline in water bodies (0.020%. We found 1,076 vascular plant species (including subspecies, varieties and form belonging to 165 families and 647 genera in Chaishitan irrigation area before the water conservancy establishment. The naturality and diversity decreased 11.18 and 10.16% respectively. The CEI was 0.92, which indicated that Chaishitan WCP will enhance local landscape heterogeneity, and it will not deteriorate local ecological quality. Our study proposes a comprehensive ecological evaluation system for this WCP and further suggests the importance of including the ecological and environmental consequences of the WCP, along with the well-established socioeconomic evaluation systems for non-natural reserve areas. We conclude that the Chaishitan WCP will have minor

  19. Energy conservation assessment of fixed-asset investment projects: An attempt to improve energy efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Fast economic growth in China has generated energy and environmental problems. Fixed-asset investments have contributed significantly to energy consumption. In China, an energy conservation assessment (ECA), a mechanism similar to the existing environmental impact assessment (EIA), has been applied to improve the energy efficiency of new fixed-asset investment projects. In this paper the origin and development of the ECA system is analyzed and the major features of ECA are discussed. To identify the success and failure of the ECA system, case studies are analyzed and comparison between ECA and EIA, which has been used in China for over 30 years, is made. Based on the analysis, recommendations are provided for the improvement of the ECA system in China. Despite the ECA system only being established for a relatively short time, it has clearly achieved significant success. With further efforts it could play an important role in achieving the goals of improving China’s energy efficiency and reducing green house gas emissions. - Highlights: ► We examine origin and development of energy conservation assessment (ECA) in China. ► ECA has great potential in energy efficiency improvement and GHGs reduction. ► Compared with EIA, ECA is still in its early stages. More efforts are needed. ► Improvements of legal system, assessment procedure, etc. are essential for next step.

  20. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)—designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation—differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  1. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-05

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. FROM THE CONTINUOS TO THE DISCRETE MODEL: A LASER SCANNING APPLICATION TO CONSERVATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cardaci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the usage of laser scanning (in particular through a methodology based on the integrated use of the software "FARO© Scene" and "GEXCEL JRC-3D Reconstructor" as a valid alternative to traditional surveying techniques, especially when finalized to the restoration and conservation repair of historical buildings. The need to recreate the complex and often irregular shapes of the ancient architecture, by acting quickly and also being accurate, as well as the subsequent implementation of FEM (Finite Element Method for structural analysis, have made nowadays the laser scanning survey a very useful technique. The point cloud obtained by laser scanning can be a flexible tool for every need; not a finished product, but a huge database from which it is possible to extract different information at different times. The use of numerical methods in data processing allows wide opportunities of further investigations starting from the fitting equations. The numerical model lends by itself to the possibility of usage in many applications, such as modelization and structure analysis software. This paper presents the case study of the Church of the Assumption and Saint Michael the Archangel, located in Borgo di Terzo (Italy, a magnificent 18th century's building that presented several structural problems like as the overturning of the façade, the cracking of part of the vaulted ceiling. The survey, carried out by laser scanner (FARO© Photon 120 allowed the reconstruction of the exact geometry of the church, offering the basis for performing structural analysis supported by a realistic model (and not an idealized regular one, useful also in the design of repair interventions.

  3. Increase in Total Joint Arthroplasty Projected from 2014 to 2046 in Australia: A Conservative Local Model With International Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, Maria C S; Graves, Stephen E; Pratt, Nicole L; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Nemes, Szilard

    2017-08-01

    100,000; 95% PI, 402-717 per 100,000) compared with 2013 (IR = 437 per 100,000; 95% CI, 397-479 per 100,000) and the volume to increase by 142%. A large increase in the volume of arthroplasties is expected using a conservative projection model that accounts for past surgical trends and future population changes in Australia. These findings have international implications, as they show that using country- specific, conservative projection approaches, a substantial increase in the number of these procedures is expected. This increase in joint arthroplasty volume will require appropriate workforce planning, resource allocation, and budget planning so that demand can be met. Level II, economic and decision analysis.

  4. Energy R and D programme: energy conservation research. Survey of results (1975-1979) and compilation of selected new projects (1979-1983)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegers, P [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Results obtained in the European Communities Energy Conservation Research and Development (R and D) Program are presented. Energy Conservation R and D was executed in the following subsectors: improved insulation of buildings; use of heat pumps; urban transport; residual heat recovery; materials recycling; production of energy from waste; industrial processes; and storage of secondary energy. Summaries are presented for information gained from the research projects. Then, separate abstracts for all final reports (96), contract numbers, and the authors are given. (MCW)

  5. A conservation strategy in San Andres Island: school projects and values in environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero M, German; Mahecha G, Ana Maria

    2006-01-01

    With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved

  6. Green Investment, Green Return: How Practical Conservation Projects Save Millions on America's Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, David J.; Keniry, Julian

    This report presents examples of exemplary academic institutions that have achieved both a healthy environment and the goal of saving economically. Twenty-three public and private institutions' cost-effective environmental management stories are presented. Institutional size ranges from a few thousand to 40,000 students. Contents include: (1)…

  7. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  8. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  9. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibing

    2018-01-01

    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km 2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  10. Feasibility study on an energy conservation project at Tabriz Refinery in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a feasibility study has been executed to discuss applicable measures on oil refining facilities in Tabriz Oil Refinery in Islamic Republic of Iran. The discussion objects are the ten devices related to atmospheric and reduced pressure distillation, visbreaker, naphtha hydrogenating desulfurization, naphtha contact reforming, reduced pressure hydro-cracking of light oil, hydrogen manufacturing, amine rinsing, asphalt manufacturing, and boilers. Major improvement items include: modification of the excessive air ratio control facility, installation of a superheating furnace waste gas recovering device, additional installation of heat exchangers in the raw material oil preheating system, and increased heat recovery by improving distribution of distillation column reflux. As a result of the feasibility study, the investment recovery performance was anticipated to be contained within about five years, with consideration on procurement of some of the devices in Iran. The approximate investment amount would be 2 billion yen, the annual fuel saving amount would be about 660 million yen, and the energy saving ratio would be 13.5%. The carbon dioxide emission quantity would be reduced annually by about 155.8 tons, as contrasted to the annual emission of 1,158,000 tons from the existing facilities. (NEDO)

  11. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  12. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  13. Wood products used in constructing conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States, 1962 and 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. H. Reid; D. B. McKeever

    Estimates of the amounts of wood products used in constructing civil conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States are presented for the years 1962 and 1978. Amounts of lumber, laminated lumber, poles and piling, and plywood used in construction are stratified by five construction categories, and three types of uses. Estimates of...

  14. Spatially conserved regulatory elements identified within human and mouse Cd247 gene using high-throughput sequencing data from the ENCODE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Hannibal, Tine Dahlbæk; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we have utilized the wealth of high-throughput sequencing data produced during the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project to identify spatially conserved regulatory elements within the Cd247 gene from human and mouse. We show the presence of two transcription factor binding sites...

  15. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization project: Quality Assurance Project Plan, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetzenbach, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to identify and characterize candidate conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for experiments to be conducted at the Yucca Mountain C-well complex. During this quarter the main effort was directed towards rewriting the quality assurance program in preparation for a review and audit by the USGS. However, due to budget constraints the review and audit were not carried out. The tracer QA plan and standard operating procedures (SOPs) were revised and copies are included in the report. Instrumental problems were encountered and corrected with the addition of new integration and sample control software. In the sampling, there was an unexplained peak in the chromatograms of the tracers being tested in the light tuff. This was not correctable and these experiments will be repeated in the next quarter

  16. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Swiss agriculture is legally committed to fulfill several, partially conflicting goals such as agricultural production on the one hand and the conservation of natural resources on the other hand. In the context of the research project AProWa ("Agricultural Production and Water"), the relationships between the production aspect and the conservation of aquatic ecosystems is analyzed with a holistic approach. Agricultural production and the protection of water resources have high potential for conflicts: Farmers use ground and surface water to irrigate their fields. On the other hand, drainage systems enable the production on otherwise unfavorably wet soils. These in turn often affect ground water recharge and divert precipitation directly into surface waters, which changes their hydrological regime. Typically, drainage systems also elevate the input of nutrients and pesticides into the water bodies. In general, applied fertilizers, plant protection products, veterinary drugs and phytohormones of cultivated plants are introduced into the ground and surface waters through different processes such as drift, leaching, runoff, preferential flow or erosion. They influence the nutrient cycles and ecological health of aquatic systems. The nutrient and pesticide loss processes themselves can be altered by tillage operations and other agricultural practices. Furthermore, the competition for space can lead to additional conflicts between agriculture and the protection of aquatic ecosystems. For example, channelized or otherwise morphologically changed rivers do not have a natural discharge pattern and are often not suitable for the local flora and fauna; but naturally meandering rivers need space that cannot be used for agriculture. In a highly industrialized and densely populated country like Switzerland, all these potential conflicts are of importance. Although it is typically seen as a water-rich country, local and seasonal overexploitation of rivers through water extraction

  17. Using Copulas in the Estimation of the Economic Project Value in the Mining Industry, Including Geological Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysa, Zbigniew; Pactwa, Katarzyna; Wozniak, Justyna; Dudek, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Geological variability is one of the main factors that has an influence on the viability of mining investment projects and on the technical risk of geology projects. In the current scenario, analyses of economic viability of new extraction fields have been performed for the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. underground copper mine at Fore Sudetic Monocline with the assumption of constant averaged content of useful elements. Research presented in this article is aimed at verifying the value of production from copper and silver ore for the same economic background with the use of variable cash flows resulting from the local variability of useful elements. Furthermore, the ore economic model is investigated for a significant difference in model value estimated with the use of linear correlation between useful elements content and the height of mine face, and the approach in which model parameters correlation is based upon the copula best matched information capacity criterion. The use of copula allows the simulation to take into account the multi variable dependencies at the same time, thereby giving a better reflection of the dependency structure, which linear correlation does not take into account. Calculation results of the economic model used for deposit value estimation indicate that the correlation between copper and silver estimated with the use of copula generates higher variation of possible project value, as compared to modelling correlation based upon linear correlation. Average deposit value remains unchanged.

  18. Crowdfunding biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Cajiao, E; Archibald, C; Friedman, R; Steven, R; Fuller, R A; Game, E T; Morrison, T H; Ritchie, E G

    2018-05-26

    Raising funds is critical for conserving biodiversity and hence so too is scrutinizing emerging financial mechanisms that might help achieve this goal. In this context, anecdotal evidence indicates crowdfunding is being used to support a variety of activities needed for biodiversity conservation, yet its magnitude and allocation remain largely unknown. We conducted a global analysis to help address this knowledge gap, based on empirical data from conservation-focused projects extracted from crowdfunding platforms. For each project, we determined the funds raised, date, country of implementation, proponent characteristics, activity type, biodiversity realm, and target taxa. We identified 72 relevant platforms and 577 conservation-focused projects that have raised US$4 790 634 since 2009. Whilst proponents were based in 38 countries, projects were delivered across 80 countries, indicating a potential mechanism of resource mobilization. Proponents were from non-governmental organizations (35%), universities (30%), or were freelancers (26%). Most projects were for research (40%), persuasion (31%), and on-ground actions (21%). Projects have focused primarily on species (57.7%) and terrestrial ecosystems (20.3%), and less on marine (8.8%) and freshwater ecosystems (3.6%). Projects have focused on 208 species, including a disproportionate number of threatened bird and mammal species. Crowdfunding for biodiversity conservation has now become a global phenomenon and presents signals for potential expansion, despite possible pitfalls. Opportunities arise from its spatial amplifying effect, steady increase over time, inclusion of Cinderella species, adoption by multiple actors, and funding of a range of activities beyond research. Our study paves the way for further research on key questions, such as campaign success rates, effectiveness, and drivers of adoption. Even though the capital input of crowdfunding so far has been modest compared to other conservation finance

  19. [Effect of water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects combined with molluscicide to control Oncomelania hupensis snails in rivers connecting with Yangtze River in Pukou District, Nanjing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhou; Li-Xin, Wan; De-Rong, Hang; Qi-Hui, You; Jun, You; Yu-Lin, Zhang; Zhao-Feng, Zhu; Yi-Xin, Huang

    2017-12-07

    To evaluate the effect of the water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects combined with molluscicide to control Oncomelania hupensis snails in the rivers connecting with the Yangtze River. The water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects of Zhujiashan River, Qili River and Gaowang River were chosen as the study objects in Pukou District, Nanjing City. The data review method and field investigation were used to evaluate the effect of the water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects combined with molluscicide to control O. hupensis snails. After the projects of the water level control and concrete slope protection and mollusciciding were implemented, the snails in the project river sections were completely eliminated. The snail diffusion did not happen in the inland irrigation area too. In the outside of the river beach, though the snails still existed, the snail densities plunged below 1.0 snail per 1.0 m 2 . The comprehensive measures of the combination of water level control, concrete slope protection and mollusciciding can effectively control and eliminate the snails, and prevent the snails from spreading.

  20. PPP mode’s applications motivation in the field of water conservancy project - based on the “money service” theory of Milton Friedman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zurong; Feng, Jingchun; Wang, Yuting; Xue, Song

    2017-06-01

    We study on PPP mode’s applications motivation in the field of water conservancy project, on the basis of analyzing Friedman’s “money service” theory, for the disadvantages of traditional investment mode in water conservancy project field. By analyzing the way of government and social capital spending money in PPP projects, we get conclusion that both of which are the way of “spending their own money to do their own thing”, which fully reflects that the two sides are a win-win partnership in PPP mode. From the application motivation, PPP mode can not only compensate for the lack of local funds, improve the investment efficiency of the government, but also promote marketization and the supply-side structural reforms.

  1. Temperatures and locations used by hibernating bats, including Myotis sodalis (Indiana bat), in a limestone mine: implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Virgil

    2007-11-01

    Understanding temperatures used by hibernating bats will aid conservation and management efforts for many species. A limestone mine with 71 km of passages, used as a hibernaculum by approximately 30,000 bats, was visited four times during a 6-year period. The mine had been surveyed and mapped; therefore, bats could be precisely located and temperatures (T (s)) of the entire hibernaculum ceiling accurately mapped. It was predicted that bats should hibernate between 5 and 10 degrees C to (1) use temperatures that allow a near minimal metabolic rate, (2) maximize the duration of hibernation bouts, (3) avoid more frequent and prolonged arousal at higher temperatures, (4) avoid cold and freezing temperatures that require an increase in metabolism and a decrease in duration of hibernation bouts or that could cause death, and (5) balance benefits of a reduced metabolic rate and costs of metabolic depression. The distribution of each species was not random for location (P block walls and sheltered alcoves, which perhaps dampened air movement and temperature fluctuations. Myotis lucifugus (little brown myotis) hibernated in colder, more variable areas (X = 7.2 +/- 2.6 degrees C). Myotis septentrionalis (northern myotis), Pipistrellus subflavus (eastern pipistrelle), and Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat) typically hibernated in warm, thermally stable areas (X = 9.1 +/- 0.2 degrees C, X = 9.6 +/- 1.9 degrees C, and X = 9.5 +/- 1.5 degrees C, respectively). These data do not indicate that hibernacula for M. sodalis, an endangered species, should be manipulated to cool below 5 degrees C.

  2. Participatory vulnerability assessment in the context of conservation and development projects: A case study of local communities in Southwest Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    People living in landscapes of high conservation value are trapped between their dependence on natural resources to meet their development aspirations and the international pressure to conserve those resources. Although it is increasingly recognized that the conservation of some natural resources...... cannot happen without providing alternative livelihood solutions for local communities dependent on them, global experiences illustrate that the successful integration of conservation and development continues to be elusive. We adapted the approach based on “participatory vulnerability assessments......” developed for climate change research and applied it to changes occurring in a conservation and development context. As a case study, we focused on a biodiversity hotspot in Southwest Cameroon that was recently designated a national park. We have shown that local communities believe their livelihood options...

  3. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 8-10: Conservation of Energy; Impulse and Momentum; and Rotational Motion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  4. Research cooperation project on conservation and sustainable use of tropical bioresources; Seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyonado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research cooperation has been conducted on the conservation of biological species inhabiting in the tropical rainforest in developing countries in tropic zone and the sustainable use of genetic resources using biotechnologies. For the research cooperation with Thailand in FY 1996, research of the food acquisition strategy of the Primates has been conducted. A total of 19 species of animals and plants, i.e., 7 species of arbors, 7 species of herbs, and 5 species of insects, were newly confirmed for pig-tailed monkey. In Indonesia, a feasibility study was conducted on the information center of Indonesian tropical bioresources. For the research of culture collection of bacteria, 113 strains of acetic acid bacteria and 85 strains of lactic acid bacteria were separated from Indonesian specimens, and they were identified. An agreement was concluded with Malaysia, and discussions were conducted for the concrete implementation plan. For the project, construction of a database was investigated for bioresources including bacteria and higher animals useful for industries. Maintenance of gene bank was also investigated. 391 refs., 61 figs., 93 tabs.

  5. Disposal project for LLW and VLLW generated from research facilities in Japan: A feasibility study for the near surface disposal of VLLW that includes uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Hasegawa, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakatani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion and future work: • JAEA plans trench disposal of U-bearing waste with less than 100 Bq/g. • Two safety measures of trench disposal of U-bearing waste have been discussed taking into account increasing radioactivity over a long period of time. 1. First is to carry out dose assessment of site use scenario by using a conservatively stylized condition. 2. Second is to control the average concentration of U in the trench facilities based on the concept of the existing exposure situation. • We are continuously developing the method for safety measures of near surface disposal of VLLW including U-bearing waste.

  6. Conservation, livelihoods and tourism: A case study of the Buhoma-Mukono Community-based Tourism Project in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahebwa, W.M.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, communities neighboring protected areas continue to bear a disproportionate amount of the costs associated with conservation. Traditional community livelihood strategies such as hunting, logging, and plant harvesting are seen as major threats to protected areas. Therefore,

  7. Effects of energy conservation programs: report to IEA (International Energy Agency) Annex 7, Local Government Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Benton, L.; Engebeck, L.; Erikson, B.E.; Fredriksson, G.

    1984-01-01

    This Bulletin is an anthology of 13 essays by different authors covering various aspects of government programs for energy conservation. In six essays effects of energy codes, subsidies to conservation measures in buildings and advisory services are discussed. Results from several empirical studies are presented. Five essays deal with side-effects (or secondary effects) of energy conservation. Moisture and increased radiation from radon are two types of negative effects that are covered. Also positive effects such as promotion of innovations or increased employment are discussed. Policy instruments are normally implemented by the local authorities. This is illustrated by a description of energy planning for a new suburb in one municipality. Some tentative conclusions are presented in the final essay.

  8. A Framework for Effective Assessment of Model-based Projections of Biodiversity to Inform the Next Generation of Global Conservation Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, B.; Beard, T. D.; Weiskopf, S. R.; Jackson, S. T.; Tittensor, D.; Harfoot, M.; Senay, G. B.; Casey, K.; Lenton, T. M.; Leidner, A. K.; Ruane, A. C.; Ferrier, S.; Serbin, S.; Matsuda, H.; Shiklomanov, A. N.; Rosa, I.

    2017-12-01

    Biodiversity and ecosystems services underpin political targets for the conservation of biodiversity; however, previous incarnations of these biodiversity-related targets have not relied on integrated model based projections of possible outcomes based on climate and land use change. Although a few global biodiversity models are available, most biodiversity models lie along a continuum of geography and components of biodiversity. Model-based projections of the future of global biodiversity are critical to support policymakers in the development of informed global conservation targets, but the scientific community lacks a clear strategy for integrating diverse data streams in developing, and evaluating the performance of, such biodiversity models. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a framework for ongoing testing and refinement of model-based projections of biodiversity trends and change, by linking a broad variety of biodiversity models with data streams generated by advances in remote sensing, coupled with new and emerging in-situ observation technologies to inform development of essential biodiversity variables, future global biodiversity targets, and indicators. Our two main objectives are to (1) develop a framework for model testing and refining projections of a broad range of biodiversity models, focusing on global models, through the integration of diverse data streams and (2) identify the realistic outputs that can be developed and determine coupled approaches using remote sensing and new and emerging in-situ observations (e.g., metagenomics) to better inform the next generation of global biodiversity targets.

  9. Conservation Education and Environmental Communication in Great Ape Re-Introduction Projects: Two Cases from the Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Barbara J.; Wall, John E.; Kaya, J. A. Placide

    2012-01-01

    Among species recovery tools available, re-introduction of animals to the wild is one of the more complex. Since the mid-1990s two successful great ape re-introductions have taken place in the Republic of Congo, leading some conservationists to revisit re-introduction as a strategy. This research explored the role of conservation education and…

  10. Intra-Cultural Variation in Cognitive Development - Conservation of Length Among the Imbonggu. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancy, David; And Others

    Reported are the results of an experiment in which twelve different conservation of length tasks, indicative of passage from Piaget's pre-operational to concrete operations stages of cognitive development, were administered to a sample of individuals from Imbonggu-speaking people, a remote and traditional society in Papua New Guinea. Individuals…

  11. The environmental handling in the Japan: Project of conservation of lands; El manejo ambiental en el Japon: Proyecto de conservacion de tierras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tascon Carvajal, R

    1993-12-01

    The politics and the techniques are described continued by the Japan to conserve the fertility of the soils, avoiding their erosion, by means of projects of conservation of lands. The basic steps are indicated to continue and the alternatives to use to diminish the erosion of the soil caused by the water. The plan begins with the identification of the area to protect of the erosion, then it proceeds to its characterization by means of the investigation of the natural and socioeconomic elements that they affect the erosive processes, that which is achieved through a recognition of the area; later on the erosion degree is determined for areas using the universal equation of the erosion and its proceeds to analyze the measures to control it of agreement with the available technological packages; the selected package is analyzed in all its components and a socioeconomic evaluation is made before of the same. Once outlined in all their details it is carried out their execution.

  12. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  13. A protein diet score, including plant and animal protein, investigating the association with HbA1c and eGFR - the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith; Sluik, Diewertje; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns.......02 ± 0.01 mmol/mol, p eGFR in Lifelines (slope 0.17 ± 0.02 mL/min/1.73 m², p

  14. Atomic parity non-conservation: the francium anapole project of the FrPNC collaboration at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, S. [College of William and Mary, Dept. Physics (United States); Behr, J. A. [TRIUMF (Canada); Collister, R. [University of Manitoba, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Flambaum, V. V. [University of New South Wales, School of Physics (Australia); Gomez, E. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Fisica (Mexico); Gwinner, G. [University of Manitoba, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Jackson, K. P. [TRIUMF (Canada); Melconian, D. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute (United States); Orozco, L. A., E-mail: lorozco@umd.edu [University of Maryland, JQI, Dept. of Physics, and NIST (United States); Pearson, M. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Sheng, D. [Princeton University (United States); Sprouse, G. D. [Stony Brook University, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Tandecki, M. [TRIUMF (Canada); Zhang, J. [University of Maryland, JQI, Dept. of Physics, and NIST (United States); Zhao, Y. [Shanxi University, State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices (China)

    2013-03-15

    We present a method for measuring the nuclear anapole in a string of francium isotopes. The anapole is a parity non-conserving electromagnetic moment that enables parity-forbidden transitions between ground state hyperfine levels of an atom. The experiment is run by the FrPNC collaboration and relies on a beam of artificially-produced francium from the ISAC facility at TRIUMF.

