Embedded ESD Protection Proof of Concept
Gerke, David; Herrmann, Bill
2008-01-01
The purpose of this project is to characterize and correlate Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) sensitivity levels of an Integrated Circuit (IC) package using Transmission Line Pulse (TLP) and Human Body Model (HBM) methods. This characterization will be used as a baseline ESD sensitivity level to demonstrate improvement to the ESD sensitivity of the IC package through the use of EPI-FLO(Trade Mark) Polymer Voltage Suppression (PVS) protection devices developed and manufactured by Electronic Polymers, Inc. (EPI).
Embedded ESD Protection Proof of Concept
Gerke, David; Herrmann, Bill
2008-01-01
The purpose of this project is to characterize and correlate Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) sensitivity levels of an Integrated Circuit (IC) package using Transmission Line Pulse (TLP) and Human Body Model (HBM) methods. This characterization will be used as a baseline ESD sensitivity level to demonstrate improvement to the ESD sensitivity of the IC package through the use of EPI-FLO(Trade Mark) Polymer Voltage Suppression (PVS) protection devices developed and manufactured by Electronic Polymers, Inc. (EPI).
Embedded Linux projects using Yocto project cookbook
González, Alex
2015-01-01
If you are an embedded developer learning about embedded Linux with some experience with the Yocto project, this book is the ideal way to become proficient and broaden your knowledge with examples that are immediately applicable to your embedded developments. Experienced embedded Yocto developers will find new insight into working methodologies and ARM specific development competence.
Proof Compression and the Mobius PCC Architecture for Embedded Devices
Jensen, Thomas
2009-01-01
The EU Mobius project has been concerned with the security of Java applications, and of mobile devices such as smart phones that execute such applications. In this talk, I'll give a brief overview of the results obtained on on-device checking of various security-related program properties. I'll then describe in more detail how the concept of certified abstract interpretation and abstraction-carrying code can be applied to polyhedral-based analysis of Java byte code in order to verify properties pertaining to the usage of resources of a down-loaded application. Particular emphasis has been on finding ways of reducing the size of the certificates that accompany a piece of code.
The embedded operating system project
Campbell, R. H.
1985-01-01
The design and construction of embedded operating systems for real-time advanced aerospace applications was investigated. The applications require reliable operating system support that must accommodate computer networks. Problems that arise in the construction of such operating systems, reconfiguration, consistency and recovery in a distributed system, and the issues of real-time processing are reported. A thesis that provides theoretical foundations for the use of atomic actions to support fault tolerance and data consistency in real-time object-based system is included. The following items are addressed: (1) atomic actions and fault-tolerance issues; (2) operating system structure; (3) program development; (4) a reliable compiler for path Pascal; and (5) mediators, a mechanism for scheduling distributed system processes.
HGP-A wellhead generator proof-of-feasibility project
1978-11-03
The HGP-A Wellhead Generator Proof-of-Feasibility Project consists of a nominal 3 Megawatt geothermal steam turbine electric power generating facility, the first geothermal power plant in Hawaii. The plant is being constructed as a research and development project to evaluate geothermal steam as a viable resource to be considered for larger commercial electric power generating stations in Hawaii. The project facilities include a turbine building, with a contiguous service area for plant operations and maintenance, visitor center, and the power plant equipment.
Johnsen, Jon
The article deals with a simplified proof of the Sobolev embedding theorem for Triebel-Lizorkin spaces (that contain the $L_p$-Sobolev spaces $H^s_p$ as special cases). The method extends to a proof of the corresponding fact for general Triebel–Lizorkin spaces based on mixed $L_p$-norms. In this ......_p$-norms. In this context a Nikol’skij– Plancherel-Polya inequality for sequences of functions satisfying a geometric rectangle condition is proved. The results extend also to anisotropic spaces of the quasi-homogeneous type....
A direct proof of Sobolev embeddings for quasi-homogeneous Lizorkin–Triebel spaces with mixed norms
Jon Johnsen
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The article deals with a simplified proof of the Sobolev embedding theorem for Lizorkin–Triebel spaces (that contain the Lp-Sobolev spaces Hps as special cases. The method extends to a proof of the corresponding fact for general Lizorkin–Triebel spaces based on mixed Lp-norms. In this context a Nikol' skij–Plancherel–Polya inequality for sequences of functions satisfying a geometric rectangle condition is proved. The results extend also to anisotropic spaces of the quasi-homogeneous type.
Power for Vehicle Embedded MEMS Sensors Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Embedded wireless sensors of the future will enable flight vehicle systems to be "highly aware" of onboard health and performance parameters, as well as the external...
Power for Vehicle Embedded MEMS Sensors Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Embedded wireless sensors of the future will enable flight vehicle systems to be "highly aware" of onboard health and performance parameters, as well as the...
The design and implementation of embedded wireless projection system
Long, Zhaohua; Xiong, Huawei; Liu, Daming
2017-05-01
In order to solve the problems of wiring trouble and switching time-consuming of PC projection, based on the deeply studies of H.264 coding and embedded development and researches on wireless transmission technology, a set of embedded wireless projection system has been implemented. And this can be achieved through PC data acquisition, coding and transmission. After testing, the system has a small transmission delay, a clear image display, and a good application scenario, which can meet the demands of the daily meeting and teaching.
A unified proof of dynamic stability of interior ESS for projection dynamics
Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.; Roorda, Berend
2011-01-01
We present a unified proof of dynamic stability for interior evolutionarily stable strategies for two recently introduced projection dynamics using the angle between certain vectors as a Lyapunov function.
Wang, Xueya; Wolf, Marc P; Keel, Rahel Bänziger; Lehner, Roman; Hunziker, Patrick R
2012-07-01
Existing mouse artery ex vivo perfusion models have utilized arteries such as carotid, uterine, and mesenteric arteries, but not the aorta. However, the aorta is the principal vessel analyzed for atherosclerosis studies in vivo. We have devised a mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model that can bridge this gap. Aortas from apoE((-/-)) mice are embedded in a transparent, gas-permeable, and elastic polymer matrix [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)] and artificially perfused with cell culture medium under cell culture conditions. After 24 h of artificial ex vivo perfusion, no evidence of cellular apoptosis is detected. Utilizing a standard confocal microscope, it is possible to image specific receptor targeting of cells in atherosclerotic plaques during 24 h. Imaging motion artifacts are minimal due to the polymer matrix embedding. Re-embedding of the aorta enables tissue sectioning and immuno-histochemical analysis. The ex vivo data are validated by comparison with in vivo experiments. This model can save animal lives via production of multiple endpoints in a single experiment, is easy to apply, and enables straightforward comparability with pre-existing atherosclerosis in vivo data. It is suited to investigate atherosclerotic disease in particular and vascular biology in general.
Wigner's theorem - revisited. A simple proof using projective geometry
Keller, Kai Johannes [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Papadopoulos, Nikolaos A. [Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Reyes Lega, Andres Fernando [Universidad de los Andes, Bogota (Colombia)
2008-07-01
This talk presents a a simple, geometric proof of Wigner's theorem on the realization of symmetries in quantum mechanics, that clarifies its relation to projective geometry. Although there exist several proofs, it seems that the relevance of Wigner's theorem is not fully appreciated in general. It is Wigner's theorem, which allows the use of linear realizations of symmetries and therefore guarantees that, in the end, quantum theory stays a linear theory. The proof presented here takes a strictly geometrical point of view. It becomes apparent, that Wigner's theorem is nothing else but a corollary of the fundamental theorem of projective geometry. In this sense the proof is simple, transparent and therefore accessible even to elementary treatments in quantum mechanics.
Høyrup, Jens
2016-01-01
“Embedding” as a technical concept comes from linguistics, more precisely from grammar. The present paper investigates whether it can be applied fruitfully to certain questions that have been investigated by historians (and sometimes philosophers) of mathematics: 1. The construction of numeral sy...... spatial and linguistic embedding and concludes that the spatio-linguistic notion of embedding can be meaningfully applied to the former two discussions, whereas the apparent embedding of older within new theories is rather an ideological mirage....
Embedding a Latin square with transversal into a projective space
Pretorius, Lou M
2010-01-01
A Latin square of side n defines in a natural way a finite geometry on 3n points, with three lines of size n and n^2 lines of size 3. A Latin square of side n with a transversal similarly defines a finite geometry on 3n+1 points, with three lines of size n, n^2-n lines of size 3, and n concurrent lines of size 4. A collection of k mutually orthogonal Latin squares defines a geometry on kn points, with k lines of size n and n^2 lines of size k. Extending work of Bruen and Colbourn (J. Combin. Th. Ser. A 92 (2000), 88-94), we characterise embeddings of these finite geometries into projective spaces over skew fields.
Høyrup, Jens
2015-01-01
to become the starting point not only for theoretical algebra, but for the whole transformation of mathematics from his time onward: the possibility of embedding, that is, of making a symbol or an element of a calculation stand not only for a single number, determined or undetermined, but for a whole...
Wang, Xiaohan; Chen, Laming
2012-01-01
A recursive algorithm named Zero-point Attracting Projection (ZAP) is proposed recently for sparse signal reconstruction. Compared with the reference algorithms, ZAP demonstrates rather good performance in recovery precision and robustness. However, any theoretical analysis about the mentioned algorithm, even a proof on its convergence, is not available. In this work, a strict proof on the convergence of ZAP is provided and the condition of convergence is put forward. Based on the theoretical analysis, it is further proved that ZAP is non-biased and can approach the sparse solution to any extent, with the proper choice of step-size. Furthermore, the case of inaccurate measurements in noisy scenario is also discussed. It is proved that disturbance power linearly reduces the recovery precision, which is predictable but not preventable. The reconstruction deviation of $p$-compressible signal is also provided. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to verify the theoretical analysis.
Embedded TCP Agents for Near-Earth Communications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) will design, model, implement, and demonstrate extensible, embedded agents that will continuously adapt the behavior of the...
Micro-Channel Embedded Pulsating Heat Pipes Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the need for thermal control technology becomes more demanding Micro-Channel Embedded Pulsating Heat Pipes (ME-PHPs) represents a sophisticated and enabling...
Holomorphic Embedded Load Flow for autonomous spacecraft power systems Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Holomorphic Embedding Load Flow Method (HELM) is a breakthrough that brings significant advances to the field of power systems. It provides a non-iterative...
A Project-Based Laboratory for Learning Embedded System Design with Industry Support
Lee, Chyi-Shyong; Su, Juing-Huei; Lin, Kuo-En; Chang, Jia-Hao; Lin, Gu-Hong
2010-01-01
A project-based laboratory for learning embedded system design with support from industry is presented in this paper. The aim of this laboratory is to motivate students to learn the building blocks of embedded systems and practical control algorithms by constructing a line-following robot using the quadratic interpolation technique to predict the…
Project-Based Learning to Enhance Teaching Embedded Systems
Sababha, Belal H.; Alqudah, Yazan A.; Abualbasal, Abdelraheem; AlQaralleh, Esam A.
2016-01-01
Exposing engineering students during their education to real-world problems and giving them the chance to apply what they learn in the classroom is a vital element of engineering education. The Embedded Systems course at Princess Sumaya University for Technology (PSUT) is one of the main courses that bridge the gap between theoretical electrical…
Project-Based Learning to Enhance Teaching Embedded Systems
Sababha, Belal H.; Alqudah, Yazan A.; Abualbasal, Abdelraheem; AlQaralleh, Esam A.
2016-01-01
Exposing engineering students during their education to real-world problems and giving them the chance to apply what they learn in the classroom is a vital element of engineering education. The Embedded Systems course at Princess Sumaya University for Technology (PSUT) is one of the main courses that bridge the gap between theoretical electrical…
Van Hoorik, P.; Westerga, R. [Energy Valley, Groningen (Netherlands)
2011-05-15
The SmartProofs program aims to develop tools which must show that the principle of a Smart Power System (SPS) works and how. An SPS can ensure that the supply and demand of electricity in the grid is balanced, even in case more decentralized energy techniques will be put into use. This final report summarizes the main results and conclusions of the SmartProofs program. As part of the SPS program attention is paid to the impacts on the girds, the effects of centralized and decentralized management, disaster resilience, pricing models, potential benefits of control and new business models [Dutch] Het SmartProofs programma heeft tot doel om een concept van een Smart Power System (SPS) te ontwikkelen waarmee kan worden aangetoond dat het principe van een SPS werkt en op welke manier. Een SPS kan zorgen dat het aanbod van elektriciteit op het net op elk moment van de dag overeenkomt met de vraag, ook als er straks veel meer decentrale energietechnieken gebruikt worden waarmee zowel de vraag als het aanbod van elektriciteit onvoorspelbaar wordt. Dit eindrapport geeft een overzicht van de belangrijkste resultaten en conclusies van het SmartProofs programma. Het programma heeft in de werkpakketten deelvraagstukken rondom SmartProofS onderzocht rondom de effecten op onze energienetten, de effecten van zowel centrale- als decentrale aansturing, disaster resilience, prijsmodellen, mogelijke baten van aansturing en nieuwe business modellen.
Transforming Roles: Canadian Academic Librarians Embedded in Faculty Research Projects
Bedi, Shailoo; Waldie, Christine
2017-01-01
Academic librarians have always played an important role in providing research services and research-skills development to faculty in higher education. But that role is evolving to include the academic librarian as a unique and necessary research partner, practitioner, and participant in collaborative, grant-funded research projects. This article…
Can openEHR archetypes be used in a national context? The Danish archetype proof-of-concept project.
Bernstein, Knut; Tvede, Ida; Petersen, Jan; Bredegaard, Kirsten
2009-01-01
Semantic interoperability and secondary use of data are important informatics challenges in modern healthcare. Connected Digital Health Denmark is investigating if the openEHR reference model, archetypes and templates could be used for representing and exchanging clinical content specification and could become a candidate for a national logical infrastructure for semantic interoperability. The Danish archetype proof-of-concept project has tried out some elements of the openEHR methodology in cooperation with regions and vendors. The project has pointed out benefits and challenges using archetypes, and has identified barriers that need to be addressed in the next steps.
A set-theoretic approach for compensated signature embedding using projections onto convex sets
Ababneh, Sufyan; Ansari, Rashid; Khokhar, Ashfaq
2008-01-01
In this paper, we use a set-theoretic approach to provide an efficient and deterministic iterative solution for the compensated signature embedding (CSE) scheme introduced in an earlier work. 4 In CSE, a fragile signature is derived and embedded into the media using a robust watermarking technique. Since the embedding process leads to altering the media, the media samples are iteratively adjusted to compensate for the embedding distortion. Projections Onto Convex Sets (POCS) is an iterative set-theoretic approach known to be deterministic, effective and has been used in many image processing applications. We propose to use POCS for providing a compensation mechanism to address the CSE problem. We identify two convex constraint sets defined according to image fidelity and signature-generation criteria, and use them in a POCS-based CSE image authentication system. The system utilizes the wavelet transform domain for embedding and compensation. Simulation results are presented to show that the proposed scheme is efficient and accurate in terms of both achieving high convergence speed and maintaining image fidelity.
Craft-Joule Project: Stagnation proof transparently insulated flat plate solar collector (static)
Oliva, A; Cadafalch, J; Perez-Segarra, C.D. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)] (and others)
2000-07-01
The STATIC (STAgnation proof Transparently Insulated flat plate Solar Collector) project is a Craft-Joule Project within the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme Joule III coordinated by the Centre Technologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC). The core group of SMEs involved in the project has its main economical activity in the field of solar thermal systems at low temperature level (domestic hot water, solar heating, etc.). Beyond this, a large application potential exists for solar heating at medium temperature level (from 80 to 160 Celsius degrees) : industrial process heat, solar cooling and air conditioning, solar drying , distillation and desalination. Three of the four SME proposers are located in Southern Europe and in the Caribean, where a continuos increase of the demand for air conditioning and cooling has been demonstrated in the last years. The recent development of flat plate solar collectors with honeycomb-type transparent insulation cover has shown that this type of collectors can become a low cost alternative to evacuated tube and high concentrating CPC collectors in the medium temperature range from 80 to 160 Celsius degrees. With the expected reduction of collector cost, that forms 30%-50% of total system cost, a decisive break-through of solar thermal systems using heat in the medium temperature range can be achieved. The feasibility and good performance of these solar collectors has been proved in several prototypes. Nevertheless, up to now no commercial products are available. In order to reach this, the following developments of new concepts are necessary and are being carried out within this project: solution of the problem of overheating: development of collector versions for different working temperatures: optimization of the design with the support of high level numerical simulation. Several prototypes of the new solar collectors are being tested. System tests will also be carried or for two test arrays of optimized collector
Kidron, Ivy; Dreyfus, Tommy
2014-01-01
The emergence of a proof image is often an important stage in a learner's construction of a proof. In this paper, we introduce, characterize, and exemplify the notion of proof image. We also investigate how proof images emerge. Our approach starts from the learner's efforts to construct a justification without (or before) attempting any…
Tipping, J.; Boogaard, F.; Jaeger, R.; Duffy, A.; Klomp, T.; Manenschijn, M.
2015-01-01
Over recent years, there has been an explosion in the number and diversity of projects undertaken to address urban resilience and climate proofing. Sharing the knowledge gained from these projects demands increasingly innovative and accessible methods. This paper details the outcomes of one such ini
Final report for the Light Water Breeder Reactor proof-of-breeding analytical support project
Graczyk, D.G.; Hoh, J.C.; Martino, F.J.; Nelson, R.E.; Osudar, J.; Levitz, N.M.
1987-05-01
The technology of breeding /sup 233/U from /sup 232/Th in a light water reactor is being developed and evaluated by the Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) through operation and examination of the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Bettis is determining the end-of-life (EOL) inventory of fissile uranium in the LWBR core by nondestructive assay of a statistical sample comprising approximately 500 EOL fuel rods. This determination is being made with an irradiated-fuel assay gauge based on neutron interrogation and detection of delayed neutrons from each rod. The EOL fissile inventory will be compared with the beginning-of-life fissile loading of the LWBR to determine the extent of breeding. In support of the BAPL proof-of-breeding (POB) effort, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) carried out destructive physical, chemical, and radiometric analyses on 17 EOL LWBR fuel rods that were previously assayed with the nondestructive gauge. The ANL work included measurements on the intact rods; shearing of the rods into pre-designated contiguous segments; separate dissolution of each of the more than 150 segments; and analysis of the dissolver solutions to determine each segment's uranium content, uranium isotopic composition, and loading of selected fission products. This report describes the facilities in which this work was carried out, details operations involved in processing each rod, and presents a comprehensive discussion of uncertainties associated with each result of the ANL measurements. Most operations were carried out remotely in shielded cells. Automated equipment and procedures, controlled by a computer system, provided error-free data acquisition and processing, as well as full replication of operations with each rod. Despite difficulties that arose during processing of a few rod segments, the ANL destructive-assay results satisfied the demanding needs of the parent LWBR-POB program.
Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince
1987-01-01
Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.
Integrating Implicit Induction Proofs into Certified Proof Environments
Stratulat, Sorin
We give evidence of the direct integration and automated checking of implicit induction-based proofs inside certified reasoning environments, as that provided by the Coq proof assistant. This is the first step of a long term project focused on 1) mechanically certifying implicit induction proofs generated by automated provers like Spike, and 2) narrowing the gap between automated and interactive proof techniques inside proof assistants such that multiple induction steps can be executed completely automatically and mutual induction can be treated more conveniently. Contrary to the current approaches of reconstructing implicit induction proofs into scripts based on explicit induction tactics that integrate the usual proof assistants, our checking methodology is simpler and fits better for automation. The underlying implicit induction principles are separated and validated independently from the proof scripts that consist in a bunch of one-to-one translations of implicit induction proof steps. The translated steps can be checked independently, too, so the validation process fits well for parallelisation and for the management of large proof scripts. Moreover, our approach is more general; any kind of implicit induction proof can be considered because the limitations imposed by the proof reconstruction techniques no longer exist. An implementation that integrates automatic translators for generating fully checkable Coq scripts from Spike proofs is reported.
基于Yocto Project的嵌入式应用设计%Embedded Application Design Based on Yocto Project
任宁宁; 杨斌
2012-01-01
Yocto Project是一个开源项目，可以在任意硬件上（如x86、x86—64、ARM、PPC、MIPS）为任意嵌入式设备构建自定义嵌入式Linux应用所需的模板、工具和资源，极大地简化了开发过程。本设计主要基于Yocto Project在嵌入式设备上轻松定制嵌入式Linux应用，并实现Yocto Project的定制过程。%Yocto Project is an open source project, and it can be applied in any hardware （such as x86, x86664, ARM, Power PC, MIPS） to build templates, tools and resources needed by customized embedded Linux application for any embedded device, and greatly simplify the development process. Embedded Linux application is easily customized on embedded device based on Yocto Project,and the customi- zation process of Yocto Project is achieved.
Dori, Yehudit J.
2003-01-01
Matriculation 2000 was a 5-year project aimed at moving from the nationwide traditional examination system in Israel to a school-based alternative embedded assessment. Encompassing 22 high schools from various communities in the country, the Project aimed at fostering deep understanding, higher-order thinking skills, and students' engagement in learning through alternative teaching and embedded assessment methods. This article describes research conducted during the fifth year of the Project at 2 experimental and 2 control schools. The research objective was to investigate students' learning outcomes in chemistry and biology in the Matriculation 2000 Project. The assumption was that alternative embedded assessment has some effect on students' performance. The experimental students scored significantly higher than their control group peers on low-level assignments and more so on assignments that required higher-order thinking skills. The findings indicate that given adequate support and teachers' consent and collaboration, schools can transfer from nationwide or statewide standardized testing to school-based alter-native embedded assessment.
Highly Adaptive Primary Mirror Having Embedded Actuators, Sensors, and Neural Control Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Xinetics has demonstrated the technology required to fabricate a self-compensating highly adaptive silicon carbide primary mirror system having embedded actuators,...
Moot, Richard
2007-01-01
This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.
Moesby, Egon; W., Hans Henrik; Kørnøv, Lone
2005-01-01
In this paper, the authors describe a way to increase student learning through social constructed teamwork by adding an individual activity to the project work. This can be achieved not just by adding an individual activity outside or parallel to the project work, but by having the individual...... the individual solutions and find the one solution to work on in the final phases of the project. On top of that, it helps train students’ abilities to make evaluations among various solutions of which one is their own, thereby learning how to evaluate their personal solutions against another person’s solutions...... activity embedded as an integrated part of the project work. Students work in the solution phase of the project on an individual activity that is separately assessed. The results of these individual activities form the platform for students’ final work with the project as a team. They have to evaluate...
Proof Auditing Formalised Mathematics
Mark Miles Adams
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The first three formalisations of major mathematical proofs have heralded a new age in formalised mathematics, establishing that informal proofs at the limits of what can be understood by humans can be checked by machine. However, formalisation itself can be subject to error, and yet there is currently no accepted process in checking, or even much concern that such checks have not been performed. In this paper, we motivate why we should be concerned about correctness, and argue the need for proof auditing, to rigorously and independently check a formalisation. We discuss the issues involved in performing an audit, and propose an effective and efficient auditing process. Throughout we use the Flyspeck Project, that formalises the Kepler Conjecture proof, to illustrate our point.
