Function projective lag synchronization of fractional-order chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Sha; Yu Yong-Guang; Wang Hu; Rahmani Ahmed
2014-01-01
Function projective lag synchronization of different structural fractional-order chaotic systems is investigated. It is shown that the slave system can be synchronized with the past states of the driver up to a scaling function matrix. According to the stability theorem of linear fractional-order systems, a nonlinear fractional-order controller is designed for the synchronization of systems with the same and different dimensions. Especially, for two different dimensional systems, the synchronization is achieved in both reduced and increased dimensions. Three kinds of numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Xiangjun; Lu Hongtao
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Adaptive generalized function projective lag synchronization (AGFPLS) is proposed. → Two uncertain chaos systems are lag synchronized up to a scaling function matrix. → The synchronization speed is sensitively influenced by the control gains. → The AGFPLS scheme is robust against noise perturbation. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel projective synchronization scheme called adaptive generalized function projective lag synchronization (AGFPLS) is proposed. In the AGFPLS method, the states of two different chaotic systems with fully uncertain parameters are asymptotically lag synchronized up to a desired scaling function matrix. By means of the Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller with corresponding parameter update rule is designed for achieving AGFPLS between two diverse chaotic systems and estimating the unknown parameters. This technique is employed to realize AGFPLS between uncertain Lue chaotic system and uncertain Liu chaotic system, and between Chen hyperchaotic system and Lorenz hyperchaotic system with fully uncertain parameters, respectively. Furthermore, AGFPLS between two different uncertain chaotic systems can still be achieved effectively with the existence of noise perturbation. The corresponding numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity and robustness of the presented synchronization method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hong-li; Fan, Wen-hui
2017-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new method to improve the safety of secure communication. This method uses the generalized dislocated lag projective synchronization and function projective synchronization to form a new generalized dislocated lag function projective synchronization. Moreover, this paper takes the examples of fractional order Chen system and Lü system with uncertain parameters as illustration. As the parameters of the two systems are uncertain, the nonlinear controller and parameter update algorithms are designed based on the fractional stability theory and adaptive control method. Moreover, this synchronization form and method of control are applied to secure communication via chaotic masking modulation. Many information signals can be recovered and validated. Finally, simulations are used to show the validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Cunfang; Guan Wei; Wang Yinghai
2013-01-01
We investigate different types of projective (projective-anticipating, projective and projective-lag) synchronization in unidirectionally nonlinearly coupled time-delayed chaotic systems with variable time delays. Based on the Krasovskii–Lyapunov approach, we find both the existence and sufficient stability conditions, using a general class of time-delayed chaotic systems related to optical bistable or hybrid optical bistable devices. Our method has the advantage that it requires only one nonlinearly coupled term to achieve different types of projective synchronization in time-delayed chaotic systems with variable time delays. Compared with other existing works, our result provides an easy way to achieve projective-anticipating, projective and projective-lag synchronization. Numerical simulations of the Ikeda system are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thang Manh Hoang; Nakagawa, Masahiro
2008-01-01
In this paper, a chaotic secure communication system is proposed by using the schemes of projective-lag and/or projective-anticipating synchronizations of coupled multidelay feedback systems and the modulation technique of synchronization-manifold shift keying. Further, the security of the proposed system is enhanced by using non-stationary dynamics in the master and/or non-stationary synchronization manifolds. The specific examples using modified Ikeda systems demonstrate and verify the effectiveness of the proposed system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai Hao; Jia Li-Xin; Zhang Yan-Bin
2012-01-01
The adaptive generalized matrix projective lag synchronization between two different complex networks with non-identical nodes and different dimensions is investigated in this paper. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat's lemma, generalized matrix projective lag synchronization criteria are derived by using the adaptive control method. Furthermore, each network can be undirected or directed, connected or disconnected, and nodes in either network may have identical or different dynamics. The proposed strategy is applicable to almost all kinds of complex networks. In addition, numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method, showing that the synchronization speed is sensitively influenced by the adaptive law strength, the network size, and the network topological structure. (general)
Yuan, Manman; Wang, Weiping; Luo, Xiong; Li, Lixiang; Kurths, Jürgen; Wang, Xiao
2018-03-01
This paper is concerned with the exponential lag function projective synchronization of memristive multidirectional associative memory neural networks (MMAMNNs). First, we propose a new model of MMAMNNs with mixed time-varying delays. In the proposed approach, the mixed delays include time-varying discrete delays and distributed time delays. Second, we design two kinds of hybrid controllers. Traditional control methods lack the capability of reflecting variable synaptic weights. In this paper, the controllers are carefully designed to confirm the process of different types of synchronization in the MMAMNNs. Third, sufficient criteria guaranteeing the synchronization of system are derived based on the derive-response concept. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism is validated with numerical experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Hao; Si, Gangquan; Jia, Lixin; Zhang, Yanbin
2013-01-01
This paper investigates generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization between fractional-order and integer-order complex networks with delayed coupling, non-identical topological structures and different dimensions. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization criteria are derived by using the adaptive control method. In addition, the three-dimensional fractional-order chaotic system and the four-dimensional integer-order hyperchaotic system as the nodes of the drive and the response networks, respectively, are analyzed in detail, and numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Hao; Si, Gangquan; Jia, Lixin; Zhang, Yanbin
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the problem of finite-time generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization between two different coupled dynamical networks with different dimensions of network nodes. The double power function nonlinear feedback control method is proposed in this paper to guarantee that the state trajectories of the response network converge to the state trajectories of the drive network according to a function matrix in a given finite time. Furthermore, in comparison with the traditional nonlinear feedback control method, the new method improves the synchronization efficiency, and shortens the finite synchronization time. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. (papers)
Lag synchronization of hyperchaos with application to secure communications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Chuandong; Liao Xiaofeng; Wong Kwokwo
2005-01-01
In this paper, hyperchaotic lag synchronization is restated as a nonlinear and lag-in-time observer design issue. This approach leads to a systematic tool, which guarantees the lag synchronization of a wide class of chaotic or hyperchaotic systems via a scalar signal. By exploiting this result, we propose a hyperchaos-based cryptosystem scheme that combines the conventional cryptographic methods and the lag synchronization of chaotic circuits. The computer simulation results show that the lag synchronization scheme and the cryptosystem proposed in this paper are both feasible
Adaptive lag synchronization and parameters adaptive lag identification of chaotic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Mathematics, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei, Shiyan 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Key Laboratory of Wireless Sensor Network and Communication, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Fang Jian' an, E-mail: jafang@dhu.edu.c [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen, E-mail: sunwen_2201@163.co [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei, Jingzhou 434023 (China)
2010-07-26
This Letter investigates the problem of adaptive lag synchronization and parameters adaptive lag identification of chaotic systems. In comparison with those of existing parameters identification schemes, the unknown parameters are identified by adaptive lag laws, and the delay time is also identified in this Letter. Numerical simulations are also given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, the lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear terms via impulsive control is investigated. Based on the stability theory of impulsive delayed differential equations, some sufficient conditions are obtained guaranteeing the synchronized behaviours between two delayed chaotic systems.
Mechanisms of zero-lag synchronization in cortical motifs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo L Gollo
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Zero-lag synchronization between distant cortical areas has been observed in a diversity of experimental data sets and between many different regions of the brain. Several computational mechanisms have been proposed to account for such isochronous synchronization in the presence of long conduction delays: Of these, the phenomenon of "dynamical relaying"--a mechanism that relies on a specific network motif--has proven to be the most robust with respect to parameter mismatch and system noise. Surprisingly, despite a contrary belief in the community, the common driving motif is an unreliable means of establishing zero-lag synchrony. Although dynamical relaying has been validated in empirical and computational studies, the deeper dynamical mechanisms and comparison to dynamics on other motifs is lacking. By systematically comparing synchronization on a variety of small motifs, we establish that the presence of a single reciprocally connected pair--a "resonance pair"--plays a crucial role in disambiguating those motifs that foster zero-lag synchrony in the presence of conduction delays (such as dynamical relaying from those that do not (such as the common driving triad. Remarkably, minor structural changes to the common driving motif that incorporate a reciprocal pair recover robust zero-lag synchrony. The findings are observed in computational models of spiking neurons, populations of spiking neurons and neural mass models, and arise whether the oscillatory systems are periodic, chaotic, noise-free or driven by stochastic inputs. The influence of the resonance pair is also robust to parameter mismatch and asymmetrical time delays amongst the elements of the motif. We call this manner of facilitating zero-lag synchrony resonance-induced synchronization, outline the conditions for its occurrence, and propose that it may be a general mechanism to promote zero-lag synchrony in the brain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Liang; Zhu, Shiqun
2003-01-01
The chaotic synchronization between two bi-directionally coupled external cavity single-mode semiconductor lasers is investigated. Numerical simulation shows that anticipating synchronization and lag synchronization coexist and switch between each other in certain parameter regime. The anticipating time with different effects that were discussed quite differently in the previous theoretical analysis and experimental observation is determined by the involved parameters in the system
Successive lag synchronization on dynamical networks with communication delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xin-Jian; Wei Ai-Ju; Li Ke-Zan
2016-01-01
In this paper, successive lag synchronization (SLS) on a dynamical network with communication delay is investigated. In order to achieve SLS on the dynamical network with communication delay, we design linear feedback control and adaptive control, respectively. By using the Lyapunov function method, we obtain some sufficient conditions for global stability of SLS. To verify these results, some numerical examples are further presented. This work may find potential applications in consensus of multi-agent systems. (paper)
Lag synchronization of Rossler system and Chua circuit via a scalar signal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Chuandong; Liao Xiaofeng
2004-01-01
In this Letter, a chaotic lag synchronization scheme is proposed based on combining a nonlinear with lag-in-time observer design. Our approach leads to a systematic methodology, which guarantees the synchronization of a wide class of chaotic systems via a scalar signal. The proposed technique has been applied to synchronize two well-known chaotic systems: Rossler's system and Chua circuit
Lag Synchronization Between Two Coupled Networks via Open-Plus-Closed-Loop and Adaptive Controls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong-Chun Hu; Yong-Qing Wu; Shi-Xing Li
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study lag synchronization between two coupled networks and apply two types of control schemes, including the open-plus-closed-loop (OPCL) and adaptive controls. We then design the corresponding control algorithms according to the OPCL and adaptive feedback schemes. With the designed controllers, we obtain two theorems on the lag synchronization based on Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat's lemma. Finally we provide numerical examples to show the effectiveness of the obtained controllers and see that the adaptive control is stronger than the OPCL control when realizing the lag synchronization between two coupled networks with different coupling structures. (paper)
Stability of The Synchronization Manifold in An All-To-All Time LAG- Diffusively Coupled Oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adu A.M. Wasike
2009-06-01
Full Text Available we consider a lattice system of identical oscillators that are all coupled to one another with a diffusive coupling that has a time lag. We use the natural splitting of the system into synchronized manifold and transversal manifold to estimate the value of the time lag for which the stability of the system follows from that without a time lag. Each oscillator has a unique periodic solution that is attracting.
Zero-lag synchronization and bubbling in delay-coupled lasers.
Tiana-Alsina, J; Hicke, K; Porte, X; Soriano, M C; Torrent, M C; Garcia-Ojalvo, J; Fischer, I
2012-02-01
We show experimentally that two semiconductor lasers mutually coupled via a passive relay fiber loop exhibit chaos synchronization at zero lag, and study how this synchronized regime is lost as the lasers' pump currents are increased. We characterize the synchronization properties of the system with high temporal resolution in two different chaotic regimes, namely, low-frequency fluctuations and coherence collapse, identifying significant differences between them. In particular, a marked decrease in synchronization quality develops as the lasers enter the coherence collapse regime. Our high-resolution measurements allow us to establish that synchronization loss is associated with bubbling events, the frequency of which increases with increasing pump current.
From lag synchronization to pattern formation in one-dimensional open flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Zengrong; Luo Jigui
2006-01-01
In this paper, the relation between synchronization and pattern formation in one-dimensional discrete and continuous open flow models is investigated in detail. Firstly a sufficient condition for globally asymptotical stability of lag/anticipating synchronization among lattices of these models is proved by analytic method. Then, by analyzing and simulating lag/anticipating synchronization in discrete case, three kinds of pattern of wave (it is called wave pattern) travelling in the lattices are discovered. Finally, a proper definition for these kinds of pattern is proposed
Lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
delayed linear terms via impulsive control is investigated. Based on the stability theory of impulsive delayed differen- tial equations, some sufficient conditions are obtained guaranteeing the synchronized behaviours between two delayed chaotic ...
Dual-anticipating, dual and dual-lag synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Dibakar; Chowdhury, A. Roy
2010-01-01
In this Letter, dual synchronization in modulated time delay system using delay feedback controller is proposed. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we suggest a general method to achieve the dual-anticipating, dual, dual-lag synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems and we find both its existing and sufficient stability conditions. Numerically it is shown that the dual synchronization is also possible when driving system contain two completely different systems. Effect of parameter mismatch on dual synchronization is also discussed. As an example, numerical simulations for the Mackey-Glass and Ikeda systems are conducted, which is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.
A unified approach for impulsive lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Chuandong; Liao Xiaofeng; Zhang Rong
2005-01-01
In this paper, we propose a unified approach for impulsive lag-synchronization of a class of chaotic systems with time delay by employing the stability theory of impulsive delayed differential equations. Three well-known delayed chaotic systems are presented to illustrate our results. Also, the estimates of the stable regions for these systems are given, respectively
When long-range zero-lag synchronization is feasible in cortical networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atthaphon eViriyopase
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Many studies have reported long-range synchronization of neuronal activity between brain areas, in particular in the gamma-band with frequencies in the range of 40-80 Hz. Several studies have reported synchrony with zero phase lag, which is remarkable considering the synaptic and conduction delays inherent in the connections between distant brain areas. This result has led to many speculations about the possible functional role of zero-lag synchrony, e.g., for neuronal communication in attention, memory and feature binding. However, recent studies using recordings of single-unit activity and local field potentials report that neuronal synchronization occurs with non-zero phase lags. This raises the questions whether zero-lag synchrony can occur in the brain and, if so, under which conditions.We used analytical methods and computer simulations to investigate which connectivity between neuronal populations allows or prohibits zero-lag synchrony. We did so for a model where two oscillators interact via a relay oscillator. Analytical results and computer simulations were obtained for both type I Mirollo-Strogatz neurons and type II Hodgkin-Huxley neurons. We have investigated the dynamics of the model for various types of synaptic coupling and importantly considered the potential impact of Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP and its learning window. We confirm previous results that zero-lag synchrony can be achieved in this configuration. This is much easier to achieve with Hodgkin-Huxley neurons, which have a biphasic phase response curve, than for type I neurons. STDP facilitates zero-lag synchrony as it adjusts the synaptic strengths such that zero-lag synchrony is feasible for a much larger range of parameters than without STDP.
40 CFR 93.128 - Traffic signal synchronization projects.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic signal synchronization... synchronization projects. Traffic signal synchronization projects may be approved, funded, and implemented without... include such regionally significant traffic signal synchronization projects. ...
Robust lag synchronization between two different chaotic systems via dual-stage impulsive control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hua-Guang, Zhang; Tie-Dong, Ma; Jie, Fu; Shao-Cheng, Tong
2009-01-01
In this paper, an improved impulsive lag synchronization scheme for different chaotic systems with parametric uncertainties is proposed. Based on the new definition of synchronization with error bound and a novel impulsive control scheme (the so-called dual-stage impulsive control), some new and less conservative sufficient conditions are established to guarantee that the error dynamics can converge to a predetermined level, which is more reasonable and rigorous than the existing results. In particular, some simpler and more convenient conditions are derived by taking the same impulsive distances and control gains. Finally, some numerical simulations for the Lorenz system and the Chen system are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method
Projective synchronization based on suitable separation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Guohui; Xiong Chuan; Sun Xiaonan
2007-01-01
A new approach for constructing a projective-synchronized chaotic slave system is proposed in this paper. This method is based on suitable separation by decomposing the system as the linear part and the nonlinear one. From matrix measure theory, some simple but efficient criteria are derived for projective synchronization of chaotic system. Numerical simulations for the Lorenz system show that this control method works very well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Zhenya; Yu Pei
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study chaos (lag) synchronization of a new LC chaotic system, which can exhibit not only a two-scroll attractor but also two double-scroll attractors for different parameter values, via three types of state feedback controls: (i) linear feedback control; (ii) adaptive feedback control; and (iii) a combination of linear feedback and adaptive feedback controls. As a consequence, ten families of new feedback control laws are designed to obtain global chaos lag synchronization for τ < 0 and global chaos synchronization for τ = 0 of the LC system. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate these theoretical results. Each family of these obtained feedback control laws, including two linear (adaptive) functions or one linear function and one adaptive function, is added to two equations of the LC system. This is simpler than the known synchronization controllers, which apply controllers to all equations of the LC system. Moreover, based on the obtained results of the LC system, we also derive the control laws for chaos (lag) synchronization of another new type of chaotic system
Yang, Wengui; Yu, Wenwu; Cao, Jinde; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Hayat, Tasawar
2018-02-01
This paper investigates the stability and lag synchronization for memristor-based fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with mixed delays (asynchronous time delays and continuously distributed delays) and impulses. By applying the inequality analysis technique, homeomorphism theory and some suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, some new sufficient conditions for the uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point are established. Furthermore, we obtain several sufficient criteria concerning globally exponential lag synchronization for the proposed system based on the framework of Filippov solution, differential inclusion theory and control theory. In addition, some examples with numerical simulations are given to illustrate the feasibility and validity of obtained results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full state hybrid projective synchronization in hyperchaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu Yandong; Chang Yingxiang; Zhang Jiangang; Li Xianfeng; An Xinlei
2009-01-01
In this letter, we investigate the full state hybrid projective synchronization (FSHPS) which includes complete synchronization, anti-synchronization and projective synchronization as its special items. Based on Lyapunov stability theory a controller can be designed for achieving the FSHPS of hyperchaotic systems. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Adaptive projective synchronization between different chaotic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Numerical simulation results are performed to explain the effectiveness and feasibility of ... analysis of nonlinear dynamics have gained immense popularity during the last few ... applications of projective synchronization is in secure communication [31] due to ... of uncertain chaotic systems using adaptive control method.
Adaptive projective synchronization of different chaotic systems with nonlinearity inputs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niu Yu-Jun; Pei Bing-Nan; Wang Xing-Yuan
2012-01-01
We investigate the projective synchronization of different chaotic systems with nonlinearity inputs. Based on the adaptive technique, sliding mode control method and pole assignment technique, a novel adaptive projective synchronization scheme is proposed to ensure the drive system and the response system with nonlinearity inputs can be rapidly synchronized up to the given scaling factor. (general)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin H. Letcher
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C, identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1 and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1. We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data. Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE, but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.
Function Projective Synchronization of Two Identical New Hyperchaotic Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xin; Chen Yong
2007-01-01
A function projective synchronization of two identical hyperchaotic systems is defined and the theorem of sufficient condition is given. Based on the active control method and symbolic computation Maple, the scheme of function projective synchronization is developed to synchronize the two identical new hyperchaotic systems constructed by Yan up to a scaling function matrix with different initial values. Numerical simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of the scheme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, G.; Li Shujun; Montoya, F.; Pastor, G.; Romera, M.
2005-01-01
This paper describes the security weaknesses of a recently proposed secure communication method based on chaotic masking using projective synchronization of two chaotic systems. We show that the system is insecure and how to break it in two different ways, by high-pass filtering and by generalized synchronization
Generalized projective synchronization of a unified chaotic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Jianping; Li Changpin
2005-01-01
In the present paper, a simple but efficient control technique of the generalized projective synchronization is applied to a unified chaotic system. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well, which can also be applied to other chaotic systems
A secure communication scheme using projective chaos synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Zhigang; Xu Daolin
2004-01-01
Most secure communication schemes using chaotic dynamics are based on identical synchronization. In this paper, we show the possibility of secure communication using projective synchronization (PS). The unpredictability of the scaling factor in projective synchronization can additionally enhance the security of communication. It is also showed that the scaling factor can be employed to improve the robustness against noise contamination. The feasibility of the communication scheme in high-dimensional chaotic systems, such as the hyperchaotic Roessler system, is demonstrated. Numerical results show the success in transmitting a sound signal through chaotic systems
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Composite Lags at z ≤ 1
Li, Jennifer; Shen, Yue; Horne, Keith; Brandt, W. N.; Greene, Jenny E.; Grier, C. J.; Ho, Luis C.; Kochanek, Chris; Schneider, Donald P.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena
2017-09-01
We present composite broad-line region (BLR) reverberation mapping lag measurements for Hα, Hβ, He II λ4686, and Mg II for a sample of 144, z ≲ 1 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. Using only the 32-epoch spectroscopic light curves in the first six-month season of SDSS-RM observations, we compile correlation function measurements for individual objects and then coadd them to allow the measurement of the average lags for our sample at mean redshifts of 0.4 (for Hα) and ˜0.65 (for the other lines). At similar quasar luminosities and redshifts, the sample-averaged lag decreases in the order of Mg II, Hα, Hβ, and He II. This decrease in lags is accompanied by an increase in the mean line width of the four lines, and is roughly consistent with the virialized motion for BLR gas in photoionization equilibrium. These are among the first RM measurements of stratified BLR structure at z > 0.3. Dividing our sample by luminosity, Hα shows clear evidence of increasing lags with luminosity, consistent with the expectation from the measured BLR size-luminosity relation based on Hβ. The other three lines do not show a clear luminosity trend in their average lags due to the limited dynamic range of luminosity probed and the poor average correlation signals in the divided samples, a situation that will be improved with the incorporation of additional photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-RM. We discuss the utility and caveats of composite lag measurements for large statistical quasar samples with reverberation mapping data.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Composite Lags at z ≤ 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jennifer; Shen, Yue [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics/Astronomy, Univ. of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kochanek, Chris [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Unit 3046, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States)
2017-09-01
We present composite broad-line region (BLR) reverberation mapping lag measurements for H α , H β , He ii λ 4686, and Mg ii for a sample of 144, z ≲ 1 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. Using only the 32-epoch spectroscopic light curves in the first six-month season of SDSS-RM observations, we compile correlation function measurements for individual objects and then coadd them to allow the measurement of the average lags for our sample at mean redshifts of 0.4 (for H α ) and ∼0.65 (for the other lines). At similar quasar luminosities and redshifts, the sample-averaged lag decreases in the order of Mg ii, H α , H β , and He ii. This decrease in lags is accompanied by an increase in the mean line width of the four lines, and is roughly consistent with the virialized motion for BLR gas in photoionization equilibrium. These are among the first RM measurements of stratified BLR structure at z > 0.3. Dividing our sample by luminosity, H α shows clear evidence of increasing lags with luminosity, consistent with the expectation from the measured BLR size–luminosity relation based on H β . The other three lines do not show a clear luminosity trend in their average lags due to the limited dynamic range of luminosity probed and the poor average correlation signals in the divided samples, a situation that will be improved with the incorporation of additional photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-RM. We discuss the utility and caveats of composite lag measurements for large statistical quasar samples with reverberation mapping data.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Composite Lags at z ≤ 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Jennifer; Shen, Yue; Horne, Keith; Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Greene, Jenny E.; Ho, Luis C.; Kochanek, Chris; Trump, Jonathan R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena
2017-01-01
We present composite broad-line region (BLR) reverberation mapping lag measurements for H α , H β , He ii λ 4686, and Mg ii for a sample of 144, z ≲ 1 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. Using only the 32-epoch spectroscopic light curves in the first six-month season of SDSS-RM observations, we compile correlation function measurements for individual objects and then coadd them to allow the measurement of the average lags for our sample at mean redshifts of 0.4 (for H α ) and ∼0.65 (for the other lines). At similar quasar luminosities and redshifts, the sample-averaged lag decreases in the order of Mg ii, H α , H β , and He ii. This decrease in lags is accompanied by an increase in the mean line width of the four lines, and is roughly consistent with the virialized motion for BLR gas in photoionization equilibrium. These are among the first RM measurements of stratified BLR structure at z > 0.3. Dividing our sample by luminosity, H α shows clear evidence of increasing lags with luminosity, consistent with the expectation from the measured BLR size–luminosity relation based on H β . The other three lines do not show a clear luminosity trend in their average lags due to the limited dynamic range of luminosity probed and the poor average correlation signals in the divided samples, a situation that will be improved with the incorporation of additional photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-RM. We discuss the utility and caveats of composite lag measurements for large statistical quasar samples with reverberation mapping data.
Modified scaling function projective synchronization of chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Yu-Hua; Zhou Wu-Neng; Fang Jian-An
2011-01-01
This paper investigates a kind of modified scaling function projective synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems using an adaptive controller. The given scaling function in the new method can be an equilibrium point, a periodic orbit, or even a chaotic attractor in the phase space. Based on LaSalle's invariance set principle, the adaptive control law is derived to make the states of two chaotic systems function projective synchronized. Some numerical examples are also given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukherjee, Payel; Banerjee, Santo
2010-01-01
In this work, in the first phase, we study the phenomenon of projective synchronization in the Lorenz-Stenflo system. Synchronization is then investigated for the same system with unknown parameters. We show analytically that synchronization is possible for some proper choice of the nonlinear controller by using a suitable Lyapunov function. With the help of this result, it is also possible to estimate the values of the unknown system parameters. In the second phase as an extension of our analysis, we investigate the new hybrid projective synchronization for the same system. All our analyses are well supported with numerical evidence.
Finite-time analysis of global projective synchronization on coloured ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A novel finite-time analysis is given to investigate the global projective synchronization on coloured networks. Some less conservative conditions are derived by utilizing finite-time control techniques and Lyapunov stability theorem. In addition, two illustrative numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness of ...
Controlling general projective synchronization of fractional order Rossler systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shao Shiquan
2009-01-01
This paper proposed a method to achieve general projective synchronization of two fractional order Rossler systems. First, we construct the fractional order Rossler system's corresponding approximation integer order system. Then, a control method based on a partially linear decomposition and negative feedback of state errors was utilized on the integer order system. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
On adaptive modified projective synchronization of a supply chain ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hamed Tirandaz
2017-11-23
Nov 23, 2017 ... A novel adaptive modified projective synchronization method is ... bances, and so these methods are usually of no use. To ...... [53] S E Fawcett and M A Waller, J. Business Logistics 32(1), ... Research Appl. 12(5), 347 (2009).
Generalized projective synchronization between Lorenz system and Chen's system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Guohui
2007-01-01
On the basis of active backstepping design, this paper presents the generalized projective synchronization between two different chaotic systems: Lorenz system and Chen's system. The proposed method combines backstepping methods and active control without having to calculate the Lyapunov exponents and the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix, which makes it simple and convenient. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well
Generalized projective synchronization of chaotic nonlinear gyros coupled with dead-zone input
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hung, M.-L.; Yan, J.-J.; Liao, T.-L.
2008-01-01
This paper addresses the synchronization problem of drive-response chaotic gyros coupled with dead-zone nonlinear input. Using the sliding mode control technique, a novel control law is established which guarantees generalized projective synchronization even when the dead-zone nonlinearity is present. Numerical simulations are presented to verify that the synchronization can be achieved by using the proposed synchronization scheme
Xia, Yonghui; Yang, Zijiang; Han, Maoan
2009-07-01
This paper considers the lag synchronization (LS) issue of unknown coupled chaotic delayed Yang-Yang-type fuzzy neural networks (YYFCNN) with noise perturbation. Separate research work has been published on the stability of fuzzy neural network and LS issue of unknown coupled chaotic neural networks, as well as its application in secure communication. However, there have not been any studies that integrate the two. Motivated by the achievements from both fields, we explored the benefits of integrating fuzzy logic theories into the study of LS problems and applied the findings to secure communication. Based on adaptive feedback control techniques and suitable parameter identification, several sufficient conditions are developed to guarantee the LS of coupled chaotic delayed YYFCNN with or without noise perturbation. The problem studied in this paper is more general in many aspects. Various problems studied extensively in the literature can be treated as special cases of the findings of this paper, such as complete synchronization (CS), effect of fuzzy logic, and noise perturbation. This paper presents an illustrative example and uses simulated results of this example to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed adaptive scheme. This research also demonstrates the effectiveness of application of the proposed adaptive feedback scheme in secure communication by comparing chaotic masking with fuzziness with some previous studies. Chaotic signal with fuzziness is more complex, which makes unmasking more difficult due to the added fuzzy logic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Hongmin; Li Chunlai
2012-01-01
In this paper, we investigate two switched synchronization schemes, namely partial and complete switched generalized function projective synchronization, by using the adaptive control method. Partial switched synchronization of chaotic systems means that the state variables of the drive system synchronize with partial different state variables of the response system, whereas complete switched synchronization of chaotic systems means that all the state variables of the drive system synchronize with complete different state variables of the response system. Because the switched synchronization scheme exists in many combinations, it is a promising type of synchronization as it provides greater security in secure communications. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control laws and the parameter update laws are derived to make the states of two identical/different hyperchaotic systems asymptotically synchronized up to a desired scaling function. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to verify and illustrate the analytical results.
Sebastian Sudheer, K.; Sabir, M.
2010-12-01
This work is involved with switched modified function projective synchronization of two identical Qi hyperchaotic systems using adaptive control method. Switched synchronization of chaotic systems in which a state variable of the drive system synchronize with a different state variable of the response system is a promising type of synchronization as it provides greater security in secure communication. Modified function projective synchronization with the unpredictability of scaling functions can enhance security. Recently formulated hyperchaotic Qi system in the hyperchaotic mode has an extremely broad frequency bandwidth of high magnitudes, verifying its unusual random nature and indicating its great potential for some relevant engineering applications such as secure communications. By Lyapunove stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two chaotic systems modified function projective synchronized. Synchronization under the effect of noise is also considered. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controllers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Di; Li Juan-Juan
2010-01-01
Based on the improved state observer and the pole placement technique, by adding a constant which extends the scope of use of the original system, a new design method of generalized projective synchronization is proposed. With this method, by changing the projective synchronization scale factor, one can achieve not only complete synchronization, but also anti-synchronization, as well as arbitrary percentage of projective synchronization, so that the system may attain arbitrary synchronization in a relatively short period of time, which makes this study more meaningful. By numerical simulation, and choosing appropriate scale factor, the results of repeated experiments verify that this method is highly effective and satisfactory. Finally, based on this method and the relevant feedback concept, a novel secure communication project is designed. Numerical simulation verifies that this secure communication project is very valid, and moreover, the experimental result has been greatly improved in decryption time. (general)
Generalized projective synchronization of two coupled complex networks of different sizes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ke-Zan; He En; Zeng Zhao-Rong; Chi, K. Tse
2013-01-01
We investigate a new generalized projective synchronization between two complex dynamical networks of different sizes. To the best of our knowledge, most of the current studies on projective synchronization have dealt with coupled networks of the same size. By generalized projective synchronization, we mean that the states of the nodes in each network can realize complete synchronization, and the states of a pair of nodes from both networks can achieve projective synchronization. Using the stability theory of the dynamical system, several sufficient conditions for guaranteeing the existence of the generalized projective synchronization under feedback control and adaptive control are obtained. As an example, we use Chua's circuits to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach
Complete switched modified function projective synchronization of a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper extends previous work, where CSMFPS of chaotic systems means that all the state variables of the drive system synchronize with different state variables of the response system. As the synchronization scheme has many combined forms, it is a promising type of synchronization and can provide greater security in ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ester Hamatwi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the intermittent nature of wind, the wind power output tends to be inconsistent, and hence maximum power point tracking (MPPT is usually employed to optimize the power extracted from the wind resource at a wide range of wind speeds. This paper deals with the rotor speed control of a 2 MW direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG to achieve MPPT. The proportional-integral (PI, proportional-derivative (PD, and proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers have widely been employed in MPPT studies owing to their simple structure and simple design procedure. However, there are a number of shortcomings associated with these controllers; the trial-and-error design procedure used to determine the P, I, and D gains presents a possibility for poorly tuned controller gains, which reduces the accuracy and the dynamic performance of the entire control system. Moreover, these controllers’ linear nature, constricted operating range, and their sensitivity to changes in machine parameters make them ineffective when applied to nonlinear and uncertain systems. On the other hand, phase-lag compensators are associated with a design procedure that is well defined from fundamental principles as opposed to the aforementioned trial-and-error design procedure. This makes the latter controller type more accurate, although it is not well developed yet, and hence it is the focus of this paper. The simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT controller.
A New 4D Hyperchaotic System and Its Generalized Function Projective Synchronization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan Gao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A new four-dimensional hyperchaotic system is investigated. Numerical and analytical studies are carried out on its basic dynamical properties, such as equilibrium point, Lyapunov exponents, Poincaré maps, and chaotic dynamical behaviors. We verify the realizability of the new system via an electronic circuit by using Multisim software. Furthermore, a generalized function projective synchronization scheme of two different hyperchaotic systems with uncertain parameters is proposed, which includes some existing projective synchronization schemes, such as generalized projection synchronization and function projective synchronization. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a controller with parameters update laws is designed to realize synchronization. Using this controller, we realize the synchronization between Chen hyperchaotic system and the new system to verify the validity and feasibility of our method.
Adaptive Control and Function Projective Synchronization in 2D Discrete-Time Chaotic Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yin; Chen Yong; Li Biao
2009-01-01
This study addresses the adaptive control and function projective synchronization problems between 2D Rulkov discrete-time system and Network discrete-time system. Based on backstepping design with three controllers, a systematic, concrete and automatic scheme is developed to investigate the function projective synchronization of discrete-time chaotic systems. In addition, the adaptive control function is applied to achieve the state synchronization of two discrete-time systems. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Robust function projective synchronization of a class of uncertain chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Liqun; Liu Wanyu; Ma Jianwei
2009-01-01
In this paper, the function projective synchronization problem of chaotic systems is investigated, where parameter mismatch exists between the drive system and the response system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a novel robust function projective synchronization scheme is proposed. And the parameter mismatch problem is also solved. Simulation results of Lorenz system and Chen system verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Projective synchronization of time-varying delayed neural network with adaptive scaling factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Dibakar; Banerjee, Santo
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Projective synchronization in coupled delayed neural chaotic systems with modulated delay time is introduced. • An adaptive rule for the scaling factors is introduced. • This scheme is highly applicable in secure communication. -- Abstract: In this work, the projective synchronization between two continuous time delayed neural systems with time varying delay is investigated. A sufficient condition for synchronization for the coupled systems with modulated delay is presented analytically with the help of the Krasovskii–Lyapunov approach. The effect of adaptive scaling factors on synchronization are also studied in details. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the analytic results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Yuhua; Zhou Wuneng; Fang Jianan
2009-01-01
This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.
Anticipating and projective-anticipating synchronization of coupled multidelay feedback systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang, Thang Manh; Nakagawa, Masahiro
2007-01-01
In this Letter, the model of coupled multidelay feedback systems is investigated with the schemes of anticipating and projective-anticipating synchronizations. Under these synchronization schemes, the slave anticipates the master's trajectory. Moreover, with projective-anticipating synchronization there exists a scale factor in the amplitudes of the master's and slave's state variables. In the both cases, the driving signals are in the form of multiple nonlinear transformations of delayed state variable. The Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory is used to consider the sufficient condition for synchronization. The effectiveness of the proposed schemes is confirmed by the numerical simulation of specific examples with modified Ikeda and Mackey-Glass systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu Yuhua [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China)], E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.com; Zhou Wuneng [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)], E-mail: wnzhou@163.com; Fang Jianan [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)
2009-11-15
This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Ju H.
2007-01-01
The paper addresses control problem for the modified projective synchronization of the Genesio-Tesi chaotic systems with three uncertain parameters. An adaptive control law is derived to make the states of two identical Genesio-Tesi systems asymptotically synchronized up to specific ratios. The stability analysis in the paper is proved using a well-known Lyapunov stability theory. A numerical simulation is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed chaos synchronization scheme
Adaptive function project synchronization of Roessler hyperchaotic system with uncertain parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Runzi
2008-01-01
This Letter addresses the function project synchronization problem of two Roessler hyperchaotic in the presence of unknown system parameters. Based on Lyapunov stability theory an adaptive control law is proposed to make the states of two identical Roessler hyperchaotic systems asymptotically synchronized. Numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes
Adaptive modified projective synchronization of a unified chaotic system with an uncertain parameter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Ju H.
2007-01-01
An adaptive modified projective synchronization (AMPS) is proposed to acquire a general kind of proportional relationship between the drive and response systems. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a nonlinear control scheme for the synchronization has been presented. The control performances are verified by numerical simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Cun-Fang; Wang Ying-Hai
2011-01-01
Projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems is studied by applying an active control method. Based on the Lyapunov asymptotical stability theorem, the controller and sufficient condition for projective synchronization are calculated analytically. We give a general method with which we can achieve projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed chaotic systems. This method allows us to adjust the desired scaling factor arbitrarily. The effectiveness of our method is confirmed by using the famous delay-differential equations related to optical bistable or hybrid optical bistable devices. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach. (general)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baogui Xin
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A projective synchronization scheme for a kind of n-dimensional discrete dynamical system is proposed by means of a linear feedback control technique. The scheme consists of master and slave discrete dynamical systems coupled by linear state error variables. A kind of novel 3-D chaotic discrete system is constructed, to which the test for chaos is applied. By using the stability principles of an upper or lower triangular matrix, two controllers for achieving projective synchronization are designed and illustrated with the novel systems. Lastly some numerical simulations are employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed projective synchronization scheme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, H; Kong, V; Jin, J; Ren, L; Zhang, Y; Giles, W
2015-01-01
Purpose: A synchronized moving grid (SMOG) has been proposed to reduce scatter and lag artifacts in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, information is missing in each projection because certain areas are blocked by the grid. A previous solution to this issue is acquiring 2 complimentary projections at each position, which increases scanning time. This study reports our first Result using an inter-projection sensor fusion (IPSF) method to estimate missing projection in our prototype SMOG-based CBCT system. Methods: An in-house SMOG assembling with a 1:1 grid of 3 mm gap has been installed in a CBCT benchtop. The grid moves back and forth in a 3-mm amplitude and up-to 20-Hz frequency. A control program in LabView synchronizes the grid motion with the platform rotation and x-ray firing so that the grid patterns for any two neighboring projections are complimentary. A Catphan was scanned with 360 projections. After scatter correction, the IPSF algorithm was applied to estimate missing signal for each projection using the information from the 2 neighboring projections. Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm was applied to reconstruct CBCT images. The CBCTs were compared to those reconstructed using normal projections without applying the SMOG system. Results: The SMOG-IPSF method may reduce image dose by half due to the blocked radiation by the grid. The method almost completely removed scatter related artifacts, such as the cupping artifacts. The evaluation of line pair patterns in the CatPhan suggested that the spatial resolution degradation was minimal. Conclusion: The SMOG-IPSF is promising in reducing scatter artifacts and improving image quality while reducing radiation dose
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, H; Kong, V; Jin, J [Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Augusta, GA (Georgia); Ren, L; Zhang, Y; Giles, W [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: A synchronized moving grid (SMOG) has been proposed to reduce scatter and lag artifacts in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, information is missing in each projection because certain areas are blocked by the grid. A previous solution to this issue is acquiring 2 complimentary projections at each position, which increases scanning time. This study reports our first Result using an inter-projection sensor fusion (IPSF) method to estimate missing projection in our prototype SMOG-based CBCT system. Methods: An in-house SMOG assembling with a 1:1 grid of 3 mm gap has been installed in a CBCT benchtop. The grid moves back and forth in a 3-mm amplitude and up-to 20-Hz frequency. A control program in LabView synchronizes the grid motion with the platform rotation and x-ray firing so that the grid patterns for any two neighboring projections are complimentary. A Catphan was scanned with 360 projections. After scatter correction, the IPSF algorithm was applied to estimate missing signal for each projection using the information from the 2 neighboring projections. Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm was applied to reconstruct CBCT images. The CBCTs were compared to those reconstructed using normal projections without applying the SMOG system. Results: The SMOG-IPSF method may reduce image dose by half due to the blocked radiation by the grid. The method almost completely removed scatter related artifacts, such as the cupping artifacts. The evaluation of line pair patterns in the CatPhan suggested that the spatial resolution degradation was minimal. Conclusion: The SMOG-IPSF is promising in reducing scatter artifacts and improving image quality while reducing radiation dose.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuefei Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The complex projective synchronization in drive-response stochastic coupled networks with complex-variable systems is considered. The impulsive pinning control scheme is adopted to achieve complex projective synchronization and several simple and practical sufficient conditions are obtained in a general drive-response network. In addition, the adaptive feedback algorithms are proposed to adjust the control strength. Several numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.
Function Projective Synchronization in Discrete-Time Chaotic System with Uncertain Parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yong; Li Xin
2009-01-01
The function projective synchronization of discrete-time chaotic systems is presented. Based on backstepping design with three controllers, a systematic, concrete and automatic scheme is developed to investigate function projective synchronization (FPS) of discrete-time chaotic systems with uncertain parameters. With the aid of symbolic-numeric computation, we use the proposed scheme to illustrate FPS between two identical 3D Henon-like maps with uncertain parameters. Numeric simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of our scheme. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudheer, K. Sebastian; Sabir, M.
2009-01-01
This work investigates function projective synchronization of two-cell Quantum-CNN chaotic oscillators using adaptive method. Quantum-CNN oscillators produce nano scale chaotic oscillations under certain conditions. By Lyapunove stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two chaotic systems function projective synchronized. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controllers.
Tang, Yang; Fang, Jian-an
2008-03-01
This work is concerned with the general methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems. A systematic method of active control is developed to synchronize two hyperchaotic systems with known parameters. Moreover, by combining the adaptive control and linear feedback methods, general sufficient conditions for the modified projective synchronization of identical or different chaotic systems with fully unknown or partially unknown parameters are presented. Meanwhile, the speed of parameters identification can be regulated by adjusting adaptive gain matrix. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baogui Xin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Based on linear feedback control technique, a projective synchronization scheme of N-dimensional chaotic fractional-order systems is proposed, which consists of master and slave fractional-order financial systems coupled by linear state error variables. It is shown that the slave system can be projectively synchronized with the master system constructed by state transformation. Based on the stability theory of linear fractional order systems, a suitable controller for achieving synchronization is designed. The given scheme is applied to achieve projective synchronization of chaotic fractional-order financial systems. Numerical simulations are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed projective synchronization scheme.
Finite-time analysis of global projective synchronization on coloured ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The earliest research of modern network theory could be traced back to the ..... ference between the two examples is that while the first example studies ... method – a finite-time control technique – was applied to achieve synchronization of the.
On adaptive modified projective synchronization of a supply chain management system
Tirandaz, Hamed
2017-12-01
In this paper, the synchronization problem of a chaotic supply chain management system is studied. A novel adaptive modified projective synchronization method is introduced to control the behaviour of the leader supply chain system by a follower chaotic system and to adjust the leader system parameters until the measurable errors of the system parameters converge to zero. The stability evaluation and convergence analysis are carried out by the Lyapanov stability theorem. The proposed synchronization and antisynchronization techniques are studied for identical supply chain chaotic systems. Finally, some numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the theoretical discussions.
High Precision Fast Projective Synchronization for Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters
Nian, Fuzhong; Wang, Xingyuan; Lin, Da; Niu, Yujun
2013-08-01
A high precision fast projective synchronization method for chaotic systems with unknown parameters was proposed by introducing optimal matrix. Numerical simulations indicate that the precision be improved about three orders compared with other common methods under the same condition of software and hardware. Moreover, when average error is less than 10-3, the synchronization speed is 6500 times than common methods, the iteration needs only 4 times. The unknown parameters also were identified rapidly. The theoretical analysis and proof also were given.
Strang, Kenneth
2013-01-01
Cooperative learning was applied in a graduate project management course to compare the effectiveness of asynchronous versus synchronous online team meetings. An experiment was constructed to allocate students to project teams while ensuring there was a balance of requisite skills, namely systems analysis and design along with HTML/Javascript…
Quasi-projective synchronization of fractional-order complex-valued recurrent neural networks.