  15. Basic survey project for joint implementation, etc. Basic feasibility study on energy conservation at Karaganda Steelworks, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation with introducing energy saving facilities in the coke process and steel making process at Karaganda Steelworks consuming a great amount of energy in the Republic of Kazakhstan, surveys and discussions were given by Nippon Steel Corporation. While this steel mill is the only one steel making factory in the Republic of Kazakhstan, even the small-size facilities related to energy conservation and environment protection are not being used because of fund shortage. As a result of the surveys, it was revealed that this steel mill consumes much greater amount of energy per ton of crude steel than in steelworks in Japan, leaving much room for energy conservation. It was also found that achieving the conservation of energies and the reduction of global warming gas emission can be made by introducing the coke dry quenching (CDQ) facilities, coal water content adjusting equipment, and automatic combustion controls into the coke process, introducing the top-pressure recovery turbine (TRT) into the energy process, and introducing the oxygen reduced gas recovery system into the steel making process. However, it was indicated that the investment return is not very attractive because the energy price in the Republic of Kazakhstan is much cheaper than in Japan. (NEDO)

  16. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  17. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  18. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program's 2016 Projects that Work Towards Stratefic Goals to Reduce Fishing Impacts on Coral

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to work towards CRCP's strategic goals to reduce fishing impacts on coral reefs Building GIS Long-term Capacity:...

  19. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects to assess coral resilence and the resilence of communities to climate change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to assess coral resilence and the resilence of communities to climate change: Climate and resilience-based...

  20. Conservation of rare species of marine flora and fauna of the Russian Arctic National Park, included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and in the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Gavrilo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Arctic National Park is a marine Protected Area playing a significant role in conservation of rare and protected endemic species of the Arctic fauna and flora, included in the IUCN Red List and/or in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The Russian Arctic National Park is considered to be: (1 the major ground for the reproduction of the Atlantic walrus stock inhabiting the north-eastern Kara-Barents Sea Region; (2 the key area maintaining the globally threatened Svalbard population of the bowhead whale; (3 the principal denning grounds of the Barents Sea sub-population of the polar bear in Russia; (4 important summer feeding grounds of the beluga whale; (5 the key breeding ground of the ivory gull in the European Arctic; (6 the only proved breeding grounds of the light-bellied brent goose in Russia. The major efforts in studying rare species in the Russian Arctic National Park are aimed at the monitoring and research on the ivory gull, Atlantic walrus and the polar bear. These studies are performed both by the scientists and staff of the National Park and by specialists working in other scientific institutes. The data on the other species are obtained occasionally. Here, we state the major threat for the rare marine species and define the activities of high priority for further conservation, monitoring and research.

  1. Basic survey for Joint Implementation on West Pacific Petrochemical Co., Ltd., Dalian, China. Energy conservation project for West Pacific Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a potential survey was conducted of energy conservation at West Pacific Oil Refinery, Dalian, China. In the survey, studies were made of energy conservation by introducing the hydrogen recovery equipment and the gas turbine generation system using exhaust gas as fuel, and of potentiality of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions. As a result of the survey, a gas turbine generator of about 29MW using the surplus gas as fuel can be installed. By this, approximately 71% of the power used in refinery is to be supplied as against 25% of the power presently used. The technology was proposed on the hydrogen recovery equipment and the gas turbine generation system to discuss the revision plan with the Chinese partner. When this project is realized, the reduction amount of CO2 will be 136,000 ton/y. The Chinese side highly estimated not only the remarkable reduction in CO2, but the reduction in purchased power from outside which is to be brought by realization of this project. (NEDO)

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 10: Summary report to phase 3 academic library respondents including frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 3 of a 4 part study was undertaken to study the use of scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic aerospace community. Phase 3 of this project used three questionnaires that were sent to three groups (i.e., faculty, librarians, and students) in the academic aerospace community. Specific attention was paid to the types of STI used and the methods in which academic users acquire STI. The responses of the academic libraries are focussed on herein. Demographic information on academic aerospace libraries is provided. Data regarding NASA interaction with academic aerospace libraries is also included, as is the survey instrument.

  3. The potential of transnational language policy to promote social inclusion of immigrants: An analysis and evaluation of the European Union's INCLUDE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Cui

    2017-08-01

    Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the European level. Challenged by questions as to whether language learning should be prioritised as a human right or as human capital building, how host/mainstream language learning can be reinforced while respecting language diversity, and other problems, member countries still need to find solutions. Confronting these dilemmas, this study analyses the relationship and interactions between language learning and immigrants' social inclusion in different contexts. It explores the potential of enhancing the effectiveness of language policies via a dialogue between policies and practices in different national contexts and research studies in the field of language and social inclusion. The research data are derived from two databases created by a European policy for active social inclusion project called INCLUDE. This project ran from 2013 to 2016 under the EU's lifelong learning programme, with funding support from the European Commission. Through an analysis of these two project databases, the paper reviews recent national language policies and their effect on the social inclusion of migrants. In the second part of her article, the author interprets the process of language learning and social inclusion using poststructuralist theories of language and identity.

  4. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three 'all-comer' studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings. NCT02156401. Published by the

  5. A Preliminary Review of U.S. Forest Service Business Practices To Authorize Special Uses, Including Energy Infrastructure Projects, on National Forest System Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wescott, K. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); May, J. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, H. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunner, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Special Uses-Lands Program is in jeopardy. Although this program, authorized in Title 36, Part 251, of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (36 CFR Part 251), ranks among the top four revenue-generating programs for use of National Forest System (NFS) lands, along with the Timber, Minerals, and Special Uses-Recreation Programs, the Special Uses-Lands Program is in a state of neglect. Repeated cuts in funding (a decrease of 26% from fiscal years 2010 to 2014) are adversely affecting staffing and training, which in turn is affecting timely permit processing and ultimately the public’s ability to use and benefit from NFS lands. In addition, highly experienced staff with valuable institutional knowledge of the program have begun to retire. The ability of the program to function under these dire circumstances can be attributed to the dedication of Special Uses staff to the program and their commitment to the public. The initial focus of this report was to identify opportunities for improving performance of permitting and review for large energy infrastructure-related projects. However, it became clear during this analysis that these projects are generally adequately staffed and managed. This is due in large part to the availability of cost-recovery dollars and the high-profile nature of these projects. However, it also became apparent that larger issues affecting the bulk of the work of the Special Uses-Lands Program need to be addressed immediately. This report is a preliminary examination of the state of the Special Uses-Lands Program and focuses on a few key items requiring immediate attention. Further investigation through case studies is recommended to dig deeper into the Special Uses-Lands Program business process to determine the most costeffective strategies for streamlining the overall process and the metrics by which performance can be evaluated, including for the permitting and tracking of energy infrastructure projects.

  6. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  7. Developing European conservation and mitigation tools for pollination services: approaches of the STEP (Status and Trends of European Pollinators) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, S.G.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Bommarco, R.; Felicioli, A.; Fischer, M.; Jokinen, P.; Kleijn, D.; Klein, A.M.; Kunin, W.E.; Neumann, P.; Penev, L.D.; Petanidou, T.; Rasmont, P.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Smith, H.G.; Sorensen, P.B.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Vaissiere, B.E.; Vila, M.; Vujic, A.; Woyciechowski, M.; Zobel, M.; Settele, J.; Schweiger, O.

    2011-01-01

    Pollinating insects form a key component of European biodiversity, and provide a vital ecosystem service to crops and wild plants. There is growing evidence of declines in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and parallel declines in plants relying upon them. The STEP project (Status and Trends

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality

  9. Developing European conservation and mitigation tools for pollination services: approaches of the STEP (Status and Trends of European Pollinators) project

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, Simon G.; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Bommarco, Riccardo; Felicioli, Antonio; Fischer, Markus; Jokinen, Pekka; Kleijn, David; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kunin, William E.; Neumann, Peter; Penev, Lyubomir D.; Petanidou, Theodora; Rasmont, Pierre; Roberts, Stuart P. M.; Smith, Henrik G.

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Los insectos polinizadores forman un componente clave de la biodiversidad europea, y proporcionan servicios vitales a los ecosistemas de plantas cultivadas y silvestres. Existe una creciente evidencia del declive de polinizadores silvestres y domesticados, y del declive paralelo de las plantas que dependen de ellos. El proyecto STEP (Estado y tendencias de los polinizadores europeos, 2010-2015, www.step-project.net) está documentando elementos críticos en la naturaleza y la extensión de ...

  10. Ontario emissions trading code : emission reduction credit creation, recording and transfer rules, rules for renewable energy projects and conservation projects, and rules for the operation of the Ontario Emissions Trading Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Emissions trading has been an integral part of Ontario's air quality strategy since December 31, 2001. Ontario has adopted the 'cap, credit and trade' type of emissions trading system, a hybrid that takes the best features of pure 'cap-and-trade' and 'baseline-and-credit' type systems. It covers nitric oxide and sulphur dioxide. The Ontario Emissions Trading Code supplements Ontario Regulation 397/01 and sets out rules for renewable energy projects and conservation projects for which applications for emission allowances can be made. This Code describes the rules for the creation and transfer of emission reduction credits (ERCs). It also explains the rules for the operation of the registry that has been established to provide information to the public about the emissions trading program and records decisions about credit creation and credit and allowance retirement. 3 tabs

  11. Modeling the impact of future development and public conservation orientation on landscape connectivity for conservation planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lechner, Alex Mark; Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark

    2015-01-01

    aspects of conservation planning. Objectives We present an approach for characterizing the potential effects of public conservation orientation and projected future development land use scenarios on landscape connectivity. Methods Using public participation GIS techniques (mail-based surveys linked...... to a mapping component), we classified spatially explicit conservation values and preferences into a conservation orientation index consisting of positive, negative, or neutral scores. Connectivity was then modeled using a least-cost path and graph-network approach for a range of conservation orientation...... and development scenarios in the Lower Hunter region, Australia. Scenarios were modelled through either adding vegetation (positive orientation) or removing vegetation (negative orientation, development). Results Scenarios that included positive conservation orientation link the isolated eastern and western...

  12. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiu; Yu, Jian; Li, Li; Li, Linlin; Li, Long; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Quan

    2018-01-01

    Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI). The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011–2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules. PMID:29677160

  13. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiu Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI. The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011–2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules.

  14. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiu; Yu, Jian; Li, Li; Li, Linlin; Li, Long; Zhou, Jie; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chen, Quan

    2018-04-20

    Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI). The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011⁻2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules.

  15. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  16. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the project on energy conservation by effectively using building energy in Indonesia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Indonesia ni okeru biru energy yuko riyo ni yoru sho energy ka project chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As an energy conservation method for a model building, the following eight methods were selected and trially calculated of the effects. 1) adoption of high efficient illumination apparatus, 2) introduction of an illuminance control system, 3) cooling water secondary pump with invertor, 4) ventilation control for parking lots, 5) heightening of the established temperature, 6) improvement of the 24-hour run chiller, 7) elevator with invertor, and 8) introduction of the photovoltaic power generation. As a result, it was found out that energy was totally reduced by about 3,837.4 MWh/yr or 25.6%. If viewed from the amount of reduction in greenhouse gas, the amount of CO2 emitted from office buildings, approximately 0.22 million t-C/yr, decreases to approximately 0.16 million t-C/yr. Further, approximately 0.93 million t-C/yr, the amount of CO2 emitted from commercial use facilities such as office buildings, department stores and hotels is reduced to about 0.69 million t-C/yr, thanks to the effect of the project on energy saving buildings, which made a CO2 reduction by approximately 0.24 million t-C/yr possible. Validity of the project on energy conservation in Indonesia was confirmed. 2 refs., 55 figs., 38 tabs.

  17. FY 2000 survey report on the project on energy conservation/environmental preservation for oil corporations in Croatia by rehabilitation of oil refinery; 2000 nendo Croatia sekiyu kosha muke seiyusho no rihabiri ni yoru shene kankyo hozen project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of strengthening the international competitive force in the oil industry of Croatia and reducing greenhouse effect gas by introducing energy conservation technology, study was made of the rehabilitation of oil refineries (Rijeka and Sisak) of Croatia's oil corporation, INDUSTRIJA NAFTE d.d. (INA). Rijeka and Sisak Refineries have the oil processing capacity of 6 million t/y and 4.6 million t/y, respectively, but they were constructed during the 1960s-1970s and are now superannuated. In this project, the following are adopted: heightening of the temperature of raw material supply, surging avoidance control, reutilization of condensate water of vacuum distillation, heightening of MEA concentration, control of excess air ratio in heating furnace, preheating of combustion air in heating furnace, application of small-diameter pump impeller, the optimum control of steam/electric system, heightening of temperature of cleaning water of desalting device, stop of adoption of flare seal gas, etc. The energy conservation effect to be expected from the project is 43,065 toe/y in a total of the two refineries, and the reduction in greenhouse effect gas is 133,000 t-CO2/y. Further, the internal return rate is 53.12%, which is very attractive for INA. (NEDO)

  18. Report on basic survey project for promoting joint implementation in 1999. Feasibility study on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emission at Balikpapan Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective of implementation as the clean development mechanism (CDM), a survey was performed on energy conservation and CO2 reduction at Balikpapan Refinery in Indonesia with respect to reducing emission of greenhouse effect gases. A crude oil atmospheric distillation unit with a capacity of 200,000 BPSD, and a vacuum distillation unit with a capacity of 81,000 BPSD are in operation, which emit carbon dioxide of about 470,000 tons annually from fuels burned and consumed by these units. The result of the survey revealed that there is a room for improvement in heat recovery, and that these units are separated into two groups located far away with each other in distance, resulting in low thermal efficiency and wastes in fuel. Increase in heat recovery should be achieved, and fuel consumption in the heating furnace should be reduced. Energy saving technologies owned by JGC were applied to establish a modification plan. The plan calls for maximum annual reduction of carbon dioxide of about 61,000 tons at a reduction rate of 13%, and maximum annual fuel conservation of 190 times 10{sup 9} kcal at a saving rate of 13%. PERTAMINA also desires the realization thereof if technical and financial assistance is made available. The project has a significance that it would give a great impetus to the entire regions and industries. (NEDO)

  19. 36 CFR 64.5 - Eligible projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible projects. 64.5... Eligible projects. (a) Abandoned railroad projects will be for recreation and/or conservation purposes including the acquisition of the rights-of-way involved and will be sponsored by a project applicant who has...

  20. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  1. NEDO Forum 2001. Session on New Energy/Energy Conservation Popularization Project (Let's walk and save energy - Let new energy run on its course); NEDO Forum 2001. Shinene shoene donyu fukyu jigyo session (aruko shoene hashiro shinene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-20

    The presentations made at the above-named session of the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) forum held in Tokyo on September 20, 2001, are collected in this report. Professor Kashiwagi of Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology in his keynote address, entitled 'How the popularization of new energy and energy conservation should be in the future,' discussed energy conservation measures, new energy measures, fuel conversion, natural gas, and atomic energy, and disclosed his long-term outlook of energy supply and demand. NEDO in its achievement report mentioned a simulation on the smooth interconnection of distributed power sources such as wind power sites to a commercial power system. It reported also that, under its 3-year high performance industrial furnace field test project started in 1998, 167 furnaces, including heating furnaces, ladles, heat treatment furnaces, melting furnaces, and gas treatment furnaces were converted into high performance industrial furnaces capable of high temperature preheated air combustion near 1000 degrees C and that the conversion brought about a great reduction in energy consumption and in carbon dioxide gas and nitrogen gas emissions. (NEDO)

  2. Symmetry mappings concomitant to particle-number-conservation-baryon-number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Four theorem serve to demonstrate that matter fields in space-time admit certain timelike symmetry mappings concomitant to the familiar notion of particle number conservation, which can be more fundamentally accounted for by a type of projective invariance principle. These particular symmetry mappings include a family of symmetry properties that may be admitted by Riemannian space-times. In their strongest form, the results obtained provide some insight relating to the conservation of baryon number

  3. The Livelihoods of Nara Palace Local Residents: Site Conservation Issues and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Dongdong; 王, 冬冬

    2017-01-01

    Nara Palace is an important location in the history of Japanese archaeological site conservation because conservation work here started early, the project is large scale, and a number of participants are involved. The history of conservation at this site went passed through a number of complex stages over more than a century, including initial discovery, calls for protection, damage, initiation of a conservation movement, designation as a historic site, acquisition of land by the Japanese gov...

  4. 77 FR 14734 - Incidental Take Permit and Habitat Conservation Plan for PacifiCorp Klamath Hydroelectric Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... at: 1655 Heindon Road, Arcata, CA 95521 (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). The Final EA, HCP, and... term ``take'' as: ``harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to... actually kills or injures fish or wildlife, and such acts may include ``significant habitat modification or...

  5. A Protein Diet Score, Including Plant and Animal Protein, Investigating the Association with HbA1c and eGFR—The PREVIEW Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilä, Vera; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Dragsted, Lars O.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Silvestre, Marta P.; Feskens, Edith J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the association of the score with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns Study. Cross-sectional data from food-frequency questionnaires (n = 76,777 subjects) were used to develop a protein score consisting of two components: 1) percentage of energy from total protein, and 2) plant to animal protein ratio. An inverse association between protein score and HbA1c (slope −0.02 ± 0.01 mmol/mol, p < 0.001) was seen in Lifelines. We found a positive association between the protein score and eGFR in Lifelines (slope 0.17 ± 0.02 mL/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.0001). Protein scoring might be a useful tool to assess both the effect of quantity and source of protein on health parameters. Further studies are needed to validate this newly developed protein score. PMID:28714926

  6. Fiscal 2000 survey report on rationalization project for international energy conservation, technological dissemination project for international energy conservation, and Green Helmet Project. Japan-China alternative energy seminar/waste disposal; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo, kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado gijutsu fukyu jigyo, green helmet jigyo chosa hokokusho. Nicchu sekiyu daitai energy seminar haikibutsu shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper explains the Japan-China alternative energy seminar (February 28 and March 1, 2001, at Beijing). The purpose of the seminar is to introduce systematic and three-dimensional or land/sea/air measures for waste disposal including recycling in Japan, to provide guidance of measures in improving recognition and methods for waste disposal in China, and also to contribute to the dissemination and promotion of a model project for effectively utilizing waste heat from rubbish incineration, a project being implemented in Harbin City now. The activities of NEDO were introduced, with emphasis placed on a model program, called Green Aid Project, for managing heat from waste incineration. On the subjects of sustainable development, urban environment, and energy, the policy of China's tenth five-year plan was demonstrated, and the treatment of wastes in China was also explained. The present state of waste processing in Japan was introduced, as was its maintenance of the facilities. Concerning Japan's waste processing technologies and characteristics of the equipment, there were presented non-incineration processing including crushing/separating, RDF, compost, methane fermentation, etc.; incineration plants; and each of the technologies such as combustion, exhaust gas, ash treatment, use of remaining heat, and gasification melting. (NEDO)

  7. Project CHOICE: #26. A Career Education Unit for Junior High School. Careers in Conservation of the Environment and Natural Resources. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Cluster; Science and Engineering Occupations Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This junior high teaching unit on careers in conservation of the environment and natural resources is one in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking classroom experiences with the world of work. The unit…

  8. The New York State Program for the Conservation and Preservation of Library Research Materials. Selected Press Clippings about Projects Funded by the Discretionary Grant Program, 1988/89 and 1989/90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Library, Albany. Div. of Library Development.

    This document is composed of clippings from news publications and press releases about projects funded by the New York State Discretionary Grant Program for Conservation and Preservation of Library Research Materials, which annually awards $500,000 to libraries, archives, historical societies, and similar agencies in New York State through…

  9. A mammalian conserved element derived from SINE displays enhancer properties recapitulating Satb2 expression in early-born callosal projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Tashiro

    Full Text Available Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered "junk DNA". However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2(+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2(+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1(-/NPY(+ portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum

  10. Ethylene controlled ventilation. Energy conservation in the project 'Klep Dicht' (Close the Valve) and results of supplementary research; Ethyleengestuurde ventilatie. Energiebesparing in het project 'Klep Dicht' en resultaten van aanvullend onderzoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands); Langner-Noort, L. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2007-11-15

    The project ‘Close the Valve’ has been initiated with the aim of demonstrating the energy conservation options through ethylene-controlled ventilation of tulip flower bulb. During previous meetings on the ethylene analyzer, there were some urgent questions about practical use: What happens with the ethylene content during an Actellic treatment?; What is the influence of the ethylene content in outdoor air?; How is the ethylene distribution in the storage room?; The supplementary research involved the effect of ethylene in outdoor air, the distribution of ethylene in the cold store, and the behavior of ethylene during the period of the Actellic treatment (Actellic is an insecticide) [Dutch] Het project 'Klep Dicht' is opgezet met als doel de energiebesparingsmogelijkheden door ethyleengestuurde ventilatie van tulpenbollen te demonstreren. Tijdens eerdere bijeenkomsten over de ethyleenanalyser, kwamen een aantal dringende vragen uit de praktijk naar voren: Wat gebeurt er met het ethyleengehalte tijdens een Actellic-behandeling?; Hoe zit het met de invloed van het ethyleengehalte in de buitenlucht?; Hoe zit het met de ethyleenverdeling in de bewaarruimte? Het aanvullende onderzoek betrof het effect van ethyleen in de buitenlucht, de verdeling van het ethyleen in de bewaarcel, en het gedrag van ethyleen tijdens de periode van de actellicbehandeling (actellic is een insecticide)

  11. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  12. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  13. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  14. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  15. NEDO Forum 2000. New energy and energy conservation introducing and proliferating project session (toward promotion of introducing new energies and energy conservation); Shin'ene shoene donyu fukyu jigyo session. Shin'ene shoene no donyu sokushin ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The following themes were presented at this session: (1) the history and roles of the NEDO's introduction and promotion projects, (2) expectation and prospects to introduction and promotion of new energy and energy conservation technologies, (3) energy innovation in houses and buildings actively using new energies and energy conservation means, (4) works on introducing new energies by using the private finance initiative (PFI), and (5) the last resort for energy conservation promoting measures in the industrial domain (high-performance industrial furnace technologies). In Item 3, design cases intended for sustainable buildings were introduced. In Item 4, the PFI is explained as a means to use as much fund and management know-how in private sectors as possible in improving the social capitals and providing high-quality public services. In Japan, the PFI promotion law was established in July 1999 (the law concerning promotion of improvements in public facilities by utilizing funds in private sectors). Introductions are given on the wide area wastes disposal project in Kimitsu Area, the PFI model project for power generation of everyday use at Kanamachi Water Purification Plant of the Tokyo Metropolitan Water Supply Bureau, and the Omuta RDF power generation project. In Item 5, descriptions are given on a new high-performance industrial furnace using the combustion mechanism of 'high-temperature air combustion' created from preheated air at temperatures higher than spontaneous combustion temperature. (NEDO)

  16. Chicago's urban forest ecosystem: Results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. (Includes executive summary). Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, E.G.; Nowak, D.J.; Rowntree, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Results of the 3-year Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project indicate that there are an estimated 50.8 million trees in the Chicago area of Cook and DuPage Counties; 66 percent of these trees rated in good or excellent condition. During 1991, trees in the Chicago area removed an estimated 6,145 tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing valued at $9.2 million dollars. These trees also sequester approximately 155,000 tons of carbon per year, and provide residential heating and cooling energy savings that, in turn, reduce carbon emissions from power plants by about 12,600 tons annually. Shade, lower summer air temperatures, and a reduction in windspeed associated with increasing tree cover by 10 percent can lower total heating and cooling energy use by 5 to 10 percent annually ($50 to $90 per dwelling unit). The projected net present value of investment in planting and care of 95,000 trees in Chicago is $38 million ($402 per planted tree), indicating that the long-term benefits of trees are more than twice their costs

  17. Analysis and evalaution in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project. [including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The manufacturing methods for photovoltaic solar energy utilization are assessed. Economic and technical data on the current front junction formation processes of gaseous diffusion and ion implantation are presented. Future proposals, including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation, to decrease the cost of junction formation are studied. Technology developments in current processes and an economic evaluation of the processes are included.