Kramer, Simon
2012-01-01
We propose a logic of interactive proofs as the first and main step towards an intuitionistic foundation for interactive computation to be obtained via an interactive analog of the G\\"odel-Kolmogorov-Art\\"emov definition of intuitionistic logic as embedded into a classical modal logic of proofs, and of the Curry-Howard isomorphism between intuitionistic proofs and typed programs. Our interactive proofs effectuate a persistent epistemic impact in their intended communities of peer reviewers that consists in the induction of the (propositional) knowledge of their proof goal by means of the (individual) knowledge of the proof with the interpreting reviewer. That is, interactive proofs effectuate a transfer of propositional knowledge---(to-be-)known facts---via the transfer of certain individual knowledge---(to-be-)known proofs---in distributed and multi-agent systems. In other words, we as a community can have the formal common knowledge that a proof is that which if known to one of our peer members would induce...
Pacific CRYSTAL Project: Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science Classrooms
Anthony, Robert J.; Tippett, Christine D.; Yore, Larry D.
2010-01-01
Science literacy leading to fuller and informed participation in the public debate about science, technology, society, and environmental (STSE) issues that produce justified decisions and sustainable actions is the shared and central goal of the Pacific CRYSTAL Project. There is broad agreement by science education researchers that learners need to be able to construct and interpret specific scientific discourses and texts to be literate in science. We view these capabilities as components in the fundamental sense of science literacy and as interactive and synergetic to the derived sense of science literacy, which refers to having general knowledge about concepts, principles, and methods of science. This article reports on preliminary findings from Years 1, 2, and 3 of the 5-year Pacific CRYSTAL project that aims to identify, develop, and embed explicit literacy instruction in science programs to achieve both senses of science literacy. A community-based, opportunistic, engineering research and development approach has been utilized to identify problems and concerns and to design instructional solutions for teaching middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8) science. Initial data indicate (a) opportunities in programs for embedding literacy instruction and tasks; (b) difficulties generalist teachers have with new science curricula; (c) difficulties specialist science teachers have with literacy activities, strategies, genre, and writing-to-learn science tasks; and (d) potential literacy activities (vocabulary, reading comprehension, visual literacy, genre, and writing tasks) for middle school science. Preinstruction student assessments indicate a range of challenges in achieving effective learning in science and the need for extensive teacher support to achieve the project’s goals. Postinstructional assessments indicate positive changes in students’ ability to perform target reading and writing tasks. Qualitative data indicate teachers’ desire for external direction
Time Reversal Acoustic Structural Health Monitoring Using Array of Embedded Sensors Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) structural health monitoring with an embedded sensor array represents a new approach to in-situ nondestructive evaluation of air-space...
Component-Based QoS-Driven Synthesis of High Assurance Embedded Software Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Software is an integral part of many complex embedded systems, such as avionics, scientific exploration, and on-board systems. However, poor software reliability is...
Joshi, Mark
2015-01-01
This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.
Ahmed Hassan
2004-09-01
The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site.
Cooper, Martyn; Colwell, Chetz; Jelfs, Anne
2007-01-01
This paper makes the case that if e-learning research and development projects are to be successfully adopted in real-world teaching and learning contexts, then they must effectively address accessibility and usability issues; and that these need to be integrated throughout the project. As such, accessibility and usability issues need to be made…
Finding Proofs in Tarskian Geometry
Beeson, Michael; Wos, Larry
2016-01-01
We report on a project to use a theorem prover to find proofs of the theorems in Tarskian geometry. These theorems start with fundamental properties of betweenness, proceed through the derivations of several famous theorems due to Gupta and end with the derivation from Tarski's axioms of Hilbert's 1899 axioms for geometry. They include the four challenge problems left unsolved by Quaife, who two decades ago found some \\Otter proofs in Tarskian geometry (solving challenges issued in Wos's 1998...
Understanding mathematical proof
Taylor, John
2014-01-01
Introduction The need for proof The language of mathematics Reasoning Deductive reasoning and truth Example proofs Logic and ReasoningIntroduction Propositions, connectives, and truth tables Logical equivalence and logical implication Predicates and quantification Logical reasoning Sets and Functions Introduction Sets and membership Operations on setsThe Cartesian product Functions and composite functions Properties of functions The Structure of Mathematical ProofsIntroduction Some proofs dissected An informal framework for proofs Direct proof A more formal framework Finding Proofs Direct proo
Embedding Agile Practices within a Plan-Driven Hierarchical Project Life Cycle
Millard, W. David; Johnson, Daniel M.; Henderson, John M.; Lombardo, Nicholas J.; Bass, Robert B.; Smith, Jason E.
2014-07-28
Organizations use structured, plan-driven approaches to provide continuity, direction, and control to large, multi-year programs. Projects within these programs vary greatly in size, complexity, level of maturity, technical risk, and clarity of the development objectives. Organizations that perform exploratory research, evolutionary development, and other R&D activities can obtain the benefits of Agile practices without losing the benefits of their program’s overarching plan-driven structure. This paper describes application of Agile development methods on a large plan-driven sensor integration program. While the client employed plan-driven, requirements flow-down methodologies, tight project schedules and complex interfaces called for frequent end-to-end demonstrations to provide feedback during system development. The development process maintained the many benefits of plan-driven project execution with the rapid prototyping, integration, demonstration, and client feedback possible through Agile development methods. This paper also describes some of the tools and implementing mechanisms used to transition between and take advantage of each methodology, and presents lessons learned from the project management, system engineering, and developer’s perspectives.
Embedded engineering education
Kaštelan, Ivan; Temerinac, Miodrag; Barak, Moshe; Sruk, Vlado
2016-01-01
This book focuses on the outcome of the European research project “FP7-ICT-2011-8 / 317882: Embedded Engineering Learning Platform” E2LP. Additionally, some experiences and researches outside this project have been included. This book provides information about the achieved results of the E2LP project as well as some broader views about the embedded engineering education. It captures project results and applications, methodologies, and evaluations. It leads to the history of computer architectures, brings a touch of the future in education tools and provides a valuable resource for anyone interested in embedded engineering education concepts, experiences and material. The book contents 12 original contributions and will open a broader discussion about the necessary knowledge and appropriate learning methods for the new profile of embedded engineers. As a result, the proposed Embedded Computer Engineering Learning Platform will help to educate a sufficient number of future engineers in Europe, capable of d...
Conversion of HOL Light proofs into Metamath
Mario M Carneiro
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present an algorithm for converting proofs from the OpenTheory interchange format, which can be translated to and from any of the HOL family of proof languages (HOL4, HOL Light, ProofPower, and Isabelle, into the ZFC-based Metamath language. This task is divided into two steps: the translation of an OpenTheory proof into a Metamath HOL formalization, hol.mm, followed by the embedding of the HOL formalization into the main ZFC foundations of the main Metamath library, set.mm. This process provides a means to link the simplicity of the Metamath foundations to the intense automation efforts which have borne fruit in HOL Light, allowing the production of complete Metamath proofs of theorems in HOL Light, while also proving that HOL Light is consistent, relative to Metamath's ZFC axiomatization.
Embedding perspective cue in holographic projection display by virtual variable-focal-length lenses
Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Zhao, Fuliang
2014-10-01
To make a view perspective cue emerging in reconstructed images, a new approach is proposed by incorporating virtual variable-focal-length lenses into computer generated Fourier hologram (CGFH). This approach is based on a combination of monocular vision principle and digital hologram display, thus it owns properties coming from the two display models simultaneously. Therefore, it can overcome the drawback of the unsatisfied visual depth perception of the reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) images in holographic projection display (HPD). Firstly, an analysis on characteristics of conventional CGFH reconstruction is made, which indicates that a finite depthof- focus and a non-adjustable lateral magnification are reasons of the depth information lack on a fixed image plane. Secondly, the principle of controlling lateral magnification in wave-front reconstructions by virtual lenses is demonstrated. And the relation model is deduced, involving the depth of object, the parameters of virtual lenses, and the lateral magnification. Next, the focal-lengths of virtual lenses are determined by considering perspective distortion of human vision. After employing virtual lenses in the CGFH, the reconstructed image on focal-plane can deliver the same depth cues as that of the monocular stereoscopic image. Finally, the depthof- focus enhancement produced by a virtual lens and the effect on the reconstruction quality from the virtual lens are described. Numerical simulation and electro-optical reconstruction experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm can improve the depth perception of the reconstructed 3D image in HPD. The proposed method provides a possibility of uniting multiple display models to enhance 3D display performance and viewer experience.
Advanced Proof Viewing in ProofTool
Tomer Libal
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Sequent calculus is widely used for formalizing proofs. However, due to the proliferation of data, understanding the proofs of even simple mathematical arguments soon becomes impossible. Graphical user interfaces help in this matter, but since they normally utilize Gentzen's original notation, some of the problems persist. In this paper, we introduce a number of criteria for proof visualization which we have found out to be crucial for analyzing proofs. We then evaluate recent developments in tree visualization with regard to these criteria and propose the Sunburst Tree layout as a complement to the traditional tree structure. This layout constructs inferences as concentric circle arcs around the root inference, allowing the user to focus on the proof's structural content. Finally, we describe its integration into ProofTool and explain how it interacts with the Gentzen layout.
Warren, R. [Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rmlw2@cam.ac.uk; Thompson, D. [Cancer Research-UK Genetic Epidemiology Group, University of Cambridge, Strangeway' s Research Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Del Frate, C. [Istituto di Radiologia, Universita di Udine (Italy); Cordell, M.; Highnam, R. [Siemens Molecular Imaging, Oxford (United Kingdom); Tromans, C. [Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Warsi, I.; Ding, J.; Sala, E. [Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Estrella, F.; Solomonides, A.E.; Odeh, M.; McClatchey, R. [CCCS Research Centre, University of West of England, Frenchay, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bazzocchi, M. [Istituto di Radiologia, Universita di Udine (Italy); Amendolia, S.R. [ETT Division, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Brady, M. [Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom)
2007-11-15
Aim: To demonstrate the use of grid technology to produce a database of mammograms and supporting patient data, specifically using breast density as a biomarker of risk for breast cancer, for epidemiological purposes. Method: The cohort comprised 1737 women from the UK and Italy, aged 28-87 years, mean 54.7 years, who underwent mammography after giving consent to the use of their data in the project. Information regarding height, weight, and exposure data (mAs and kV) was recorded. The computer program Generate-SMF was applied to all films in the database to measure breast volume, dense breast volume, and thereby percentage density. Visual readings of density using a six-category classification system were also available for 596 women. Results: The UK and Italian participants were similar in height, but the UK women were significantly heavier with a slightly higher body mass index (BMI), despite being younger. Both absolute and percentage breast density were significantly higher in the Udine cohort. Images from the medio-lateral projection (MLO) give a significantly lower percentage density than cranio-caudal (CC) images (p < 0.0001). Total breast volume is negatively associated with percentage density, as are BMI and age (p < 0.0001 for all), although 80% of the variability in percentage density remains unexplained. Conclusion: The study offers proof of principle that confederated databases generated using Grid technology provide a useful and adaptable environment for large quantities of image, numerical, and qualitative data suitable for epidemiological research using the example of mammographic density as a biomarker of risk for breast cancer.
Proof Mining in L1-Approximation
Kohlenbach, Ulrich; Oliva, Paulo Borges
2003-01-01
n this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed in Kohlenbach...
Proof Mining in L1-Approximation
Oliva, Paulo Borges; Kohlenbach, Ulrich
2001-01-01
In this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed...
Proof Mining in L1-Approximation
Oliva, Paulo Borges; Kohlenbach, Ulrich
2001-01-01
In this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed...
Proof Mining in L1-Approximation
Kohlenbach, Ulrich; Oliva, Paulo Borges
2003-01-01
n this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed in Kohlenbach...
Kane, Jonathan M
2016-01-01
This is a textbook on proof writing in the area of analysis, balancing a survey of the core concepts of mathematical proof with a tight, rigorous examination of the specific tools needed for an understanding of analysis. Instead of the standard "transition" approach to teaching proofs, wherein students are taught fundamentals of logic, given some common proof strategies such as mathematical induction, and presented with a series of well-written proofs to mimic, this textbook teaches what a student needs to be thinking about when trying to construct a proof. Covering the fundamentals of analysis sufficient for a typical beginning Real Analysis course, it never loses sight of the fact that its primary focus is about proof writing skills. This book aims to give the student precise training in the writing of proofs by explaining exactly what elements make up a correct proof, how one goes about constructing an acceptable proof, and, by learning to recognize a correct proof, how to avoid writing incorrect proofs. T...
Parallelizing TTree::Draw functionality with PROOF
Marinaci, Stefano
2014-01-01
In ROOT, the software context of this project, multi-threading is not currently an easy option, because ROOT is not by construction thread-aware and thread-safeness can only be achieved with heavy locking. Therefore, for a ROOT task, multi-processing is currently the most eective way to achieve cuncurrency. Multi-processing in ROOT is done via PROOF. PROOF is used to enable interactive analysis of large sets of ROOT les in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. More generally PROOF can parallelize tasks that can be formulated as a set of independent sub-tasks. The PROOF technology is rather ecient to exploit all the CPU's provided by many-core processors. A dedicated version of PROOF, PROOF-Lite, provides an out-of-the-box solution to take full advantage of the additional cores available in today desktops or laptops. One of the items on the PROOF plan of work is to improve the inte- gration of PROOF-Lite for local processing of ROOT trees. In this project we investigate the case of the Draw ...
Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse
Many financial instruments are designed with embedded leverage such as options and leveraged exchange traded funds (ETFs). Embedded leverage alleviates investors’ leverage constraints and, therefore, we hypothesize that embedded leverage lowers required returns. Consistent with this hypothesis, we...... find that asset classes with embedded leverage offer low risk-adjusted returns and, in the cross-section, higher embedded leverage is associated with lower returns. A portfolio which is long low-embedded-leverage securities and short high-embedded-leverage securities earns large abnormal returns......, with t-statistics of 8.6 for equity options, 6.3 for index options, and 2.5 for ETFs. We provide extensive robustness tests and discuss the broader implications of embedded leverage for financial economics....
The PROOF benchmark suite measuring PROOF performance
Ryu, S.; Ganis, G.
2012-06-01
The PROOF benchmark suite is a new utility suite of PROOF to measure performance and scalability. The primary goal of the benchmark suite is to determine optimal configuration parameters for a set of machines to be used as PROOF cluster. The suite measures the performance of the cluster for a set of standard tasks as a function of the number of effective processes. Cluster administrators can use the suite to measure the performance of the cluster and find optimal configuration parameters. PROOF developers can also utilize the suite to help them measure, identify problems and improve their software. In this paper, the new tool is explained in detail and use cases are presented to illustrate the new tool.
Lattice Embedding of Heronian Simplices
Lunnon, W Fred
2012-01-01
A rational triangle has rational edge-lengths and area; a rational tetrahedron has rational faces and volume; either is Heronian when its edge-lengths are integer, and proper when its content is nonzero. A variant proof is given, via complex number GCD, of the previously known result that any Heronian triangle may be embedded in the Cartesian lattice Z^2; it is then shown that, for a proper triangle, such an embedding is unique modulo lattice isometry; finally the method is extended via quaternion GCD to tetrahedra in Z^3, where uniqueness no longer obtains, and embeddings also exist which are unobtainable by this construction. The requisite complex and quaternionic number theoretic background is summarised beforehand. Subsequent sections engage with subsidiary implementation issues: initial rational embedding, canonical reduction, exhaustive search for embeddings additional to those yielded via GCD; and illustrative numerical examples are provided. A counter-example shows that this approach must fail in high...
Embedded I&C for Extreme Environments
Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2016-04-01
This project uses embedded instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies to demonstrate potential performance gains of nuclear power plant components in extreme environments. Extreme environments include high temperature, radiation, high pressure, high vibration, and high EMI conditions. For extreme environments, performance gains arise from moment-to-moment sensing of local variables and immediate application of local feedback control. Planning for embedding I&C during early system design phases contrasts with the traditional, serial design approach that incorporates minimal I&C after mechanical and electrical design is complete. The demonstration application involves the development and control of a novel, proof-of-concept motor/pump design. The motor and pump combination operate within the fluid environment, eliminating the need for rotating seals. Actively controlled magnetic bearings also replace failure-prone mechanical contact bearings that typically suspend rotating components. Such as design has the potential to significantly enhance the reliability and life of the pumping system and would not be possible without embedded I&C.
Puech, Matthias
2013-01-01
It is well known in proof theory that sequent-calculus proofs differ from natural deduction proofs by “reversing” elimination rules upside down into left introduction rules. It is also well known that to each recursive, functional program corresponds an equivalent iterative, accumulator...... and the sequent calculus by systematically deriving the rules of the latter from the former, and allows us to derive new sequent calculus rules from the introduction and elimination rules of new logical connectives....
Knuth, Eric J.; Choppin, Jeffrey M.; Bieda, Kristen N.
2009-01-01
The goal of this article is to help teachers both recognize and capitalize on classroom opportunities so that students can be meaningfully engaged in mathematical proof. To do so, the authors discuss students' thoughts about proof and their abilities to construct arguments. They also offer suggestions for teachers that are intended to support…
Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro
2012-01-01
The analysis of the complex LHC data usually follows a standard path that aims at minimizing not only the amount of data but also the number of observables used. After a number of steps of slimming and skimming the data, the remaining few terabytes of ROOT files hold a selection of the events and a flat structure for the variables needed that can be more easily inspected and traversed in the final stages of the analysis. PROOF arises at this point as an efficient mechanism to distribute the analysis load by taking advantage of all the cores in modern CPUs through PROOF Lite, or by using PROOF Cluster or PROOF on Demand tools to build dynamic PROOF cluster on computing facilities with spare CPUs. However using PROOF at the level required for a serious analysis introduces some difficulties that may scare new adopters. We have developed the PROOF Analysis Framework (PAF) to facilitate the development of new analysis by uniformly exposing the PROOF related configurations across technologies and by taking care of ...
Mixing Computations and Proofs
Michael Beeson
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We examine the relationship between proof and computation in mathematics, especially in formalized mathematics. We compare the various approaches to proofs with a significant computational component, including (i verifying the algorithms, (ii verifying the results of the unverified algorithms, and (iii trusting an external computation.
Coqoon - An IDE for Interactive Proof Development in Coq
Faithfull, Alexander; Bengtson, Jesper; Tassi, Enrico
2016-01-01
”s for proof assistants typically only operate on files in isolation, relying on external tools to integrate those files into larger projects. In this paper we present Coqoon, an IDE for Coq developments integrated into Eclipse. Coqoon manages proofs as projects rather than isolated source files, and compiles...
Burdens of Proof, Presumptions and Standards of Proof in Criminal ...
Worku_Y
This note highlights how issues of burden and standard of proof are ..... proof. The prosecutor is duty bound to convince that the accused has committed .... Burdens of proof and presumptions are intimately related concepts.33 The latter.
Memorizable Interactive Proof and Zero-Knowledge Proof Systems
Ning Chen; Jia-Wei Rong
2004-01-01
Interactive proof and zero-knowledge proof systems are two important concepts in cryptography and complexity theory. In the past two decades, a great number of interactive proof and zero-knowledge proof protocols have been designed and applied in practice. In this paper, a simple memorizable zero-knowledge protocol is proposed for graph non-isomorphism problem, based on the memorizable interactive proof system,which is extended from the original definition of interactive proof and is more applicable in reality.
Moesby, Egon; W., Hans Henrik; Kørnøv, Lone
2005-01-01
In this paper, the authors describe a way to increase student learning through social constructed teamwork by adding an individual activity to the project work. This can be achieved not just by adding an individual activity outside or parallel to the project work, but by having the individual act...
[Understanding mistake-proofing].
de Saint Maurice, G; Giraud, N; Ausset, S; Auroy, Y; Lenoir, B; Amalberti, R
2011-01-01
The mistake-proofing concept often refers to physical devices that prevent actors from making a wrong action. In anaesthesiology, one immediately thinks to specific design of outlets for medical gases. More generally, the principle of mistake-proofing is to avoid an error, by placing knowledge in the world rather than knowledge in the head. As it often happens in risk management, healthcare has received information transfers from the industry. Computer is changing the concept of mistake-proofing, initially based on physical design, such as aerospace and automotive industry. The mistake-proofing concept may be applied to prevention, detection, and mitigation of errors. The forcing functions are a specific part of mistake-proofing: they prevent a wrong action or they force a virtuous one. Grout proposes a little shortcut to identify mistake-proofing devices: "If it is not possible to picture it in action, it is probably not a mistake-proofing device". Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
On the geometry of some special projective varieties
Russo, Francesco
2016-01-01
Providing an introduction to both classical and modern techniques in projective algebraic geometry, this monograph treats the geometrical properties of varieties embedded in projective spaces, their secant and tangent lines, the behavior of tangent linear spaces, the algebro-geometric and topological obstructions to their embedding into smaller projective spaces, and the classification of extremal cases. It also provides a solution of Hartshorne’s Conjecture on Complete Intersections for the class of quadratic manifolds and new short proofs of previously known results, using the modern tools of Mori Theory and of rationally connected manifolds. The new approach to some of the problems considered can be resumed in the principle that, instead of studying a special embedded manifold uniruled by lines, one passes to analyze the original geometrical property on the manifold of lines passing through a general point and contained in the manifold. Once this embedded manifold, usually of lower codimension, is classi...
Helmut J. Heiming
1996-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss several operator ideal properties for so called Carleson embeddings of tent spaces into specific LÃ¢Â€Â‰q(ÃŽÂ¼-spaces, where ÃŽÂ¼ is a Carleson measure on the complex unit disc. Characterizing absolutely q-summing, absolutely continuous and q-integral Carleson embeddings in terms of the underlying measure is our main topic. The presented results extend and integrate results especially known for composition operators on Hardy spaces as well as embedding theorems for function spaces of similar kind.
Pohlers, Wolfram
1989-01-01
Although this is an introductory text on proof theory, most of its contents is not found in a unified form elsewhere in the literature, except at a very advanced level. The heart of the book is the ordinal analysis of axiom systems, with particular emphasis on that of the impredicative theory of elementary inductive definitions on the natural numbers. The "constructive" consequences of ordinal analysis are sketched out in the epilogue. The book provides a self-contained treatment assuming no prior knowledge of proof theory and almost none of logic. The author has, moreover, endeavoured not to use the "cabal language" of proof theory, but only a language familiar to most readers.
Helping Students Write Paragraph Proofs in Geometry.
Brandell, Joseph L.
1994-01-01
Demonstrates how instruction in writing paragraph proofs can be developed and implemented including organizing, writing proofs in paragraphs, evaluating a proof, sketching a proof, and drawing conclusions. (MKR)
Edelenbos, J.; Klok, P.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.
2009-01-01
In this article, the authors address citizen involvement at the central government level in the Netherlands. Through comparative research in which they systematically analyze eight interactive projects in three governmental departments, the authors especially pay attention to the relation between
Edelenbos, Jurian; Klok, Pieter J.; van Tatenhove, Jan
2009-01-01
In this article, the authors address citizen involvement at the central government level in the Netherlands. Through comparative research in which they systematically analyze eight interactive projects in three governmental departments, the authors especially pay attention to the relation between
Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems
Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2014-01-01
The Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems (CJ4ES) project aimed to develop a prototype development environment and platform for safety-critical software for embedded applications. There are three core constituents: A profile of the Java programming language that is tailored for safety...