Yang, Shuai; Yu, Juan; Hu, Cheng; Jiang, Haijun
2018-08-01
In this paper, without separating the complex-valued neural networks into two real-valued systems, the quasi-projective synchronization of fractional-order complex-valued neural networks is investigated. First, two new fractional-order inequalities are established by using the theory of complex functions, Laplace transform and Mittag-Leffler functions, which generalize traditional inequalities with the first-order derivative in the real domain. Additionally, different from hybrid control schemes given in the previous work concerning the projective synchronization, a simple and linear control strategy is designed in this paper and several criteria are derived to ensure quasi-projective synchronization of the complex-valued neural networks with fractional-order based on the established fractional-order inequalities and the theory of complex functions. Moreover, the error bounds of quasi-projective synchronization are estimated. Especially, some conditions are also presented for the Mittag-Leffler synchronization of the addressed neural networks. Finally, some numerical examples with simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of the derived theoretical results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Projective synchronization of a complex network with different fractional order chaos nodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Ming-Jun; Wang Xing-Yuan; Niu Yu-Jun
2011-01-01
Based on the stability theory of the linear fractional order system, projective synchronization of a complex network is studied in the paper, and the coupling functions of the connected nodes are identified. With this method, the projective synchronization of the network with different fractional order chaos nodes can be achieved, besides, the number of the nodes does not affect the stability of the whole network. In the numerical simulations, the chaotic fractional order Lü system, Liu system and Coullet system are chosen as examples to show the effectiveness of the scheme. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudheer, K. Sebastian; Sabir, M.
2011-01-01
In this Letter we consider modified function projective synchronization of unidirectionally coupled multiple time-delayed Rossler chaotic systems using adaptive controls. Recently, delay differential equations have attracted much attention in the field of nonlinear dynamics. The high complexity of the multiple time-delayed systems can provide a new architecture for enhancing message security in chaos based encryption systems. Adaptive control can be used for synchronization when the parameters of the system are unknown. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two chaotic systems are function projective synchronized. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controllers.
Warner, Mark
2014-08-01
In a perfect world, large telescopes would be developed and built in logical, sequential order. First, scientific requirements would be agreed upon, vetted, and fully developed. From these, instrument designers would define their own subsystem requirements and specifications, and then flesh out preliminary designs. This in turn would then allow optic designers to specify lens and mirror requirements, which would permit telescope mounts and drives to be designed. Finally, software and safety systems, enclosures and domes, buildings, foundations, and infrastructures would be specified and developed. Unfortunately, the order of most large telescope projects is the opposite of this sequence. We don't live in a perfect world. Scientists usually don't want to commit to operational requirements until late in the design process, instrument designers frequently change and update their designs due to improving filter and camera technologies, and mount and optics engineers seem to live by the words "more" and "better" throughout their own design processes. Amplifying this is the fact that site construction of buildings and domes are usually the earliest critical path items on the schedule, and are often subject to lengthy permitting and environmental processes. These facility and support items therefore must quickly get underway, often before operational requirements are fully considered. Mirrors and mounts also have very long lead times for fabrication, which in turn necessitates that they are specified and purchased early. All of these factors can result in expensive and time-consuming change orders when requirements are finalized and/or shift late in the process. This paper discusses some of these issues encountered on large, multi-year construction projects. It also presents some techniques and ideas to minimize these effects on schedule and cost. Included is a discussion on the role of Interface Control Documents (ICDs), the importance (and danger) of making big
The Use of Questions in a Synchronous Intercultural Online Exchange Project
Yang, Rong
2018-01-01
In this digital era, online intercultural exchange has gained increased popularity in language and culture education. However, concerns arise over its productiveness and efficacy in engaging participants cognitively. In addition, there is a paucity of research on out-of-classroom synchronous online exchange projects, let alone those involving…
Generalized projective synchronization of chaotic systems via adaptive learning control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun-Ping, Sun; Jun-Min, Li; Hui-Lin, Wang; Jiang-An, Wang
2010-01-01
In this paper, a learning control approach is applied to the generalized projective synchronisation (GPS) of different chaotic systems with unknown periodically time-varying parameters. Using the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional stability theory, a differential-difference mixed parametric learning law and an adaptive learning control law are constructed to make the states of two different chaotic systems asymptotically synchronised. The scheme is successfully applied to the generalized projective synchronisation between the Lorenz system and Chen system. Moreover, numerical simulations results are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. (general)
Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Complex Networks with Time-Varying Coupling Delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mei, Sun; Chang-Yan, Zeng; Li-Xin, Tian
2009-01-01
Generalized projective synchronization (GPS) between two complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is investigated. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a nonlinear controller and adaptive updated laws are designed. Feasibility of the proposed scheme is proven in theory. Moreover, two numerical examples are presented, using the energy resource system and Lü's system [Physica A 382 (2007) 672] as the nodes of the networks. GPS between two energy resource complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is achieved. This study can widen the application range of the generalized synchronization methods and will be instructive for the demand–supply of energy resource in some regions of China
Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Complex Networks with Time-Varying Coupling Delay
Sun, Mei; Zeng, Chang-Yan; Tian, Li-Xin
2009-01-01
Generalized projective synchronization (GPS) between two complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is investigated. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a nonlinear controller and adaptive updated laws are designed. Feasibility of the proposed scheme is proven in theory. Moreover, two numerical examples are presented, using the energy resource system and Lü's system [Physica A 382 (2007) 672] as the nodes of the networks. GPS between two energy resource complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is achieved. This study can widen the application range of the generalized synchronization methods and will be instructive for the demand-supply of energy resource in some regions of China.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Heng
Full Text Available This paper investigates a method to identify uncertain system parameters and unknown topological structure in general complex networks with or without time delay. A complex network, which has uncertain topology and unknown parameters, is designed as a drive network, and a known response complex network with an input controller is designed to identify the drive network. Under the proposed input controller, the drive network and the response network can achieve anticipatory projective synchronization when the system is steady. Lyapunov theorem and Barbǎlat's lemma guarantee the stability of synchronization manifold between two networks. When the synchronization is achieved, the system parameters and topology in response network can be changed to equal with the parameters and topology in drive network. A numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Zhao, L. W.; Du, J. G.; Yin, J. L.
2018-05-01
This paper proposes a novel secured communication scheme in a chaotic system by applying generalized function projective synchronization of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This phenomenal approach guarantees a secured and convenient communication. Our study applied the Melnikov theorem with an active control strategy to suppress chaos in the system. The transmitted information signal is modulated into the parameter of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the transmitter and it is assumed that the parameter of the receiver system is unknown. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and the adaptive control technique, the controllers are designed to make two identical nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the unknown parameter asymptotically synchronized. The numerical simulation results of our study confirmed the validity, effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed novel synchronization method and error estimate for a secure communication. The Chaos masking signals of the information communication scheme, further guaranteed a safer and secured information communicated via this approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Manfeng; Xu Zhenyuan; Zhang Rong; Hu Aihua
2007-01-01
This Letter further investigates the full state hybrid projective synchronization (FSHPS) of chaotic and hyper-chaotic systems with fully unknown parameters. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a unified adaptive controller and parameters update law can be designed for achieving the FSHPS of chaotic and/or hyper-chaotic systems with the same and different order. Especially, for two chaotic systems with different order, reduced order MFSHPS (an acronym for modified full state hybrid projective synchronization) and increased order MFSHPS are first studied in this Letter. Five groups numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. In addition, the proposed FSHPS scheme is quite robust against the effect of noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iman Yousefi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents parameter estimation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM using a combinatorial algorithm. Nonlinear fourth-order space state model of PMSM is selected. This model is rewritten to the linear regression form without linearization. Noise is imposed to the system in order to provide a real condition, and then combinatorial Orthogonal Projection Algorithm and Recursive Least Squares (OPA&RLS method is applied in the linear regression form to the system. Results of this method are compared to the Orthogonal Projection Algorithm (OPA and Recursive Least Squares (RLS methods to validate the feasibility of the proposed method. Simulation results validate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
Stages of chaotic synchronization.
Tang, D. Y.; Dykstra, R.; Hamilton, M. W.; Heckenberg, N. R.
1998-09-01
In an experimental investigation of the response of a chaotic system to a chaotic driving force, we have observed synchronization of chaos of the response system in the forms of generalized synchronization, phase synchronization, and lag synchronization to the driving signal. In this paper we compare the features of these forms of synchronized chaos and study their relations and physical origins. We found that different forms of chaotic synchronization could be interpreted as different stages of nonlinear interaction between the coupled chaotic systems. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niu Yu-Jun; Wang Xing-Yuan; Nian Fu-Zhong; Wang Ming-Jun
2010-01-01
Based on the stability theory of the fractional order system, the dynamic behaviours of a new fractional order system are investigated theoretically. The lowest order we found to have chaos in the new three-dimensional system is 2.46, and the period routes to chaos in the new fractional order system are also found. The effectiveness of our analysis results is further verified by numerical simulations and positive largest Lyapunov exponent. Furthermore, a nonlinear feedback controller is designed to achieve the generalized projective synchronization of the fractional order chaotic system, and its validity is proved by Laplace transformation theory. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Manfeng; Xu Zhenyuan; Zhang Rong; Hu Aihua
2007-01-01
Based on the active control idea and the invariance principle of differential equations, a general scheme of adaptive full state hybrid projective synchronization (FSHPS) and parameters identification of a class of chaotic (hyper-chaotic) systems with linearly dependent uncertain parameters is proposed in this Letter. With this effective scheme parameters identification and FSHPS of chaotic and hyper-chaotic systems can be realized simultaneously. Numerical simulations on the chaotic Chen system and the hyper-chaotic Chen system are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme
Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Different Neural Networks with Mixed Time Delays
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Xuefei Wu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The generalized projective synchronization (GPS between two different neural networks with nonlinear coupling and mixed time delays is considered. Several kinds of nonlinear feedback controllers are designed to achieve GPS between two different such neural networks. Some results for GPS of these neural networks are proved theoretically by using the Lyapunov stability theory and the LaSalle invariance principle. Moreover, by comparison, we determine an optimal nonlinear controller from several ones and provide an adaptive update law for it. Computer simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Fang-Fang; Liu Shu-Tang; Yu Wei-Yong
2013-01-01
To increase the variety and security of communication, we present the definitions of modified projective synchronization with complex scaling factors (CMPS) of real chaotic systems and complex chaotic systems, where complex scaling factors establish a link between real chaos and complex chaos. Considering all situations of unknown parameters and pseudo-gradient condition, we design adaptive CMPS schemes based on the speed-gradient method for the real drive chaotic system and complex response chaotic system and for the complex drive chaotic system and the real response chaotic system, respectively. The convergence factors and dynamical control strength are added to regulate the convergence speed and increase robustness. Numerical simulations verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented schemes. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yau, H.-T.
2008-01-01
This Letter presents a robust control scheme to generalized projective synchronization between two identical two-degrees-of-freedom heavy symmetric gyroscopes with dead zone nonlinear inputs. Because of the nonlinear terms of the gyroscope system, the system exhibits complex and chaotic motions. By the Lyapunov stability theory with control terms, two suitable sliding surfaces are proposed to ensure the stability of the controlled closed-loop system in sliding mode. Then, two sliding mode controllers (SMC) are designed to guarantee the hitting of the sliding surfaces even when the control inputs contain dead-zone nonlinearity. This method allows us to arbitrarily direct the scaling factor onto a desired value. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well for the proposed controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Liu
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a type of modified hybrid projective synchronization with complex transformationmatrix (CMHPS for different dimensional fractional-order complex chaos and fractional-order real hyper-chaos. The transformationmatrix in this type of chaotic synchronization is a non-square matrix, and its elements are complex numbers. Based on the stability theory of fractional-order systems, by employing the feedback control technique, necessary and sufficient criteria on CMHPS are derived. Furthermore, CMHPS between fractional-order real hyper-chaotic Rössler system and other two different dimensional fractional-order complex Lorenz-like chaotic systems is provided as two examples to discuss reduced order and increased order synchronization, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angela Hsiang-Ling Chen
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Modeling and optimizing organizational processes, such as the one represented by the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP, improve outcomes. Based on assumptions and simplification, this model tackles the allocation of resources so that organizations can continue to generate profits and reinvest in future growth. Nonetheless, despite all of the research dedicated to solving the RCPSP and its multi-mode variations, there is no standardized procedure that can guide project management practitioners in their scheduling tasks. This is mainly because many of the proposed approaches are either based on unrealistic/oversimplified scenarios or they propose solution procedures not easily applicable or even feasible in real-life situations. In this study, we solve a more true-to-life and complex model, Multimode RCPSP with minimal and maximal time lags (MRCPSP/max. The complexity of the model solved is presented, and the practicality of the proposed approach is justified depending on only information that is available for every project regardless of its industrial context. The results confirm that it is possible to determine a robust makespan and to calculate an execution time-frame with gaps lower than 11% between their lower and upper bounds. In addition, in many instances, the solved lower bound obtained was equal to the best-known optimum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqiang Di
Full Text Available Both symmetric and asymmetric color image encryption have advantages and disadvantages. In order to combine their advantages and try to overcome their disadvantages, chaos synchronization is used to avoid the key transmission for the proposed semi-symmetric image encryption scheme. Our scheme is a hybrid chaotic encryption algorithm, and it consists of a scrambling stage and a diffusion stage. The control law and the update rule of function projective synchronization between the 3-cell quantum cellular neural networks (QCNN response system and the 6th-order cellular neural network (CNN drive system are formulated. Since the function projective synchronization is used to synchronize the response system and drive system, Alice and Bob got the key by two different chaotic systems independently and avoid the key transmission by some extra security links, which prevents security key leakage during the transmission. Both numerical simulations and security analyses such as information entropy analysis, differential attack are conducted to verify the feasibility, security, and efficiency of the proposed scheme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Xiangjun; Fu, Zhengye; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
In this paper, a new five-dimensional hyperchaotic system is proposed based on the Lü hyperchaotic system. Some of its basic dynamical properties, such as equilibria, Lyapunov exponents, bifurcations and various attractors are investigated. Furthermore, a new secure communication scheme based on generalized function projective synchronization (GFPS) of this hyperchaotic system with an uncertain parameter is presented. The communication scheme is composed of the modulation, the chaotic receiver, the chaotic transmitter and the demodulation. The modulation mechanism is to modulate the message signal into the system parameter. Then the chaotic signals are sent to the receiver via a public channel. In the receiver end, by designing the controllers and the parameter update rule, GFPS between the transmitter and receiver systems is achieved and the unknown parameter is estimated simultaneously. The message signal can be finally recovered by the identified parameter and the corresponding demodulation method. There is no any limitation on the message size. Numerical simulations are performed to show the validity and feasibility of the presented secure communication scheme. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmoud, Gamal M; Mahmoud, Emad E; Arafa, Ayman A
2013-01-01
In this paper we deal with the projective synchronization (PS) of hyperchaotic complex nonlinear systems and its application in secure communications based on passive theory. The unpredictability of the scaling factor in PS can additionally enhance the security of communications. In this paper, a scheme for secure message transmission is proposed, and we try to transmit more than one large or bounded message from the transmitter to the receiver. The new hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system is employed to encrypt these messages. In the transmitter, the original messages are modulated into its parameter. In the receiver, we assume that the parameter of the receiver system is uncertain. The controllers and corresponding parameter update law are constructed to achieve PS between the transmitter and receiver system with an uncertain parameter, and identify the unknown parameter via passive theory. The original messages can be recovered successfully through some simple operations by the estimated parameter. Numerical results have verified the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented method. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farivar, Faezeh; Aliyari Shoorehdeli, Mahdi; Nekoui, Mohammad Ali; Teshnehlab, Mohammad
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A systematic procedure for GPS of unknown heavy chaotic gyroscope systems. ► Proposed methods are based on Lyapunov stability theory. ► Without calculating Lyapunov exponents and Eigen values of the Jacobian matrix. ► Capable to extend for a variety of chaotic systems. ► Useful for practical applications in the future. - Abstract: This paper proposes the chaos control and the generalized projective synchronization methods for heavy symmetric gyroscope systems via Gaussian radial basis adaptive variable structure control. Because of the nonlinear terms of the gyroscope system, the system exhibits chaotic motions. Occasionally, the extreme sensitivity to initial states in a system operating in chaotic mode can be very destructive to the system because of unpredictable behavior. In order to improve the performance of a dynamic system or avoid the chaotic phenomena, it is necessary to control a chaotic system with a periodic motion beneficial for working with a particular condition. As chaotic signals are usually broadband and noise like, synchronized chaotic systems can be used as cipher generators for secure communication. This paper presents chaos synchronization of two identical chaotic motions of symmetric gyroscopes. In this paper, the switching surfaces are adopted to ensure the stability of the error dynamics in variable structure control. Using the neural variable structure control technique, control laws are established which guarantees the chaos control and the generalized projective synchronization of unknown gyroscope systems. In the neural variable structure control, Gaussian radial basis functions are utilized to on-line estimate the system dynamic functions. Also, the adaptation laws of the on-line estimator are derived in the sense of Lyapunov function. Thus, the unknown gyro systems can be guaranteed to be asymptotically stable. Also, the proposed method can achieve the control objectives. Numerical simulations are presented to
Cheng, Lin; Yang, Yongqing; Li, Li; Sui, Xin
2018-06-01
This paper studies the finite-time hybrid projective synchronization of the drive-response complex networks. In the model, general transmission delays and distributed delays are also considered. By designing the adaptive intermittent controllers, the response network can achieve hybrid projective synchronization with the drive system in finite time. Based on finite-time stability theory and several differential inequalities, some simple finite-time hybrid projective synchronization criteria are derived. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Jun-Wei; Shen Yi; Zhang Guo-Dong; Wang Yan-Feng; Cui Guang-Zhao
2013-01-01
According to the Lyapunov stability theorem, a new general hybrid projective complete dislocated synchronization scheme with non-derivative and derivative coupling based on parameter identification is proposed under the framework of drive-response systems. Every state variable of the response system equals the summation of the hybrid drive systems in the previous hybrid synchronization. However, every state variable of the drive system equals the summation of the hybrid response systems while evolving with time in our method. Complete synchronization, hybrid dislocated synchronization, projective synchronization, non-derivative and derivative coupling, and parameter identification are included as its special item. The Lorenz chaotic system, Rössler chaotic system, memristor chaotic oscillator system, and hyperchaotic Lü system are discussed to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. (general)
Synchronization of coupled nonidentical multidelay feedback systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang, Thang Manh; Nakagawa, Masahiro
2007-01-01
We present the lag synchronization of coupled nonidentical multidelay feedback systems, in which the synchronization signal is the sum of nonlinearly transformed components of delayed state variable. The sufficient condition for synchronization is considered by the Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory. The specific examples will demonstrate and verify the effectiveness of the proposed model
Transition among synchronous schemes in coupled nonidentical multiple time delay systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thang Manh Hoang
2009-01-01
We present the transition among possible synchronous schemes in coupled nonidentical multiple time delay systems, i.e., lag, projective-lag, complete, anticipating and projective-anticipating synchronization. The number of nonlinear transforms in the master's equation can be different from that in slave's, and nonlinear transforms can be in various forms. The driving signal is the sum of nonlinearly transformed components of delayed state variable. Moreover, the equation representing for driving signal is constructed exactly so that the difference between the master's and slave's structures is complemented. The sufficient condition for synchronization is considered by the Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory. The specific examples will demonstrate and verify the effectiveness of the proposed models.
2015-09-01
The purpose of the Red Book is to function as a how to for synchronizing NEPA and other regulatory reviews. This handbook will be useful to Federal agencies that review permit applications, and Federal, State, and local agencies that fund or de...
... lose time. Symptoms of jet lag include: Trouble falling asleep or waking up Tiredness during the day ... at your destination. For longer trips, before you leave, try to adapt to the time schedule of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
The addition of potassium or rubidium salts to europium-activated fluorohalide phosphors produces X-ray screens with low lag, even at very low europium concentrations. The chemical preparation and afterglow test results are described
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiuchun Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available When the parameters of both drive and response systems are all unknown, an adaptive sliding mode controller, strongly robust to exotic perturbations, is designed for realizing generalized function projective synchronization. Sliding mode surface is given and the controlled system is asymptotically stable on this surface with the passage of time. Based on the adaptation laws and Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive sliding controller is designed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method even when both drive and response systems are perturbed with external disturbances.
Synchronicity from Synchronized Chaos
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Gregory S. Duane
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The synchronization of loosely-coupled chaotic oscillators, a phenomenon investigated intensively for the last two decades, may realize the philosophical concept of “synchronicity”—the commonplace notion that related eventsmysteriously occur at the same time. When extended to continuous media and/or large discrete arrays, and when general (non-identical correspondences are considered between states, intermittent synchronous relationships indeed become ubiquitous. Meaningful synchronicity follows naturally if meaningful events are identified with coherent structures, defined by internal synchronization between remote degrees of freedom; a condition that has been posited as necessary for synchronizability with an external system. The important case of synchronization between mind and matter is realized if mind is analogized to a computer model, synchronizing with a sporadically observed system, as in meteorological data assimilation. Evidence for the ubiquity of synchronization is reviewed along with recent proposals that: (1 synchronization of different models of the same objective process may be an expeditious route to improved computational modeling and may also describe the functioning of conscious brains; and (2 the nonlocality in quantum phenomena implied by Bell’s theorem may be explained in a variety of deterministic (hidden variable interpretations if the quantum world resides on a generalized synchronization “manifold”.
Time-delayed chameleon: Analysis, synchronization and FPGA implementation
Rajagopal, Karthikeyan; Jafari, Sajad; Laarem, Guessas
2017-12-01
In this paper we report a time-delayed chameleon-like chaotic system which can belong to different families of chaotic attractors depending on the choices of parameters. Such a characteristic of self-excited and hidden chaotic flows in a simple 3D system with time delay has not been reported earlier. Dynamic analysis of the proposed time-delayed systems are analysed in time-delay space and parameter space. A novel adaptive modified functional projective lag synchronization algorithm is derived for synchronizing identical time-delayed chameleon systems with uncertain parameters. The proposed time-delayed systems and the synchronization algorithm with controllers and parameter estimates are then implemented in FPGA using hardware-software co-simulation and the results are presented.
Robust Short-Lag Spatial Coherence Imaging.
Nair, Arun Asokan; Tran, Trac Duy; Bell, Muyinatu A Lediju
2018-03-01
Short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging displays the spatial coherence between backscattered ultrasound echoes instead of their signal amplitudes and is more robust to noise and clutter artifacts when compared with traditional delay-and-sum (DAS) B-mode imaging. However, SLSC imaging does not consider the content of images formed with different lags, and thus does not exploit the differences in tissue texture at each short-lag value. Our proposed method improves SLSC imaging by weighting the addition of lag values (i.e., M-weighting) and by applying robust principal component analysis (RPCA) to search for a low-dimensional subspace for projecting coherence images created with different lag values. The RPCA-based projections are considered to be denoised versions of the originals that are then weighted and added across lags to yield a final robust SLSC (R-SLSC) image. Our approach was tested on simulation, phantom, and in vivo liver data. Relative to DAS B-mode images, the mean contrast, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvements with R-SLSC images are 21.22 dB, 2.54, and 2.36, respectively, when averaged over simulated, phantom, and in vivo data and over all lags considered, which corresponds to mean improvements of 96.4%, 121.2%, and 120.5%, respectively. When compared with SLSC images, the corresponding mean improvements with R-SLSC images were 7.38 dB, 1.52, and 1.30, respectively (i.e., mean improvements of 14.5%, 50.5%, and 43.2%, respectively). Results show great promise for smoothing out the tissue texture of SLSC images and enhancing anechoic or hypoechoic target visibility at higher lag values, which could be useful in clinical tasks such as breast cyst visualization, liver vessel tracking, and obese patient imaging.
Synchronization and anti-synchronization coexist in Chen-Lee chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, J.-H.; Chen, H.-K.; Lin, Y.-K.
2009-01-01
This study demonstrates that synchronization and anti-synchronization can coexist in Chen-Lee chaotic systems by direct linear coupling. Based on Lyapunov's direct method, a linear controller was designed to assure that two different types of synchronization can simultaneously be achieved. Further, the hybrid projective synchronization of Chen-Lee chaotic systems was studied using a nonlinear control scheme. The nonlinear controller was designed according to the Lyapunov stability theory to guarantee the hybrid projective synchronization, including synchronization, anti-synchronization, and projective synchronization. Finally, numerical examples are presented in order to illustrate the proposed synchronization approach.
Song, Shuai; Song, Xiaona; Balsera, Ines Tejado
2017-05-01
This paper investigates the mixed H∞ and passive projective synchronization problem for fractional-order (FO) memristor-based neural networks with time delays. Our aim is to design a controller such that, though the unavoidable phenomena of time delay and external disturbances is fully considered, the resulting closed-loop system is stable with a mixed H∞ and passive performance level. By combining sliding mode control and adaptive control methods, a novel adaptive sliding mode control strategy is designed for the synchronization of time-delayed FO dynamic networks. Via the application of FO system stability theory, the projective synchronization conditions are addressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Based on the conditions, a desired controller which can guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system and also ensure a mixed H∞ and passive performance level is designed. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Hong; Kong, Vic [Department of Radiation Oncology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912 (United States); Ren, Lei; Giles, William; Zhang, You [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Jin, Jian-Yue, E-mail: jjin@gru.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912 and Department of Radiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912 (United States)
2016-01-15
Purpose: A preobject grid can reduce and correct scatter in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, half of the signal in each projection is blocked by the grid. A synchronized moving grid (SMOG) has been proposed to acquire two complimentary projections at each gantry position and merge them into one complete projection. That approach, however, suffers from increased scanning time and the technical difficulty of accurately merging the two projections per gantry angle. Herein, the authors present a new SMOG approach which acquires a single projection per gantry angle, with complimentary grid patterns for any two adjacent projections, and use an interprojection sensor fusion (IPSF) technique to estimate the blocked signal in each projection. The method may have the additional benefit of reduced imaging dose due to the grid blocking half of the incident radiation. Methods: The IPSF considers multiple paired observations from two adjacent gantry angles as approximations of the blocked signal and uses a weighted least square regression of these observations to finally determine the blocked signal. The method was first tested with a simulated SMOG on a head phantom. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), which represents the difference of the recovered CBCT image to the original image without the SMOG, was used to evaluate the ability of the IPSF in recovering the missing signal. The IPSF approach was then tested using a Catphan phantom on a prototype SMOG assembly installed in a bench top CBCT system. Results: In the simulated SMOG experiment, the SNRs were increased from 15.1 and 12.7 dB to 35.6 and 28.9 dB comparing with a conventional interpolation method (inpainting method) for a projection and the reconstructed 3D image, respectively, suggesting that IPSF successfully recovered most of blocked signal. In the prototype SMOG experiment, the authors have successfully reconstructed a CBCT image using the IPSF-SMOG approach. The detailed geometric features in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Hong; Kong, Vic; Ren, Lei; Giles, William; Zhang, You; Jin, Jian-Yue
2016-01-01
Purpose: A preobject grid can reduce and correct scatter in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, half of the signal in each projection is blocked by the grid. A synchronized moving grid (SMOG) has been proposed to acquire two complimentary projections at each gantry position and merge them into one complete projection. That approach, however, suffers from increased scanning time and the technical difficulty of accurately merging the two projections per gantry angle. Herein, the authors present a new SMOG approach which acquires a single projection per gantry angle, with complimentary grid patterns for any two adjacent projections, and use an interprojection sensor fusion (IPSF) technique to estimate the blocked signal in each projection. The method may have the additional benefit of reduced imaging dose due to the grid blocking half of the incident radiation. Methods: The IPSF considers multiple paired observations from two adjacent gantry angles as approximations of the blocked signal and uses a weighted least square regression of these observations to finally determine the blocked signal. The method was first tested with a simulated SMOG on a head phantom. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), which represents the difference of the recovered CBCT image to the original image without the SMOG, was used to evaluate the ability of the IPSF in recovering the missing signal. The IPSF approach was then tested using a Catphan phantom on a prototype SMOG assembly installed in a bench top CBCT system. Results: In the simulated SMOG experiment, the SNRs were increased from 15.1 and 12.7 dB to 35.6 and 28.9 dB comparing with a conventional interpolation method (inpainting method) for a projection and the reconstructed 3D image, respectively, suggesting that IPSF successfully recovered most of blocked signal. In the prototype SMOG experiment, the authors have successfully reconstructed a CBCT image using the IPSF-SMOG approach. The detailed geometric features in the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Corrado Moretti
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This manuscript describes the experience of our team in developing a flow-triggered nasal respiratory support for the neonate and its related clinical applications. Although mechanical ventilation (MV via an endotracheal tube has undoubtedly led to improvement in neonatal survival in the last 40 years, the prolonged use of this technique may predispose the infant to the development of many possible complications, first of all, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Avoiding mechanical ventilation is thought to be a critical goal, and different modes of non invasive respiratory support may reduce the intubation rate: nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP, nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV and its more advantageous form, synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (SNIPPV. SNIPPV was initially performed by a capsule placed on the baby’s abdomen. To overcome the disadvantages of the abdominal capsule, our team decided to create a flow-sensor that could be interposed between the nasal prongs and the Y piece. Firstly we developed a hot-wire flow-sensor to trigger the ventilator and we showed that flow-SNIPPV can support the inspiratory effort in the post-extubation period more effectively than NCPAP. But, although accurate, the proper functioning of the hot-wire flow-sensor was easily compromised by secretions or moisture, and therefore we started to use as flow-sensor a simpler differential pressure transducer. In a following trial using the new device, we were able to demonstrate that flow-SNIPPV was more effective than conventional NCPAP in decreasing extubation failure in preterm infants who had been ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. More recently we used flow-SNIPPV as the primary mode of ventilation, after surfactant replacement, reducing MV need and favorably affecting short-term morbidities of treated premature infants. We also successfully applied SNIPPV to treat apnea of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corvin, C.
1995-06-01
A synchronous condenser is a synchronous machine that generates reactive power that leads real power by 90 degrees in phase. The leading reactive power generated by the condenser offsets or cancels the normal lagging reactive power consumed by inductive and nonlinear loads at the accelerator complex. The quality of SLAC's utility power is improved with the addition of the condenser. The inertia of the condenser's 35,000 pound rotor damps and smoothes voltage excursions on two 12 kilovolt master substation buses, improving voltage regulation site wide. The condenser absorbs high frequency transients and noise in effect ''scrubbing'' the electric system power at its primary distribution source. In addition, the condenser produces a substantial savings in power costs. Federal and investor owned utilities that supply electric power to SLAC levy a monthly penalty for lagging reactive power delivered to the site. For the 1993 fiscal year this totaled over $285,000 in added costs for the year. By generating leading reactive power on site, thereby reducing total lagging reactive power requirements, a substantial savings in electric utility bills is achieved. Actual savings of $150,000 or more a year are possible depending on experimental operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Xiao-Na; Song Shuai; Liu Lei-Po; Tejado Balsera, Inés
2017-01-01
This paper investigates the mixed H ∞ and passive projective synchronization problem for fractional-order (FO) memristor-based neural networks. Our aim is to design a controller such that, though the unavoidable phenomena of time-delay and parameter uncertainty are fully considered, the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable with a mixed H ∞ and passive performance level. By combining active and adaptive control methods, a novel hybrid control strategy is designed, which can guarantee the robust stability of the closed-loop system and also ensure a mixed H ∞ and passive performance level. Via the application of FO Lyapunov stability theory, the projective synchronization conditions are addressed in terms of linear matrix inequality techniques. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. (paper)
Curme, Chester
Technological advances have provided scientists with large high-dimensional datasets that describe the behaviors of complex systems: from the statistics of energy levels in complex quantum systems, to the time-dependent transcription of genes, to price fluctuations among assets in a financial market. In this environment, where it may be difficult to infer the joint distribution of the data, network science has flourished as a way to gain insight into the structure and organization of such systems by focusing on pairwise interactions. This work focuses on a particular setting, in which a system is described by multivariate time series data. We consider time-lagged correlations among elements in this system, in such a way that the measured interactions among elements are asymmetric. Finally, we allow these interactions to be characteristically weak, so that statistical uncertainties may be important to consider when inferring the structure of the system. We introduce a methodology for constructing statistically validated networks to describe such a system, extend the methodology to accommodate interactions with a periodic component, and show how consideration of bipartite community structures in these networks can aid in the construction of robust statistical models. An example of such a system is a financial market, in which high frequency returns data may be used to describe contagion, or the spreading of shocks in price among assets. These data provide the experimental testing ground for our methodology. We study NYSE data from both the present day and one decade ago, examine the time scales over which the validated lagged correlation networks exist, and relate differences in the topological properties of the networks to an increasing economic efficiency. We uncover daily periodicities in the validated interactions, and relate our findings to explanations of the Epps Effect, an empirical phenomenon of financial time series. We also study bipartite community
Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Wilkens, Roy H.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Clyde, William C.; Wing, Scott L.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Kraus, Mary J.
2018-03-01
A consistent chronostratigraphic framework is required to understand the effect of major paleoclimate perturbations on both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Transient global warming events in the early Eocene, at 56-54 Ma, show the impact of large-scale carbon input into the ocean-atmosphere system. Here we provide the first timescale synchronization of continental and marine deposits spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and the interval just prior to the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2). Cyclic variations in geochemical data come from continental drill cores of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP, Wyoming, USA) and from marine deep-sea drilling deposits retrieved by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Both are dominated by eccentricity-modulated precession cycles used to construct a common cyclostratigraphic framework. Integration of age models results in a revised astrochronology for the PETM in deep-sea records that is now generally consistent with independent 3He age models. The duration of the PETM is estimated at ˜ 200 kyr for the carbon isotope excursion and ˜ 120 kyr for the associated pelagic clay layer. A common terrestrial and marine age model shows a concurrent major change in marine and terrestrial biota ˜ 200 kyr before ETM-2. In the Bighorn Basin, the change is referred to as Biohorizon B and represents a period of significant mammalian turnover and immigration, separating the upper Haplomylus-Ectocion Range Zone from the Bunophorus Interval Zone and approximating the Wa-4-Wa-5 land mammal zone boundary. In sediments from ODP Site 1262 (Walvis Ridge), major changes in the biota at this time are documented by the radiation of a second generation of apical spine-bearing sphenolith species (e.g., S. radians and S. editus), the emergence of T. orthostylus, and the marked decline of D. multiradiatus.
Chimera States in Two Populations with Heterogeneous Phase-lag
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martens, Erik Andreas; Bick, Christian; Panaggio, Mark
2016-01-01
The simplest network of coupled phase-oscillators exhibiting chimera states is given by two populations with disparate intra- and inter-population coupling strengths. We explore the effects of heterogeneous coupling phase-lags between the two populations. Such heterogeneity arises naturally......-uniform synchronization, including in-phase and anti-phase synchrony, full incoherence (splay state), chimera states with phase separation of 0 or π between populations, and states where both populations remain desynchronized. These desynchronized states exhibit stable, oscillatory, and even chaotic dynamics. Moreover......, we identify the bifurcations through which chimera and desynchronized states emerge. Stable chimera states and desynchronized solutions, which do not arise for homogeneous phase-lag parameters, emerge as a result of competition between synchronized in-phase, anti-phase equilibria, and fully...
Generalized synchronization between chimera states
Andrzejak, Ralph G.; Ruzzene, Giulia; Malvestio, Irene
2017-05-01
Networks of coupled oscillators in chimera states are characterized by an intriguing interplay of synchronous and asynchronous motion. While chimera states were initially discovered in mathematical model systems, there is growing experimental and conceptual evidence that they manifest themselves also in natural and man-made networks. In real-world systems, however, synchronization and desynchronization are not only important within individual networks but also across different interacting networks. It is therefore essential to investigate if chimera states can be synchronized across networks. To address this open problem, we use the classical setting of ring networks of non-locally coupled identical phase oscillators. We apply diffusive drive-response couplings between pairs of such networks that individually show chimera states when there is no coupling between them. The drive and response networks are either identical or they differ by a variable mismatch in their phase lag parameters. In both cases, already for weak couplings, the coherent domain of the response network aligns its position to the one of the driver networks. For identical networks, a sufficiently strong coupling leads to identical synchronization between the drive and response. For non-identical networks, we use the auxiliary system approach to demonstrate that generalized synchronization is established instead. In this case, the response network continues to show a chimera dynamics which however remains distinct from the one of the driver. Hence, segregated synchronized and desynchronized domains in individual networks congregate in generalized synchronization across networks.
Bucher, François-Xavier; Cao, Frédéric; Viard, Clément; Guichard, Frédéric
2014-03-01
We present in this paper a novel capacitive device that stimulates the touchscreen interface of a smartphone (or of any imaging device equipped with a capacitive touchscreen) and synchronizes triggering with the DxO LED Universal Timer to measure shooting time lag and shutter lag according to ISO 15781:2013. The device and protocol extend the time lag measurement beyond the standard by including negative shutter lag, a phenomenon that is more and more commonly found in smartphones. The device is computer-controlled, and this feature, combined with measurement algorithms, makes it possible to automatize a large series of captures so as to provide more refined statistical analyses when, for example, the shutter lag of "zero shutter lag" devices is limited by the frame time as our measurements confirm.
Time lags in biological models
MacDonald, Norman
1978-01-01
In many biological models it is necessary to allow the rates of change of the variables to depend on the past history, rather than only the current values, of the variables. The models may require discrete lags, with the use of delay-differential equations, or distributed lags, with the use of integro-differential equations. In these lecture notes I discuss the reasons for including lags, especially distributed lags, in biological models. These reasons may be inherent in the system studied, or may be the result of simplifying assumptions made in the model used. I examine some of the techniques available for studying the solution of the equations. A large proportion of the material presented relates to a special method that can be applied to a particular class of distributed lags. This method uses an extended set of ordinary differential equations. I examine the local stability of equilibrium points, and the existence and frequency of periodic solutions. I discuss the qualitative effects of lags, and how these...
Song, Xiao-Na; Song, Shuai; Tejado Balsera, Inés; Liu, Lei-Po
2017-10-01
This paper investigates the mixed H ∞ and passive projective synchronization problem for fractional-order (FO) memristor-based neural networks. Our aim is to design a controller such that, though the unavoidable phenomena of time-delay and parameter uncertainty are fully considered, the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable with a mixed H ∞ and passive performance level. By combining active and adaptive control methods, a novel hybrid control strategy is designed, which can guarantee the robust stability of the closed-loop system and also ensure a mixed H ∞ and passive performance level. Via the application of FO Lyapunov stability theory, the projective synchronization conditions are addressed in terms of linear matrix inequality techniques. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. U1604146, U1404610, 61473115, 61203047, Science and Technology Research Project in Henan Province under Grant Nos. 152102210273, 162102410024, and Foundation for the University Technological Innovative Talents of Henan Province under Grant No. 18HASTIT019
Perfect synchronization in networks of phase-frustrated oscillators
Kundu, Prosenjit; Hens, Chittaranjan; Barzel, Baruch; Pal, Pinaki
2017-11-01
Synchronizing phase-frustrated Kuramoto oscillators, a challenge that has found applications from neuronal networks to the power grid, is an eluding problem, as even small phase lags cause the oscillators to avoid synchronization. Here we show, constructively, how to strategically select the optimal frequency set, capturing the natural frequencies of all oscillators, for a given network and phase lags, that will ensure perfect synchronization. We find that high levels of synchronization are sustained in the vicinity of the optimal set, allowing for some level of deviation in the frequencies without significant degradation of synchronization. Demonstrating our results on first- and second-order phase-frustrated Kuramoto dynamics, we implement them on both model and real power grid networks, showing how to achieve synchronization in a phase-frustrated environment.
Role of multistability in the transition to chaotic phase synchronization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Postnov, D.E.; Vadivasova, T.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga
1999-01-01
In this paper we describe the transition to phase synchronization for systems of coupled nonlinear oscillators that individually follow the Feigenbaum route to chaos. A nested structure of phase synchronized regions of different attractor families is observed. With this structure, the transition...... to nonsynchronous behavior is determined by the loss of stability for the most stable synchronous mode. It is shown that the appearance of hyperchaos and the transition from lag synchronization to phase synchronization are related to the merging of chaotic attractors from different families. Numerical examples...
Synchronization in networks with heterogeneous coupling delays
Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter; Bachrathy, Dániel; Orosz, Gábor
2018-01-01
Synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with heterogeneous coupling delays is studied. A decomposition of the network dynamics is obtained by block diagonalizing a newly introduced adjacency lag operator which contains the topology of the network as well as the corresponding coupling delays. This generalizes the master stability function approach, which was developed for homogenous delays. As a result the network dynamics can be analyzed by delay differential equations with distributed delay, where different delay distributions emerge for different network modes. Frequency domain methods are used for the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria and synchronized periodic orbits. As an example, the synchronization behavior in a system of delay-coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is investigated. It is shown that the parameter regions where synchronized periodic spiking is unstable expand when increasing the delay heterogeneity.
New type of chaos synchronization in discrete-time systems: the F-M synchronization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ouannas Adel
2018-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of synchronization for chaotic (hyperchaotic maps with different dimensions is proposed. The novel scheme is called F – M synchronization, since it combines the inverse generalized synchronization (based on a functional relationship F with the matrix projective synchronization (based on a matrix M. In particular, the proposed approach enables F – M synchronization with index d to be achieved between n-dimensional drive system map and m-dimensional response system map, where the synchronization index d corresponds to the dimension of the synchronization error. The technique, which exploits nonlinear controllers and Lyapunov stability theory, proves to be effective in achieving the F – M synchronization not only when the synchronization index d equals n or m, but even if the synchronization index d is larger than the map dimensions n and m. Finally, simulation results are reported, with the aim to illustrate the capabilities of the novel scheme proposed herein.