  18. Transportation energy conservation data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A. S.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Burch, D. F.; Howard, E. B.; Hull, J. F.; Madewell, D. G.; Malthouse, N. S.; Ogle, M. C.

    1976-10-01

    Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; Conservation Alternatives; Government Impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; Energy Supply, including domestic petroleum production, prices, and projections; and Transportation Demand, including population characteristics and economic determinants. A bibliography of data sources is provided at the end of each chapter. A more general bibliography glossary, and subject index are included at the end of the book.

  19. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  20. Ion beam techniques for the analysis of light elements in thin films, including depth profiling. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    This publication highlights the achievements of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to promote the potential of accelerator-based nuclear techniques of analysis for light elements in thin films. The objectives of this CRP were to develop a coordinated research effort between accelerator laboratories and materials science research groups in order to assist and promote the development of quality assurance methods, to evaluate databases of parameters needed for quantitative analysis, and to develop and apply techniques to selected problems concerning the surface modification of materials and production of thin films. Through various case studies, this publication assesses and demonstrates the effectiveness of accelerator-based nuclear techniques for analysis to provide valuable data and knowledge not readily accessible using other methods

  1. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Basic survey for energy consumption rationalization and cooperative project on energy conservation seminar; 1999 nendo energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa oyobi sho energy seminar kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    A survey was conducted of Myanmar's energy-consuming industries for exploring the feasibility of introducing practical energy conservation techniques and facilities to this country and for collecting basic data for the implementation of the project in the future. On the other hand, some lecturers were dispatched to an energy conservation seminar which was held in cooperation with the Government of Myanmar. Visited during the basic survey were (1) the Kyan Gin plant of Myanmar Ceramic Enterprise representing Myanmar's cement making industry, (2) the Thanlyin plant of Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise representing Myanmar's oil refining industry, and (3) the Siftong plant of Myanmar Paper and Chemical Enterprise representing Myanmar's paper making industry. In the study of energy conservation measures for which stabilization of operation through reinforced facility maintenance and management were required, it was concluded that much time was necessary before Japan's advanced energy conservation technologies might be introduced into Myanmar. Three to six propositions were presented to each of the three plants. At the seminar, the importance of energy conservation promoting measures and the results of the basic survey were introduced to the audience. A lecture meeting was also held to familiarize some participants with NEDO-DB (Database of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). (NEDO)

  2. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  3. Assessing the effects of USDA conservation programs on ecosystem services provided by wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is led by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in an effort to quantify the environmental effects of conservation programs and practices on privately owned agricultural landscapes across the United States. CEAP’s approach includes application ...

  4. Water Conservation and Reuse. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.

    Described is a learning session on water conservation intended for citizen advisory groups interested in water quality planning. Topics addressed in this instructor's manual include water conservation needs, benefits, programs, technology, and problems. These materials are components of the Working for Clean Water Project. (Author/WB)

  5. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  6. Health effects of an increased protein intake on kidney function and colorectal cancer risk factors, including the role of animal and plant protein sources – the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith

    intake, including the role of animal and plant protein in pre-diabetic, overweight or obese individuals on health outcomes: markers of kidney function and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer as well as insulin sensitivity and kidney function in healthy individuals. The thesis is based on PREVIEW......, especially plant protein, on insulin sensitivity and kidney function. In paper II, the aim of the study was to assess the effect after one year of a higher protein intake on kidney function, measured by in creatinine clearance. This was investigated in pre-diabetic older adults based on a sub-group of 310...... pre-diabetic individuals included in the PREVIEW RCT. We found that a higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in urea to creatinine ratio and serum urea after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular...

  7. Canada's voluntary industrial energy conservation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Jr., C. A.

    1979-07-01

    The organization of the voluntary industrial energy conservation program is described. There are 15 industrial sectors in the program and the plan implemented by the sectors including individual companies, trade associations, industry task forces, task force coordinating committee, and government is described. Targets for attack are mainly housekeeping projects, energy efficiency in retrofitting, and new processes. Problems are identified. It is concluded that compiled total performance has essentially achieved its target of 12% improved energy efficiency two years ahead of schedule. (MCW)

  8. Conservation Action Planning: Lessons learned from the St. Marys River watershed biodiversity conservation planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tamatha A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Conservation Action Planning (CAP) is an adaptive management planning process refined by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and embraced worldwide as the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation. The CAP process facilitates open, multi-institutional collaboration on a common conservation agenda through organized actions and quantified results. While specifically designed for conservation efforts, the framework is adaptable and flexible to multiple scales and can be used for any collaborative planning effort. The CAP framework addresses inception; design and development of goals, measures, and strategies; and plan implementation and evaluation. The specific components of the CAP include defining the project scope and conservation targets; assessing the ecological viability; ascertaining threats and surrounding situation; identifying opportunities and designing strategies for action; and implementing actions and monitoring results. In 2007, TNC and a multidisciplinary graduate student team from the University of Michigan's School of Natural Resources and Environment initiated a CAP for the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, and its local watershed. The students not only gained experience in conservation planning, but also learned lessons that notably benefited the CAP process and were valuable for any successful collaborative effort—a dedicated core team improved product quality, accelerated the timeline, and provided necessary support for ongoing efforts; an academic approach in preparation for engagement in the planning process brought applicable scientific research to the forefront, enhanced workshop facilitation, and improved stakeholder participation; and early and continuous interactions with regional stakeholders improved cooperation and built a supportive network for collaboration.

  9. Conservation science in developing countries: an inside perspective on the struggles in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago, Joaquin; Guada, Hedelvy J.; Doyle, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Human exploitation of sea turtles in Venezuela dates back at least 800 years and continues to the present day. The first concerns about the status of sea turtle populations arose in the 1970s, and the projects from this early era were a tagging program, beach evaluation and in situ nest protection. Since then, efforts to develop a sea turtle research and conservation sector in Venezuela have resulted in a number of successes and rather more failures. Among the achievements is a course 'Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation Techniques', which has now been run for 15 years and has educated several hundred participants and enabled the establishment of a valuable professional network, and the publication of the Venezuelan 'Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan' in 2000. But Venezuela shares with other developing countries some crucial shortcomings which have restricted the success of conservation and research efforts. Whilst regulations relating to protected areas and natural resource use have proliferated, enforcement is weak. Community-based projects and environmental education programs exist, but levels of participation are low. A large number of conservation approaches have been applied, including head-starting and nest translocation to hatcheries, but their value as conservation tools remains unproven. Research has increased, but its impact on decision-making is not significant. Taking an insider's perspective on the challenges to date in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela reveals much about the reality facing conservation scientists in developing countries and the forces that shape and can potentially derail research and conservation efforts

  10. Habitat modeling for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2006-01-01

    Habitat models address only 1 component of biodiversity but can be useful in addressing and managing single or multiple species and ecosystem functions, for projecting disturbance regimes, and in supporting decisions. I review categories and examples of habitat models, their utility for biodiversity conservation, and their roles in making conservation decisions. I...

  11. Setting conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  12. Climate Velocity Can Inform Conservation in a Warming World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Morales, Isaac; García Molinos, Jorge; Schoeman, David S; Burrows, Michael T; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Brown, Christopher J; Ferrier, Simon; Harwood, Tom D; Klein, Carissa J; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Moore, Pippa J; Pandolfi, John M; Watson, James E M; Wenger, Amelia S; Richardson, Anthony J

    2018-06-01

    Climate change is shifting the ranges of species. Simple predictive metrics of range shifts such as climate velocity, that do not require extensive knowledge or data on individual species, could help to guide conservation. We review research on climate velocity, describing the theory underpinning the concept and its assumptions. We highlight how climate velocity has already been applied in conservation-related research, including climate residence time, climate refugia, endemism, historic and projected range shifts, exposure to climate change, and climate connectivity. Finally, we discuss ways to enhance the use of climate velocity in conservation through tailoring it to be more biologically meaningful, informing design of protected areas, conserving ocean biodiversity in 3D, and informing conservation actions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fiscal 2000 international energy use rationalization measures project. International energy consumption efficiency improvement technology diffusion project - Green helmet project (Thailand: Report on heating furnace energy conservation seminar); 2000 nendo. Kokusai energy shiyo gorika to taisaku jigyo, Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka to gijutsu fukyu jigyo, Green helmet jigyo (Thai : kanetsuro shoenergy seminar hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The above-named seminar was held in Bangkok, Thailand, on January 30, 2001, and covered three kinds of industries of ceramics, glass, and aluminum. Approximately 200 people attended the meeting, consisting of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization)-affiliated people and 16 lecturers from Japan, and Thai participants. The seminar comprised a 'keynote address' and 'lectures on engineering' that aimed at the three industries as a whole, and 'lectures on engineering' and 'cases and activities for energy conservation' that aimed, respectively, at the three industries. Lectures were delivered on operating technologies which were already in practical use and on state-of-the-art technologies. The keynote address, entitled 'Global warming prevention and industrial furnaces,' covered the results of the 'High-performance industrial furnace field test project.' The lectures on engineering dealt with the 'instrumentation control system' and 'heat insulation technology' which were basic technologies for energy conservation and 'diagnosis technology and practice' which aimed at the enhancement of energy conservation after the start of operation. Questions and answers were earnestly exchanged. (NEDO)

  14. Multispecies benefits of wetland conservation for marsh birds, frogs, and species at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Douglas C; Steele, Owen; Gloutney, Mark

    2018-04-15

    Wetlands conserved using water level manipulation, cattle exclusion, naturalization of uplands, and other techniques under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan ("conservation project wetlands") are important for ducks, geese, and swans ("waterfowl"). However, the assumption that conservation actions for waterfowl also benefit other wildlife is rarely quantified. We modeled detection and occupancy of species at sites within 42 conservation project wetlands compared to sites within 52 similar nearby unmanaged wetlands throughout southern Ontario, Canada, and small portions of the adjacent U.S., using citizen science data collected by Bird Studies Canada's Great Lakes Marsh Monitoring Program, including 2 waterfowl and 13 non-waterfowl marsh-breeding bird species (n = 413 sites) and 7 marsh-breeding frog species (n = 191 sites). Occupancy was significantly greater at conservation project sites compared to unmanaged sites in 7 of 15 (47%) bird species and 3 of 7 (43%) frog species, with occupancy being higher by a difference of 0.12-0.38 across species. Notably, occupancy of priority conservation concern or at-risk Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Sora (Porzana carolina), and Western Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata) was significantly higher at conservation project sites compared to unmanaged sites. The results demonstrate the utility of citizen science to inform wetland conservation, and suggest that actions under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan are effective for conserving non-waterfowl species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategic conservation planning for the Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Vaughn, Louise B.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Drew, C. Ashton

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team (ENCSEVA) is a partnership among local federal agencies and programs with a mission to apply Strategic Habitat Conservation to accomplish priority landscape-level conservation within its geographic region. ENCSEVA seeks to further landscape-scale conservation through collaboration with local partners. To accomplish this mission, ENCSEVA is developing a comprehensive Strategic Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan) to provide guidance for its members, partners, and collaborators by establishing mutual conservation goals, objectives, strategies, and metrics to gauge the success of conservation efforts. Identifying common goals allows the ENCSEVA team to develop strategies that leverage joint resources and are more likely to achieve desired impacts across the landscape. The Plan will also provide an approach for ENCSEVA to meet applied research needs (identify knowledge gaps), foster adaptive management principles, identify conservation priorities, prioritize threats (including potential impacts of climate change), and identify the required capacity to implement strategies to create more resilient landscapes. ENCSEVA seeks to support the overarching goals of the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (SALCC) and to provide scientific and technical support for conservation at landscape scales as well as inform the management of natural resources in response to shifts in climate, habitat fragmentation and loss, and other landscape-level challenges (South Atlantic LCC 2012). The ENCSEVA ecoregion encompasses the northern third of the SALCC geography and offers a unique opportunity to apply landscape conservation at multiple scales through the guidance of local conservation and natural resource management efforts and by reporting metrics that reflect the effectiveness of those efforts (Figure 1). The Environmental Decision Analysis Team, housed within the North Carolina Cooperative

  16. Conserving Water: The Untapped Alternative. Worldwatch Paper 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Sandra

    This report addresses the global concern of water development and stresses the need for management of the water demand. Investments in water efficiency, recycling, and conservation are recommended over conventional water supply projects for greater cost behefits and production yield. Topic areas include: (1) water use trends in major crop…

  17. Limitations of outsourcing on-the-ground biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacona, Gwenllian D; Bode, Michael; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    To counteract global species decline, modern biodiversity conservation engages in large projects, spends billions of dollars, and includes many organizations working simultaneously within regions. To add to this complexity, the conservation sector has hierarchical structure, where conservation actions are often outsourced by funders (foundations, government, etc.) to local organizations that work on-the-ground. In contrast, conservation science usually assumes that a single organization makes resource allocation decisions. This discrepancy calls for theory to understand how the expected biodiversity outcomes change when interactions between organizations are accounted for. Here, we used a game theoretic model to explore how biodiversity outcomes are affected by vertical and horizontal interactions between 3 conservation organizations: a funder that outsourced its actions and 2 local conservation organizations that work on-the-ground. Interactions between the organizations changed the spending decisions made by individual organizations, and thereby the magnitude and direction of the conservation benefits. We showed that funders would struggle to incentivize recipient organizations with set priorities to perform desired actions, even when they control substantial amounts of the funding and employ common contracting approaches to enhance outcomes. Instead, biodiversity outcomes depended on priority alignment across the organizations. Conservation outcomes for the funder were improved by strategic interactions when organizational priorities were well aligned, but decreased when priorities were misaligned. Meanwhile, local organizations had improved outcomes regardless of alignment due to additional funding in the system. Given that conservation often involves the aggregate actions of multiple organizations with different objectives, strategic interactions between organizations need to be considered if we are to predict possible outcomes of conservation programs or

  18. Characterizing spatial uncertainty when integrating social data in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, A M; Raymond, C M; Adams, V M; Polyakov, M; Gordon, A; Rhodes, J R; Mills, M; Stein, A; Ives, C D; Lefroy, E C

    2014-12-01

    Recent conservation planning studies have presented approaches for integrating spatially referenced social (SRS) data with a view to improving the feasibility of conservation action. We reviewed the growing conservation literature on SRS data, focusing on elicited or stated preferences derived through social survey methods such as choice experiments and public participation geographic information systems. Elicited SRS data includes the spatial distribution of willingness to sell, willingness to pay, willingness to act, and assessments of social and cultural values. We developed a typology for assessing elicited SRS data uncertainty which describes how social survey uncertainty propagates when projected spatially and the importance of accounting for spatial uncertainty such as scale effects and data quality. These uncertainties will propagate when elicited SRS data is integrated with biophysical data for conservation planning and may have important consequences for assessing the feasibility of conservation actions. To explore this issue further, we conducted a systematic review of the elicited SRS data literature. We found that social survey uncertainty was commonly tested for, but that these uncertainties were ignored when projected spatially. Based on these results we developed a framework which will help researchers and practitioners estimate social survey uncertainty and use these quantitative estimates to systematically address uncertainty within an analysis. This is important when using SRS data in conservation applications because decisions need to be made irrespective of data quality and well characterized uncertainty can be incorporated into decision theoretic approaches. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  20. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  1. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  2. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  3. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  4. Enviromental conservation technology. Current R+D projects 1990. As of June 30, 1990. Umweltschutztechnik. Laufende F+E Vorhaben 1990. Stand 30. 6. 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The book provides an up-to-date overview of the 127 current and recently completed R and D projects sponsored by the BMFT, with the most significant details and short descriptions. It is ordered according to subject classification, sponsor indicators, financial recipients and project leaders. The principle sponsorship projects are in the areas of: Low-pollution industrial processes, industrial waste gases, environmentally compatible products, waste treatment and disposal, control of sea pollution, noise abatement, reduction of organic pollutants, reduction of emissions from small-scale emitters. (HP).

  5. Consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Ester, P.; Mindell, C.; Schopman, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overview of consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands and analyses them in terms of program objectives, conservation strategies, program instruments, context elements, and impacts on energy consumption, on consumers' lifestyles and on the environment. Part 1 briefly outlines the energy situation in the Netherlands. Diversification of energy sources and conservation of energy use are the main themes of Dutch energy policy. Controversial issues are the export volume of natural gas and the acceptability of nuclear energy. Part 2 describes and evaluates a number of consumer energy conservation programs. A broad range of programs is presented, including governmental programs (mass media compaigns, the national insulation program), initiatives from consumer organizations and environmental groups, as well as projects on the community level. Part 3 summarizes the main findings and suggests some policy recommendations. The climate of opinion in the Netherlands appears to be quite favorable towards energy conservation. The commitment to conserve, however, is not very strong. Given the broad variety of conservation programs the necessity of coordination is emphasized. As consumers tend to be weakly represented in the program agencies, it is recommended to extend or introduce their participation. Particular attention is given to the lack of evaluation studies. Usually, program impacts are unknown. The desirability of utilizing community level indicators in the assessment of energy conservation policy is underlined. (orig.)

  6. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects in priority watersheds to reduce the impacts of land based sources of pollution on corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to work on understanding and reducing the impacts of land based sources pollution on corals: Input of Sediments and...

  7. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  8. Project for rationalization measures for international energy conservation. Model project concerning efficient consumption of energy for international energy conservation (Model project of waste heat recovery on billet reheating furnace); 1999 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado model jigyo (kozai kanetsuro hainetsu kaishu model jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of curtailing energy consumption in the steel industry, a heavy energy consuming industry in Thailand, a model project was carried out for waste heat recovery on a billet reheating furnace, with the fiscal 1999 results compiled. This model project is to install a high efficiency recuperator and the latest combustion control system in the existing furnace in a SISCO (The Siam Iron and Steel Co., Ltd.) plant in Thailand. This year, following the preceding year, the construction manual was prepared, as were the test run manual, performance verification manual, operation and maintenance manual, etc. Supervisors were also dispatched to the site, giving guidance of the installation work, test run and the demonstrative operation, on the basis of these documents. Operation for verifying performance of the equipment was implemented on November 17, 1999, with the intended results obtained. Subsequently, operation maintenance instructors were dispatched, with energy saving effect proved through the collection/analysis of operation data and monitoring, for example. Further, as the dissemination activities, pamphlets and videos were prepared, and seminars were held, among others. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 2000 survey report on feasibility of implementing model project for energy conservation of sintering machine in China; 2000 nendo Chugoku ni okeru shoketsuki sho energy ka model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted on the feasibility of implementing a model project for energy conservation of sintering machines in ironworks in China. This paper explains the results of fiscal 2000. The survey was based on the assumption that the HPS (Hybrid Pelletized Sinter) process in operation at Fukuyama ironworks in Japan was to be introduced into China. This process is employed at the Fukuyama No.5 sintering plant with an area of 530 m{sup 2}, and is famous for the highly efficient energy consumption rate with the solid fuel consumption of 37 kg/t and the electric power consumption of 31 kWh/t. The technology was applied to the No.3 sintering machine (265 m{sup 2}) at Tangshan Steel. Case A refers to where only the energy conservation effect of a targeted sintering machine was considered, and Case B refers to where the productivity of the applied sintering machine is increased, with that of the others decreased. In Case A, total equipment cost was 1,977,450 thousand yen, energy conservation effect was 23,795 toe/y, economic savings was 244,000 thousand yen/y, and investment recoupment period was 7.85 years. In Case B, they were 1,977,450 thousand yen, 36,215 toe/y, 356,000 thousand yen/y, and 5.38 years, respectively. In the same token, at Wuhan Steel, Case A showed 2,447,160 thousand yen, 30,320 toe/y, 272,000 thousand yen/y, and 8.77 years; Case B showed 2,447,160 thousand yen, 31,570 toe/y, 289,000 thousand yen/y, and 8.28 years, respectively. Assuming the technological spread is over the entire China, the total energy conservation in terms of crude oil is expected to be 845,700 toe/y. (NEDO)

  10. Basic project on the cooperation in enhancement of the international energy consumption efficiency. Survey of energy conservation potential by industry; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka chosa nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo hokokusho. Gyoshubetsu sho energy potential chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of looking for measures to promote the effective energy conservation in China, the potential energy conservation amount in general plants was surveyed and analyzed by industry. Activities were made in the following fields: 1) survey of the actual state of energy in main industries; 2) energy conservation potential in the cement industry in China; 3) energy conservation potential in thermal power plants in China. In 1), survey was made on 8 industries including the iron/steel industry and oil refining industry. In 2), survey was made of the actual state of the Liulihe cement plant and Shitou cement plant. The subjects extracted were the arrangement of instrumentation equipment such as the exhaust gas analyzer needed for combustion management, improvement of the air/fuel ratio of kiln, enhancement of cooling efficiency of clinker cooler, etc. In 3), the actual state of the Qinling power plant was surveyed, and it was made clear that high efficiency of 38% or more can be maintained if the appropriate use/maintenance management is made (coal unit consumption: 383g/kWh in Qinling and 309g/kWh). (NEDO)

  11. Guidelines for sustainable manure management in Asian livestock production systems. A publication prepared under the framework of the RCA project on Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with the technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated approach for improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment' (RAS/5/044). Technical Cooperation projects are technology transfer initiatives, designed to address specific priorities identified by Member States. The specific objectives of this project were: (a) to improve animal productivity and decrease discharges of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (b) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies to improve animal productivity through the use of better selection criteria for offspring from cross-breeding programmes, optimum utilization of appropriate indigenous cows, benchmarking for growth and reproduction, and improving procedures for management, nutrition and healthcare programmes in dairy farms. The first meeting to plan project activities was hosted by the Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, and was held from 4 to 8 April 2005. It was attended by 23 nominated project counterparts from 12 RCA Member States and was supported by three IAEA experts. One of the conclusions from this meeting was that there was considerable scope and need for improving current manure management practices in the region to enhance the productive recycling of ingested nutrients in animal production systems, which in addition to increasing livestock and crop productivity will decrease environment pollution. It was agreed that there was a need to focus on improving the nutritional and manure management in integrated livestock systems, and that it was

  12. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  13. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J.; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N.; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  14. The future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land; scenarios for production and natural resource conservation, First Annual Report. EU project Olivero:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Stroosnijder, L.; Graaff, de J.

    2004-01-01

    The project will devote itself to the future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land in southern Europe. These systems have been affected by emigration of local populations and fierce competition from low land plantations and from non-EU countries, and are currently neither

  15. Is international conservation aid enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  16. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  17. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  20. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  1. Energy conservation. A goal for Albertans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, L

    1988-01-01

    In late 1985, the Public Advisory Committees to the Environmental Council of Alberta began working toward a draft conservation strategy for Alberta. A prospectus was published and meetings and workshops held, the goal being a conservation strategy in place by 1992. This report is one of a series of discussion papers on relevant sectors such as agriculture, fish and wildlife, tourism, and various specific energy sources. This report focuses on energy use in general in the province, including the role of energy conservation in a conservation strategy, the potential for energy conservation, barriers, actions to encourage conservation, the impacts of conserving energy, and the next steps to take. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Life+ Trout Project (LIFE12 NAT/IT/0000940 for the recovery and conservation of Mediterranean trout (Salmo trutta complex in the central Apennines (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi

    2015-11-01

    At present the genetic and demographic characterization of the trout populations is completed. Table 1 and Figures 1-2 show the results of abundance analysis of the fish assemblages divided by basin. The standing crop’s mean values can be considered in the standard range, according to the small size and the limited productivity that generally characterized the watercourses analyzed, as most of the Apennine rivers. The differences of the mean values among basins were highly statistically significant according to the ANOVA analysis (density: F= 5.24, p=0.001; standing crop: F=12.42, p=0.001. The results of genetic analysis separated clearly native and aliene genomes (K = 2, Fig. 3a and showed the presence of three distinct genetic stocks of native Apennine trout (K = 4, Fig. 3b: i Tevere (green bars, ii Tenna (red and iii Chienti /Potenza/Metauro/Esino (yellow. Populations characterized by very low introgression values will be the source of wild individuals to produce pure juvenile trouts in captivity. Four moderately introgressed populations will be subject to supportive breeding activities. Finally, six stream, where trouts showed almost exclusively an alien genetic make-up will be selected for the eradication activities. The data collected are the indispensable premise for the adoption of the necessary strategies for conservation of the Apennine trout in Central Italy.