Strahm, Thomas; Studer, Thomas
2016-01-01
The aim of this volume is to collect original contributions by the best specialists from the area of proof theory, constructivity, and computation and discuss recent trends and results in these areas. Some emphasis will be put on ordinal analysis, reductive proof theory, explicit mathematics and type-theoretic formalisms, and abstract computations. The volume is dedicated to the 60th birthday of Professor Gerhard Jäger, who has been instrumental in shaping and promoting logic in Switzerland for the last 25 years. It comprises contributions from the symposium “Advances in Proof Theory”, which was held in Bern in December 2013. Proof theory came into being in the twenties of the last century, when it was inaugurated by David Hilbert in order to secure the foundations of mathematics. It was substantially influenced by Gödel's famous incompleteness theorems of 1930 and Gentzen's new consistency proof for the axiom system of first order number theory in 1936. Today, proof theory is a well-established branch ...
Five years of density matrix embedding theory
Wouters, Sebastian; Chan, Garnet K -L
2016-01-01
Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) describes finite fragments in the presence of a surrounding environment. In contrast to most embedding methods, DMET explicitly allows for quantum entanglement between both. In this chapter, we discuss both the ground-state and response theory formulations of DMET, and review several applications. In addition, a proof is given that the local density of states can be obtained by working with a Fock space of bath orbitals.
Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property
2015-05-22
hardware intellectual property (PCHIP) framework, which aims to ensure the trustworthiness of third-party hardware IPs utilizing formal methods. We...published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property Report Title By...borrowing ideas from the proof carrying code (PCC) in software domain, in this project we introduced the proof carrying hardware intellectual property
Proof nets for lingusitic analysis
Moot, R.C.A.
2002-01-01
This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the multimoda
Web Page Watermarking for Tamper-Proof
无
2005-01-01
This paper proposed a watermarking algorithm for tamper-proof of web pages. For a web page, it generates a watermark consisting of a sequence of Space and Tab. The watermark is then embedded into the web page after each word and each line. When a watermarked web page is tampered, the extracted watermark can detect and locate the modifications to the web page. Besides, the framework of watermarked Web Server system was given.Compared with traditional digital signature methods, this watermarking method is more transparent in that there is no necessary to detach the watermark before displaying web pages. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is an effective tool for tamper-proof of web pages.
Lee, Ho; Fahimian, Benjamin P.; Xing, Lei
2017-03-01
This paper proposes a binary moving-blocker (BMB)-based technique for scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In concept, a beam blocker consisting of lead strips, mounted in front of the x-ray tube, moves rapidly in and out of the beam during a single gantry rotation. The projections are acquired in alternating phases of blocked and unblocked cone beams, where the blocked phase results in a stripe pattern in the width direction. To derive the scatter map from the blocked projections, 1D B-Spline interpolation/extrapolation is applied by using the detected information in the shaded regions. The scatter map of the unblocked projections is corrected by averaging two scatter maps that correspond to their adjacent blocked projections. The scatter-corrected projections are obtained by subtracting the corresponding scatter maps from the projection data and are utilized to generate the CBCT image by a compressed-sensing (CS)-based iterative reconstruction algorithm. Catphan504 and pelvis phantoms were used to evaluate the method’s performance. The proposed BMB-based technique provided an effective method to enhance the image quality by suppressing scatter-induced artifacts, such as ring artifacts around the bowtie area. Compared to CBCT without a blocker, the spatial nonuniformity was reduced from 9.1% to 3.1%. The root-mean-square error of the CT numbers in the regions of interest (ROIs) was reduced from 30.2 HU to 3.8 HU. In addition to high resolution, comparable to that of the benchmark image, the CS-based reconstruction also led to a better contrast-to-noise ratio in seven ROIs. The proposed technique enables complete scatter-corrected CBCT imaging with width-truncated projections and allows reducing the acquisition time to approximately half. This work may have significant implications for image-guided or adaptive radiation therapy, where CBCT is often used.
Lee, Ho; Fahimian, Benjamin P; Xing, Lei
2017-03-21
This paper proposes a binary moving-blocker (BMB)-based technique for scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In concept, a beam blocker consisting of lead strips, mounted in front of the x-ray tube, moves rapidly in and out of the beam during a single gantry rotation. The projections are acquired in alternating phases of blocked and unblocked cone beams, where the blocked phase results in a stripe pattern in the width direction. To derive the scatter map from the blocked projections, 1D B-Spline interpolation/extrapolation is applied by using the detected information in the shaded regions. The scatter map of the unblocked projections is corrected by averaging two scatter maps that correspond to their adjacent blocked projections. The scatter-corrected projections are obtained by subtracting the corresponding scatter maps from the projection data and are utilized to generate the CBCT image by a compressed-sensing (CS)-based iterative reconstruction algorithm. Catphan504 and pelvis phantoms were used to evaluate the method's performance. The proposed BMB-based technique provided an effective method to enhance the image quality by suppressing scatter-induced artifacts, such as ring artifacts around the bowtie area. Compared to CBCT without a blocker, the spatial nonuniformity was reduced from 9.1% to 3.1%. The root-mean-square error of the CT numbers in the regions of interest (ROIs) was reduced from 30.2 HU to 3.8 HU. In addition to high resolution, comparable to that of the benchmark image, the CS-based reconstruction also led to a better contrast-to-noise ratio in seven ROIs. The proposed technique enables complete scatter-corrected CBCT imaging with width-truncated projections and allows reducing the acquisition time to approximately half. This work may have significant implications for image-guided or adaptive radiation therapy, where CBCT is often used.
Multi-shaped beam proof of lithography
Slodowski, Matthias; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Dorl, Wolfgang; Stolberg, Ines A.
2010-03-01
In this paper a full package high throughput multi electron-beam approach, called Multi Shaped Beam (MSB), for applications in mask making as well as direct write will be presented including complex proof-of-lithography results. The basic concept enables a significant exposure shot count reduction for advanced patterns compared to standard Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) systems and allows full pattern flexibility by concurrently using MSB, VSB and Cell Projection (CP). Proof of lithography results will be presented, which have been performed using a fully operational electron-beam lithography system including data path and substrate scanning by x/y-stage movement.
Schürmann, Carsten
2009-01-01
Logical framework research is based on the philosophical point of view that it should be possible to capture mathematical concepts such as proofs, logics, and meaning in a formal system — directly, adequately (in the sense that there are no spurious or exotic witnesses), and without having to com...
Stephen Read
2010-06-01
Full Text Available What makes necessary truths true? I argue that all truth supervenes on how things are, and that necessary truths are no exception. What makes them true are proofs. But if so, the notion of proof needs to be generalized to include verification-transcendent proofs, proofs whose correctness exceeds our ability to verify it. It is incumbent on me, therefore, to show that arguments, such as Dummett's, that verification-truth is not compatible with the theory of meaning, are mistaken. The answer is that what we can conceive and construct far outstrips our actual abilities. I conclude by proposing a proof-theoretic account of modality, rejecting a claim of Armstrong's that modality can reside in non-modal truthmakers.O que faz verdadeiras as verdades necessárias? Defendo que qualquer verdade sobrevém das coisas como elas são, e que as verdades necessárias não são exceções. O que as faz verdadeiras são provas. Mas, se assim for, a noção de prova precisa ser generalizada para incluir provas de verificação-transcendente, provas cuja correção extrapola a nossa própria habilidade de verificação. Além disso, tenho a incumbência de mostrar que argumentos, como o de Dummett, segundo o qual a verdade em termos de verificação não é compatível com a teoria do significado, não procedem. A resposta consiste no fato de que aquilo que podemos conceber e construir ultrapassa nossas habilidades efetivas. Concluo propondo um tratamento das modalidades em termos de teoria da prova, rejeitando a afirmação de Armstrong de que modalidades podem residir em fazedores de verdade não modais.
Proof in geometry with "mistakes in geometric proofs"
Fetisov, A I
2006-01-01
This single-volume compilation of 2 books explores the construction of geometric proofs. It offers useful criteria for determining correctness and presents examples of faulty proofs that illustrate common errors. 1963 editions.
Ganssle, Jack G; Eady, Fred; Edwards, Lewin; Katz, David J; Gentile, Rick
2007-01-01
The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!. Circuit design using microcontrollers is both a science and an art. This book covers it all. It details all of the essential theory and facts to help an engineer design a robust embedded system. Processors, memory, and the hot topic of interconnects (I/O) are completely covered. Our authors bring a wealth of experience and ideas; thi
Evaluating a Digital Proofing Device
Markus Datwyler
2003-07-01
Full Text Available In the graphic arts industry color accuracy is one of the central quality criteria, particularly in connection with proof printing. This study is concerned with an assessment of color accuracy of professional digital proofing systems in reference to the ISO standard 12647-2 (offset printing and of the stability of both the proofing system and its proofs. For an AgfaJet Sherpa 43i, as an instance of a current high-quality equipment, the mean color deviation between a proof and the reference of DE1 less than 2 is demonstrated.
Embedded Structural Integrity Sensor Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work Luna Innovations in partnership with Pennsylvania State University proposes to develop a new thermo-ultrasonic technology for the real-time in-situ...
Rohrer, Brandon Robinson
2011-09-01
Events of interest to data analysts are sometimes difficult to characterize in detail. Rather, they consist of anomalies, events that are unpredicted, unusual, or otherwise incongruent. The purpose of this LDRD was to test the hypothesis that a biologically-inspired anomaly detection algorithm could be used to detect contextual, multi-modal anomalies. There currently is no other solution to this problem, but the existence of a solution would have a great national security impact. The technical focus of this research was the application of a brain-emulating cognition and control architecture (BECCA) to the problem of anomaly detection. One aspect of BECCA in particular was discovered to be critical to improved anomaly detection capabilities: it's feature creator. During the course of this project the feature creator was developed and tested against multiple data types. Development direction was drawn from psychological and neurophysiological measurements. Major technical achievements include the creation of hierarchical feature sets created from both audio and imagery data.
Peregrin, Jaroslav [Academy of Sciences and Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)
2007-11-15
The usual way of interpreting Goedel's (1931) incompleteness result is as showing that there is a gap between truth and provability, i.e. that we can never prove everything that is true. Moreover, this result is supposed to show that there are unprovable truths which we can know to be true. This, so the story goes, shows that we are more than machines that are restricted to acting as proof systems. Hence our minds are 'not mechanical'.
Analogy, explanation, and proof.
Hummel, John E; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer
2014-01-01
People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.
Aigner, Martin
2014-01-01
This revised and enlarged fifth edition features four new chapters, which contain highly original and delightful proofs for classics such as the spectral theorem from linear algebra, some more recent jewels like the non-existence of the Borromean rings and other surprises. From the Reviews "... Inside PFTB (Proofs from The Book) is indeed a glimpse of mathematical heaven, where clever insights and beautiful ideas combine in astonishing and glorious ways. There is vast wealth within its pages, one gem after another. ... Aigner and Ziegler... write: "... all we offer is the examples that we have selected, hoping that our readers will share our enthusiasm about brilliant ideas, clever insights and wonderful observations." I do. ... " Notices of the AMS, August 1999 "... This book is a pleasure to hold and to look at: ample margins, nice photos, instructive pictures, and beautiful drawings ... It is a pleasure to read as well: the style is clear and entertaining, the level is close to elementary, the necessary b...
A vector bundle proof of Poncelet theorem
Vallès, Jean
2012-01-01
In the town of Saratov where he was prisonner, Poncelet, continuing the work of Euler and Steiner on polygons simultaneously inscribed in a circle and circumscribed around an other circle, proved the following generalization : "Let C and D be two smooth conics in the projective complex plane. If D passes through the n(n-1)/2 vertices of a complete polygon with n sides tangent to C then D passes through the vertices of infinitely many such polygons." According to Marcel Berger this theorem is the nicest result about the geometry of conics. Even if it is, there are few proofs of it. To my knowledge there are only three. The first proof, published in 1822 and based on infinitesimal deformations, is due to Poncelet. Later, Jacobi proposed a new proof based on finite order points on elliptic curves; his proof, certainly the most famous, is explained in a modern way and in detail by Griffiths and Harris. In 1870 Weyr proved a Poncelet theorem in space (more precisely for two quadrics) that implies the one above whe...
Vempala, Santosh S
2005-01-01
Random projection is a simple geometric technique for reducing the dimensionality of a set of points in Euclidean space while preserving pairwise distances approximately. The technique plays a key role in several breakthrough developments in the field of algorithms. In other cases, it provides elegant alternative proofs. The book begins with an elementary description of the technique and its basic properties. Then it develops the method in the context of applications, which are divided into three groups. The first group consists of combinatorial optimization problems such as maxcut, graph coloring, minimum multicut, graph bandwidth and VLSI layout. Presented in this context is the theory of Euclidean embeddings of graphs. The next group is machine learning problems, specifically, learning intersections of halfspaces and learning large margin hypotheses. The projection method is further refined for the latter application. The last set consists of problems inspired by information retrieval, namely, nearest neig...
Analogy, Explanation, and Proof
John eHummel
2014-11-01
Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.
Simulation and Embedded Smart Control
Conrad, Finn; Fan, Zhun; Sørensen, Torben
2006-01-01
The paper presents results obtained from a Danish mechatronic research program focusing on intelligent motion control, simulation and embedded smart controllers for hydraulic actuators and robots as well as results from the EU projects. A mechatronic test facility with digital controllers...... and algorithms. Furthermore, a developed IT-tool concept for controller and system design utilizing the ISO 10303 STEP Standard is proposed....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...
Generating Schemata of Resolution Proofs
Aravantinos, Vincent
2011-01-01
Two distinct algorithms are presented to extract (schemata of) resolution proofs from closed tableaux for propositional schemata. The first one handles the most efficient version of the tableau calculus but generates very complex derivations (denoted by rather elaborate rewrite systems). The second one has the advantage that much simpler systems can be obtained, however the considered proof procedure is less efficient.
Short proofs of strong normalization
Wojdyga, Aleksander
2008-01-01
This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.
Formal Proof And Exploratory Experimentation
Misfeldt, Morten; Danielsen, Kristian; Krag Sørensen, Henrik
2015-01-01
This paper investigates conceptions of mathematical investigation and proof in upper-secondary students. The focus of the paper is an intervention that scaffolds the interaction between open explorative activities and the development of proof sketches through explorations of lattice polygons, aim...
Geometry: A Flow Proof Approach.
McMurray, Robert
The inspiration for this text was provided by an exposure to the flow proof approach to a proof format as opposed to the conventional two-column approach. Historical background is included, to provide a frame of reference to give the student an appreciation of the subject. The basic constructions are introduced early and briefly, to aid the…
Formal Proof And Exploratory Experimentation
Misfeldt, Morten; Danielsen, Kristian; Krag Sørensen, Henrik
2015-01-01
be explained as a problem of bringing their empirical investigations into the deductive proof process in relevant and productive ways. Through our analyses of the portfolios and deliberations of the students, we are able to assess their performance of proofs and the conceptions of mathematical methodology...
From Inductive Reasoning to Proof
Yopp, David A.
2009-01-01
Mathematical proof is an expression of deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from previous assertions). However, it is often inductive reasoning (conclusions drawn on the basis of examples) that helps learners form their deductive arguments, or proof. In addition, not all inductive arguments generate more formal arguments. This article draws a…
Algebraic Proofs over Noncommutative Formulas
Tzameret, Iddo
2010-01-01
We study possible formulations of algebraic propositional proof systems operating with noncommutative formulas. We observe that a simple formulation gives rise to systems at least as strong as Frege---yielding a semantic way to define a Cook-Reckhow (i.e., polynomially verifiable) algebraic analogue of Frege proofs, different from that given in [BIKPRS96,GH03]. We then turn to an apparently weaker system, namely, polynomial calculus (PC) where polynomials are written as ordered formulas ("PC over ordered formulas", for short). This is an algebraic propositional proof system that operates with noncommutative polynomials in which the order of products in all monomials respects a fixed linear order on the variables, and where proof-lines are written as noncommutative formulas. We show that the latter proof system is strictly stronger than resolution, polynomial calculus and polynomial calculus with resolution (PCR) and admits polynomial-size refutations for the pigeonhole principle and the Tseitin's formulas. We...
Applying Gödel's Dialectica Interpretation to Obtain a Constructive Proof of Higman's Lemma
Thomas Powell
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We use Gödel's Dialectica interpretation to analyse Nash-Williams' elegant but non-constructive "minimal bad sequence" proof of Higman's Lemma. The result is a concise constructive proof of the lemma (for arbitrary decidable well-quasi-orders in which Nash-Williams' combinatorial idea is clearly present, along with an explicit program for finding an embedded pair in sequences of words.
Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems
Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2014-01-01
The Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems (CJ4ES) project aimed to develop a prototype development environment and platform for safety-critical software for embedded applications. There are three core constituents: A profile of the Java programming language that is tailored for safety......-critical applications, a predictable Java processor built with FPGA technology, and an Eclipse based application development environment that binds the profile and the platform together and provides analyses that help to provide evidence that can be used as part of a safety case. This paper summarizes key contributions...
Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings
Timashev, DA
2011-01-01
Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em
Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems
Schoeberl, Martin; Hansen, René Rydhof; Ravn, Anders P.;
2014-01-01
The Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems (CJ4ES) project aimed to develop a prototype development environment and platform for safety-critical software for embedded applications. There are three core constituents: A profile of the Java programming language that is tailored for safety......-critical applications, a predictable Java processor built with FPGA technology, and an Eclipse based application development environment that binds the profile and the platform together and provides analyses that help to provide evidence that can be used as part of a safety case. This paper summarizes key contributions...
Perturbation Theory of Embedded Eigenvalues
Engelmann, Matthias
We study problems connected to perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues in two different setups. The first part deals with second order perturbation theory of mass shells in massive translation invariant Nelson type models. To this end an expansion of the eigenvalues w.r.t. fiber parameter up...... project gives a general and systematic approach to analytic perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues. The spectral deformation technique originally developed in the theory of dilation analytic potentials in the context of Schrödinger operators is systematized by the use of Mourre theory. The group...
Conceptualizing Embedded Configuration
Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Hvam, Lars; Lysgaard, Ole
2006-01-01
and services. The general idea can be named embedded configuration. In this article we intend to conceptualize embedded configuration, what it is and is not. The difference between embedded configuration, sales configuration and embedded software is explained. We will look at what is needed to make embedded...... configuration systems. That will include requirements to product modelling techniques. An example with consumer electronics will illuminate the elements of embedded configuration in settings that most can relate to. The question of where embedded configuration would be relevant is discussed, and the current...
Sublogarithmic uniform Boolean proof nets
Aubert, Clément
2012-01-01
Using a proofs-as-programs correspondence, Terui was able to compare two models of parallel computation: Boolean circuits and proof nets for multiplicative linear logic. Mogbil et. al. gave a logspace translation allowing us to compare their computational power as uniform complexity classes. This paper presents a novel translation in AC0 and focuses on a simpler restricted notion of uniform Boolean proof nets. We can then encode constant-depth circuits and compare complexity classes below logspace, which were out of reach with the previous translations.
Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates
Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu
2012-12-01
The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.
Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof
Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk
2015-01-01
Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...
Proust: A Nano Proof Assistant
Prabhakar Ragde
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Proust is a small Racket program offering rudimentary interactive assistance in the development of verified proofs for propositional and predicate logic. It is constructed in stages, some of which are done by students before using it to complete proof exercises, and in parallel with the study of its theoretical underpinnings, including elements of Martin-Lof type theory. The goal is twofold: to demystify some of the machinery behind full-featured proof assistants such as Coq and Agda, and to better integrate the study of formal logic with other core elements of an undergraduate computer science curriculum.
Proof mining in ${\\mathbb R}$-trees and hyperbolic spaces
Leustean, Laurentiu
2008-01-01
This paper is part of the general project of proof mining, developed by Kohlenbach. By "proof mining" we mean the logical analysis of mathematical proofs with the aim of extracting new numerically relevant information hidden in the proofs. We present logical metatheorems for classes of spaces from functional analysis and hyperbolic geometry, like Gromov hyperbolic spaces, ${\\mathbb R}$-trees and uniformly convex hyperbolic spaces. Our theorems are adaptations to these structures of previous metatheorems of Gerhardy and Kohlenbach, and they guarantee a-priori, under very general logical conditions, the existence of uniform bounds. We give also an application in nonlinear functional analysis, more specifically in metric fixed-point theory. Thus, we show that the uniform bound on the rate of asymptotic regularity for the Krasnoselski-Mann iterations of nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex hyperbolic spaces obtained in a previous paper is an instance of one of our metatheorems.
On λ-Finitely Embedded Modules
O.A.S. Karamzadeh; Sh. Rahimpour
2005-01-01
In this article, we introduce and study the notion of λ-finitely embedded modules (a O-finitely embedded module is just a finitely embedded module). We extend some of the basic results of f.e. modules to λ-f.e. modules. We use this concept to give a new proof of a known result which essentially says that a module M has Krull dimension α if and only if each factor module of M is λ-f.e. for some λ≤α and α is the least ordinal with this property. It is observed that a semiprime ring R has Krull dimension λ if and only if R is λ-f.e. We improve the theorem of Matlis-Papp and some of its consequences.Finally, some known results in the literature are restated in terms of the above notion.
Extrinsic Curvature Embedding Diagrams
Lu, J L
2003-01-01
Embedding diagrams have been used extensively to visualize the properties of curved space in Relativity. We introduce a new kind of embedding diagram based on the {\\it extrinsic} curvature (instead of the intrinsic curvature). Such an extrinsic curvature embedding diagram, when used together with the usual kind of intrinsic curvature embedding diagram, carries the information of how a surface is {\\it embedded} in the higher dimensional curved space. Simple examples are given to illustrate the idea.
Using Software Architectures for Designing Distributed Embedded Systems
Christensen, Henrik Bærbak
In this paper, we outline an on-going project of designing distributed embedded systems for closed-loop process control. The project is a joint effort between software architecture researchers and developers from two companies that produce commercial embedded process control systems. The project...
ATAC Process Proof of Concept Final Report
Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman
2014-03-01
Researchers at INL with funding from the Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) evaluated a novel approach for near real-time consumption of threat intelligence. Demonstration testing in an industry environment supported the development of this new process to assist the electric sector in securing their critical networks. This report provides the reader with an understanding of the methods used during this proof of concept project. The processes and templates were further advanced with an industry partner during an onsite assessment. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these materials for use by industry.
The Versatile Transceiver Proof of Concept
Troska, J; Papadopoulos, S; Papakonstantinou, I; Rui Silva, S; Seif el Nasr, S; Sigaud, C; Stejskal,; Soos, C; Vasey, F
2009-01-01
SLHC experiment upgrades will make substantial use of optical links to enable high-speed data readout and control. The Versatile Link project will develop and assess optical link architectures and components suitable for deployment at SLHC. The on-detector element will be bidirectional optoelectronic module: the Versatile Transceiver that will be based on a commercially available module type minimally customized to meet the constraints of the SLHC on-detector environment in terms of mass, volume, power consumption, operational temperature and radiation environment. We report on the first proof of concept phase of the development, showing the steps towards customization and first results of the radiation resistance of candidate optoelectronic components.