New type of chaos synchronization in discrete-time systems: the F-M synchronization
Ouannas, Adel; Grassi, Giuseppe; Karouma, Abdulrahman; Ziar, Toufik; Wang, Xiong; Pham, Viet-Thanh
2018-04-01
In this paper, a new type of synchronization for chaotic (hyperchaotic) maps with different dimensions is proposed. The novel scheme is called F - M synchronization, since it combines the inverse generalized synchronization (based on a functional relationship F) with the matrix projective synchronization (based on a matrix M). In particular, the proposed approach enables F - M synchronization with index d to be achieved between n-dimensional drive system map and m-dimensional response system map, where the synchronization index d corresponds to the dimension of the synchronization error. The technique, which exploits nonlinear controllers and Lyapunov stability theory, proves to be effective in achieving the F - M synchronization not only when the synchronization index d equals n or m, but even if the synchronization index d is larger than the map dimensions n and m. Finally, simulation results are reported, with the aim to illustrate the capabilities of the novel scheme proposed herein.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, H; Kong, V; Jin, J [Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Augusta, GA (Georgia); Ren, L; Zhang, Y; Giles, W [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To present a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system, which uses a synchronized moving grid (SMOG) to reduce and correct scatter, an inter-projection sensor fusion (IPSF) algorithm to estimate the missing information blocked by the grid, and a probability total variation (pTV) algorithm to reconstruct the CBCT image. Methods: A prototype SMOG-equipped CBCT system was developed, and was used to acquire gridded projections with complimentary grid patterns in two neighboring projections. Scatter was reduced by the grid, and the remaining scatter was corrected by measuring it under the grid. An IPSF algorithm was used to estimate the missing information in a projection from data in its 2 neighboring projections. Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm was used to reconstruct the initial CBCT image using projections after IPSF processing for pTV. A probability map was generated depending on the confidence of estimation in IPSF for the regions of missing data and penumbra. pTV was finally used to reconstruct the CBCT image for a Catphan, and was compared to conventional CBCT image without using SMOG, images without using IPSF (SMOG + FDK and SMOG + mask-TV), and image without using pTV (SMOG + IPSF + FDK). Results: The conventional CBCT without using SMOG shows apparent scatter-induced cup artifacts. The approaches with SMOG but without IPSF show severe (SMOG + FDK) or additional (SMOG + TV) artifacts, possibly due to using projections of missing data. The 2 approaches with SMOG + IPSF removes the cup artifacts, and the pTV approach is superior than the FDK by substantially reducing the noise. Using the SMOG also reduces half of the imaging dose. Conclusion: The proposed technique is promising in improving CBCT image quality while reducing imaging dose.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, H; Kong, V; Jin, J; Ren, L; Zhang, Y; Giles, W
2015-01-01
Purpose: To present a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system, which uses a synchronized moving grid (SMOG) to reduce and correct scatter, an inter-projection sensor fusion (IPSF) algorithm to estimate the missing information blocked by the grid, and a probability total variation (pTV) algorithm to reconstruct the CBCT image. Methods: A prototype SMOG-equipped CBCT system was developed, and was used to acquire gridded projections with complimentary grid patterns in two neighboring projections. Scatter was reduced by the grid, and the remaining scatter was corrected by measuring it under the grid. An IPSF algorithm was used to estimate the missing information in a projection from data in its 2 neighboring projections. Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm was used to reconstruct the initial CBCT image using projections after IPSF processing for pTV. A probability map was generated depending on the confidence of estimation in IPSF for the regions of missing data and penumbra. pTV was finally used to reconstruct the CBCT image for a Catphan, and was compared to conventional CBCT image without using SMOG, images without using IPSF (SMOG + FDK and SMOG + mask-TV), and image without using pTV (SMOG + IPSF + FDK). Results: The conventional CBCT without using SMOG shows apparent scatter-induced cup artifacts. The approaches with SMOG but without IPSF show severe (SMOG + FDK) or additional (SMOG + TV) artifacts, possibly due to using projections of missing data. The 2 approaches with SMOG + IPSF removes the cup artifacts, and the pTV approach is superior than the FDK by substantially reducing the noise. Using the SMOG also reduces half of the imaging dose. Conclusion: The proposed technique is promising in improving CBCT image quality while reducing imaging dose
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongjuan Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new general and systematic coupling scheme is developed to achieve the modified projective synchronization (MPS of different fractional-order systems under parameter mismatch via the Open-Plus-Closed-Loop (OPCL control. Based on the stability theorem of linear fractional-order systems, some sufficient conditions for MPS are proposed. Two groups of numerical simulations on the incommensurate fraction-order system and commensurate fraction-order system are presented to justify the theoretical analysis. Due to the unpredictability of the scale factors and the use of fractional-order systems, the chaotic data from the MPS is selected to encrypt a plain image to obtain higher security. Simulation results show that our method is efficient with a large key space, high sensitivity to encryption keys, resistance to attack of differential attacks, and statistical analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, H; Kong, V; Jin, J; Ren, L
2014-01-01
Purpose: Synchronized moving grid is a promising technique to reduce scatter and ghost artifacts in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, it requires 2 projections in the same gantry angle to obtain full information due to signal blockage by the grid. We proposed an inter-projection interpolation (IPI) method to estimate blocked signals, which may reduce the scan time and the dose. This study aims to provide a framework to achieve a balance between speed, dose and image quality. Methods: The IPI method is based on the hypothesis that an abrupt signal in a projection can be well predicted by the information in the two immediate neighboring projections if the gantry angle step is small. The study was performed on a Catphan and a head phantom. The SMOG was simulated by erasing the information (filling with “0”) of the areas in each projection corresponding to the grid. An IPI algorithm was applied on each projection to recover the erased information. FDK algorithm was used to reconstruct CBCT images for the IPI-processed projections, and compared with the original image in term of signal to noise ratio (SNR) measured in the whole reconstruction image range. The effect of gantry angle step was investigated by comparing the CBCT images from projection sets of various gantry intervals, with IPI-predicted projections to fill the missing projection in the interval. Results: The IPI procession time was 1.79s±0.53s for each projection. SNR after IPI was 29.0db and 28.1db for the Catphan and head phantom, respectively, comparing to 15.3db and 22.7db for an inpainting based interpolation technique. SNR was 28.3, 28.3, 21.8, 19.3 and 17.3 db for gantry angle intervals of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 degrees, respectively. Conclusion: IPI is feasible to estimate the missing information, and achieve an reasonable CBCT image quality with reduced dose and scan time. This study is supported by NIH/NCI grant 1R01CA166948-01
Chaos synchronization basing on symbolic dynamics with nongenerating partition.
Wang, Xingyuan; Wang, Mogei; Liu, Zhenzhen
2009-06-01
Using symbolic dynamics and information theory, we study the information transmission needed for synchronizing unidirectionally coupled oscillators. It is found that when sustaining chaos synchronization with nongenerating partition, the synchronization error will be larger than a critical value, although the required coupled channel capacity can be smaller than the case of using a generating partition. Then we show that no matter whether a generating or nongenerating partition is in use, a high-quality detector can guarantee the lead of the response oscillator, while the lag responding can make up the low precision of the detector. A practicable synchronization scheme basing on a nongenerating partition is also proposed in this paper.
Optimal lag in dynamical investments
Serva, M.
1998-01-01
A portfolio of different stocks and a risk-less security whose composition is dynamically maintained stable by trading shares at any time step leads to a growth of the capital with a nonrandom rate. This is the key for the theory of optimal-growth investment formulated by Kelly. In presence of transaction costs, the optimal composition changes and, more important, it turns out that the frequency of transactions must be reduced. This simple observation leads to the definition of an optimal lag...
On Synchronization Primitive Systems.
The report studies the question: what synchronization primitive should be used to handle inter-process communication. A formal model is presented...between these synchronization primitives. Although only four synchronization primitives are compared, the general methods can be used to compare other... synchronization primitives. Moreover, in the definitions of these synchronization primitives, conditional branches are explicitly allowed. In addition
Lags in the response of mountain plant communities to climate change.
Alexander, Jake M; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Lenoir, Jonathan; Burgess, Treena I; Essl, Franz; Haider, Sylvia; Kueffer, Christoph; McDougall, Keith; Milbau, Ann; Nuñez, Martin A; Pauchard, Aníbal; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Rew, Lisa J; Sanders, Nathan J; Pellissier, Loïc
2018-02-01
Rapid climatic changes and increasing human influence at high elevations around the world will have profound impacts on mountain biodiversity. However, forecasts from statistical models (e.g. species distribution models) rarely consider that plant community changes could substantially lag behind climatic changes, hindering our ability to make temporally realistic projections for the coming century. Indeed, the magnitudes of lags, and the relative importance of the different factors giving rise to them, remain poorly understood. We review evidence for three types of lag: "dispersal lags" affecting plant species' spread along elevational gradients, "establishment lags" following their arrival in recipient communities, and "extinction lags" of resident species. Variation in lags is explained by variation among species in physiological and demographic responses, by effects of altered biotic interactions, and by aspects of the physical environment. Of these, altered biotic interactions could contribute substantially to establishment and extinction lags, yet impacts of biotic interactions on range dynamics are poorly understood. We develop a mechanistic community model to illustrate how species turnover in future communities might lag behind simple expectations based on species' range shifts with unlimited dispersal. The model shows a combined contribution of altered biotic interactions and dispersal lags to plant community turnover along an elevational gradient following climate warming. Our review and simulation support the view that accounting for disequilibrium range dynamics will be essential for realistic forecasts of patterns of biodiversity under climate change, with implications for the conservation of mountain species and the ecosystem functions they provide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
А.М.Galynovskiy
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Behavior of models of three-phase-to-single-phase rotary reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators in a circuit simulation system is analyzed. It is shown that combined control mode of opposite-connected thyristors may result in the exciter armature winding short circuits both at the thyristor feed-forward and lagging current delay angles. It must be taken into consideration when developing brushless compensator excitation systems.
Pantaleone, James
2002-10-01
Synchronization is a common phenomenon in physical and biological systems. We examine the synchronization of two (and more) metronomes placed on a freely moving base. The small motion of the base couples the pendulums causing synchronization. The synchronization is generally in-phase, with antiphase synchronization occurring only under special conditions. The metronome system provides a mechanical realization of the popular Kuramoto model for synchronization of biological oscillators, and is excellent for classroom demonstrations and an undergraduate physics lab.
Repetition and lag effects in movement recognition.
Hall, C R; Buckolz, E
1982-03-01
Whether repetition and lag improve the recognition of movement patterns was investigated. Recognition memory was tested for one repetition, two-repetitions massed, and two-repetitions distributed with movement patterns at lags of 3, 5, 7, and 13. Recognition performance was examined both immediately afterwards and following a 48 hour delay. Both repetition and lag effects failed to be demonstrated, providing some support for the claim that memory is unaffected by repetition at a constant level of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). There was, as expected, a significant decrease in recognition memory following the retention interval, but this appeared unrelated to repetition or lag.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kholod M. Abualnaja
2014-01-01
to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme and verify the theoretical results. The above results will provide theoretical foundation for the secure communication applications based on the proposed scheme.
Application of Time Series Analysis in Determination of Lag Time in Jahanbin Basin
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seied Yahya Mirzaee
2005-11-01
One of the important issues that have significant role in study of hydrology of basin is determination of lag time. Lag time has significant role in hydrological studies. Quantity of rainfall related lag time depends on several factors, such as permeability, vegetation cover, catchments slope, rainfall intensity, storm duration and type of rain. Determination of lag time is important parameter in many projects such as dam design and also water resource studies. Lag time of basin could be calculated using various methods. One of these methods is time series analysis of spectral density. The analysis is based on fouries series. The time series is approximated with Sinuous and Cosines functions. In this method harmonically significant quantities with individual frequencies are presented. Spectral density under multiple time series could be used to obtain basin lag time for annual runoff and short-term rainfall fluctuation. A long lag time could be due to snowmelt as well as melting ice due to rainfalls in freezing days. In this research the lag time of Jahanbin basin has been determined using spectral density method. The catchments is subjected to both rainfall and snowfall. For short term rainfall fluctuation with a return period 2, 3, 4 months, the lag times were found 0.18, 0.5 and 0.083 month, respectively.
Overview of Cell Synchronization.
Banfalvi, Gaspar
2017-01-01
The widespread interest in cell synchronization is maintained by the studies of control mechanism involved in cell cycle regulation. During the synchronization distinct subpopulations of cells are obtained representing different stages of the cell cycle. These subpopulations are then used to study regulatory mechanisms of the cycle at the level of macromolecular biosynthesis (DNA synthesis, gene expression, protein synthesis), protein phosphorylation, development of new drugs, etc. Although several synchronization methods have been described, it is of general interest that scientists get a compilation and an updated view of these synchronization techniques. This introductory chapter summarizes: (1) the basic concepts and principal criteria of cell cycle synchronizations, (2) the most frequently used synchronization methods, such as physical fractionation (flow cytometry, dielectrophoresis, cytofluorometric purification), chemical blockade, (3) synchronization of embryonic cells, (4) synchronization at low temperature, (5) comparison of cell synchrony techniques, (6) synchronization of unicellular organisms, and (7) the effect of synchronization on transfection.
Statistical time lags in ac discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M; Manders, F
2011-01-01
The paper presents statistical time lags measured for breakdown events in near-atmospheric pressure argon and xenon. Ac voltage at 100, 400 and 800 kHz was used to drive the breakdown processes, and the voltage amplitude slope was varied between 10 and 1280 V ms -1 . The values obtained for the statistical time lags are roughly between 1 and 150 ms. It is shown that the statistical time lags in ac-driven discharges follow the same general trends as the discharges driven by voltage of monotonic slope. In addition, the validity of the Cobine-Easton expression is tested at an alternating voltage form.
Statistical time lags in ac discharges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Postbus 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Manders, F, E-mail: a.sobota@tue.nl [Philips Lighting, LightLabs, Mathildelaan 1, 5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2011-04-06
The paper presents statistical time lags measured for breakdown events in near-atmospheric pressure argon and xenon. Ac voltage at 100, 400 and 800 kHz was used to drive the breakdown processes, and the voltage amplitude slope was varied between 10 and 1280 V ms{sup -1}. The values obtained for the statistical time lags are roughly between 1 and 150 ms. It is shown that the statistical time lags in ac-driven discharges follow the same general trends as the discharges driven by voltage of monotonic slope. In addition, the validity of the Cobine-Easton expression is tested at an alternating voltage form.
STUDYING BUSINESS CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Servetnyk
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper researches business cycles synchronization. The fluctuations in post-Soviet countries are considered. The study examines different measures of synchronization in groups of countries according to some criteria.
Clock synchronization and dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Wong, Franco N C
2002-01-01
We present a method to defeat effects of dispersion of timing signals when synchronizing clocks. It is based on the recently proposed 'conveyor belt synchronization' scheme and on the quantum dispersion cancellation effect
The report summarizes the progress in the design and construction of automatic equipment for synchronizing cell division in culture by periodic...Concurrent experiments in hypothermic synchronization of algal cell division are reported.
Vero, S E; Ibrahim, T G; Creamer, R E; Grant, J; Healy, M G; Henry, T; Kramers, G; Richards, K G; Fenton, O
2014-12-01
The true efficacy of a programme of agricultural mitigation measures within a catchment to improve water quality can be determined only after a certain hydrologic time lag period (subsequent to implementation) has elapsed. As the biophysical response to policy is not synchronous, accurate estimates of total time lag (unsaturated and saturated) become critical to manage the expectations of policy makers. The estimation of the vertical unsaturated zone component of time lag is vital as it indicates early trends (initial breakthrough), bulk (centre of mass) and total (Exit) travel times. Typically, estimation of time lag through the unsaturated zone is poor, due to the lack of site specific soil physical data, or by assuming saturated conditions. Numerical models (e.g. Hydrus 1D) enable estimates of time lag with varied levels of input data. The current study examines the consequences of varied soil hydraulic and meteorological complexity on unsaturated zone time lag estimates using simulated and actual soil profiles. Results indicated that: greater temporal resolution (from daily to hourly) of meteorological data was more critical as the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil decreased; high clay content soils failed to converge reflecting prevalence of lateral component as a contaminant pathway; elucidation of soil hydraulic properties was influenced by the complexity of soil physical data employed (textural menu, ROSETTA, full and partial soil water characteristic curves), which consequently affected time lag ranges; as the importance of the unsaturated zone increases with respect to total travel times the requirements for high complexity/resolution input data become greater. The methodology presented herein demonstrates that decisions made regarding input data and landscape position will have consequences for the estimated range of vertical travel times. Insufficiencies or inaccuracies regarding such input data can therefore mislead policy makers regarding
Ren, Lei; Yin, Fang-Fang; Chetty, Indrin J; Jaffray, David A; Jin, Jian-Yue
2012-08-01
To evaluate the feasibility of a synchronized moving grid (SMOG) system to remove scatter artifacts, improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and reduce image lag artifacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT). The SMOG system proposed here uses a rapidly oscillating, synchronized moving grid attached to the kV source. Multiple partial projections are taken at different grid positions to form a complete projection in each gantry position, before the gantry moves to the next position during a scan. The grid has a low transmission factor, and it is used for both scatter reduction and scatter measurement for postscan scatter correction. Experimental studies using a static grid and an enlarged CATphan phantom were performed to evaluate the potential CNR enhancement for different SMOG exposure numbers (1, 2, and 4). Simulation studies were performed to evaluate the image lag correction for different exposure numbers (2, 3, and 4) and grid interspace widths in SMOG using the data from an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom scan. Imaging dose of SMOG was also estimated by measuring the imaging dose in a CIRS CT dose phantom using a static grid. SMOG can enhance the CNR by 16% and 13% when increasing exposure number from 1 to 2 and from 2 to 4, respectively. This enhancement was more dramatic for larger phantoms and smaller initial exposure numbers. Simulation results indicated that SMOG could reduce the lag to less than 4.3% for 2-exposure mode and to less than 0.8% for 3-exposure mode when the grid interspace width was 1.4 cm. Increasing the number of exposures in SMOG dramatically reduced the residual lag in the image. Reducing the grid interspace width somewhat reduced the residual lag. Skin line artifacts were removed entirely in SMOG. Point dose measurement showed that imaging dose of SMOG at isocenter was similar as that of a conventional CBCT. Compared to our previously developed static-grid dual-rotation method, the proposed SMOG technique has the advantages of enhancing the CNR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Lei; Yin Fangfang; Chetty, Indrin J.; Jaffray, David A.; Jin Jianyue
2012-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a synchronized moving grid (SMOG) system to remove scatter artifacts, improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and reduce image lag artifacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT). Methods: The SMOG system proposed here uses a rapidly oscillating, synchronized moving grid attached to the kV source. Multiple partial projections are taken at different grid positions to form a complete projection in each gantry position, before the gantry moves to the next position during a scan. The grid has a low transmission factor, and it is used for both scatter reduction and scatter measurement for postscan scatter correction. Experimental studies using a static grid and an enlarged CATphan phantom were performed to evaluate the potential CNR enhancement for different SMOG exposure numbers (1, 2, and 4). Simulation studies were performed to evaluate the image lag correction for different exposure numbers (2, 3, and 4) and grid interspace widths in SMOG using the data from an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom scan. Imaging dose of SMOG was also estimated by measuring the imaging dose in a CIRS CT dose phantom using a static grid. Results: SMOG can enhance the CNR by 16% and 13% when increasing exposure number from 1 to 2 and from 2 to 4, respectively. This enhancement was more dramatic for larger phantoms and smaller initial exposure numbers. Simulation results indicated that SMOG could reduce the lag to less than 4.3% for 2-exposure mode and to less than 0.8% for 3-exposure mode when the grid interspace width was 1.4 cm. Increasing the number of exposures in SMOG dramatically reduced the residual lag in the image. Reducing the grid interspace width somewhat reduced the residual lag. Skin line artifacts were removed entirely in SMOG. Point dose measurement showed that imaging dose of SMOG at isocenter was similar as that of a conventional CBCT. Conclusions: Compared to our previously developed static-grid dual-rotation method, the proposed SMOG technique
Synchronization of Multipoint Hoists
A contractor has conceived an electrohydraulic feedback system that will provide position synchronization of four aircraft cargo hoists. To... synchronized hoist system. Test results show that the feedback system concept provides adequate synchronization control; i.e., the platform pitch and roll
Chaos synchronization in time-delayed systems with parameter mismatches and variable delay times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shahverdiev, E.M.; Nuriev, R.A.; Hashimov, R.H.; Shore, K.A.
2004-06-01
We investigate synchronization between two undirectionally linearly coupled chaotic nonidentical time-delayed systems and show that parameter mismatches are of crucial importance to achieve synchronization. We establish that independent of the relation between the delay time in the coupled systems and the coupling delay time, only retarded synchronization with the coupling delay time is obtained. We show that with parameter mismatch or without it neither complete nor anticipating synchronization occurs. We derive existence and stability conditions for the retarded synchronization manifold. We demonstrate our approach using examples of the Ikeda and Mackey Glass models. Also for the first time we investigate chaos synchronization in time-delayed systems with variable delay time and find both existence and sufficient stability conditions for the retarded synchronization manifold with the coupling-delay lag time. (author)
Kottlow, Mara; Jann, Kay; Dierks, Thomas; Koenig, Thomas
2012-08-01
Gamma zero-lag phase synchronization has been measured in the animal brain during visual binding. Human scalp EEG studies used a phase locking factor (trial-to-trial phase-shift consistency) or gamma amplitude to measure binding but did not analyze common-phase signals so far. This study introduces a method to identify networks oscillating with near zero-lag phase synchronization in human subjects. We presented unpredictably moving face parts (NOFACE) which - during some periods - produced a complete schematic face (FACE). The amount of zero-lag phase synchronization was measured using global field synchronization (GFS). GFS provides global information on the amount of instantaneous coincidences in specific frequencies throughout the brain. Gamma GFS was increased during the FACE condition. To localize the underlying areas, we correlated gamma GFS with simultaneously recorded BOLD responses. Positive correlates comprised the bilateral middle fusiform gyrus and the left precuneus. These areas may form a network of areas transiently synchronized during face integration, including face-specific as well as binding-specific regions and regions for visual processing in general. Thus, the amount of zero-lag phase synchronization between remote regions of the human visual system can be measured with simultaneously acquired EEG/fMRI. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Synchronization of chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pecora, Louis M.; Carroll, Thomas L.
2015-01-01
We review some of the history and early work in the area of synchronization in chaotic systems. We start with our own discovery of the phenomenon, but go on to establish the historical timeline of this topic back to the earliest known paper. The topic of synchronization of chaotic systems has always been intriguing, since chaotic systems are known to resist synchronization because of their positive Lyapunov exponents. The convergence of the two systems to identical trajectories is a surprise. We show how people originally thought about this process and how the concept of synchronization changed over the years to a more geometric view using synchronization manifolds. We also show that building synchronizing systems leads naturally to engineering more complex systems whose constituents are chaotic, but which can be tuned to output various chaotic signals. We finally end up at a topic that is still in very active exploration today and that is synchronization of dynamical systems in networks of oscillators
Lags in the response of mountain plant communities to climate change
Alexander, Jake M.; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Lenoir, Jonathan; Burgess, Treena I.; Essl, Franz; Haider, Sylvia; Kueffer, Christoph; McDougall, Keith; Milbau, Ann; Nuñez, Martin A.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Rew, Lisa J.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Pellissier, Loïc
2018-01-01
Rapid climatic changes and increasing human influence at high elevations around the world will have profound impacts on mountain biodiversity. However, forecasts from statistical models (e.g. species distribution models) rarely consider that plant community changes could substantially lag behind climatic changes, hindering our ability to make temporally realistic projections for the coming century. Indeed, the magnitudes of lags, and the relative importance of the different factors giving rise to them, remain poorly understood. We review evidence for three types of lag: “dispersal lags” affecting plant species’ spread along elevational gradients, “establishment lags” following their arrival in recipient communities, and “extinction lags” of resident species. Variation in lags is explained by variation among species in physiological and demographic responses, by effects of altered biotic interactions, and by aspects of the physical environment. Of these, altered biotic interactions could contribute substantially to establishment and extinction lags, yet impacts of biotic interactions on range dynamics are poorly understood. We develop a mechanistic community model to illustrate how species turnover in future communities might lag behind simple expectations based on species’ range shifts with unlimited dispersal. The model shows a combined contribution of altered biotic interactions and dispersal lags to plant community turnover along an elevational gradient following climate warming. Our review and simulation support the view that accounting for disequilibrium range dynamics will be essential for realistic forecasts of patterns of biodiversity under climate change, with implications for the conservation of mountain species and the ecosystem functions they provide. PMID:29112781
The impulsive control synchronization of the drive-response complex system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Yanhong; Yang Yongqing
2008-01-01
This Letter investigates projective synchronization between the drive system and response complex dynamical system. An impulsive control scheme is adapted to synchronize the drive-response dynamical system to a desired scalar factor. By using the stability theory of the impulsive differential equation, the criteria for the projective synchronization are derived. The feasibility of the impulsive control of the projective synchronization is demonstrated in the drive-response dynamical system
Lag space estimation in time series modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goutte, Cyril
1997-01-01
The purpose of this article is to investigate some techniques for finding the relevant lag-space, i.e. input information, for time series modelling. This is an important aspect of time series modelling, as it conditions the design of the model through the regressor vector a.k.a. the input layer...
AN INVESTIGATION OF TIME LAG MAPS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF HIGHLY STRATIFIED HEATING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Mikić, Zoran; Linker, Jon [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Rd., Ste. 170, San Diego, CA 92121-2910 (United States); Mok, Yung, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov, E-mail: lionel@predsci.com, E-mail: cdowns@predsci.com, E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com, E-mail: ymok@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)
2016-11-10
The location and frequency of coronal energy release provide a significant constraint on the coronal heating mechanism. The evolution of the intensity observed in coronal structures found from time lag analysis of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data has been used to argue that heating must occur sporadically. Recently, we have demonstrated that quasi-steady, highly stratified (footpoint) heating can produce results qualitatively consistent with the evolution of observed coronal structures. The goals of this paper are to demonstrate that time lag analysis of 3D simulations of footpoint heating are qualitatively consistent with time lag analysis of observations and to use the 3D simulations to further understand whether time lag analysis is a useful tool in defining the evolution of coronal structures. We find the time lag maps generated from simulated data are consistent with the observed time lag maps. We next investigate several example points. In some cases, the calculated time lag reflects the evolution of a unique loop along the line of sight, though there may be additional evolving structures along the line of sight. We confirm that using the multi-peak AIA channels can produce time lags that are difficult to interpret. We suggest using a different high temperature channel, such as an X-ray channel. Finally, we find that multiple evolving structures along the line of sight can produce time lags that do not represent the physical properties of any structure along the line of sight, although the cross-correlation coefficient of the lightcurves is high. Considering the projected geometry of the loops may reduce some of the line-of-sight confusion.
Information-theoretic approach to lead-lag effect on financial markets
Fiedor, Paweł
2014-08-01
Recently the interest of researchers has shifted from the analysis of synchronous relationships of financial instruments to the analysis of more meaningful asynchronous relationships. Both types of analysis are concentrated mostly on Pearson's correlation coefficient and consequently intraday lead-lag relationships (where one of the variables in a pair is time-lagged) are also associated with them. Under the Efficient-Market Hypothesis such relationships are not possible as all information is embedded in the prices, but in real markets we find such dependencies. In this paper we analyse lead-lag relationships of financial instruments and extend known methodology by using mutual information instead of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Mutual information is not only a more general measure, sensitive to non-linear dependencies, but also can lead to a simpler procedure of statistical validation of links between financial instruments. We analyse lagged relationships using New York Stock Exchange 100 data not only on an intraday level, but also for daily stock returns, which have usually been ignored.
Synchronization of Concurrent Processes
1975-07-01
Pettersen Stanford Ur.iversity Artificial Intelligence Laboratory ABSTRACT Th oaoer gives an overview of commonly used synchronization primitives and...wr.ters . ut.l.z.ng the DroDo4d synchronization primitive . The solution is simpler and shorter than other known S’ms The first sections of the paper...un reicr»» side il nrcttaary and Identity by block number) Scheduling, process scheduling, synchronization , mutual exclusion, semaphores , critical
Adaptive Backoff Synchronization Techniques
1989-07-01
Percentage of synchronization and non- synchronisation references that cause invalidations in directory schemes with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 64 pointers...processors to arrive. The slight relative increase of synchronisation overhead in all cases when going from two to five pointers is because synchronization ...MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY VLSI PUBLICATIONS q~JU VLSI Memo No. 89-547 It July 1989 Adaptive Backoff Synchronization Techniques Anant
Synchronization on effective networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Tao; Zhao Ming; Zhou Changsong
2010-01-01
The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.
Synchronization on effective networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou Tao [Web Sciences Center, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao Ming [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)
2010-04-15
The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.
TIME SIGNALS, * SYNCHRONIZATION (ELECTRONICS)), NETWORKS, FREQUENCY, STANDARDS, RADIO SIGNALS, ERRORS, VERY LOW FREQUENCY, PROPAGATION, ACCURACY, ATOMIC CLOCKS, CESIUM, RADIO STATIONS, NAVAL SHORE FACILITIES
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dinges, David
2000-01-01
.... Major human research projects on the effects of induced jet lag and sleep deprivation and their mitigation by sustained low-dose caffeine and naps were undertaken at the University of Pennsylvania...
Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing
2010-11-01
By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.
Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dykema, Kenneth J., E-mail: kdykema@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Paulsen, Vern, E-mail: vern@math.uh.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)
2016-01-15
In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.
Merry, Philip
2017-01-01
LAY SUMMARY SYNCHRONICITY AND LEADERSHIP TILBURG PHD DISSERTATION, PHILIP MERRY World’s First PhD to Research Synchronicity And Leadership Using Grounded Theory OUT OF THE BLUE COINCIDENCES: research topic Most people have had the experience of thinking of someone and then, almost magically have
Synchronization of hyperchaotic oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.; Mykolaitis, G.
1997-01-01
Synchronization of chaotic oscillators is believed to have promising applications in secure communications. Hyperchaotic systems with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) have an advantage over common chaotic systems with only one positive LE. Three different types of hyperchaotic electronic...... oscillators are investigated demonstrating synchronization by means of only one properly selected variable....
RUN LENGTH SYNCHRONIZATION TECHNIQUES
An important aspect of digital communications is the problem of determining efficient methods for acquiring block synchronization . In this paper we...utilizes an N-digit sync sequence as prefix to the data blocks. The results of this study show that this technique is a practical method for acquiring block synchronization .
Clinical introduction of image lag correction for a cone beam CT system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stankovic, Uros; Ploeger, Lennert S.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Herk, Marcel van
2016-01-01
Purpose: Image lag in the flat-panel detector used for Linac integrated cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has a degrading effect on CBCT image quality. The most prominent visible artifact is the presence of bright semicircular structure in the transverse view of the scans, known also as radar artifact. Several correction strategies have been proposed, but until now the clinical introduction of such corrections remains unreported. In November 2013, the authors have clinically implemented a previously proposed image lag correction on all of their machines at their main site in Amsterdam. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of the correction on the quality of CBCT images and evaluate the required calibration frequency. Methods: Image lag was measured in five clinical CBCT systems (Elekta Synergy 4.6) using an in-house developed beam interrupting device that stops the x-ray beam midway through the data acquisition of an unattenuated beam for calibration. A triple exponential falling edge response was fitted to the measured data and used to correct image lag from projection images with an infinite response. This filter, including an extrapolation for saturated pixels, was incorporated in the authors’ in-house developed clinical CBCT reconstruction software. To investigate the short-term stability of the lag and associated parameters, a series of five image lag measurement over a period of three months was performed. For quantitative analysis, the authors have retrospectively selected ten patients treated in the pelvic region. The apparent contrast was quantified in polar coordinates for scans reconstructed using the parameters obtained from different dates with and without saturation handling. Results: Visually, the radar artifact was minimal in scans reconstructed using image lag correction especially when saturation handling was used. In patient imaging, there was a significant reduction of the apparent contrast from 43 ± 16.7 to
Clinical introduction of image lag correction for a cone beam CT system.
Stankovic, Uros; Ploeger, Lennert S; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel
2016-03-01
Image lag in the flat-panel detector used for Linac integrated cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has a degrading effect on CBCT image quality. The most prominent visible artifact is the presence of bright semicircular structure in the transverse view of the scans, known also as radar artifact. Several correction strategies have been proposed, but until now the clinical introduction of such corrections remains unreported. In November 2013, the authors have clinically implemented a previously proposed image lag correction on all of their machines at their main site in Amsterdam. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of the correction on the quality of CBCT images and evaluate the required calibration frequency. Image lag was measured in five clinical CBCT systems (Elekta Synergy 4.6) using an in-house developed beam interrupting device that stops the x-ray beam midway through the data acquisition of an unattenuated beam for calibration. A triple exponential falling edge response was fitted to the measured data and used to correct image lag from projection images with an infinite response. This filter, including an extrapolation for saturated pixels, was incorporated in the authors' in-house developed clinical cbct reconstruction software. To investigate the short-term stability of the lag and associated parameters, a series of five image lag measurement over a period of three months was performed. For quantitative analysis, the authors have retrospectively selected ten patients treated in the pelvic region. The apparent contrast was quantified in polar coordinates for scans reconstructed using the parameters obtained from different dates with and without saturation handling. Visually, the radar artifact was minimal in scans reconstructed using image lag correction especially when saturation handling was used. In patient imaging, there was a significant reduction of the apparent contrast from 43 ± 16.7 to 15.5 ± 11.9 HU without the
A forward bias method for lag correction of an a-Si flat panel detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starman, Jared; Tognina, Carlo; Partain, Larry; Fahrig, Rebecca
2012-01-01
Purpose: Digital a-Si flat panel (FP) x-ray detectors can exhibit detector lag, or residual signal, of several percent that can cause ghosting in projection images or severe shading artifacts, known as the radar artifact, in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstructions. A major contributor to detector lag is believed to be defect states, or traps, in the a-Si layer of the FP. Software methods to characterize and correct for the detector lag exist, but they may make assumptions such as system linearity and time invariance, which may not be true. The purpose of this work is to investigate a new hardware based method to reduce lag in an a-Si FP and to evaluate its effectiveness at removing shading artifacts in CBCT reconstructions. The feasibility of a novel, partially hardware based solution is also examined. Methods: The proposed hardware solution for lag reduction requires only a minor change to the FP. For pulsed irradiation, the proposed method inserts a new operation step between the readout and data collection stages. During this new stage the photodiode is operated in a forward bias mode, which fills the defect states with charge. A Varian 4030CB panel was modified to allow for operation in the forward bias mode. The contrast of residual lag ghosts was measured for lag frames 2 and 100 after irradiation ceased for standard and forward bias modes. Detector step response, lag, SNR, modulation transfer function (MTF), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measurements were made with standard and forward bias firmware. CBCT data of pelvic and head phantoms were also collected. Results: Overall, the 2nd and 100th detector lag frame residual signals were reduced 70%-88% using the new method. SNR, MTF, and DQE measurements show a small decrease in collected signal and a small increase in noise. The forward bias hardware successfully reduced the radar artifact in the CBCT reconstruction of the pelvic and head phantoms by 48%-81%. Conclusions: Overall, the
Asynchronized synchronous machines
Botvinnik, M M
1964-01-01
Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv
Kori, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Hitoshi
2017-04-01
The endogenous circadian clock drives oscillations that are completely synchronized with the environmental day-night rhythms with a period of approximately 24 hours. Temporal misalignment between one’s internal circadian clock and the external solar time often occurs in shift workers and long-distance travelers; such misalignments are accompanied by sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal distress. Repeated exposure to jet lag and rotating shift work increases the risk of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular complaints and metabolic insufficiencies. However, the mechanism behind the disruption of one’s internal clock is not well understood. In this paper, we therefore present a new theoretical concept called “jet lag separatrix” to understand circadian clock disruption and slow recovery from jet lag based on the mathematical model describing the hierarchical structure of the circadian clock. To demonstrate the utility of our theoretical study, we applied it to predict that re-entrainment via a two-step jet lag in which a four-hour shift of the light-dark cycle is given in the span of two successive days requires fewer days than when given as a single eight-hour shift. We experimentally verified the feasibility of our theory in C57BL/6 strain mice, with results indicating that this pre-exposure of jet lag is indeed beneficial.
Wouden, Alex; Cimbala, John; Lewis, Bryan
2014-11-01
While the periodic boundary condition is useful for handling rotational symmetry in many axisymmetric geometries, its application fails for analysis of rotor-stator interaction (RSI) in multi-stage turbomachinery flow. The inadequacy arises from the underlying geometry where the blade counts per row differ, since the blade counts are crafted to deter the destructive harmonic forces of synchronous blade passing. Therefore, to achieve the computational advantage of modeling a single blade passage per row while preserving the integrity of the RSI, a phase-lag boundary condition is adapted to OpenFOAM® software's incompressible pressure-based solver. The phase-lag construct is accomplished through restating the implicit periodic boundary condition as a constant boundary condition that is updated at each time step with phase-shifted data from the coupled cells adjacent to the boundary. Its effectiveness is demonstrated using a typical Francis hydroturbine modeled as single- and double-passages with phase-lag boundary conditions. The evaluation of the phase-lag condition is based on the correspondence of the overall computational performance and the calculated flow parameters of the phase-lag simulations with those of a baseline full-wheel simulation. Funded in part by DOE Award Number: DE-EE0002667.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is .... Such a time-varying topology can occur in social networks, computer networks, WWW ... This has the effect of reducing the spread of the transverse ...
Synchronization in complex networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.
2007-12-12
Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.
DIFFRACTION SYNCHRONIZATION OF LASERS,
semiconductor lasers while suppressing parasitic generation in the plane of the mirror. The diffraction coupling coefficient of open resonators is calculated, and the stability conditions of the synchronized system is determined.
Is melatonin useful for jet lag?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Tortorolo
2015-12-01
Full Text Available El jet lag es un trastorno exógeno del sueño y el ritmo circadiano que ocurre frecuentemente en viajeros que cruzan múltiples zonas horarias en un tiempo reducido. La administración de melatonina oral, neurohormona epifisiaria relacionada con la regulación de ritmos circadianos, se ha utilizado con el fin de disminuir los síntomas que caracterizan esta condición. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, encontramos cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 11 estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que la administración de melatonina oral probablemente disminuye los síntomas asociados al jet lag, y que no está claro si se asocia a efectos adversos, aunque estos serían leves.
Fiscal policy lags and income adjustment processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Cesare, Luigi; Sportelli, Mario
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► There are delays either in the government expenditure or in the tax system. ► Both delays affect fiscal policy outcomes. ► The system of differential equations with two delays may be chaotic. ► Fiscal policy outcomes might be inconsistent with their stabilization purposes. - Abstract: The interest in the impact of fiscal policy lags on economic stability increased in the last decade. Several studies have been made on delays either in the government expenditure or in the tax system, where lags exist between the accrual and the payment of taxes. Nevertheless there is in the literature no model where time delays in government expenditures and in tax revenues are considered together as it happens in the real world. In this paper we remedied this defect and proposed a macro-dynamic model where two delays appear: the first pertains to the public expenditure, the second, to the tax revenue. The resulting system of delayed differential equations is studied qualitatively and numerically. The analysis suggests that only particular combinations of the two delays make the system stable. Prevalently the system is unstable and chaotic motions may arise. This implies that the economy may need appropriate structural changes in the public sector to improve fiscal policy outcomes in such a way they may really be consistent with their stabilization purposes.
Traffic signal synchronization.
Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng
2003-05-01
The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.
Hopf bifurcation and chaos in macroeconomic models with policy lag
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao Xiaofeng; Li Chuandong; Zhou Shangbo
2005-01-01
In this paper, we consider the macroeconomic models with policy lag, and study how lags in policy response affect the macroeconomic stability. The local stability of the nonzero equilibrium of this equation is investigated by analyzing the corresponding transcendental characteristic equation of its linearized equation. Some general stability criteria involving the policy lag and the system parameter are derived. By choosing the policy lag as a bifurcation parameter, the model is found to undergo a sequence of Hopf bifurcation. The direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are determined by using the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Moreover, we show that the government can stabilize the intrinsically unstable economy if the policy lag is sufficiently short, but the system become locally unstable when the policy lag is too long. We also find the chaotic behavior in some range of the policy lag
Neural Synchronization and Cryptography
Ruttor, Andreas
2007-11-01
Neural networks can synchronize by learning from each other. In the case of discrete weights full synchronization is achieved in a finite number of steps. Additional networks can be trained by using the inputs and outputs generated during this process as examples. Several learning rules for both tasks are presented and analyzed. In the case of Tree Parity Machines synchronization is much faster than learning. Scaling laws for the number of steps needed for full synchronization and successful learning are derived using analytical models. They indicate that the difference between both processes can be controlled by changing the synaptic depth. In the case of bidirectional interaction the synchronization time increases proportional to the square of this parameter, but it grows exponentially, if information is transmitted in one direction only. Because of this effect neural synchronization can be used to construct a cryptographic key-exchange protocol. Here the partners benefit from mutual interaction, so that a passive attacker is usually unable to learn the generated key in time. The success probabilities of different attack methods are determined by numerical simulations and scaling laws are derived from the data. They show that the partners can reach any desired level of security by just increasing the synaptic depth. Then the complexity of a successful attack grows exponentially, but there is only a polynomial increase of the effort needed to generate a key. Further improvements of security are possible by replacing the random inputs with queries generated by the partners.
Synchronization Between Two Different Switched Chaotic Systems By Switching Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Du Li Ming
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the synchronization problem of two different switched chaotic systems, considering the general case that the master-slave switched chaotic systems have uncertainties. Two basic problems are considered: one is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems under arbitrary switching; the other is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any subsystems alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and multiple Lyapunov function method are used respectively, an adaptive control scheme has been presented, some sufficient synchronization conditions are attainted, and the switching signal is designed. Finally, the numerical simulation is provide to show the effectiveness of our method.
Synchronization of map-based neurons with memory and synaptic delay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sausedo-Solorio, J.M. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42074 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Pisarchik, A.N., E-mail: apisarch@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Centre for Biomedical Technology, Technical University of Madrid, Campus Montegancedo, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain)
2014-06-13
Synchronization of two synaptically coupled neurons with memory and synaptic delay is studied using the Rulkov map, one of the simplest neuron models which displays specific features inherent to bursting dynamics. We demonstrate a transition from lag to anticipated synchronization as the relationship between the memory duration and the synaptic delay time changes. The neuron maps synchronize either with anticipation, if the memory is longer than the synaptic delay time, or with lag otherwise. The mean anticipation time is equal to the difference between the memory and synaptic delay independently of the coupling strength. Frequency entrainment and phase-locking phenomena as well as a transition from regular spikes to chaos are demonstrated with respect to the coupling strength. - Highlights: • We study synchronization of neurons with memory and synaptic delay in the map model. • Neurons synchronize either with anticipation or with lag depending on delay time. • Mean anticipation time is equal to the difference between memory and synaptic delay. • Frequency entrainment and phase locking are studied with respect to the coupling.
Mahmoud, Emad E.; Abood, Fatimah S.
In this paper, we will demonstrate the adaptive complex anti-lag synchronization (CALS) of two indistinguishable complex chaotic nonlinear systems with the parameters which are uncertain. The significance of CALS is not advised well in the literature yet. The CALS contains or consolidate two sorts of synchronizations (anti-lag synchronization ALS and lag synchronization LS). The state variable of the master system synchronizes with an alternate state variable of the slave system. Depending on the function of Lyapunov, a plan is orchestrated to achieve CALS of chaotic attractors of complex systems with unverifiable parameters. CALS of two indistinguishable complexes of Lü systems is viewed as, for example, an occasion for affirming the likelihood of the plan exhibited. In physics, we can see complex chaotic systems in numerous different applications, for example, applied sciences or engineering. With a specific end goal to affirm the proposed synchronization plan viability and demonstrate the hypothetical outcomes, we can compute the numerical simulation. The above outcomes will give the hypothetical establishment to the secure communication applications. CALS of complex chaotic systems in which a state variable of the master system synchronizes with an alternate state variable of the slave system is an encouraging sort of synchronization as it contributes excellent security in secure communication. Amid this secure communication, the synchronization between transmitter and collector is shut and message signals are recouped. The encryption and restoration of the signals are simulated numerically.
The WS transform for the Kuramoto model with distributed amplitudes, phase lag and time delay
Lohe, M. A.
2017-12-01
We apply the Watanabe-Strogatz (WS) transform to a generalized Kuramoto model with distributed parameters describing the amplitude of oscillation, phase lag, and time delay at each node of the system. The model has global coupling and identical frequencies, but allows for repulsive interactions at arbitrary nodes leading to conformist-contrarian phenomena together with variable amplitude and time-delay effects. We show how to determine the initial values of the WS system for any initial conditions for the Kuramoto system, and investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the WS variables. For the case of zero time delay the possible asymptotic configurations are determined by the sign of a single parameter μ which measures whether or not the attractive nodes dominate the repulsive nodes. If μ>0 the system completely synchronizes from general initial conditions, whereas if μ<0 one of two types of phase-locked synchronization occurs, depending on the initial values, while for μ=0 periodic solutions can occur. For the case of arbitrary non-uniform time delays we derive a stability condition for completely synchronized solutions.
Corporate Governance and Audit Report Lag in Malaysia
Mohamad Naimi Mohamad-Nor;
2010-01-01
This paper examines audit report lag in Malaysian public listed companies, following the implementation of the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance in 2001. It departs from the standard audit report lag studies by incorporating characteristics of the board of directors and the audit committee. Multivariate analysis using 628 annual reports for the year ended 2002 indicates that active and larger audit committees shorten audit lag. However, we fail to find evidence that audit committee indep...
A Semantics of Synchronization.
1980-09-01
suggestion of having very hungry philosophers. One can easily imagine the complexity of the equivalent implementation using semaphores . Synchronization types...Edinburgh, July 1978. [STAR79] Stark, E.W., " Semaphore Primitives and Fair Mutual Exclusion," TM-158, Laboratory for Computer Science, M.I.T., Cambridge...AD-AQ91 015 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR COMPUTE--ETC F/S 9/2 A SEMANTICS OF SYNCHRONIZATION .(U) .C SEP 80 C A SEAQUIST N00015-75
Pulse Synchronization System (PSS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-06-01
This document is intended to serve as an operations manual, as well as a documentation of the backup analyses pertinent to the design as delivered. A history of earlier unsuccessful versions of the Pulse Synchronization System (PSS) is not included. The function of the PSS is to synchronize the time of arrival at the fusion target of laser pulses that are propagated through the 20 amplifier chains of the SHIVA laser. The positional accuracy requirement is +-1.5 mm (+-5 psec), and is obtained by the PSS with a wide margin factor
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is governed by a local nonlinear oscillator for each node of the network and interactions connecting different nodes via the links of the network. We consider existence and stability conditions for both single- and multi-cluster ...