  3. Oil and gas conservation in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereda, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Saskatchewan's Oil and Gas Conservation Act provides legislative authority for the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations, 1985. The main purposes of the Act are to maximize oil and gas recovery, to allow each owner the opportunity of obtaining his share of oil or gas and to protect the environment and prevent waste. The document under review described how this legislative intent is fulfilled through the spacing of wells, the setting of allowables, and approval of waterflood and enhanced recovery projects, while considering equitable drainage of oil and gas. Specific topics dealt with include: vertical well spacing, infill drilling, off-target drilling, horizontal well spacing, and allowables. The concepts of voluntary and statutory pooling as well as voluntary and statutory unitization were explained. Examples of waterflood and enhanced oil recovery projects were provided. The regulation relating to oil and gas conservation were first implemented in 1952 and evolved to their present form through a series of changes and amendments. The most significant changes to the regulations were made in 1991 when horizontal drilling needed to be accommodated. 1 tab

  4. Logging or conservation concession: Exploring conservation and development outcomes in Dzanga-Sangha, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Sandker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dzanga-Sangha landscape consists of a national park surrounded by production forest. It is subject to an integrated conservation and development project (ICDP. In collaboration with the ICDP personnel, a participatory model was constructed to explore wildlife conservation and industrial logging scenarios for the landscape. Three management options for the landscape′s production forest were modelled: (I ′predatory logging′, exploitation by a logging company characterised by a lack of long-term plans for staying in the landscape, (II sustainable exploitation by a certified logging company, and (III conservation concession with no commercial timber harvesting. The simulation outcomes indicate the extreme difficulties to achieve progress on either conservation or development scenarios. Both logging scenarios give best outcomes for development of the local population. However, the depletion of bushmeat under the predatory logging scenario negatively impacts the population, especially the BaAka pygmy minority who most strongly depend on hunting for their income. The model suggests that conservation and development outcomes are largely determined by the level of economic activity, both inside and outside the landscape. Large investments in the formal sector in the landscape without any measures for protecting wildlife (Scenario I leads to some species going nearly extinct, while investments in the formal sector including conservation measures (Scenario II gives best outcomes for maintaining wildlife populations. The conservation concession at simulated investment levels does not reduce poverty, defined here in terms of monetary income. Neither does it seem capable of maintaining wildlife populations since the landscape is already filled with settlers lacking economic opportunities as alternatives to poaching.

  5. Adaptive social impact management for conservation and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan-Hallam, Maery; Bennett, Nathan J

    2018-04-01

    Concerns about the social consequences of conservation have spurred increased attention the monitoring and evaluation of the social impacts of conservation projects. This has resulted in a growing body of research that demonstrates how conservation can produce both positive and negative social, economic, cultural, health, and governance consequences for local communities. Yet, the results of social monitoring efforts are seldom applied to adaptively manage conservation projects. Greater attention is needed to incorporating the results of social impact assessments in long-term conservation management to minimize negative social consequences and maximize social benefits. We bring together insights from social impact assessment, adaptive management, social learning, knowledge coproduction, cross-scale governance, and environmental planning to propose a definition and framework for adaptive social impact management (ASIM). We define ASIM as the cyclical process of monitoring and adaptively managing social impacts over the life-span of an initiative through the 4 stages of profiling, learning, planning, and implementing. We outline 14 steps associated with the 4 stages of the ASIM cycle and provide guidance and potential methods for social-indicator development, predictive assessments of social impacts, monitoring and evaluation, communication of results, and identification and prioritization of management responses. Successful ASIM will be aided by engaging with best practices - including local engagement and collaboration in the process, transparent communication of results to stakeholders, collective deliberation on and choice of interventions, documentation of shared learning at the site level, and the scaling up of insights to inform higher-level conservation policies-to increase accountability, trust, and perceived legitimacy among stakeholders. The ASIM process is broadly applicable to conservation, environmental management, and development initiatives at various

  6. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. Copyright

  7. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of the different soil conservation measure on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably - a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. (author)

  8. 18 CFR 806.25 - Water conservation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water conservation standards. 806.25 Section 806.25 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Standards for Review and Approval § 806.25 Water conservation...

  9. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Hancock, G.; Nguyen, M.L.; Dornhofer, P.; Bacchi, O.O.S.; Benmansour, M.; Bernard, C.; Froehlich, W.; Golosov, V.N.; Haciyakupoglu, S.; Hai, P.S.; Klik, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002–2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on “Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides” (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably – a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. - Highlights:

  10. Can conservation and development really be integrated? | Sayer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most biodiversity conservation projects in poor tropical countries also aspire to alleviate the poverty of local people. The results of these integrated conservation and development projects have often been disappointing. This paper argues that it would be impossible for both practical and ethical reasons for conservation

  11. Conservation science in developing countries: an inside perspective on the struggles in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, Joaquin [Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita, Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Apartado 144, Porlamar, Isla Margarita (Venezuela)], E-mail: jbuitrago@edimar.org; Guada, Hedelvy J. [Centro de Investigacion y Conservacion de Tortugas Marinas CICTMAR, Red de Conservacion de Tortugas Marinas en el Gran Caribe, WIDECAST, Apdo. 50.789, Caracas 1050-A (Venezuela); Doyle, Emma [5 Woodvale Close, St. Ives, N.S.W. 2075 (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    Human exploitation of sea turtles in Venezuela dates back at least 800 years and continues to the present day. The first concerns about the status of sea turtle populations arose in the 1970s, and the projects from this early era were a tagging program, beach evaluation and in situ nest protection. Since then, efforts to develop a sea turtle research and conservation sector in Venezuela have resulted in a number of successes and rather more failures. Among the achievements is a course 'Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation Techniques', which has now been run for 15 years and has educated several hundred participants and enabled the establishment of a valuable professional network, and the publication of the Venezuelan 'Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan' in 2000. But Venezuela shares with other developing countries some crucial shortcomings which have restricted the success of conservation and research efforts. Whilst regulations relating to protected areas and natural resource use have proliferated, enforcement is weak. Community-based projects and environmental education programs exist, but levels of participation are low. A large number of conservation approaches have been applied, including head-starting and nest translocation to hatcheries, but their value as conservation tools remains unproven. Research has increased, but its impact on decision-making is not significant. Taking an insider's perspective on the challenges to date in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela reveals much about the reality facing conservation scientists in developing countries and the forces that shape and can potentially derail research and conservation efforts.

  12. State Conservation Lands; StaCons11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Approximate edges of Conservation Lands protected by the State of Rhode Island through Fee Title Ownership, Conservation Easement, or Deed Restriction. Includes:...

  13. FY 2000 report on the survey project on the policy for international energy utilization rationalization, etc. - model project on the heightening of international energy consumption efficiency. Viability survey of the project on energy conservation in the urea synthesis process in India; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo - kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado model jigyo chosa hokokusho. Indo ni okeru nyoso gosei process sho energy jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas, a remodeling project was studied of urea plants constructed from the 1960s to the 1970s. Conditions for being companies for study are as follows: company has a production scale of more than 0.2 million t/y, adopts the complete circulation method, and will continue operation. And, Duncans Industries Ltd. (DIL) was selected. DIL owns the ammonia plant of 3 series x 400 t/d and the urea plant of 3 series x 682 t/d. In the modeling, stripper and carbamate condenser are added to the existing reactor as the main equipment. As a result of the study, the energy conservation effect was 13,667 toe/y, and the amount of reduction in greenhouse effect gas was 42,289 t-CO2/y. The total amount of this project was roughly estimated at 1.517 billion yen. By carrying out the project, the urea production cost is reduced approximately $9/t, but the project becomes unprofitable if the urea price is based on $188.1/t. (NEDO)

  14. Environmental Development Plan for Transportation Energy Conservation. FY 79 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. K.; Bernard, III, M. J.

    1978-12-15

    This is the first annual update of the Environment Development Plan (EDP) for the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation program. It identifies the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with the division's transportation programs. These programs include the research, development, demonstration and assessment (RDD and A) of seventeen transportation technologies and several strategy and policy development and implementation projects. The transportation technologies projects deal with highway transport including electric vehicles, marine transport and pipeline transport. This EDP presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns stemming from these programs.

  15. A compendium of energy conservation: Success stories 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

  16. A Compendium of Energy Conservation: Success Stories 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R&D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

  17. Electric power conservation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, J.B. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Power Conservation Program (PROCEL) is discussed. The main objective of this program is the optimization of electric power use, including consideration about prices, technology development and legislation. (M.V.M.)

  18. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  19. A User's Guide to the Federal Theater Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Frank; Leslie, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan constructed around materials found in the User's Guide to the Federal Project. The Federal Theater Project produced radical and populist plays during the Great Depression before being de-funded by a conservative Congress. The lessons include activities and discussion built around the original plays. (MJP)

  20. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Electric Power Conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The experiences from 10 different countries on energy conservation are discussed in this seminar. Electric power conservation in Brazil, conservation in commercial sector, comparison between international programs and new technology are also included. (M.V.M.)

  1. Self-Organization in Integrated Conservation and Development Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Simão Seixas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a cooking metaphor to explore key elements (i.e., ingredients for a great meal that contribute to self-organization processes in the context of successful community-based conservation (CBC or integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP. We pose two major questions: (1 What are the key factors that drive peoples' and/or organizations' willingness to take responsibilities and to act? (2 What contributes to community self-organization? In other words, how conservation-development projects originate, evolve, survive or disappear? In order to address these questions we examine trigger events and catalytic elements in several cases among the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees, from both the 2002 and 2004 awards. The Prize recognizes efforts in integrating biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. We use secondary data in our analysis, including data from several technical reports and scientific papers written about the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees. We observed common ingredients in most projects including: (1 involvement and commitment of key players (including communities, (2 funding, (3 strong leadership, (4 capacity building, (5 partnership with supportive organizations and government, and (6 economic incentives (including alternative livelihood options. We also observed that CBC and ICDP initiatives opportunistically evolve in a multi-level world, in which local communities establish linkages with people and organizations at different political levels, across different geographical scales and for different purposes. We conclude that there is no right 'recipe' to promote community self-organization but often a mix of some of these six ingredients need to come together for 'success' and that one or two ingredients are not sufficient to ensure success. Also the existence of these six ingredients does not guarantee a great meal - the 'chef's' creativity also is critical. That is

  2. Creating biodiversity partnerships: The Nature Conservancy's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, John C.

    1996-11-01

    The Nature Conservancy is an international organization dedicated to the mission of conserving biodiversity throughout the world. By working in a nonconfrontational manner, an approach that has promoted both government and corporate sponsorship of its activities, The Nature Conservancy has developed symbiotic relationships with many electric utility companies. Drawing on the organization's experiences, and the experiences of the author as the President and Chief Executive Officer of The Nature Conservancy, five broad areas of cooperation between conservation organizations and the utility industry are explored: landmanagement agreements, mitigation projects, conflictavoidance programs, program support, and volunteer activities. The paper is concluded with comments on the future trends of biodiversity conservation, challenging the electric utility industry to become involved with conservation efforts by forming cooperative partnerships.

  3. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are considered. This study identified various conservation and development options existing on Uluguru Mountains and assessed the perceptions of the local ...

  4. Decision support frameworks and tools for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Cook, Carly N.; Pressey, Robert L.; Pullin, Andrew S.; Runge, Michael C.; Salafsky, Nick; Sutherland, William J.; Williamson, Matthew A.

    2018-01-01

    The practice of conservation occurs within complex socioecological systems fraught with challenges that require transparent, defensible, and often socially engaged project planning and management. Planning and decision support frameworks are designed to help conservation practitioners increase planning rigor, project accountability, stakeholder participation, transparency in decisions, and learning. We describe and contrast five common frameworks within the context of six fundamental questions (why, who, what, where, when, how) at each of three planning stages of adaptive management (project scoping, operational planning, learning). We demonstrate that decision support frameworks provide varied and extensive tools for conservation planning and management. However, using any framework in isolation risks diminishing potential benefits since no one framework covers the full spectrum of potential conservation planning and decision challenges. We describe two case studies that have effectively deployed tools from across conservation frameworks to improve conservation actions and outcomes. Attention to the critical questions for conservation project planning should allow practitioners to operate within any framework and adapt tools to suit their specific management context. We call on conservation researchers and practitioners to regularly use decision support tools as standard practice for framing both practice and research.

  5. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  6. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy

  7. Balanced program plan: analysis for biomedical and environmental research. Volume 7. Conservation and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Energy conservation technologies encompass the entire spectrum of human activities: electrical supply, industry, commercial and residential buildings, transportation and various overlapping combinations of these. This report is concerned with those conservation technologies that appear to be most important in the near and intermediate terms. Many of the specific R and D programs are contained in the preliminary ''Conservation Program Plan'' of the ERDA Assistant Administrator for Conservation. However, some projects are included that are supported by other Federal agencies and private industry. Section 1 contains a brief description of each conservation technology and an enumeration of health/safety/environmental impacts, both beneficial and adverse, that are expected to accrue from the new technology. Section 2 contains a brief discussion of problems, priorities and programs. Section 3 contains ''Problem Definitions'' and ''Program Units'' that are recommended to become a part of the ''BER Balanced Program Plan.''

  8. Environmental Science: 49 Science Fair Projects. Science Fair Projects Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel

    This book contains 49 science fair projects designed for 6th to 9th grade students. Projects are organized by the topics of soil, ecology (projects in habitat and life cycles), pests and controls (projects in weeds and insects), recycling (projects in resources and conservation), waste products (projects in decomposition), microscopic organisms,…

  9. Making conservation work for everyone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation discussed the economic value of conservation, the optimal deployment of energy conservation. A sample load profile was presented to demonstrate how much electricity the average residential customer uses on a summer day. The average customer does not have the tools to understand the financial consequences of conservation for different types of equipment at different times of the day. Smart metering technology could help in this regard. Accurate unsubsidized prices are also considered to be the best incentive to conserve because customers will reduce electricity use when the prices are high. It was also suggested that standards for new appliances should be increased effectively to their economic value. The enablers to energy conservation include solid consumer education programs, real time metering in places where it is cost effective, real time pricing in places where it is practical, and power rates that reflect real costs. Barriers to energy conservation include the residual economic advantage that may be insufficient to justify investment; support from local distribution companies and transmission companies if the lost revenue adjustment mechanism (LRAM) is not sufficient to recover lost revenue and if LDCs are not sufficiently involved in the design of the electricity conservation program. 7 figs.

  10. Project "Conservation, Restoration, and Development of the Juan Fernández islands, Chile" Proyecto conservación, restauración y desarrollo de las islas Juan Fernández, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME G. CUEVAS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available From a scientific point of view, the Juan Fernández islands contain one of the most interesting floras of the planet. Although protected as a National Park and a World Biosphere Reserve, 400 years of human interference have left deep traces in the native plant communities. Repeated burning, overexploitation of species, and the introduction of animal and plant plagues have taken 75 % of the endemic vascular flora to the verge of extinction. In 1997, Chile's national forest service (Corporación Nacional Forestal, CONAF started an ambitious project, whose objective is the recovery of this highly complex ecosystem with a socio-ecological focus. Juan Fernández makes an interesting case, as the local people (600 persons practically live within the park, therefore impeding the exclusion of the people from any conservation program. Secondly, the relatively small size of the archipelago (100 km² permits the observation of the effects of whatever modification in the ecosystem on small scales in time and space. Thirdly, the native and introduced biota are interrelated in such a way that human-caused changes in one species population may provoke unexpected results amongst other, non-target species. The project mainly deals with the eradication or control of some animal and plant plagues, the active conservation and restoration of the flora and the inclusion of the local people in conservation planning. This article presents the park's general problems, the strategy proposed to resolve them as well as some preliminary results. This project shows the complexity of the conservation activities in practice, with diverse and complex interrelations and gaps in ecological knowledge. In this respect, the project may well serve as a model for similar programs in other placesLas islas Juan Fernández albergan una de las floras más interesantes del planeta desde el punto de vista científico. Aunque están protegidas como Parque Nacional y Reserva Mundial de la

  11. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy R and D. Conservation planning and management should be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Richard A.; Fishkin, Christine M.B.; MacLeod, Molly W.; Davis, Alphonse R.; Crawford, John T.; Dowd, Leonard L.; Sisson, John W.; Sugimura, Richard H.

    1990-07-01

    Increased energy efficiency can lessen our dependence on imported oil, reduce environmental problems associated with the use of fossil fuels, and enhance the competitive position of U.S. companies internationally. Following a decade in which conservation R and D program funding declined by more than 50 percent, the Secretary of Energy has said that energy conservation will be given increased priority in DOE. Increased priority for DOE's energy efficiency R and D program would support interim DOE National Energy Strategy (NES) report findings. DOE's interim NES report said that broad public support exists for increasing energy efficiency and protecting the environment from the effects of energy production and use. In the 1970s and 1980s, the DOE conservation R and D program produced some commercially successful technologies, such as fluorescent lighting advances and low emissivity window coatings, that are providing energy savings and are expected to provide substantial savings in the future. In the early 1980s energy conservation R and D funding and staff were reduced substantially, reflecting the administration's view that conservation research should be conducted primarily by the private sector. Since the large cutback, funding has been relatively stable, it was $346 million in 1980, $152 million in 1982, and $149 million in 1990. The 1991 budget request reflects a 9-percent program reduction compared with the prior year's appropriations. Since 1983, DOE's Office of Conservation has used a long-term planning process to produce an energy conservation multi-year R and D plan. However, the plan and the planning process could be strengthened to more fully meet the needs of policy makers. For example, the plan's usefulness and credibility would be improved if it provided detailed information on individual projects. Also, the planning process does not include systematic project reviews at DOE headquarters or use a uniform project prioritization methodology to rank

  13. 76 FR 71598 - Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ...] Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and.../docs/HI-PI/docsjcpearl.htm . Email: [email protected] . Include ``Pearl Harbor final CCP'' in...`iwa, HI 96712. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Ellis, Project Leader, (808) 637-6330...

  14. 77 FR 73 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... conservation program funds and mechanisms in support of the objectives of MRBI. Through agreements, partners... objectives. Include the name of the program and the associated Federal agency. (Note: Federal funds cannot be used as a match to the funds provided by NRCS.) (2) Project Natural Resource Objectives and Concerns...

  15. THM large spatial-temporal model to simulate the past 2 Ma hydrogeological evolution of Paris Basin including natural tracer transport as part of site characterization for radwaste repository project Cigéo - France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabderrahmane, A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological site characterization for deep geological high level and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste repository cover a large time scale needed for safety analysis and calculation. Hydrogeological performance of a site relies also on the effects of geodynamic evolution as tectonic uplift, erosion/sedimentation and climate including glaciation on the groundwater flow and solute and heat transfer. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical model of multilayered aquifer system of Paris Basin is developed to reproduce the present time flow and the natural tracer (Helium) concentration profiles based on the last 2 Ma of geodynamic evolution. Present time geological conceptual model consist of 27 layers at Paris Basin (Triassic-Tertiary) with refinement at project site scale (29 layers from Triassic to Portlandian). Target layers are the clay host formation of Callovo-Oxfrodian age (160 Ma) and the surrounding aquifer layers of Oxfordian and Dogger. Modelled processes are: groundwater flow, heat and solutes (natural tracers) transport, freezing and thawing of groundwater (expansion and retreat of permafrost), deformation of the multilayered aquifer system induced by differential tectonic uplift and the hydro-mechanical stress effect as caused by erosion of the outcropping layers. Numerical simulation considers a period from 2 Ma BP and up to the present. Transient boundary conditions are governed by geodynamic processes: (i) modification of the geometry of the basin and (ii) temperatures along the topography will change according to a series of 15 identical climate cycles with multiple permafrost (glaciation) periods. Numerical model contains 71 layers and 18 million cells. The solution procedure solves three coupled systems of equations, head, temperature and concentrations, by the use of a finite difference method, and by applying extensive parallel processing. The major modelling results related to the processes of importance for site characterization as hydraulic

  16. Análise de projetos para unidades de conservação, usando lógica fuzzy Analysis of projects in conservation units, using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Medeiros

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um método para a análise de projetos candidatos à implantação em Unidades de Conservação, que usa a operação dos principais indicadores da economia, sociologia e ecologia, por meio da lógica fuzzy. São estruturadas árvores de decisão no modo top-down, onde as entradas são os indicadores primários e cada output é resultado de operações lógicas em um bloco de regras do tipo "se, e, ou, então". A lógica fuzzy foi escolhida em função da sua transparência para operar as informações, permitindo aos decisores uma clara compreensão sobre as conseqüências decorrentes das decisões tomadas ao longo do processo de análise. Como objeto de análise, foi considerada a possibilidade da implantação de um projeto turístico em uma área de restinga pertencente ao Estado de Santa Catarina. O resultado da aplicação do método mostra que ele é capaz de indicar aos decisores os níveis de apropriação de um projeto específico às condições dadas.This work presents a method for projects analyses, which are applying for implantation in Conservation Units, which operates economics, sociology, and ecology indicators by fuzzy logic. Top-down decision trees are structured, where the entries are the primary indicators and each output is the result of logic operations in a block of rules with operators "if", and, or, so". The fuzzy logic was chosen due to its transparency when operating the information, allowing the stakeholders to clearly understand the consequences caused by the decisions made throughout the analysis process. The possibility of implanting a tourist project was considered as object of analysis, in an area that belongs to the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The State government has already showed the intention of building a ecological park in such area. The result of the utilization of the method shows that it can show the stakeholders the levels of adequacy of a specific project to the given

  17. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  18. Striking a balance: socioeconomic development and conservation in grassland through community-based zoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Leisher

    Full Text Available The goal of preserving nature is often in conflict with economic development and the aspirations of the rural poor. Nowhere is this more striking than in native grasslands, which have been extensively converted until a mere fraction of their original extent remains. This is not surprising; grasslands flourish in places coveted by humans, primed for agriculture, plantations, and settlements that nearly always trump conservation efforts. The Umgano grassland conservation and poverty reduction project in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa uses community-based spatial planning to balance the conversion of its lower-conservation value grasslands to a timber plantation, while conserving higher-value grasslands for heritage purposes and managed livestock grazing. Ten years after project launch, we measured the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the project using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index remote sensing data and over 500 household interviews, as compared with similar non-conserved areas. Zoned management of the Umgano area had resulted in between 9% and 17% greater average peak production in the grassland areas compared to control sites. There was also a 21% gain in incomes for the roughly one hundred people employed by the forestry efforts, when compared to others in their village. Community-based spatial zoning is an overlooked tool for balancing conservation and development but may require, as we found in Umgano, certain critical factors including strong local leadership, an accountable financial management mechanism to distribute income, outside technical expertise for the zoning design, and community support.