Liu, Yang; Liu, Yan; Chan, Keith C C; Hua, Kien A
2014-12-01
In this brief, we present a novel supervised manifold learning framework dubbed hybrid manifold embedding (HyME). Unlike most of the existing supervised manifold learning algorithms that give linear explicit mapping functions, the HyME aims to provide a more general nonlinear explicit mapping function by performing a two-layer learning procedure. In the first layer, a new clustering strategy called geodesic clustering is proposed to divide the original data set into several subsets with minimum nonlinearity. In the second layer, a supervised dimensionality reduction scheme called locally conjugate discriminant projection is performed on each subset for maximizing the discriminant information and minimizing the dimension redundancy simultaneously in the reduced low-dimensional space. By integrating these two layers in a unified mapping function, a supervised manifold embedding framework is established to describe both global and local manifold structure as well as to preserve the discriminative ability in the learned subspace. Experiments on various data sets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
2016-03-01
brought a remarkably diverse set of backgrounds and skills to the project, from mathematics to psychology to game design to cloud-based software ...been a goal of formal verification to use mathematical techniques to prove that software is free from errors. Two common ap- proaches to formal...Chen and D. Wagner, “MOPS: an infrastructure for examining security properties of software ,” Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Computer and
Verification of Embedded Memory Systems using Efficient Memory Modeling
Ganai, Malay K; Ashar, Pranav
2011-01-01
We describe verification techniques for embedded memory systems using efficient memory modeling (EMM), without explicitly modeling each memory bit. We extend our previously proposed approach of EMM in Bounded Model Checking (BMC) for a single read/write port single memory system, to more commonly occurring systems with multiple memories, having multiple read and write ports. More importantly, we augment such EMM to providing correctness proofs, in addition to finding real bugs as before. The novelties of our verification approach are in a) combining EMM with proof-based abstraction that preserves the correctness of a property up to a certain analysis depth of SAT-based BMC, and b) modeling arbitrary initial memory state precisely and thereby, providing inductive proofs using SAT-based BMC for embedded memory systems. Similar to the previous approach, we construct a verification model by eliminating memory arrays, but retaining the memory interface signals with their control logic and adding constraints on tho...
Methodology and Supporting Toolset Advancing Embedded Systems Quality
Berger, Michael Stübert; Soler, José; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy
2013-01-01
Software quality is of primary importance in the development of embedded systems that are often used in safety-critical applications. Moreover, as the life cycle of embedded products becomes increasingly tighter, productivity and quality are simultaneously required and closely interrelated towards...... delivering competitive products. In this context, the MODUS (Methodology and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide a pragmatic and viable solution that will allow SMEs to substantially improve their positioning in the embedded-systems development market. This paper...... will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that will be developed advancing embedded system quality....
Methodology and Supporting Toolset Advancing Embedded Systems Quality
Berger, Michael Stübert; Soler, José; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy;
2013-01-01
Software quality is of primary importance in the development of embedded systems that are often used in safety-critical applications. Moreover, as the life cycle of embedded products becomes increasingly tighter, productivity and quality are simultaneously required and closely interrelated towards...... delivering competitive products. In this context, the MODUS (Methodology and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide a pragmatic and viable solution that will allow SMEs to substantially improve their positioning in the embedded-systems development market. This paper...... will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that will be developed advancing embedded system quality....
Proof Pad: A New Development Environment for ACL2
Caleb Eggensperger
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Most software development projects rely on Integrated Development Environments (IDEs based on the desktop paradigm, with an interactive, mouse-driven user interface. The standard installation of ACL2, on the other hand, is designed to work closely with Emacs. ACL2 experts, on the whole, like this mode of operation, but students and other new programmers who have learned to program with desktop IDEs often react negatively to the process of adapting to an unfamiliar form of interaction. This paper discusses Proof Pad, a new IDE for ACL2. Proof Pad is not the only attempt to provide ACL2 IDEs catering to students and beginning programmers. The ACL2 Sedan and DrACuLa systems arose from similar motivations. Proof Pad builds on the work of those systems, while also taking into account the unique workflow of the ACL2 theorem proving system. The design of Proof Pad incorporated user feedback from the outset, and that process continued through all stages of development. Feedback took the form of direct observation of users interacting with the IDE as well as questionnaires completed by users of Proof Pad and other ACL2 IDEs. The result is a streamlined interface and fast, responsive system that supports using ACL2 as a programming language and a theorem proving system. Proof Pad also provides a property-based testing environment with random data generation and automated interpretation of properties as ACL2 theorem definitions.
Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Conceptions of Proof.
Knuth, Eric J.
2002-01-01
Examines in-service secondary school mathematics teachers' conceptions of proof. Suggests that teachers recognize the variety of roles that proof plays in mathematics. Noticeably absent, however, was a view of proof as a tool for learning mathematics. Many of the teachers held limited views of the nature of proof in mathematics and demonstrated…
Discrete mathematics proofs, structures and applications
Garnier, Rowan
2009-01-01
Logic Propositions and Truth Values Logical Connectives and Truth Tables Tautologies and Contradictions Logical Equivalence and Logical Implication The Algebra of Propositions Arguments Formal Proof of the Validity of Arguments Predicate Logic Arguments in Predicate Logic Mathematical Proof The Nature of Proof Axioms and Axiom Systems Methods of Proof Mathematical Induction Sets Sets and MembershipSubsets<
刘卡丁
2013-01-01
在地铁隧道管线及设备安装过程中,目前大多采用人工钻孔,对环境及施工人员的健康造成严重影响的同时,还会造成结构破坏,降低工程寿命,增加运营维护成本.运营地铁隧道还存在钢构件及设备腐蚀严重的问题.为此,对地铁隧道电缆、管线、设备安装及钢构件、设备腐蚀的现状进行了调研,指出存在的问题.说明人工钻孔所带来的危害,提出预埋件技术这一解决方案,进行了相关实验；针对扣件设备腐蚀严重的问题,提出了锌镍渗层防腐技术.认为应:1)全面推广预埋件技术,可提高设备安装效率,改善安装环境,降低对结构的损伤,延长工程寿命,使运营维护简便、易行；2)全面推广锌镍渗层防腐技术,预防设备及钢构件锈蚀,降低营运维护成本.%At present,boreholes are drilled in order to install utility lines and equipment in Metro works.Borehole drilling not only causes adverse influence on the environment and the labors' health,but also reduces the works' service life and increases the maintenance and operation cost.Furthermore,the steel structures and equipment in operating Metro tunnels are seriously corroded.In the paper,the state-of-art of the installing of the utility lines and equipment in Metro tunnels and that of the corrosion of the steel structures and equipment are investigated and problems to be solved are presented.The disadvantages of installing utility lines and equipment by means of borehole drilling technology are presented,the solution of adopting embedded part installing technology is proposed,and tests are made.Zinc-nickel coating corrosion-proof technology is proposed to solve the corrosion problem.Conclusions drawn are as follows:1) The full promotion of the embedded part installing technology can improve the equipment installing efficiency,improve the working environment,reduce the damages to the tunnel structure,extend the works' service life and facilitate
Simplest proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-01-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality: a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate of what exactly the Bell inequality means, since the hypothesis at the basis of the proof become extremely transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Safety-critical Java for embedded systems
Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, René Rydhof
2016-01-01
This paper presents the motivation for and outcomes of an engineering research project on certifiable Javafor embedded systems. The project supports the upcoming standard for safety-critical Java, which defines asubset of Java and libraries aiming for development of high criticality systems...
Gottlieb Hansen, Lars; Lading, L.
2002-05-01
This report contains the results of a cost-benefit analysis for the use of embedded sensors for damage detection in large wind turbine blades - structural health monitoring - (in connection with remote surveillance) of large wind turbine placed off-shore. The total operating costs of a three-bladed 2MW turbine placed offshore either without sensors or with sensors are compared. The price of a structural health monitoring system of a price of 100,000 DKK (per turbine) results in a break-even time of about 3 years. For a price of 300,000 DKK the break-even time is about 8 years. However, the cost/benefit analysis has large uncertainties. (au)
The Research and Application of Webpage Temper-proofing System
Wang Yongquan
2012-06-01
Full Text Available With the sharp increase of hacking attacks over the last couple of years, web application security has become a key concern. The attack to websites, especially the explosion of webpage interpolating incidents has becomeone of the most serious problems of it. In this paper, the system adopts Web server core embedded technology to imbed tamper detection module and application protection module into the Web server, define correspondingstrategies for temper-proofing, and realize the real-time monitoring and protection of web pages and the dynamic content in databases.
Accelerated Monte Carlo by Embedded Cluster Dynamics
Brower, R. C.; Gross, N. A.; Moriarty, K. J. M.
1991-07-01
We present an overview of the new methods for embedding Ising spins in continuous fields to achieve accelerated cluster Monte Carlo algorithms. The methods of Brower and Tamayo and Wolff are summarized and variations are suggested for the O( N) models based on multiple embedded Z2 spin components and/or correlated projections. Topological features are discussed for the XY model and numerical simulations presented for d=2, d=3 and mean field theory lattices.
Diagrams and Proofs in Analysis
Carter, Jessica M H Grund
2010-01-01
The article discusses the role of diagrams in mathematical reasoning based on a case study in analysis. In the presented example certain combinatorial expressions were first found by using diagrams. In the published proofs the pictures are replaced by reasoning about permutation groups...
Dessoff, Alan
2011-01-01
Under pressure to keep spending down but also keep pace with rapid technology changes, many districts are future-proofing their schools--trying to get the most out of tech spending by providing solutions they can use now and in the future without major, expensive infrastructure overhauls. In the Folsom Cordova (California) Unified School District,…
Climate Proof Cities : Final Report
Rovers, V.; Bosch, Peter; Albers, Ronald; Spit, Tejo
2014-01-01
All cities in the Netherlands, large and small, are vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The degree of vulnerability varies considerably within urban areas. This means that making cities more climate proof can be done most efficiently by taking many relatively small and local measures. Many
Jon Y. Hardeberg
2007-11-01
Full Text Available One of latest developments for pre-press applications is the concept of soft proofing, which aims to provide an accurate preview on a monitor of how the final document will appear once it is printed. At the core of this concept is the problem of identifying, for any printed color, the most similar color the monitor can display. This problem is made difficult by such factors as varying viewing conditions, color gamut limitations, or the less studied color memory shift.Color matching experiments are usually done by examining samples viewed simultaneously. However, in soft proofing applications, the proof and the print are not always viewed together. This paper attempts to shed more light on the difference between simultaneous and time-spaced color matching, in order to contribute to improving the accuracy of soft proofs. A color matchingexperiment setup has been established in which observers were asked to match a color patch displayed on a LCD monitor, by adjusting its RGB values, to another color patch printed out on paper. In the first part of the experiment the two colors were viewed simultaneously. In the second part, the observers were asked to produce the match according to a previously memorized color. According to the obtained results, the color appearance attributes lightness and chroma were the most difficult components for the observers to remember, generating huge differences with the simultaneous match, whereas hue was the component which varied the least. This indicates that for soft proofing, getting the hues right is of primordial importance.
US NDC Modernization: Service Oriented Architecture Proof of Concept
Hamlet, Benjamin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Encarnacao, Andre Villanova [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jackson, Keilan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hays, Ian A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barron, Nathan E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simon, Luke B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Young, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-12-01
This report is a progress update on the US NDC Modernization Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) study describing results from a proof of concept project completed from May through September 2013. Goals for this proof of concept are 1) gain experience configuring, using, and running an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB), 2) understand the implications of wrapping existing software in standardized interfaces for use as web services, and 3) gather performance metrics for a notional seismic event monitoring pipeline implemented using services with various data access and communication patterns. The proof of concept is a follow on to a previous SOA performance study. Work was performed by four undergraduate summer student interns under the guidance of Sandia staff.
Certification of Prefixed Tableau Proofs for Modal Logic
Tomer Libal
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Different theorem provers tend to produce proof objects in different formats and this is especially the case for modal logics, where several deductive formalisms (and provers based on them have been presented. This work falls within the general project of establishing a common specification language in order to certify proofs given in a wide range of deductive formalisms. In particular, by using a translation from the modal language into a first-order polarized language and a checker whose small kernel is based on a classical focused sequent calculus, we are able to certify modal proofs given in labeled sequent calculi, prefixed tableaux and free-variable prefixed tableaux. We describe the general method for the logic K, present its implementation in a prolog-like language, provide some examples and discuss how to extend the approach to other normal modal logics
Zurawski, Richard
2005-01-01
Embedded systems are nearly ubiquitous, and books on individual topics or components of embedded systems are equally abundant. Unfortunately, for those designers who thirst for knowledge of the big picture of embedded systems there is not a drop to drink. Until now. The Embedded Systems Handbook is an oasis of information, offering a mix of basic and advanced topics, new solutions and technologies arising from the most recent research efforts, and emerging trends to help you stay current in this ever-changing field.With preeminent contributors from leading industrial and academic institutions
Sally, Gene
2010-01-01
Today, Linux is included with nearly every embedded platform. Embedded developers can take a more modern route and spend more time tuning Linux and taking advantage of open source code to build more robust, feature-rich applications. While Gene Sally does not neglect porting Linux to new hardware, modern embedded hardware is more sophisticated than ever: most systems include the capabilities found on desktop systems. This book is written from the perspective of a user employing technologies and techniques typically reserved for desktop systems. * Modern guide for developing embedded Linux syst
Embedding beyond electrostatics
Nåbo, Lina J.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna;
2016-01-01
We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic...... repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π∗ transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics....... This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods....
Group online mindfulness training: proof of concept.
Kemper, Kathi J; Yun, Jonathan
2015-01-01
Mindfulness-based stress reduction training is attractive, but training with an expert teacher is often inconvenient and costly. This proof-of-concept project assessed the feasibility of providing a hybrid of free online mindfulness-based stress reduction training with small group peer facilitation. Six medical students asked a family medicine resident with 5 years of meditation experience but no formal training as a teacher to facilitate 8 weekly group sessions using a free online mindfulness-based stress reduction course. They completed pre- and posttraining questionnaires online. Six of the 7 trainees completed at least half the sessions. Completers and noncompleters had similar age (29 years), gender (about half male), and health status. Changes in the expected direction were observed for perceived stress, mindfulness, resilience, and confidence in providing calm, compassionate care. The hybrid of online mindfulness-based stress reduction training with peer support is feasible. Additional research is warranted to formally evaluate the impact of this approach.
Refutation of stability proofs for dipole vortices
Nycander, J.
1992-01-01
Five stability proofs for dipole vortices (modons) that have been presented by various authors are examined. It is shown that they are all incorrect, and that westward-propagating dipoles are in fact unstable, in contradiction to some of the proofs.......Five stability proofs for dipole vortices (modons) that have been presented by various authors are examined. It is shown that they are all incorrect, and that westward-propagating dipoles are in fact unstable, in contradiction to some of the proofs....
Embedded systems handbook networked embedded systems
Zurawski, Richard
2009-01-01
Considered a standard industry resource, the Embedded Systems Handbook provided researchers and technicians with the authoritative information needed to launch a wealth of diverse applications, including those in automotive electronics, industrial automated systems, and building automation and control. Now a new resource is required to report on current developments and provide a technical reference for those looking to move the field forward yet again. Divided into two volumes to accommodate this growth, the Embedded Systems Handbook, Second Edition presents a comprehensive view on this area
A Proof of Onsager's Conjecture
Isett, Philip
2016-01-01
For any $\\alpha 1/3$ due to [Eyink] and [Constantin, E, Titi], solves Onsager's conjecture that the exponent $\\alpha = 1/3$ marks the threshold for conservation of energy for weak solutions in the class $L_t^\\infty C_x^\\alpha$. The previous best results were solutions in the class $C_tC_x^\\alpha$ for $\\alpha < 1/5$, due to the author, and in the class $L_t^1 C_x^\\alpha$ for $\\alpha < 1/3$ due to Buckmaster, De Lellis and Sz\\'{e}kelyhidi, both based on the method of convex integration developed for the incompressible Euler equations by De Lellis and Sz\\'ekelyhidi. The present proof combines the method of convex integration and a new "gluing approximation" technique. The convex integration part of the proof relies on the "Mikado flows" introduced by [Daneri, Sz\\'ekelyhidi] and the framework of estimates developed in the author's previous work.
Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J
2015-11-01
A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons.
Students' Difficulties with Proof by Mathematical Induction.
Baker, John Douglas
The cognitive difficulties encountered by 40 high school and 13 college students beginning to learn the proof technique of mathematical induction were investigated. Students provided data in the form of proof-writing and proof-analysis tasks followed by interviews to clarify their written responses. Both groups of students had significant…
Proof, Explanation and Exploration: An Overview.
Hanna, Gila
2000-01-01
Explores the role of proof in mathematics education and provides justification for its importance in the curriculum. Discusses three applications of dynamic geometry software--heuristics, exploration, and visualization--as tools in the teaching of proof and as potential challenges to the importance of proof. (Author/MM)
Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems
Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke
2006-01-01
We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a
Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.
1996-06-01
Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.
Sandford, Maxwell T., II; Bradley, Jonathan N.; Handel, Theodore G.
1996-01-01
Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in MicrosoftTM bitmap (BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed `steganography.' Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or `lossy' compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is derived from the original host data by an analysis algorithm.
Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding
Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.
2013-07-01
Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.
Proof assistants: History, ideas and future
H Geuvers
2009-02-01
In this paper I will discuss the fundamental ideas behind proof assistants: What are they and what is a proof anyway? I give a short history of the main ideas, emphasizing the way they ensure the correctness of the mathematics formalized. I will also brieﬂy discuss the places where proof assistants are used and how we envision their extended use in the future. While being an introduction into the world of proof assistants and the main issues behind them, this paper is also a position paper that pushes the further use of proof assistants. We believe that these systems will become the future of mathematics, where deﬁnitions, statements, computations and proofs are all available in a computerized form. An important application is and will be in computer supported modelling and veriﬁcation of systems. But there is still a long road ahead and I will indicate what we believe is needed for the further proliferation of proof assistants.
Privacy Preserving Location Proof Updating System
Dhinesh Kumar S.
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Location-sensitive service broadcasting on user’s mobile devices to discover the current location. A privacy preserving Location proof updating system(APPLAUS,which does not rely on the wide deployement of network infrastructure or the expensive trusted computing module.In APPLAUS, Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs,which are uploaded to a untrusted location proof. An authorized verifier can query and retrieve location proofs from the server.Moreover,our location proof system guarantees user location privacy from every party.Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs.CA used to be the bridges between the verifier and the location proof server.
Privacy Preserving Location Proof Updating System
Dhinesh Kumar S.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Location-sensitive service broadcasting on user’s mobile devices to discover the current location. A privacy preserving Location proof updating system(APPLAUS,which does not rely on the wide deployement of network infrastructure or the expensive trusted computing module.In APPLAUS, Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs,which are uploaded to a untrusted location proof. An authorized verifier can query and retrieve location proofs from the server.Moreover,our location proof system guarantees user location privacy from every party.Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs.CA used to be the bridges between the verifier and the location proof server..
Embedded Systems Development Tools: A MODUS-oriented Market Overview
Loupis Michalis
2014-01-01
Background: The embedded systems technology has perhaps been the most dominating technology in high-tech industries, in the past decade. The industry has correctly identified the potential of this technology and has put its efforts into exploring its full potential. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to explore the versatility of the application in the embedded system development based on one FP7-SME project. Methods/Approach: Embedded applications normally demand high resilience and qualit...
Alternative proofs for Kocik's Geometric Diagram for Relativistic Velocity Addition
Sasane, Amol
2015-01-01
A geometric construction for the Poincare formula for relativistic addition of velocities in one dimension was given by Jerzy Kocik in "Geometric Diagram for Relativistic Addition of Velocities", American Journal of Physics, volume 80, page 737, 2012. While the proof given there used Cartesian coordinate geometry, three alternative approaches are given in this article: a trigonometric one, one via Euclidean geometry, and one using projective geometry.
A proof of Bertrand's postulate
Andrea Asperti
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the formalization, in the Matita Interactive Theorem Prover, of some results by Chebyshev concerning the distribution of prime numbers, subsuming, as a corollary, Bertrand's postulate.Even if Chebyshev's result has been later superseded by the stronger prime number theorem, his machinery, and in particular the two functions psi and theta still play a central role in the modern development of number theory. The proof makes use of most part of the machinery of elementary arithmetics, and in particular of properties of prime numbers, gcd, products and summations, providing a natural benchmark for assessing the actual development of the arithmetical knowledge base.
On Distributed Embedded Systems
Arvindra Sehmi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Thinking of distributed embedded systems (DES—let alone the more general area of embedded computing—as a unified topic is difficult. Nevertheless, it is a vastly important topic and potentially represents a revolution in information technology (IT. DES is driven by the increasing capabilities and ever-declining costs of computing and communications devices, resulting in networked systems of embedded computers whose functional components are nearly invisible to end users. Systems have the potential to alter radically the way in which people interact with their environment by linking a range of devices and sensors that will allow information to be collected, shared, and processed in unprecedented ways.
Chen, Enguo; Yu, Feihong
2012-06-01
We present an elliptic spot illumination system for a color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon (CF-LCoS) pico projector employing a specifically designed free-form lens and a cylindrical lens to improve on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency while yielding an ultracompact and low-cost optical architecture. The detailed design description of the optical system is thoroughly investigated. Simulation results coincide well with the theoretical calculation. The single 1 mm×1 mm LED chip-powered optical engine, which employs a CF-LCoS panel with a diagonal of 0.28 in and an aspect ratio of 4:3, has an estimated output efficiency over 9.8% (11.8 lm@1 W) and an ANSI 9-point uniformity over 88.5%, with the ultrasmall volume 24 mm×19 mm×7 mm. Compared to the circular spot-illuminated projection system, a total increment of about 23% of system efficiency is available with this improved optical engine. It is believed that there would be a huge market potential to commercialize our design.
Lakatos and Hersh on Mathematical Proof
Hossein Bayat
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The concept of Mathematical Proof has been controversial for the past few decades. Different philosophers have offered different theories about the nature of Mathematical Proof, among which theories presented by Lakatos and Hersh have had significant similarities and differences with each other. It seems that a comparison and critical review of these two theories will lead to a better understanding of the concept of mathematical proof and will be a big step towards solving many related problems. Lakatos and Hersh argue that, firstly, “mathematical proof” has two different meanings, formal and informal; and, secondly, informal proofs are affected by human factors, such as individual decisions and collective agreements. I call these two thesis, respectively, “proof dualism” and “humanism”. But on the other hand, their theories have significant dissimilarities and are by no means equivalent. Lakatos is committed to linear proof dualism and methodological humanism, while Hersh’s theory involves some sort of parallel proof dualism and sociological humanism. According to linear proof dualism, the two main types of proofs are provided in order to achieve a common goal: incarnation of mathematical concepts and methods and truth. However, according to the parallel proof dualism, two main types of proofs are provided in order to achieve two different types of purposes: production of a valid sequence of signs (the goal of the formal proof and persuasion of the audience (the goal of the informal proof. Hersh’s humanism is informative and indicates pluralism; whereas, Lakatos’ version of humanism is normative and monistic.
Cylinder Block Fixture for Mistake Proofing.
L.B.Raut
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The project idea basically developed from trunnion tables which are one type of fixture having ability to rotate about its axis and able to fix the component at any angle, so there is no requirement of angle plate and sine plates, drilling process is also computer controlled so no guide bush is required, So robust design for extra rigidity, flexibility and simple to use. In this project task is difficult as design rotary cage type fixture for component like cylinder block, which is heavy of 76 kg. it is not possible to rotate or handle component manually and proceed on them to make this process accident proof and automated for this purpose we are designing a rotary cage which rotate 360 degree and allow indexing to process on the component. Processes are to be operated on the component are drilling tapping and air blow washing ,Since drilling don’t need clamping here components self weight will enough to carry drilling force and tapping force coming through power tools. Therefore, rotary cage type fixture is critical importance.