Heartbeat synchronized with ventilation
Schäfer, Carsten; Rosenblum, Michael G.; Kurths, Jürgen; Abel, Hans-Henning
1998-03-01
It is widely accepted that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in humans are unsynchronised. However, a newly developed data analysis technique allows any interaction that does occur in even weakly coupled complex systems to be observed. Using this technique, we found long periods of hidden cardiorespiratory synchronization, lasting up to 20 minutes, during spontaneous breathing at rest.
Synchronous, bilateral tonsillar carcinomas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nami Saber, Camelia; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup
2017-01-01
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing, but data on the incidence of synchronous, bilateral tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (BiTSCCs) is sparse. In this study, we report the incidence and tumour characteristics of BiTSCCs in a population-base...
Injuries in synchronized skating.
Dubravcic-Simunjak, S; Kuipers, H; Moran, J; Simunjak, B; Pecina, M
2006-06-01
Synchronized skating is a relatively new competitive sport and data about injuries in this discipline are lacking. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and pattern of acute and overuse injuries in synchronized skaters. Before and during the World Synchronized Skating Championship 2004, a questionnaire inquiring about the frequency of injuries in this skating discipline was given to 23 participating teams. A total of 514 women and 14 men senior skaters completed the questionnaires (100 % response). Two hundred and eighteen (42.4 %) female and 6 (42.9 %) male skaters had suffered from acute injuries during their synchronized skating career. As some skaters had suffered from more than one injury, the total number of acute injuries in females was 398 and in males 14. In female skaters 19.8 % of acute injuries were head injuries, 7.1 % trunk, 33.2 % upper, and 39.9 % lower extremity injuries. In male skaters 14.3 % were head injuries, 28.6 % upper, and 57.1 % lower extremity injuries, with no report of trunk injuries. Sixty-nine female and 2 male skaters had low back problems and 112 female and 2 male skaters had one or more overuse syndromes during their skating career. Of 155 overuse injuries in female skaters, 102 (65.8 %) occurred during their figure skating career, while 53 injuries (34.2 %) only occurred when they skated in synchronized skating teams. In male skaters, out of 5 overuse injuries, 4 (80 %) occurred in their figure skating career, while 1 (20 %) occurred during their synchronized skating career. Out of the total of 412 injuries, 338 (82 %) occurred during on-ice practice, while 74 (18 %) happened during off-ice training. Ninety-one (26.9 %) acute injures occurred while practicing individual elements, and 247 (73.1 %) on-ice injuries occurred while practicing different team elements. We conclude that injuries in synchronized skating should be of medical concern due to an increasing number of acute injuries, especially
Instructor's guide : - synchronized skating school
Mokkila, Eveliina
2011-01-01
The starting point to the Instructor’s guide for synchronized skating school was the situation that Turun Riennon Taitoluistelu figure skating club constantly struggles to get enough skaters to the Beginner team in synchronized skating. The guidebook was written to guide the skating school instructors towards providing more synchronized skating teaching in their lessons. As a result from introducing synchronized skating more in the skating school, it is expected to have more children conti...
Synchronizing Strategies under Partial Observability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri
2014-01-01
Embedded devices usually share only partial information about their current configurations as the communication bandwidth can be restricted. Despite this, we may wish to bring a failed device into a given predetermined configuration. This problem, also known as resetting or synchronizing words, has...... been intensively studied for systems that do not provide any information about their configurations. In order to capture more general scenarios, we extend the existing theory of synchronizing words to synchronizing strategies, and study the synchronization, short-synchronization and subset...
An improved measurement system for FOG pure lag time with no changing of FOG work status
Chen, X.; Yang, J. H.; Zhou, Y. L.; Shu, X. W.
2018-05-01
The minimum pure lag time is an important factor for characterizing the dynamic performance of fiber optical gyroscope. It is defined as the time duration from the reception of velocity-shock signal to the output of corresponding fiber-optic gyroscope data. Many engineering projects have required for this index specifically, so the measurement of the minimum pure lag time is highly demanded. In typically measurement system, the work status of tested FOG has to be changed. In this work, a FOG pure lag time measurement system without changing the work status of the FOG has been demonstrated. During the operation of this test system, the impact structure generated a shock towards the FOG, and the pure lag time was measured through data processing analysis. The design scheme and test principle have been researched and analyzed in detail. And a prototype has been developed and used for experiment successfully. This measurement system can realize a measurement accuracy of better than ±3 μs and a system resolution of 108.6ns.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonides Canuet
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE-4 is associated with a genetic vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease (AD and with AD-related abnormalities in cortical rhythms. However, it is unclear whether APOE-4 is linked to a specific pattern of intrinsic functional disintegration of the brain after the development of the disease or during its different stages. This study aimed at identifying spatial patterns and effects of APOE genotype on resting-state oscillations and functional connectivity in patients with AD, using a physiological connectivity index called "lagged phase synchronization". METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resting EEG was recorded during awake, eyes-closed state in 125 patients with AD and 60 elderly controls. Source current density and functional connectivity were determined using eLORETA. Patients with AD exhibited reduced parieto-occipital alpha oscillations compared with controls, and those carrying the APOE-4 allele had reduced alpha activity in the left inferior parietal and temporo-occipital cortex relative to noncarriers. There was a decreased alpha2 connectivity pattern in AD, involving the left temporal and bilateral parietal cortex. Several brain regions exhibited increased lagged phase synchronization in low frequencies, specifically in the theta band, across and within hemispheres, where temporal lobe connections were particularly compromised. Areas with abnormal theta connectivity correlated with cognitive scores. In patients with early AD, we found an APOE-4-related decrease in interhemispheric alpha connectivity in frontal and parieto-temporal regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to regional cortical dysfunction, as indicated by abnormal alpha oscillations, there are patterns of functional network disruption affecting theta and alpha bands in AD that associate with the level of cognitive disturbance or with the APOE genotype. These functional patterns of nonlinear connectivity may potentially
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Dennis; Pedersen, Torben Bach
2004-01-01
The increasing availability of XML-based data sources, e.g., for publishing data on the WWW, means that more and more applications (data consumers) rely on accessing and using XML data. Typically, the access is achieved by defining views over the XML data, and accessing data through these views....... However, the XML data sources are often independent of the data consumers and may change their schemas without notification, invalidating the XML views defined by the data consumers. This requires the view definitions to be updated to reflect the new structure of the data sources, a process termed view...... synchronization. XPath is the most commonly used language for retrieving parts of XML documents, and is thus an important cornerstone for XML view definitions. This paper presents techniques for discovering schema changes in XML data sources and synchronizing XPath-based views to reflect these schema changes...
LHC synchronization test successful
The synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system and the rest of CERN's accelerator chain was successfully achieved last weekend. Tests began on Friday 8 August when a single bunch of a few particles was taken down the transfer line from the SPS accelerator to the LHC. After a period of optimization, one bunch was kicked up from the transfer line into the LHC beam pipe and steered about 3 kilometres around the LHC itself on the first attempt. On Saturday, the test was repeated several times to optimize the transfer before the operations group handed the machine back for hardware commissioning to resume on Sunday. The anti-clockwise synchronization systems will be tested over the weekend of 22 August.Picture:http://lhc-injection-test.web.cern.ch/lhc-injection-test/
Programmable synchronous communications module
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horelick, D.
1979-10-01
The functional characteristics of a programmable, synchronous serial communications CAMAC module with buffering in block format are described. Both bit and byte oriented protocols can be handled in full duplex depending on the program implemented. The main elements of the module are a Signetics 2652 Multi-Protocol Communications Controller, a Zilog Z-808 8 bit microprocessor with PROM and RAM, and FIFOs for buffering
The scale-dependent market trend: Empirical evidences using the lagged DFA method
Li, Daye; Kou, Zhun; Sun, Qiankun
2015-09-01
In this paper we make an empirical research and test the efficiency of 44 important market indexes in multiple scales. A modified method based on the lagged detrended fluctuation analysis is utilized to maximize the information of long-term correlations from the non-zero lags and keep the margin of errors small when measuring the local Hurst exponent. Our empirical result illustrates that a common pattern can be found in the majority of the measured market indexes which tend to be persistent (with the local Hurst exponent > 0.5) in the small time scale, whereas it displays significant anti-persistent characteristics in large time scales. Moreover, not only the stock markets but also the foreign exchange markets share this pattern. Considering that the exchange markets are only weakly synchronized with the economic cycles, it can be concluded that the economic cycles can cause anti-persistence in the large time scale but there are also other factors at work. The empirical result supports the view that financial markets are multi-fractal and it indicates that deviations from efficiency and the type of model to describe the trend of market price are dependent on the forecasting horizon.
Lag profile inversion method for EISCAT data analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. I. Virtanen
2008-03-01
Full Text Available The present standard EISCAT incoherent scatter experiments are based on alternating codes that are decoded in power domain by simple summation and subtraction operations. The signal is first digitised and then different lagged products are calculated and decoded in real time. Only the decoded lagged products are saved for further analysis so that both the original data samples and the undecoded lagged products are lost. A fit of plasma parameters can be later performed using the recorded lagged products. In this paper we describe a different analysis method, which makes use of statistical inversion in removing range ambiguities from the lag profiles. An analysis program carrying out both the lag profile inversion and the fit of the plasma parameters has been constructed. Because recording the received signal itself instead of the lagged products allows very flexible data analysis, the program is constructed to use raw data, i.e. IQ-sampled signal recorded from an IF stage of the radar. The program is now capable of analysing standard alternating-coded EISCAT experiments as well as experiments with any other kind of radar modulation if raw data is available. The program calculates the ambiguous lag profiles and is capable of inverting them as such but, for analysis in real time, time integration is needed before inversion. We demonstrate the method using alternating code experiments in the EISCAT UHF radar and specific hardware connected to the second IF stage of the receiver. This method produces a data stream of complex samples, which are stored for later processing. The raw data is analysed with lag profile inversion and the results are compared to those given by the standard method.
Modified function projective combination synchronization of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-02-08
Feb 8, 2017 ... 2Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, India. ∗ ... Numerical simulations are done to show the validity and effectiveness of ... tography, secure communications [6,7], etc.
A universal projective synchronization of general autonomous ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ditions, and from figures 3 and 4, we observe that both give good results. This shows that our method ... [4] G R Michael, S P Arkady and K Jurgen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1804 ... [11] F Nian and X Wang, Chaos 21, 043131 (2011). [12] Q Jia, Phys.
Projective synchronization of chaotic systems with bidirectional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road,. Kolkata 700 009, India. ∗ ... versal phenomenon in a variety of natural and engineering systems [4]. Over the past two decades ..... Now, following the rule for the construction of master–slave system, we obtain the master system as. ˙x1 = x2 + ...
On business cycles synchronization in Europe: A note on network analysis
Matesanz, David; Ortega, Guillermo J.
2016-11-01
In this paper we examine synchronization in European business cycles from 1950 to 2013. Herein we further investigate previous and controversial results that arise from complex network analysis of this topic. By focusing on the importance of different configurations in the commonly used rolling windows and threshold significance levels, we find that selections are critical to obtaining accurate networks. Output co-movement and connectivity show no appreciable changes during the beginning of the Euro period, but rather dramatic jumps are observed since the outbreak of the global financial crisis. At this time, previous lead/lag effects disappeared and in-phase synchronization across Europe was observed.
Kinetic analysis of elastomeric lag damper for helicopter rotors
Liu, Yafang; Wang, Jidong; Tong, Yan
2018-02-01
The elastomeric lag dampers suppress the ground resonance and air resonance that play a significant role in the stability of the helicopter. In this paper, elastomeric lag damper which is made from silicone rubber is built. And a series of experiments are conducted on this elastomeric lag damper. The stress-strain curves of elastomeric lag dampers employed shear forces at different frequency are obtained. And a finite element model is established based on Burgers model. The result of simulation and tests shows that the simple, linear model will yield good predictions of damper energy dissipation and it is adequate for predicting the stress-strain hysteresis loop within the operating frequency and a small-amplitude oscillation.
Modelling of capital asset pricing by considering the lagged effects
Sukono; Hidayat, Y.; Bon, A. Talib bin; Supian, S.
2017-01-01
In this paper the problem of modelling the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) with the effect of the lagged is discussed. It is assumed that asset returns are analysed influenced by the market return and the return of risk-free assets. To analyse the relationship between asset returns, the market return, and the return of risk-free assets, it is conducted by using a regression equation of CAPM, and regression equation of lagged distributed CAPM. Associated with the regression equation lagged CAPM distributed, this paper also developed a regression equation of Koyck transformation CAPM. Results of development show that the regression equation of Koyck transformation CAPM has advantages, namely simple as it only requires three parameters, compared with regression equation of lagged distributed CAPM.
Deterministic Properties of Serially Connected Distributed Lag Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr Nowak
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Distributed lag models are an important tool in modeling dynamic systems in economics. In the analysis of composite forms of such models, the component models are ordered in parallel (with the same independent variable and/or in series (where the independent variable is also the dependent variable in the preceding model. This paper presents an analysis of certain deterministic properties of composite distributed lag models composed of component distributed lag models arranged in sequence, and their asymptotic properties in particular. The models considered are in discrete form. Even though the paper focuses on deterministic properties of distributed lag models, the derivations are based on analytical tools commonly used in probability theory such as probability distributions and the central limit theorem. (original abstract
Exploiting Schemas in Data Synchronization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foster, J. Nathan; Greenwald, Michael B.; Kirkegaard, Christian
2005-01-01
Increased reliance on optimistic data replication has led to burgeoning interest in tools and frameworks for disconnected updates to replicated data.We have implemented a generic synchronization framework, called HARMONY, that can be used to build state-based synchronizers for a wide variety...... of tree-structureddata formats. A novel feature of this framework is that the synchronization process - in particular, the recognition of conflicts - is driven by the schema of the structures being synchronized.We formalize HARMONY's synchronization algorithm, state a simple and intuitive specification......, and illustrate, using simple address books as a case study, how it can be used to synchronize trees representing a variety of specific forms of applicationdata, including sets, records, tuples, and relations....
Content-based intermedia synchronization
Oh, Dong-Young; Sampath-Kumar, Srihari; Rangan, P. Venkat
1995-03-01
Inter-media synchronization methods developed until now have been based on syntactic timestamping of video frames and audio samples. These methods are not fully appropriate for the synchronization of multimedia objects which may have to be accessed individually by their contents, e.g. content-base data retrieval. We propose a content-based multimedia synchronization scheme in which a media stream is viewed as hierarchial composition of smaller objects which are logically structured based on the contents, and the synchronization is achieved by deriving temporal relations among logical units of media object. content-based synchronization offers several advantages such as, elimination of the need for time stamping, freedom from limitations of jitter, synchronization of independently captured media objects in video editing, and compensation for inherent asynchronies in capture times of video and audio.
The phase lag of temperature behind global solar radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Hussainy, F.M.
1995-08-01
This paper presented the relationship between the air temperature and the global solar radiation, which can be conveniently represented by the three characteristics: mean, amplitude and phase lag of the first harmonic of global radiation and air temperatures. A good correlation between the air temperature and the global solar radiation has been found when the phase lag between them is nearly of 30 days. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab
Physical Layer Ethernet Clock Synchronization
2010-11-01
42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 77 PHYSICAL LAYER ETHERNET CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION Reinhard Exel, Georg...oeaw.ac.at Nikolaus Kerö Oregano Systems, Mohsgasse 1, 1030 Wien, Austria E-mail: nikolaus.keroe@oregano.at Abstract Clock synchronization ...is a service widely used in distributed networks to coordinate data acquisition and actions. As the requirement to achieve tighter synchronization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Erik W.
, to exist, in order to underline the cognitive basis of man's (comprehension of) existence. A theory of history (existence) is set up on the basis of the traditional dualistic sign function, and the traditional sound-law concept and sound development are reinterpreted in terms of the theory's system...... of definitions. Historical linguistics ('change') is not dependent on an arbitrary synchronic theory. The two language universals polysemy and synonymy are reinterpreted and defined in accordance with the advanced definitions. Louis Hjelmslev's glossematic theory is the general horizon of the argument...
Louis, Jean-Paul
2013-01-01
Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in
Psychic energy and synchronicity.
Zabriskie, Beverley
2014-04-01
Given Jung's interest in physics' formulations of psychic energy and the concept of time, overlaps and convergences in the themes addressed in analytical psychology and in quantum physics are to be expected. These are informed by the active intersections between the matter of mind and mindfulness re matter. In 1911, Jung initiated dinners with Einstein. Jung's definition of libido in the pivotal 1912 Fordham Lectures reveals the influence of these conversations. Twenty years later, a significant period in physics, Wolfgang Pauli contacted Jung. Their collaboration led to the theory of synchronicity. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Laser Megajoule synchronization system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luttmann, M.; Pastor, J.F; Drouet, V.; Prat, M.; Raimbourg, J.; Adolf, A.
2011-01-01
This paper describes the synchronisation system under development on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in order to synchronize the laser quads on the target to better than 40 ps rms. Our architecture is based on a Timing System (TS) which delivers trigger signals with jitter down to 15 ps rms coupled with an ultra precision timing system with 5 ps rms jitter. In addition to TS, a sensor placed at the target chamber center measures the arrival times of the 3 omega nano joule laser pulses generated by front end shots. (authors)
Accelerated testing for synchronous orbits
Mcdermott, P.
1981-01-01
Degradation of batteries during synchronous orbits is analyzed. Discharge and recharge rates are evaluated. The functional relationship between charge rate and degradation is mathematically determined.
Medical issues in synchronized skating.
Abbott, Kristin; Hecht, Suzanne
2013-01-01
Synchronized skating is a unique sport of team skating and currently represents the largest competitive discipline in U.S. Figure Skating. Synchronized skating allows skaters to compete as part of a team with opportunities to represent their country in international competitions. As the popularity of the sport continues to grow, more of these athletes will present to sports medicine clinics with injuries and illnesses related to participation in synchronized skating. The purpose of this article is to review the common injuries and medical conditions affecting synchronized skaters.
Levine, Matthew E; Albers, David J; Hripcsak, George
2016-01-01
Time series analysis methods have been shown to reveal clinical and biological associations in data collected in the electronic health record. We wish to develop reliable high-throughput methods for identifying adverse drug effects that are easy to implement and produce readily interpretable results. To move toward this goal, we used univariate and multivariate lagged regression models to investigate associations between twenty pairs of drug orders and laboratory measurements. Multivariate lagged regression models exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity than univariate lagged regression in the 20 examples, and incorporating autoregressive terms for labs and drugs produced more robust signals in cases of known associations among the 20 example pairings. Moreover, including inpatient admission terms in the model attenuated the signals for some cases of unlikely associations, demonstrating how multivariate lagged regression models' explicit handling of context-based variables can provide a simple way to probe for health-care processes that confound analyses of EHR data.
Synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Tyagi, Neelam; Balter, James M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Chetty, Indrin J.
2007-01-01
Variations in target volume position between and during treatment fractions can lead to measurable differences in the dose distribution delivered to each patient. Current methods to estimate the ongoing cumulative delivered dose distribution make idealized assumptions about individual patient motion based on average motions observed in a population of patients. In the delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multi-leaf collimator (MLC), errors are introduced in both the implementation and delivery processes. In addition, target motion and MLC motion can lead to dosimetric errors from interplay effects. All of these effects may be of clinical importance. Here we present a method to compute delivered dose distributions for each treatment beam and fraction, which explicitly incorporates synchronized real-time patient motion data and real-time fluence and machine configuration data. This synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction method properly accounts for the two primary classes of errors that arise from delivering IMRT with an MLC: (a) Interplay errors between target volume motion and MLC motion, and (b) Implementation errors, such as dropped segments, dose over/under shoot, faulty leaf motors, tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, and communications delays. These reconstructed dose fractions can then be combined to produce high-quality determinations of the dose distribution actually received to date, from which individualized adaptive treatment strategies can be determined
FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization
Pozniak, Krzysztof T.
2013-10-01
The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.
Do subjective symptoms predict our perception of jet-lag?
Waterhouse, J; Edwards, B; Nevill, A; Atkinson, G; Reilly, T; Davies, P; Godfrey, R
2000-10-01
A total of 39 subjects were studied after a flight from the UK to either Sydney or Brisbane (10 time-zones to the east). Subjects varied widely in their age, their athletic ability, whether or not they were taking melatonin, and in their objectives when in Australia. For the first 6 days after arrival, subjects scored their jet-lag five times per day and other subjective variables up to five times per day, using visual analogue scales. For jet-lag, the scale was labelled 0 = no jet-lag to 10 = very bad jet-lag; the extremes of the other scales were labelled - 5 and + 5, indicating marked changes compared with normal, and the centrepoint was labelled 0 indicating 'normal'. Mean daily values for jet-lag and fatigue were initially high (+ 3.65 +/- 0.35 and + 1.55 +/- 0.22 on day 1, respectively) and fell progressively on subsequent days, but were still raised significantly (p concentration and motivation, and rises in irritability and nocturnal wakings, had recovered by day 4 or earlier, and bowel activity was less frequent, with harder stools, on days 1 and 2 only. Also, on day 1, there was a decrease in the ease of getting to sleep (- 1.33 +/- 0.55), but this changed to an increase from day 2 onwards (for example, + 0.75 +/- 0.25 on day 6). Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate predictors of jet-lag. The severity of jet-lag at all the times that were measured was strongly predicted by fatigue ratings made at the same time. Its severity at 08:00 h was predicted by an earlier time of waking, by feeling less alert 30 min after waking and, marginally, by the number of waking episodes. Jet-lag at 12:00 and 16:00 h was strongly predicted by a fall of concentration at these times; jet-lag at mealtimes (12:00, 16:00 and 20:00 h) was predicted by the amount of feeling bloated. Such results complicate an exact interpretation that can be placed on an assessment of a global term such as jet-lag, particularly if the assessment is made only once per day.
Coïsson, Pierdavide; Telali, Kader; Heumez, Benoit; Lesur, Vincent; Lalanne, Xavier; Jiang Xin, Chang
2017-09-01
During magnetic observatory data acquisition, the data time stamp is kept synchronized with a precise source of time. This is usually done using a GPS-controlled pulse per second (PPS) signal. For some observatories located in remote areas or where internet restrictions are enforced, only the magnetometer data are transmitted, limiting the capabilities of monitoring the acquisition operations. The magnetic observatory in Lanzhou (LZH), China, experienced an unnoticed interruption of the GPS PPS starting 7 March 2013. The data logger clock drifted slowly in time: in 6 months a lag of 27 s was accumulated. After a reboot on 2 April 2014 the drift became faster, -2 s per day, before the GPS PPS could be restored on 8 July 2014. To estimate the time lags that LZH time series had accumulated, we compared it with data from other observatories located in East Asia. A synchronization algorithm was developed. Natural sources providing synchronous events could be used as markers to obtain the time lag between the observatories. The analysis of slices of 1 h of 1 s data at arbitrary UTC allowed estimating time lags with an uncertainty of ˜ 11 s, revealing the correct trends of LZH time drift. A precise estimation of the time lag was obtained by comparing data from co-located instruments controlled by an independent PPS. In this case, it was possible to take advantage of spikes and local noise that constituted precise time markers. It was therefore possible to determine a correction to apply to LZH time stamps to correct the data files and produce reliable 1 min averaged definitive magnetic data.
SPECTRAL LAGS AND THE LAG-LUMINOSITY RELATION: AN INVESTIGATION WITH SWIFT BAT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ukwatta, T. N.; Dhuga, K. S.; Eskandarian, A.; Maximon, L. C.; Parke, W. C.; Stamatikos, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Norris, J. P.
2010-01-01
Spectral lag, the time difference between the arrival of high-energy and low-energy photons, is a common feature in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Norris et al. reported a correlation between the spectral lag and the isotropic peak luminosity of GRBs based on a limited sample. More recently, a number of authors have provided further support for this correlation using arbitrary energy bands of various instruments. In this paper, we report on a systematic extraction of spectral lags based on the largest Swift sample to date of 31 GRBs with measured redshifts. We extracted the spectral lags for all combinations of the standard Swift hard X-ray energy bands: 15-25 keV, 25-50 keV, 50-100 keV, and 100-200 keV and plotted the time dilation corrected lag as a function of isotropic peak luminosity. The mean value of the correlation coefficient for various channel combinations is -0.68 with a chance probability of ∼0.7 x 10 -3 . In addition, the mean value of the power-law index is 1.4 ± 0.3. Hence, our study lends support to the existence of a lag-luminosity correlation, albeit with large scatter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajasimhan Rajagovindan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synchronized oscillation in cortical networks has been suggested as a mechanism for diverse functions ranging from perceptual binding to memory formation to sensorimotor integration. Concomitant with synchronization is the occurrence of near-zero phase-lag often observed between network components. Recent theories have considered the importance of this phenomenon in establishing an effective communication framework among neuronal ensembles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two factors, among possibly others, can be hypothesized to contribute to the near-zero phase-lag relationship: (1 positively correlated common input with no significant relative time delay and (2 bidirectional interaction. Thus far, no empirical test of these hypotheses has been possible for lack of means to tease apart the specific causes underlying the observed synchrony. In this work simulation examples were first used to illustrate the ideas. A quantitative method that decomposes the statistical interdependence between two cortical areas into a feed-forward, a feed-back and a common-input component was then introduced and applied to test the hypotheses on multichannel local field potential recordings from two behaving monkeys. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The near-zero phase-lag phenomenon is important in the study of large-scale oscillatory networks. A rigorous mathematical theorem is used for the first time to empirically examine the factors that contribute to this phenomenon. Given the critical role that oscillatory activity is likely to play in the regulation of biological processes at all levels, the significance of the proposed method may extend beyond systems neuroscience, the level at which the present analysis is conceived and performed.
Synchronization dynamics of two different dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Albert C.J.; Min Fuhong
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Synchronization dynamics of two distinct dynamical systems. → Synchronization, de-synchronization and instantaneous synchronization. → A controlled pendulum synchronizing with the Duffing oscillator. → Synchronization invariant set. → Synchronization parameter map. - Abstract: In this paper, synchronization dynamics of two different dynamical systems is investigated through the theory of discontinuous dynamical systems. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the synchronization, de-synchronization and instantaneous synchronization (penetration or grazing) are presented. Using such a synchronization theory, the synchronization of a controlled pendulum with the Duffing oscillator is systematically discussed as a sampled problem, and the corresponding analytical conditions for the synchronization are presented. The synchronization parameter study is carried out for a better understanding of synchronization characteristics of the controlled pendulum and the Duffing oscillator. Finally, the partial and full synchronizations of the controlled pendulum with periodic and chaotic motions are presented to illustrate the analytical conditions. The synchronization of the Duffing oscillator and pendulum are investigated in order to show the usefulness and efficiency of the methodology in this paper. The synchronization invariant domain is obtained. The technique presented in this paper should have a wide spectrum of applications in engineering. For example, this technique can be applied to the maneuvering target tracking, and the others.
Business cycle synchronization in Europe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergman, Ulf Michael; Jonung, Lars
2011-01-01
In this paper we study business cycle synchronization in the three Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden prior to, during and after the Scandinavian Currency Union 1873–1913. We find that the degree of synchronization tended to increase during the currency union, thus supporting earlier...
Biologically Inspired Intercellular Slot Synchronization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Tyrrell
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The present article develops a decentralized interbase station slot synchronization algorithm suitable for cellular mobile communication systems. The proposed cellular firefly synchronization (CelFSync algorithm is derived from the theory of pulse-coupled oscillators, common to describe synchronization phenomena in biological systems, such as the spontaneous synchronization of fireflies. In order to maintain synchronization among base stations (BSs, even when there is no direct link between adjacent BSs, some selected user terminals (UTs participate in the network synchronization process. Synchronization emerges by exchanging two distinct synchronization words, one transmitted by BSs and the other by active UTs, without any a priori assumption on the initial timing misalignments of BSs and UTs. In large-scale networks with inter-BS site distances up to a few kilometers, propagation delays severely affect the attainable timing accuracy of CelFSync. We show that by an appropriate combination of CelFSync with the timing advance procedure, which aligns uplink transmission of UTs to arrive simultaneously at the BS, a timing accuracy within a fraction of the inter-BS propagation delay is retained.
Introduction to media synchronization (Mediasync)
M.A. Montagud Climent (Mario); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); F. Boronat (Fernando); A.J. Jansen (Jack)
2018-01-01
textabstractMedia synchronization is a core research area in multimedia systems. This chapter introduces the area by providing key definitions, classifications, and examples. It also discusses the relevance of different types of media synchronization to ensure satisfactory Quality of Experience
Distributed Synchronization in Communication Networks
2018-01-24
synchronization. Secondly, it is known that identical oscillators with sin() coupling functions are guaranteed to synchronize in phase on a complete...provide sufficient conditions for phase- locking , i.e., convergence to a stable equilibrium almost surely. We additionally find conditions when the
[Synchronous sigmoideum- and caecum volvulus].
Berg, Anna Korsgaard; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim
2015-09-21
This case presents a synchronous sigmoid- and caecum volvulus in a 69-year old man with Parkinson's disease, hypertension and previous history of colonic volvulus. On admission the patient had abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and constipation. The CT scan showed a sigmoid volvulus with a dilated caecum. The synchronous sigmoideum- and caecum volvulus was diagnosed intraoperatively. Total colectomy and ileostomy was performed.
Digital synchronization and communication techniques
Lindsey, William C.
1992-01-01
Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.
Analyzing C2 Structures and Self-Synchronization with Simple Computational Models
2011-06-01
16th ICCRTS “Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations” Analyzing C2 Structures and Self- Synchronization with Simple...Self- Synchronization with Simple Computational Models 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...models. The Kuramoto Model, though with some serious limitations, provides a representation of information flow and self- synchronization in an
Board of director characteristics and audit report lag: Australian evidence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harjinder Singh
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This study examines whether board of director’s independence, financial expertise, gender, corporate governance experience and diligence impact the audit report lag exhibited by Australian publicly listed firms. Using a pooled sample of 500 firm-year observations obtained from the Australian Securities Exchange for the period 2004 to 2008, this study finds evidence that board member independence, board member financial expertise and, to a lesser extent, board member corporate governance experience are the most significant predictors associated with shorter/reduced audit report lag. Main findings are robust to alternative measures of audit report lag, board characteristics and control variables. Findings from this study clearly imply that boards play a substantial role in reducing audit report lag. Results imply that legislative and regulatory requirements, both in Australian and overseas, stipulating board member independence and financial expertise requirements are effective in improving the integrity of financial reporting, a key component of which is timeliness of financial reporting (encapsulated by audit report lag. In addition, an additional board characteristic that regulators should consider promoting among firms is board member corporate governance experience. Results from this study, therefore, have clear implications not only for regulators but also for key stakeholders such shareholders and management.
Behavioral Processes in Long-Lag Intervention Studies.
Miller, Dale T; Dannals, Jennifer E; Zlatev, Julian J
2017-05-01
We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones. To illustrate the roles that behavioral processes can play in long-lag experiments we examine field experiments motivated by three policy-relevant goals: prejudice reduction, health promotion, and educational achievement. In each of the experiments discussed we identify various behavioral pathways through which the manipulated psychological state could have produced the observed outcome. We argue that if psychologists conducting long-lag interventions posited a theory of change that linked manipulated psychological states to outcomes via behavioral pathways, the result would be richer theory and more practically useful research. Movement in this direction would also permit more opportunities for productive collaborations between psychologists and other social scientists interested in similar social problems.
X-ray time lags in PG 1211+143
Lobban, A. P.; Vaughan, S.; Pounds, K.; Reeves, J. N.
2018-05-01
We investigate the X-ray time lags of a recent ˜630 ks XMM-Newton observation of PG 1211+143. We find well-correlated variations across the XMM-Newton EPIC bandpass, with the first detection of a hard lag in this source with a mean time delay of up to ˜3 ks at the lowest frequencies. We find that the energy-dependence of the low-frequency hard lag scales approximately linearly with log(E) when averaged over all orbits, consistent with the propagating fluctuations model. However, we find that the low-frequency lag behaviour becomes more complex on time-scales longer than a single orbit, suggestive of additional modes of variability. We also detect a high-frequency soft lag at ˜10-4 Hz with the magnitude of the delay peaking at ≲ 0.8 ks, consistent with previous observations, which we discuss in terms of small-scale reverberation.
Testing the Lag Structure of Assets’ Realized Volatility Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Audrino
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A (conservative test is applied to investigate the optimal lag structure for modelingrealized volatility dynamics. The testing procedure relies on the recent theoretical results that showthe ability of the adaptive least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (adaptive lasso to combinee cient parameter estimation, variable selection, and valid inference for time series processes. In anapplication to several constituents of the S&P 500 index it is shown that (i the optimal significantlag structure is time-varying and subject to drastic regime shifts that seem to happen across assetssimultaneously; (ii in many cases the relevant information for prediction is included in the first 22lags, corroborating previous results concerning the accuracy and the diffculty of outperforming outof-sample the heterogeneous autoregressive (HAR model; and (iii some common features of theoptimal lag structure can be identified across assets belonging to the same market segment or showinga similar beta with respect to the market index.
GHRH excess and blockade in X-LAG syndrome.
Daly, Adrian F; Lysy, Philippe A; Desfilles, Céline; Rostomyan, Liliya; Mohamed, Amira; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Raverot, Veronique; Castermans, Emilie; Marbaix, Etienne; Maiter, Dominique; Brunelle, Chloe; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A; Bours, Vincent; Raftopoulos, Christian; Beauloye, Veronique; Barlier, Anne; Beckers, Albert
2016-03-01
X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described form of inheritable pituitary gigantism that begins in early childhood and is usually associated with markedly elevated GH and prolactin secretion by mixed pituitary adenomas/hyperplasia. Microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 including the GPR101 gene cause X-LAG syndrome. In individual cases random GHRH levels have been elevated. We performed a series of hormonal profiles in a young female sporadic X-LAG syndrome patient and subsequently undertook in vitro studies of primary pituitary tumor culture following neurosurgical resection. The patient demonstrated consistently elevated circulating GHRH levels throughout preoperative testing, which was accompanied by marked GH and prolactin hypersecretion; GH demonstrated a paradoxical increase following TRH administration. In vitro, the pituitary cells showed baseline GH and prolactin release that was further stimulated by GHRH administration. Co-incubation with GHRH and the GHRH receptor antagonist, acetyl-(d-Arg(2))-GHRH (1-29) amide, blocked the GHRH-induced GH stimulation; the GHRH receptor antagonist alone significantly reduced GH release. Pasireotide, but not octreotide, inhibited GH secretion. A ghrelin receptor agonist and an inverse agonist led to modest, statistically significant increases and decreases in GH secretion, respectively. GHRH hypersecretion can accompany the pituitary abnormalities seen in X-LAG syndrome. These data suggest that the pathology of X-LAG syndrome may include hypothalamic dysregulation of GHRH secretion, which is in keeping with localization of GPR101 in the hypothalamus. Therapeutic blockade of GHRH secretion could represent a way to target the marked hormonal hypersecretion and overgrowth that characterizes X-LAG syndrome. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.
Taking the lag out of jet lag through model-based schedule design.
Dean, Dennis A; Forger, Daniel B; Klerman, Elizabeth B
2009-06-01
Travel across multiple time zones results in desynchronization of environmental time cues and the sleep-wake schedule from their normal phase relationships with the endogenous circadian system. Circadian misalignment can result in poor neurobehavioral performance, decreased sleep efficiency, and inappropriately timed physiological signals including gastrointestinal activity and hormone release. Frequent and repeated transmeridian travel is associated with long-term cognitive deficits, and rodents experimentally exposed to repeated schedule shifts have increased death rates. One approach to reduce the short-term circadian, sleep-wake, and performance problems is to use mathematical models of the circadian pacemaker to design countermeasures that rapidly shift the circadian pacemaker to align with the new schedule. In this paper, the use of mathematical models to design sleep-wake and countermeasure schedules for improved performance is demonstrated. We present an approach to designing interventions that combines an algorithm for optimal placement of countermeasures with a novel mode of schedule representation. With these methods, rapid circadian resynchrony and the resulting improvement in neurobehavioral performance can be quickly achieved even after moderate to large shifts in the sleep-wake schedule. The key schedule design inputs are endogenous circadian period length, desired sleep-wake schedule, length of intervention, background light level, and countermeasure strength. The new schedule representation facilitates schedule design, simulation studies, and experiment design and significantly decreases the amount of time to design an appropriate intervention. The method presented in this paper has direct implications for designing jet lag, shift-work, and non-24-hour schedules, including scheduling for extreme environments, such as in space, undersea, or in polar regions.
Taking the lag out of jet lag through model-based schedule design.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dennis A Dean
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Travel across multiple time zones results in desynchronization of environmental time cues and the sleep-wake schedule from their normal phase relationships with the endogenous circadian system. Circadian misalignment can result in poor neurobehavioral performance, decreased sleep efficiency, and inappropriately timed physiological signals including gastrointestinal activity and hormone release. Frequent and repeated transmeridian travel is associated with long-term cognitive deficits, and rodents experimentally exposed to repeated schedule shifts have increased death rates. One approach to reduce the short-term circadian, sleep-wake, and performance problems is to use mathematical models of the circadian pacemaker to design countermeasures that rapidly shift the circadian pacemaker to align with the new schedule. In this paper, the use of mathematical models to design sleep-wake and countermeasure schedules for improved performance is demonstrated. We present an approach to designing interventions that combines an algorithm for optimal placement of countermeasures with a novel mode of schedule representation. With these methods, rapid circadian resynchrony and the resulting improvement in neurobehavioral performance can be quickly achieved even after moderate to large shifts in the sleep-wake schedule. The key schedule design inputs are endogenous circadian period length, desired sleep-wake schedule, length of intervention, background light level, and countermeasure strength. The new schedule representation facilitates schedule design, simulation studies, and experiment design and significantly decreases the amount of time to design an appropriate intervention. The method presented in this paper has direct implications for designing jet lag, shift-work, and non-24-hour schedules, including scheduling for extreme environments, such as in space, undersea, or in polar regions.
Image-based synchronization of force and bead motion in active electromagnetic microrheometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Chang-Young; Saleh, Omar A
2014-01-01
In the past, electromagnetic tweezers have been used to make active microrheometers. An active microrheometer measures the dynamic mechanical properties of a material from the motion of embedded particles under external force, e.g. a sinusoidal magnetic force generated by a sinusoidal current on a coil. The oscillating amplitude and the phase lag of the motion are then used to estimate the material’s dynamic mechanical properties. The phase lag, in particular, requires precise synchronization of the particle motion with the external force. In previous works, synchronization difficulties have arisen from measuring two parameters with two instruments, one of them being a camera. We solved the synchronization issue by measuring two parameters with a single instrument, the camera alone. From captured images, particles can be tracked in three dimensions through an image-analysis algorithm while the current on the coil can be measured from the brightness of the image; this enables simultaneous synchronization of the phases of the driving current on the electromagnet coil and the motion of the magnetic probe particle. We calibrate the phase delay between the magnetic force and the particle’s motion in glycerol and confirm the calibration with a Hall probe. The technique is further tested by measuring the shear modulus of a polyacrylamide gel, and comparing the results to those obtained using a conventional rheometer. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.
2017-01-01
CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...
Three types of generalized synchronization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Junzhong [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecomunications, Beijing 100876 (China)]. E-mail: jzyang@bupt.edu.cn; Hu Gang [China Center for Advanced Science and Technology (CCAST) (World Laboratory), PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China) and Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: ganghu@bnu.edu.cn
2007-02-05
The roles played by drive and response systems on generalized chaos synchronization (GS) are studied. And the generalized synchronization is classified, based on these roles, to three distinctive types: the passive GS which is mainly determined by the response system and insensitive to the driving signal; the resonant GS where phase synchronization between the drive and response systems is preceding GS; and the interacting GS where both the drive and response have influences on the status of GS. The features of these GS types and the possible changes from one types to others are investigated.
Three types of generalized synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Junzhong; Hu Gang
2007-01-01
The roles played by drive and response systems on generalized chaos synchronization (GS) are studied. And the generalized synchronization is classified, based on these roles, to three distinctive types: the passive GS which is mainly determined by the response system and insensitive to the driving signal; the resonant GS where phase synchronization between the drive and response systems is preceding GS; and the interacting GS where both the drive and response have influences on the status of GS. The features of these GS types and the possible changes from one types to others are investigated
Investigation of phase synchronization of interictal EEG in right temporal lobe epilepsy
Yu, Haitao; Cai, Lihui; Wu, Xinyu; Song, Zhenxi; Wang, Jiang; Xia, Zijie; Liu, Jing; Cao, Yibin
2018-02-01
Epilepsy is commonly associated with abnormally synchronous activity of neurons located in epileptogenic zones. In this study, we investigated the synchronization characteristic of right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE). Multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded from the RTLE patients during interictal period and normal controls. Power spectral density was first used to analyze the EEG power for two groups of subjects. It was found that the power of epileptics is increased in the whole brain compared with that of the control. We calculated phase lag index (PLI) to measure the phase synchronization between each pair of EEG signals. A higher degree of synchronization was observed in the epileptics especially between distant channels. In particular, the regional synchronization degree was negatively correlated with power spectral density and the correlation was weaker for epileptics. Moreover, the synchronization degree decayed with the increase of relative distance of channels for both the epilepsy and control, but the dependence was weakened in the former. The obtained results may provide new insights into the generation mechanism of epilepsy.
Qian, Yu
2014-01-01
The synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks (SWNNs) induced by time delay and long-range connection (LRC) probability have been investigated by synchronization parameter and space-time plots. Four distinct parameter regions, that is, asynchronous region, transition region, synchronous region, and oscillatory region have been discovered at certain LRC probability as time delay is increased. Interestingly, desynchronization is observed in oscillatory region. More importantly, we consider the spatiotemporal patterns obtained in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs are the competition results between long-range drivings (LRDs) and neighboring interactions. In addition, for moderate time delay, the synchronization of neuronal network can be enhanced remarkably by increasing LRC probability. Furthermore, lag synchronization has been found between weak synchronization and complete synchronization as LRC probability is a little less than 1.0. Finally, the two necessary conditions, moderate time delay and large numbers of LRCs, are exposed explicitly for synchronization in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs. PMID:24810595
Noncoherent Symbol Synchronization Techniques
Simon, Marvin
2005-01-01
Traditional methods for establishing symbol synchronization (sync) in digital communication receivers assume that carrier sync has already been established, i.e., the problem is addressed at the baseband level assuming that a 'perfect' estimate of carrier phase is available. We refer to this approach as coherent symbol sync. Since, for NRZ signaling, a suppressed carrier sync loop such as an I-Q Costas loop includes integrate-and-dump (I and D) filters in its in-phase (1) and quadrature (Q) arms, the traditional approach is to first track the carrier in the absence of symbol sync information, then feed back the symbol sync estimate to these filters, and then iterate between the two to a desirable operating level In this paper, we revisit the symbol sync problem by examining methods for obtaining such sync in the absence of carrier phase information, i.e., so-called noncoherent symbol sync loops. We compare the performance of these loops with that of a well-known coherent symbol sync loop and examine the conditions under which one is preferable over the other.
Cross-spectrum symbol synchronization
Mccallister, R. D.; Simon, M. K.
1981-01-01
A popular method of symbol synchronization exploits one aspect of generalized harmonic analysis, normally referred to as the cross-spectrum. Utilizing nonlinear techniques, the input symbol energy is effectively concentrated onto multiples of the symbol clock frequency, facilitating application of conventional phase lock synchronization techniques. A general treatment of the cross-spectrum technique is developed and shown to be applicable across a broad class of symbol modulation formats. An important specific symbol synchronization application is then treated, focusing the general development to provide both insight and quantitative measure of the performance impact associated with variation in these key synchronization parameters: symbol modulation format, symbol transition probability, symbol energy to noise density ratio, and symbol rate to filter bandwidth ratio.
Monthly ENSO Forecast Skill and Lagged Ensemble Size
Trenary, L.; DelSole, T.; Tippett, M. K.; Pegion, K.
2018-04-01
The mean square error (MSE) of a lagged ensemble of monthly forecasts of the Niño 3.4 index from the Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) is examined with respect to ensemble size and configuration. Although the real-time forecast is initialized 4 times per day, it is possible to infer the MSE for arbitrary initialization frequency and for burst ensembles by fitting error covariances to a parametric model and then extrapolating to arbitrary ensemble size and initialization frequency. Applying this method to real-time forecasts, we find that the MSE consistently reaches a minimum for a lagged ensemble size between one and eight days, when four initializations per day are included. This ensemble size is consistent with the 8-10 day lagged ensemble configuration used operationally. Interestingly, the skill of both ensemble configurations is close to the estimated skill of the infinite ensemble. The skill of the weighted, lagged, and burst ensembles are found to be comparable. Certain unphysical features of the estimated error growth were tracked down to problems with the climatology and data discontinuities.