  19. Social participation and oak forest conservation: Paipa and Duitama study case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Torres, Vivian Constanza; Palacio Tamayo, Dolly Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Social dynamics within social participation is a crucial issue for the accomplishment of forest conservation. In order to contribute to this field, a study of 31 institutional and community organized actors' cooperative practices, within forest conservation processes in Paipa and Duitama, located at the oak forests conservation corridor Guantiva, La Rusia, Iguaque in Colombia, was made, applying Social Network Analysis (SNA). Particularly, this article inquiry is about models of participation of these actors within the period of 2004-2008, looking at their projects and actions as management practices of forest conservation. The research questions were how social participation is included and understood in the conservation of these oak forests, observing cooperative practices amongst this set of actors, at local level. The results are related with the structural patterns of co-participation established amongst these actors within each other's projects and actions and the impact of those in the aim of forest conservation at local level, regarding power relations and its impact on forest conservation.

  20. Sequencing Conservation Actions Through Threat Assessments in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Sutter; Christopher C. Szell

    2006-01-01

    The identification of conservation priorities is one of the leading issues in conservation biology. We present a project of The Nature Conservancy, called Sequencing Conservation Actions, which prioritizes conservation areas and identifies foci for crosscutting strategies at various geographic scales. We use the term “Sequencing” to mean an ordering of actions over...

  1. Research activities in radiation protection. Programme report 1996. Report on the departmental research programme of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU), performed under the scientific and administrative project management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Thieme, M.; Goedde, R.

    1997-02-01

    On behalf of the Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Department Research Programme of the year 1996. (orig.) [de

  2. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  3. Data Basin: Expanding Access to Conservation Data, Tools, and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comendant, T.; Strittholt, J.; Frost, P.; Ward, B. C.; Bachelet, D. M.; Osborne-Gowey, J.

    2009-12-01

    Mapping and spatial analysis are a fundamental part of problem solving in conservation science, yet spatial data are widely scattered, difficult to locate, and often unavailable. Valuable time and resources are wasted locating and gaining access to important biological, cultural, and economic datasets, scientific analysis, and experts. As conservation problems become more serious and the demand to solve them grows more urgent, a new way to connect science and practice is needed. To meet this need, an open-access, web tool called Data Basin (www.databasin.org) has been created by the Conservation Biology Institute in partnership with ESRI and the Wilburforce Foundation. Users of Data Basin can gain quick access to datasets, experts, groups, and tools to help solve real-world problems. Individuals and organizations can perform essential tasks such as exploring and downloading from a vast library of conservation datasets, uploading existing datasets, connecting to other external data sources, create groups, and produce customized maps that can be easily shared. Data Basin encourages sharing and publishing, but also provides privacy and security for sensitive information when needed. Users can publish projects within Data Basin to tell more complete and rich stories of discovery and solutions. Projects are an ideal way to publish collections of datasets, maps and other information on the internet to reach wider audiences. Data Basin also houses individual centers that provide direct access to data, maps, and experts focused on specific geographic areas or conservation topics. Current centers being developed include the Boreal Information Centre, the Data Basin Climate Center, and proposed Aquatic and Forest Conservation Centers.

  4. Being relevant: Practical guidance for early career researchers interested in solving conservation problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Chapman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a human-altered world where biodiversity is in decline and conservation problems abound, there is a dire need to ensure that the next generation of conservation scientists have the knowledge, skills, and training to address these problems. So called “early career researchers” (ECRs in conservation science have many challenges before them and it is clear that the status quo must change to bridge the knowledge–action divide. Here we identify thirteen practical strategies that ECRs can employ to become more relevant. In this context, “relevance” refers to the ability to contribute to solving conservation problems through engagement with practitioners, policy makers, and stakeholders. Conservation and career strategies outlined in this article include the following: thinking ‘big picture’ during conservation projects; embracing various forms of knowledge; maintaining positive relationships with locals familiar with the conservation issue; accepting failure as a viable (and potentially valuable outcome; daring to be creative; embracing citizen science; incorporating interdisciplinarity; promoting and practicing pro-environmental behaviours; understanding financial aspects of conservation; forming collaboration from the onset of a project; accepting the limits of technology; ongoing and effective networking; and finally, maintaining a positive outlook by focusing on and sharing conservation success stories. These strategies move beyond the generic and highlight the importance of continuing to have an open mind throughout the entire conservation process, from establishing one’s self as an asset to embracing collaboration and interdisciplinary work, and striving to push for professional and personal connections that strengthen personal career objectives.

  5. Conserving and managing the subnivium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Pauli, Jonathan N

    2018-02-08

    In regions where snowfall historically has been a defining seasonal characteristic of the landscape, warming winters have reduced the depth, duration, and extent of snowpack. However, most management and conservation has focused on how aboveground wildlife will be affected by altered snow conditions, even though the majority of species that persist through the winter do so under the snowpack in a thermally stable refugium: the subnivium. Shortened winters, forest management practices, and winter recreation can alter subnivium conditions by increasing snow compaction and compromising thermal stability at the soil-snow interface. To help slow the loss of the subnivium in the face of rapidly changing winter conditions, we suggest managers adopt regional conservation plans for identifying threatened snow-covered environments; measure and predict the effects land cover and habitat management has on local subnivium conditions; and control the timing and distribution of activities that disturb and compact snow cover (e.g., silvicultural practices, snow recreation, and road and trail maintenance). As a case study, we developed a spatially explicit model of subnivium presence in a working landscape of the Chequamegon National Forest, Wisconsin. We identified landscapes where winter recreation and management practices could threaten potentially important areas for subnivium persistence. Similar modeling approaches could inform management decisions related to subnivium conservation. Current climate projections predict that snow seasons will change rapidly in many regions, and as result, we advocate for the immediate recognition, conservation, and management of the subnivium and its dependent species. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Political transition and emergent forest-conservation issues in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Graham W; Sutherland, William J; Aguirre, Daniel; Baird, Matthew; Bowman, Vicky; Brunner, Jake; Connette, Grant M; Cosier, Martin; Dapice, David; De Alban, Jose Don T; Diment, Alex; Fogerite, Julia; Fox, Jefferson; Hlaing, Win; Htun, Saw; Hurd, Jack; LaJeunesse Connette, Katherine; Lasmana, Felicia; Lim, Cheng Ling; Lynam, Antony; Maung, Aye Chan; McCarron, Benjamin; McCarthy, John F; McShea, William J; Momberg, Frank; Mon, Myat Su; Myint, Than; Oberndorf, Robert; Oo, Thaung Naing; Phelps, Jacob; Rao, Madhu; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; Speechly, Hugh; Springate-Baginski, Oliver; Steinmetz, Robert; Talbott, Kirk; Than, Maung Maung; Thaung, Tint Lwin; Thawng, Salai Cung Lian; Thein, Kyaw Min; Thein, Shwe; Tizard, Robert; Whitten, Tony; Williams, Guy; Wilson, Trevor; Woods, Kevin; Ziegler, Alan D; Zrust, Michal; Webb, Edward L

    2017-12-01

    Political and economic transitions have had substantial impacts on forest conservation. Where transitions are underway or anticipated, historical precedent and methods for systematically assessing future trends should be used to anticipate likely threats to forest conservation and design appropriate and prescient policy measures to counteract them. Myanmar is transitioning from an authoritarian, centralized state with a highly regulated economy to a more decentralized and economically liberal democracy and is working to end a long-running civil war. With these transitions in mind, we used a horizon-scanning approach to assess the 40 emerging issues most affecting Myanmar's forests, including internal conflict, land-tenure insecurity, large-scale agricultural development, demise of state timber enterprises, shortfalls in government revenue and capacity, and opening of new deforestation frontiers with new roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams. Averting these threats will require, for example, overhauling governance models, building capacity, improving infrastructure- and energy-project planning, and reforming land-tenure and environmental-protection laws. Although challenges to conservation in Myanmar are daunting, the political transition offers an opportunity for conservationists and researchers to help shape a future that enhances Myanmar's social, economic, and environmental potential while learning and applying lessons from other countries. Our approach and results are relevant to other countries undergoing similar transitions. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 666-678 ISSN 1755-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conservative translation * deductive system * nonclassical logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8757256

  8. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  9. 75 FR 48934 - Coral Reef Conservation Program Implementation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...-01] RIN 0648-ZC19 Coral Reef Conservation Program Implementation Guidelines AGENCY: National Oceanic... Guidelines (Guidelines) for the Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP or Program) under the Coral Reef... assistance for coral reef conservation projects under the Act. NOAA revised the Implementation Guidelines for...

  10. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  11. Making a better case for biodiversity conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bugter, Rob; Harrison, Paula; Haslett, John; Tinch, Rob

    2018-01-01

    This Editorial to the BESAFE special issue introduces the project and its approach and case studies. The BESAFE (EC 7th Framework programme) project investigated how the effectiveness of different types of arguments for biodiversity conservation depends on the context in which they are used. Our

  12. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  13. A systematic review of motivational values and conservation success in and around protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetas, Elijah R; Yasué, Maï

    2017-02-01

    In conservation projects in and around protected areas (PAs), a suite of policy instruments are used to promote conservation behavior in local people. Few studies have related psychological research on motivational values to conservation in PAs. We conducted a systematic review of 120 peer-reviewed articles to assess the relative frequencies of policy instruments that aimed to foster intrinsic versus extrinsic motivations to conserve. We examined how the type of motivation engendered by the instrument (i.e., intrinsic or extrinsic motivation and based on the description of how the project was designed and implemented) influenced the ecological, economic, and social success of the project. We assessed the success of the project in only the case studies that included a quantitative or qualitative analysis of success. Projects designed to foster at least one intrinsically motivating instrument were 3 times more likely to meet socioeconomic or ecological goals. Although certain types of instruments such as payments or fines tended to be based on extrinsic motivators more often than education or monitoring programs, several successful projects involving payments or fines were linked to intrinsic motivation in the local community. Thus, our results suggest that rather than debating the relative merits of specific types of policy instruments, conservationists may have more success by focusing on how different motivators, suited to specific contexts, can better empower local communities to conserve. Broadly, our results suggest the current emphasis on social justice and well-being of local communities is a positive step toward protecting the world's remaining biodiversity. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Hunting down the chimera of multiple disciplinarity in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Simon P; Mendelsohn, J Andrew; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-02-01

    The consensus is that both ecological and social factors are essential dimensions of conservation research and practice. However, much of the literature on multiple disciplinary collaboration focuses on the difficulties of undertaking it. This review of the challenges of conducting multiple disciplinary collaboration offers a framework for thinking about the diversity and complexity of this endeavor. We focused on conceptual challenges, of which 5 main categories emerged: methodological challenges, value judgments, theories of knowledge, disciplinary prejudices, and interdisciplinary communication. The major problems identified in these areas have proved remarkably persistent in the literature surveyed (c.1960-2012). Reasons for these failures to learn from past experience include the pressure to produce positive outcomes and gloss over disagreements, the ephemeral nature of many such projects and resulting lack of institutional memory, and the apparent complexity and incoherence of the endeavor. We suggest that multiple disciplinary collaboration requires conceptual integration among carefully selected multiple disciplinary team members united in investigating a shared problem or question. We outline a 9-point sequence of steps for setting up a successful multiple disciplinary project. This encompasses points on recruitment, involving stakeholders, developing research questions, negotiating power dynamics and hidden values and conceptual differences, explaining and choosing appropriate methods, developing a shared language, facilitating on-going communications, and discussing data integration and project outcomes. Although numerous solutions to the challenges of multiple disciplinary research have been proposed, lessons learned are often lost when projects end or experienced individuals move on. We urge multiple disciplinary teams to capture the challenges recognized, and solutions proposed, by their researchers while projects are in process. A database of well

  15. 75 FR 9921 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San... the NCCP/HCP's conservation strategy. Covered Activities would include developing new water... permit application, and notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The San Diego County Water Authority (Water...

  16. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negativ...... of continued conservation rather than road development....

  17. FY 1996 report on the basic survey project on the enhancement of energy efficiency in developing countries - database construction project. Volume 1. Outline of the survey and collection of the data to be included in database; 1996 nendo hatten tojokoku energy koritsuka kiso chosa jigyo (database kochiku jigyo) hokokusho. 1. Chosa no gaiyo oyobi database ni shurokusuru data no shushu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Following the previous fiscal year, construction/study of database were carried out with the aim of energy conservation for 8 countries: Japan, China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan and Korea. In the study of the items of the data included, the 192 data extracted in conceptual design were re-classified into 6 large-groups and 91 medium-groups. As to the data collection, in A group countries, counterparts were requested to collect data, and 1342-1740 data were newly collected. In B group countries, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. mostly collected 957 new data in Thailand, 814 data in Malaysia and 1312 data in Japan in cooperation with research institutes and investigating organizations in each country. In C group countries, 169 and 317 common data items were collected in Vietnam and India, respectively. Relating to plans for database promotion, as a result of the study with each country, 16 measures for promotion were extracted in terms of the leveling-up of NEDO-DB recognition, education of the use method, training of the operation method, etc. (NEDO)

  18. A Building as a Catalyst for Change: the New British Library Centre for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Centre for Conservation at the British Library (BLCC opened in London this year. This 2600 square metre, purpose-built Centre is connected to the main British Library by a new public terrace and is adjacent to the new St Pancras Eurostar station opening in November 2007. The Centre houses state-of-the-art book conservation studios and sound preservation studios, together with facilities for an extensive training and public outreach programme. The public programme includes a permanent, free exhibition and education suite at the entrance to the new Centre, linked to the rotation of iconic collection items within the BL’s Treasures Gallery. There are to be free, behind-the-scenes tours of the conservation studios for the public as well as demonstrations, workshops and talks. The professional outreach includes partnering with the University of the Arts on setting up a new two-year Foundation Degree in Book Conservation, setting up funded internships for book and sound preservation, and steps to furthering the BL in conservation research. From the beginning, there were three main, intertwined elements at the core of the Centre for Conservation project, namely construction, fund-raising and a ‘change programme’. The paper describes the construction project and highlights features such as the ‘floating’ sound studios, the natural north light that bathes the majority of the conservation studios and describes how the needs of visitors and circulation were anticipated. Secondly it describes the nature of the fund-raising for the €19.65 (£13.25 million project, which was the first such capital fund-raising project undertaken by the BL. The money has been raised from a combination of public and private sources. The mixture of conservation, professional training and public access has been key to the success in raising the funds. Thirdly, the paper describes how the impetus for providing appropriate accommodation for those areas not

  19. Transportation energy conservation data book: edition I. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonka, D B; Loebl, A S; Ogle, M C; Johnson, M L; Howard, E B

    1977-01-01

    This document contains statistical information on the major transportation modes, their respective energy consumption patterns, and other pertinent factors influencing performance in the transportation sector. Data relating to past, present, and projected energy use and conservation in the transportation sector are presented under seven chapter headings. These focus on (1) modal transportation characteristics, (2) energy characteristics of the transportation sector, (3) energy conservation alternatives involving the transportation sector, (4) government impacts on the transportation sector, (5) the supply of energy to the transportation sector, (6) characteristics of transportation demand, and (7) miscellaneous reference materials such as energy conversion factors and geographical maps. References are included for each set of data presented, and a more general bibliography is included at the end of the book. In addition, a glossary of key terms and a subject index is provided for the user. A second edition of this document is scheduled for publication in September 1977.

  20. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  1. Conservation of forest genetic resources in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. St. Clair; S. Lipow; K. Vance-Borland; R. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity is recognized as an important requirement of sustainable forest management. Gene conservation activities include in situ conservation of native stands in reserves and ex situ conservation in seed banks, genetic tests, seed and breeding orchards, and other plantations of known identity. We present an example from Oregon and Washington...

  2. Conservation and Ecotourism in Brazil and Mexico: The Development Impact

    OpenAIRE

    David Ivan Fleischer

    2009-01-01

    Conservation projects alter local productive modes and have an impact on livelihoods. For example, sea turtle conservation projects affect fishing communities through hunting restrictions. It is not painless for communities to improve fishing technology in order to prevent the accidental capture of sea turtles. The inability to adapt to environmental requirements forces fishermen to abandon traditional livelihoods. A combination of environmental conservation and ecotourism development can pro...

  3. Shell petroleum handbook. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The present edition has been completely updated and revised, reflecting the very great changes which have come about in the oil industry over the last 18 years, since the last edition appeared. The expressed aim of the Handbook is to combine explanations of the processes of today's petroleum industry, from crude oil exploration to product end-use, with some historical background and explanation of the economic context in which the oil, gas and petrochemical industries operate. It is therefore intended as a technical reference manual, although it will be of interest both to specialists in search of information outside their expertise and to the more general reader. Chapter 3, entitled Exploration and Production, is concerned with structural geology, exploration methods and theory, and reservoir engineering, although the economic and financial aspects of drilling, project management and communication logistics are also considered. Other chapters are devoted to the distribution, consumption and end use of natural gas and NGL, the chemistry of petroleum, the manufacture of oil products, marketing, supply and trading, petrochemicals, synfuels, R and D, environmental conservation, and introduction to the world petroleum industry, and a review of oil and gas in the centrally planned economies, although only the Soviet Union is considered in any detail.

  4. Conservation of living resources in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teer, James G.

    1996-11-01

    Conservation of living resources is no longer parochial in scope; it is a global challenge. Ecological, social, political, and business interests operate in a network that reaches across seas, continents, and nations. Industries, including the electric utility industry, are diversifying in products and expanding into international markets. They soon discover that, while all nations have common goals for their peoples, conservation and environmental issues in less-developed nations have different dimensions and norms than are encountered in Western, affluent societies. In developing countries, survival is more of an issue than quality of life, and burgeoning human numbers have put tremendous pressures on resources including wildlife and its habitats. Human population, urbanization of society, changes in single-species to ecosystem and landscape levels of management, and protectionists and animal rights philosophies are influences with which conservation of resources and the environment must contend. The human condition and conservation efforts are inextricably linked. Examples to demonstrate this fact are given for Project Tiger in India, the jaguar in Latin America, and the Serengeti ecosystem in Kenya and Tanzania.

  5. Vegetation response to climate change : implications for Canada's conservation lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.; Lemieux, C.

    2003-01-01

    Studies have shown that Canada's national parks are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. A wide range of biophysical climate change impacts could affect the integrity of conservation lands in each region of Canada. This report examines the potential impact of climate change on landscape alterations and vegetation distribution in Canada's wide network of conservation lands. It also presents several ways to integrate climate change into existing conservation policy and adaptation strategies. Canada's conservation lands include provincial parks, migratory bird sanctuaries, national wildlife areas and wildlife protected areas. This is the first study to examine biome changes by applying an equilibrium Global Vegetation Model (GVM) to Canada's network of national park systems. Some of the policy and planning challenges posed by changes in landscape level vegetation were also addressed. The report indicates that in terms of potential changes to the biome classification of Canada's national forests, more northern biomes are projected to decrease. These northern biomes include the tundra, taiga and boreal conifer forests. 56 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Water conservation and allocation guideline for oilfield injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper was prepared as a guide for regulatory agencies and developers using non-saline water sources in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) schemes. A systems approach was used to achieve specific environmental outcomes that adhered to the Water Conservation and Allocation Policy for Oilfield Injection. The guide was applicable to licence renewal applications for projects operating and licensed to use non-saline water resources, as well as new licence applications for oilfield injection use. The guide provided recommended water conservation practices and application requirements, and outlined regulatory procedures and steps for obtaining a Water Act licence. The guideline was prepared to eliminate the use of non-saline water in EOR projects where feasible alternatives existed, as well as to identify areas with water shortages and reduce the use of non-saline water. The guide included monitoring and reporting requirements to improve the evaluation of water use practices and outlined current initiatives to address water conservation and research. It was concluded that outcomes from the program will include reliable quality water supplies for a sustainable economy, healthy aquatic ecosystems, and safe, secure drinking water supplies for Albertans. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Design and development of the pilot project on energy conservation in rural areas: a case study in High Lands of Mantiqueira; Concepcao e desenvolvimento do projeto piloto de conservacao de energia no meio rural: estudo de caso nas Terras Altas da Mantiqueira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo Nogueira; Vianna, Augusto Nelson Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (IRN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], E-mail: mathidr@yahoo.com.br; Mattos, Roberto de [Fundacao ROGE, Delfim Moreira, MG (Brazil). Nucleo Integrado de Capacitacao Tecnica (NICATEC); Salvador, Emerson; Santos, Moises Antonio dos [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Eficiencia Energetica na Oferta

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the motivations, objectives and methods of 'Pilot Project for Energy Conservation in Rural Areas: A case study in Mantiqueira Highlands', executed by the Center for Integrated Technical Training (NICATEC) of ROGE Foundation (Delfim Moreira - Minas Gerais) in partnership with Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), with support of the Energy Group, Federal University of Itajuba. The project falls into the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL), seeking to extend to rural areas the activities and practices of conservation and rational use of electricity under the program, by the development of specific methodologies for energetic diagnosis and optimization of agrosystems. The object of study are farms that perform dairy farming, egg production and irrigated agriculture, located in eight municipalities of the Highlands. These properties are assessed through surveys and implementing the 'Questionnaire for energy use characterization rural areas', allowing the generation of indicators relating energy consumption with the agricultural production, beyond identifying the main causes of waste, for further development of educational material containing best practices for electricity conservation in rural areas. (author)

  8. Conservation voltage regulation (CVR) applied to energy savings by voltage-adjusting equipment through AMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, B.-R.; Chang, C.-A.; Huang, P.-Y.; Kuo, C.-H.; Ye, Z.-J.; Shen, B.-C.; Chen, B.-K.

    2017-11-01

    Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) includes peak demand reduction, energy conservation, carbon emission reduction, and electricity bill reduction. This paper analyzes the energy-reduction of Siwei Feeders with applying CVR, which are situated in Penghu region and equipped with smart meters. Furthermore, the applicable voltage reduction range for the feeders will be explored. This study will also investigate how the CVR effect and energy conservation are improved with the voltage control devices integrated. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the Taiwan Power Company to promote and implement voltage reduction and energy conservation techniques. This study is expected to enhance the energy-reduction performance of the Penghu Low Carbon Island Project.

  9. Projet MAMIA (Manompana mikajy ny ala : étude, gestion et conservation des forêts de Manompana. Actions, bilan et perspectives MAMIA Project (Manompana mikajy ny ala: survey, management and conservation of Manompana forest. Actions, outcomes and futur prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségolène Beaucent

    2011-10-01

    conservation des milieux naturels et du développement des communautés locales.The MAMIA Project was initiated back in 2007, and is designed to study then optimize conservation of the rainforest of Manompana, a coastal district located in the Analanjirofo area (north-east Madagascar. Two thirds of Manompana district still show a unique and rich natural heritage forest formations, made of lowland evergreen humid forest, littoral forest and mangrove. While human activities progressively damage and fragment those natural habitats, fauna inventories carried out in the forest of Manompana (lemurs, birds and herpetofauna keep on showing high species diversity and rich natural area, much of those being still well preserved due to their remoteness. Manompana’s forest is also a key resource for local communities, which keep quite close relationships with their land. A survey relating to the various uses of forest resources confirms that, apart from hunting and poaching, majority of forest harvestings performed by inhabitants are compatible with sustainability of this natural forest. Dislike traditional forest harvestings, business oriented forest harvestings, focusing on high value wood species such as ebony and rosewood, are more likely the main reason of deforestation issue. In order to get the inhabitants more concerned and involved in sustainable control of their forest resources, a “community advisory council” was put in place then operated. In the meantime an environmental awareness display was performed to Manompana’s young people. Alternative economic activities such as sustainable agriculture, ecotourism and forest products marketing were initiated so that irrational use of forest resources may decrease. These alternative activities are targeted to facilitate sustainable use of forest resources, as well as serving biodiversity conservation and on site development.