A Laboratory Testbed for Embedded Fuzzy Control
Srivastava, S.; Sukumar, V.; Bhasin, P. S.; Arun Kumar, D.
2011-01-01
This paper presents a novel scheme called "Laboratory Testbed for Embedded Fuzzy Control of a Real Time Nonlinear System." The idea is based upon the fact that project-based learning motivates students to learn actively and to use their engineering skills acquired in their previous years of study. It also fosters initiative and focuses…
A Laboratory Testbed for Embedded Fuzzy Control
Srivastava, S.; Sukumar, V.; Bhasin, P. S.; Arun Kumar, D.
2011-01-01
This paper presents a novel scheme called "Laboratory Testbed for Embedded Fuzzy Control of a Real Time Nonlinear System." The idea is based upon the fact that project-based learning motivates students to learn actively and to use their engineering skills acquired in their previous years of study. It also fosters initiative and focuses…
Integrated Design Tools for Embedded Control Systems
Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Karelse, F.
2001-01-01
Currently, computer-based control systems are still being implemented using the same techniques as 10 years ago. The purpose of this project is the development of a design framework, consisting of tools and libraries, which allows the designer to build high reliable heterogeneous real-time embedded
Number of embeddings of circular and Mbius ladders on surfaces
无
2010-01-01
There are many results on the flexibility of(general) embeddings of graphs,but few are known about that of strong embeddings.In this paper,we study the flexibility of strong embeddings of circular and Mbius ladders on the projective plane and the Klein bottle by using the joint tree model of embeddings.The numbers of(nonequivalent) general embeddings and strong embeddings of circular and Mbius ladders on these two nonorientable surfaces are obtained,respectively.And the structures of those strong embeddings are described.
Formal Proofs for Nonlinear Optimization
Victor Magron
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present a formally verified global optimization framework. Given a semialgebraic or transcendental function f and a compact semialgebraic domain K, we use the nonlinear maxplus template approximation algorithm to provide a certified lower bound of f over K.This method allows to bound in a modular way some of the constituents of f by suprema of quadratic forms with a well chosen curvature. Thus, we reduce the initial goal to a hierarchy of semialgebraic optimization problems, solved by sums of squares relaxations. Our implementation tool interleaves semialgebraic approximations with sums of squares witnesses to form certificates. It is interfaced with Coq and thus benefits from the trusted arithmetic available inside the proof assistant. This feature is used to produce, from the certificates, both valid underestimators and lower bounds for each approximated constituent.The application range for such a tool is widespread; for instance Hales' proof of Kepler's conjecture yields thousands of multivariate transcendental inequalities. We illustrate the performance of our formal framework on some of these inequalities as well as on examples from the global optimization literature.
Embedded Fragments Registry (EFR)
Department of Veterans Affairs — In 2009, the Department of Defense estimated that approximately 40,000 service members who served in OEF/OIF may have embedded fragment wounds as the result of small...
Electronics for embedded systems
Bindal, Ahmet
2017-01-01
This book provides semester-length coverage of electronics for embedded systems, covering most common analog and digital circuit-related issues encountered while designing embedded system hardware. It is written for students and young professionals who have basic circuit theory background and want to learn more about passive circuits, diode and bipolar transistor circuits, the state-of-the-art CMOS logic family and its interface with older logic families such as TTL, sensors and sensor physics, operational amplifier circuits to condition sensor signals, data converters and various circuits used in electro-mechanical device control in embedded systems. The book also provides numerous hardware design examples by integrating the topics learned in earlier chapters. The last chapter extensively reviews the combinational and sequential logic design principles to be able to design the digital part of embedded system hardware.
Smart Multicore Embedded Systems
This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the-art of high-level programming models and compilation tool-chains for embedded system platforms. The authors address challenges faced by programmers developing software to implement parallel applications in embedded systems, where very...... specificities of various embedded systems from different industries. Parallel programming tool-chains are described that take as input parameters both the application and the platform model, then determine relevant transformations and mapping decisions on the concrete platform, minimizing user intervention...... and hiding the difficulties related to the correct and efficient use of memory hierarchy and low level code generation. Describes tools and programming models for multicore embedded systems Emphasizes throughout performance per watt scalability Discusses realistic limits of software parallelization Enables...
Embedded Data Representations.
Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre
2017-01-01
We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion of physical data referents - the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds - and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded representations, which display data so that it spatially coincides with data referents. Drawing on examples from visualization, ubiquitous computing, and art, we explore the role of spatial indirection, scale, and interaction for embedded representations. We also examine the tradeoffs between non-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications.
史铁平
2001-01-01
It is the first time that WISCO applies the water injectionprocess in building the continuous underground water proof wall. The new process is simple and of high efficiency and needs less investment in the construction and highly effective in flood prevention and control. On-site check and examination on the excavated sections indicate that the whole work conforms to the design requirements and radar and reflection tests show that both the wall proper and wall joints are in keeping with the design requirements, thus worthwhile popularizing.%射水法成孔建造地下连续墙在武钢还是第一次应用，射水法成孔造墙施工简便，功效高，投资少，防汛效果好，经现场开挖断面的检查，全部达到设计要求，并经雷达和反射波测试，墙身及连接缝均达到设计要求，值得推广和应用。
Adiabatic Isometric Mapping Algorithm for Embedding 2-Surfaces in Euclidean 3-Space
Ray, Shannon; Alsing, Paul M; Yau, Shing-Tung
2015-01-01
Alexandrov proved that any simplicial complex homeomorphic to a sphere with strictly non-negative Gaussian curvature at each vertex can be isometrically embedded uniquely in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ as a convex polyhedron. Due to the nonconstructive nature of his proof, there have yet to be any algorithms, that we know of, that realizes the Alexandrov embedding in polynomial time. Following his proof, we developed the adiabatic isometric mapping (AIM) algorithm. AIM uses a guided adiabatic pull-back procedure to produce "smooth" embeddings. Tests of AIM applied to two different polyhedral metrics suggests that its run time is sub cubic with respect to the number of vertices. Although Alexandrov's theorem specifically addresses the embedding of convex polyhedral metrics, we tested AIM on a broader class of polyhedral metrics that included regions of negative Gaussian curvature. One test was on a surface just outside the ergosphere of a Kerr black hole.
Adiabatic isometric mapping algorithm for embedding 2-surfaces in Euclidean 3-space
Ray, Shannon; Miller, Warner A.; Alsing, Paul M.; Yau, Shing-Tung
2015-12-01
Alexandrov proved that any simplicial complex homeomorphic to a sphere with strictly non-negative Gaussian curvature at each vertex can be isometrically embedded uniquely in {{{R}}}3 as a convex polyhedron. Due to the nonconstructive nature of his proof, there have yet to be any algorithms, that we know of, that realizes the Alexandrov embedding in polynomial time. Following his proof, we developed the adiabatic isometric mapping (AIM) algorithm. AIM uses a guided adiabatic pull-back procedure on a given polyhedral metric to produce an embedding that approximates the unique Alexandrov polyhedron. Tests of AIM applied to two different polyhedral metrics suggests that its run time is sub cubic with respect to the number of vertices. Although Alexandrov’s theorem specifically addresses the embedding of convex polyhedral metrics, we tested AIM on a broader class of polyhedral metrics that included regions of negative Gaussian curvature. One test was on a surface just outside the ergosphere of a Kerr black hole.
Sequent calculus proof systems for inductive definitions
Brotherston, James
2006-01-01
Inductive definitions are the most natural means by which to represent many families of structures occurring in mathematics and computer science, and their corresponding induction / recursion principles provide the fundamental proof techniques by which to reason about such families. This thesis studies formal proof systems for inductive definitions, as needed, e.g., for inductive proof support in automated theorem proving tools. The systems are formulated as sequent calculi for...
Lakatos and Hersh on Mathematical Proof
حسین بیات
2015-01-01
The concept of Mathematical Proof has been controversial for the past few decades. Different philosophers have offered different theories about the nature of Mathematical Proof, among which theories presented by Lakatos and Hersh have had significant similarities and differences with each other. It seems that a comparison and critical review of these two theories will lead to a better understanding of the concept of mathematical proof and will be a big step towards solving many related proble...
VAMP in Stellarium/VirGO: A Proof of Concept
Kapadia, Amit; Chéreau, Fabien; Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Gauthier, Adrienne; Hurt, Robert; Wyatt, Ryan
2008-06-01
The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) and the Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard will give observatories and astronomers an easy way to distribute their astronomical visualisation products. The CAP2007 demonstration which is described here is an early, although fully functioning, proof-of-concept for the VAMP project showing the capabilities and functionalities of the AVM. Our hope is to encourage people to begin applying the AVM standard to their Education and Public Outreach (EPO) images as they witness the spectacular end results that applications like Stellarium, World Wide Telescope, and Sky in Google Earth can bring to the future.
Introduction to proof in abstract mathematics
Wohlgemuth, Andrew
2011-01-01
The primary purpose of this undergraduate text is to teach students to do mathematical proofs. It enables readers to recognize the elements that constitute an acceptable proof, and it develops their ability to do proofs of routine problems as well as those requiring creative insights. The self-contained treatment features many exercises, problems, and selected answers, including worked-out solutions. Starting with sets and rules of inference, this text covers functions, relations, operation, and the integers. Additional topics include proofs in analysis, cardinality, and groups. Six appendixe
Bistatic SAR: Proof of Concept.
Yocky, David A.; Doren, Neall E.; Bacon, Terry A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Charles V,; Delaplain, Gilbert G.; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.; White, Kyle R.
2014-10-01
Typical synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) imaging employs a co-located RADAR transmitter and receiver. Bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. A bistatic SAR configuration allows for the transmitter and receiver(s) to be in a variety of geometric alignments. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) / New Mexico proposed the deployment of a ground-based RADAR receiver. This RADAR receiver was coupled with the capability of digitizing and recording the signal collected. SNL proposed the possibility of creating an image of targets the illuminating SAR observes. This document describes the developed hardware, software, bistatic SAR configuration, and its deployment to test the concept of a ground-based bistatic SAR. In the proof-of-concept experiments herein, the RADAR transmitter will be a commercial SAR satellite and the RADAR receiver will be deployed at ground level, observing and capturing RADAR ground/targets illuminated by the satellite system.
Symplectic embeddings and continued fractions: a survey
McDuff, Dusa
2009-01-01
As has been known since the time of Gromov's Nonsqueezing Theorem, symplectic embedding questions lie at the heart of symplectic geometry. After surveying some of the most important ways of measuring the size of a symplectic set, these notes discuss some recent developments concerning the question of when a 4-dimensional ellipsoid can be symplectically embedded in a ball. This problem turns out to have unexpected relations to the properties of continued fractions and of exceptional curves in blow ups of the complex projective plane. It is also related to questions of lattice packing of planar triangles.
Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges
Pop, Paul
2005-01-01
Summary form only given. Embedded systems are everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded systems. Over 99% of the microprocessors produced today are used in embedded systems, and recently the number of embedded systems...
EMBEDDING FLOWS AND SMOOTH CONJUGACY
ZHANGMEIRONG; LIWEIGU
1997-01-01
The authors use the functional equation for embedding vector fields to study smooth embedding flows of one-dimensional diffeomorphisms. The existence and uniqueness for smooth embedding flows and vector fields are proved. As an application of embedding flows, some classification results about local and giobal diffeomorphisms under smooth conjugacy are given.
Why College or University Students Hate Proofs in Mathematics?
Mbaïtiga Zacharie
2009-01-01
Problem Statement: A proof is a notoriously difficult mathematical concept for students. Empirical studies have shown that students emerge from proof-oriented courses such as high-school geometry, introduction to proof, complex and abstract algebra unable to construct anything beyond very trivial proofs. Furthermore, most university students do not know what constitutes a proof and cannot determine whether a purported proof is valid. A proof is a convincing method that demonstrates with gener...
Zazkis, Dov; Zazkis, Rina
2016-01-01
A significant body of research literature in mathematics education attends to mathematical proofs. However, scant research attends to proof comprehension, which is the focus of this study. We examine perspective secondary teachers' conceptions of what constitutes comprehension of a given proof and their ideas of how students' comprehension can be…
Proof Problems with Diagrams: An Opportunity for Experiencing Proofs and Refutations
Komatsu, Kotaro; Tsujiyama, Yosuke; Sakamaki, Aruta; Koike, Norio
2014-01-01
It has become gradually accepted that proof and proving are essential at all grades of mathematical learning. Among the various aspects of proof and proving, this study addresses proofs and refutations described by Lakatos, in particular a part of increasing content by deductive guessing, to introduce an authentic process into mathematics…
徐守军; 米献淼; 魏晓青; 彭奕; 孙宇; 张立国; 张永祥
2012-01-01
文章在系统回顾嵌入概念在经济学、现代企业管理和信息技术领域理论研究与实践操作的基础上,对嵌入式管理的基本含义、主客体关系、嵌入方式以及基本特征进行了分析,进而结合“重大新药创制”科技重大专项组织实施的要求,初步提出了实施嵌入式管理的措施,为迸一步提高重大专项管理的水平和效率、控制管理风险等提供参考.%We systematically reviewed embedded management in economics, modern business management and information technology theory and practice. In this article, we analyzed the basic concept, host-guest relationship, embedded mode, and essential characteristics of embedded management. Furthermore, combined with the organization and implementation in major projects of national science and technology on " new drug creation and development" , we initially proposed the measurement of embedded management, so as to provide reference to further improve the level and efficiency, risk control of major project management.
Smart multicore embedded systems
Bertels, Koen; Karlsson, Sven; Pacull, François
2014-01-01
This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the-art of high-level programming models and compilation tool-chains for embedded system platforms. The authors address challenges faced by programmers developing software to implement parallel applications in embedded systems, where very often they are forced to rewrite sequential programs into parallel software, taking into account all the low level features and peculiarities of the underlying platforms. Readers will benefit from these authors’ approach, which takes into account both the application requirements and the platform specificities of various embedded systems from different industries. Parallel programming tool-chains are described that take as input parameters both the application and the platform model, then determine relevant transformations and mapping decisions on the concrete platform, minimizing user intervention and hiding the difficulties related to the correct and efficient use of memory hierarchy and low level code generati...
Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre
2017-01-01
We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles...... are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion...... of physical data referents – the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds – and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded...
Proof as Answer to the Question Why.
Dreyfus, Tommy; Hadas, Nurit
1996-01-01
Shows how an empirical approach to geometry using computer-based dynamic geometry software can create didactic situations in which students require proofs. Reports classroom experiences that show where students felt the need for proof in order to explain phenomena or to convince themselves of counterintuitive results. (Author/MKR)
Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources
Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol
2015-01-01
by maximizing a separably concave function over a polyhedral extension of the set of Pareto-efficient allocations is strategy-proof. Moreover, these are the only strategy-proof, unanimous, consistent, and resource-monotonic mechanisms. These mechanisms generalize the parametric rationing mechanisms (Young, 1987...
A Short Proof of Krattenthaler Formulas
MA Xin Rong
2002-01-01
With an effort to investigate a unified approach to the Lagrange inverse Krattenthaler established operator method we finally found a general pair of inverse relations, called the Krattenthaler formulas. The present paper presents a very short proof of this formula via Lagrange interpolation.Further, our method of proof declares that the Krattenthaler result is unique in the light of Lagrange interpolation.
Multiparty Session Types as Coherence Proofs
Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten;
2015-01-01
We propose a Curry-Howard correspondence between a language for programming multiparty sessions and a generalisation of Classical Linear Logic (CLL). In this framework, propositions correspond to the local behaviour of a participant in a multiparty session type, proofs to processes, and proof...
Verifying Process Algebra Proofs in Type Theory
Sellink, M.P.A.
2008-01-01
In this paper we study automatic verification of proofs in process algebra. Formulas of process algebra are represented by types in typed λ-calculus. Inhabitants (terms) of these types represent proofs. The specific typed λ-calculus we use is the Calculus of Inductive Constructions as implemented in
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.209 Section 136.209 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.209 Proof. In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.221 Section 136.221 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.221 Proof. In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.233 Section 136.233 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.233 Proof. In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.203 Section 136.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.203 Proof. In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.227 Section 136.227 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.227 Proof. In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.215 Section 136.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.215 Proof. (a) In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.239 Section 136.239 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.239 Proof. In addition to...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The end goal of this project is to develop proof-of-concept infrared detectors which can be integrated in future infrared instruments engaged in remote...
Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Steinmann, Casper; Ruud, Kenneth
2015-01-01
We present a new QM/QM/MM-based model for calculating molecular properties and excited states of solute-solvent systems. We denote this new approach the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model and it represents an extension of our previously developed polarizable embedding (PE) strategy. The PDE...... model is a focused computational approach in which a core region of the system studied is represented by a quantum-chemical method, whereas the environment is divided into two other regions: an inner and an outer region. Molecules belonging to the inner region are described by their exact densities...
Audio Steganography with Embedded Text
Teck Jian, Chua; Chai Wen, Chuah; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Binti Ab.; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi Binti A.
2017-08-01
Audio steganography is about hiding the secret message into the audio. It is a technique uses to secure the transmission of secret information or hide their existence. It also may provide confidentiality to secret message if the message is encrypted. To date most of the steganography software such as Mp3Stego and DeepSound use block cipher such as Advanced Encryption Standard or Data Encryption Standard to encrypt the secret message. It is a good practice for security. However, the encrypted message may become too long to embed in audio and cause distortion of cover audio if the secret message is too long. Hence, there is a need to encrypt the message with stream cipher before embedding the message into the audio. This is because stream cipher provides bit by bit encryption meanwhile block cipher provide a fixed length of bits encryption which result a longer output compare to stream cipher. Hence, an audio steganography with embedding text with Rivest Cipher 4 encryption cipher is design, develop and test in this project.
Embedded 3D Nonvolatile Memory Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrated circuits in NASA spacecraft and vehicle electronics must operate over large temperature extremes and mitigate radiation effects that can result in upset...
Reaction Wheel with Embedded MEMS IMU Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is to embed a MEMS IMU Sensor Chip into a reaction wheel to measure its spin rate as well as wheel attitude rate. We propose to use a reaction wheel...
Reaction Wheel with Embedded MEMS IMU Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheels are used to stabilize satellites and to slew their orientation from object to object with precision and accuracy by varying the rotational speed of...
The nuts and bolts of proofs an introduction to mathematical proofs
Cupillari, Antonella
2005-01-01
The Nuts and Bolts of Proof instructs students on the basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how and why proofs of mathematical statements work. It provides them with techniques they can use to gain an inside view of the subject, reach other results, remember results more easily, or rederive them if the results are forgotten.A flow chart graphically demonstrates the basic steps in the construction of any proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems.* The "List of Symbols" has been extended.* Set Theory section has been strengthened with more examples and exercises.* Addition of "A Collection of Proofs"
Functions as proofs as processes
Beffara, Emmanuel
2011-01-01
This paper presents a logical approach to the translation of functional calculi into concurrent process calculi. The starting point is a type system for the {\\pi}-calculus closely related to linear logic. Decompositions of intuitionistic and classical logics into this system provide type-preserving translations of the \\lambda- and \\lambda\\mu-calculus, both for call-by-name and call-by-value evaluation strategies. Previously known encodings of the \\lam-calculus are shown to correspond to particular cases of this logical embedding. The realisability interpretation of types in the \\pi-calculus provides systematic soundness arguments for these translations and allows for the definition of type-safe extensions of functional calculi.
Barwick, Susan
2008-01-01
Unitals are key structures in projective planes, and have connections with other structures in algebra. This book presents a monograph on unitals embedded in finite projective planes. It offers a survey of the research literature on embedded unitals. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this topic
Embedded foveation image coding.
Wang, Z; Bovik, A C
2001-01-01
The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.
Kisacanin, Branislav
2008-01-01
Brings together experiences from researchers in the field of embedded computer vision, from both academic and industrial research centers, and covers a broad range of challenges and trade-offs brought about by this paradigm shift. This title offers emphasis on tackling important problems for society, safety, security, health, and mobility.
McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.
2016-07-19
A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.
Embedded Librarians: Just-in-Time or Just-in-Case? A Research Study
Heathcock, Kristin
2015-01-01
Embedded librarians in online courses provide a wealth of service and information to students. Though students indicate that these services are valuable, the librarians providing embedded services frequently note that these projects are very time consuming. This study examines the provision of a less time-intensive model of embedded librarianship…
Martinez, Mara V.; Castro Superfine, Alison
2012-01-01
In the United States, researchers argue that proof is largely concentrated in the domain of high school geometry, thus providing students a distorted image of what proof entails, which is at odds with the central role that proof plays in mathematics. Despite the centrality of proof, there is a lack of studies addressing how to integrate proof into…
Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources
Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol
2015-01-01
We examine the strategy-proof allocation of multiple resources; an application is the assignment of packages of tasks, workloads, and compensations among the members of an organization. In the domain of multidimensional single-peaked preferences, we find that any allocation mechanism obtained...... by maximizing a separably concave function over a polyhedral extension of the set of Pareto-efficient allocations is strategy-proof. Moreover, these are the only strategy-proof, unanimous, consistent, and resource-monotonic mechanisms. These mechanisms generalize the parametric rationing mechanisms (Young, 1987...
Structured Event-B Models and Proofs
Hallerstede, Stefan
2010-01-01
two unfortunate consequences: such models become less comprehensible - we have to infer sequential ordering from the use of program counters; proof obligation generation does not consider ordering - generating too many proof obligations (although these are usually trivially discharged......). In this article we propose a method for specifying structured models avoiding, in particular, the use of abstract program counters. It uses a notation that mainly serves to drive proof obligation generation. However, the notation also describes the structure of a model explicitly. A corresponding graphical...
Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.
Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy
2013-10-01
This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, \\Dynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors". The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.
Integrated Design Tools for Embedded Control Systems
Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Karelse, F.
2001-01-01
Currently, computer-based control systems are still being implemented using the same techniques as 10 years ago. The purpose of this project is the development of a design framework, consisting of tools and libraries, which allows the designer to build high reliable heterogeneous real-time embedded systems in a very short time at a fraction of the present day costs. The ultimate focus of current research is on transformation control laws to efficient concurrent algorithms, with concerns about...
Compressive Spectral Embedding: Sidestepping the SVD
2015-09-28
rows of A into a k-dimensional space using the rows of E = [f(σ1)u1 f(σ2) u2 · · · f(σk)uk], for some function f(·). The embedding of the variable...random projections to compute an approximate histogram of the number of eigenvectors across different bands of the spectrum: [a, b] ⊆ [λmin, λmax]. 3
Emerging Trends in Embedded Processors
Gurvinder Singh
2014-05-01
Full Text Available An Embedded Processors is simply a µProcessors that has been “Embedded” into a device. Embedded systems are important part of human life. For illustration, one cannot visualize life without mobile phones for personal communication. Embedded systems are used in many places like healthcare, automotive, daily life, and in different offices and industries.Embedded Processors develop new research area in the field of hardware designing.