Improved Testing of Distributed Lag Model in Presence of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The finite distributed lag models (DLM) are often used in econometrics and statistics. Application of the ordinary least square (OLS) directly on the DLM for estimation may have serious problems. To overcome these problems, some alternative estimation procedures are available in the literature. One popular method to ...
Drug lag and key regulatory barriers in the emerging markets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harriet Wileman
2010-01-01
This work concludes that the overall relative drug lag in the emerging markets has decreased over time and that there are seven key regulatory barriers which need to be targeted in order to make further improvements; ′Western Approval′, local clinical development (LCD, Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product (CPP, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP, pricing approval, document authentication and harmonisation.
Non-retinotopic motor-visual recalibration to temporal lag
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masaki eTsujita
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Temporal order judgment between the voluntary motor action and its perceptual feedback is important in distinguishing between a sensory feedback which is caused by observer’s own action and other stimulus, which are irrelevant to that action. Prolonged exposure to fixed temporal lag between motor action and visual feedback recalibrates motor-visual temporal relationship, and consequently shifts the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS. Previous studies on the audio-visual temporal recalibration without voluntary action revealed that both low and high level processing are involved. However, it is not clear how the low and high level processings affect the recalibration to constant temporal lag between voluntary action and visual feedback. This study examined retinotopic specificity of the motor-visual temporal recalibration. During the adaptation phase, observers repeatedly pressed a key, and visual stimulus was presented in left or right visual field with a fixed temporal lag (0 or 200 ms. In the test phase, observers performed a temporal order judgment for observer’s voluntary keypress and test stimulus, which was presented in the same as or opposite to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented in the adaptation phase. We found that the PSS was shifted toward the exposed lag in both visual fields. These results suggest that the low visual processing, which is retinotopically specific, has minor contribution to the multimodal adaptation, and that the adaptation to shift the PSS mainly depends upon the high level processing such as attention to specific properties of the stimulus.
Heat conduction errors and time lag in cryogenic thermometer installations
Warshawsky, I.
1973-01-01
Installation practices are recommended that will increase rate of heat exchange between the thermometric sensing element and the cryogenic fluid and that will reduce the rate of undesired heat transfer to higher-temperature objects. Formulas and numerical data are given that help to estimate the magnitude of heat-conduction errors and of time lag in response.
Investigating the Twenty Year Lag in the Vocational Rehabilitation Process.
Lowitt, Julian
In the rehabilitation workshop there is insufficient attention to job development oriented to the current and future needs of industry. Many types of work which were done in vocational workshops in contract from industrial firms are now done by automation. Semiskilled labor is thus in diminished demand. There is a twenty year lag in the industrial…
Asymptotical Behaviors of Nonautonomous Discrete Kolmogorov System with Time Lags
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Shengqiang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss a general -species discrete Kolmogorov system with time lags. We build some new results about the sufficient conditions for permanence, extinction, and balancing survival. When applying these results to some Lotka-Volterra systems, we obtain the criteria on harmless delay for the permanence as well as profitless delay for balancing survival.
Asymptotical Behaviors of Nonautonomous Discrete Kolmogorov System with Time Lags
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengqiang Liu
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss a general n-species discrete Kolmogorov system with time lags. We build some new results about the sufficient conditions for permanence, extinction, and balancing survival. When applying these results to some Lotka-Volterra systems, we obtain the criteria on harmless delay for the permanence as well as profitless delay for balancing survival.
Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy
Jain, Rajesh Kumar
2012-01-01
The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital
Synchronous Half-Wave Rectifier
Rippel, Wally E.
1989-01-01
Synchronous rectifying circuit behaves like diode having unusually low voltage drop during forward-voltage half cycles. Circuit particularly useful in power supplies with potentials of 5 Vdc or less, where normal forward-voltage drops in ordinary diodes unacceptably large. Fabricated as monolithic assembly or as hybrid. Synchronous half-wave rectifier includes active circuits to attain low forward voltage drop and high rectification efficiency.
Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid ...
Synchronous production of conidial powder of several fungal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STORAGESEVER
2009-08-04
Aug 4, 2009 ... of sufficient quantities of good quality inoculum becomes ... search project aiming to build up a quick and simple eva- ... USDA-ARS Plant Protection Research Unit, U.S. Plant, Soil and ... diameter PVC pipes for synchronous production. ... moisture generator containing 3.5 liter distilled water was slowly.
Macroecological patterns of resilience inferred from a multinational, synchronized experiment
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baho, D.L.; Tavşanoğlu, Ü.N.; Šorf, Michal; Stefanidis, K.; Drakare, S.; Scharfenberger, U.; Agasild, H.; Beklioglu, M.; Hejzlar, Josef; Adrian, R.; Papastergiadou, E.; Zingel, P.; Sondergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.; Angeler, D.G.
2015-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 2 (2015), s. 1142-1160 ISSN 2071-1050 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climate change * eutrophication * zooplankton * ecological resilience * synchronized mesocosm experiment * discontinuity analysis Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2015
Immersive second-screen experiences using hybrid media synchronization
Brandenburg, R. van; Veenhuizen, A.T.
2013-01-01
Most second-screen services have so far been relying on watermarking and fingerprinting for providing synchronisation with the main TV screen. In the EU FP7 HBB-Next project, a new timestamp-based inter-device synchronization system has been developed, allowing for frame-accurate synchronisation
Stabilized NADH as a Countermeasure for Jet Lag
Kay, Gary G.; Viirre, Erik; Clark, Jonathan
2001-01-01
Current remedies for jet lag (phototherapy, melatonin, stimulant, and sedative medications) are limited in efficacy and practicality. The efficacy of a stabilized, sublingual form of reduced nicotin amide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, ENADAlert, Menuco Corp.) as a countermeasure for jet lag was examined. Because NADH increases cellular production of ATP and facilitates dopamine synthesis, it may counteract the effects of jet lag on cognitive functioning and sleepiness. Thirty-five healthy, employed subjects participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Training and baseline testing were conducted on the West Coast before subjects flew overnight to the East Coast, where they would experience a 3-hour time difference. Upon arrival, individuals were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg of sublingual stabilized ADH (n=18) or identical placebo tablets (n=17). All participants completed computer-administered tests (including CogScreen7) to assess changes in cognitive functioning, mood, and sleepiness in the morning and afternoon. Jet lag resulted in increased sleepiness for over half the participants and deterioration of cognitive functioning for approximately one third. The morning following the flight, subjects experienced lapses of attention in addition to disruptions in working memory, divided attention, and visual perceptual speed. Individuals who received NADH performed significantly better on 5 of 8 cognitive and psychomotor test measures (P less than or equal to 0.5) and showed a trend for better performance on the other three measures (P less than or equal to .l0). Subjects also reported less sleepiness compared with those who received placebo. No adverse effects were observed with NADH treatment. Stabilized NADH significantly reduced jet lag-induced disruptions of cognitive functioning, was easily administered, and was found to have no adverse side effects.
Outer Synchronization of Complex Networks by Impulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Wen; Yan Zizong; Chen Shihua; Lü Jinhu
2011-01-01
This paper investigates outer synchronization of complex networks, especially, outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between the driving network and the response network. Employing the impulsive control method which is uncontinuous, simple, efficient, low-cost and easy to implement in practical applications, we obtain some sufficient conditions of outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between two complex networks. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed impulsive control scheme. (general)
Unidirectional synchronization of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cornejo-Perez, Octavio [Division de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Computacionales, IPICYT, Apdo. Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: octavio@ipicyt.edu.mx; Femat, Ricardo [Division de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Computacionales, IPICYT, Apdo. Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfemat@ipicyt.edu.mx
2005-07-01
Synchronization dynamics of two noiseless Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons under the action of feedback control is studied. The spiking patterns of the action potentials evoked by periodic external modulations attain synchronization states under the feedback action. Numerical simulations for the synchronization dynamics of regular-irregular desynchronized spiking sequences are displayed. The results are discussed in context of generalized synchronization. It is also shown that the HH neurons can be synchronized in face of unmeasured states.
Effect of Phase Response Curve Skew on Synchronization with and without Conduction Delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carmen eCanavier
2013-12-01
Full Text Available A central problem in cortical processing including sensory binding and attentional gating is how neurons can synchronize their responses with zero or near-zero time lag. For a spontaneously firing neuron, an input from another neuron can delay or advance the next spike by different amounts depending upon the timing of the input relative to the previous spike. This information constitutes the phase response curve (PRC. We present a simple graphical method for determining the effect of PRC shape on synchronization tendencies and illustrate it using type 1 PRCs, which consist entirely of advances (delays in response to excitation (inhibition. We obtained the following generic solutions for type 1 PRCs, which include the pulse coupled leaky integrate and fire model. For pairs with mutual excitation, exact synchrony can be stable for strong coupling because of the stabilizing effect of the causal limit region of the PRC in which an input triggers a spike immediately upon arrival. However, synchrony is unstable for short delays, because delayed inputs arrive during a refractory period and cannot trigger an immediate spike. Right skew destabilizes antiphase and enables modes with time lags that grow as the conduction delay is increased. Therefore, right skew favors near-synchrony at short conduction delays and a gradual transition between synchrony and antiphase for pairs coupled by mutual excitation. For pairs with mutual inhibition, zero time lag synchrony is stable for conduction delays ranging from zero to a substantial fraction of the period for pairs. However, for right skew there is a preferred antiphase mode at short delays. In contrast to mutual excitation, left skew destabilizes antiphase for mutual inhibition so that synchrony dominates at short delays as well. These pairwise synchronization tendencies constrain the synchronization properties of neurons embedded in larger networks.
Neophytou, Andreas M; Picciotto, Sally; Brown, Daniel M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Checkoway, Harvey; Eisen, Ellen A; Costello, Sadie
2018-02-13
Prolonged exposures can have complex relationships with health outcomes, as timing, duration, and intensity of exposure are all potentially relevant. Summary measures such as cumulative exposure or average intensity of exposure may not fully capture these relationships. We applied penalized and unpenalized distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) with flexible exposure-response and lag-response functions in order to examine the association between crystalline silica exposure and mortality from lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in a cohort study of 2,342 California diatomaceous earth workers, followed 1942-2011. We also assessed associations using simple measures of cumulative exposure assuming linear exposure-response and constant lag-response. Measures of association from DLNMs were generally higher than from simpler models. Rate ratios from penalized DLNMs corresponding to average daily exposures of 0.4 mg/m3 during lag years 31-50 prior to the age of observed cases were 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 2.35) for lung cancer and 1.80 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.85) for non-malignant respiratory disease. Rate ratios from the simpler models for the same exposure scenario were 1.15 (95% CI: 0.89-1.48) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.03-1.46) respectively. Longitudinal cohort studies of prolonged exposures and chronic health outcomes should explore methods allowing for flexibility and non-linearities in the exposure-lag-response. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čermák, Jan
1997-01-01
Roč. 1, č. 2 (1997), s. 63-69 ISSN 0188-8048 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2067608 Keywords : frequency measurement * frequency stability * synchronisation * computerised control Subject RIV: JW - Navigation, Links, Detection ; Counter-Measures
Bodily Synchronization Underlying Joke Telling
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R. C. Schmidt
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Advances in video and time series analysis have greatly enhanced our ability to study the bodily synchronization that occurs in natural interactions. Past research has demonstrated that the behavioral synchronization involved in social interactions is similar to dynamical synchronization found generically in nature. The present study investigated how the bodily synchronization in a joke telling task is spread across different nested temporal scales. Pairs of participants enacted knock-knock jokes and times series of their bodily activity were recorded. Coherence and relative phase analyses were used to evaluate the synchronization of bodily rhythms for the whole trial as well as at the subsidiary time scales of the whole joke, the setup of the punch line, the two-person exchange and the utterance. The analyses revealed greater than chance entrainment of the joke teller’s and joke responder’s movements at all time scales and that the relative phasing of the teller’s movements led those of the responder at the longer time scales. Moreover, this entrainment was greater when visual information about the partner’s movements was present but was decreased particularly at the shorter time scales when explicit gesturing in telling the joke was performed. In short, the results demonstrate that a complex interpersonal bodily dance occurs during structured conversation interactions and that this dance is constructed from a set of rhythms associated with the nested behavioral structure of the interaction.
Vestibular hearing and neural synchronization.
Emami, Seyede Faranak; Daneshi, Ahmad
2012-01-01
Objectives. Vestibular hearing as an auditory sensitivity of the saccule in the human ear is revealed by cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs). The range of the vestibular hearing lies in the low frequency. Also, the amplitude of an auditory brainstem response component depends on the amount of synchronized neural activity, and the auditory nerve fibers' responses have the best synchronization with the low frequency. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate correlation between vestibular hearing using cVEMPs and neural synchronization via slow wave Auditory Brainstem Responses (sABR). Study Design. This case-control survey was consisted of twenty-two dizzy patients, compared to twenty healthy controls. Methods. Intervention comprised of Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA), Impedance acoustic metry (IA), Videonystagmography (VNG), fast wave ABR (fABR), sABR, and cVEMPs. Results. The affected ears of the dizzy patients had the abnormal findings of cVEMPs (insecure vestibular hearing) and the abnormal findings of sABR (decreased neural synchronization). Comparison of the cVEMPs at affected ears versus unaffected ears and the normal persons revealed significant differences (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Safe vestibular hearing was effective in the improvement of the neural synchronization.
NRC wants plant-specific responses on Thermo-Lag
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1994-01-01
Dissatisfied with recent industry-backed efforts to assure fire safety at nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission announced on November 24 that it would direct all nuclear plant owners to specify the actions they would take to assure that the use of the Thermo-Lag 330 fire barrier material would not lead to insufficient protection of electrical cables connected to safe-shutdown systems. Previously, the NRC had been content to let the matter wait until tests sponsored by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (Numarc) could show whether Thermo-Lag, used and installed in certain ways, would provide sufficient protection, but the NRC and Numarc have disagreed over the test methodology, and the Numarc tests are now considered to be several months behind schedule
Shape synchronization control for three-dimensional chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yinhe; Chen, Haoguang; Zhang, Siying
2016-01-01
This paper aims to the three-dimensional continuous chaotic system and shape of the chaotic attractor by utilizing the basic theory of plane curves in classical differential geometry, the continuous controller is synthesized for the master–slave synchronization in shape. This means that the slave system can possess the same shape of state trajectory with the master system via the continuous controller. The continuous controller is composed of three sub-controllers, which respectively correspond to the master–slave synchronization in shape for the three projective curves of the chaotic attractor onto the three coordinate planes. Moreover, the proposed shape synchronization technique as well as application of control scheme to secure communication is also demonstrated in this paper, where numerical simulation results show the proposed control method works well.
Time Stamp Synchronization of PEFP Distributed Control Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Young Gi; An, Eun Mi; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub
2010-01-01
Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) proton linac consists of several types of control systems, such as soft Input Output Controllers (IOC) and embedded IOC based on Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) for each subsection of PEFP facility. One of the important factors is that IOC's time clock is synchronized. The synchronized time and time stamp can be achieved with Network Time Protocol (NTP) and EPICS time stamp record without timing hardware. The requirement of the time accuracy of IOCs is less than 1 second. The main objective of this study is to configure a master clock and produce Process Variable (PV) time stamps using local CPU time synchronized from the master clock. The distributed control systems are attached on PEFP control network
Identifying and characterizing systematic temporally-lagged BOLD artifacts.
Byrge, Lisa; Kennedy, Daniel P
2018-05-01
Residual noise in the BOLD signal remains problematic for fMRI - particularly for techniques such as functional connectivity, where findings can be spuriously influenced by noise sources that can covary with individual differences. Many such potential noise sources - for instance, motion and respiration - can have a temporally lagged effect on the BOLD signal. Thus, here we present a tool for assessing residual lagged structure in the BOLD signal that is associated with nuisance signals, using a construction similar to a peri-event time histogram. Using this method, we find that framewise displacements - both large and very small - were followed by structured, prolonged, and global changes in the BOLD signal that depend on the magnitude of the preceding displacement and extend for tens of seconds. This residual lagged BOLD structure was consistent across datasets, and independently predicted considerable variance in the global cortical signal (as much as 30-40% in some subjects). Mean functional connectivity estimates varied similarly as a function of displacements occurring many seconds in the past, even after strict censoring. Similar patterns of residual lagged BOLD structure were apparent following respiratory fluctuations (which covaried with framewise displacements), implicating respiration as one likely mechanism underlying the displacement-linked structure observed. Global signal regression largely attenuates this artifactual structure. These findings suggest the need for caution in interpreting results of individual difference studies where noise sources might covary with the individual differences of interest, and highlight the need for further development of preprocessing techniques for mitigating such structure in a more nuanced and targeted manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Task Interruption: Resumption Lag and the Role of Cues
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Altmann, Erik M; Trafton, J. G
2004-01-01
...), indicating a substantial disruptive effect. To probe the nature of the disruption, they examined the role of external cues associated with the interrupted task and found that cues available immediately before an interruption facilitate performance immediately afterwards, thus reducing the resumption lag. This "cue-availability" effect suggests that people deploy preparatory perceptual and memory processes, apparently spontaneously, to mitigate the disruptive effects of task interruption.
Lagged and instantaneous dynamical influences related to brain structural connectivity
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Carmen eAlonso Montes
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Contemporary neuroimaging methods can shed light on the basis of human neural and cognitive specializations, with important implications for neuroscience and medicine. Indeed, different MRI acquisitions provide different brain networks at the macroscale; whilst diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI provides a structural connectivity (SC coincident with the bundles of parallel fibers between brain areas, functional MRI (fMRI accounts for the variations in the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent T2* signal, providing functional connectivity (FC. Understanding the precise relation between FC and SC, that is, between brain dynamics and structure, is still a challenge for neuroscience.To investigate this problem, we acquired data at rest and built the corresponding SC (with matrix elements corresponding to the fiber number between brain areas to be compared with FC connectivity matrices obtained by three different methods: directed dependencies by an exploratory version of structural equation modeling (eSEM, linear correlations (C and partial correlations (PC. We also considered the possibility of using lagged correlations in time series; in particular, we compared a lagged version of eSEM and Granger causality (GC. Our results were two-fold: firstly, eSEM performance in correlating with SC was comparable to those obtained from C and PC, but eSEM (not C, nor PC provides information about directionality of the functional interactions. Second, interactions on a time scale much smaller than the sampling time, captured by instantaneous connectivity methods, are much more related to SC than slow directed influences captured by the lagged analysis. Indeed the performance in correlating with SC was much worse for GC and for the lagged version of eSEM. We expect these results to supply further insights to the interplay between SC and functional patterns, an important issue in the study of brain physiology and function.
Lagging adaptation to warming climate in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Wilczek, Amity M; Cooper, Martha D; Korves, Tonia M; Schmitt, Johanna
2014-06-03
If climate change outpaces the rate of adaptive evolution within a site, populations previously well adapted to local conditions may decline or disappear, and banked seeds from those populations will be unsuitable for restoring them. However, if such adaptational lag has occurred, immigrants from historically warmer climates will outperform natives and may provide genetic potential for evolutionary rescue. We tested for lagging adaptation to warming climate using banked seeds of the annual weed Arabidopsis thaliana in common garden experiments in four sites across the species' native European range: Valencia, Spain; Norwich, United Kingdom; Halle, Germany; and Oulu, Finland. Genotypes originating from geographic regions near the planting site had high relative fitness in each site, direct evidence for broad-scale geographic adaptation in this model species. However, genotypes originating in sites historically warmer than the planting site had higher average relative fitness than local genotypes in every site, especially at the northern range limit in Finland. This result suggests that local adaptive optima have shifted rapidly with recent warming across the species' native range. Climatic optima also differed among seasonal germination cohorts within the Norwich site, suggesting that populations occurring where summer germination is common may have greater evolutionary potential to persist under future warming. If adaptational lag has occurred over just a few decades in banked seeds of an annual species, it may be an important consideration for managing longer-lived species, as well as for attempts to conserve threatened populations through ex situ preservation.
Stochastic lag time in nucleated linear self-assembly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tiwari, Nitin S. [Group Theory of Polymers and Soft Matter, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schoot, Paul van der [Group Theory of Polymers and Soft Matter, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)
2016-06-21
Protein aggregation is of great importance in biology, e.g., in amyloid fibrillation. The aggregation processes that occur at the cellular scale must be highly stochastic in nature because of the statistical number fluctuations that arise on account of the small system size at the cellular scale. We study the nucleated reversible self-assembly of monomeric building blocks into polymer-like aggregates using the method of kinetic Monte Carlo. Kinetic Monte Carlo, being inherently stochastic, allows us to study the impact of fluctuations on the polymerization reactions. One of the most important characteristic features in this kind of problem is the existence of a lag phase before self-assembly takes off, which is what we focus attention on. We study the associated lag time as a function of system size and kinetic pathway. We find that the leading order stochastic contribution to the lag time before polymerization commences is inversely proportional to the system volume for large-enough system size for all nine reaction pathways tested. Finite-size corrections to this do depend on the kinetic pathway.
Lag time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of endometriosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tânia Mara Vieira Santos
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Objective: To assess lag time between onset of symptoms anddiagnosis of endometriosis in patients followed up at the OutpatientsClinic of Endometriosis and Chronic Pelvic Pain, at the Hospitaldo Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo “Francisco Moratode Oliveira”, from January 2003 to November 2009. Methods:In a retrospective analytical study, a total of 310 women withendometriosis confirmed by surgery and pathological examinationwere evaluated in the period from January 6, 2003 to November29, 2009. Data were gathered through revision of the follow-up visitforms at the specialized outpatients clinic and medical records. Thesoftware Epi-Info 3.3.2 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean lag time between onset of symptoms and confirming diagnosisof endometriosis was 46.16 months (3.84 years, ranging from 6 to324 months. Patients aged under 20 years had a mean time untildiagnosis of 2.8 years (33.6 months, range of 6 to 144 months. Inpatients aged 20-29 years, it was 3.51 years (42.18 months, range6-192 months. In those aged 30-40 years, the mean time was 4.14years (49.69 months, range 6-324 months. And in women age over40 years, it was 3.15 years (37.86 months, range 6-216 months.Conclusion: The lag time between onset of symptoms and diagnosisof endometriosis was shorter, as compared to other national andinternational evaluations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bizyaev, D.; Pan, K.; Brinkmann, J. [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Walterbos, R. A. M. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Yoachim, P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Riffel, R. A. [Departamento de Física, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000-97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Fernández-Trincado, J. G. [Institut Utinam, CNRS UMR 6213, Université de Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté-Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besançon Cedex (France); Diamond-Stanic, A. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Jones, A. [Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 1, Garching, D-85748 (Germany); Thomas, D. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Cleary, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg Center, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2017-04-20
We present a study of the kinematics of the extraplanar ionized gas around several dozen galaxies observed by the Mapping of Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. We considered a sample of 67 edge-on galaxies out of more than 1400 extragalactic targets observed by MaNGA, in which we found 25 galaxies (or 37%) with regular lagging of the rotation curve at large distances from the galactic midplane. We model the observed H α emission velocity fields in the galaxies, taking projection effects and a simple model for the dust extinction into account. We show that the vertical lag of the rotation curve is necessary in the modeling, and estimate the lag amplitude in the galaxies. We find no correlation between the lag and the star formation rate in the galaxies. At the same time, we report a correlation between the lag and the galactic stellar mass, central stellar velocity dispersion, and axial ratio of the light distribution. These correlations suggest a possible higher ratio of infalling-to-local gas in early-type disk galaxies or a connection between lags and the possible presence of hot gaseous halos, which may be more prevalent in more massive galaxies. These results again demonstrate that observations of extraplanar gas can serve as a potential probe for accretion of gas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bizyaev, D.; Pan, K.; Brinkmann, J.; Walterbos, R. A. M.; Yoachim, P.; Riffel, R. A.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Diamond-Stanic, A. M.; Jones, A.; Thomas, D.; Cleary, J.
2017-01-01
We present a study of the kinematics of the extraplanar ionized gas around several dozen galaxies observed by the Mapping of Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. We considered a sample of 67 edge-on galaxies out of more than 1400 extragalactic targets observed by MaNGA, in which we found 25 galaxies (or 37%) with regular lagging of the rotation curve at large distances from the galactic midplane. We model the observed H α emission velocity fields in the galaxies, taking projection effects and a simple model for the dust extinction into account. We show that the vertical lag of the rotation curve is necessary in the modeling, and estimate the lag amplitude in the galaxies. We find no correlation between the lag and the star formation rate in the galaxies. At the same time, we report a correlation between the lag and the galactic stellar mass, central stellar velocity dispersion, and axial ratio of the light distribution. These correlations suggest a possible higher ratio of infalling-to-local gas in early-type disk galaxies or a connection between lags and the possible presence of hot gaseous halos, which may be more prevalent in more massive galaxies. These results again demonstrate that observations of extraplanar gas can serve as a potential probe for accretion of gas.
Bizyaev, D.; Walterbos, R. A. M.; Yoachim, P.; Riffel, R. A.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Pan, K.; Diamond-Stanic, A. M.; Jones, A.; Thomas, D.; Cleary, J.; Brinkmann, J.
2017-04-01
We present a study of the kinematics of the extraplanar ionized gas around several dozen galaxies observed by the Mapping of Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. We considered a sample of 67 edge-on galaxies out of more than 1400 extragalactic targets observed by MaNGA, in which we found 25 galaxies (or 37%) with regular lagging of the rotation curve at large distances from the galactic midplane. We model the observed Hα emission velocity fields in the galaxies, taking projection effects and a simple model for the dust extinction into account. We show that the vertical lag of the rotation curve is necessary in the modeling, and estimate the lag amplitude in the galaxies. We find no correlation between the lag and the star formation rate in the galaxies. At the same time, we report a correlation between the lag and the galactic stellar mass, central stellar velocity dispersion, and axial ratio of the light distribution. These correlations suggest a possible higher ratio of infalling-to-local gas in early-type disk galaxies or a connection between lags and the possible presence of hot gaseous halos, which may be more prevalent in more massive galaxies. These results again demonstrate that observations of extraplanar gas can serve as a potential probe for accretion of gas.
Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ward, C.R.
2002-01-01
A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility
Synchronization properties of coupled chaotic neurons: The role of random shared input
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Rupesh [School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Bilal, Shakir [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Ramaswamy, Ram [School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)
2016-06-15
Spike-time correlations of neighbouring neurons depend on their intrinsic firing properties as well as on the inputs they share. Studies have shown that periodically firing neurons, when subjected to random shared input, exhibit asynchronicity. Here, we study the effect of random shared input on the synchronization of weakly coupled chaotic neurons. The cases of so-called electrical and chemical coupling are both considered, and we observe a wide range of synchronization behaviour. When subjected to identical shared random input, there is a decrease in the threshold coupling strength needed for chaotic neurons to synchronize in-phase. The system also supports lag–synchronous states, and for these, we find that shared input can cause desynchronization. We carry out a master stability function analysis for a network of such neurons and show agreement with the numerical simulations. The contrasting role of shared random input for complete and lag synchronized neurons is useful in understanding spike-time correlations observed in many areas of the brain.
Synchronization properties of coupled chaotic neurons: The role of random shared input
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Rupesh; Bilal, Shakir; Ramaswamy, Ram
2016-01-01
Spike-time correlations of neighbouring neurons depend on their intrinsic firing properties as well as on the inputs they share. Studies have shown that periodically firing neurons, when subjected to random shared input, exhibit asynchronicity. Here, we study the effect of random shared input on the synchronization of weakly coupled chaotic neurons. The cases of so-called electrical and chemical coupling are both considered, and we observe a wide range of synchronization behaviour. When subjected to identical shared random input, there is a decrease in the threshold coupling strength needed for chaotic neurons to synchronize in-phase. The system also supports lag–synchronous states, and for these, we find that shared input can cause desynchronization. We carry out a master stability function analysis for a network of such neurons and show agreement with the numerical simulations. The contrasting role of shared random input for complete and lag synchronized neurons is useful in understanding spike-time correlations observed in many areas of the brain.
Multi-objective genetic optimization of linear construction projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatma A. Agrama
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In the real world, the majority cases of optimization problems, met by engineers, are composed of several conflicting objectives. This paper presents an approach for a multi-objective optimization model for scheduling linear construction projects. Linear construction projects have many identical units wherein activities repeat from one unit to another. Highway, pipeline, and tunnels are good examples that exhibit repetitive characteristics. These projects represent a large portion of the construction industry. The present model enables construction planners to generate optimal/near-optimal construction plans that minimize project duration, total work interruptions, and total number of crews. Each of these plans identifies, from a set of feasible alternatives, optimal crew synchronization for each activity and activity interruptions at each unit. This model satisfies the following aspects: (1 it is based on the line of balance technique; (2 it considers non-serial typical activities networks with finish–start relationship and both lag or overlap time between activities is allowed; (3 it utilizes a multi-objective genetic algorithms approach; (4 it is developed as a spreadsheet template that is easy to use. Details of the model with visual charts are presented. An application example is analyzed to illustrate the use of the model and demonstrate its capabilities in optimizing the scheduling of linear construction projects.
A synchronous game for binary constraint systems
Kim, Se-Jin; Paulsen, Vern; Schafhauser, Christopher
2018-03-01
Recently, Slofstra proved that the set of quantum correlations is not closed. We prove that the set of synchronous quantum correlations is not closed, which implies his result, by giving an example of a synchronous game that has a perfect quantum approximate strategy but no perfect quantum strategy. We also exhibit a graph for which the quantum independence number and the quantum approximate independence number are different. We prove new characterisations of synchronous quantum approximate correlations and synchronous quantum spatial correlations. We solve the synchronous approximation problem of Dykema and the second author, which yields a new equivalence of Connes' embedding problem in terms of synchronous correlations.
Control of non-conventional synchronous motors
Louis, Jean-Paul
2013-01-01
Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,
Simulating synchronization in neuronal networks
Fink, Christian G.
2016-06-01
We discuss several techniques used in simulating neuronal networks by exploring how a network's connectivity structure affects its propensity for synchronous spiking. Network connectivity is generated using the Watts-Strogatz small-world algorithm, and two key measures of network structure are described. These measures quantify structural characteristics that influence collective neuronal spiking, which is simulated using the leaky integrate-and-fire model. Simulations show that adding a small number of random connections to an otherwise lattice-like connectivity structure leads to a dramatic increase in neuronal synchronization.
Synchronous-flux-generator (SFG)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zweygbergk, S.V.; Ljungstroem, O. (ed.)
1976-01-01
The synchronous machine is the most common rotating electric machine for producing electric energy in a large scale, but it is also used for other purposes. One well known everyday example is its use as driving motor in the electric synchronous clock. One has in this connection made full use of one of the main qualities of this kind of machine--its rotating speed is bound to the frequency of the feeding voltage, either if it is working as a motor or as a generator. Characteristics are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuntaro Okazaki
Full Text Available People's behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction--two individuals influencing one another--or in one direction--one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both experimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another's head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR, the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one's postural sway is explained by that of the other's and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded interacts with paired participants' postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the
Drug lag for cardiovascular drug approvals in India compared with the US and EU approvals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhaven C. Kataria
2013-01-01
Conclusion: This study confirms that there is a substantial drug lag in approval of new cardiovascular drugs in India compared with the United States and European Union. The impact of drug lag on health outcomes remains to be established.
Effect of Coating Solvent Ratio on the Drug Release Lag Time of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Erah
Research Article ... Lag Time of Coated Theophylline Osmotic Tablets ... Key words: Coating solvent, Drug release, Lag time, Osmotic tablet, HPMC, .... following composition (w/w): theophylline ... tablets was measured by UV absorption.
Effects of lag and maximum growth in contaminant transport and biodegradation modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wood, B.D.; Dawson, C.N.
1992-06-01
The effects of time lag and maximum microbial growth on biodegradation in contaminant transport are discussed. A mathematical model is formulated that accounts for these effects, and a numerical case study is presented that demonstrates how lag influences biodegradation
Chaos Synchronization in Navier-Stokes Turbulence
Lalescu, Cristian; Meneveau, Charles; Eyink, Gregory
2013-03-01
Chaos synchronization (CS) has been studied for some time now (Pecora & Carroll 1990), for systems with only a few degrees of freedom as well as for systems described by partial differential equations (Boccaletti et al 2002). CS in general is said to be present in coupled dynamical systems when a specific property of each system has the same time evolution for all, even though the evolution itself is chaotic. The Navier-Stokes (NS) equations describe the velocity for a wide range of fluids, and their solutions are usually called turbulent if fluctuation amplitudes decrease as a power of their wavenumber. There have been some studies of CS for continuous systems (Kocarev et al 1997), but CS for NS turbulence seems not to have been investigated so far. We focus on the synchronization of the small scales of a turbulent flow for which the time history of large scales is prescribed. Our DNS results show that high-wavenumbers in turbulence are fully slaved to modes with wavenumbers up to a critical fraction of the Kolmogorov dissipation wavenumber. The motivation for our work is to study deeply sub-Kolmogorov scales in fully developed turbulence (Schumacher 2007), which we found to be recoverable even at very high Reynolds number from simulations with moderate resolutions. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation's CDI-II program, project CMMI-0941530
A Novel Synchronization-Based Approach for Functional Connectivity Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angela Lombardi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Complex network analysis has become a gold standard to investigate functional connectivity in the human brain. Popular approaches for quantifying functional coupling between fMRI time series are linear zero-lag correlation methods; however, they might reveal only partial aspects of the functional links between brain areas. In this work, we propose a novel approach for assessing functional coupling between fMRI time series and constructing functional brain networks. A phase space framework is used to map couples of signals exploiting their cross recurrence plots (CRPs to compare the trajectories of the interacting systems. A synchronization metric is extracted from the CRP to assess the coupling behavior of the time series. Since the functional communities of a healthy population are expected to be highly consistent for the same task, we defined functional networks of task-related fMRI data of a cohort of healthy subjects and applied a modularity algorithm in order to determine the community structures of the networks. The within-group similarity of communities is evaluated to verify whether such new metric is robust enough against noise. The synchronization metric is also compared with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detected communities seem to better reflect the functional brain organization during the specific task.
Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liming Du
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.
Fermi Timing and Synchronization System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilcox, R.; Staples, J.; Doolittle, L.; Byrd, J.; Ratti, A.; Kaertner, F.X.; Kim, J.; Chen, J.; Ilday, F.O.; Ludwig, F.; Winter, A.; Ferianis, M.; Danailov, M.; D'Auria, G.
2006-01-01
The Fermi FEL will depend critically on precise timing of its RF, laser and diagnostic subsystems. The timing subsystem to coordinate these functions will need to reliably maintain sub-100fs synchronicity between distant points up to 300m apart in the Fermi facility. The technology to do this is not commercially available, and has not been experimentally demonstrated in a working facility. Therefore, new technology must be developed to meet these needs. Two approaches have been researched by different groups working with the Fermi staff. At MIT, a pulse transmission scheme has been developed for synchronization of RF and laser devices. And at LBL, a CW transmission scheme has been developed for RF and laser synchronization. These respective schemes have advantages and disadvantages that will become better understood in coming years. This document presents the work done by both teams, and suggests a possible system design which integrates them both. The integrated system design provides an example of how choices can be made between the different approaches without significantly changing the basic infrastructure of the system. Overall system issues common to any synchronization scheme are also discussed
Epidemic Synchronization in Robotic Swarms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Ngo, Trung Dung
2009-01-01
Clock synchronization in swarms of networked mobile robots is studied in a probabilistic, epidemic framework. In this setting communication and synchonization is considered to be a randomized process, taking place at unplanned instants of geographical rendezvous between robots. In combination...... as an infinite-dimensional optimal controlproblem. Illustrative numerical examples are given and commented....
Fermi Timing and Synchronization System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilcox, R.; Staples, J.; Doolittle, L.; Byrd, J.; Ratti, A.; Kaertner, F.X.; Kim, J.; Chen, J.; Ilday, F.O.; Ludwig, F.; Winter, A.; Ferianis, M.; Danailov, M.; D' Auria, G.
2006-07-19
The Fermi FEL will depend critically on precise timing of its RF, laser and diagnostic subsystems. The timing subsystem to coordinate these functions will need to reliably maintain sub-100fs synchronicity between distant points up to 300m apart in the Fermi facility. The technology to do this is not commercially available, and has not been experimentally demonstrated in a working facility. Therefore, new technology must be developed to meet these needs. Two approaches have been researched by different groups working with the Fermi staff. At MIT, a pulse transmission scheme has been developed for synchronization of RF and laser devices. And at LBL, a CW transmission scheme has been developed for RF and laser synchronization. These respective schemes have advantages and disadvantages that will become better understood in coming years. This document presents the work done by both teams, and suggests a possible system design which integrates them both. The integrated system design provides an example of how choices can be made between the different approaches without significantly changing the basic infrastructure of the system. Overall system issues common to any synchronization scheme are also discussed.
Main injector synchronous timing system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blokland, W.; Steimel, J.
1998-01-01
The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Main injector synchronous timing system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blokland, Willem; Steimel, James
1998-01-01
The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System
Generalized synchronization via impulsive control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Rong; Xu Zhenyuan; Yang, Simon X.; He Xueming
2008-01-01
This paper demonstrates theoretically that two completely different systems can implement GS via impulsive control, moreover by using impulsive control, for a given manifold y = H(x) we construct a response system to achieve GS with drive system and the synchronization manifold is y = H(x). Our theoretical results are supported by numerical examples
Learning through synchronous electronic discussion
Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.
2000-01-01
This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective
Epidemic Synchronization in Robotic Swarms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Ngo, Trung Dung
2009-01-01
Clock synchronization in swarms of networked mobile robots is studied in a probabilistic, epidemic framework. In this setting communication and synchonization is considered to be a randomized process, taking place at unplanned instants of geographical rendezvous between robots. In combination wit...
Digital device for synchronous storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobzar', Yu.M.; Kovtun, V.G.; Pashechko, N.I.
1991-01-01
Synchronous storage digital device for IR electron-photon emission spectrometer operating with analogue-to-digital converter F4223 or monocrystal converter K572PV1 is described. The device accomplished deduction of noise-background in each storage cycle. Summation and deduction operational time equals 90 ns, device output code discharge - 20, number of storages -2 23
Neural synchronization via potassium signaling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik
2006-01-01
Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature of this reso...
Lloyd, Marshall Everett
An important characteristic of UASs is lag because it can become a considerable challenge to successful human-in-the-loop control. As such, UASs are designed and configured to minimize system lag, though this can increase acquisition and operation costs considerably. In an effort to cut costs, an organization may choose to accept greater risk and deploy a UAS with high system lag. Before this risk can be responsibly accepted, it must be quantified. While many studies have examined system lag, very few have been able to quantify the risk that various levels of lag pose to an internally piloted, manually landed UAS. This study attempted to do so by evaluating pilot landing performance in a simulator with 0 ms, 240 ms, and 1000 ms of additional lag. Various measures were used, including a novel coding technique. Results indicated that 1000 ms of lag was unsafe by all measures. They also indicate that 240 ms of lag degrades performance, but participants were able to successfully land the simulated aircraft. This study showed the utility of using several measures to evaluate the effect of lag on landing performance and it helped demonstrate that while 1000 ms poses a high risk, 240 ms of lag may be a much more manageable risk. Future research suggested by this research includes: investigating lag between 240 ms and 1000 ms, introducing different weather phenomena, developing system lag training techniques for operators, and investigating the effect of aides such as predictive displays and autopilot-assisted recovery.
Spectral Lag Evolution among γ-Ray Burst Pulses Lan-Wei Jia1 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
pulses with observations by CGRO/BATSE. No universal spectral lag evolution feature and pulse luminosity-lag relation within a GRB is observed. ... Key words. γ-rays: bursts—spectral lag—GRB pulse. 1. Introduction. It is found that soft photons lag behind the hard photons and is usually seen in long. GRBs (e.g., Norris et ...
Anti-synchronization of chaotic oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Chil-Min; Rim, Sunghwan; Kye, Won-Ho; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Park, Young-Jai
2003-01-01
We have observed anti-synchronization phenomena in coupled identical chaotic oscillators. Anti-synchronization can be characterized by the vanishing of the sum of relevant variables. We have qualitatively analyzed its base mechanism by using the dynamics of the difference and the sum of the relevant variables in coupled chaotic oscillators. Near the threshold of the synchronization and anti-synchronization transition, we have obtained the novel characteristic relation
Robust synchronization of chaotic systems via feedback
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Femat, Ricardo [IPICYT, San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Dept. de Matematicas Aplicadas; Solis-Perales, Gualberto [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Univ. de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias (Mexico). Div. de Electronica y Computacion
2008-07-01
This volume includes the results derived during last ten years about both suppression and synchronization of chaotic -continuous time- systems. Along this time, the concept was to study how the intrinsic properties of dynamical systems can be exploited to suppress and to synchronize the chaotic behaviour and what synchronization phenomena can be found under feedback interconnection. A compilation of these findings is described in this book. This book shows a perspective on synchronization of chaotic systems. (orig.)
Adaptation to experimental jet-lag in R6/2 mice despite circadian dysrhythmia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nigel I Wood
Full Text Available The R6/2 transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD shows a disintegration of circadian rhythms that can be delayed by pharmacological and non-pharmacological means. Since the molecular machinery underlying the circadian clocks is intact, albeit progressively dysfunctional, we wondered if light phase shifts could modulate the deterioration in daily rhythms in R6/2 mice. Mice were subjected to four x 4 hour advances in light onset. R6/2 mice adapted to phase advances, although angles of entrainment increased with age. A second cohort was subjected to a jet-lag paradigm (6 hour delay or advance in light onset, then reversal after 2 weeks. R6/2 mice adapted to the original shift, but could not adjust accurately to the reversal. Interestingly, phase shifts ameliorated the circadian rhythm breakdown seen in R6/2 mice under normal LD conditions. Our previous finding that the circadian period (tau of 16 week old R6/2 mice shortens to approximately 23 hours may explain how they adapt to phase advances and maintain regular circadian rhythms. We tested this using a 23 hour period light/dark cycle. R6/2 mice entrained to this cycle, but onsets of activity continued to advance, and circadian rhythms still disintegrated. Therefore, the beneficial effects of phase-shifting are not due solely to the light cycle being closer to the tau of the mice. Our data show that R6/2 mice can adapt to changes in the LD schedule, even beyond the age when their circadian rhythms would normally disintegrate. Nevertheless, they show abnormal responses to changes in light cycles. These might be caused by a shortened tau, impaired photic re-synchronization, impaired light detection and/or reduced masking by evening light. If similar abnormalities are present in HD patients, they may suffer exaggerated jet-lag. Since the underlying molecular clock mechanism remains intact, light may be a useful treatment for circadian dysfunction in HD.
Two novel synchronization criterions for a unified chaotic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao Chaohai; Xiong Hongxia; Hu Feng
2006-01-01
Two novel synchronization criterions are proposed in this paper. It includes drive-response synchronization and adaptive synchronization schemes. Moreover, these synchronization criterions can be applied to a large class of chaotic systems and are very useful for secure communication
Binary nucleation kinetics. III. Transient behavior and time lags
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wyslouzil, B.E.; Wilemski, G.
1996-01-01
Transient binary nucleation is more complex than unary because of the bidimensionality of the cluster formation kinetics. To investigate this problem qualitatively and quantitatively, we numerically solved the birth-death equations for vapor-to-liquid phase transitions. Our previous work showed that the customary saddle point and growth path approximations are almost always valid in steady state gas phase nucleation and only fail if the nucleated solution phase is significantly nonideal. Now, we demonstrate that in its early transient stages, binary nucleation rarely, if ever, occurs via the saddle point. This affects not only the number of particles forming but their composition and may be important for nucleation in glasses and other condensed mixtures for which time scales are very long. Before reaching the state of saddle point nucleation, most binary systems pass through a temporary stage in which the region of maximum flux extends over a ridge on the free energy surface. When ridge crossing nucleation is the steady state solution, it thus arises quite naturally as an arrested intermediate state that normally occurs in the development of saddle point nucleation. While the time dependent and steady state distributions of the fluxes and concentrations for each binary system are strongly influenced by the gas composition and species impingement rates, the ratio of nonequilibrium to equilibrium concentrations has a quasiuniversal behavior that is determined primarily by the thermodynamic properties of the liquid mixture. To test our quantitive results of the transient behavior, we directly calculated the time lag for the saddle point flux and compared it with the available analytical predictions. Although the analytical results overestimate the time lag by factors of 1.2-5, they should be adequate for purposes of planning experiments. We also found that the behavior of the saddle point time lag can indicate when steady state ridge crossing nucleation will occur
Exploring lag and duration effect of sunshine in triggering suicide.
Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Frangakis, Constantine E; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Petridou, Eleni; Stevens, Richard G; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
2005-11-01
Sunshine is considered to have a beneficial impact on mood. Interestingly, it has been consistently found that the incidence of suicide reaches a peak during early summer. In order to explore the pattern of sunshine and suicide risk in a time frame of up to nine days and investigate possible lag and duration parameters of sunshine in the triggering of suicide, Greek daily suicide and solar radiance data were analyzed for a 10-year period using logistic regression models. The solar radiance during the day before the suicide event was significantly associated with an increased suicide risk (OR=1.020 per MW/m2). The average solar radiance during the four previous days was also significantly associated with an increased suicide risk (OR=1.031 per MW/m2). Differences among genders include the longer sunshine exposure needed in males to trigger suicide, compared to females and a lag period of three to four days that was found to lapse in females till the suicide. The increase in suicide risk in June compared to December, attributable to the daily sunshine effect, varies from 52% to 88%, thus explaining the already known suicide monthly seasonality. No individual data on solar radiance exposure, mental disorders, alcohol consumption or suicide method were available. The effect of sunshine in the triggering of suicide may be mediated through a mechanism with a specific lag and duration effect, during the nine days preceding suicide. We hypothesize that sunshine acts as a natural antidepressant which first improves motivation, then only later improves mood, thereby creating a potential short-term increased risk of suicide initially upon its application.
Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An experimental study. Amit Sharma Manish Dev Shrimali. Synchronization, Coupled Systems and Networks Volume 77 Issue 5 November 2011 pp 881-889 ... The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev ...
Control synchronization of differential mobile robots
Nijmeijer, H.; Rodriguez Angeles, A.; Allgoewer, F.
2004-01-01
In this paper a synchronization controller for differential mobile robots is proposed. The synchronization goal is to control the angular position of each wheel to a desired trajectory and at the same time the differential (or synchronization) error between the angular positions of the two wheels.
Chaos synchronization based on contraction principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Junwei; Zhou Tianshou
2007-01-01
This paper introduces contraction principle. Based on such a principle, a novel scheme is proposed to synchronize coupled systems with global diffusive coupling. A rigorous sufficient condition on chaos synchronization is derived. As an example, coupled Lorenz systems with nearest-neighbor diffusive coupling are investigated, and numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed synchronization approach
Global chaos synchronization of coupled parametrically excited ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we study the synchronization behaviour of two linearly coupled parametrically excited chaotic pendula. The stability of the synchronized state is examined using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI); and some sufficient criteria for global asymptotic synchronization are derived from which ...
Synchronization and comparison of Lifelog audio recordings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai
2008-01-01
as a preprocessing step to select and synchronize recordings before further processing. The two methods perform similarly in classification, but fingerprinting scales better with the number of recordings, while cross-correlation can offer sample resolution synchronization. We propose and investigate the benefits...... of combining the two. In particular we show that the combination allows sample resolution synchronization and scalability....
Pseudo-random bit generator based on lag time series
García-Martínez, M.; Campos-Cantón, E.
2014-12-01
In this paper, we present a pseudo-random bit generator (PRBG) based on two lag time series of the logistic map using positive and negative values in the bifurcation parameter. In order to hidden the map used to build the pseudo-random series we have used a delay in the generation of time series. These new series when they are mapped xn against xn+1 present a cloud of points unrelated to the logistic map. Finally, the pseudo-random sequences have been tested with the suite of NIST giving satisfactory results for use in stream ciphers.
Macro- to microscale heat transfer the lagging behavior
Tzou, D Y
2014-01-01
Physical processes taking place in micro/nanoscale strongly depend on the material types and can be very complicated. Known approaches include kinetic theory and quantum mechanics, non-equilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics, molecular dynamics, and/or fractal theory and fraction model. Due to innately different physical bases employed, different approaches may involve different physical properties in describing micro/nanoscale heat transport. In addition, the parameters involved in different approaches, may not be mutually inclusive. Macro- to Microscale Heat Transfer: The Lagging Behav
A penalized framework for distributed lag non-linear models.
Gasparrini, Antonio; Scheipl, Fabian; Armstrong, Ben; Kenward, Michael G
2017-09-01
Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) are a modelling tool for describing potentially non-linear and delayed dependencies. Here, we illustrate an extension of the DLNM framework through the use of penalized splines within generalized additive models (GAM). This extension offers built-in model selection procedures and the possibility of accommodating assumptions on the shape of the lag structure through specific penalties. In addition, this framework includes, as special cases, simpler models previously proposed for linear relationships (DLMs). Alternative versions of penalized DLNMs are compared with each other and with the standard unpenalized version in a simulation study. Results show that this penalized extension to the DLNM class provides greater flexibility and improved inferential properties. The framework exploits recent theoretical developments of GAMs and is implemented using efficient routines within freely available software. Real-data applications are illustrated through two reproducible examples in time series and survival analysis. © 2017 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.
Effects of Clonal Reproduction on Evolutionary Lag and Evolutionary Rescue.
Orive, Maria E; Barfield, Michael; Fernandez, Carlos; Holt, Robert D
2017-10-01
Evolutionary lag-the difference between mean and optimal phenotype in the current environment-is of keen interest in light of rapid environmental change. Many ecologically important organisms have life histories that include stage structure and both sexual and clonal reproduction, yet how stage structure and clonality interplay to govern a population's rate of evolution and evolutionary lag is unknown. Effects of clonal reproduction on mean phenotype partition into two portions: one that is phenotype dependent, and another that is genotype dependent. This partitioning is governed by the association between the nonadditive genetic plus random environmental component of phenotype of clonal offspring and their parents. While clonality slows phenotypic evolution toward an optimum, it can dramatically increase population survival after a sudden step change in optimal phenotype. Increased adult survival slows phenotypic evolution but facilitates population survival after a step change; this positive effect can, however, be lost given survival-fecundity trade-offs. Simulations indicate that the benefits of increased clonality under environmental change greatly depend on the nature of that change: increasing population persistence under a step change while decreasing population persistence under a continuous linear change requiring de novo variation. The impact of clonality on the probability of persistence for species in a changing world is thus inexorably linked to the temporal texture of the change they experience.
Relationships among abilities in elderly adults: a time lag analysis.
Hayslip, B; Brookshire, R G
1985-11-01
Previous research has suggested that relationships among primary abilities said to measure crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligences remain the same across cohorts if age is held constant, despite generational changes in the levels of abilities. The present study assessed differences in relationship among several components of Gf/Gc in two independent samples of elderly adults, tested in 1975 and 1979 by the same investigator. The 1975 sample consisted of 54 elderly adults aged 59 to 76 years (M = 67.7); the 1979 sample of 50 elderly adults was aged 55 to 82 (M = 69.4). Time-lagged differences in relationships among abilities measuring Gf and Gc (induction, figural relations, and verbal comprehension) were investigated using confirmatory factor analytic procedures. Although a two factor (Gf, Gc) model was common to both the 1975 and 1979 samples, significant differences in unique variances were observed across samples. Some, albeit weaker, evidence was found suggesting time-lagged differences in factor covariances. These data, for the most part, support previous research with younger individuals, suggesting consistency in factor structure across time and cohort.
Chaos synchronization of coupled hyperchaotic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Lixin; Chu Yandong; Zhang Jiangang; Li Xianfeng
2009-01-01
Chaos synchronization, as an important topic, has become an active research subject in nonlinear science. Over the past two decades, chaos synchronization between nonlinear systems has been extensively studied, and many types of synchronization have been announced. This paper introduces synchronization of coupled hyperchaotic system, based on the Lapunov stability theory, asymptotic stability of the system is guaranteed by means of Lapunov function. The numerical simulation was provided in order to show the effectiveness of this method for the synchronization of the chaotic hyperchaotic Chen system and Rossler system.
Adaptive feedback synchronization of Lue system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, X.; Lu, J.-A.; Wu, X.
2004-01-01
This letter further improves and extends the works of Chen and Lue [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 14 (2002) 643] and Wang et al. [Phys. Lett. A 312 (2003) 34]. In detail, the linear feedback synchronization and adaptive feedback synchronization for Lue system are discussed. And the lower bound of the feedback gain in linear feedback synchronization is presented. The adaptive feedback synchronization with only one controller is designed, which improves the proof in the work by Wang et al. The adaptive synchronization with two controllers for completely uncertain Lue system is also discussed, which extends the work of Chen and Lue. Also, numerical simulations show the effectiveness of these methods
Targeting engineering synchronization in chaotic systems
Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Ghosh, Dibakar
2016-07-01
A method of targeting engineering synchronization states in two identical and mismatch chaotic systems is explained in detail. The method is proposed using linear feedback controller coupling for engineering synchronization such as mixed synchronization, linear and nonlinear generalized synchronization and targeting fixed point. The general form of coupling design to target any desire synchronization state under unidirectional coupling with the help of Lyapunov function stability theory is derived analytically. A scaling factor is introduced in the coupling definition to smooth control without any loss of synchrony. Numerical results are done on two mismatch Lorenz systems and two identical Sprott oscillators.
Regmi, Rajesh; Lovelock, D. Michael; Zhang, Pengpeng; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jianping; Yorke, Ellen D.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Wu, Abraham J.; Mageras, Gig S.
2015-01-01
Purpose: To investigate constancy, within a treatment session, of the time lag relationship between implanted markers in abdominal tumors and an external motion surrogate. Methods: Six gastroesophageal junction and three pancreatic cancer patients (IRB-approved protocol) received two cone-beam CTs (CBCT), one before and one after treatment. Time between scans was less than 30 min. Each patient had at least one implanted fiducial marker near the tumor. In all scans, abdominal displacement (Varian RPM) was recorded as the external motion signal. Purpose-built software tracked fiducials, representing internal signal, in CBCT projection images. Time lag between superior–inferior (SI) internal and anterior–posterior external signals was found by maximizing the correlation coefficient in each breathing cycle and averaging over all cycles. Time-lag-induced discrepancy between internal SI position and that predicted from the external signal (external prediction error) was also calculated. Results: Mean ± standard deviation time lag, over all scans and patients, was 0.10 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01–0.36 s). External signal lagged the internal in 17/18 scans. Change in time lag between pre- and post-treatment CBCT was 0.06 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01–0.22 s), corresponding to 3.1% ± 3.7% (range 0.6%–10.8%) of gate width (range 1.6–3.1 s). In only one patient, change in time lag exceeded 10% of the gate width. External prediction error over all scans of all patients varied from 0.1 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.4 mm. Conclusions: Time lag between internal motion along SI and external signals is small compared to the treatment gate width of abdominal patients examined in this study. Change in time lag within a treatment session, inferred from pre- to post-treatment measurements is also small, suggesting that a single measurement of time lag at the session start is adequate. These findings require confirmation in a larger number of patients. PMID:26127033
Regmi, Rajesh; Lovelock, D Michael; Zhang, Pengpeng; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jianping; Yorke, Ellen D; Goodman, Karyn A; Wu, Abraham J; Mageras, Gig S
2015-06-01
To investigate constancy, within a treatment session, of the time lag relationship between implanted markers in abdominal tumors and an external motion surrogate. Six gastroesophageal junction and three pancreatic cancer patients (IRB-approved protocol) received two cone-beam CTs (CBCT), one before and one after treatment. Time between scans was less than 30 min. Each patient had at least one implanted fiducial marker near the tumor. In all scans, abdominal displacement (Varian RPM) was recorded as the external motion signal. Purpose-built software tracked fiducials, representing internal signal, in CBCT projection images. Time lag between superior-inferior (SI) internal and anterior-posterior external signals was found by maximizing the correlation coefficient in each breathing cycle and averaging over all cycles. Time-lag-induced discrepancy between internal SI position and that predicted from the external signal (external prediction error) was also calculated. Mean ± standard deviation time lag, over all scans and patients, was 0.10 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01-0.36 s). External signal lagged the internal in 17/18 scans. Change in time lag between pre- and post-treatment CBCT was 0.06 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01-0.22 s), corresponding to 3.1% ± 3.7% (range 0.6%-10.8%) of gate width (range 1.6-3.1 s). In only one patient, change in time lag exceeded 10% of the gate width. External prediction error over all scans of all patients varied from 0.1 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.4 mm. Time lag between internal motion along SI and external signals is small compared to the treatment gate width of abdominal patients examined in this study. Change in time lag within a treatment session, inferred from pre- to post-treatment measurements is also small, suggesting that a single measurement of time lag at the session start is adequate. These findings require confirmation in a larger number of patients.
Spectral evolution of GRBs with negative spectral lag using Fermi GBM observations
Chakrabarti, Arundhati; Chaudhury, Kishor; Sarkar, Samir K.; Bhadra, Arunava
2018-06-01
The positive spectral lag of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) is often explained in terms of hard-to-soft spectral evolution of GRB pulses. While positive lags of GRBs is very common, there are few GRB pulses that exhibits negative spectral lags. In the present work we examine whether negative lags of GRBs also can be interpreted in terms of spectral evolution of GRB pulses or not. Using Fermi-GBM data, we identify two GRBs, GRB 090426C and GRB 150213A, with clean pulses that exhibit negative spectral lag. An indication of soft to hard transition has been noticed for the negative spectral lag events from the spectral evolution study. The implication of the present findings on the models of GRB spectral lags are discussed.
Effects of phase lag on the information rate of a bistable Duffing oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perkins, Edmon, E-mail: edmon@umd.edu; Balachandran, Balakumar, E-mail: balab@umd.edu
2015-02-06
To utilize noise for systems, which are transmitting or receiving information, the information rate is a necessary metric to consider. The phase lag, which is the difference between the sender (applied forcing) and receiver (the oscillator) phases, has a significant effect on the information rate. However, this phase lag is a nonlinear function of the noise level. Here, the effects of phase lag on the information rate for a Duffing oscillator are examined and comparative discussions are made with phase lag from linear response theory. The phase lag is shown to be an important variable in calculating the information rate. - Highlights: • Simulations and Fokker–Planck analysis for Duffing oscillator response are performed. • The phase lag is found to be a nonlinear function of the noise level. • The phase lag is shown to be important for calculating the information rate metric.
Effects of phase lag on the information rate of a bistable Duffing oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, Edmon; Balachandran, Balakumar
2015-01-01
To utilize noise for systems, which are transmitting or receiving information, the information rate is a necessary metric to consider. The phase lag, which is the difference between the sender (applied forcing) and receiver (the oscillator) phases, has a significant effect on the information rate. However, this phase lag is a nonlinear function of the noise level. Here, the effects of phase lag on the information rate for a Duffing oscillator are examined and comparative discussions are made with phase lag from linear response theory. The phase lag is shown to be an important variable in calculating the information rate. - Highlights: • Simulations and Fokker–Planck analysis for Duffing oscillator response are performed. • The phase lag is found to be a nonlinear function of the noise level. • The phase lag is shown to be important for calculating the information rate metric
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez, A. [Electrical Engineering Doctoral Program, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Faculty, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)], E-mail: angelrdz@gmail.com; De Leon, J. [Electrical Engineering Doctoral Program, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Faculty, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)], E-mail: drjleon@gmail.com; Fridman, L. [Department of Control, Division of Electrical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)], E-mail: lfridman@servidor.unam.mx
2009-12-15
The reduced-order synchronization problem of two chaotic systems (master-slave) with different dimension and relative degree is considered. A control scheme based on a high-order sliding-mode observer-identifier and a feedback state controller is proposed, where the trajectories of slave can be synchronized with a canonical projection of the master. Thus, the reduced-order synchronization is achieved in spite of master/slave mismatches. Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the performance of the proposed synchronization scheme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, A.; De Leon, J.; Fridman, L.
2009-01-01
The reduced-order synchronization problem of two chaotic systems (master-slave) with different dimension and relative degree is considered. A control scheme based on a high-order sliding-mode observer-identifier and a feedback state controller is proposed, where the trajectories of slave can be synchronized with a canonical projection of the master. Thus, the reduced-order synchronization is achieved in spite of master/slave mismatches. Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the performance of the proposed synchronization scheme.
Analysis of remote synchronization in complex networks
Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Cardillo, Alessio; Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Fortuna, Luigi; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesus; Frasca, Mattia
2013-12-01
A novel regime of synchronization, called remote synchronization, where the peripheral nodes form a phase synchronized cluster not including the hub, was recently observed in star motifs [Bergner et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 026208 (2012)]. We show the existence of a more general dynamical state of remote synchronization in arbitrary networks of coupled oscillators. This state is characterized by the synchronization of pairs of nodes that are not directly connected via a physical link or any sequence of synchronized nodes. This phenomenon is almost negligible in networks of phase oscillators as its underlying mechanism is the modulation of the amplitude of those intermediary nodes between the remotely synchronized units. Our findings thus show the ubiquity and robustness of these states and bridge the gap from their recent observation in simple toy graphs to complex networks.
Producing Newborn Synchronous Mammalian Cells
Gonda, Steve R.; Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen
2008-01-01
A method and bioreactor for the continuous production of synchronous (same age) population of mammalian cells have been invented. The invention involves the attachment and growth of cells on an adhesive-coated porous membrane immersed in a perfused liquid culture medium in a microgravity analog bioreactor. When cells attach to the surface divide, newborn cells are released into the flowing culture medium. The released cells, consisting of a uniform population of synchronous cells are then collected from the effluent culture medium. This invention could be of interest to researchers investigating the effects of the geneotoxic effects of the space environment (microgravity, radiation, chemicals, gases) and to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies involved in research on aging and cancer, and in new drug development and testing.
FPGA based, modular, configurable controller with fast synchronous optical network
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graczyk, R.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems
2006-07-01
The paper describes a configurable controller equipped with programmable VLSI FPGA circuit, universal expansion modules PMC, synchronous, optical, multi-gigabit links, commonly used industrial and computer communication interfaces, Ethernet 100TB, system of automatic initialization ACE etc. There are characterized the basic functional characteristics of the device. The possibilities of its usage in various work modes were presented. Realization of particular blocks of the device were discussed. Resulting, during the realization of this project, new hardware layer solutions were also characterized. (orig.)
FPGA based, modular, configurable controller with fast synchronous optical network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graczyk, R.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S.
2006-01-01
The paper describes a configurable controller equipped with programmable VLSI FPGA circuit, universal expansion modules PMC, synchronous, optical, multi-gigabit links, commonly used industrial and computer communication interfaces, Ethernet 100TB, system of automatic initialization ACE etc. There are characterized the basic functional characteristics of the device. The possibilities of its usage in various work modes were presented. Realization of particular blocks of the device were discussed. Resulting, during the realization of this project, new hardware layer solutions were also characterized. (orig.)
Robust synchronization of a class of chaotic networks
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čelikovský, Sergej; Lynnyk, Volodymyr; Chen, G.
2013-01-01
Roč. 350, č. 10 (2013), s. 2936-2948 ISSN 0016-0032 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/12/1794 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : generalized Lorenz system * robust synchronization * dynamical complex network Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.260, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/TR/celikovsky-0398127.pdf
Treatment of shift work disorder and jet lag.
Zee, Phyllis C; Goldstein, Cathy A
2010-09-01
With the growth of the 24-hour global marketplace, a substantial proportion of workers are engaged in nontraditional work schedules and frequent jet travel across multiple time zones. Thus, shift work disorder and jet lag are prevalent in our 24/7 society and have been associated with significant health and safety repercussions. In both disorders, treatment strategies are based on promoting good sleep hygiene, improving circadian alignment, and targeting specific symptoms.Treatment of shift work must be tailored to the type of shift. For a night worker, circadian alignment can be achieved with bright light exposure during the shift and avoidance of bright light (with dark or amber sunglasses) toward the latter portion of the work period and during the morning commute home. If insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness are prominent complaints despite behavioral approaches and adequate opportunity for sleep, melatonin may be administered prior to the day sleep period to improve sleep, and alertness during work can be augmented by caffeine and wake-promoting agents.For jet lag, circadian adaptation is suggested only for travel greater than 48 h, with travel east more challenging than travel west. Although advancing sleep and wake times and circadian timing for eastward travel with evening melatonin and morning bright light several days prior to departure can help avoid jet lag at the new destination, this approach may be impractical for many people, Therefore, strategies for treatment at the destination, such as avoidance of early morning light and exposure to late-morning and afternoon light alone or in conjunction with bedtime melatonin, can accelerate re-entrainment following eastward travel. For westward travel, a circadian delay can be achieved after arrival with afternoon and early-evening light with bedtime melatonin.Good sleep hygiene practices, together with the application of circadian principles, can improve sleep quality, alertness, performance, and safety in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Hua-Guang; Chen Sheng-Gen; Li Yu-Ye
2015-01-01
We investigated the synchronization dynamics of a coupled neuronal system composed of two identical Chay model neurons. The Chay model showed coexisting period-1 and period-2 bursting patterns as a parameter and initial values are varied. We simulated multiple periodic and chaotic bursting patterns with non-(NS), burst phase (BS), spike phase (SS), complete (CS), and lag synchronization states. When the coexisting behavior is near period-2 bursting, the transitions of synchronization states of the coupled system follows very complex transitions that begins with transitions between BS and SS, moves to transitions between CS and SS, and to CS. Most initial values lead to the CS state of period-2 bursting while only a few lead to the CS state of period-1 bursting. When the coexisting behavior is near period-1 bursting, the transitions begin with NS, move to transitions between SS and BS, to transitions between SS and CS, and then to CS. Most initial values lead to the CS state of period-1 bursting but a few lead to the CS state of period-2 bursting. The BS was identified as chaos synchronization. The patterns for NS and transitions between BS and SS are insensitive to initial values. The patterns for transitions between CS and SS and the CS state are sensitive to them. The number of spikes per burst of non-CS bursting increases with increasing coupling strength. These results not only reveal the initial value- and parameter-dependent synchronization transitions of coupled systems with coexisting behaviors, but also facilitate interpretation of various bursting patterns and synchronization transitions generated in the nervous system with weak coupling strength. (paper)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A system for projecting images on an object with a reflective surface. A plurality of image projectors are spaced around the object and synchronized such that each...
On the time lags of the LIGO signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creswell, James; Von Hausegger, Sebastian; Liu, Hao; Naselsky, Pavel; Jackson, Andrew D.
2017-01-01
To date, the LIGO collaboration has detected three gravitational wave (GW) events appearing in both its Hanford and Livingston detectors. In this article we reexamine the LIGO data with regard to correlations between the two detectors. With special focus on GW150914, we report correlations in the detector noise which, at the time of the event, happen to be maximized for the same time lag as that found for the event itself. Specifically, we analyze correlations in the calibration lines in the vicinity of 35 Hz as well as the residual noise in the data after subtraction of the best-fit theoretical templates. The residual noise for the other two events, GW151226 and GW170104, exhibits similar behavior. A clear distinction between signal and noise therefore remains to be established in order to determine the contribution of gravitational waves to the detected signals.
Negative-mass lagging cores of the big bang
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, B.D.
1976-01-01
Examples are given of spherically symmetric cosmological models containing space-sections with the following properties: at large values of the geometrically defined coordinate R, the mass is positive, while at small values of R, the mass is negative. The negative-mass region of spacetime has local properties similar to those of the negative-mass Schwarzschild solution. The big bang in these models is partially spacelike and partially timelike, so the spacetimes do not obey the strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis. The timelike, negative-mass segments of the big bang are unlimited sources of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation, and as such may be attractive as ''lagging core'' models of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena
On the time lags of the LIGO signals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creswell, James; Von Hausegger, Sebastian; Liu, Hao; Naselsky, Pavel [The Niels Bohr Institute and Discovery Center, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Jackson, Andrew D., E-mail: dgz764@alumni.ku.dk, E-mail: s.vonhausegger@nbi.dk, E-mail: jackson@nbi.dk, E-mail: liuhao@nbi.dk, E-mail: naselsky@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)
2017-08-01
To date, the LIGO collaboration has detected three gravitational wave (GW) events appearing in both its Hanford and Livingston detectors. In this article we reexamine the LIGO data with regard to correlations between the two detectors. With special focus on GW150914, we report correlations in the detector noise which, at the time of the event, happen to be maximized for the same time lag as that found for the event itself. Specifically, we analyze correlations in the calibration lines in the vicinity of 35 Hz as well as the residual noise in the data after subtraction of the best-fit theoretical templates. The residual noise for the other two events, GW151226 and GW170104, exhibits similar behavior. A clear distinction between signal and noise therefore remains to be established in order to determine the contribution of gravitational waves to the detected signals.
On the correspondence between CAL and lagged cohort life expectancy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michel Guillot
2011-04-01
Full Text Available It has been established that under certain mortality assumptions, the current value of the Cross-sectional Average length of Life (CAL is equal to the life expectancy for the cohort currently reaching its life expectancy. This correspondence is important, because the life expectancy for the cohort currently reaching its life expectancy, or lagged cohort life expectancy (LCLE, has been discussed in the tempo literature as a summary mortality measure of substantive interest. In this paper, we build on previous work by evaluating the extent to which the correspondence holds in actual populations. We also discuss the implications of the CAL-LCLE correspondence (or lack thereof for using CAL as a measure of cohort life expectancy, and for understanding the connection between CAL, LCLE, and underlying period mortality conditions.
Negative-mass lagging cores of the big bang
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, B.D.
1976-09-01
Examples are given of spherically symmetric cosmological models containing space-sections with the following properties: at large values of the geometrically defined coordinate R, the mass is positive, while at small values of R, the mass is negative. The negative-mass region of spacetime has local properties similar to those of the negative-mass Schwarzschild solution. The big bang in these models is partially spacelike and partially timelike, so the spacetimes do not obey the strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis. The timelike, negative-mass segments of the big bang are unlimited sources of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation, and as such may be attractive as ''lagging core'' models of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena. (AIP)
On the phase lag of turbulent dissipation in rotating tidal flows
Zhang, Qianjiang; Wu, Jiaxue
2018-03-01
Field observations of rotating tidal flows in a shallow tidally swept sea reveal that a notable phase lag of both shear production and turbulent dissipation increases with height above the seafloor. These vertical delays of turbulent quantities are approximately equivalent in magnitude to that of squared mean shear. The shear production approximately equals turbulent dissipation over the phase-lag column, and thus a main mechanism of phase lag of dissipation is mean shear, rather than vertical diffusion of turbulent kinetic energy. By relating the phase lag of dissipation to that of the mean shear, a simple formulation with constant eddy viscosity is developed to describe the phase lag in rotating tidal flows. An analytical solution indicates that the phase lag increases linearly with height subjected to a combined effect of tidal frequency, Coriolis parameter and eddy viscosity. The vertical diffusion of momentum associated with eddy viscosity produces the phase lag of squared mean shear, and resultant delay of turbulent quantities. Its magnitude is inhibited by Earth's rotation. Furthermore, a theoretical formulation of the phase lag with a parabolic eddy viscosity profile can be constructed. A first-order approximation of this formulation is still a linear function of height, and its magnitude is approximately 0.8 times that with constant viscosity. Finally, the theoretical solutions of phase lag with realistic viscosity can be satisfactorily justified by realistic phase lags of dissipation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Sen-Lin
2014-01-01
The parallel synchronization of three chaotic lasers is used to emulate optoelectronic logic NOR and XNOR gates via modulating the light and the current. We deduce a logical computational equation that governs the chaotic synchronization, logical input, and logical output. We construct fundamental gates based on the three chaotic lasers and define the computational principle depending on the parallel synchronization. The logic gate can be implemented by appropriately synchronizing two chaotic lasers. The system shows practicability and flexibility because it can emulate synchronously an XNOR gate, two NOR gates, and so on. The synchronization can still be deteceted when mismatches exist with a certain range. (general)
Partial Synchronization Manifolds for Linearly Time-Delay Coupled Systems
Steur, Erik; van Leeuwen, Cees; Michiels, Wim
2014-01-01
Sometimes a network of dynamical systems shows a form of incomplete synchronization characterized by synchronization of some but not all of its systems. This type of incomplete synchronization is called partial synchronization. Partial synchronization is associated with the existence of partial synchronization manifolds, which are linear invariant subspaces of C, the state space of the network of systems. We focus on partial synchronization manifolds in networks of system...
Nonlinearity induced synchronization enhancement in mechanical oscillators
Czaplewski, David A.; Lopez, Omar; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Antonio, Dario; Arroyo, Sebastian I.; Zanette, Damian H.
2018-05-08
An autonomous oscillator synchronizes to an external harmonic force only when the forcing frequency lies within a certain interval, known as the synchronization range, around the oscillator's natural frequency. Under ordinary conditions, the width of the synchronization range decreases when the oscillation amplitude grows, which constrains synchronized motion of micro- and nano-mechanical resonators to narrow frequency and amplitude bounds. The present invention shows that nonlinearity in the oscillator can be exploited to manifest a regime where the synchronization range increases with an increasing oscillation amplitude. The present invention shows that nonlinearities in specific configurations of oscillator systems, as described herein, are the key determinants of the effect. The present invention presents a new configuration and operation regime that enhances the synchronization of micro- and nano-mechanical oscillators by capitalizing on their intrinsic nonlinear dynamics.
A chimeric path to neuronal synchronization
Essaki Arumugam, Easwara Moorthy; Spano, Mark L.
2015-01-01
Synchronization of neuronal activity is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. This process of neuronal synchronization is not fully understood. To further our understanding, we have experimentally studied the progression of this synchronization from normal neuronal firing to full synchronization. We implemented nine FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons (a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model) via discrete electronics. For different coupling parameters (synaptic strengths), the neurons in the ring were either unsynchronized or completely synchronized when locally coupled in a ring. When a single long-range connection (nonlocal coupling) was introduced, an intermediate state known as a chimera appeared. The results indicate that (1) epilepsy is likely not only a dynamical disease but also a topological disease, strongly tied to the connectivity of the underlying network of neurons, and (2) the synchronization process in epilepsy may not be an "all or none" phenomenon, but can pass through an intermediate stage (chimera).
Continuous and discontinuous transitions to synchronization.
Wang, Chaoqing; Garnier, Nicolas B
2016-11-01
We describe how the transition to synchronization in a system of globally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators changes from continuous to discontinuous when the nature of the coupling is moved from diffusive to reactive. We explain this drastic qualitative change as resulting from the co-existence of a particular synchronized macrostate together with the trivial incoherent macrostate, in a range of parameter values for which the latter is linearly stable. In contrast to the paradigmatic Kuramoto model, this particular state observed at the synchronization transition contains a finite, non-vanishing number of synchronized oscillators, which results in a discontinuous transition. We consider successively two situations where either a fully synchronized state or a partially synchronized state exists at the transition. Thermodynamic limit and finite size effects are briefly discussed, as well as connections with recently observed discontinuous transitions.
Synchronization in complex networks with switching topology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Lei; Wang, Qing-guo
2011-01-01
This Letter investigates synchronization issues of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. By constructing a common Lyapunov function, we show that local and global synchronization for a linearly coupled network with switching topology can be evaluated by the time average of second smallest eigenvalues corresponding to the Laplacians of switching topology. This result is quite powerful and can be further used to explore various switching cases for complex dynamical networks. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results in the end. -- Highlights: → Synchronization of complex networks with switching topology is investigated. → A common Lyapunov function is established for synchronization of switching network. → The common Lyapunov function is not necessary to monotonically decrease with time. → Synchronization is determined by the second smallest eigenvalue of its Laplacian. → Synchronization criterion can be used to investigate various switching cases.
A chimeric path to neuronal synchronization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Essaki Arumugam, Easwara Moorthy; Spano, Mark L. [School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-9709 (United States)
2015-01-15
Synchronization of neuronal activity is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. This process of neuronal synchronization is not fully understood. To further our understanding, we have experimentally studied the progression of this synchronization from normal neuronal firing to full synchronization. We implemented nine FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons (a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model) via discrete electronics. For different coupling parameters (synaptic strengths), the neurons in the ring were either unsynchronized or completely synchronized when locally coupled in a ring. When a single long-range connection (nonlocal coupling) was introduced, an intermediate state known as a chimera appeared. The results indicate that (1) epilepsy is likely not only a dynamical disease but also a topological disease, strongly tied to the connectivity of the underlying network of neurons, and (2) the synchronization process in epilepsy may not be an “all or none” phenomenon, but can pass through an intermediate stage (chimera)
Synchronizing noisy nonidentical oscillators by transient uncoupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tandon, Aditya, E-mail: adityat@iitk.ac.in; Mannattil, Manu, E-mail: mmanu@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Schröder, Malte, E-mail: malte@nld.ds.mpg.de [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc, E-mail: timme@nld.ds.mpg.de [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Physics, Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Chakraborty, Sagar, E-mail: sagarc@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)
2016-09-15
Synchronization is the process of achieving identical dynamics among coupled identical units. If the units are different from each other, their dynamics cannot become identical; yet, after transients, there may emerge a functional relationship between them—a phenomenon termed “generalized synchronization.” Here, we show that the concept of transient uncoupling, recently introduced for synchronizing identical units, also supports generalized synchronization among nonidentical chaotic units. Generalized synchronization can be achieved by transient uncoupling even when it is impossible by regular coupling. We furthermore demonstrate that transient uncoupling stabilizes synchronization in the presence of common noise. Transient uncoupling works best if the units stay uncoupled whenever the driven orbit visits regions that are locally diverging in its phase space. Thus, to select a favorable uncoupling region, we propose an intuitive method that measures the local divergence at the phase points of the driven unit's trajectory by linearizing the flow and subsequently suppresses the divergence by uncoupling.
A chimeric path to neuronal synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Essaki Arumugam, Easwara Moorthy; Spano, Mark L.
2015-01-01
Synchronization of neuronal activity is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. This process of neuronal synchronization is not fully understood. To further our understanding, we have experimentally studied the progression of this synchronization from normal neuronal firing to full synchronization. We implemented nine FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons (a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model) via discrete electronics. For different coupling parameters (synaptic strengths), the neurons in the ring were either unsynchronized or completely synchronized when locally coupled in a ring. When a single long-range connection (nonlocal coupling) was introduced, an intermediate state known as a chimera appeared. The results indicate that (1) epilepsy is likely not only a dynamical disease but also a topological disease, strongly tied to the connectivity of the underlying network of neurons, and (2) the synchronization process in epilepsy may not be an “all or none” phenomenon, but can pass through an intermediate stage (chimera)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
abnormally low heart rate known as bradycardia. This results in symptoms like fatigue, dizziness and fainting. In such cases ... cycle. Owing to this interaction, the flashing frequencies get entrained and the phases of the fireflies are locked.
Explosive synchronization coexists with classical synchronization in the Kuramoto model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danziger, Michael M., E-mail: michael.danziger@biu.ac.il; Havlin, Shlomo [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Moskalenko, Olga I.; Kurkin, Semen A. [Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya, 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Politehnicheskaya, 77, Saratov 410054 (Russian Federation); Zhang, Xiyun [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Boccaletti, Stefano [CNR-Institute of Complex Systems, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); The Italian Embassy in Israel, 25 Hamered Street, 68125 Tel Aviv (Israel)
2016-06-15
Explosive synchronization has recently been reported in a system of adaptively coupled Kuramoto oscillators, without any conditions on the frequency or degree of the nodes. Here, we find that, in fact, the explosive phase coexists with the standard phase of the Kuramoto oscillators. We determine this by extending the mean-field theory of adaptively coupled oscillators with full coupling to the case with partial coupling of a fraction f. This analysis shows that a metastable region exists for all finite values of f > 0, and therefore explosive synchronization is expected for any perturbation of adaptively coupling added to the standard Kuramoto model. We verify this theory with GPU-accelerated simulations on very large networks (N ∼ 10{sup 6}) and find that, in fact, an explosive transition with hysteresis is observed for all finite couplings. By demonstrating that explosive transitions coexist with standard transitions in the limit of f → 0, we show that this behavior is far more likely to occur naturally than was previously believed.
Lags in the response of mountain plant communities to climate change
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexander, Jake M; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Lenoir, Jonathan
2018-01-01
Rapid climatic changes and increasing human influence at high elevations around the world will have profound impacts on mountain biodiversity. However, forecasts from statistical models (e.g. species distribution models) rarely consider that plant community changes could substantially lag behind...... plant species' spread along elevational gradients, "establishment lags" following their arrival in recipient communities, and "extinction lags" of resident species. Variation in lags is explained by variation among species in physiological and demographic responses, by effects of altered biotic...... turnover in future communities might lag behind simple expectations based on species' range shifts with unlimited dispersal. The model shows a combined contribution of altered biotic interactions and dispersal lags to plant community turnover along an elevational gradient following climate warming. Our...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Tornevi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The river Göta Älv is a source of freshwater for 0.7 million swedes. The river is subject to contamination from sewer systems discharge and runoff from agricultural lands. Climate models projects an increase in precipitation and heavy rainfall in this region. This study aimed to determine how daily rainfall causes variation in indicators of pathogen loads, to increase knowledge of variations in river water quality and discuss implications for risk management. METHODS: Data covering 7 years of daily monitoring of river water turbidity and concentrations of E. coli, Clostridium and coliforms were obtained, and their short-term variations in relation with precipitation were analyzed with time series regression and non-linear distributed lag models. We studied how precipitation effects varied with season and compared different weather stations for predictive ability. RESULTS: Generally, the lowest raw water quality occurs 2 days after rainfall, with poor raw water quality continuing for several more days. A rainfall event of >15 mm/24-h (local 95 percentile was associated with a three-fold higher concentration of E. coli and 30% higher turbidity levels (lag 2. Rainfall was associated with exponential increases in concentrations of indicator bacteria while the effect on turbidity attenuated with very heavy rainfall. Clear associations were also observed between consecutive days of wet weather and decreased water quality. The precipitation effect on increased levels of indicator bacteria was significant in all seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Rainfall elevates microbial risks year-round in this river and freshwater source and acts as the main driver of varying water quality. Heavy rainfall appears to be a better predictor of fecal pollution than water turbidity. An increase of wet weather and extreme events with climate change will lower river water quality even more, indicating greater challenges for drinking water producers, and suggesting better
Development of a synchronous subset of AADL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filali, Mamoun; Lawall, Julia
2010-01-01
We study the definition and the mapping of an AADL subset: the so called synchronous subset. We show that the data port protocol used for delayed and immediate connections between periodic threads can be interpreted in a synchronous way. In this paper, we formalize this interpretation and study ...... the development of its mapping such that the original synchronous semantics is preserved. For that purpose, we use refinements through the Event B method....
Adaptive Synchronization of Robotic Sensor Networks
Yıldırım, Kasım Sinan; Gürcan, Önder
2014-01-01
The main focus of recent time synchronization research is developing power-efficient synchronization methods that meet pre-defined accuracy requirements. However, an aspect that has been often overlooked is the high dynamics of the network topology due to the mobility of the nodes. Employing existing flooding-based and peer-to-peer synchronization methods, are networked robots still be able to adapt themselves and self-adjust their logical clocks under mobile network dynamics? In this paper, ...
Method for Converter Synchronization with RF Injection
Joshua P. Bruckmeyer; Ivica Kostanic
2015-01-01
This paper presents an injection method for synchronizing analog to digital converters (ADC). This approach can eliminate the need for precision routed discrete synchronization signals of current technologies, such as JESD204. By eliminating the setup and hold time requirements at the conversion (or near conversion) clock rate, higher sample rate systems can be synchronized. Measured data from an existing multiple ADC conversion system was used to evaluate the method. Coherent beams were simu...
The synchronization of three fractional differential systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Changpin; Yan Jianping
2007-01-01
In this paper, a new method is proposed and applied to the synchronization of fractional differential systems (or 'differential systems with fractional orders'), where both drive and response systems have the same dimensionality and are coupled by the driving signal. The present technique is based on the stability criterion of linear fractional systems. This method is implemented in (chaos) synchronization of the fractional Lorenz system, Chen system and Chua circuit. Numerical simulations show the present synchronization method works well
Fitness for synchronization of network motifs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vega, Y.M.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Pacheco, A.F.
2004-01-01
We study the synchronization of Kuramoto's oscillators in small parts of networks known as motifs. We first report on the system dynamics for the case of a scale-free network and show the existence of a non-trivial critical point. We compute the probability that network motifs synchronize, and fi...... that the fitness for synchronization correlates well with motifs interconnectedness and structural complexity. Possible implications for present debates about network evolution in biological and other systems are discussed....
Synchronizing a class of uncertain chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun
2005-01-01
This Letter deals with the synchronization of a class of uncertain chaotic systems in the drive-response framework. A robust adaptive observer based response system is designed to synchronize a given chaotic system with unknown parameters and external disturbances. Lyapunov stability ensures the global synchronization between the drive and response systems even if Lipschitz constants on function matrices and bounds on uncertainties are unknown. Numerical simulation of Genesio-Tesi system verifies the effectiveness of this scheme
Impulsive synchronization of Chen's hyperchaotic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haeri, Mohammad; Dehghani, Mahsa
2006-01-01
In this Letter the impulsive synchronization of the Chen's hyperchaotic systems is discussed. Some new and sufficient conditions on varying impulsive distance are established in order to guarantee the synchronizabillity of the systems using the synchronization method. In particular, some simple conditions are derived in synchronizing the systems by equal impulsive distances. Two illustrative examples are provided to show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed method. The boundaries of the stable regions are also estimated
A True Open-Loop Synchronization Technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Golestan, Saeed; Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.
2016-01-01
Synchronization techniques can be broadly classified into two major categories: Closed-loop and open-loop methods. The open-loop synchronization (OLS) techniques, contrary to the closed-loop ones, are unconditionally stable and benefit from a fast dynamic response. Their performance, however, tends...... is to develop a true OLS (and therefore, unconditionally stable) technique without any need for the calculation of sine and cosine functions. The effectiveness of the proposed synchronization technique is confirmed through the simulation and experimental results....
A single phase synchronous micromotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamada, T.
1982-01-25
The excitation winding of a synchronous micromotor, wound on a bobin made of an electricity insulating material (EIM), is located in a cylindrical mount, whose exterior walls are thicker than the interior ones. From above the mount is covered by a pole top with comb poles. The rotor poles are made of a permanent magnet, seated on a bushing which rotates on a shaft. The stable rotation of the rotor is supported by a stop bearing and a guide bearing, where the latter consists of a magnetic part and a nonmagnetic part.
Synchronous Oscillations in Microtubule Polymerization
Carlier, M. F.; Melki, R.; Pantaloni, D.; Hill, T. L.; Chen, Y.
1987-08-01
Under conditions where microtubule nucleation and growth are fast (i.e., high magnesium ion and tubulin concentrations and absence of glycerol), microtubule assembly in vitro exhibits an oscillatory regime preceding the establishment of steady state. The amplitude of the oscillations can represent >50% of the maximum turbidity change and oscillations persist for up to 20 periods of 80 s each. Oscillations are accompanied by extensive length redistribution of microtubules. Preliminary work suggests that the oscillatory kinetics can be simulated using a model in which many microtubules undergo synchronous transitions between growing and rapidly depolymerizing phases, complicated by the kinetically limiting rate of nucleotide exchange on free tubulin.
Seamless Image Mosaicking via Synchronization
Santellani, E.; Maset, E.; Fusiello, A.
2018-05-01
This paper proposes an innovative method to create high-quality seamless planar mosaics. The developed pipeline ensures good robustness against many common mosaicking problems (e.g., misalignments, colour distortion, moving objects, parallax) and differs from other works in the literature because a global approach, known as synchronization, is used for image registration and colour correction. To better conceal the mosaic seamlines, images are cut along specific paths, computed using a Voronoi decomposition of the mosaic area and a shortest path algorithm. Results obtained on challenging real datasets show that the colour correction mitigates significantly the colour variations between the original images and the seams on the final mosaic are not evident.