  10. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  11. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  12. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  13. Lyme disease and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  14. Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks

    CERN Document Server

    Nimmrichter, Johann; Schreiner, Manfred; LACONA VI Proceedings

    2007-01-01

    Within the last decades, the use of lasers in artworks conservation became an important tool for many conservators, scientists, architects and other experts, who are involved in the care of monuments and artefacts or laser technology. For the first time in 1995 Professor Costas Fotakis brought together restorers and scientists to discuss the potential of lasers in art conservation. Since then the field of "Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks" has gained enormously in importance. Nowadays restorers and laser scientists work close together in order to develop new fields of applications during the last years. Furthermore a large number of national and international research projects have been carried out by conservator-restorers, architects and scientists. In the last 10 years a number of historical and artistic high quality monuments (e.g. St. Stephens Cathedral in Vienna) have been cleaned or measured by laser and brought the laser in the spectra of tools which are useful in the sensible field of artworks. ...

  15. Solar energy and conservation technologies for Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objectives of the Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF) project were to develop and publish materials and conduct workshops on solar energy and conservation technologies that would directly address the needs and interests of tourist facilities in the Caribbean basin. Past contacts with the Caribbean and US tourist industries indicated that decision-makers remained unconvinced that renewable technologies could have a significant impact on development and operation costs or that renewable energy products and services suited their needs. In order to assure that the materials and programs developed were responsive to the Caribbean tourist industry and U.S. conservation and renewable energy industries, marketing research with potential end users and the organizations and associations that serve those users was included as an underlying task in the project. The tasks outlined in the CTF Statement of Work included conference planning, gathering of field data, development of educational materials, and conduct of workshop(s). In addition to providing a chronicle of the fulfillment of those tasks, this final report includes suggestions for distributing the documents developed during the project, venues for future workshops, and other technology transfer and market influence strategies.

  16. Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli Pekka

    2015-01-01

    = 0.6%), intact areas with low vulnerability that represent potential climate refugia and require conservation capacity maintenance; (iii) resistant (B1 = 6.7%, A1B = 0.8%, A2 = 1.1%), landscapes with low current conservation capacity and low vulnerability that are suitable for restoration projects......Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21st century. Landscape suitability for species under climate...... change is determined by several interacting factors including dispersal and human land use. Designing effective conservation strategies at regional scales to improve landscape suitability requires measuring the vulnerabilities of specific regions to climate change and determining their conservation...

  17. Laser techniques in conservation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of laser technologies into the field of art conservation, which was started more than thirty years ago in Italy, has revolutionary changed this field in many countries around the world. Though the dissemination of lasers in conservation in Russia goes slowly, it has a long and interesting history. This paper describes early projects concerned with the use of lasers in Cultural Heritage preservation and presents review of most important recent Russian case studies. (Author)

  18. The legitimacy of incentive-based conservation and a critical account of social safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Torsten; Nielsen, Tobias Dan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Legitimacy is a condition for the success of incentive based conservation and REDD+ programs, beyond pure carbon effectiveness. • Local stakeholders, i.e., Indigenous groups, must perceive these programs to be legitimate. • Social safeguards are not neutral but part of a wider discourse on how REDD+ is designed and legitimized. • Input and output criteria of legitimacy can provide a useful way to determine the legitimacy of conservation incentive programs. - Abstract: Incentive-based conservation has become a significant part of how tropical forests are being governed. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is a mechanism to mitigate climate change that many countries have started to implement. REDD+, however, is criticized for its potential negative impacts on local populations and Indigenous people. To prevent and mitigate the negative impacts, safeguards are increasingly being used to prevent and shift the focus toward ‘non-carbon’ elements of forest conservation. We discuss the legitimacy of these types of projects from a stakeholder perspective. Using a normative framework, we assess the Ecuadorian Socio Bosque conservation program, concentrating more specifically on the level of input and output legitimacy. Results show that Socio Bosque in its current form has shortcomings in both input and output legitimacy. We argue that an encompassing conception of legitimacy, including input and output criteria, particularly from a local stakeholder perspective, is essential for the future success of incentive-based conservation and particularly for REDD+ projects

  19. Newsletter: work of the Committee and projects funded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Information about the work of the Committee is summarized. It has developed a series of project priorities. These are as follows in order of priority: projects that determine current and future energy demand; projects concerned with the conservation and more efficient use of energy; projects concerned with the assessment of indigenous energy resources; projects concerned with the assessment of the human, financial, and organizational resources for increasing energy production and use; projects concerned with economic, technological, and environmental aspects of energy use and production over the next 15 years and beyond the next 15 years. In addition, environmental and sociological projects are considered to be very important. All projects are required to have included consideration of environmental and sociological issues but there may also be specific environmental projects such as the one related to cooling water pond modelling (MCW)

  20. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  1. Illinois energy conservation plan report: 1979 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In response to Energy Policy and this Conservation Act (PL 94-163) and Energy Conservation and Production Act (PL 94-385), this paper describes the activities to be undertaken by Illinois to meet the mandatory requirements of the Acts and to carry out other activities to encourage energy conservation by energy-consuming sectors in the state. Programs reach the residential, commercial/industrial, agricultural, educational, transportation, and government sectors. The overall goal of the program is to reduce projected energy consumption in 1980 by 5% through information and educational activities.

  2. Radiation protection research projects. Program report 2015. Report on research program radiation protection of the Federal ministry for environment, nature conservation and reactor safety with technical and administrative steering by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz; Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2015. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela (comps.)

    2016-08-15

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects serve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. The tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection involve planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects. This report provides information on results, i. e. preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2015.

  3. Conservation of threatened natural habitats

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this book is to give a holistic setting to the conservation of plants and animals. Instead of concentrating on species alone, the aim is to spread the concern to the physical and biological features; including humanity that make up...

  4. Integrating Conservation and Development in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kilbane Gockel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have critiqued integrated conservation and development projects for failing to attain either of their two major goals. This paper evaluates one such project in Peru's Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, which entailed community-based natural resource-management plans for palm and aquatic resources. We conducted semistructured interviews with reserve inhabitants (n=57 during May 2007, as well as key-informant interviews with state and non-governmental organization (NGO staff. Monitoring data and reports from NGOs were important secondary sources in this study. The intervention has improved the status of targeted species and has improved the well-being of participants. This project worked well for a number of reasons, including the long-term commitment of the implementing organization, the social capital and legitimacy provided by participation in management groups, and the fact that local knowledge was incorporated into resource-management techniques.

  5. The South African Experience of Conservation and Social Forestry Outreach Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Jenny; Witkowski, Ed T. F.; Cock, Jacklyn

    2006-11-01

    Outreach nurseries are favored conservation and social forestry tools globally, but, as with many integrated conservation and development programs (ICDPs), they do not always produce anticipated results. A synopsis of the experience of South African practitioners is provided in this study of 65 outreach nurseries. South African outreach nurseries frequently include financial objectives, creating additional challenges in simultaneously attaining conservation and socioeconomic goals. Progress was hindered by biophysical problems (e.g., lack of water, poor soils, etc.) as well as the harsh socioeconomic conditions facing most communities in which nurseries had been established. Attaining financial viability was challenging. Business management skills were often restricted, and few viability studies included adequate market research. Costs to community participants were usually high, and benefits were limited. Conservation objectives were frequently lost in the struggle to attain financial viability. The management of social processes also proved challenging. Although small scale and relatively straightforward compared with many ICDPs, nurseries usually require substantial institutional support, including a range of technical, business, and development services. Project time frames need to be reconsidered, as practitioners estimate that it takes 5-10 years for nurseries to start meeting objectives, and donors and implementing agencies often operate on 2-3-year project cycles. Detailed viability studies are essential, incorporating a social probe and an assessment of potential impacts of projects on community participants. Progress needs to be continuously evaluated to enable institutions and community participants to adapt to changing conditions as well as ensure that the spectrum of objectives are being achieved.

  6. Banks and Financial Services, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Banks and Financial Services dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was...

  7. Banks and Financial Services, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Banks and Financial Services dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was...

  8. Hospitals, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Hospitals dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009...

  9. Hospitals, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St., Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Hospitals dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009...

  10. Knowledge co-production and boundary work to promote implementation of conservation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Jeanne L; Roux, Dirk J; Driver, Amanda; Hill, Liesl; Maherry, Ashton C; Snaddon, Kate; Petersen, Chantel R; Smith-Adao, Lindie B; Van Deventer, Heidi; Reyers, Belinda

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge co-production and boundary work offer planners a new frame for critically designing a social process that fosters collaborative implementation of resulting plans. Knowledge co-production involves stakeholders from diverse knowledge systems working iteratively toward common vision and action. Boundary work is a means of creating permeable knowledge boundaries that satisfy the needs of multiple social groups while guarding the functional integrity of contributing knowledge systems. Resulting products are boundary objects of mutual interest that maintain coherence across all knowledge boundaries. We examined how knowledge co-production and boundary work can bridge the gap between planning and implementation and promote cross-sectoral cooperation. We applied these concepts to well-established stages in regional conservation planning within a national scale conservation planning project aimed at identifying areas for conserving rivers and wetlands of South Africa and developing an institutional environment for promoting their conservation. Knowledge co-production occurred iteratively over 4 years in interactive stake-holder workshops that included co-development of national freshwater conservation goals and spatial data on freshwater biodiversity and local conservation feasibility; translation of goals into quantitative inputs that were used in Marxan to select draft priority conservation areas; review of draft priority areas; and packaging of resulting map products into an atlas and implementation manual to promote application of the priority area maps in 37 different decision-making contexts. Knowledge co-production stimulated dialogue and negotiation and built capacity for multi-scale implementation beyond the project. The resulting maps and information integrated diverse knowledge types of over 450 stakeholders and represented >1000 years of collective experience. The maps provided a consistent national source of information on priority conservation areas

  11. Economic aspects of possible residential heating conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkowicz, M.; Szul, A. [Technical Univ., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents methods of evaluation of energy and economy related effects of different actions aimed at conservation in residential buildings. It identifies also the method of selecting the most effective way of distribution funds assigned to weatherization as well as necessary improvements to be implemented within the heating node and the internal heating system of the building. The analysis of data gathered for four 11-stories high residential buildings of {open_quotes}Zeran{close_quotes} type being subject of the Conservation Demonstrative Project, included a differentiated scope of weatherization efforts and various actions aimed at system upgrading. Basing upon the discussion of the split of heat losses in a building as well as the established energy savings for numerous options of upgrading works, the main problem has been defined. It consists in optimal distribution of financial means for the discussed measures if the total amount of funds assigned for modifications is defined. The method based upon the principle of relative increments has been suggested. The economical and energy specifications of the building and its components, required for this method have also been elaborated. The application of this method allowed to define the suggested optimal scope of actions within the entire fund assigned for the comprehensive weatherization.

  12. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  13. Fuel conservation: the airline - ATC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundy, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The air traffic control system has a greater impact on fuel conservation than any other factor in aviation, the most energy intensive industry in the world. The article discusses various measures that could be adopted by airlines and air traffic controllers to increase fuel conservation. These include: reducing operating empty weights, flying at optimum altitude, direct routing, linear holding, speed control, flight planning, loading for favorable center of gravity to reduce trim drag, minimizing route mileage, and clearance priorities for more fuel demanding aircraft during landing.

  14. The crucial contribution of veterinarians to conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Richard P; Kenny, David E; Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Conservation biology is a relatively new (began in the 1980s), value-based discipline predicated on the belief that biological diversity-from genes to populations to species to communities to ecosystems-is good and extinction is bad. Conservation biology grew from the recognition that the Earth has entered its sixth great extinction event, one that differs from previous great extinctions in that a single species-Homo sapiens-has caused this biodiversity crisis. A diverse, interacting set of variables drive current extinctions. As such, to succeed, conservation efforts usually require broad-based, interdisciplinary approaches. Conservationists increasingly recognize the importance of contributions by veterinary science, among many other disciplines, to collaborative efforts aimed at stemming the loss of biodiversity. We argue that, to improve success rates, many wildlife conservation programs must incorporate veterinarians as part of an interdisciplinary team to assess and address problems. Ideally, veterinarians who participate in conservation would receive specialized training and be willing to work as partners as part of a larger team of experts who effectively integrate their work rather than work independently (i.e., work as interdisciplinary, as opposed to multidisciplinary, teams, respectively). In our opinion, the most successful and productive projects involve interdisciplinary teams involving both biological and nonbiological specialists. Some researchers hold multiple degrees in biology and veterinary medicine or the biological and social sciences. These experts can often offer unique insight. We see at least 3 major areas in which veterinarians can immediately offer great assistance to conservation efforts: (1) participation in wildlife capture and immobilization, (2) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife health issues, and (3) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues, including using wildlife as sentinels to identify new

  15. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  16. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  17. Physiology can contribute to better understanding, management, and conservation of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Rummer, Jodie L

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef fishes, like many other marine organisms, are affected by anthropogenic stressors such as fishing and pollution and, owing to climate change, are experiencing increasing water temperatures and ocean acidification. Against the backdrop of these various stressors, a mechanistic understanding of processes governing individual organismal performance is the first step for identifying drivers of coral reef fish population dynamics. In fact, physiological measurements can help to reveal potential cause-and-effect relationships and enable physiologists to advise conservation management by upscaling results from cellular and individual organismal levels to population levels. Here, we highlight studies that include physiological measurements of coral reef fishes and those that give advice for their conservation. A literature search using combined physiological, conservation and coral reef fish key words resulted in ~1900 studies, of which only 99 matched predefined requirements. We observed that, over the last 20 years, the combination of physiological and conservation aspects in studies on coral reef fishes has received increased attention. Most of the selected studies made their physiological observations at the whole organism level and used their findings to give conservation advice on population dynamics, habitat use or the potential effects of climate change. The precision of the recommendations differed greatly and, not surprisingly, was least concrete when studies examined the effects of projected climate change scenarios. Although more and more physiological studies on coral reef fishes include conservation aspects, there is still a lack of concrete advice for conservation managers, with only very few published examples of physiological findings leading to improved management practices. We conclude with a call to action to foster better knowledge exchange between natural scientists and conservation managers to translate physiological findings more

  18. Plant conservation progress in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayri Havens; Andrea Kramer; Ed. Guerrant

    2017-01-01

    Effective national plant conservation has several basic needs, including: 1) accessible, up-to-date information on species distribution and rarity; 2) research and management capacity to mitigate the impact of threats that make plants rare; 3) effective networks for conserving species in situ and ex situ; 4) education and training to make sure the right people are...

  19. Energy conservation at the Nippon Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Shigetoshi

    1979-07-01

    Characteristics of the Japanese energy demand-supply structure are discussed. Nippon Steel's energy consumption and energy conservation measures are discussed. Results of Nippon's energy conservation activities are summarized. Additional information on the Japanese short-range measures for the reduction in oil consumption, the effect of efforts for the reduction of petroleum consumption, and concrete measures for securing the effect is included.

  20. Economics, Ethics, Ecology: Roots of Productive Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, Walter E., Ed.

    Forty-seven articles represent most of the papers presented at the annual meeting of the Soil Conservation Society of America. The conference addressed the facts and values from economics, ethics, and ecology as they pertain to critical issues in land and water conservation in North America. Part I includes discussions of economic realities,…

  1. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... area of the municipal or public water supply. Such program shall include a program for leakage control... shall be adopted and implemented to provide for the detection and expeditious correction of leakage. (3... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conservation...

  2. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  3. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  4. REVIEW: The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at The Nature Conservancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareiva, Peter; Groves, Craig; Marvier, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy (TNC) was founded by ecologists as a United States land trust to purchase parcels of habitat for the purpose of scientific study. It has evolved into a global organization working in 35 countries 'to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends'. TNC is now the world 's largest conservation non-governmental organization (NGO), an early adopter of advances in ecological theory and a producer of new science as a result of practising conservation.The Nature Conservancy 's initial scientific innovation was the use of distributional data for rare species and ecological communities to systematically target lands for conservation. This innovation later evolved into a more rigorous approach known as 'Conservation by Design' that contained elements of systematic conservation planning, strategic planning and monitoring and evaluation.The next scientific transition at TNC was a move to landscape-scale projects, motivated by ideas from landscape ecology. Because the scale at which land could be set aside in areas untouched by humans fell far short of the spatial scale demanded by conservation, TNC became involved with best management practices for forestry, grazing, agriculture, hydropower and other land uses.A third scientific innovation at TNC came with the pursuit of multiobjective planning that accounts for economic and resource needs in the same plans that seek to protect biodiversity.The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment prompted TNC to become increasingly concerned with ecosystem services and the material risk to people posed by ecosystem deterioration.Finally, because conservation depends heavily upon negotiation, TNC has recently recruited social scientists, economists and communication experts. One aspect still missing, however, is a solid scientific understanding of thresholds that should be averted. Synthesis and applications . Over its 60-plus year history, scientific advances have informed The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 's actions

  5. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  6. Analysis to develop a program for energy conservation in irrigated agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.; Brix, V.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Laughlin, B.M.

    1978-09-01

    It is estimated by the FEA that 0.26 quadrillion Btus of energy is annually required to irrigate crops in the USA. The development of a DOE program for energy conservation in irrigation is described. Information is included on: studies of how this energy consumption can be reduced and by how much; engineering and economic studies of irrigation equipment and methods; proposals for improving the efficiency of pumps and prime movers; projects selected for demonstrating irrigation energy conservation; and recommendations for further research. (LCL)

  7. Project Physics Tests 3, The Triumph of Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 3 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 20 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of mechanics are examined on energy, momentum, kinetic theory of gases, pulse analyses, "heat death," water waves, power, conservation laws, normal distribution, thermodynamic laws, and…

  8. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  9. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  10. 77 FR 2975 - Roosevelt Water Conservation District; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    .... Project No.: 11572-001. c. Date Initiated: January 9, 2012. d. Exemptee: Roosevelt Water Conservation District. e. Name and Location of Project: The Roosevelt Water Conservation District Conduit Hydropower..., Roosevelt Water Conservation District, 2344 S. Higley Road, Gilbert, AZ 82595-4794, (480) 988-9586. [[Page...

  11. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  12. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  13. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  14. Research activities in radiation protection. Programme report 1997. Report on the departmental research programme of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU), performed under the scientific and administrative project management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Goedde, R.; Thieme, M.

    1998-03-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Departmental Research Programme of the year 1997. (orig.) [de

  15. Conservation planning for the Colorado River in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Rasmussen,; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic planning is increasingly recognized as necessary for providing the greatest possible conservation benefits for restoration efforts. Rigorous, science-based resource assessment, combined with acknowledgement of broader basin trends, provides a solid foundation for determining effective projects. It is equally important that methods used to prioritize conservation investments are simple and practical enough that they can be implemented in a timely manner and by a variety of resource managers. With the help of local and regional natural resource professionals, we have developed a broad-scale, spatially-explicit assessment of 146 miles (~20,000 acres) of the Colorado River mainstem in Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah that will function as the basis for a systematic, practical approach to conservation planning and riparian restoration prioritization. For the assessment we have: 1) acquired, modified or created spatial datasets of Colorado River bottomland conditions; 2) synthesized those datasets into habitat suitability models and estimates of natural recovery potential, fire risk and relative cost; 3) investigated and described dominant ecosystem trends and human uses, and; 4) suggested site selection and prioritization approaches. Partner organizations (The Nature Conservancy, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management and Utah Forestry Fire and State Lands) are using the assessment and datasets to identify and prioritize a suite of restoration actions to increase ecosystem resilience and improve habitat for bottomland species. Primary datasets include maps of bottomland cover types, bottomland extent, maps of areas inundated during high and low flow events, as well as locations of campgrounds, roads, fires, invasive vegetation treatment areas and other features. Assessment of conditions and trends in the project area entailed: 1) assemblage of existing data on geology, changes in stream flow, and predictions of future conditions; 2) identification

  16. On nonepistemic values in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Bert; Holthuijzen, Wieteke

    2017-02-01

    Conservation biology is a uniquely interdisciplinary science with strong roots in ecology, but it also embraces a value-laden and mission-oriented framework. This combination of science and values causes conservation biology to be at the center of critique regarding the discipline's scientific credibility-especially the division between the realms of theory and practice. We identify this dichotomy between seemingly objective (fact-based) and subjective (value-laden) practices as the measure-value dichotomy, whereby measure refers to methods and analyses used in conservation biology (i.e., measuring biodiversity) and value refers to nonepistemic values. We reviewed and evaluated several landmark articles central to the foundation of conservation biology and concepts of biodiversity with respect to their attempts to separate measures and values. We argue that the measure-value dichotomy is false and that conservation biology can make progress in ways unavailable to other disciplines because its practitioners are tasked with engaging in both the realm of theory and the realm of practice. The entanglement of measures and values is by no means a weakness of conservation biology. Because central concepts such as biodiversity contain both factual and evaluative aspects, conservation biologists can make theoretical progress by examining, reviewing, and forming the values that are an integral part of those concepts. We suggest that values should be included and analyzed with respect to the methods, results, and conclusions of scientific work in conservation biology. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Multispecies genetic objectives in spatial conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Erica S; Beger, Maria; Henriques, Romina; Selkoe, Kimberly A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Growing threats to biodiversity and global alteration of habitats and species distributions make it increasingly necessary to consider evolutionary patterns in conservation decision making. Yet, there is no clear-cut guidance on how genetic features can be incorporated into conservation-planning processes, despite multiple molecular markers and several genetic metrics for each marker type to choose from. Genetic patterns differ between species, but the potential tradeoffs among genetic objectives for multiple species in conservation planning are currently understudied. We compared spatial conservation prioritizations derived from 2 metrics of genetic diversity (nucleotide and haplotype diversity) and 2 metrics of genetic isolation (private haplotypes and local genetic differentiation) in mitochondrial DNA of 5 marine species. We compared outcomes of conservation plans based only on habitat representation with plans based on genetic data and habitat representation. Fewer priority areas were selected for conservation plans based solely on habitat representation than on plans that included habitat and genetic data. All 4 genetic metrics selected approximately similar conservation-priority areas, which is likely a result of prioritizing genetic patterns across a genetically diverse array of species. Largely, our results suggest that multispecies genetic conservation objectives are vital to creating protected-area networks that appropriately preserve community-level evolutionary patterns. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  19. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  20. Controllability of conservative behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we first define the class of J-conservative behaviours with observable storage functions, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. We then provide two main results. The first result states that if J(-xi,xi) is nonsingular, the input cardinality of a J-conservative

  1. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  3. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  4. Preferred conservation policies of shark researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, David S; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing concern about the conservation status of sharks. However, the presence of numerous different (and potentially mutually exclusive) policies complicates management implementation and public understanding of the process. We distributed an online survey to members of the largest professional shark and ray research societies to assess member knowledge of and attitudes toward different conservation policies. Questions covered society member opinions on conservation and management policies, personal histories of involvement in advocacy and management, and perceptions of the approach of conservation nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to shark conservation. One hundred and two surveys were completed (overall response rate 21%). Respondents considered themselves knowledgeable about and actively involved in conservation and management policy; a majority believed scientists have a responsibility to advocate for conservation (75%), and majorities have sent formal public comments to policymakers (54%) and included policy suggestions in their papers (53%). They believe sustainable shark fisheries are possible, are currently happening today (in a few places), and should be the goal instead of banning fisheries. Respondents were generally less supportive of newer limit-based (i.e., policies that ban exploitation entirely without a species-specific focus) conservation policy tools, such as shark sanctuaries and bans on the sale of shark fins, than of target-based fisheries management tools (i.e., policies that allow for sustainable harvest of species whose populations can withstand it), such as fishing quotas. Respondents were generally supportive of environmental NGO efforts to conserve sharks but raised concerns about some NGOs that they perceived as using incorrect information and focusing on the wrong problems. Our results show there is an ongoing debate in shark conservation and management circles relative to environmental policy on target-based natural

  5. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  6. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  8. 18 CFR 801.4 - Project review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project review. 801.4 Section 801.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.4 Project review. (a) The Compact provides generally that no project affecting the water...