Buhl, Henrik
1998-01-01
The purpose of the paper is to discuss the influence of different approaches and work life conditions on the conception of embedment of employee participation. The discussion is based on three connected approaches: a theoretical research, a research into participation in working life and an empir......The purpose of the paper is to discuss the influence of different approaches and work life conditions on the conception of embedment of employee participation. The discussion is based on three connected approaches: a theoretical research, a research into participation in working life...... and an empirical case study. My starting point will be a case study of a Danish ABB company which will form the framework of my discussion and reflect my present experience. This analysis will emphasize the possibilities of making employee participation a permanent part of the company at all levels....
ReACT Methodology Proof of Concept Final Report
Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman
2014-03-01
The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) funded INL Researchers to evaluate a novel process for assessing and mitigating cyber security risks. The proof of concept level of the method was tested in an industry environment. This case study, plus additional case studies will support the further development of the method into a tool to assist industry in securing their critical networks. This report provides an understanding of the process developed in the Response Analysis and Characterization Tool (ReACT) project. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these tools for use by industry.
Mitchell, William
1992-01-01
This paper, dating from May 1991, contains preliminary (and unpublishable) notes on investigations about iteration trees. They will be of interest only to the specialist. In the first two sections I define notions of support and embeddings for tree iterations, proving for example that every tree iteration is a direct limit of finite tree iterations. This is a generalization to models with extenders of basic ideas of iterated ultrapowers using only ultrapowers. In the final section (which is m...
Proof of payment for all reimbursement claims
HR Department
2006-01-01
Members of the personnel are kindly requested to note that only documents proving that a payment has been made are accepted as proof of payment for any claims for reimbursement, including specifically the reimbursement of education fees. In particular, the following will be accepted as proof of payment: bank or post office bank statements indicating the name of the institution to which the payment was made; photocopies of cheques made out to the institution to which the payments were made together with bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; proof of payment in the form of discharged payment slips; invoices with acknowledgement of settlement, receipts, bank statements detailing operations crediting another account or similar documents. As a result, the following documents in particular will no longer be accepted as proof of payment: photocopies of cheques that are not submitted together with bank or post office bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; details of ...
Evaluating Google Compute Engine with PROOF
Ganis, Gerardo; Panitkin, Sergey
2014-06-01
The advent of private and commercial cloud platforms has opened the question of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of such solution for computing in High Energy Physics . Google Compute Engine (GCE) is a IaaS product launched by Google as an experimental platform during 2012 and now open to the public market. In this contribution we present the results of a set of CPU-intensive and I/O-intensive tests we have run with PROOF on a GCE resources made available by Google for test purposes. We have run tests on large scale PROOF clusters (up to 1000 workers) to study the overall scalability of coordinated multi-process jobs. We have studied and compared the performance of ephemeral and persistent storage with PROOF-Lite on the single machines and of standard PROOF on the whole cluster. We will discuss our results in perspective, in particular with respect to the typical analysis needs of an LHC experiment.
Lakatos and Hersh on Mathematical Proof
Hossein Bayat
2015-01-01
.... Different philosophers have offered different theories about the nature of Mathematical Proof, among which theories presented by Lakatos and Hersh have had significant similarities and differences with each other...
Finally, Proof That Hearing Aids Help
... news/fullstory_163889.html Finally, Proof That Hearing Aids Help High-quality digital devices provide 'significant benefit' ... but solid evidence about the value of hearing aids has been lacking -- until now. New research findings " ...
Towards an Intelligent Tutor for Mathematical Proofs
Autexier, Serge; Schiller, Marvin; 10.4204/EPTCS.79.1
2012-01-01
Computer-supported learning is an increasingly important form of study since it allows for independent learning and individualized instruction. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach to developing an intelligent tutoring system for teaching textbook-style mathematical proofs. We characterize the particularities of the domain and discuss common ITS design models. Our approach is motivated by phenomena found in a corpus of tutorial dialogs that were collected in a Wizard-of-Oz experiment. We show how an intelligent tutor for textbook-style mathematical proofs can be built on top of an adapted assertion-level proof assistant by reusing representations and proof search strategies originally developed for automated and interactive theorem proving. The resulting prototype was successfully evaluated on a corpus of tutorial dialogs and yields good results.
Towards an Intelligent Tutor for Mathematical Proofs
Serge Autexier
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Computer-supported learning is an increasingly important form of study since it allows for independent learning and individualized instruction. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach to developing an intelligent tutoring system for teaching textbook-style mathematical proofs. We characterize the particularities of the domain and discuss common ITS design models. Our approach is motivated by phenomena found in a corpus of tutorial dialogs that were collected in a Wizard-of-Oz experiment. We show how an intelligent tutor for textbook-style mathematical proofs can be built on top of an adapted assertion-level proof assistant by reusing representations and proof search strategies originally developed for automated and interactive theorem proving. The resulting prototype was successfully evaluated on a corpus of tutorial dialogs and yields good results.
Problems and proofs in numbers and algebra
Millman, Richard S; Kahn, Eric Brendan
2015-01-01
Designed to facilitate the transition from undergraduate calculus and differential equations to learning about proofs, this book helps students develop the rigorous mathematical reasoning needed for advanced courses in analysis, abstract algebra, and more. Students will focus on both how to prove theorems and solve problem sets in-depth; that is, where multiple steps are needed to prove or solve. This proof technique is developed by examining two specific content themes and their applications in-depth: number theory and algebra. This choice of content themes enables students to develop an understanding of proof technique in the context of topics with which they are already familiar, as well as reinforcing natural and conceptual understandings of mathematical methods and styles. The key to the text is its interesting and intriguing problems, exercises, theorems, and proofs, showing how students will transition from the usual, more routine calculus to abstraction while also learning how to “prove” or “sol...
Ly, Hung D; Blankenship, Yufei
2011-01-01
This paper considers the problem of simultaneously communicating two messages, a high-security message and a low-security message, to a legitimate receiver, referred to as the security embedding problem. An information-theoretic formulation of the problem is presented. A coding scheme that combines rate splitting, superposition coding, nested binning and channel prefixing is considered and is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity region of the channel in several scenarios. Specifying these results to both scalar and independent parallel Gaussian channels (under an average individual per-subchannel power constraint), it is shown that the high-security message can be embedded into the low-security message at full rate (as if the low-security message does not exist) without incurring any loss on the overall rate of communication (as if both messages are low-security messages). Extensions to the wiretap channel II setting of Ozarow and Wyner are also considered, where it is shown that "perfect" security embedding...
Embedded Systems Education for Multiple Disciplines
Ali H.E. Mousa
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study described the process and experience of designing and developing an embedded systems first course that serves different disciplines at the University of Jordan together with its associated laboratory. The course serves three different departments with varying requirements and varying student initial background. The stages of the design process of the course and associated labs are explored. Emphasis is given throughout to the notion of systems design without losing track of the details involved in the design process. The design methodology used for the laboratory facilities and the learning outcomes are explored. Approach: The methodology followed in the design process was based on defining clear objectives taking into consideration the different backgrounds of students and departmental requirements. This was followed by defining the course content, designing the lab facilities and choosing the right hardware and software tools. We followed the Demonstrate, Work-to-Know and Design methodology for lab design Results: The course had been running successfully for several years now. Successful innovative projects undertaken by students and their results are reported. Due to its success, numerous senior capstone projects in many departments are now based on embedded systems ideas and notions. Conclusion: Embedded system teaching for multiple disciplines requires diligence and clear understanding of the varying requirements and backgrounds of students. Careful consideration should be given to the objectives, choice of tools and the timeline of the course and associated labs. Projects that tie the concepts together are very important for the success of the course.
A short proof of increased parabolic regularity
Stephen Pankavich
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.
Deriving Safety Cases from Automatically Constructed Proofs
Basir, Nurlida; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd
2009-01-01
Formal proofs provide detailed justification for the validity of claims and are widely used in formal software development methods. However, they are often complex and difficult to understand, because the formalism in which they are constructed and encoded is usually machine-oriented, and they may also be based on assumptions that are not justified. This causes concerns about the trustworthiness of using formal proofs as arguments in safety-critical applications. Here, we present an approach ...
Symbolic logic syntax, semantics, and proof
Agler, David
2012-01-01
Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into English and from English into formal language; how to use truth trees and truth tables to test propositions for logical properties; and how to construct and strategically use derivation rules in proofs.
Symbolic logic syntax, semantics, and proof
Agler, David
2012-01-01
Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Symbolic Logic: Syntax, Semantics, and Proof introduces students to the fundamental concepts, techniques, and topics involved in deductive reasoning. Agler guides students through the basics of symbolic logic by explaining the essentials of two classical systems, propositional and predicate logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into
Philip H. Kass
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In an effort to recognize and address communicable and point-source epidemics in dog and cat populations, this project created a near real-time syndromic surveillance system devoted to companion animal health in the United States. With over 150 million owned pets in the US, the development of such a system is timely in light of previous epidemics due to various causes that were only recognized in retrospect. The goal of this study was to develop epidemiologic and statistical methods for veterinary hospital-based surveillance, and to demonstrate its efficacy by detection of simulated foodborne outbreaks using a database of over 700 hospitals. Data transfer protocols were established via a secure file transfer protocol site, and a data repository was constructed predominantly utilizing open-source software. The daily proportion of patients with a given clinical or laboratory finding was contrasted with an equivalent average proportion from a historical comparison period, allowing construction of the proportionate diagnostic outcome ratio and its confidence interval for recognizing aberrant heath events. A five-tiered alert system was used to facilitate daily assessment of almost 2,000 statistical analyses. Two simulated outbreak scenarios were created by independent experts, blinded to study investigators, and embedded in the 2010 medical records. Both outbreaks were detected almost immediately by the alert system, accurately detecting species affected using relevant clinical and laboratory findings, and ages involved. Besides demonstrating proof-in-concept of using veterinary hospital databases to detect aberrant events in space and time, this research can be extended to conducting post-detection etiologic investigations utilizing exposure information in the medical record.
Safety-critical Java for embedded systems
Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, René Rydhof
2016-01-01
This paper presents the motivation for and outcomes of an engineering research project on certifiable Javafor embedded systems. The project supports the upcoming standard for safety-critical Java, which defines asubset of Java and libraries aiming for development of high criticality systems....... The outcome of this projectinclude prototype safety-critical Java implementations, a time-predictable Java processor, analysis tools formemory safety, and example applications to explore the usability of safety-critical Java for this applicationarea. The text summarizes developments and key contributions...
Embedded software verification and debugging
Winterholer, Markus
2017-01-01
This book provides comprehensive coverage of verification and debugging techniques for embedded software, which is frequently used in safety critical applications (e.g., automotive), where failures are unacceptable. Since the verification of complex systems needs to encompass the verification of both hardware and embedded software modules, this book focuses on verification and debugging approaches for embedded software with hardware dependencies. Coverage includes the entire flow of design, verification and debugging of embedded software and all key approaches to debugging, dynamic, static, and hybrid verification. This book discusses the current, industrial embedded software verification flow, as well as emerging trends with focus on formal and hybrid verification and debugging approaches. Includes in a single source the entire flow of design, verification and debugging of embedded software; Addresses the main techniques that are currently being used in the industry for assuring the quality of embedded softw...
El-Asrag, Hossam A.
2011-01-01
Direct simulation of all the length and time scales relevant to practical combustion processes is computationally prohibitive. When combustion processes are driven by reaction and transport phenomena occurring at the unresolved scales of a numerical simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re-ignition, and history effects-via embedded simulations at the subgrid level. The model efficiently accounts for subgrid flame structure and incorporates detailed chemistry and transport, allowing more accurate prediction of the stretch effect and the heat release. In this chapter we first review the work done in the past thirty years to develop the flame embedding concept. Next we present a formulation for the same concept that is compatible with Large Eddy Simulation in the flamelet regimes. The unsteady flame embedding approach (UFE) treats the flame as an ensemble of locally one-dimensional flames, similar to the flamelet approach. However, a set of elemental one-dimensional flames is used to describe the turbulent flame structure directly at the subgrid level. The calculations employ a one-dimensional unsteady flame model that incorporates unsteady strain rate, curvature, and mixture boundary conditions imposed by the resolved scales. The model is used for closure of the subgrid terms in the context of large eddy simulation. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from a flame-vortex interaction problem is used for comparison. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Holck, Lotte
2016-01-01
/methodology/approach: – The (re)production of inequality is explored by linking research on organizational space with HRM diversity management. Data from an ethnographic study undertaken in a Danish municipal center illustrates how a substructure of inequality is spatially upheld alongside a formal diversity policy. Archer...... the more subtle, spatially embedded forms of inequality. Originality/value: – Theoretical and empirical connections between research on organizational space and HRM diversity management have thus far not been systematically studied. This combination might advance knowledge on the persistence of micro...
Quantization of submanifold embeddings
Bahns, Dorothea; Zahn, Jochen [Courant Research Centre ' ' Higher Order Structures' ' , Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Rejzner, Katarzyna [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)
2013-07-01
We describe a perturbative quantization of the embedding of d-dimensional submanifolds into n-dimensional Minkowski space, based on suitable generalizations of the Nambu-Goto action. We use tools from perturbative algebraic quantum field theory, quantum field theory on curved spacetimes, and the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. The resulting theory is perturbatively non-renormalizable, but well-defined as an effective theory, i.e., there are no anomalies, for any dimension d,n. In particular there is no critical dimension for the case of string theory (d=2).
Shutters with embedded microprocessors
Stephenson, S.
2015-06-01
Shutters are used to periodically provide a non-uniformity correction (NUC) calibration surface to micro bolometers. Many bolometer applications, such as TWS and DVE, require compact, power efficient actuators. Actuators in these applications, such as bistable solenoids and stepper motors, benefit from complex drive schemes. Consumer electronics products have generated compact, low-cost drive components that can be used to embed complex drives into these shutters. Shutter drives using these components maintain compactness and power efficiency while simplifying interfaces at minimal cost. Recently, several commercially available shutter systems have been created that incorporate embedded microprocessors into shutters usable for NUC correction of micro bolometers.
Embedded microcontroller interfacing
Gupta, Gourab Sen
2010-01-01
Mixed-Signal Embedded Microcontrollers are commonly used in integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems. They are used in automatically controlled devices and products, such as automobile engine control systems, wireless remote controllers, office machines, home appliances, power tools, and toys. Microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes by reducing the size and cost, compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices. In many undergraduate and post-graduate courses, teachi
Programming Windows® Embedded CE 60 Developer Reference
Boling, Douglas
2010-01-01
Get the popular, practical reference to developing small footprint applications-now updated for the Windows Embedded CE 6.0 kernel. Written by an authority on embedded application development, this book focuses in on core operating concepts and the Win32 API. It delivers extensive code samples and sample projects-helping you build proficiency creating innovative Windows applications for a new generation of devices. Discover how to: Create complex applications designed for the unique requirements of embedded devicesManage virtual memory, heaps, and the stack to minimize your memory footprintC
ROPE: Recoverable Order-Preserving Embedding of Natural Language
Widemann, David P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Eric X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-02-11
We present a novel Recoverable Order-Preserving Embedding (ROPE) of natural language. ROPE maps natural language passages from sparse concatenated one-hot representations to distributed vector representations of predetermined fixed length. We use Euclidean distance to return search results that are both grammatically and semantically similar. ROPE is based on a series of random projections of distributed word embeddings. We show that our technique typically forms a dictionary with sufficient incoherence such that sparse recovery of the original text is possible. We then show how our embedding allows for efficient and meaningful natural search and retrieval on Microsoft’s COCO dataset and the IMDB Movie Review dataset.
Automatic Parallelization and Optimization of Programs by Proof Rewriting
Hurlin, C.; Palsberg, J.; Su, Z.
2009-01-01
We show how, given a program and its separation logic proof, one can parallelize and optimize this program and transform its proof simultaneously to obtain a proven parallelized and optimized program. To achieve this goal, we present new proof rules for generating proof trees and a rewrite system on
Is There a Need for Proof in Secondary Mathematics Education?
Gatward, Rebecca
2011-01-01
Mathematical proof is a strange concept; it is ironical that there is no precise definition of what constitutes a mathematical proof since without definitions there can be no proof--Dreyfus, 1999. Proof can be divided into many different categories. In this article, the author discusses these categories. She looks first at the background of proof…
An Intuitive Formal Proof for Deadline Driven Scheduler
詹乃军
2001-01-01
This paper presents another formal proof for the correctness of the Deadline Driven Scheduler (DDS). This proof is given in terms of Duration Calculus which provides abstraction for random preemption of processor. Compared with other approaches, this proof relies on many intuitive facts. Therefore this proof is more intuitive, while it is still formal.
Interfacing Automatic Proof Agents in Atelier B: Introducing "iapa"
Lilian Burdy
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The application of automatic theorem provers to discharge proof obligations is necessary to apply formal methods in an efficient manner. Tools supporting formal methods, such as Atelier~B, generate proof obligations fully automatically. Consequently, such proof obligations are often cluttered with information that is irrelevant to establish their validity. We present iapa, an "Interface to Automatic Proof Agents", a new tool that is being integrated to Atelier~B, through which the user will access proof obligations, apply operations to simplify these proof obligations, and then dispatch the resulting, simplified, proof obligations to a portfolio of automatic theorem provers.
Initiated Protocol Telephony Feasibility for the US Navy, Embedded Proof-of-Concept
2011-03-01
volume 11. Adjustable handset , headset, and speakerphone receiver/microphone volume 12. 4 programmable memory buttons. 13. Caller ID, Call...into flash memory so that the setup is recalled (persistent) when the phones are power cycled . Unicoi has a small file system implemented in flash...Intelligent Advanced Communications IP Telephony Feasibility for the US Navy – Phase 3 1.4.11 Info Subsystem Centralized access to configuration
A very Simple Proof of Pascal's Hexagon Theorem and some Applications
Nedeljko Stefanović; Miloš Milošević
2010-11-01
In this article we present a simple and elegant algebraic proof of Pascal’s hexagon theorem which requires only knowledge of basics on conic sections without theory of projective transformations. Also, we provide an efficient algorithm for finding an equation of the conic containing five given points and a criterion for verification whether a set of points is a subset of the conic.
Density and Flow-Velocity Measurement Technology for Dredging Applications - Proof of Concept Study
Greenwood, Margaret S.; Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.
2004-10-01
This technical letter report provides the results of all PNNL managed activities on this project, and contains a description of the data acquisition configuration and testing protocols, results and conclusions from this work. This technical letter report constitutes the final deliverable to be submitted to the client for this proof-of-concept study.
Proof-Carrying Code with Correct Compilers
Appel, Andrew W.
2009-01-01
In the late 1990s, proof-carrying code was able to produce machine-checkable safety proofs for machine-language programs even though (1) it was impractical to prove correctness properties of source programs and (2) it was impractical to prove correctness of compilers. But now it is practical to prove some correctness properties of source programs, and it is practical to prove correctness of optimizing compilers. We can produce more expressive proof-carrying code, that can guarantee correctness properties for machine code and not just safety. We will construct program logics for source languages, prove them sound w.r.t. the operational semantics of the input language for a proved-correct compiler, and then use these logics as a basis for proving the soundness of static analyses.
Zero Data Remnance Proof in Cloud Storage
Mithun Paul
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In a cloud environment where Storage is offered as a service, a client stores his data with a provider andpays as per the usage. Once the contract ends, the client, as the data owner, may like to see, due to privacyreasons and otherwise that the data is properly shredded in the provider storage. In this paper we proposea scheme for Zero Data Remnance Proof (ZDRP – a comprehensive proof given by the cloud data storageprovider as regards to zero data remnance post the SLA period. In absence of such shredding the providercan consume the data to his benefit without coming in legal framework. The proof of data destruction canbe achieved together by clauses in the SLA and a comprehensive destruction-verifier algorithm. Theimplementation of this can be achieved by appropriate modification of the data updation mechanismsprovided by open source cloud providers.
Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture
Dykema, Kenneth J., E-mail: kdykema@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Paulsen, Vern, E-mail: vern@math.uh.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)
2016-01-15
In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.
Design Methods for Embedded Security
I. Verbauwhede
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Embedded devices need both an efficient and a secure implementation of cryptographic algorithms. In this overview paper we show a typical top-down approach for secure and efficient implementation of embedded systems. We outline the security pyramid by illustrating the five primary abstraction levels in an embedded system. Focusing only on two levels - architecture and circuit level - we show how the design can be implemented to be both efficient and secure.
A simple proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-11-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality; a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate over what exactly the Bell inequality means, because the hypotheses underlying the proof become transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Set theory an introduction to independence proofs
Kunen, K
1984-01-01
Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, Volume 102: Set Theory: An Introduction to Independence Proofs offers an introduction to relative consistency proofs in axiomatic set theory, including combinatorics, sets, trees, and forcing.The book first tackles the foundations of set theory and infinitary combinatorics. Discussions focus on the Suslin problem, Martin's axiom, almost disjoint and quasi-disjoint sets, trees, extensionality and comprehension, relations, functions, and well-ordering, ordinals, cardinals, and real numbers. The manuscript then ponders on well-founded sets and
Advances in embedded computer vision
Kisacanin, Branislav
2014-01-01
This illuminating collection offers a fresh look at the very latest advances in the field of embedded computer vision. Emerging areas covered by this comprehensive text/reference include the embedded realization of 3D vision technologies for a variety of applications, such as stereo cameras on mobile devices. Recent trends towards the development of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with embedded image and video processing algorithms are also examined. The authoritative insights range from historical perspectives to future developments, reviewing embedded implementation, tools, technolog
Communicating embedded systems networks applications
Krief, Francine
2013-01-01
Embedded systems become more and more complex and require having some knowledge in various disciplines such as electronics, data processing, telecommunications and networks. Without detailing all the aspects related to the design of embedded systems, this book, which was written by specialists in electronics, data processing and telecommunications and networks, gives an interesting point of view of communication techniques and problems in embedded systems. This choice is easily justified by the fact that embedded systems are today massively communicating and that telecommunications and network
Embedded Systems Design with FPGAs
Pnevmatikatos, Dionisios; Sklavos, Nicolas
2013-01-01
This book presents methodologies for modern applications of embedded systems design, using field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. Coverage includes state-of-the-art research from academia and industry on a wide range of topics, including advanced electronic design automation (EDA), novel system architectures, embedded processors, arithmetic, dynamic reconfiguration and applications. Describes a variety of methodologies for modern embedded systems design; Implements methodologies presented on FPGAs; Covers a wide variety of applications for reconfigurable embedded systems, including Bioinformatics, Communications and networking, Application acceleration, Medical solutions, Experiments for high energy physics, Astronomy, Aerospace, Biologically inspired systems and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT
Jukkola, Glen
2010-06-30
Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas
Agrawal, Dharma Prakash
2017-01-01
This inspiring textbook provides an introduction to wireless technologies for sensors, explores potential use of sensors for numerous applications, and utilizes probability theory and mathematical methods as a means of embedding sensors in system design. It discusses the need for synchronization and underlying limitations, inter-relation between given coverage and connectivity to number of sensors needed, and the use of geometrical distance to determine location of the base station for data collection and explore use of anchor nodes for relative position determination of sensors. The book explores energy conservation, communication using TCP, the need for clustering and data aggregation, and residual energy determination and energy harvesting. It covers key topics of sensor communication like mobile base stations and relay nodes, delay-tolerant sensor networks, and remote sensing and possible applications. The book defines routing methods and do performance evaluation for random and regular sensor topology an...