Efficient Synchronization Primitives for GPUs
Stuart, Jeff A.; Owens, John D.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we revisit the design of synchronization primitives---specifically barriers, mutexes, and semaphores---and how they apply to the GPU. Previous implementations are insufficient due to the discrepancies in hardware and programming model of the GPU and CPU. We create new implementations in CUDA and analyze the performance of spinning on the GPU, as well as a method of sleeping on the GPU, by running a set of memory-system benchmarks on two of the most common GPUs in use, the Tesla...
Synchronization of coupled metronomes on two layers
Zhang, Jing; Yu, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Xin-Gang
2017-12-01
Coupled metronomes serve as a paradigmatic model for exploring the collective behaviors of complex dynamical systems, as well as a classical setup for classroom demonstrations of synchronization phenomena. Whereas previous studies of metronome synchronization have been concentrating on symmetric coupling schemes, here we consider the asymmetric case by adopting the scheme of layered metronomes. Specifically, we place two metronomes on each layer, and couple two layers by placing one on top of the other. By varying the initial conditions of the metronomes and adjusting the friction between the two layers, a variety of synchronous patterns are observed in experiment, including the splay synchronization (SS) state, the generalized splay synchronization (GSS) state, the anti-phase synchronization (APS) state, the in-phase delay synchronization (IPDS) state, and the in-phase synchronization (IPS) state. In particular, the IPDS state, in which the metronomes on each layer are synchronized in phase but are of a constant phase delay to metronomes on the other layer, is observed for the first time. In addition, a new technique based on audio signals is proposed for pattern detection, which is more convenient and easier to apply than the existing acquisition techniques. Furthermore, a theoretical model is developed to explain the experimental observations, and is employed to explore the dynamical properties of the patterns, including the basin distributions and the pattern transitions. Our study sheds new lights on the collective behaviors of coupled metronomes, and the developed setup can be used in the classroom for demonstration purposes.
Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints
Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John
2009-01-01
A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.
Synchronization Analysis of the Supermarket Refrigeration System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wisniewski, Rafal; Chen, Liang; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth
2009-01-01
is analyzed using the bifurcation and chaos theory. It is demonstrated that the system can have a complex chaotic behavior, which is far from the synchronization. This shows that making the system chaotic is a good choice for a de-synchronization strategy. The positive maximum Lyapunov exponent is usually...... taken as an indication of the existence of chaos. It is used in the paper as a measure of performance for the tendency of the system to synchronize, that is, the higher value of the maximum Lyapunov exponent the lower risk for synchronization....
Acoustophoretic Synchronization of Mammalian Cells in Microchannels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thévoz, P.; Adams, J.D.; Shea, H.
2010-01-01
We report the first use of ultrasonic standing waves to achieve cell cycle phase synchronization in mammalian cells in a high-throughput and reagent-free manner. The acoustophoretic cell synchronization (ACS) device utilizes volume-dependent acoustic radiation force within a microchannel to selec......We report the first use of ultrasonic standing waves to achieve cell cycle phase synchronization in mammalian cells in a high-throughput and reagent-free manner. The acoustophoretic cell synchronization (ACS) device utilizes volume-dependent acoustic radiation force within a microchannel...
Price synchronization in retailing: some empirical evidence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcelo Resende
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper investigates the synchronization of price changes in the context of retail tire dealers in São Paulo-Brazil and selected items in supermarkets for cleaning supplies and food in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. Results indicate similar and non-negligible synchronization for different brands, although magnitudes are distant from a perfect synchronization pattern. We find interesting patterns in inter-firm competition, with similar magnitudes across different tire types. Intra-chain synchronization is substantial, indicating that a common price adjustment policy tends to be sustained for each chain across different products.
Determination of Watershed Lag Equation for Philippine Hydrology
Cipriano, F. R.; Lagmay, A. M. F. A.; Uichanco, C.; Mendoza, J.; Sabio, G.; Punay, K. N.; Oquindo, M. R.; Horritt, M.
2014-12-01
Widespread flooding is a major problem in the Philippines. The country experiences heavy amount of rainfall throughout the year and several areas are prone to flood hazards because of its unique topography. Human casualties and destruction of infrastructure are some of the damages caused by flooding and the country's government has undertaken various efforts to mitigate these hazards. One of the solutions was to create flood hazard maps of different floodplains and use them to predict the possible catastrophic results of different rain scenarios. To produce these maps, different types of data were needed and part of that is calculating hydrological components to come up with an accurate output. This paper presents how an important parameter, the time-to-peak of the watershed (Tp) was calculated. Time-to-peak is defined as the time at which the largest discharge of the watershed occurs. This is computed by using a lag time equation that was developed specifically for the Philippine setting. The equation involves three measurable parameters, namely, watershed length (L), maximum potential retention (S), and watershed slope (Y). This approach is based on a similar method developed by CH2M Hill and Horritt for Taiwan, which has a similar set of meteorological and hydrological parameters with the Philippines. Data from fourteen water level sensors covering 67 storms from all the regions in the country were used to estimate the time-to-peak. These sensors were chosen by using a screening process that considers the distance of the sensors from the sea, the availability of recorded data, and the catchment size. Values of Tp from the different sensors were generated from the general lag time equation based on the Natural Resource Conservation Management handbook by the US Department of Agriculture. The calculated Tp values were plotted against the values obtained from the equation L0.8(S+1)0.7/Y0.5. Regression analysis was used to obtain the final equation that would be
Synchronous compensators for mini-grids and islanding: final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thornycroft, J.; Caisley, A.; Russell, T.; Willis, S.; Youssef, R.; Bawden, R.; Holden, G.; Williams, J.
2004-07-01
This report presents the findings of a project to develop equipment suitable for the operation of islanded induction generator wind turbines in remote areas with voltage control supplied by synchronous compensators and frequency control supplied by distributed intelligent load controllers. The development of a design methodology for stand-alone wind turbines systems is described, and details are given of its application to the construction of a 25kw Gazelle wind turbine in Sunderland and a 300kW Windmaster wind turbine in Northumberland. Both systems were islanded from the electric grid and fitted with synchronous compensators and distributed intelligent load controllers. The work carried out is listed, and design considerations, system simulation, and the data logging systems are discussed.
Gombos, Ferenc; Bódizs, Róbert; Kovács, Ilona
2017-07-21
Williams syndrome (7q11.23 microdeletion) is characterized by specific alterations in neurocognitive architecture and functioning, as well as disordered sleep. Here we analyze the region, sleep state and frequency-specific EEG synchronization of whole night sleep recordings of 21 Williams syndrome and 21 typically developing age- and gender-matched subjects by calculating weighted phase lag indexes. We found broadband increases in inter- and intrahemispheric neural connectivity for both NREM and REM sleep EEG of Williams syndrome subjects. These effects consisted of increased theta, high sigma, and beta/low gamma synchronization, whereas alpha synchronization was characterized by a peculiar Williams syndrome-specific decrease during NREM states (intra- and interhemispheric centro-temporal) and REM phases of sleep (occipital intra-area synchronization). We also found a decrease in short range, occipital connectivity of NREM sleep EEG theta activity. The striking increased overall synchronization of sleep EEG in Williams syndrome subjects is consistent with the recently reported increase in synaptic and dendritic density in stem-cell based Williams syndrome models, whereas decreased alpha and occipital connectivity might reflect and underpin the altered microarchitecture of primary visual cortex and disordered visuospatial functioning of Williams syndrome subjects.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): a time lag factor.
Reid, G M
1991-02-01
A time lag factor of about five days has been identified in an increased incidence of SIDS in relation to a cold day. Sudden exposure to chilling appeared to trigger skeletal muscle weakness and renal failure about five days later in a man found to have only 25% of normal carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) activity in biopsied skeletal muscle. White Muscle Disease is a muscular dystrophy in young ruminants which appears about five days after turnout to pasture in the weaned ruminant raised on a diet deficient in vitamin E and selenium (VESD). Pasture has high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid (high PUFA diet) which are modified by developing rumen bacteria. Corbucci investigated the effects of circulatory shock (cardiogenic) on skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity in humans. Cytochrome oxidase activity fell markedly and, in particular, the capacity to oxidase palmitoyl carnitine was greatly reduced. He considered a consequence of this disorder was sequestration of carnitine as acyl carnitine which could not be recycled. Unusual acyl carnitines have been identified in six out of 13 SIDS victims in a USA group. In Finland, researchers identified a rise in SIDS incidence (mostly found in the prone position) after great and rapid temperature changes. Foster found a relationship between 1984 SIDS incidence and the incidence of goitre in World War I troops.
Determinants of Rotavirus Transmission: A Lag Nonlinear Time Series Analysis.
van Gaalen, Rolina D; van de Kassteele, Jan; Hahné, Susan J M; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Wallinga, Jacco
2017-07-01
Rotavirus is a common viral infection among young children. As in many countries, the infection dynamics of rotavirus in the Netherlands are characterized by an annual winter peak, which was notably low in 2014. Previous study suggested an association between weather factors and both rotavirus transmission and incidence. From epidemic theory, we know that the proportion of susceptible individuals can affect disease transmission. We investigated how these factors are associated with rotavirus transmission in the Netherlands, and their impact on rotavirus transmission in 2014. We used available data on birth rates and rotavirus laboratory reports to estimate rotavirus transmission and the proportion of individuals susceptible to primary infection. Weather data were directly available from a central meteorological station. We developed an approach for detecting determinants of seasonal rotavirus transmission by assessing nonlinear, delayed associations between each factor and rotavirus transmission. We explored relationships by applying a distributed lag nonlinear regression model with seasonal terms. We corrected for residual serial correlation using autoregressive moving average errors. We inferred the relationship between different factors and the effective reproduction number from the most parsimonious model with low residual autocorrelation. Higher proportions of susceptible individuals and lower temperatures were associated with increases in rotavirus transmission. For 2014, our findings suggest that relatively mild temperatures combined with the low proportion of susceptible individuals contributed to lower rotavirus transmission in the Netherlands. However, our model, which overestimated the magnitude of the peak, suggested that other factors were likely instrumental in reducing the incidence that year.
Maeda, Hideki; Kurokawa, Tatsuo
2015-12-01
This study exhaustively and historically investigated the status of drug lag for oncology drugs approved in Japan. We comprehensively investigated oncology drugs approved in Japan between April 2001 and July 2014, using publicly available information. We also examined changes in the status of drug lag between Japan and the United States, as well as factors influencing drug lag. This study included 120 applications for approval of oncology drugs in Japan. The median difference over a 13-year period in the approval date between the United States and Japan was 875 days (29.2 months). This figure peaked in 2002, and showed a tendency to decline gradually each year thereafter. In 2014, the median approval lag was 281 days (9.4 months). Multiple regression analysis identified the following potential factors that reduce drug lag: "Japan's participation in global clinical trials"; "bridging strategies"; "designation of priority review in Japan"; and "molecularly targeted drugs". From 2001 to 2014, molecularly targeted drugs emerged as the predominant oncology drug, and the method of development has changed from full development in Japan or bridging strategy to global simultaneous development by Japan's taking part in global clinical trials. In line with these changes, the drug lag between the United States and Japan has significantly reduced to less than 1 year.
LAG-3 Represents a Marker of CD4+ T Cells with Regulatory Activity in Patients with Bone Fracture.
Wang, Jun; Ti, Yunfan; Wang, Yicun; Guo, Guodong; Jiang, Hui; Chang, Menghan; Qian, Hongbo; Zhao, Jianning; Sun, Guojing
2018-04-19
The lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) is a CD4 homolog with binding affinity to MHC class II molecules. It is thought that LAG-3 exerts a bimodal function, such that co-ligation of LAG-3 and CD3 could deliver an inhibitory signal in conventional T cells, whereas, on regulatory T cells, LAG-3 expression could promote their inhibitory function. In this study, we investigated the role of LAG-3 expression on CD4 + T cells in patients with long bone fracture. We found that LAG-3 + cells represented approximately 13% of peripheral blood CD4 + T cells on average. Compared to LAG-3 - CD4 + T cells, LAG-3 + CD4 + T cells presented significantly higher Foxp3 and CTLA-4 expression. Directly ex vivo or with TCR stimulation, LAG-3 + CD4 + T cells expressed significantly higher levels of IL-10 and TGF-β than LAG-3 - CD4 + T cells. Interestingly, blocking the LAG-3-MHC class II interaction actually increased the IL-10 expression by LAG-3 + CD4 + T cells. The frequency of LAG-3 + CD4 + T cell was positively correlated with restoration of healthy bone function in long bone fracture patients. These results together suggested that LAG-3 is a marker of CD4 + T cells with regulatory function; at the same time, LAG-3 might have limited the full suppressive potential of Treg cells.
Palmieri, Arianna; Kleinbub, Johann R; Calvo, Vincenzo; Benelli, Enrico; Messina, Irene; Sambin, Marco; Voci, Alberto
2018-03-01
Physiological synchronization (PS) is a phenomenon of simultaneous activity between two persons' physiological signals. It has been associated with empathy, shared affectivity, and efficacious therapeutic relationships. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible connections between PS and the attachment system, seeking preliminary evidence of this link by means of an experimental manipulation of the sense of attachment security in psychotherapists according to a protocol by Mikulincer and Shaver (2001), which has been proven to elicit empathetic behavior. We compared the synchronization of skin-conductance signals in brief psychological interviews between 18 psychodynamic therapists and 18 healthy volunteers. A sense of attachment-security priming was administered to half of the therapists, whereas the other half received a positive-affect control prime. Lag analysis was performed to investigate the "leading" or "following" attitudes of the participants in the two conditions. Mixed-model regressions and evidence-ratio model comparisons were used to investigate the effects of the manipulation on PS. Therapist attachment anxiety and avoidance traits were considered covariates. The attachment-security prime showed a significant effect on PS lag dynamics, but not on overall PS amount. Lag analysis showed that the therapists in the attachment-security condition were significantly more prone to assume a leading attitude in the physiological coupling than the therapists in the control condition. Therapist attachment anxiety and avoidance had no apparent effect. Our result paves the way for further exploration of the clinical relationship from a physiological standpoint. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
A SOFT X-RAY REVERBERATION LAG IN THE AGN ESO 113–G010
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cackett, E. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Zogbhi, A.; Reynolds, C.; Uttley, P.
2013-01-01
Reverberation lags have recently been discovered in a handful of nearby, variable active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Here, we analyze a ∼100 ks archival XMM-Newton observation of the highly variable AGN, ESO 113–G010, in order to search for lags between hard, 1.5-4.5 keV, and soft, 0.3-0.9 keV, energy X-ray bands. At the lowest frequencies available in the light curve (∼ –4 Hz), we find hard lags where the power-law-dominated hard band lags the soft band (where the reflection fraction is high). However, at higher frequencies in the range (2-3) × 10 –4 Hz we find a soft lag of –325 ± 89 s. The general evolution from hard to soft lags as the frequency increases is similar to other AGNs where soft lags have been detected. We interpret this soft lag as due to reverberation from the accretion disk, with the reflection component responding to variability from the X-ray corona. For a black hole mass of 7 × 10 6 M ☉ this corresponds to a light-crossing time of ∼9 R g /c; however, dilution effects mean that the intrinsic lag is likely longer than this. Based on recent black hole mass scaling for lag properties, the lag amplitude and frequency are more consistent with a black hole a few times more massive than the best estimates, though flux-dependent effects could easily add scatter this large.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiuli Chai
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The impulsive synchronization and adaptive-impulsive synchronization of a novel financial hyperchaotic system are investigated. Based on comparing principle for impulsive functional differential equations, several sufficient conditions for impulsive synchronization are derived, and the upper bounds of impulsive interval for stable synchronization are estimated. Furthermore, a nonlinear adaptive-impulsive control scheme is designed to synchronize the financial system using invariant principle of impulsive dynamical systems. Moreover, corresponding numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.
Synchronization of coupled chaotic dynamics on networks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We review some recent work on the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on a variety of networks. When nodes show synchronized behaviour, two interesting phenomena can be observed. First, there are some nodes of the floating type that show intermittent behaviour between getting attached to some clusters ...
Synchronization and emergence in complex systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... complex systems. Fatihcan M Atay. Synchronization, Coupled Systems and Networks Volume 77 Issue 5 November 2011 pp 855-863 ... We show how novel behaviour can emerge in complex systems at the global level through synchronization of the activities of their constituent units. Two mechanisms are suggested for ...
Dependence of synchronization frequency of Kuramoto oscillators ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kuramoto oscillators have been proposed earlier as a model for interacting systems that exhibit synchronization. In this article, we study the difference between networks with symmetric and asymmetric distribution of natural frequencies. We first indicate that synchronization frequency of oscillators in a completely connected ...
Synchronization of oscillators in complex networks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Theory of identical or complete synchronization of identical oscillators in arbitrary networks is introduced. In addition, several graph theory concepts and results that augment the synchronization theory and a tie in closely to random, semirandom, and regular networks are introduced. Combined theories are used to explore ...
Synchronized Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee
2014-01-01
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used for monitoring and data collection purposes. A key challenge in effective data collection is to schedule and synchronize the activities of the nodes with global clock. This paper proposes the Synchronized Data Aggregation Algorithm (SDA) using spanning tree...
A clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI
Huang, Y.; Visser, P.M.; Broenink, Johannes F.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI (Real Time Application Interface). The skeleton is a thin layer that provides unified but extendible interfaces to the underlying operating system, the synchronization algorithms and the upper level applications in need of clock
Analytical treatment for synchronizing chaos through unidirectional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The idea of synchronization can be explicitly demonstrated by both numerical and ana- lytical means on a nonlinear electronic circuit. Also, we introduce a scheme to obtain various logic gate structures, using synchronization of chaotic systems. By a small change in the response param- eter of unidirectionally ...
Synchronization of oscillators in complex networks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Theory of identical or complete synchronization of identical oscillators in arbitrary networks is introduced. In addition, several graph theory concepts and results that augment the synchronization theory and a tie in closely to random, semirandom, and regular networks are introduced. Combined theories are used to ...
Identical synchronization of coupled Rossler systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yanchuk, S.; Maistrenko, Y.; Mosekilde, Erik
1999-01-01
Analyzing the transverse stability of low periodic orbits embedded in the synchronized chaotic state for a system of two coupled Rössler oscillators, we obtain the conditions for synchronization and determine the coupling parameters for which riddled basins of attraction may arise. It is shown how...
Chaos synchronization of nonlinear Bloch equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Ju H.
2006-01-01
In this paper, the problem of chaos synchronization of Bloch equations is considered. A novel nonlinear controller is designed based on the Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed controller ensures that the states of the controlled chaotic slave system asymptotically synchronizes the states of the master system. A numerical example is given to illuminate the design procedure and advantage of the result derived
Synchronization in Quantum Key Distribution Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton Pljonkin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum cryptography principles. A two-line fiber-optic quantum key distribution system with phase coding of photon states in transceiver and coding station synchronization mode was examined. A quantum key distribution system was built on the basis of the scheme with automatic compensation of polarization mode distortions. Single-photon avalanche diodes were used as optical radiation detecting devices. It was estimated how the parameters used in quantum key distribution systems of optical detectors affect the detection of the time frame with attenuated optical pulse in synchronization mode with respect to its probabilistic and time-domain characteristics. A design method was given for the process that detects the time frame that includes an optical pulse during synchronization. This paper describes the main quantum communication channel attack methods by removing a portion of optical emission. This paper describes the developed synchronization algorithm that takes into account the time required to restore the photodetector’s operation state after the photon has been registered during synchronization. The computer simulation results of the developed synchronization algorithm were analyzed. The efficiency of the developed algorithm with respect to synchronization process protection from unauthorized gathering of optical emission is demonstrated herein.
Communicating via robust synchronization of chaotic lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Gutierrez, R.M.; Posadas-Castillo, C.; Lopez-Mancilla, D.; Cruz-Hernandez, C.
2009-01-01
In this paper, the robust synchronization problem for coupled chaotic Nd:YAG lasers is addressed. We resort to complex systems theory to achieve chaos synchronization. Based on stability theory, it is shown that the state trajectories of the perturbed error synchronization are ultimately bounded, provided the unperturbed synchronization error system is exponentially stable, and some conditions on the bounds of the perturbation terms are satisfied. So that, encoding, transmission, and decoding in chaotic optical communications are presented. We analyze the transmission and recovery of encrypted information when parameter mismatches are considered. Computer simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of this robustness synchronization property, we present the encrypted transmission of image messages, and we show that, the transmitted image is faithfully recovered.
Communicating via robust synchronization of chaotic lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Gutierrez, R.M. [Engineering Faculty, Baja California Autonomous University (UABC), Km. 103 Carret. Tij-Ens., 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Posadas-Castillo, C. [Engineering Faculty, Baja California Autonomous University (UABC), Km. 103 Carret. Tij-Ens., 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); FIME, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon (UANL), Pedro de Alba, S.N., Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, NL (Mexico); Lopez-Mancilla, D. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara (CULagos-UdeG), Enrique Diaz de Leon s/n, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jal. (Mexico); Cruz-Hernandez, C. [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Scientific Research and Advanced Studies of Ensenada (CICESE), Km. 107 Carret. Tij-Ens., 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)], E-mail: ccruz@cicese.mx
2009-10-15
In this paper, the robust synchronization problem for coupled chaotic Nd:YAG lasers is addressed. We resort to complex systems theory to achieve chaos synchronization. Based on stability theory, it is shown that the state trajectories of the perturbed error synchronization are ultimately bounded, provided the unperturbed synchronization error system is exponentially stable, and some conditions on the bounds of the perturbation terms are satisfied. So that, encoding, transmission, and decoding in chaotic optical communications are presented. We analyze the transmission and recovery of encrypted information when parameter mismatches are considered. Computer simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of this robustness synchronization property, we present the encrypted transmission of image messages, and we show that, the transmitted image is faithfully recovered.
Chaos synchronization based on intermittent state observer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Guo-Hui; Zhou Shi-Ping; Xu De-Ming
2004-01-01
This paper describes the method of synchronizing slave to the master trajectory using an intermittent state observer by constructing a synchronizer which drives the response system globally tracing the driving system asymptotically. It has been shown from the theory of synchronization error-analysis that a satisfactory result of chaos synchronization is expected under an appropriate intermittent period and state observer. Compared with continuous control method,the proposed intermittent method can target the desired orbit more efficiently. The application of the method is demonstrated on the hyperchaotic Rossler systems. Numerical simulations show that the length of the synchronization interval rs is of crucial importance for our scheme, and the method is robust with respect to parameter mismatch.
Effects of frustration on explosive synchronization
Huang, Xia; Gao, Jian; Sun, Yu-Ting; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Can
2016-12-01
In this study, we consider the emergence of explosive synchronization in scale-free networks by considering the Kuramoto model of coupled phase oscillators. The natural frequencies of oscillators are assumed to be correlated with their degrees and frustration is included in the system. This assumption can enhance or delay the explosive transition to synchronization. Interestingly, a de-synchronization phenomenon occurs and the type of phase transition is also changed. Furthermore, we provide an analytical treatment based on a star graph, which resembles that obtained in scale-free networks. Finally, a self-consistent approach is implemented to study the de-synchronization regime. Our findings have important implications for controlling synchronization in complex networks because frustration is a controllable parameter in experiments and a discontinuous abrupt phase transition is always dangerous in engineering in the real world.
Comparison of coherence and phase synchronization of the human sleep electroencephalogram
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mezeiová, K.; Paluš, Milan
2012-01-01
Roč. 123, č. 9 (2012), s. 1821-1830 ISSN 1388-2457 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E08027 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 200728 - BRAINSYNC Grant - others:AV ČR - SAS(CZ-SK) Modern Methods for Analysis of Electrophysiological Signals Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : phase synchronization * complete synchronization * mean phase coherence * permutation surrogate data * coherence * human sleep EEG Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.144, year: 2012
Variance based OFDM frame synchronization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Fedra
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with a new frame synchronization scheme for OFDM systems and calculates the complexity of this scheme. The scheme is based on the computing of the detection window variance. The variance is computed in two delayed times, so a modified Early-Late loop is used for the frame position detection. The proposed algorithm deals with different variants of OFDM parameters including guard interval, cyclic prefix, and has good properties regarding the choice of the algorithm's parameters since the parameters may be chosen within a wide range without having a high influence on system performance. The verification of the proposed algorithm functionality has been performed on a development environment using universal software radio peripheral (USRP hardware.
Concurrent systems and time synchronization
Burgin, Mark; Grathoff, Annette
2018-05-01
In the majority of scientific fields, system dynamics is described assuming existence of unique time for the whole system. However, it is established theoretically, for example, in relativity theory or in the system theory of time, and validated experimentally that there are different times and time scales in a variety of real systems - physical, chemical, biological, social, etc. In spite of this, there are no wide-ranging scientific approaches to exploration of such systems. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to study systems with this property. We call them concurrent systems because processes in them can go, events can happen and actions can be performed in different time scales. The problem of time synchronization is specifically explored.
Synchronization of world economic activity
Groth, Andreas; Ghil, Michael
2017-12-01
Common dynamical properties of business cycle fluctuations are studied in a sample of more than 100 countries that represent economic regions from all around the world. We apply the methodology of multivariate singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA) to identify oscillatory modes and to detect whether these modes are shared by clusters of phase- and frequency-locked oscillators. An extension of the M-SSA approach is introduced to help analyze structural changes in the cluster configuration of synchronization. With this novel technique, we are able to identify a common mode of business cycle activity across our sample, and thus point to the existence of a world business cycle. Superimposed on this mode, we further identify several major events that have markedly influenced the landscape of world economic activity in the postwar era.
Chaos synchronization between Chen system and Genesio system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Xianyong; Guan Zhihong; Wu Zhengping; Li Tao
2007-01-01
This Letter presents two synchronization schemes between two different chaotic systems. Active control synchronization and adaptive synchronization between Chen system and Genesio system are studied, different controllers are designed to synchronize the drive and response systems, active control synchronization is used when system parameters are known; adaptive synchronization is employed when system parameters are unknown or uncertain. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes
Synchronized Trajectories in a Climate "Supermodel"
Duane, Gregory; Schevenhoven, Francine; Selten, Frank
2017-04-01
Differences in climate projections among state-of-the-art models can be resolved by connecting the models in run-time, either through inter-model nudging or by directly combining the tendencies for corresponding variables. Since it is clearly established that averaging model outputs typically results in improvement as compared to any individual model output, averaged re-initializations at typical analysis time intervals also seems appropriate. The resulting "supermodel" is more like a single model than it is like an ensemble, because the constituent models tend to synchronize even with limited inter-model coupling. Thus one can examine the properties of specific trajectories, rather than averaging the statistical properties of the separate models. We apply this strategy to a study of the index cycle in a supermodel constructed from several imperfect copies of the SPEEDO model (a global primitive-equation atmosphere-ocean-land climate model). As with blocking frequency, typical weather statistics of interest like probabilities of heat waves or extreme precipitation events, are improved as compared to the standard multi-model ensemble approach. In contrast to the standard approach, the supermodel approach provides detailed descriptions of typical actual events.
Lag and ghosting in a clinical flat-panel selenium digital mammography system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloomquist, Aili K.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Hunter, David M.; Beideck, Daniel J.
2006-01-01
We present measurements of lag and ghosting in a FDA-approved digital mammography system that uses a dielectric/selenium based detector structure. Lag is the carryover of signal from a previous image, whereas ghosting is the reduction of sensitivity caused by previous exposure history of the detector. Data from six selenium units were acquired. For the type of selenium detector tested, and under typical clinical usage conditions, the lag was as high as 0.15% of source signal and the ghosting could be as high as 15%. The amount of lag and ghosting varied from unit to unit. Results were compared with data acquired on a phosphor-based full-field digital mammography system. Modifications in the technology of the selenium detectors appear to have resulted in a marked decrease in both lag and ghosting effects in more recent systems
Effects of stimulus-driven synchronization on sensory perception
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Holden Jameson K
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A subject's ability to differentiate the loci of two points on the skin depends on the stimulus-evoked pericolumnar lateral inhibitory interactions which increase the spatial contrast between regions of SI cortex that are activated by stimulus-evoked afferent drive. Nevertheless, there is very little known about the impact that neuronal interactions – such as those evoked by mechanical skin stimuli that project to and coordinate synchronized activity in adjacent and/or near-adjacent cortical columns – could have on sensory information processing. Methods The temporal order judgment (TOJ and temporal discriminative threshold (TDT of 20 healthy adult subjects were assessed both in the absence and presence of concurrent conditions of tactile stimulation. These measures were obtained across a number of paired sites – two unilateral and one bilateral – and several conditions of adapting stimuli were delivered both prior to and concurrently with the TOJ and TDT tasks. The pairs of conditioning stimuli were synchronized and periodic, synchronized and non-periodic, or asynchronous and non-periodic. Results In the absence of any additional stimuli, TOJ and TDT results obtained from the study were comparable across a number of pairs of stimulus sites – unilateral as well as bilateral. In the presence of a 25 Hz conditioning sinusoidal stimulus which was delivered both before, concurrently and after the TOJ task, there was a significant change in the TOJ measured when the two stimuli were located unilaterally on digits 2 and 3. However, in the presence of the same 25 Hz conditioning stimulus, the TOJ obtained when the two stimuli were delivered bilaterally was not impacted. TDT measures were not impacted to the same degree by the concurrent stimuli that were delivered to the unilateral or bilateral stimulus sites. This led to the speculation that the impact that the conditioning stimuli – which were sinusoidal, periodic and
Sensorless interior permanent magnet synchronous motor control with rotational inertia adjustment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongle Mao
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Mechanical model is generally required in high dynamic sensorless motor control schemes for zero phase lag estimation of rotor position and speed. However, the rotational inertia uncertainty will cause dynamic estimation errors, eventually resulting in performance deterioration of the sensorless control system. Therefore, this article proposes a high dynamic performance sensorless control strategy with online adjustment of the rotational inertia. Based on a synthetic back electromotive force model, the voltage equation of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is transformed to that of an equivalent non-salient permanent magnet synchronous motor. Then, an extended nonlinear observer is designed for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor in the stator-fixed coordinate frame, with rotor position, speed and load torque simultaneously estimated. The effect of inaccurate rotational inertia on the estimation of rotor position and speed is investigated, and a novel rotational inertia adjustment approach that employs the gradient descent algorithm is proposed to suppress the dynamic estimation errors. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated by experimental tests.
Synchronization of vortex-based spin torque nano-oscillators by magnetostatic coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaspel, C.E., E-mail: craig.zaspel@umwestern.edu
2015-12-15
Synchronization of two nanopillar oscillators driven by spin torque and coupled through the magnetic dipolar interaction. The dominant mode in each oscillator is gyrotropic motion of the vortex core in an elliptical orbit about the free layer disk center. The dynamic properties of this mode is investigated by solution the coupled Thiele equations with both nanopillar oscillators having identical dimensions, but with a current mismatch. It is noticed that there is a range in the current difference where the oscillators will be synchronized where the vortex gyrotropic motion will be frequency-locked with the radii of gyrotropic motion equal for both disks. There is, however, a phase shift between the gyrotropic motion with the smaller current disk lagging the higher current disk by a few degrees. - Highlights: • Vortex-based nanopillar oscillators re synchronized by the dipolar interaction. • There is a range of frequencies where both oscillators will frequency-locked. • There are upper and lower critical currents defining a locking range.
V123 Beam Synchronous Encoder Module
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, T.; Conkling, C. R.; Oerter, B.
1999-01-01
The V123 Synchronous Encoder Module transmits events to distributed trigger modules and embedded decoders around the RHIC rings where they are used to provide beam instrumentation triggers [1,2,3]. The RHIC beam synchronous event link hardware is mainly comprised of three VMEbus board designs, the central input modules (V201), and encoder modules (V123), and the distributed trigger modules (V124). Two beam synchronous links, one for each ring, are distributed via fiberoptic and fanned out via twisted wire pair cables. The V123 synchronizes with the RF system clock derived from the beam bucket frequency and a revolution fiducial pulse. The RF system clock is used to create the beam synchronous event link carrier and events are synchronized with the rotation fiducial. A low jitter RF clock is later recovered from this carrier by phase lock loops in the trigger modules. Prioritized hardware and software triggers fill up to 15 beam event code transmission slots per revolution while tracking the ramping RF acceleration frequency and storage frequency. The revolution fiducial event is always the first event transmitted which is used to synchronize the firing of the abort kicker and to locate the first bucket for decoders distributed about the ring
Bursting synchronization in clustered neuronal networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Hai-Tao; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le
2013-01-01
Neuronal networks in the brain exhibit the modular (clustered) property, i.e., they are composed of certain subnetworks with differential internal and external connectivity. We investigate bursting synchronization in a clustered neuronal network. A transition to mutual-phase synchronization takes place on the bursting time scale of coupled neurons, while on the spiking time scale, they behave asynchronously. This synchronization transition can be induced by the variations of inter- and intracoupling strengths, as well as the probability of random links between different subnetworks. Considering that some pathological conditions are related with the synchronization of bursting neurons in the brain, we analyze the control of bursting synchronization by using a time-periodic external signal in the clustered neuronal network. Simulation results show a frequency locking tongue in the driving parameter plane, where bursting synchronization is maintained, even in the presence of external driving. Hence, effective synchronization suppression can be realized with the driving parameters outside the frequency locking region. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Synchronization of Estrus in Cattle: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Islam
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Numbers of estrus synchronization programmes are available in cattle based on the use of various hormones like progesterone, prostaglandin F2a and their various combinations with other hormones like estrogen and Gonadotrophin Releasing hormone (GnRH. Selection of appropriate estrus synchronization protocol should be made on the basis of management capabilities and expectations of the farmer. Synchronization of oestrus can be accomplished with the injection of prostaglandin F2a alone, but it needs proper detection of the ovarian status of the cows as prostaglandin F2a is active in only functional corpus luteum in between 8 to 17 days of estrous cycle. Progesterone may reduce fertility up to 14 percent, but short time progesterone exposure (less than 14 days is beneficial. Addition of GnRH in the Progesterone or Prostaglandin based synchronization programme is helpful for more synchrony in estrus as GnRH may be helpful to synchronize the oestrous cycle in delayed pubertal heifers and post partum cows (Post partum anoestrum and further a single, timed artificial insemination is possible with this method. New methods of synchronizing estrus in which the GnRH-PG protocol is preceded by progesterone treatment offer effective synchronization of estrus with high fertility. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 136-141
A cooling concept of spent fuels in lag storage system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jeong-Hwa; Yoo, Jae-Hyung; Park, Hyun-Soo
1991-01-01
A cooling concept of spent fuels by natural convection of hot cell air in storage pits was developed. Each storage pit was considered to be located below the hot cell floor and to accommodate only one spent fuel assembly. The aim of this study is to apply an appropriate cooling system to the design of a hot cell where considerable heat-generating fuels are handled. In such operations as disassembling, rod consolidation and packaging of spent fuels, a number of assemblies are on stand-by in the cell before and/or after the operations. A lag storage system can be used for temporary storage of spent fuels in nuclear facilities. Since the air in contact with bare fuel assemblies is potentially contaminated, it must be exhausted through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. If the storage pit is completely isolated from the hot cell space, then it will require another separate ventilation system by forced convection of air, which will result in additional cost for the construction. In this work, however, a cooling system was proposed where natural convection of hot cell air itself is achieved by thermo-syphon. The cold air from the hot cell is supplied to the inlet provided at the bottom of each pit through the gap between the concrete pit wall and the interior thermal shield. This thermal shield is needed to form flow channels for cold and heated air, and to prevent the concrete from over-heating. The heated air exhausts from the outlet located at the top of cell wall. No additional HEPA filters are needed in this system because the heated air is routed back to the hot cell due to buoyancy-induced flow. The technical feasibility of this concept was validated by thermal analyses. As the key design constraints are the surface temperature of fuel cladding and the concrete temperature of the storage pit, the thermal analyses were focused on these parameters whether they follow within allowable limits or not. (author)
Fuzzy stability and synchronization of hyperchaos systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Junwei; Xiong Xiaohua; Zhao Meichun; Zhang Yanbin
2008-01-01
This paper studies stability and synchronization of hyperchaos systems via a fuzzy-model-based control design methodology. First, we utilize a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model to represent a hyperchaos system. Second, we design fuzzy-model-based controllers for stability and synchronization of the system, based on so-called 'parallel distributed compensation (PDC)'. Third, we reduce a question of stabilizing and synchronizing hyperchaos systems to linear matrix inequalities (LMI) so that convex programming techniques can solve these LMIs efficiently. Finally, the generalized Lorenz hyperchaos system is employed to illustrate the effectiveness of our designing controller
Transmission delays in hardware clock synchronization
Shin, Kang G.; Ramanathan, P.
1988-01-01
Various methods, both with software and hardware, have been proposed to synchronize a set of physical clocks in a system. Software methods are very flexible and economical but suffer an excessive time overhead, whereas hardware methods require no time overhead but are unable to handle transmission delays in clock signals. The effects of nonzero transmission delays in synchronization have been studied extensively in the communication area in the absence of malicious or Byzantine faults. The authors show that it is easy to incorporate the ideas from the communication area into the existing hardware clock synchronization algorithms to take into account the presence of both malicious faults and nonzero transmission delays.
Permutation parity machines for neural synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes, O M; Kopitzke, I; Zimmermann, K-H
2009-01-01
Synchronization of neural networks has been studied in recent years as an alternative to cryptographic applications such as the realization of symmetric key exchange protocols. This paper presents a first view of the so-called permutation parity machine, an artificial neural network proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machine. The dynamics of the synchronization process by mutual learning between permutation parity machines is analytically studied and the results are compared with those of tree parity machines. It will turn out that for neural synchronization, permutation parity machines form a viable alternative to tree parity machines
Synchronization Of Parallel Discrete Event Simulations
Steinman, Jeffrey S.
1992-01-01
Adaptive, parallel, discrete-event-simulation-synchronization algorithm, Breathing Time Buckets, developed in Synchronous Parallel Environment for Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation (SPEEDES) operating system. Algorithm allows parallel simulations to process events optimistically in fluctuating time cycles that naturally adapt while simulation in progress. Combines best of optimistic and conservative synchronization strategies while avoiding major disadvantages. Algorithm processes events optimistically in time cycles adapting while simulation in progress. Well suited for modeling communication networks, for large-scale war games, for simulated flights of aircraft, for simulations of computer equipment, for mathematical modeling, for interactive engineering simulations, and for depictions of flows of information.
The least channel capacity for chaos synchronization.
Wang, Mogei; Wang, Xingyuan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Huaguang
2011-03-01
Recently researchers have found that a channel with capacity exceeding the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the drive system (h(KS)) is theoretically necessary and sufficient to sustain the unidirectional synchronization to arbitrarily high precision. In this study, we use symbolic dynamics and the automaton reset sequence to distinguish the information that is required in identifying the current drive word and obtaining the synchronization. Then, we show that the least channel capacity that is sufficient to transmit the distinguished information and attain the synchronization of arbitrarily high precision is h(KS). Numerical simulations provide support for our conclusions.
Adaptive H∞ Chaos Anti-synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, Choon Ki
2010-01-01
A new adaptive H ∞ anti-synchronization (AHAS) method is proposed for chaotic systems in the presence of unknown parameters and external disturbances. Based on the Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality formulation, the AHAS controller with adaptive laws of unknown parameters is derived to not only guarantee adaptive anti-synchronization but also reduce the effect of external disturbances to an H ∞ norm constraint. As an application of the proposed AHAS method, the H ∞ anti-synchronization problem for Genesio–Tesi chaotic systems is investigated. (general)
Analysis of Synchronization for Coupled Hybrid Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Zheng; Wisniewski, Rafal
2006-01-01
In the control systems with coupled multi-subsystem, the subsystems might be synchronized (i.e. all the subsystems have the same operation states), which results in negative influence to the whole system. For example, in the supermarket refrigeration systems, the synchronized switch of each...... subsystem will cause low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. This paper takes the supermarket refrigeration systems as an example to analyze the synchronization and its coupling strengths of coupled hybrid systems, which may provide a base for further research...... of control strategies. This paper combines topology and section mapping theories together to show a new way of analyzing hybrid systems...
Chaos synchronization of the energy resource system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiuchun; Xu Wei; Li Ruihong
2009-01-01
This paper presents the chaos synchronization problem for new dynamical system (that is, energy resource demand-supply system), where the controller is designed using two different control methods. Firstly, based on stability criterion of linear system, chaotic synchronization is achieved with the help of the active theory, and accordingly, the simulation results are given for verifying the feasibility of the method. Secondly, based on Lyapunov stability theory, on the assumption that all the parameters of the system are unknown, adaptive control approach is proposed to make the states of two chaotic systems asymptotic synchronization. In the end, numerical simulations are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
Synchronization of two coupled turbulent fires
Takagi, Kazushi; Gotoda, Hiroshi; Miyano, Takaya; Murayama, Shogo; Tokuda, Isao T.
2018-04-01
We numerically study the scale-free nature of a buoyancy-induced turbulent fire and synchronization of two coupled turbulent fires. A scale-free structure is detected in weighted networks between vortices, while its lifetime obeys a clear power law, indicating intermittent appearances, disappearances, and reappearances of the scale-free property. A significant decrease in the distance between the two fire sources gives rise to a synchronized state in the near field dominated by the unstable motion of large-scale of transverse vortex rings. The synchronized state vanishes in the far field forming well-developed turbulent plumes, regardless of the distance between the two fire sources.
Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zavriyev, Anton [MagiQ Technologies, Inc., Somerville, MA (United States)
2014-03-27
An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.
Usability of synchronization for cognitive modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diebner, Hans H.; Grond, Florian
2005-01-01
We discuss the synchronization features of a previously introduced adaptive system for dynamics recognition in more detail. We investigate the usability of synchronization for modeling and parameter estimations. It is pointed out inhowfar the adaptive system based on synchronization can become a powerful tool in modeling. The adaptive system can store modules of pre-adapted dynamics and is potentially capable of undergoing self-modification. We compare the stored modules with pre-knowledge that a modeler puts into his or her models. In this sense the adaptive system functions like an expert system
Temporal evolution of photon energy emitted from two-component advective flows: origin of time lag
Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri
2017-12-01
X-ray time lag of black hole candidates contains important information regarding the emission geometry. Recently, study of time lags from observational data revealed very intriguing properties. To investigate the real cause of this lag behavior with energy and spectral states, we study photon paths inside a two-component advective flow (TCAF) which appears to be a satisfactory model to explain the spectral and timing properties. We employ the Monte Carlo simulation technique to carry out the Comptonization process. We use a relativistic thick disk in Schwarzschild geometry as the CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer (CENBOL) which is the Compton cloud. In TCAF, this is the post-shock region of the advective component. Keplerian disk on the equatorial plane which is truncated at the inner edge i.e. at the outer boundary of the CENBOL, acts as the soft photon source. Ray-tracing code is employed to track the photons to a distantly located observer. We compute the cumulative time taken by a photon during Comptonization, reflection and following the curved geometry on the way to the observer. Time lags between various hard and soft bands have been calculated. We study the variation of time lags with accretion rates, CENBOL size and inclination angle. Time lags for different energy channels are plotted for different inclination angles. The general trend of variation of time lag with QPO frequency and energy as observed in satellite data is reproduced.
Detection of Time Lags between Quasar Continuum Emission Bands Based On Pan-STARRS Light Curves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Yan-Fei [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Green, Paul J.; Pancoast, Anna; MacLeod, Chelsea L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Morganson, Eric; Shen, Yue [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Rix, H.-W. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Protopapas, Pavlos [Institute for Applied Computational Science, John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Scott, Caroline [Astrophysics, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Burgett, W. S.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E. A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); and others
2017-02-20
We study the time lags between the continuum emission of quasars at different wavelengths, based on more than four years of multi-band ( g , r , i , z ) light curves in the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Fields. As photons from different bands emerge from different radial ranges in the accretion disk, the lags constrain the sizes of the accretion disks. We select 240 quasars with redshifts of z ≈ 1 or z ≈ 0.3 that are relatively emission-line free. The light curves are sampled from day to month timescales, which makes it possible to detect lags on the scale of the light crossing time of the accretion disks. With the code JAVELIN , we detect typical lags of several days in the rest frame between the g band and the riz bands. The detected lags are ∼2–3 times larger than the light crossing time estimated from the standard thin disk model, consistent with the recently measured lag in NGC 5548 and microlensing measurements of quasars. The lags in our sample are found to increase with increasing luminosity. Furthermore, the increase in lags going from g − r to g − i and then to g − z is slower than predicted in the thin disk model, particularly for high-luminosity quasars. The radial temperature profile in the disk must be different from what is assumed. We also find evidence that the lags decrease with increasing line ratios between ultraviolet Fe ii lines and Mg ii, which may point to changes in the accretion disk structure at higher metallicity.