  9. Herpetological conservation in northwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanna H. Olson

    2009-01-01

    Conservation of the 105 species of amphibians, reptiles, and turtles in the northwestern United States and western Canada is represented by a diverse mix of projects and programs across ten states, provinces, and territories. In this paper, 29 contributing authors review the status of herpetofauna by state, province or territory, and summarize the key issues, programs...

  10. Conservation of systems during prolonged stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Movellan, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the project is to define the configuration, maintenance, and testing/operation of the different systems required in operation to power, in a way that is ensure adequate conservation allowing you to return to the safe operation of the Central with the reliability of such systems. (Author)

  11. Fiscal 1998 research report (continued from the fiscal 1997 project). International survey project for rational energy use / Basic survey on efficient energy use in developing countries (Database construction project) / Survey on Japanese energy conservation technologies; 1998 nendo (1997 nendo jigyo kurikoshi) kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado chosa jigyo hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa (database kochiku jigyo) chosa hokokusho. Nippon no sho energy gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    As a part of development of the energy conservation technology database, revision was made on 'Directory of Energy Conservation Technology in Japan' which was published to present the energy conservation technology of the Japanese energy-intensive industry to Asian countries in fiscal 1996. The previous directory was composed of 307 technical items, and 126 items among them were deleted and new 63 items were added through this revision. The technologies with energy conservation effects more than 10% were mainly selected by knowledge of the industrial members of the committee and other specialists. The energy conservation effect widely ranges from low-level one to high-level one, and the number of all the energy conservation technologies is enormous. Consequently, it should be considered that the applicable extent of the energy conservation technologies is dependent on the energy cost or economical situation of Japan and developing countries. (NEDO)

  12. Nature Conservation Division, Transvaal Provincial Administration.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature Conservation Division, Transvaal Provincial Administration. ... The surrogate mothers consisted of a wooden box base covered with 12 gauge iron mesh. This .... Data available for F at the age of five months are included in this table for.

  13. Drought Resilience and Water Conservation Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many areas of the US, the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought events are increasing, this brief highlights EPA drought and conservation activities across the nation and includes links to additional materials and reference documents.

  14. Conservation Planning for Coral Reefs Accounting for Climate Warming Disturbances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Magris

    Full Text Available Incorporating warming disturbances into the design of marine protected areas (MPAs is fundamental to developing appropriate conservation actions that confer coral reef resilience. We propose an MPA design approach that includes spatially- and temporally-varying sea-surface temperature (SST data, integrating both observed (1985-2009 and projected (2010-2099 time-series. We derived indices of acute (time under reduced ecosystem function following short-term events and chronic thermal stress (rate of warming and combined them to delineate thermal-stress regimes. Coral reefs located on the Brazilian coast were used as a case study because they are considered a conservation priority in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. We show that all coral reef areas in Brazil have experienced and are projected to continue to experience chronic warming, while acute events are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. We formulated quantitative conservation objectives for regimes of thermal stress. Based on these objectives, we then evaluated if/how they are achieved in existing Brazilian MPAs and identified priority areas where additional protection would reinforce resilience. Our results show that, although the current system of MPAs incorporates locations within some of our thermal-stress regimes, historical and future thermal refugia along the central coast are completely unprotected. Our approach is applicable to other marine ecosystems and adds to previous marine planning for climate change in two ways: (i by demonstrating how to spatially configure MPAs that meet conservation objectives for warming disturbance using spatially- and temporally-explicit data; and (ii by strategically allocating different forms of spatial management (MPA types intended to mitigate warming impacts and also enhance future resistance to climate warming.

  15. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  16. Current conservation status of Ratites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Living Ratites, which include several species or subspecies of ostriches, cassowaries, emus, rheas and kiwis, all with an important function in the ecosystem dynamics, endure the danger of extinction similarly to the extinct moas and elephant-birds. Whereas ostriches and emus, except for specific populations, are not seen as being endangered, cassowaries and kiwis are on the brink of extinction. Hunting by humans contributed most to the declining numbers in all families of Ratites. Some conservation management strategies have been developed for conservation of kiwis, one subspecies of cassowary, and some populations of ostriches, emus and rheas. These include captive breeding and release, habitat restoration, and public awareness. However, consideration of the limitations of the above techniques is often ignored.

  17. Energy projections 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The projections, prepared by Department of Energy officials, examine possible UK energy demand and supply prospects to the end of the century. They are based on certain broad long term assumptions about economic growth, technical improvements and movements in energy prices. The projections are intended to provide a broad quantitative framework for the consideration of possible energy futures and policy choices. Two cases are considered. In the first, the UK economy is assumed to grow at about 3 per cent to the end of the century and, in the second, at a lower level of about 2 per cent per annum. In both it is assumed that world oil prices will rise significantly above present levels (reaching some 30 dollars a barrel in terms of 1977 prices for Saudi Arabian marker crude by the end of the century). After incorporation of allowances for energy conservation which approximate to a reduction of some 20 per cent in demand, total primary fuel requirements in the year 2000 are estimated in the range 445 to 510 million tonnes of coal equivalent (mtce), representing an average rate of growth of 0.9 to 1.5 per cent a year. Potential indigenous energy supply by the end of the century is estimated in the range 390 to 410 mtce. This includes a possible installed nuclear capacity of up to 40 Gigawatts, approximately a fourfold increase on capacity already installed or under construction, and indigenous coal production of up to 155 million tonnes a year. The projections highlight the UK's prospective emergence during the later part of the century from a period from 1980 of energy surplus and the increasing roles which energy conservation, nuclear power and coal will be called upon to play as oil becomes scarcer and more expensive in the international market and as indigenous oil and gas production declines. (author)

  18. FY 1999 survey report on the cooperative basic project on the heightening of international energy consumption efficiency. Cooperative survey project in energy conservation/environmental protection fields in developing countries (Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam); 1999 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo. Hatten tojokoku ni okeru sho energy kankyo hozen bun'ya kyoryoku chosa jigyo (Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Tai, Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to the pollution preventive administration, clean energy technology, etc. in fields of energy conservation technology, clean energy technology and environment in Japan, administrative officials, researchers and engineers in the fields concerned in Asian countries were invited to Japan for training with the aim of the technology transfer/spread to developing countries. In FY 1999, a total of 15 administrative officials and engineers were invited from Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and had training at International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer. The themes for training are as follows: tackles with energy conservation/environmental protection by the Japanese government administration, pollution preventive measures against automobile gas emissions, pollution preventive measures against industrial gas emissions/waste water, technology for energy conservation, technology for industrial waste disposal, technology for recycling of wastes, etc. Reports were also made public on the situations of the countries participated in the project. Moreover, the field training was made at Yokkaichi complex, Sakakibara wind power plant, Hekinan thermal power plant of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Toyota Motor Corp., etc. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1999 survey report on the cooperative basic project on the heightening of international energy consumption efficiency. Cooperative survey project in energy conservation/environmental protection fields in developing countries (Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam); 1999 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo. Hatten tojokoku ni okeru sho energy kankyo hozen bun'ya kyoryoku chosa jigyo (Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Tai, Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to the pollution preventive administration, clean energy technology, etc. in fields of energy conservation technology, clean energy technology and environment in Japan, administrative officials, researchers and engineers in the fields concerned in Asian countries were invited to Japan for training with the aim of the technology transfer/spread to developing countries. In FY 1999, a total of 15 administrative officials and engineers were invited from Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and had training at International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer. The themes for training are as follows: tackles with energy conservation/environmental protection by the Japanese government administration, pollution preventive measures against automobile gas emissions, pollution preventive measures against industrial gas emissions/waste water, technology for energy conservation, technology for industrial waste disposal, technology for recycling of wastes, etc. Reports were also made public on the situations of the countries participated in the project. Moreover, the field training was made at Yokkaichi complex, Sakakibara wind power plant, Hekinan thermal power plant of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Toyota Motor Corp., etc. (NEDO)

  20. Linking promotion strategies for RES-E and for demand-side conservation in a dynamic European electricity market: Lessons from the EU projects OPTRES, FORRES and GREEN-X. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, Thomas; Resch, Gustav; Haas, Reinhard; Huber, Claus; Ragwitz, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the derivation of least-cost strategies for an significant increase of electricity generation from renewables (RES-E) with minimal costs for European citizens and to investigate the role of accompanying demand-side conservation (DSC) activities. The analyses are conducted by using the model GREEN-X funded by the EC. It allows analyses for both, the EU as a whole as well as for every single member state. Within the model the most important RES-E (e.g. biomass, wind-onshore and off-shore, geothermal, PV, solar thermal ...) technologies are described for every EU-15 country by means of dynamic cost-resource curves. Demand-side conservation measures are considered by aggregated cost-resource curves. To analyse various scenarios different policy schemes can be selected, (e.g. feed-in tariffs, tendering systems, investment subsidies, tax incentives, quotas, tradable certificates) and modelled in a dynamic framework. The corresponding costs and benefits for companies and consumers are an output.The major result is that DSC plays an important role for increasing the share of RES-E. E.g. the same deployment of RES in a conservation scenario leads to 28 % of RES-E by 2020 while in the BAU-scenario this share is only 20 %. Moreover, a certain quota of RES - e.g. 20 % - can be reached much cheaper if a certain share of money is invested in DSC. The core conclusion of this analysis is: On EU level it is of superior importance to introduce integrated policies - policies focusing on the promotion of RES and on energy conservation simultaneously - to reap the utmost benefits from public money invested

  1. Bird diversity, birdwatching tourism and conservation in Peru: a geographic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Puhakka

    Full Text Available In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1.

  2. Bird diversity, birdwatching tourism and conservation in Peru: a geographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1).

  3. The Role of Rural Communities in Conservation of Rangelands in Mahneshan Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Karimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the action of rangeland-depended livestock holders regarding rangeland conservation, including protection and rehabilitation activities and to analyse relevant influencing factors, using a mixed method of survey and case study. The data were collected through analysing existing documents, focus groups, semi-structured and structured interviews using questionnaires submitted to 204 rural livestock holders in the Mahneshan Township. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results farmers’ knowledge regarding the role, importance and factors affecting rangeland degradation was relatively high, however they had a low level of knowledge and action about mechanical conservation techniques. The action of livestock holders in terms of biological conservation activities and grazing management showed a positive and signifincat corrletaion with variables such as implementing of rangeland projects, their interaction with external institutions, participating in extension training courses, education level and irrigated and rainfed agricultural land size. Moreover, based on a path analysis, 37% of the variance of the farmers’ actions regarding the rangeland conservation was explained by the variables such as rangeland rehabilitation actions, farmers’ conservation knowledge, farmers’ interaction with natural resources experts, beekeeping, and participating in extension training courses. Promotional and extension activities and farmers’ interaction with experts have a positive effect in enhancing farmers’ knowledge and actions for sustainable rangeland use and conservation.

  4. Territoriality by conservation in the Selous-Niassa corridor in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    2018-01-01

    of consecutive projects through continuous acts of territorialization through mapping and boundary making ensured that conservation is beyond questioning despite failures in the processes of demarcating, controlling and managing conservation as a socio-spatial intervention. Whereas the failures produce conflicts...... inevitably remains partial and contingent, conservation is nonetheless a powerful and resilient project that transforms communal landscapes into conservation territories with little room for public debate....

  5. A conservation law, entropy principle and quantization of fractal dimensions in hadron interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zborovský, Imrich

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2018), č. článku 1850057. ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Hadron interactions * self-similarity * fractality * conservation laws * quanta Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2016

  6. A Global Mitigation Hierarchy for Nature Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph W; Addison, Prue F E; Burgass, Michael J; Gianuca, Dimas; Gorham, Taylor M; Jacob, Céline; Watson, James E M; Wilcox, Chris; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales. We explore the challenges in using this framework to achieve global conservation goals, including operationalization and monitoring and compliance, and we discuss solutions and research priorities. The mitigation hierarchy's conceptual power and ability to clarify thinking could provide the step change needed to integrate the multiple elements of conservation goals and interventions in order to achieve successful biodiversity outcomes. PMID:29731513

  7. Conservative treatment of patients with tarsal coalitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sapogoosky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarsal coalition is a pathological condition with abnormal fusion between two or more tarsal bones. The aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness of conservative treatment in patients with tarsal coalitions. The treatment included reducing the intensity of physical activity, medication, orthotics, physiotherapy. For evaluation of effectiveness of the treatment, we used the AOFAS scale. The results of the study demonstrated that conservative treatment in patients with tarsal coalitions was focused onon temporary pain release. Conservative treatment has limited efficacy for patients with symptomatic tarsal coalitions because of short pain release in the majority of children (98 %. The indications for conservative treatment in patients with symptomatic tarsal coalitions should be pain and hindfoot valgus less than 15°. In other cases, conservative treatment should be considered as preoperative preparation.

  8. Coping With Constraints: Achieving Effective Conservation With Limited Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Walls

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation resources have become increasingly limited and, along with social, cultural and political complexities, this shortfall frequently challenges effectiveness in conservation. Because conservation can be costly, efforts are often only initiated after a species has declined below a critical threshold and/or when statutory protection is mandated. However, implementing conservation proactively, rather than reactively, is predicted to be less costly and to decrease a species' risk of extinction. Despite these benefits, I document that the number of studies that have implemented proactive conservation around the world are far fewer than those that simply acknowledge the need for such action. I provide examples of proactive actions that can ameliorate shortfalls in funding and other assets, thus helping conservation practitioners and managers cope with the constraints that resource limitation imposes. Not all of these options are new; however, the timing of their implementation is critical for effective conservation, and the need for more proactive conservation is increasingly recognized. These actions are (1 strengthening and diversifying stakeholder involvement in conservation projects; (2 complementing time-consuming and labor-intensive demographic studies with alternative approaches of detecting declines and estimating extinction risk; and (3 minimizing future costly conservation and management by proactively keeping common species common. These approaches may not constitute a cure-all for every conservation crisis. However, given escalating rates of species' losses, perhaps a reminder that these proactive actions can reduce conservation costs, save time, and potentially thwart population declines is warranted.

  9. Coping with constraints: Achieving effective conservation with limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Conservation resources have become increasingly limited and, along with social, cultural and political complexities, this shortfall frequently challenges effectiveness in conservation. Because conservation can be costly, efforts are often only initiated after a species has declined below a critical threshold and/or when statutory protection is mandated. However, implementing conservation proactively, rather than reactively, is predicted to be less costly and to decrease a species' risk of extinction. Despite these benefits, I document that the number of studies that have implemented proactive conservation around the world are far fewer than those that simply acknowledge the need for such action. I provide examples of proactive actions that can ameliorate shortfalls in funding and other assets, thus helping conservation practitioners and managers cope with the constraints that resource limitation imposes. Not all of these options are new; however, the timing of their implementation is critical for effective conservation, and the need for more proactive conservation is increasingly recognized. These actions are (1) strengthening and diversifying stakeholder involvement in conservation projects; (2) complementing time-consuming and labor-intensive demographic studies with alternative approaches of detecting declines and estimating extinction risk; and (3) minimizing future costly conservation and management by proactively keeping common species common. These approaches may not constitute a cure-all for every conservation crisis. However, given escalating rates of species' losses, perhaps a reminder that these proactive actions can reduce conservation costs, save time, and potentially thwart population declines is warranted.

  10. Stated Preferences for Forest Conservation in Southern Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Emmi; Kuuluvainen, Jari; Pouta, Eija

    % support decreasing forest conservation. An average willingness-to-pay for increased biodiversity conservation was 60-212 € per household per year, depending on the described project and measurement method. In addition to costs per household, the number of conserved biotopes and endangered plant and animal......This study analyses Finnish citizens’ valuations and attitudes towards a forest conservation programme for southern Finland and the Pohjanmaa region. In particular, Finnish households’ willingness to accept expenses through increased taxation to guarantee a certain level of biodiversity...... conservation was investigated. Contingent valuation (CV) and choice experiment (CE) methods were applied. According to the CV results, 74% of respondents are prepared to pay for increased conservation and 16% support increased conservation but are not willing to pay for it. A further 5% are indifferent and 5...

  11. Energy Conservation, Understanding and Activities for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication on energy conservation is designed as a resource material for the classroom. It is divided into three chapters concerning a definition of energy, the conservation of energy, and the uses of energy. For each subtopic within the chapters, there is background information and suggested project topics designed for secondary school…

  12. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  13. Water Conservation Study, Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which will result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP...

  14. Water Conservation Study. Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which will result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP...

  15. Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF): Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CWSRF can provide financial assistance for water conservation projects that reduce the demand for POTW capacity through reduced water consumption (i.e., water efficiency), as well as water reuse and precipitation harvesting.

  16. Role of beekeeping in the conservation of forests | Agera | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beekeeeping preserves nature, agriculture, sustains livelihoods and provides food security. These important roles of beekeeping notwithstanding, the potentials of ... These conservation projects are encouraged by the World Wide Fund for ...

  17. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  18. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  19. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  1. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Feb 19, 2012 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 ... die within a short period of time (e.g., infanticide) (Erhart and. Overdorff 1998 .... been as deep or may have healed by the time of examination. Falls during ...

  2. Birds of Conservation Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of...

  3. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarik, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: → This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. → Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. → Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. → However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. → Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  4. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarik, Ingo, E-mail: kowarik@tu-berlin.de [Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Rothenburgstr. 12, D 12165 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: > This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. > Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. > Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. > However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. > Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  5. 78 FR 41390 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the Commission and... License. b. Project No.: 14327-000. c. Date filed: June 26, 2013. d. Applicant: Pershing County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydro Power Project. f. Location: At the existing U.S...

  6. Development of new technologies in electric power conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation reviews overall progress in electricity conservation in the United States and describes major policies that have contributed to the development and implementation of new electricity conserving technologies. A variety of government and utility conservation programs are covered including: research and development programs, equipment and building efficiency standards, and utility incentive programs. (author)

  7. 7 CFR 1466.27 - Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., evaluation, and implementation of: (i) Conservation adoption incentive systems, including market-based... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG). 1466.27 Section... PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1466.27 Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG). (a) Definitions. In...

  8. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  9. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  10. USAID Anticorruption Projects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Anticorruption Projects Database (Database) includes information about USAID projects with anticorruption interventions implemented worldwide between 2007 and...

  11. 5th International Conference LACONA V (Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks)

    CERN Document Server

    Dickmann, Klaus; Asmus, John F; Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks

    2005-01-01

    Since 1995, when Costas Fotakis first brought together restorers and scientists to discuss the potential of lasers in art conservation, the field has grown enormously in importance, and today restorers and laser scientists work together to develop new applications. This book presents the more than six dozen research papers prepared for LACONA V (Lasers in Art Conservation), held in Osnabrueck/Germany in September 2003. The fifth congress once again gathers restorers, art historians, museum staff, laser scientists and laser manufacturers. The topics include, among others: laser cleaning of artworks (case studies and side effects), removal of former conservation layers, fundamentals of laser-artwork interaction, online monitoring and process control, laser diagnostics, spectroscopy for monitoring and identification, networks and co-operation projects.

  12. Introduction: Moving Beyond the ′Rational Actor′ in Environmental Governance and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole D Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this brief introduction, we examine the themes and issues that link the three papers in this special section. In each case, neoliberal conservation practices appear to be predicated on a certain kind of individual subject with certain kinds of motives and behaviours-the rational actor. Taken together, these three papers challenge three assumptions of rational actor models, including that individuals are self-interested and attempt to maximise their own benefits, that they only respond to economic incentives, and that economic markets are free, mutual, and rational. Together these articles promote greater attention to how individuals are conceptualised in conservation efforts, and suggest alternative ways to think through conservation projects.

  13. Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  14. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... the term ``fluorescent lamp,'' which EPCA defines as ``a low pressure mercury electric-discharge... discharge into light,'' and as including the four enumerated types of fluorescent lamps for which EPCA... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  15. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for distribution transformers. It was recently discovered that values in certain tables of the...,'' including distribution transformers. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT 1992), Public Law 102-486, amended...

  16. Analysis of self-similar solutions of multidimensional conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyfitz, Barbara Lee [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-02-15

    This project focused on analysis of multidimensional conservation laws, specifically on extensions to the study of self-siminar solutions, a project initiated by the PI. In addition, progress was made on an approach to studying conservation laws of very low regularity; in this research, the context was a novel problem in chromatography. Two graduate students in mathematics were supported during the grant period, and have almost completed their thesis research.

  17. A Compendium of Energy Conservation Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office{endash}Energy Utilization Research{endash}sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

  18. A compendium of energy conservation success stories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office/endash/Energy Utilization Research/endash/sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

  19. FY 2000 survey report on the project for preparation of the international energy utilization rationalization basis. 2nd volume. Survey/study for the spread of energy conservation technology; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokusai energy shiyo gorika kiban seibi jigyo (Sho energy gijutsu no fukyu no tameno chosa kenkyu to - 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In China which is the largest energy consumption country in the Asian region and has much room for the spread of energy conservation technology, investigational study was made with the aim of widely spreading energy conservation technology and solving environmental problems. This report summed up the tackling with environmental problems for making improvement in energy conservation. In the study of the CDM introduction based on the heat supply in Beijing city, conducted were the report on the research on the CDM introduction to coal-fired heat supply facilities and small gas boilers and the consideration of possibility/conditions/method of Japan's transfer of technically advanced space heating technology to China. In the study of 'advanced traffic system - Tsinghua University Green Campus Project,' carried out were the simulative study for grasp of the traffic flow in university, consideration of characteristics of exhaust gas at the time of car running on road and the road pollution mechanism, consideration of the study of electric cars considered of the environment. (NEDO)

  20. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R V

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  1. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  2. Breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Carstensen, Stina Lyck; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have pointed at a better survival after breast conserving surgery (BCS) compared with mastectomy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether this remains true when more extensive tumor characteristics and treatment data were included. Methods: The cohort...... included patients registered after primary surgery for early invasive breast cancer in the database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, in the period 1995–2012. The cohort was divided into three groups: (i) patients who primarily had a mastectomy, (ii) patients treated by BCS, and (iii) patients...

  3. Assessing the impact of international conservation aid on deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare, Matthew; Kauffman, Craig; Miller, Daniel C.

    2015-12-01

    International conservation donors have spent at least 3.4 billion to protect biodiversity and stem tropical deforestation in Africa since the early 1990s. Despite more than two decades of experience, however, there is little research on the effect of this aid at a region-wide scale. Numerous case studies exist, but show mixed results. Existing research is usually based on community perception or focused on short-term donor objectives rather than specific conservation outcomes, like deforestation rates. Thus, the impact of billions of dollars of conservation aid on deforestation rates remains an open question. This article uses an original dataset to analyze the effect of international conservation aid on deforestation rates in 42 African countries between 2000 and 2013. We first describe patterns of conservation aid across the continent and then assess its impact (with one to five-year lags), controlling for other factors that may also affect deforestation, including rural population, protected areas (PAs), governance, and other economic and commodity production variables. We find that conservation aid is associated with higher rates of forest loss after one- or two-year lags. A similar result holds for PA extent, suggesting possible displacement of deforestation from PAs. However, governance quality in high forest cover countries moderates these effects such that deforestation rates are reduced. Rural population is the most consistent factor associated with forest loss, confirming previous studies of this driver. Our results suggest that in heavily forested countries, development projects designed to support conservation work initially in conditions of good governance, but that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate larger deforestation drivers.