Watermark Embedding and Detection
Zhong, Jidong
2006-01-01
The embedder and the detector (or decoder) are the two most important components of the digital watermarking systems. Thus in this work, we discuss how to design a better embedder and detector (or decoder). I first give a summary of the prospective applications of watermarking technology and major watermarking schemes in the literature. My review on the literature closely centers upon how the side information is exploited at both embedders and detectors. In Chapter 3, I explore the optimum detector or decoder according to a particular probability distribution of the host signals. We found that the performance of both multiplicative and additive spread spectrum schemes depends on the shape parameter of the host signals. For spread spectrum schemes, the performance of the detector or the decoder is reduced by the host interference. Thus I present a new host-interference rejection technique for the multiplicative spread spectrum schemes. Its embedding rule is tailored to the optimum detection or decoding rule. T...
Lisbôa, Carlos; Carro, Luigi
2013-01-01
As embedded systems become more complex, designers face a number of challenges at different levels: they need to boost performance, while keeping energy consumption as low as possible, they need to reuse existent software code, and at the same time they need to take advantage of the extra logic available in the chip, represented by multiple processors working together. This book describes several strategies to achieve such different and interrelated goals, by the use of adaptability. Coverage includes reconfigurable systems, dynamic optimization techniques such as binary translation and trace reuse, new memory architectures including homogeneous and heterogeneous multiprocessor systems, communication issues and NOCs, fault tolerance against fabrication defects and soft errors, and finally, how one can combine several of these techniques together to achieve higher levels of performance and adaptability. The discussion also includes how to employ specialized software to improve this new adaptive system, and...
Embedding potentials for excited states of embedded species.
Wesolowski, Tomasz A
2014-05-14
Frozen-Density-Embedding Theory (FDET) is a formalism to obtain the upper bound of the ground-state energy of the total system and the corresponding embedded wavefunction by means of Euler-Lagrange equations [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 012504 (2008)]. FDET provides the expression for the embedding potential as a functional of the electron density of the embedded species, electron density of the environment, and the field generated by other charges in the environment. Under certain conditions, FDET leads to the exact ground-state energy and density of the whole system. Following Perdew-Levy theorem on stationary states of the ground-state energy functional, the other-than-ground-state stationary states of the FDET energy functional correspond to excited states. In the present work, we analyze such use of other-than-ground-state embedded wavefunctions obtained in practical calculations, i.e., when the FDET embedding potential is approximated. Three computational approaches based on FDET, that assure self-consistent excitation energy and embedded wavefunction dealing with the issue of orthogonality of embedded wavefunctions for different states in a different manner, are proposed and discussed.
Additive Manufacturing Technology Development Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 3D Printing In Zero-G (3D Print) technology demonstration project is a proof-of-concept test designed to assess the properties of melt deposition modeling...
Embedded mechatronic systems 1 analysis of failures, predictive reliability
El Hami, Abdelkhalak
2015-01-01
In operation, mechatronics embedded systems are stressed by loads of different causes: climate (temperature, humidity), vibration, electrical and electromagnetic. These stresses in components which induce failure mechanisms should be identified and modeled for better control. AUDACE is a collaborative project of the cluster Mov'eo that address issues specific to mechatronic reliability embedded systems. AUDACE means analyzing the causes of failure of components of mechatronic systems onboard. The goal of the project is to optimize the design of mechatronic devices by reliability. The projec
Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources
Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol
2015-01-01
We examine the strategy-proof allocation of multiple resources; an application is the assignment of packages of tasks, workloads, and compensations among the members of an organization. In the domain of multidimensional single-peaked preferences, we find that any allocation mechanism obtained...
Data-oriented scheduling for PROOF
Xu, Neng; Guan, Wen; Wu, Sau Lan; Ganis, Gerardo
2011-12-01
The Parallel ROOT Facility - PROOF - is a distributed analysis system optimized for I/O intensive analysis tasks of HEP data. With LHC entering the analysis phase, PROOF has become a natural ingredient for computing farms at Tier3 level. These analysis facilities will typically be used by a few tenths of users, and can also be federated into a sort of analysis cloud corresponding to the Virtual Organization of the experiment. Proper scheduling is required to guarantee fair resource usage, to enforce priority policies and to optimize the throughput. In this paper we discuss an advanced priority system that we are developing for PROOF. The system has been designed to automatically adapt to unknown length of the tasks, to take into account the data location and availability (including distribution across geographically separated sites), and the {group, user} default priorities. In this system, every element - user, group, dataset, job slot and storage - gets its priority and those priorities are dynamically linked with each other. In order to tune the interplay between the various components, we have designed and started implementing a simulation application that can model various type and size of PROOF clusters. In this application a monitoring package records all the changes of them so that we can easily understand and tune the performance. We will discuss the status of our simulation and show examples of the results we are expecting from it.
Crazy-Proofing High School Sports
Tufte, John E.
2012-01-01
"Crazy-Proofing High School Sports" examines the often troubling high school sports phenomenon in two parts. Part one focuses on the problems facing educators, students, and parents as they struggle to make high school sports worthwhile. Few if any strategies for improvement in education are effective without first knowing what the real reasons…
Proofs of certain properties of irrational roots
Belbas, S. A.
2009-01-01
We give two elementary proofs, at a level understandable by students with only pre-calculus knowledge of Algebra, of the well known fact that an irreducible irrational n-th root of a positive rational number cannot be solution of a polynomial of degree less than n with rational coefficients. We also state and prove a few simple consequences.
Basic proof skills of computer science students
Hartel, P.H.; Es, van B.; Tromp, Th.J.M.
1995-01-01
Computer science students need mathematical proof skills. At our University, these skills are being taught as part of various mathematics and computer science courses. To test the skills of our students, we have asked them to work out a number of exercises. We found that our students are not as well
An Entropic Proof of Chang's Inequality
Impagliazzo, Russell; Russell, Alexander
2012-01-01
Chang's lemma is a useful tool in additive combinatorics and the analysis of Boolean functions. Here we give an elementary proof using entropy. The constant we obtain is tight, and we give a slight improvement in the case where the variables are highly biased.
An Automatic Proof of Euler's Formula
Jun Zhang
2005-05-01
Full Text Available In this information age, everything is digitalized. The encoding of functions and the automatic proof of functions are important. This paper will discuss the automatic calculation for Taylor expansion coefficients, as an example, it can be applied to prove Euler's formula automatically.
Playing with Dominoes: Proof by Induction
Kaplan, Gail
2009-01-01
This article describes a hands-on approach to learning proofs by induction. Students create patterns of dominos so that when the first domino is pushed, the entire design collapses, one domino at a time. Students then build designs that do not work. By constructing a list of conditions that ensure a given pattern will collapse, students discover…
Proof theory of epistemic logic of programs
Maffezioli, Paolo; Naibo, Alberto
2014-01-01
A combination of epistemic logic and dynamic logic of programs is presented. Although rich enough to formalize some simple game-theoretic scenarios, its axiomatization is problematic as it leads to the paradoxical conclusion that agents are omniscient. A cut-free labelled Gentzen-style proof system
Decorated proofs for computational effects: States
Jean-Guillaume Dumas
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The syntax of an imperative language does not mention explicitly the state, while its denotational semantics has to mention it. In this paper we show that the equational proofs about an imperative language may hide the state, in the same way as the syntax does.
Environmental Friendly Route and Wool Shrink Proofing
朱泉; 吴婵娟
2003-01-01
The shrink proofing on wool with treatment of protease named Argaenzyme STL was studied. The various pretreating auxiliaries, different parameters for protease treating process and the effect of stabilizer were discussed in detail. The varieties of some properties before and after protease treatment were also investigated.
Bijective Proofs of Gould's and Rothe's Identities
Guo, Victor J W
2010-01-01
We first give a bijective proof of Gould's identity in the model of binary words. Then we deduce Rothe's identity from Gould's identity again by a bijection, which also leads to a double-sum extension of the $q$-Chu-Vandermonde formula.
Playing with Dominoes: Proof by Induction
Kaplan, Gail
2009-01-01
This article describes a hands-on approach to learning proofs by induction. Students create patterns of dominos so that when the first domino is pushed, the entire design collapses, one domino at a time. Students then build designs that do not work. By constructing a list of conditions that ensure a given pattern will collapse, students discover…
Hash3: Proofs, Analysis and Implementation
Gauravaram, Praveen
2009-01-01
This report outlines the talks presented at the winter school on Hash3: Proofs, Analysis, and Implementation, ECRYPT II Event on Hash Functions. In general, speakers may not write everything what they talk on the slides. So, this report also outlines such findings following the understanding...
Proofs of certain properties of irrational roots
Belbas, S. A.
2009-01-01
We give two elementary proofs, at a level understandable by students with only pre-calculus knowledge of Algebra, of the well known fact that an irreducible irrational n-th root of a positive rational number cannot be solution of a polynomial of degree less than n with rational coefficients. We also state and prove a few simple consequences.
Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection
Zollinger, William T [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Bauer, Scott G [Idaho Falls, ID
2012-02-28
An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.
Computer-Assisted Discovery and Proof
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.
2007-12-10
With the advent of powerful, widely-available mathematical software, combined with ever-faster computer hardware, we are approaching a day when both the discovery and proof of mathematical facts can be done in a computer-assisted manner. his article presents several specific examples of this new paradigm in action.
Dependencies between soft proofing and prepress production
Tuijn, Chris
2008-01-01
In order to save time and money, more and more printing organizations are investing in on-line customer portals to allow uploading content and giving formal approvals based on soft proofs before the final production process (plate making and printing) can be initiated. The approvals are typically made on soft proofs of pages whereas, obviously, the images used for plate making are so-called imposed flats (a combination of pages rotated in such a way that the printed matter can be obtained after folding and cutting). The main goal of a soft proof of a page is to simulate accurately on a display device how the page will be finally printed. The quality expectations of a soft proof are very high since a formal approval implies contractual obligations from the printing organization. This quality, however, can be influenced by many parameters. By definition, soft proofs will be displayed on a monitor (being a light emitting device), whereas a print on paper can only be seen as the reflection of a light source. As a consequence, monitors can be described by an additive color model whereas printers or presses will be modeled by a subtractive color model. Other differences relate to how the image is generated: presses can only output binary information (ink or no ink) and continuous tones are simulated by using screening techniques whereas, on a monitor, a multi-level signal can generate different shades of a specific color. The differences described above are addressed by many color management systems available on the market today. An upcoming requirement in this area is that people do not only expect the color management software to behave well but also expect this software to validate its behavior. Another range of problems with soft proofs relates to the rendering (converting vector-based page data into bitmaps) and separation process. These can be divided in two classes: spatial issues (related to resolution differences, high-frequency patterns, aliasing problems etc
Computer algebra in spacetime embedding
Roque, Waldir L
2014-01-01
In this paper we describe an algorithm to determine the vectors normal to a space-time V4 embedded in a pseudo-Euclidean manifold M4+n. An application of this algorithm is given considering the Schwarzchild space-time geometry embedded in a 6 dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, using the algebraic computing system REDUCE.
Molecular Properties through Polarizable Embedding
Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob
2011-01-01
We review the theory related to the calculation of electric and magnetic molecular properties through polarizable embedding. In particular, we derive the expressions for the response functions up to the level of cubic response within the density functional theory-based polarizable embedding (PE-D...
Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems
虞慧群; 孙永强
1996-01-01
An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.
Collaborative development of embedded systems
Verhoef, Marcel; Pierce, Kenneth; Gamble, Carl; Broenink, Jan; Fitzgerald, John; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Verhoef, Marcel
2014-01-01
This chapter presents motivation for taking a collaborative multi-disciplinary approach to the model-based development of embedded systems. Starting from a consideration of the ubiquity of embedded systems in daily life it identifies challenges faced by industry in developing products in a timely ma
A Foundation for Embedded Languages
Rhiger, Morten
2003-01-01
Recent work on embedding object languages into Haskell use "phantom types" (i.e., parameterized types whose parameter does not occur on the right-hand side of the type definition) to ensure that the embedded object-language terms are simply typed. But is it a safe assumption that only simply...
A Foundation for Embedded Languages
Rhiger, Morten
2002-01-01
Recent work on embedding object languages into Haskell use "phantom types" (i.e., parameterized types whose parameter does not occur on the right-hand side of the type definition) to ensure that the embedded object-language terms are simply typed. But is it a safe assumption that only simply...
Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.
Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana
2014-01-01
In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Metric embeddings bilipschitz and coarse embeddings into Banach spaces
Ostrovskii, Mikhail I
2013-01-01
Embeddings of discrete metric spaces into Banach spaces recently became an important tool in computer science and topology. The book will help readers to enter and to work in this very rapidly developing area having many important connections with different parts of mathematics and computer science. The purpose of the book is to present some of the most important techniques and results, mostly on bilipschitz and coarse embeddings. The topics include embeddability of locally finite metric spaces into Banach spaces is finitely determined, constructions of embeddings, distortion in terms of Poinc
Parallel embedded systems: where real-time and low-power meet
Karakehayov, Zdravko; Guo, Yu
2008-01-01
This paper introduces a combination of models and proofs for optimal power management via Dynamic Frequency Scaling and Dynamic Voltage Scaling. The approach is suitable for systems on a chip or microcontrollers where processors run in parallel with embedded peripherals. We have developed...... a software tool, called CASTLE, to provide computer assistance in the design process of energy-aware embedded systems. The tool considers single processor and parallel architectures. An example shows an energy reduction of 23% when the tool allocates two microcontrollers for parallel execution....
Seabrooke, Leonard; Ban, Cornel; Helgadóttir, Oddný
This memo outlines key concepts and the methodological approach involved in a recently funded Institute for New Economic Thinking project. Our aim is to pinpoint the relationship between the reception of academic ideas, traced by citation networks with qualitative coding, and positions of institu...
Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding.
Brodersen, Kay H; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Lin, Zhihao; Penny, Will D; Buhmann, Joachim M; Stephan, Klaas E
2014-01-01
This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM) of a visual-parietal-prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78%) from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62%) or local activity within the same regions (55%). Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71%) as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual-parietal-prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a generative model of
Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding
Kay H. Brodersen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM of a visual–parietal–prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78% from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62% or local activity within the same regions (55%. Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71% as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual–parietal–prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a
A Prototype Embedding of Bluespec System Verilog in the PVS Theorem Prover
Richards, Dominic; Lester, David
2010-01-01
Bluespec SystemVerilog (BSV) is a Hardware Description Language based on the guarded action model of concurrency. It has an elegant semantics, which makes it well suited for formal reasoning. To date, a number of BSV designs have been verified with hand proofs, but little work has been conducted on the application of automated reasoning. We present a prototype shallow embedding of BSV in the PVS theorem prover. Our embedding is compatible with the PVS model checker, which can automatically prove an important class of theorems, and can also be used in conjunction with the powerful proof strategies of PVS to verify a broader class of properties than can be achieved with model checking alone.
An algebro-geometric proof of Witten's conjecture
Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.
2007-10-01
We present a new proof of Witten's conjecture. The proof is based on the analysis of the relationship between intersection indices on moduli spaces of complex curves and Hurwitz numbers enumerating ramified coverings of the 2 -sphere.
On New Proofs of Fundamental Inequalities with Applications
Ray, Partha
2010-01-01
By using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a new proof of several standard inequalities is given. A new proof of Young's inequality is given by using Holder's inequality. A new application of the above inequalities is included.
A Short Proof to Some Results of Sun and Wang
Wei Cao
2007-01-01
We give a short proof to some results of Sun and Wang on counting the number of solutions of a class of equations over finite fields. Our proof is elementary and only based on matrix properties and recursion techniques.
Teaching Mathematical Proofs That Rely on Ideas from Physics.
Hanna, Gila; Jahnke, H. Niels; DeBruyn, Ysbrand; Lomas, Dennis
2001-01-01
Describes empirical research into the effectiveness of using concepts and principles of physics in the teaching of geometrical proofs. Demonstrates, tentatively, that proofs from physics could be a viable addition to the mathematics curriculum. (Author/MM)
Sustainability in the built environment using embedded technology
Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius; Storgaard, Kresten; Ærenlund, Lærke
2011-01-01
-driven Innovation will be presented, with focus on user engagement, interest and acceptance of the ideas arising from the process. This will be exemplified by a developed pilot project involving embedded technology in a building material. Sustainability is categorised in the three dimensions environmental, social......Innovation of sustainable products and solutions in the built environment using embedded technology in Constructions, is from various earlier investigations shown to increase the value both by reducing emissions of green-house gasses from buildings and by optimising the comfort of living condition...... for the end-user. Based on a project on User-driven Innovation and Embedded Technology in Construction, this paper presents different potential products and solutions for sustainability. This covers a variety of areas such as recycling, energy efficiency, as well as a new concept of sustainable products...
Proceedings Types for Proofs and Programs, Revised Selected Papers
Hirschowitz, Tom
2011-01-01
Types for Proofs and Programs is the annual meeting of the Types Project, whose aim is to develop the technology of formal reasoning and computer programming based on Type Theory. This is done by improving the languages and computerised tools for reasoning, and by applying the technology in several domains such as analysis of programming languages, certified software, formalisation of mathematics and mathematics education. The 2009 meeting took place in Aussois, France, and we thank the invited speakers Richard Garner, Peter Hancock, Pawe{\\l} Urzyczyn for excellent talks. The present volume consists of papers not necessarily presented at the workshop, selected by Thorsten Altenkirch, Tom Hirschowitz, Christophe Raffalli, and Alan Schmitt, with help from Matthieu Sozeau and Makarius Wenzel.
Smart aircraft composite structures with embedded small-diameter optical fiber sensors
Takeda, Nobuo; Minakuchi, Shu
2012-02-01
This talk describes the embedded optical fiber sensor systems for smart aircraft composite structures. First, a summary of the current Japanese national project on structural integrity diagnosis of aircraft composite structures is described with special emphasis on the use of embedded small-diameter optical fiber sensors including FBG sensors. Then, some examples of life-cycle monitoring of aircraft composite structures are presented using embedded small-diameter optical fiber sensors for low-cost and reliable manufacturing merits.
Why College or University Students Hate Proofs in Mathematics?
Mbaïtiga Zacharie
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem Statement: A proof is a notoriously difficult mathematical concept for students. Empirical studies have shown that students emerge from proof-oriented courses such as high-school geometry, introduction to proof, complex and abstract algebra unable to construct anything beyond very trivial proofs. Furthermore, most university students do not know what constitutes a proof and cannot determine whether a purported proof is valid. A proof is a convincing method that demonstrates with generally accepted theorem that some mathematical statement is true and each proofs step must follow from previous proof steps and definition that have already been proved. To motivate students hating proofs and to help mathematics teachers, how a proof can be taught, we investigated in this study the idea of mathematical proofs. Approach: To tackle this issue, the modified Moore method and the researcher method called Z.Mbaïtiga method are introduced follow by two cases studies on proof of triple integral. Next a survey is conducted on fourth year college students on which of the proposed two cases study they understand easily or they like. Results: The result of the survey showed that more than 95% of the responded students pointed out the proof that is done using details explanation of every theorem used in the proof construction, the case study2. Conclusion: From the result of this survey, we had learned that mathematics teachers have to be very careful about the selection of proofs to include when introducing topics and filtering out some details which can obscure important ideas and discourage students.
Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.
Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A
2017-01-01
It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.
Embedded systems circuits and programming
Sanchez, Julio
2012-01-01
During the development of an engineered product, developers often need to create an embedded system--a prototype--that demonstrates the operation/function of the device and proves its viability. Offering practical tools for the development and prototyping phases, Embedded Systems Circuits and Programming provides a tutorial on microcontroller programming and the basics of embedded design. The book focuses on several development tools and resources: Standard and off-the-shelf components, such as input/output devices, integrated circuits, motors, and programmable microcontrollers The implementat
On the Sobolev embedding theorem for variable exponent spaces in the critical range
Bonder, Julian Fernandez; Silva, Analia
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the Sobolev embedding theorem for variable exponent spaces with critical exponents. We find conditions on the best constant in order to guaranty the existence of extremals. The proof is based on a suitable refinement of the estimates in the Concentration--Compactness Theorem for variable exponents and an adaptation of a convexity argument due to P.L. Lions, F. Pacella and M. Tricarico.
Roly Perera
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Formalising the pi-calculus is an illuminating test of the expressiveness of logical frameworks and mechanised metatheory systems, because of the presence of name binding, labelled transitions with name extrusion, bisimulation, and structural congruence. Formalisations have been undertaken in a variety of systems, primarily focusing on well-studied (and challenging properties such as the theory of process bisimulation. We present a formalisation in Agda that instead explores the theory of concurrent transitions, residuation, and causal equivalence of traces, which has not previously been formalised for the pi-calculus. Our formalisation employs de Bruijn indices and dependently-typed syntax, and aligns the "proved transitions" proposed by Boudol and Castellani in the context of CCS with the proof terms naturally present in Agda's representation of the labelled transition relation. Our main contributions are proofs of the "diamond lemma" for residuation of concurrent transitions and a formal definition of equivalence of traces up to permutation of transitions.
A Proof of the Conformal Collider Bounds
Hofman, Diego M; Meltzer, David; Poland, David; Rejon-Barrera, Fernando
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the "conformal collider bounds" originally proposed by Hofman and Maldacena hold for any unitary parity-preserving conformal field theory (CFT) with a unique stress tensor in spacetime dimensions larger than 2. In particular this implies that the ratio of central charges for a unitary 4d CFT lies in the interval $\\frac{31}{18} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{3}$. For superconformal theories this is further reduced to $\\frac{3}{2} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{2}$. The proof relies only on CFT first principles - in particular, bootstrap methods - and thus constitutes the first complete field theory proof of these bounds. We further elaborate on similar bounds for non-conserved currents and relate them to results obtained recently from deep inelastic scattering.
7 CFR 1430.505 - Proof of production.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of production. 1430.505 Section 1430.505... Program § 1430.505 Proof of production. (a) Dairy operations selected for spotchecks by CCC must, in... must also provide proof of production for the 1997 or 1998 calendar year to verify the base period. The...
7 CFR 760.1305 - Proof of production.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of production. 760.1305 Section 760.1305....1305 Proof of production. (a) Dairy producers requesting benefits must, as required by this subpart, provide adequate proof of the dairy operation's eligible production during the months of February through...
29 CFR 1919.31 - Proof tests-loose gear.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof tests-loose gear. 1919.31 Section 1919.31 Labor... (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.31 Proof tests—loose gear. (a) Chains, rings, shackles and other loose gear...
A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics
Santocanale, Luigi
2002-01-01
We present a calculus of "circular proofs": the graph underlying a proof is not a finite tree but instead it is allowed to contain a certain amount of cycles.The main challenge in developing a theory for the calculus is to define the semantics of proofs, since the usual method by induction...
A short proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
Sjödin, Tord
2013-01-01
D'Alembert made the first serious attempt to prove the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra (FTA) in 1746. An elementary proof of (FTA) based on the same idea is given in Proofs from THE BOOK. We give a shorter and more transperant version of this proof.
31 CFR 341.4 - Proof of purchase.
2010-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of purchase. 341.4 Section 341... BONDS § 341.4 Proof of purchase. At the time a Retirement Plan Bond is issued, the issuing agent will... name the bond is inscribed, to the registered owner as well, proof of the purchase on Form PD 3550....
A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics
Santocanale, Luigi
2002-01-01
We present a calculus of "circular proofs": the graph underlying a proof is not a finite tree but instead it is allowed to contain a certain amount of cycles.The main challenge in developing a theory for the calculus is to define the semantics of proofs, since the usual method by induction on the...