SOFT LAGS IN NEUTRON STAR kHz QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS: EVIDENCE FOR REVERBERATION?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barret, Didier, E-mail: didier.barret@irap.omp.eu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)
2013-06-10
High frequency soft reverberation lags have now been detected from stellar mass and supermassive black holes. Their interpretation involves reflection of a hard source of photons onto an accretion disk, producing a delayed reflected emission, with a time lag consistent with the light travel time between the irradiating source and the disk. Independently of the location of the clock, the kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) emission is thought to arise from the neutron star boundary layer. Here, we search for the signature of reverberation of the kHz QPO emission, by measuring the soft lags and the lag energy spectrum of the lower kHz QPOs from 4U1608-522. Soft lags, ranging from {approx}15 to {approx}40 {mu}s, between the 3-8 keV and 8-30 keV modulated emissions are detected between 565 and 890 Hz. The soft lags are not constant with frequency and show a smooth decrease between 680 Hz and 890 Hz. The broad band X-ray spectrum is modeled as the sum of a disk and a thermal Comptonized component, plus a broad iron line, expected from reflection. The spectral parameters follow a smooth relationship with the QPO frequency, in particular the fitted inner disk radius decreases steadily with frequency. Both the bump around the iron line in the lag energy spectrum and the consistency between the lag changes and the inferred changes of the inner disk radius, from either spectral fitting or the QPO frequency, suggest that the soft lags may indeed involve reverberation of the hard pulsating QPO source on the disk.
Synchronous ethernet and IEEE 1588 in telecoms next generation synchronization networks
2013-01-01
This book addresses the multiple technical aspects of the distribution of synchronization in new generation telecommunication networks, focusing in particular on synchronous Ethernet and IEEE1588 technologies. Many packet network engineers struggle with understanding the challenges that precise synchronization distribution can impose on networks. The usual “why”, “when” and particularly “how” can cause problems for many engineers. In parallel to this, some other markets have identical synchronization requirements, but with their own design requirements, generating further questions. This book attempts to respond to the different questions by providing background technical information. Invaluable information on state of-the-art packet network synchronization and timing architectures is provided, as well as an unbiased view on the synchronization technologies that have been internationally standardized over recent years, with the aim of providing the average reader (who is not skilled in the art) wi...
Enochsson, Ann-Britt
2011-01-01
This paper is based on experiences from three different research projects in which both face-to-face (f2f) and synchronous online (IM) interviews were used, and it discusses what different media can mean to different respondents. The interviewees were between 10 and 16 years old. The analyses were made from transcripts of 25 f2f interviews and 23 IM interviews. The flow of the dialogue and the amount of words used has been analysed. The answers were longer in f2f interviews, but in f2f interv...
MACROECONOMIC KALECKI’S MODEL IN VIEW OF AN INVESTMENT TEMPORARY LAG
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduard A. Gevorkyan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The dependence of the gross domestic product on time ( Y ( t in macroeconomic Kalecki’s model in view of an investment temporary lag in the case of periodic dependence of the consumption function on time is investigated. As a result of solutions of linear ordinary differential equation and differential equation with lagging argument an analytical expressions for the Y ( t is received. Some aspects of influence of a temporary lag on character of variation of the function Y ( t are shown.
Study on confirmation of Solid-Meal Lag Phase of Gastric Emptying
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Chang Guhn; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Won, Jong Jin; Nah, Yong Ho
1991-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of a lag phase of gastric emptying of solid meals. We studied solid phase gastric emptying in 26 normal subject using continuous data acquisition for 30 minutes. Each ingested a 300 g meal containing 99m Tc-labeled scrambled egg (solid 150 g, milk 150 ml). Lag phase was determined by 1) inspection of the gastric emptying curve 2) time to a 2% decrease in stomach activity 3) the time of visual appearance of duodenal activity on computer image. We concluded that solid meal lag phase exist.
Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment considering time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugino, Hideharu; Sakagami, Masaharu; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Korenaga, Mariko
2011-01-01
In the area in front of Nankai trough, tsunami wave height may increase if tsunamis attacking from some wave sources overlap because of time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough. To evaluation tsunami risk of the important facilities located in front of Nankai trough, we proposed the probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment considering uncertainty on time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough and we evaluated the influence that the time-lag gave to tsunami hazard at the some representative points. (author)
Study on confirmation of Solid-Meal Lag Phase of Gastric Emptying
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Chang Guhn; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Won, Jong Jin; Nah, Yong Ho [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)
1991-07-15
The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of a lag phase of gastric emptying of solid meals. We studied solid phase gastric emptying in 26 normal subject using continuous data acquisition for 30 minutes. Each ingested a 300 g meal containing {sup 99m}Tc-labeled scrambled egg (solid 150 g, milk 150 ml). Lag phase was determined by 1) inspection of the gastric emptying curve 2) time to a 2% decrease in stomach activity 3) the time of visual appearance of duodenal activity on computer image. We concluded that solid meal lag phase exist.
X-linked Acrogigantism (X-LAG) Syndrome: Clinical Profile and Therapeutic Responses
Beckers, Albert; Lodish, Maya Beth; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Rostomyan, Liliya; Lee, Misu; Faucz, Fabio R; Yuan, Bo; Choong, Catherine S; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Verrua, Elisa; Naves, Luciana Ansaneli; Cheetham, Tim D; Young, Jacques; Lysy, Philippe A; Petrossians, Patrick
2015-01-01
X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) is a new syndrome of pituitary gigantism, caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3, encompassing the gene GPR101, which is highly upregulated in pituitary tumors. We conducted this study to explore the clinical, radiological and hormonal phenotype and responses to therapy in patients with X-LAG syndrome. The study included 18 patients (13 sporadic) with X-LAG and a microduplication in chromosome Xq26.3. All sporadic cases had unique duplications and the...
On synchronization of three chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Jianping; Li Changpin
2005-01-01
In this paper, a simple but efficient method is applied to the synchronization of three chaotic systems, i.e., the chaotic Lorenz, Chua, and Chen systems. Numerical simulations show this method works very well
Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical networks ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Robust adaptive synchronization; dynamical network; multiple delays; multiple uncertainties. ... Networks such as neural networks, communication transmission networks, social rela- tionship networks etc. ..... a very good effect. Pramana – J.
Multivalued synchronization by Poincaré coupling
Ontañón-García, L. J.; Campos-Cantón, E.; Femat, R.; Campos-Cantón, I.; Bonilla-Marín, M.
2013-10-01
This work presents multivalued chaotic synchronization via coupling based on the Poincaré plane. The coupling is carried out by an underdamped signal, triggered every crossing event of the trajectory of the master system through a previously defined Poincaré plane. A master-slave system is explored, and the synchronization between the systems is detected via the auxiliary system approach and the maximum conditional Lyapunov exponent. Due to the response to specific conditions two phenomena may be obtained: univalued and multivalued synchronization. Since the Lyapunov exponent is not enough to detect these two phenomena, the distance between the pieces of trajectories of the slave and auxiliary systems with different initial conditions is also used as a tool for the detection of multivalued synchronization. Computer simulations using the benchmark chaotic systems of Lorenz and Rössler are used to exemplify the approach proposed.
New GOES satellite synchronized time code generation
Fossler, D. E.; Olson, R. K.
1984-01-01
The TRAK Systems' GOES Satellite Synchronized Time Code Generator is described. TRAK Systems has developed this timing instrument to supply improved accuracy over most existing GOES receiver clocks. A classical time code generator is integrated with a GOES receiver.
Synchronization in complex networks with adaptive coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Rong; Hu Manfeng; Xu Zhenyuan
2007-01-01
Generally it is very difficult to realized synchronization for some complex networks. In order to synchronize, the coupling coefficient of networks has to be very large, especially when the number of coupled nodes is larger. In this Letter, we consider the problem of synchronization in complex networks with adaptive coupling. A new concept about asymptotic stability is presented, then we proved by using the well-known LaSalle invariance principle, that the state of such a complex network can synchronize an arbitrary assigned state of an isolated node of the network as long as the feedback gain is positive. Unified system is simulated as the nodes of adaptive coupling complex networks with different topologies
Some Considerations on Seriality and Synchronicity
Elena Nechita
2010-01-01
This paper presents an overview of the results that have been obtained lately on seriality and synchronicity and their link, in the light of the new theories and within the frame of complexity science.
Some Considerations on Seriality and Synchronicity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Nechita
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results that have been obtained lately on seriality and synchronicity and their link, in the light of the new theories and within the frame of complexity science.
High Speed Frame Synchronization and Viterbi Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paaske, Erik; Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.
1996-01-01
The purpose of Phase 1 of the study is to describe the system structure and algorithms in sufficient detail to allow drawing the high level architecture of units containing frame synchronization and Viterbi decoding. The systems we consider are high data rate space communication systems. Also...... components. Node synchronization performed within a Viterbi decoder is discussed, and algorithms for frame synchronization are described and analyzed. We present a list of system configurations that we find potentially useful. Further, the high level architecture of units that contain frame synchronization...... and various other functions needed in a complete system is presented. Two such units are described, one for placement before the Viterbi decoder and another for placement after the decoder. The high level architectures of three possible implementations of Viterbi decoders are described: The first...
High Speed Frame Synchronization and Viterbi Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paaske, Erik; Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.
1998-01-01
The study has been divided into two phases. The purpose of Phase 1 of the study was to describe the system structure and algorithms in sufficient detail to allow drawing the high level architecture of units containing frame synchronization and Viterbi decoding. After selection of which specific...... potentially useful.Algorithms for frame synchronization are described and analyzed. Further, the high level architecture of units that contain frame synchronization and various other functions needed in a complete system is presented. Two such units are described, one for placement before the Viterbi decoder...... towards a realization in an FPGA.Node synchronization performed within a Viterbi decoder is discussed, and the high level architectures of three possible implementations of Viterbi decoders are described: The first implementation uses a number of commercially available decoders while the the two others...
Dependence of synchronization frequency of Kuramoto oscillators ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2Department of Theoretical Physics, Physical Research Laboratory, ... on the sine of the phase difference between the oscillators and hence, ... we study the change in synchronization frequency as the symmetry is changed under the limit of.
Dreams: a framework for distributed synchronous coordination
Proença, J.; Clarke, D.; Vink, de E.P.; Arbab, F.
2012-01-01
Synchronous coordination systems, such as Reo, exchange data via indivisible actions, while distributed systems are typically asynchronous and assume that messages can be delayed or get lost. To combine these seemingly contradictory notions, we introduce the Dreams framework. Coordination patterns
Pitch Synchronous Segmentation of Speech Signals
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pitch Synchronous Segmentation (PSS) that accelerates speech without changing its fundamental frequency method could be applied and evaluated for use at NASA....
SYNCHRONIZATION OF OVULATION IN BEEF HERDS ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
IMPROVED CONCEPTION RATE AFTER AND INTERRUPTED COURSE ... with normal first insemination figures uncomplicated by synchronization and ... get her pregnant again so that she can consistently recalve ... Delayed ovulation may also contribute towards lower .... Effect of syttdtottizotbn on genad hcrd fatility.
Synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic.
Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hermanns, Gerhard; Hemmerle, Peter; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael
2013-11-01
Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal that moving queues (moving jams) in oversaturated city traffic dissolve at some distance upstream of the traffic signal while transforming into synchronized flow. It is found that, as in highway traffic [Kerner, Phys. Rev. E 85, 036110 (2012)], such a jam-absorption effect in city traffic is explained by a strong driver's speed adaptation: Time headways (space gaps) between vehicles increase upstream of a moving queue (moving jam), resulting in moving queue dissolution. It turns out that at given traffic signal parameters, the stronger the speed adaptation effect, the shorter the mean distance between the signal location and the road location at which moving queues dissolve fully and oversaturated traffic consists of synchronized flow only. A comparison of the synchronized flow in city traffic found in this Brief Report with synchronized flow in highway traffic is made.
Stochastic synchronization in finite size spiking networks
Doiron, Brent; Rinzel, John; Reyes, Alex
2006-09-01
We study a stochastic synchronization of spiking activity in feedforward networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons. A stochastic mean field analysis shows that synchronization occurs only when the network size is sufficiently small. This gives evidence that the dynamics, and hence processing, of finite size populations can be drastically different from that observed in the infinite size limit. Our results agree with experimentally observed synchrony in cortical networks, and further strengthen the link between synchrony and propagation in cortical systems.
Stochastic Hydrodynamic Synchronization in Rotating Energy Landscapes
Koumakis, N.; Di Leonardo, R.
2013-01-01
Hydrodynamic synchronization provides a general mechanism for the spontaneous emergence of coherent beating states in independently driven mesoscopic oscillators. A complete physical picture of those phenomena is of definite importance to the understanding of biological cooperative motions of cilia and flagella. Moreover, it can potentially suggest novel routes to exploit synchronization in technological applications of soft matter. We demonstrate that driving colloidal particles in rotating ...
Synchronous and Asynchronous ATM Multiplexor Properties Comparsion
Jan Zabka
2006-01-01
The article is aimed to ATM multiplexor computer model utilisation. Based on simulation runs we try to review aspects of use a synchronous and asynchronous ATM multiplexors. ATM multiplexor is the input queuing model with three inputs. Synchronous multiplexor works without an input priority. Multiplexor inputs are served periodically. Asynchronous multiplexor model supports several queuing and priority mechanisms. CLR and CTD are basic performance parameters. Input cell flows are genera...
Complete synchronization of two Chen-Lee systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheu, L-J; Chen, J-H; Chen, H-K; Tam, L-M; Lao, S-K; Chen, W-C; Lin, K-T
2008-01-01
This study demonstrates that complete synchronization of two Chen-Lee chaotic systems can be easily achieved. The upper bound of the Chen-Lee chaotic system is estimated numerically. A controller is designed to synchronize two chaotic systems. Sufficient conditions for synchronization are obtained using Lyapunov's direct method. Two numerical examples are presented to verify the proposed synchronization approach
Nonlinear observer based phase synchronization of chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng Juan; Wang Xingyuan
2007-01-01
This Letter analyzes the phase synchronization problem of autonomous chaotic systems. Based on the nonlinear state observer algorithm and the pole placement technique, a phase synchronization scheme is designed. The phase synchronization of a new chaotic system is achieved by using this observer controller. Numerical simulations further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed phase synchronization scheme
Sub-Saharan Africa’s Lagging Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katja Vintar Mally
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is a very diverse region with extensive natural wealth, great human potential, and a rich history. However, the majority of its countries are among the poorest in the world and about half of its 800 million inhabitants live in extreme poverty. Sub-Saharan Africa produces only 1.5% of the world’s GDP and its share in world trade has fallen from 6% in 1980 to 2% today. The region’s exports remain dominated by primary goods (fuels, ores, and agricultural products. The roots of the region’s economic weakness lie variously in the past colonial relationships with European countries and in unjust global trade patterns as well as in misuse of power by ruling political elites in the post-independence era. Numerous civil wars and other conflicts have fragmented the sub-Saharan countries into many factions and parties fighting for domination. The region is lagging behind developed countries because of corruption, lack of infrastructure, weakness of its institutions, heavy indebtedness, lack of education and health services, and unfavorable natural conditions, among other factors. Subsistence agriculture is the source of livelihood for most Africans. Nevertheless, average yields per hectare are low and heavily dependent on climatic conditions. Compared to urban areas (except for slums, people living in rural areas have worse infrastructure and are further from achieving the UN’s Millennium Development Goals. The recent increase in food prices is threatening the limited progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition (28% of children under age five are underweight and particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases. Little progress has been made in reducing child and maternal mortality; mortality rates remain the highest in the world. In the previous decade, life expectancy in sub-Saharan countries has fallen due to the spread of HIV/AIDS and it still remains below fifty. In addition, many negative socioeconomic effects are the result
Li, Chenxi; Wu, Ligao; Li, Chen; Tang, Jinlan
2017-01-01
This work-in-progress doctoral research project aims to identify meaning negotiation patterns in synchronous audio and video Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) environments based on the model of CMC text chat proposed by Smith (2003). The study was conducted in the Institute of Online Education at Beijing Foreign Studies University. Four dyads…
Akarasriworn, Chatchada; Ku, Heng-Yu
2013-01-01
This study investigated 28 graduate students' knowledge construction and attitudes toward online synchronous videoconferencing collaborative learning environments. These students took an online course, self-selected 3 or 4 group members to form groups, and worked on projects across 16 weeks. Each group utilized Elluminate "Live!" for the…
Frame Synchronization Without Attached Sync Markers
Hamkins, Jon
2011-01-01
We describe a method to synchronize codeword frames without making use of attached synchronization markers (ASMs). Instead, the synchronizer identifies the code structure present in the received symbols, by operating the decoder for a handful of iterations at each possible symbol offset and forming an appropriate metric. This method is computationally more complex and doesn't perform as well as frame synchronizers that utilize an ASM; nevertheless, the new synchronizer acquires frame synchronization in about two seconds when using a 600 kbps software decoder, and would take about 15 milliseconds on prototype hardware. It also eliminates the need for the ASMs, which is an attractive feature for short uplink codes whose coding gain would be diminished by the overheard of ASM bits. The lack of ASMs also would simplify clock distribution for the AR4JA low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and adds a small amount to the coding gain as well (up to 0.2 dB).
Synchronization of mobile chaotic oscillator networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujiwara, Naoya, E-mail: fujiwara@csis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo, 277-8568 Chiba (Japan); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), 14473 Potsdam, Germany and Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Díaz-Guilera, Albert [Departament de Física de la Matèria Condensada, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain and Universitat de Barcelona Institute of Complex Systems (UBICS), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)
2016-09-15
We study synchronization of systems in which agents holding chaotic oscillators move in a two-dimensional plane and interact with nearby ones forming a time dependent network. Due to the uncertainty in observing other agents' states, we assume that the interaction contains a certain amount of noise that turns out to be relevant for chaotic dynamics. We find that a synchronization transition takes place by changing a control parameter. But this transition depends on the relative dynamic scale of motion and interaction. When the topology change is slow, we observe an intermittent switching between laminar and burst states close to the transition due to small noise. This novel type of synchronization transition and intermittency can happen even when complete synchronization is linearly stable in the absence of noise. We show that the linear stability of the synchronized state is not a sufficient condition for its stability due to strong fluctuations of the transverse Lyapunov exponent associated with a slow network topology change. Since this effect can be observed within the linearized dynamics, we can expect such an effect in the temporal networks with noisy chaotic oscillators, irrespective of the details of the oscillator dynamics. When the topology change is fast, a linearized approximation describes well the dynamics towards synchrony. These results imply that the fluctuations of the finite-time transverse Lyapunov exponent should also be taken into account to estimate synchronization of the mobile contact networks.
Synchronization of mobile chaotic oscillator networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, Naoya; Kurths, Jürgen; Díaz-Guilera, Albert
2016-01-01
We study synchronization of systems in which agents holding chaotic oscillators move in a two-dimensional plane and interact with nearby ones forming a time dependent network. Due to the uncertainty in observing other agents' states, we assume that the interaction contains a certain amount of noise that turns out to be relevant for chaotic dynamics. We find that a synchronization transition takes place by changing a control parameter. But this transition depends on the relative dynamic scale of motion and interaction. When the topology change is slow, we observe an intermittent switching between laminar and burst states close to the transition due to small noise. This novel type of synchronization transition and intermittency can happen even when complete synchronization is linearly stable in the absence of noise. We show that the linear stability of the synchronized state is not a sufficient condition for its stability due to strong fluctuations of the transverse Lyapunov exponent associated with a slow network topology change. Since this effect can be observed within the linearized dynamics, we can expect such an effect in the temporal networks with noisy chaotic oscillators, irrespective of the details of the oscillator dynamics. When the topology change is fast, a linearized approximation describes well the dynamics towards synchrony. These results imply that the fluctuations of the finite-time transverse Lyapunov exponent should also be taken into account to estimate synchronization of the mobile contact networks.
Synchronization of mobile chaotic oscillator networks.
Fujiwara, Naoya; Kurths, Jürgen; Díaz-Guilera, Albert
2016-09-01
We study synchronization of systems in which agents holding chaotic oscillators move in a two-dimensional plane and interact with nearby ones forming a time dependent network. Due to the uncertainty in observing other agents' states, we assume that the interaction contains a certain amount of noise that turns out to be relevant for chaotic dynamics. We find that a synchronization transition takes place by changing a control parameter. But this transition depends on the relative dynamic scale of motion and interaction. When the topology change is slow, we observe an intermittent switching between laminar and burst states close to the transition due to small noise. This novel type of synchronization transition and intermittency can happen even when complete synchronization is linearly stable in the absence of noise. We show that the linear stability of the synchronized state is not a sufficient condition for its stability due to strong fluctuations of the transverse Lyapunov exponent associated with a slow network topology change. Since this effect can be observed within the linearized dynamics, we can expect such an effect in the temporal networks with noisy chaotic oscillators, irrespective of the details of the oscillator dynamics. When the topology change is fast, a linearized approximation describes well the dynamics towards synchrony. These results imply that the fluctuations of the finite-time transverse Lyapunov exponent should also be taken into account to estimate synchronization of the mobile contact networks.
Explosive synchronization transitions in complex neural networks
Chen, Hanshuang; He, Gang; Huang, Feng; Shen, Chuansheng; Hou, Zhonghuai
2013-09-01
It has been recently reported that explosive synchronization transitions can take place in networks of phase oscillators [Gómez-Gardeñes et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 128701 (2011)] and chaotic oscillators [Leyva et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 168702 (2012)]. Here, we investigate the effect of a microscopic correlation between the dynamics and the interacting topology of coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators on phase synchronization transition in Barabási-Albert (BA) scale-free networks and Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks. We show that, if natural frequencies of the oscillations are positively correlated with node degrees and the width of the frequency distribution is larger than a threshold value, a strong hysteresis loop arises in the synchronization diagram of BA networks, indicating the evidence of an explosive transition towards synchronization of relaxation oscillators system. In contrast to the results in BA networks, in more homogeneous ER networks, the synchronization transition is always of continuous type regardless of the width of the frequency distribution. Moreover, we consider the effect of degree-mixing patterns on the nature of the synchronization transition, and find that the degree assortativity is unfavorable for the occurrence of such an explosive transition.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lynnyk, Volodymyr; Čelikovský, Sergej
2010-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 1 (2010), s. 1-18 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/0186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : observer * nonlinear system * chaos shift keying * generalized Lorenz system * synchronization * anti-synchronization * secure communication Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/TR/lynnyk-0342105.pdf
Fault-tolerant clock synchronization in distributed systems
Ramanathan, Parameswaran; Shin, Kang G.; Butler, Ricky W.
1990-01-01
Existing fault-tolerant clock synchronization algorithms are compared and contrasted. These include the following: software synchronization algorithms, such as convergence-averaging, convergence-nonaveraging, and consistency algorithms, as well as probabilistic synchronization; hardware synchronization algorithms; and hybrid synchronization. The worst-case clock skews guaranteed by representative algorithms are compared, along with other important aspects such as time, message, and cost overhead imposed by the algorithms. More recent developments such as hardware-assisted software synchronization and algorithms for synchronizing large, partially connected distributed systems are especially emphasized.
Du, Yue; Clark, Jane E; Whitall, Jill
2017-05-01
Timing control, such as producing movements at a given rate or synchronizing movements to an external event, has been studied through a finger-tapping task where timing is measured at the initial contact between finger and tapping surface or the point when a key is pressed. However, the point of peak force is after the time registered at the tapping surface and thus is a less obvious but still an important event during finger tapping. Here, we compared the time at initial contact with the time at peak force as participants tapped their finger on a force sensor at a given rate after the metronome was turned off (continuation task) or in synchrony with the metronome (sensorimotor synchronization task). We found that, in the continuation task, timing was comparably accurate between initial contact and peak force. These two timing events also exhibited similar trial-by-trial statistical dependence (i.e., lag-one autocorrelation). However, the central clock variability was lower at the peak force than the initial contact. In the synchronization task, timing control at peak force appeared to be less variable and more accurate than that at initial contact. In addition to lower central clock variability, the mean SE magnitude at peak force (SEP) was around zero while SE at initial contact (SEC) was negative. Although SEC and SEP demonstrated the same trial-by-trial statistical dependence, we found that participants adjusted the time of tapping to correct SEP, but not SEC, toward zero. These results suggest that timing at peak force is a meaningful target of timing control, particularly in synchronization tapping. This result may explain the fact that SE at initial contact is typically negative as widely observed in the preexisting literature.
Quantum synchronization in an optomechanical system based on Lyapunov control.
Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan
2016-06-01
We extend the concepts of quantum complete synchronization and phase synchronization, which were proposed in A. Mari et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 103605 (2013)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.111.103605, to more widespread quantum generalized synchronization. Generalized synchronization can be considered a necessary condition or a more flexible derivative of complete synchronization, and its criterion and synchronization measure are proposed and analyzed in this paper. As examples, we consider two typical generalized synchronizations in a designed optomechanical system. Unlike the effort to construct a special coupling synchronization system, we purposefully design extra control fields based on Lyapunov control theory. We find that the Lyapunov function can adapt to more flexible control objectives, which is more suitable for generalized synchronization control, and the control fields can be achieved simply with a time-variant voltage. Finally, the existence of quantum entanglement in different generalized synchronizations is also discussed.
Sensors management in robotic neurosurgery: the ROBOCAST project.
Vaccarella, Alberto; Comparetti, Mirko Daniele; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; De Momi, Elena
2011-01-01
Robot and computer-aided surgery platforms bring a variety of sensors into the operating room. These sensors generate information to be synchronized and merged for improving the accuracy and the safety of the surgical procedure for both patients and operators. In this paper, we present our work on the development of a sensor management architecture that is used is to gather and fuse data from localization systems, such as optical and electromagnetic trackers and ultrasound imaging devices. The architecture follows a modular client-server approach and was implemented within the EU-funded project ROBOCAST (FP7 ICT 215190). Furthermore it is based on very well-maintained open-source libraries such as OpenCV and Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK), which are supported from a worldwide community of developers and allow a significant reduction of software costs. We conducted experiments to evaluate the performance of the sensor manager module. We computed the response time needed for a client to receive tracking data or video images, and the time lag between synchronous acquisition with an optical tracker and ultrasound machine. Results showed a median delay of 1.9 ms for a client request of tracking data and about 40 ms for US images; these values are compatible with the data generation rate (20-30 Hz for tracking system and 25 fps for PAL video). Simultaneous acquisitions have been performed with an optical tracking system and US imaging device: data was aligned according to the timestamp associated with each sample and the delay was estimated with a cross-correlation study. A median value of 230 ms delay was calculated showing that realtime 3D reconstruction is not feasible (an offline temporal calibration is needed), although a slow exploration is possible. In conclusion, as far as asleep patient neurosurgery is concerned, the proposed setup is indeed useful for registration error correction because the brain shift occurs with a time constant of few tens of minutes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baadsgaard, Allan; Gede, Mads Peter; Grunert, Klaus G.
cycles for different product categories may be lagged (type II lag) because changes in economic and other factors will result in demands for different products. Identifying lagged life cycle structures major importance in global marketing of food products. The problems in arriving at such estimates...
X-ray Time Lags in TeV Blazars X. Chen1,∗ , G. Fossati1, E. Liang1 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We use Monte Carlo/Fokker–Planck simulations to study the. X-ray time lags. Our results show that soft lags will be observed as long as the decay of the flare is dominated by radiative cooling, even when acceleration and cooling time scales are similar. Hard lags can be pro- duced in the presence of a competitive ...
Wang, Heng
2017-01-01
Construction project productivity typically lags other industries and it has been the focus of numerous studies in order to improve the project performance. This research investigated the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology on construction projects' supply chain and determined that RFID technology can improve the…
Choe, Chol-Ung; Kim, Ryong-Son; Ri, Ji-Song
2017-09-01
We consider a ring of phase oscillators with nonlocal coupling strength and heterogeneous phase lags. We analyze the effects of heterogeneity in the phase lags on the existence and stability of a variety of steady states. A nonlocal coupling with heterogeneous phase lags that allows the system to be solved analytically is suggested and the stability of solutions along the Ott-Antonsen invariant manifold is explored. We present a complete bifurcation diagram for stationary patterns including the uniform drift and modulated drift states as well as chimera state, which reveals that the stable modulated drift state and a continuum of metastable drift states could occur due to the heterogeneity of the phase lags. We verify our theoretical results using the direct numerical simulations of the model system.
EFFICIENCY INCREASING OF BELT CONVEYOR’S DRIVE BY CERAMIC LAGGING OF DRIVING PULLEY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josef JURMAN
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In any point of the belt contact with the drum a relative speed compensation takes place that is carried out by a slippage even when the relevant contact spots are fairly clean and dry. This leads to heat generation that is being absorbed by both materials involved – by the belt as well as by the drum. Unlike the belt, the drum lagging would increase its temperature up to a certain limit that depends on number of factors. When the lagging surface temperature is reaching appx. 60°C some structural changes in the lagging material take place and further rise of temperature can create a risk of belt inflammation and destruction of the driving unit. This can be avoided by lagging the drum with new materials that eliminate any friction on the contact surfaces and that are heat resistant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katonis Pavlos G
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lag screw cut-out failure following fixation of unstable intertrochanteric fractures in osteoporotic bone remains an unsolved challenge. This study tested if resistance to cut-out failure can be improved by using a dual lag screw implant in place of a single lag screw implant. Migration behavior and cut-out resistance of a single and a dual lag screw implant were comparatively evaluated in surrogate specimens using an established laboratory model of hip screw cut-out failure. Methods Five dual lag screw implants (Endovis, Citieffe and five single lag screw implants (DHS, Synthes were tested in the Hip Implant Performance Simulator (HIPS of the Legacy Biomechanics Laboratory. This model simulated osteoporotic bone, an unstable fracture, and biaxial rocking motion representative of hip loading during normal gait. All constructs were loaded up to 20,000 cycles of 1.45 kN peak magnitude under biaxial rocking motion. The migration kinematics was continuously monitored with 6-degrees of freedom motion tracking system and the number of cycles to implant cut-out was recorded. Results The dual lag screw implant exhibited significantly less migration and sustained more loading cycles in comparison to the DHS single lag screw. All DHS constructs failed before 20,000 cycles, on average at 6,638 ± 2,837 cycles either by cut-out or permanent screw bending. At failure, DHS constructs exhibited 10.8 ± 2.3° varus collapse and 15.5 ± 9.5° rotation around the lag screw axis. Four out of five dual screws constructs sustained 20,000 loading cycles. One dual screw specimens sustained cut-out by medial migration of the distal screw after 10,054 cycles. At test end, varus collapse and neck rotation in dual screws implants advanced to 3.7 ± 1.7° and 1.6 ± 1.0°, respectively. Conclusion The single and double lag screw implants demonstrated a significantly different migration resistance in surrogate specimens under gait loading simulation with
Chaos synchronization in autonomous chaotic system via hybrid feedback control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Lixin; Chu Yandong; Zhang Jiangang; Li Xianfeng; Chang Yingxiang
2009-01-01
This paper presents the synchronization of chaos by designing united controller. First, this method is implemented in synchronization of a simple system, then we realize the synchronization of Lue hyperchaotic system, we also take tracking control to realize the synchronization of Lue hyperchaotic system. Comparing with results, we can find that hybrid feedback control approach is more effective than tracking control for hyperchaotic system. Numerical simulations show the united synchronization method works well.
Synchronization of Coupled Neurons Controlled by a Pacemaker
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Mei-Sheng; Zhang Hong-Hui; Zhao Yong; Shi Xia
2011-01-01
We investigate synchronization of Hindmarsh—Rose neurons with gap junctions under the control of a pacemaker. In a ring Hindmarsh—Rose neuronal network, the coupled neurons with the pacemaker can occur in synchronization more easily than those without the pacemaker. Furthermore, the pacemaker can induce phase synchronization or nearly-complete synchronization of nonidentical neurons. This synchronization can occur more easily when time delay is considered. Theses results can be helpful to understand the activities of the real neuronal system. (general)
Chaos synchronizations of chaotic systems via active nonlinear control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, J; Xiao, T J
2008-01-01
This paper not only investigates the chaos synchronization between two LCC chaotic systems, but also discusses the chaos synchronization between LCC system and Genesio system. Some novel active nonlinear controllers are designed to achieve synchronizations between drive and response systems effectively. Moreover, the sufficient conditions of synchronizations are derived by using Lyapunov stability theorem. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the theoretical analysis, which shows that the synchronization schemes are global effective
Guide to Synchronization of Video Systems to IRIG Timing
1992-07-01
and industry. 1-2 CHAPTER 2 SYNCHRONISATION Before delving into the details of synchronization , a review is needed of the reasons for synchronizing ... Synchronization of Video Systems to IRIG Timing Optical Systems Group Range Commanders Council White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002-5110 RCC Document 456-92 Range...This document addresses a broad field of video synchronization to IRIG timing with emphasis on color synchronization . This document deals with
Bušs, Ginters
2009-01-01
Bayesian inference requires an analyst to set priors. Setting the right prior is crucial for precise forecasts. This paper analyzes how optimal prior changes when an economy is hit by a recession. For this task, an autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) model is chosen. The results show that a sharp economic slowdown changes the optimal prior in two directions. First, it changes the structure of the optimal weight prior, setting smaller weight on the lagged dependent variable compared to varia...
Simple and flexible SAS and SPSS programs for analyzing lag-sequential categorical data.
O'Connor, B P
1999-11-01
This paper describes simple and flexible programs for analyzing lag-sequential categorical data, using SAS and SPSS. The programs read a stream of codes and produce a variety of lag-sequential statistics, including transitional frequencies, expected transitional frequencies, transitional probabilities, adjusted residuals, z values, Yule's Q values, likelihood ratio tests of stationarity across time and homogeneity across groups or segments, transformed kappas for unidirectional dependence, bidirectional dependence, parallel and nonparallel dominance, and significance levels based on both parametric and randomization tests.
Cackett, Edward M.; Chiang, Chia-Ying; McHardy, Ian; Edelson, Rick; Goad, Michael R.; Horne, Keith; Korista, Kirk T.
2018-04-01
The Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 was monitored spectroscopically with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of a reverberation mapping campaign that also included Swift, Kepler, and ground-based photometric monitoring. During 2016 July 12–August 6, we obtained 26 spectra across a nearly continuous wavelength range of ∼1150–10000 Å. These were combined with Swift data to produce a UV/optical “lag spectrum,” which shows the interband lag relative to the Swift UVW2 band as a function of wavelength. The broad shape of the lag spectrum appears to follow the τ ∝ λ 4/3 relation seen previously in photometric interband lag measurements of other active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This shape is consistent with the standard thin disk model, but the magnitude of the lags implies a disk that is a factor of ∼3 larger than predicted, again consistent with what has been previously seen in other AGNs. In all cases these large disk sizes, which are also implied by independent gravitational microlensing of higher-mass AGNs, cannot be simply reconciled with the standard model. However, the most striking feature in this higher-resolution lag spectrum is a clear excess around the 3646 Å Balmer jump. This strongly suggests that diffuse emission from gas in the much larger broad-line region (BLR) must also contribute significantly to the interband lags. While the relative contributions of the disk and BLR cannot be uniquely determined in these initial measurements, it is clear that both will need to be considered to comprehensively model and understand AGN lag spectra.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hajnalka Péics
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The asymptotic behavior of solutions of the system of difference equations with continuous time and lag function between two known real functions is studied. The cases when the lag function is between two linear delay functions, between two power delay functions and between two constant delay functions are observed and illustrated by examples. The asymptotic estimates of solutions of the considered system are obtained.
Yi Huang; Francesca Dominici; Michelle Bell
2004-01-01
In this paper, we develop Bayesian hierarchical distributed lag models for estimating associations between daily variations in summer ozone levels and daily variations in cardiovascular and respiratory (CVDRESP) mortality counts for 19 U.S. large cities included in the National Morbidity Mortality Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) for the period 1987 - 1994. At the first stage, we define a semi-parametric distributed lag Poisson regression model to estimate city-specific relative rates of CVDRESP ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md Ruhul Amin
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a fast self-synchronization known as virtual synchronous converter (VSCon between single-phase microgrid and inverter in low-voltage microgrid, has been developed in Matlab/Simulink. The idea is to any phase locked loop (PLL circuit for inverter-microgrid synchronization in order to improve the synchronization time. As known, it is difficult and lengthy process to tune the PLL gain parameters to reach suitable performance for synchronizing among the voltage, phase-angle and frequency between them. Due to this problem, a fast self synchronization technique is needed in order to minimize the time losses at the microgrid connection. Therefore, the VSCon has been developed which is based on the synchronous generator mathematical model but in virtual environment representation. It has been applied in the inverter control for generating switching pattern to the inverter switches in order to respond to the grid voltage for improve the synchronization. For a prove of concept, several simulation tests in MATLAB models have been conducted, in order to see the effectiveness of this VSCon. First test has been conducted, when a 240V, 50Hz frequency grid source is used for observing the self-synchronization the system with the power flows output. Furthermore, the next test is conducted when the grid frequency is changed from the rated frequency at 50Hz to 51Hz and the result shows the VSCon in inverter control takes nearly 40ms to synchronize to this new frequency value. The test on grid phase-angle delay also been tested when ac grid voltage has 150 phase delay. As from all the results, the improved inverter control with VSCon structure is able to have fast and self-synchronized between the invertergrid connection before the power from the inverter can be transferred.
Finite-time analysis of global projective synchronization on coloured ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-11-27
Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2017 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.
Modeling eye gaze patterns in clinician-patient interaction with lag sequential analysis.
Montague, Enid; Xu, Jie; Chen, Ping-Yu; Asan, Onur; Barrett, Bruce P; Chewning, Betty
2011-10-01
The aim of this study was to examine whether lag sequential analysis could be used to describe eye gaze orientation between clinicians and patients in the medical encounter. This topic is particularly important as new technologies are implemented into multiuser health care settings in which trust is critical and nonverbal cues are integral to achieving trust. This analysis method could lead to design guidelines for technologies and more effective assessments of interventions. Nonverbal communication patterns are important aspects of clinician-patient interactions and may affect patient outcomes. The eye gaze behaviors of clinicians and patients in 110 videotaped medical encounters were analyzed using the lag sequential method to identify significant behavior sequences. Lag sequential analysis included both event-based lag and time-based lag. Results from event-based lag analysis showed that the patient's gaze followed that of the clinician, whereas the clinician's gaze did not follow the patient's. Time-based sequential analysis showed that responses from the patient usually occurred within 2 s after the initial behavior of the clinician. Our data suggest that the clinician's gaze significantly affects the medical encounter but that the converse is not true. Findings from this research have implications for the design of clinical work systems and modeling interactions. Similar research methods could be used to identify different behavior patterns in clinical settings (physical layout, technology, etc.) to facilitate and evaluate clinical work system designs.
Ratio of basin lag times for runoff and sediment yield processes recorded in various environments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Banasik
2015-03-01
Full Text Available River basin lag time (LAG, defined as the elapsed time between the occurrence of the centroids of the effective rainfall intensity hyetograph and the storm runoff hydrograph, is an important factor in determining the time to peak and the peak value of the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH. In the procedure of predicting a sedimentgraph (suspended sediment load as a function of time, the equivalent parameter is the lag time for the sediment yield (LAGs, which is defined as the elapsed time between the occurrence of the centroids of sediment production during a storm event and the observed sedimentgraph at the gauging station. Data of over 150 events recorded in 11 small river catchments (located in Poland, Germany, UK and USA with a drainage area of 0.02 km2 to 82 km2 have been analysed to estimate the ratio of LAGs/LAG. The ratio, in majority of cases was smaller than 1, and decreased with increase of river basin slope. Special attention is given to the data collected in a small agricultural catchment and also during snowmelt periods, which is located in central Poland.
Lag-Lead Compensator for Shape Memory Alloy in Gripping Manipulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Made Andik Setiawan
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Shape Memory Alloy (SMA is emerging actuator for micro and nano application, on the other hand the developing controller in such area needs much further considerations.This paper is to present the evaluation of close-loop controller responses of the TiNi SMA spring based gripper by introduced lag, lead and lag-lead compensator. A SMA spring has a diameter of 50 mm wire and 350 gram hanging mass. Driving the SMA actuator is used pulse width modulation (PWM signal and responses tested by varying frequencies and duty-cycles. The implemented frequencies in this study are 12, 25, 125, 250 and 1150 Hz. Lab-View and DAQ-Card is used as a controller, interfacer and data recorder of the system. The gripper fabricated consists of two fingers and the total angular displacement of the gripper is 300. The experimental result of the SMA open-loop response are presented and discussed. For advanced application, the close-loop controller is implemented and studied. The close-loop controllers employed are lag, lead and lag-lead compensator. The SMA response indicated that the rise-time and the steady-state error of the cloop-loop are shorter and lower than open-loop controller. The tuning, response and program of the lag, lead and lag-lead compensator are presented and discussed in this paper.
Constraining Anisotropic Lorentz Violation via the Spectral-lag Transition of GRB 160625B
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Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Shao, Lang [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Bin-Bin [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucá (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Mészáros, Peter [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kostelecký, V. Alan, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: kostelec@indiana.edu [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)
2017-06-20
Violations of Lorentz invariance can lead to an energy-dependent vacuum dispersion of light, which results in arrival-time differences of photons with different energies arising from a given transient source. In this work, direction-dependent dispersion constraints are obtained on nonbirefringent Lorentz-violating effects using the observed spectral lags of the gamma-ray burst GRB 160625B. This burst has unusually large high-energy photon statistics, so we can obtain constraints from the true spectral time lags of bunches of high-energy photons rather than from the rough time lag of a single highest-energy photon. Also, GRB 160625B is the only burst to date having a well-defined transition from positive lags to negative lags, providing a unique opportunity to distinguish Lorentz-violating effects from any source-intrinsic time lag in the emission of photons of different energy bands. Our results place comparatively robust two-sided constraints on a variety of isotropic and anisotropic coefficients for Lorentz violation, including the first bounds on Lorentz-violating effects from operators of mass dimension 10 in the photon sector.
Effective Iterated Greedy Algorithm for Flow-Shop Scheduling Problems with Time lags
ZHAO, Ning; YE, Song; LI, Kaidian; CHEN, Siyu
2017-05-01
Flow shop scheduling problem with time lags is a practical scheduling problem and attracts many studies. Permutation problem(PFSP with time lags) is concentrated but non-permutation problem(non-PFSP with time lags) seems to be neglected. With the aim to minimize the makespan and satisfy time lag constraints, efficient algorithms corresponding to PFSP and non-PFSP problems are proposed, which consist of iterated greedy algorithm for permutation(IGTLP) and iterated greedy algorithm for non-permutation (IGTLNP). The proposed algorithms are verified using well-known simple and complex instances of permutation and non-permutation problems with various time lag ranges. The permutation results indicate that the proposed IGTLP can reach near optimal solution within nearly 11% computational time of traditional GA approach. The non-permutation results indicate that the proposed IG can reach nearly same solution within less than 1% computational time compared with traditional GA approach. The proposed research combines PFSP and non-PFSP together with minimal and maximal time lag consideration, which provides an interesting viewpoint for industrial implementation.
Sheehan, Cathy; Donohue, Ross; Shea, Tracey; Cooper, Brian; Cieri, Helen De
2016-07-01
In response to the call for empirical evidence of a connection between leading and lagging indicators of occupational health and safety (OHS), the first aim of the current research is to consider the association between leading and lagging indicators of OHS. Our second aim is to investigate the moderating effect of safety leadership on the association between leading and lagging indicators. Data were collected from 3578 employees nested within 66 workplaces. Multi-level modelling was used to test the two hypotheses. The results confirm an association between leading and lagging indicators of OHS as well as the moderating impact of middle management safety leadership on the direct association. The association between leading and lagging indicators provides OHS practitioners with useful information to substantiate efforts within organisations to move away from a traditional focus on lagging indicators towards a preventative focus on leading indicators. The research also highlights the important role played by middle managers and the value of OHS leadership development and investment at the middle management level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.