  4. Conservation education in Madagascar: three case studies in the biologically diverse island-continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, Francine L; Jolly, Alison; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Feistner, Anna T C; Ravoavy, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Few Malagasy children and adults are aware of the rare and unique fauna and flora indigenous to their island-continent, including flagship lemur species. Even the Malagasy ancestral proverbs never mentioned lemurs, but these same proverbs talked about the now extinct hippopotamus. Madagascar's geography, history, and economic constraints contribute to severe biodiversity loss. Deforestation on Madagascar is reported to be over 100,000 ha/year, with only 10-15% of the island retaining natural forest [Green & Sussman, 1990]. Educating children, teacher-training, and community projects about environmental and conservation efforts to protect the remaining natural habitats of endangered lemur species provide a basis for long-term changes in attitudes and practices. Case studies of three conservation education projects located in different geographical regions of Madagascar, Centre ValBio, Madagacar Wildlife Conservation Alaotra Comic Book Project, and The Ako Book Project, are presented together with their ongoing stages of development, assessment, and outcomes. We argue that while nongovernmental organizational efforts are and will be very important, the Ministry of Education urgently needs to incorporate biodiversity education in the curriculum at all levels, from primary school to university. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Searches for violation of muon number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redwine, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The question of violation of muon number conservation is one which has occupied considerable attention and resources in recent years. The first generation of experiments at the medium energy accelerators has now been completed and the next generation of experiments is ready to begin. The history of muon number conservation is reviewed, including the reasons for the present belief that the conservation law may not be exact. The experiments that have been completed in the last few years are discussed. The new experiments that are being mounted and planned at several laboratories are discussed, and the relationship of these types of experiments to other studies, such as searches for neutrino oscillations, are considered

  6. Conservation, management, and restoration of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanich, Suchana; Soong, Keryea; Zvuloni, Assaf; Rinkevich, Baruch; Alino, Porfirio

    2015-04-01

    The 8th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology (ICCB 8) was held in Eilat, Israel from December 1st to 5th 2013. The conference included 15 sessions, one of which discussed the latest information on the conservation, management, and restoration of Coelenterata in different parts of the world. A total of 16 oral presentations and 5 posters were presented in this session. Of these 21 papers, 11 were related to conservation issues, 7 described management, and 3 discussed restoration. This session provided insights on the current conservation, management, and restoration of coelenterates in different parts of the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Transforming conservation science and practice for a postnormal world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Matthew J; Lavorel, Sandra; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae E; Wyborn, Carina A; Fazey, Ioan; Gorddard, Russell; Mace, Georgina M; Foden, Wendy B; Dunlop, Michael; Prentice, I Colin; Crowley, John; Leadley, Paul; Degeorges, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    We examine issues to consider when reframing conservation science and practice in the context of global change. New framings of the links between ecosystems and society are emerging that are changing peoples' values and expectations of nature, resulting in plural perspectives on conservation. Reframing conservation for global change can thus be regarded as a stage in the evolving relationship between people and nature rather than some recent trend. New models of how conservation links with transformative adaptation include how decision contexts for conservation can be reframed and integrated with an adaptation pathways approach to create new options for global-change-ready conservation. New relationships for conservation science and governance include coproduction of knowledge that supports social learning. New processes for implementing adaptation for conservation outcomes include deliberate practices used to develop new strategies, shift world views, work with conflict, address power and intergenerational equity in decisions, and build consciousness and creativity that empower agents to act. We argue that reframing conservation for global change requires scientists and practitioners to implement approaches unconstrained by discipline and sectoral boundaries, geopolitical polarities, or technical problematization. We consider a stronger focus on inclusive creation of knowledge and the interaction of this knowledge with societal values and rules is likely to result in conservation science and practice that meets the challenges of a postnormal world. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Heart of borneo as a ′Jalan Tikus′: Exploring the links Between indigenous rights, extractive and exploitative industries, and conservation at the World Conservation Congress 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitchner Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Fourth World Conservation Congress in Barcelona in October 2008, a number of motions were passed that emphasised human and indigenous rights and the role of the private sector, particularly extractive and exploitative industries, in conservation. These issues are highly relevant to the ongoing World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-led Heart of Borneo (HoB conservation initiative, which is situated in an area with overlapping political jurisdictions and an array of possible futures, which could include new or expanded protected areas, community-managed conservation programmes, or oil palm plantations potentially covering millions of hectares. The HoB initiative is ambiguous in the sense that its borders are not fixed, its land and resource management strategies are not clearly defined, its projects are not predetermined, and its policies regarding who benefits from it are not obvious. HoB is also ambitious, and its actors must negotiate a number of different types of scales: geographic, political, economic, institutional, and ecological. These factors offer both opportunities and weaknesses both for conservation and for local and indigenous communities living within the HoB area. Using HoB as an example, I show how small NGOs, national branches of multinational NGOs like WWF, and local and indigenous communities must walk a ′jalan tikus′ to accomplish conservation and indigenous rights goals. I also offer suggestions on how the motions passed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN membership can be incorporated into HoB planning on the ground.

  9. 3.1.SUIT. Draft EA procedure applicable to historical areas active conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algreen-Ussing, Gregers; Wedebrunn, Ola

    2002-01-01

    This document is a preliminary draft for an Environmental Impact Assessment procedure. Its aim is to provide draft guidelines for the assessment of likely significant effects of urban development projects on the urban environment including material assets and cultural heritage. This procedure...... is intended as a way to propose and ensure an active conservation policy for urban historical areas. It is based on state-of-the-art methods and the knowledge of the experts involved in the SUIT project. It is also based on the guidelines presenting the grid of analysis to be used by stakeholders in a joint...

  10. Designing systematic conservation assessments that promote effective implementation: best practice from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew T; Driver, Amanda; Cowling, Richard M; Maze, Kristal; Desmet, Philip G; Lombard, Amanda T; Rouget, Mathieu; Botha, Mark A; Boshoff, Andre F; Castley, J Guy; Goodman, Peter S; Mackinnon, Kathy; Pierce, Shirley M; Sims-Castley, Rebecca; Stewart, Warrick I; von Hase, Amrei

    2006-06-01

    Systematic conservation assessment and conservation planning are two distinct fields of conservation science often confused as one and the same. Systematic conservation assessment is the technical, often computer-based, identification of priority areas for conservation. Conservation planning is composed of a systematic conservation assessment coupled with processes for development of an implementation strategy and stakeholder collaboration. The peer-reviewed conservation biology literature abounds with studies analyzing the performance of assessments (e.g., area-selection techniques). This information alone, however can never deliver effective conservation action; it informs conservation planning. Examples of how to translate systematic assessment outputs into knowledge and then use them for "doing" conservation are rare. South Africa has received generous international and domestic funding for regional conservation planning since the mid-1990s. We reviewed eight South African conservation planning processes and identified key ingredients of best practice for undertaking systematic conservation assessments in a way that facilitates implementing conservation action. These key ingredients include the design of conservation planning processes, skills for conservation assessment teams, collaboration with stakeholders, and interpretation and mainstreaming of products (e.g., maps) for stakeholders. Social learning institutions are critical to the successful operationalization of assessments within broader conservation planning processes and should include not only conservation planners but also diverse interest groups, including rural landowners, politicians, and government employees.

  11. Consumer energy conservation policy. An analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programmes. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy - economic stability and economic security - are goals well worth pursuing.

  12. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, J. A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-02-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant.

  13. Fiscal 2000 report on result of development project of marine resources utilization system for energy conservation. Development of marine resources utilization system for energy conservation (Model demonstrative research and basic study); 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kaiyo shigen katsuyo system kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika kaiyo shigen katsuyo system kaihatsu (model jissho kenkyu oyobi kiban kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This paper explains the development of marine resources utilization system for energy conservation. The conceptual system is designed to take a large amount of deep sea water of 100 thousand to 1 million tons a day, to utilize it from the viewpoint of energy conservation using its coldness and purity characteristics, to then discharge it to the area of the sea in minimizing the environmental effect as well as obtaining effect such as absorption of carbon dioxide gas through cultivation of phyto-plankton. In pump-up technology, a piping system attaching on sea bed or floating with one or multiple constraints is applicable at present to all sites of geographical and oceanographic conditions. In utilization technology, use of deep-sea water as cooling water at a steam power plant, for example, improves generation efficiency by one point or more. In discharge and environment-related technologies, the research revealed that the deep-sea water from 300 m below releases carbon dioxide gas at surface, while photosynthesis can absorb the gas in the process of using nutrition contained in the deep-sea water; therefore, comprehensive examination is necessary taking energy utilization effect into account. Candidate sites were selected in areas of 200 m depth and within 5 km off-shore, with the optimum system examined at each site. (NEDO)

  14. Conservation biology in Asia: the major policy challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Jeffrey A; Kapoor-Vijay, Promila; Zhi, Lu; Olsvig-Whittaker, Linda; Sheikh, Kashif M; Smith, Andrew T

    2009-08-01

    With about half the world's human population and booming economies, Asia faces numerous challenges to its biodiversity. The Asia Section of the Society for Conservation Biology has identified some key policy issues in which significant progress can be made. These include developing new sources of funding for forest conservation; identifying potential impacts of energy alternatives on the conservation of biodiversity; curbing the trade in endangered species of plants and animals; a special focus on the conservation of mountain biodiversity; enhancing relevant research; ensuring that conservation biology contributes to major international conventions and funding mechanisms; using conservation biology to build a better understanding of zoonotic diseases; more effectively addressing human-animal conflicts; enhancing community-based conservation; and using conservation biology to help address the pervasive water-deficit problems in much of Asia. These challenges can be met through improved regional cooperation among the relevant stakeholders.

  15. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...... concepts such as “poverty” and “sustainability” hide important nuances with regards to the variety of processes and subsequent effects that are triggered when tourism and conservation are being adjoined. Experiences with tourism developments show that destinations that are weak economically find it harder...... to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...

  16. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...... and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which...... explored. The study conveyed five key messages: 1. Wild mango may become extinct under future climate change scenarios so it is high time to start thinking about conservation initiatives. 2. Wild mango is a small sized mango with a large kernel in relation to other Mangifera species which provides...

  17. Resource conservation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.

    1999-01-01

    Resource conservation management is a management program similar to financial management in that its success requires commitment by all levels of the organization to the process as well as an accounting procedure and auditing of critical components. Resource conservation management provides a framework for all elements of efficient building operations and maintenance. The savings connected with the program are principally connected with changes in the way buildings are operated and maintained. Given the reduction in rebates for the installation of energy-efficient equipment, this approach has considerable promise. This paper discusses the evolution of the resource conservation management service and the savings associated with a two-year pilot effort with seven school districts, as well as the critical components of a successful program

  18. Report on the behalf of the Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission on the bill project aiming at forbidding the exploration and exploitation of liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon mines by hydraulic fracturing, and abrogating exclusive search permits including projects using this technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, M.; Chanteguet, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    In a first part, this report presents the exploitation of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons as a new gold rush, notably in Canada and in the USA where this exploitation started at the beginning of the 2000's. The authors recall that this resource has been well known for many years, present the technology applied to extract these products: a combination of vertical and horizontal drilling followed by hydraulic fracturing. Then, they outline health and environmental risks associated with hydraulic fracturing, at any stage of the process (important water supply, ground water pollution, used water treatment, use of chemical additives, impact on landscape, greenhouse gas emission). In the second part, the authors notice that France is among the most attractive countries in Europe for the projects of gas and oil companies, and outline the need to reinforce the mining and environmental legal framework. A last part reports the discussions about the bill project articles

  19. The Ethiopian Flora Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Brochmann, Christian; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2011-01-01

    The account reviews and analyses the scietific projects derived from activities in connection with the Ethiopian Flora Project, including the [Ethiopian] Monocot Project, the Afro-alpine "Sky-island" project, the Vegetation and Ecological Conditions of Plantations Project, the Fire Ecology Projec...

  20. Conservation Documentation and the Implications of Digitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Moore

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation documentation can be defined as the textual and visual records collected during the care and treatment of an object. It can include records of the object's condition, any treatment done to the object, any observations or conclusions made by the conservator as well as details on the object's past and present environment. The form of documentation is not universally agreed upon nor has it always been considered an important aspect of the conservation profession. Good documentation tells the complete story of an object thus far and should provide as much information as possible for the future researcher, curator, or conservator. The conservation profession will benefit from digitising its documentation using software such as databases and hardware like digital cameras and scanners. Digital technology will make conservation documentation more easily accessible, cost/time efficient, and will increase consistency and accuracy of the recorded data, and reduce physical storage space requirements. The major drawback to digitising conservation records is maintaining access to the information for the future; the notorious pace of technological change has serious implications for retrieving data from any machine- readable medium.

  1. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  2. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  3. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  4. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  5. An integrated GIS/remote sensing data base in North Cache soil conservation district, Utah: A pilot project for the Utah Department of Agriculture's RIMS (Resource Inventory and Monitoring System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A basic geographic information system (GIS) for the North Cache Soil Conservation District (SCD) was sought for selected resource problems. Since the resource management issues in the North Cache SCD are very complex, it is not feasible in the initial phase to generate all the physical, socioeconomic, and political baseline data needed for resolving all management issues. A selection of critical varables becomes essential. Thus, there are foud specific objectives: (1) assess resource management needs and determine which resource factors ae most fundamental for building a beginning data base; (2) evaluate the variety of data gathering and analysis techniques for the resource factors selected; (3) incorporate the resulting data into a useful and efficient digital data base; and (4) demonstrate the application of the data base to selected real world resoource management issues.

  6. The Impact of Nature Experience on Willingness to Support Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaradic, Patricia A.; Pergams, Oliver R. W.; Kareiva, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that willingness to financially support conservation depends on one's experience with nature. In order to test this hypothesis, we used a novel time-lagged correlation analysis to look at times series data concerning nature participation, and evaluate its relationship with future conservation support (measured as contributions to conservation NGOs). Our results suggest that the type and timing of nature experience may determine future conservation investment. Time spent hiking or backpacking is correlated with increased conservation contributions 11–12 years later. On the other hand, contributions are negatively correlated with past time spent on activities such as public lands visitation or fishing. Our results suggest that each hiker or backpacker translates to $200–$300 annually in future NGO contributions. We project that the recent decline in popularity of hiking and backpacking will negatively impact conservation NGO contributions from approximately 2010–2011 through at least 2018. PMID:19809511

  7. An exactly conservative particle method for one dimensional scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjoun, Yossi; Seibold, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A particle scheme for scalar conservation laws in one space dimension is presented. Particles representing the solution are moved according to their characteristic velocities. Particle interaction is resolved locally, satisfying exact conservation of area. Shocks stay sharp and propagate at correct speeds, while rarefaction waves are created where appropriate. The method is variation diminishing, entropy decreasing, exactly conservative, and has no numerical dissipation away from shocks. Solutions, including the location of shocks, are approximated with second order accuracy. Source terms can be included. The method is compared to CLAWPACK in various examples, and found to yield a comparable or better accuracy for similar resolutions.

  8. Importance of including cultural practices in ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehi, Priscilla M; Lord, Janice M

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide have a long history of use and management by indigenous cultures. However, environmental degradation can reduce the availability of culturally important resources. Ecological restoration aims to repair damage to ecosystems caused by human activity, but it is unclear how often restoration projects incorporate the return of harvesting or traditional life patterns for indigenous communities. We examined the incorporation of cultural use of natural resources into ecological restoration in the context of a culturally important but protected New Zealand bird; among award-winning restoration projects in Australasia and worldwide; and in the peer-reviewed restoration ecology literature. Among New Zealand's culturally important bird species, differences in threat status and availability for hunting were large. These differences indicate the values of a colonizing culture can inhibit harvesting by indigenous people. In Australasia among award-winning ecological restoration projects, restored areas beyond aesthetic or recreational use, despite many projects encouraging community participation. Globally, restoration goals differed among regions. For example, in North America, projects were primarily conservation oriented, whereas in Asia and Africa projects frequently focused on restoring cultural harvesting. From 1995 to 2014, the restoration ecology literature contained few references to cultural values or use. We argue that restoration practitioners are missing a vital component for reassembling functional ecosystems. Inclusion of sustainably harvestable areas within restored landscapes may allow for the continuation of traditional practices that shaped ecosystems for millennia, and also aid project success by ensuring community support. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Reaching people with energy conservation information: four statewide residential case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Braid, R.B.; Jones, D.W.; Reed, J.H.

    1983-09-01

    Four state residential energy conservation programs are reviewed in terms of their origins, evolutions, purposes and goals, administration, organization, and outcomes. The four programs chosen were selected from among 30 nominated by state energy offices and regional Department of Energy personnel as being illustrative in terms of organization and/or outcomes. While intended primarily for state-level program managers and staff, the profiles of programs, conclusions, and recommendations should be useful to anyone interested in developing viable, action-oriented conservation programs. The four case studies included Oregon's Master Conserver program, Oklahoma's energy education project for low-income and elderly families, Virginia's workshops for heating dealers service and contractors, and Maine's three energy education projects - the Energy Bus, Energy Conservation Month, and the Home Energy Check-up. All four programs utilized Energy Extension Service (EES) funds from the federal government, and three were directly managed through the state EES organization. The findings of the study indicate that these programs (1) had flexibility to experiment, iterate, and reorganize as a result of their initial experiences, (2) made extensive use of networking to involve local groups in program delivery, (3) employed a large variety of delivery methods, and (4) made substantial efforts to tailor literature and handouts to the target audiences.

  10. When will community management conserve biodiversity? Evidence from Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy E. Hecht

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Both development practitioners and conservation organizations are focused on community ownership and management of natural resources as a way to create incentives for the conservation of biodiversity. This has led to the implementation of a number of large community-based conservation projects in sub-Saharan Africa, in countries including Namibia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Rwanda. While the concept is logical, and valuation studies may suggest that conservation is more valuable than other uses of the resources in some areas, there has been little detailed analysis of the financial costs and benefits to the communities, to determine whether they would actually have an incentive to conserve if they had more extensive legal rights to the resources. This paper assesses the conditions under which this approach may be viable, based on a valuation study of the resources of Mount Mulanje in southern Malawi.Les spécialistes du développement et les organisations de conservation s’intéressent à la propriété et à la gestion communautaire des ressources naturelles comme moyen de créer des mesures d’incitation en faveur de la conservation de la biodiversité. Cette approche a conduit à la mise en œuvre d’un certain nombre de grands projets de conservation communautaires en Afrique subsaharienne, notamment en Namibie, au Zimbabwe, au Malawi, en Zambie et au Rwanda. Même si cette approche est logique et si les études d’évaluation semblent suggérer que, dans certaines régions, la conservation est plus utile que l’exploitation des ressources, il existe peu d’analyses détaillées sur les coûts et les avantages financiers que cela engendrerait pour les communautés, analyses qui permettraient de déterminer si le développement des droits légaux des communautés sur ces ressources les inciterait à les conserver. Ce rapport évalue les conditions de viabilité de cette approche sur la base d’une étude d’évaluation des

  11. Global conservation priorities for marine turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Wallace

    Full Text Available Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs, and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts we developed a "conservation priorities portfolio" system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n = 58. We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority

  12. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  13. (ICTs) And Environmental Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICTs have a potential for improving the accessibility of environmental information, and if appropriately applied, they can empower local people to make informed decisions regarding environmental issues, thus enhancing environmental conservation. However, the challenge is on how to define particular roles that ...

  14. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  15. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Sims

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Speyeria (Nymphalidae are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants. Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.

  16. Report on the behalf of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission (1) on: the bill project, adopted by the National Assembly after application of the accelerated procedure, aiming at forbidding the exploration and exploitation of liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon mines by hydraulic fracturing, and abrogating exclusive search permits including projects using this technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houel, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report first presents shale gases as a new resource for the French energetic independence, but also outlines the risks of durable environment damages when using inappropriate techniques. It outlines the need of a new law to review the current mining code, in order to forbid a practice which presents too important risks for the environment, to improve the knowledge on these issues, and to define more transparent procedures. It briefly presents the bill project, the main modifications introduced by the National Assembly, and the opinion of the Commission

  17. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick J B Isaac

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation priority setting based on phylogenetic diversity has frequently been proposed but rarely implemented. Here, we define a simple index that measures the contribution made by different species to phylogenetic diversity and show how the index might contribute towards species-based conservation priorities. We describe procedures to control for missing species, incomplete phylogenetic resolution and uncertainty in node ages that make it possible to apply the method in poorly known clades. We also show that the index is independent of clade size in phylogenies of more than 100 species, indicating that scores from unrelated taxonomic groups are likely to be comparable. Similar scores are returned under two different species concepts, suggesting that the index is robust to taxonomic changes. The approach is applied to a near-complete species-level phylogeny of the Mammalia to generate a global priority list incorporating both phylogenetic diversity and extinction risk. The 100 highest-ranking species represent a high proportion of total mammalian diversity and include many species not usually recognised as conservation priorities. Many species that are both evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered (EDGE species do not benefit from existing conservation projects or protected areas. The results suggest that global conservation priorities may have to be reassessed in order to prevent a disproportionately large amount of mammalian evolutionary history becoming extinct in the near future.

  18. Balancing forest-regeneration probabilities and maintenance costs in dry grasslands of high conservation priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Janine; Edwards, Thomas C.; Eggenberg, Stefan; Ismail, Sascha; Seidl, Irmi; Kienast, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural land has resulted in forest regeneration in species-rich dry grasslands across European mountain regions and threatens conservation efforts in this vegetation type. To support national conservation strategies, we used a site-selection algorithm (MARXAN) to find optimum sets of floristic regions (reporting units) that contain grasslands of high conservation priority. We sought optimum sets that would accommodate 136 important dry-grassland species and that would minimize forest regeneration and costs of management needed to forestall predicted forest regeneration. We did not consider other conservation elements of dry grasslands, such as animal species richness, cultural heritage, and changes due to climate change. Optimal sets that included 95–100% of the dry grassland species encompassed an average of 56–59 floristic regions (standard deviation, SD 5). This is about 15% of approximately 400 floristic regions that contain dry-grassland sites and translates to 4800–5300 ha of dry grassland out of a total of approximately 23,000 ha for the entire study area. Projected costs to manage the grasslands in these optimum sets ranged from CHF (Swiss francs) 5.2 to 6.0 million/year. This is only 15–20% of the current total estimated cost of approximately CHF30–45 million/year required if all dry grasslands were to be protected. The grasslands of the optimal sets may be viewed as core sites in a national conservation strategy.

  19. Graduate student's guide to necessary skills for nonacademic conservation careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickley, Jessica L; Deiner, Kristy; Garbach, Kelly; Lacher, Iara; Meek, Mariah H; Porensky, Lauren M; Wilkerson, Marit L; Winford, Eric M; Schwartz, Mark W

    2013-02-01

    Graduate education programs in conservation science generally focus on disciplinary training and discipline-specific research skills. However, nonacademic conservation professionals often require an additional suite of skills. This discrepancy between academic training and professional needs can make it difficult for graduate students to identify the skills and experiences that will best prepare them for the conservation job market. We analyzed job advertisements for conservation-science positions and interviewed conservation professionals with experience hiring early-career conservation scientists to determine what skills employers of conservation professionals seek; whether the relative importance of skills varies by job sector (government, nonprofit, and private); and how graduate students interested in careers in conservation science might signal competency in key skills to potential employers. In job advertisements, disciplinary, interpersonal, and project-management skills were in the top 5 skills mentioned across all job sectors. Employers' needs for additional skills, like program leadership, conflict resolution and negotiation, and technical and information technology skills, varied across sectors. Our interview results demonstrated that some skills are best signaled to employers via experiences obtained outside thesis or dissertation work. Our findings suggest that graduate students who wish to be competitive in the conservation job market can benefit by gaining skills identified as important to the job sector in which they hope to work and should not necessarily expect to be competent in these skills simply by completing their chosen degree path. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Number conserving approach in quasiparticle representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudih, M.R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    An exact number conserving approach is formulated in the quasiparticle representation to show the effect of the particle-number projection on the ground and the first 0+ excited states. It is applied to the two-level pairing model, which allows an exact solution and a comparison to other approaches. The present method has proved to be an advantageous alternative as compared to the BCS and to the usual methods used to restore the particle number symmetry. (author)