16 CFR 614.1 - Appropriate proof of identity.
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appropriate proof of identity. 614.1 Section... IDENTITY § 614.1 Appropriate proof of identity. (a) Consumer reporting agencies shall develop and implement reasonable requirements for what information consumers shall provide to constitute proof of identity...
A Graphical User Interface for Formal Proofs in Geometry.
Narboux, Julien
2007-01-01
International audience; We present in this paper the design of a graphical user interface to deal with proofs in geometry. The software developed combines three tools: a dynamic geometry software to explore, measure and invent conjectures, an automatic theorem prover to check facts and an interactive proof system (Coq) to mechanically check proofs built interactively by the user.
An Assessment Model for Proof Comprehension in Undergraduate Mathematics
Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Fuller, Evan; Weber, Keith; Rhoads, Kathryn; Samkoff, Aron
2012-01-01
Although proof comprehension is fundamental in advanced undergraduate mathematics courses, there has been limited research on what it means to understand a mathematical proof at this level and how such understanding can be assessed. In this paper, we address these issues by presenting a multidimensional model for assessing proof comprehension in…
5 CFR 843.406 - Proof of dependency.
2010-01-01
... considerable value; (5) Proof of coverage of the child as a family member under the employee's or retiree's... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of dependency. 843.406 Section 843... Proof of dependency. (a) A child is considered to have been dependent on the deceased employee or...
A proof of the Goldbach conjecture
Tan, Shanguang
2011-01-01
The Goldbach conjecture was proved in this paper. The proof was by contradiction based on the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and the theory of Linear Algebra. First, by an assumption, the Goldbach conjecture was converted into a group of linear equations. Then, by investigating solutions to the group of linear equations, reductions to absurdity were derived to prove the assumption false. Hence, the Goldbach conjecture was proved that even numbers greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes.
Polaroid Graphics Imaging Direct Digital Color Proofing
King, Patrick F.
1989-04-01
Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I represent Polaroid Graphics Imaging, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Polaroid Corporation. We wish to thank Ken Cloud and the SPIE for the opportunity to speak today. Several criterion are fundamental in the role for Direct Digital Color Proofing (DDCP), First, the DDCP must represent a first generation hardcopy of the exact color information in the production stream. If must, as it's name suggests be an exact, proof (hence the name direct) of the electronic or digital information which would otherwise be directed toward film working. It is after all the most critical means to evaluate the quality of whatever pagination, scanner or color work which has gone be for it. Second, the DDCP must represent an opportunity. That opportunity is to reconvene the production stream and move to film making, optical or magnetic storage, or satellite transmission with the confidence that the DDCP is identical to some conventional counterpart. In the case of film it must match a conventional proof and press sheet, dot for dot. Otherwise it is merely an exercise in interpretation. For magnetic or optical storage and satellite transmission there must be assurance that at any opportunity either a duplicate DDCP or a conventional film/proof could reproduce earlier results. Finally as the printed product is the final goal and direct to press is evolving in direct to plate and direct to gravure printing the DDCP must share the half toner lineage of these products. Thirdly and hardly least, the whole purpose for DDCP is increased productivity. However, our industry struggles to maintain individuality and variety. Somehow DDCP must balance these forces.
Productive Use of Failure in Inductive Proof
Ireland, A.; Bundy, Alan
1996-01-01
Proof by mathematical induction gives rise to various kinds of eureka steps, e.g., missing lemmata and generalization. Most inductive theorem provers rely upon user intervention in supplying the required eureka steps. In contrast, we present a novel theorem-proving architecture for supporting the automatic discovery of eureka steps. We build upon rippling, a search control heuristic designed for inductive reasoning. We show how the failure if rippling can be used in bridging gaps in the searc...
Faithfulness of Recurrence Plots: A Mathematical Proof
Hirata, Yoshito; Komuro, Motomasa; Horai, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki
It is practically known that a recurrence plot, a two-dimensional visualization of time series data, can contain almost all information related to the underlying dynamics except for its spatial scale because we can recover a rough shape for the original time series from the recurrence plot even if the original time series is multivariate. We here provide a mathematical proof that the metric defined by a recurrence plot [Hirata et al., 2008] is equivalent to the Euclidean metric under mild conditions.
Proof and proving in secondary school
Vimolan Mudaly
2007-10-01
Full Text Available This paper argues that mathematics should be a human activity in which the process of guided invention takes the learner through the various stages and steps of the discovery of mathematical ideas and concepts. The central premise is that proof functions as an explanation, where experimental mathematics is used to empirically convince the learner that the conjecture holds true. Inductive reasoning used while working with the computer software Sketchpad assists learners in arriving at and testing their conjectures.
Proof and proving in secondary school
Vimolan Mudaly
2007-01-01
This paper argues that mathematics should be a human activity in which the process of guided invention takes the learner through the various stages and steps of the discovery of mathematical ideas and concepts. The central premise is that proof functions as an explanation, where experimental mathematics is used to empirically convince the learner that the conjecture holds true. Inductive reasoning used while working with the computer software Sketchpad assists learners in arriving at and test...
Proof of Ira Gessel's lattice path conjecture
Kauers, Manuel; Koutschan, Christoph; Zeilberger, Doron
2009-01-01
We present a computer-aided, yet fully rigorous, proof of Ira Gessel's tantalizingly simply stated conjecture that the number of ways of walking 2n steps in the region x + y ≥ 0,y ≥ 0 of the square lattice with unit steps in the east, west, north, and south directions, that start and end at the origin, equals 16n(5/6)n(1/2)n(5/3)n(2)n.
The moment of proof mathematical epiphanies
Benson, Donald C
2000-01-01
When Archimedes, while bathing, suddenly hit upon the principle of buoyancy, he ran wildly through the streets of Syracuse, stark naked, crying "eureka!" In The Moment of Proof, Donald Benson attempts to convey to general readers the feeling of eureka--the joy of discovery--that mathematicians feel when they first encounter an elegant proof. This is not an introduction to mathematics so much as an introduction to the pleasures of mathematical thinking. And indeed the delights of this book are many and varied. The book is packed with intriguing conundrums--Loyd''s Fifteen Puzzle, the Petersburg Paradox, the Chaos Game, the Monty Hall Problem, the Prisoners'' Dilemma--as well as many mathematical curiosities. We learn how to perform the arithmetical proof called "casting out nines" and are introduced to Russian peasant multiplication, a bizarre way to multiply numbers that actually works. The book shows us how to calculate the number of ways a chef can combine ten or fewer spices to flavor his soup (1,024) and ...
Phillips' Lemma for L-embedded Banach spaces
Pfitzner, Hermann
2010-01-01
In this note the following version of Phillips' lemma is proved. The L-projection of an L-embedded space - that is of a Banach space which is complemented in its bidual such that the norm between the two complementary subspaces is additive - is weak-weakly sequentially continuous.
HAMLET: HPCN Technology for Real-Time, Embedded Applications
Mager, J.W.L.J.; Dam, A. ten
1995-01-01
Building an application by using HPCN technology makes the solution scalable and therefore more flexible. The uptake of HPCN technology for real-time, embedded applications, however, is severely hampered by the lack of real application development support. Within the Esprit project HAMLET,
HAMLET: HPCN Technology for Real-Time, Embedded Applications
Mager, J.W.L.J.; Dam, A. ten
1995-01-01
Building an application by using HPCN technology makes the solution scalable and therefore more flexible. The uptake of HPCN technology for real-time, embedded applications, however, is severely hampered by the lack of real application development support. Within the Esprit project HAMLET, technolog
FAILSAFE Health Management for Embedded Systems
Horvath, Gregory A.; Wagner, David A.; Wen, Hui Ying; Barry, Matthew
2010-01-01
The FAILSAFE project is developing concepts and prototype implementations for software health management in mission- critical, real-time embedded systems. The project unites features of the industry-standard ARINC 653 Avionics Application Software Standard Interface and JPL s Mission Data System (MDS) technology (see figure). The ARINC 653 standard establishes requirements for the services provided by partitioned, real-time operating systems. The MDS technology provides a state analysis method, canonical architecture, and software framework that facilitates the design and implementation of software-intensive complex systems. The MDS technology has been used to provide the health management function for an ARINC 653 application implementation. In particular, the focus is on showing how this combination enables reasoning about, and recovering from, application software problems.
Embedded Empiricisms in Soft Soil Technology
Wijeyesekera, D. C.; John, L. M. S. Alvin; Adnan, Z.
2016-07-01
Civil engineers of today are continuously challenged by innovative projects that push further the knowledge boundaries with conceptual and/or ingenious solutions leading to the realization of that once was considered impossible in the realms of geotechnology. Some of the forward developments rely on empirical methods embedded within soft soil technology and the spectral realms of engineering in its entirety. Empiricisms unlike folklore are not always shrouded in mysticism but can find scientific reasoning to justify them being adopted in design and tangible construction projects. This lecture therefore is an outline exposition of how empiricism has been integrally embedded in total empirical beginnings in the evolution of soft soil technology from the Renaissance time, through the developments of soil mechanics in the 19th century which in turn has paved the way to the rise of computational soil mechanics. Developments in computational soil mechanics has always embraced and are founded on a wide backdrop of empirical geoenvironment simulations. However, it is imperative that a competent geotechnical engineer needs postgraduate training combined with empiricism that is based on years of well- winnowed practical experience to fathom the diverseness and complexity of nature. However, experience being regarded more highly than expertise can, perhaps inadvertently, inhibit development and innovation.
Observability of multivariate differential embeddings
Aguirre, Luis Antonio [Laboratorio de Modelagem, Analise e Controle de Sistemas Nao Lineares, Departamento de Engenharia Eletronica, Universidade Federeal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Letellier, Christophe [Universite de Rouen-CORIA UMR 6614, Av. de l' Universite, BP 12, F-76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France)
2005-07-15
The present paper extends some results recently developed for the analysis of observability in nonlinear dynamical systems. The aim of the paper is to address the problem of embedding an attractor using more than one observable. A multivariate nonlinear observability matrix is proposed which includes the monovariable nonlinear and linear observability matrices as particular cases. Using the developed framework and a number of worked examples, it is shown that the choice of embedding coordinates is critical. Moreover, in some cases, to reconstruct the dynamics using more than one observable could be worse than to reconstruct using a scalar measurement. Finally, using the developed framework it is shown that increasing the embedding dimension, observability problems diminish and can even be eliminated. This seems to be a physically meaningful interpretation of the Takens embedding theorem.
Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges
Pop, Paul
2005-01-01
of designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time. New automated design optimization techniques are needed, which are able to: successfully manage the complexity of embedded systems, meet the constraints imposed by the application domain, shorten the time...... in use has become larger than the number of humans on the planet. The complexity of embedded systems is growing at a very high pace and the constraints in terms of functionality, performance, low energy consumption, reliability, cost and time-to-market are getting tighter. Therefore, the task......-to-market, and reduce development and manufacturing costs. In this paper, the author introduces several embedded systems design problems, and shows how they can be formulated as optimization problems. Solving such challenging design optimization problems are the key to the success of the embedded systems design...
Visualizing spacetimes via embedding diagrams
Hledik, Stanislav; Cipko, Alois
2016-01-01
It is hard to imagine curved spacetimes of General Relativity. A simple but powerful way how to achieve this is visualizing them via embedding diagrams of both ordinary geometry and optical reference geometry. They facilitate to gain an intuitive insight into the gravitational field rendered into a curved spacetime, and to assess the influence of parameters like electric charge and spin of a black hole, magnetic field or cosmological constant. Optical reference geometry and related inertial forces and their relationship to embedding diagrams are particularly useful for investigation of test particles motion. Embedding diagrams of static and spherically symmetric, or stationary and axially symmetric black-hole and naked-singularity spacetimes thus present a useful concept for intuitive understanding of these spacetimes' nature. We concentrate on general way of embedding into 3-dimensional Euclidean space, and give a set of illustrative examples.
Hardware Support for Embedded Java
Schoeberl, Martin
2012-01-01
The general Java runtime environment is resource hungry and unfriendly for real-time systems. To reduce the resource consumption of Java in embedded systems, direct hardware support of the language is a valuable option. Furthermore, an implementation of the Java virtual machine in hardware enables...... worst-case execution time analysis of Java programs. This chapter gives an overview of current approaches to hardware support for embedded and real-time Java....
A Foundation for Embedded Languages
Rhiger, Morten
2002-01-01
Recent work on embedding object languages into Haskell use "phantom types" (i.e., parameterized types whose parameter does not occur on the right-hand side of the type definition) to ensure that the embedded object-language terms are simply typed. But is it a safe assumption that only simply...... be answered affirmatively for an idealized Haskell-like language and discuss to which extent Haskell can be used as a meta-language....
A Foundation for Embedded Languages
Rhiger, Morten
2003-01-01
Recent work on embedding object languages into Haskell use "phantom types" (i.e., parameterized types whose parameter does not occur on the right-hand side of the type definition) to ensure that the embedded object-language terms are simply typed. But is it a safe assumption that only simply...... be answered affirmatively for an idealized Haskell-like language and discuss to which extent Haskell can be used as a meta-language....
Multilingual Word Embeddings using Multigraphs
Soricut, Radu; Ding, Nan
2016-01-01
We present a family of neural-network--inspired models for computing continuous word representations, specifically designed to exploit both monolingual and multilingual text. This framework allows us to perform unsupervised training of embeddings that exhibit higher accuracy on syntactic and semantic compositionality, as well as multilingual semantic similarity, compared to previous models trained in an unsupervised fashion. We also show that such multilingual embeddings, optimized for semant...
Hardware Support for Embedded Java
Schoeberl, Martin
2012-01-01
The general Java runtime environment is resource hungry and unfriendly for real-time systems. To reduce the resource consumption of Java in embedded systems, direct hardware support of the language is a valuable option. Furthermore, an implementation of the Java virtual machine in hardware enables...... worst-case execution time analysis of Java programs. This chapter gives an overview of current approaches to hardware support for embedded and real-time Java....
Fresnel Lens with Embedded Vortices
Sunil Vyas
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Vortices of different charges are embedded in a wavefront that has quadratic phase variation, and the intensity distribution near the focal plane is studied. This method may be useful in realizing complicated beam profiles. We have experimentally demonstrated the generation of vortex arrays having integer as well as fractional topological charges that produce different intensity profiles at the focal plane. The phase variation realized on a spatial light modulator (SLM acts as a Fresnel lens with embedded vortices.
Candaş Uygan
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to research pre-service elementary mathematics teachers’ beliefs on meaning and features of mathematical proof, their proving processes and their reasoning process while evaluating validities of proof examples. This study is a qualitative research. Participants of the study are three pre-service elementary mathematics teachers who continue to study in a state university from Central Anatolia Region. Participants’ beliefs on proof were researched with semi-structured interview whilst proving processes and evaluation processes of proof examples were researched with clinical interviews. Interviews were recorded with video camera and data were analyzed according to qualitative methods. When beliefs on proof were analyzed, it was indicated that participants see mathematical proofs as problem solving process and exploration of source of mathematical knowledge, and believe that proofs have to be deductive, apprehensible and have to include generalizable results. Also according to opinions of all three participants, they believe that their proving abilities are insufficient. Analyze results related to proving processes indicated that pre-service teachers considered conclusions of theorems as if they are conditions of theorems and also used proving strategies uncomprehendingly in proving process. Finally, analyze results related to proof evaluation process indicated that participants assessed computer based experimental verifications as valid mathematical proofs and had mistakes when they evaluated warrants used in verifications that break axiomatical structure of proofs.Key Words: Beliefs in the context of proof, proving, proof evaluation, teacher education
Optimal spread spectrum watermark embedding via a multistep feasibility formulation.
Altun, H Oktay; Orsdemir, Adem; Sharma, Gaurav; Bocko, Mark F
2009-02-01
We consider optimal formulations of spread spectrum watermark embedding where the common requirements of watermarking, such as perceptual closeness of the watermarked image to the cover and detectability of the watermark in the presence of noise and compression, are posed as constraints while one metric pertaining to these requirements is optimized. We propose an algorithmic framework for solving these optimal embedding problems via a multistep feasibility approach that combines projections onto convex sets (POCS) based feasibility watermarking with a bisection parameter search for determining the optimum value of the objective function and the optimum watermarked image. The framework is general and can handle optimal watermark embedding problems with convex and quasi-convex formulations of watermark requirements with assured convergence to the global optimum. The proposed scheme is a natural extension of set-theoretic watermark design and provides a link between convex feasibility and optimization formulations for watermark embedding. We demonstrate a number of optimal watermark embeddings in the proposed framework corresponding to maximal robustness to additive noise, maximal robustness to compression, minimal frequency weighted perceptual distortion, and minimal watermark texture visibility. Experimental results demonstrate that the framework is effective in optimizing the desired characteristic while meeting the constraints. The results also highlight both anticipated and unanticipated competition between the common requirements for watermark embedding.
An illustration of the explanatory and discovery functions of proof
Michael de Villiers
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This article provides an illustration of the explanatory and discovery functions of proof with an original geometric conjecture made by a Grade 11 student. After logically explaining (proving the result geometrically and algebraically, the result is generalised to other polygons by further reflection on the proof(s. Different proofs are given, each giving different insights that lead to further generalisations. The underlying heuristic reasoning is carefully described in order to provide an exemplar for designing learning trajectories to engage students with these functions of proof.
On the proof of the first Carnot theorem in thermodynamics
Morad, M. R.; Momeni, F.
2013-11-01
The proof of the first Carnot theorem in classical thermodynamics is revisited in this study. The underlying conditions of a general proof of this principle presented by Senft (1978 Phys. Educ. 13 35-37) are explored and discussed. These conditions are analysed in more detail using a physical description of heat and work to present a simpler proof of the first principle prior to using the violation of the second law of thermodynamics. Finally, a new simple proof is also presented based on Gibbs relation. This discussion will benefit the teaching of classical thermodynamics and promote better understanding of the proof of the first Carnot theorem in general form.
Embedded Systems Development Tools: A MODUS-oriented Market Overview
Loupis Michalis
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Background: The embedded systems technology has perhaps been the most dominating technology in high-tech industries, in the past decade. The industry has correctly identified the potential of this technology and has put its efforts into exploring its full potential. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to explore the versatility of the application in the embedded system development based on one FP7-SME project. Methods/Approach: Embedded applications normally demand high resilience and quality, as well as conformity to quality standards and rigid performance. As a result embedded system developers have adopted software methods that yield high quality. The qualitative approach to examining embedded systems development tools has been applied in this work. Results: This paper presents a MODUS-oriented market analysis in the domains of Formal Verification tools, HW/SW co-simulation tools, Software Performance Optimization tools and Code Generation tools. Conclusions: The versatility of applications this technology serves is amazing. With all this performance potential, the technology has carried with itself a large number of issues which the industry essentially needs to resolve to be able to harness the full potential contained. The MODUS project toolset addressed four discrete domains of the ESD Software Market, in which corresponding open tools were developed
2nd International Conference on Proof-Theoretic Semantics
Schroeder-Heister, Peter
2016-01-01
This volume is the first ever collection devoted to the field of proof-theoretic semantics. Contributions address topics including the systematics of introduction and elimination rules and proofs of normalization, the categorial characterization of deductions, the relation between Heyting's and Gentzen's approaches to meaning, knowability paradoxes, proof-theoretic foundations of set theory, Dummett's justification of logical laws, Kreisel's theory of constructions, paradoxical reasoning, and the defence of model theory. The field of proof-theoretic semantics has existed for almost 50 years, but the term itself was proposed by Schroeder-Heister in the 1980s. Proof-theoretic semantics explains the meaning of linguistic expressions in general and of logical constants in particular in terms of the notion of proof. This volume emerges from presentations at the Second International Conference on Proof-Theoretic Semantics in Tübingen in 2013, where contributing authors were asked to provide a self-contained descri...
Graham, Michelle; Gray, David
As wireless networks become increasingly ubiquitous, the demand for a method of locating a device has increased dramatically. Location Based Services are now commonplace but there are few methods of verifying or guaranteeing a location provided by a user without some specialised hardware, especially in larger scale networks. We propose a system for the verification of location claims, using proof gathered from neighbouring devices. In this paper we introduce a protocol to protect this proof gathering process, protecting the privacy of all involved parties and securing it from intruders and malicious claiming devices. We present the protocol in stages, extending the security of this protocol to allow for flexibility within its application. The Secure Location Verification Proof Gathering Protocol (SLVPGP) has been designed to function within the area of Vehicular Networks, although its application could be extended to any device with wireless & cryptographic capabilities.
Treatment of Tungiasis with dimeticone: a proof-of-principle study in rural Kenya.
Marlene Thielecke
Full Text Available Tungiasis (sand flea disease is a neglected tropical disease, prevalent in resource-poor communities in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by an inflammatory response against penetrated female sand fleas (Tunga penetrans embedded in the skin of the host. Although associated with debilitating acute and chronic morbidity, there is no proven effective drug treatment. By consequence patients attempt to remove embedded sand fleas with non-sterile sharp instruments, such as safety pins, a procedure that represents a health threat by itself. In this proof-of-principle study we compared the topical application of a mixture of two dimeticones of low viscosity (NYDA to the topical application of a 0.05% solution of KMnO4 in 47 school children in an endemic area in rural Kenya. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed during a follow up period of seven days using viability signs of the embedded parasites, alterations in the natural development of lesion morphology and the degree of local inflammation as outcome measures. Seven days after treatment, in the dimeticone group 78% (95% CI 67-86% of the parasites had lost all signs of viability as compared to 39% (95% CI 28-52% in the KMnO4 group (p<0.001. In the dimeticone group 90% (95% CI 80-95% of the penetrated sand fleas showed an abnormal development already after 5 days, compared to 53% (95% CI 40-66%; p<0.001 in the KMnO4 group. Seven days after treatment, signs of local skin inflammation had significantly decreased in the dimeticone group (p<0.001. This study identified the topical application of dimeticones of low viscosity (NYDA as an effective means to kill embedded sand fleas. In view of the efficacy and safety of the topical treatment with dimeticone, the mechanical extraction of embedded sand fleas using hazardous instruments is no longer warranted.
ProofJudge: Automated Proof Judging Tool for Learning Mathematical Logic
Villadsen, Jørgen
2015-01-01
pen and paper because no adequate tool was available. The learning problem is how to make abstract concepts of logic as concrete as possible. ProofJudge is a computer system and teaching approach for teaching mathematical logic and automated reasoning which augments the e-learning tool NaDeA (Natural......Today we have software in many artefacts, from medical devices to cars and airplanes, and the software must not only be efficient and intelligent but also reliable and secure. Tests can show the presence of bugs but cannot guarantee their absence. A machine-checked proof using mathematical logic...
ProofJudge: Automated Proof Judging Tool for Learning Mathematical Logic
Villadsen, Jørgen
2016-01-01
using pen and paper because no adequate tool was available. The learning problem is how to make abstract concepts of logic as concrete as possible. ProofJudge is a computer system and teaching approach for teaching mathematical logic and automated reasoning which augments the e-learning tool Na......Today we have software in many artefacts, from medical devices to cars and airplanes, and the software must not only be efficient and intelligent but also reliable and secure. Tests can show the presence of bugs but cannot guarantee their absence. A machine-checked proof using mathematical logic...
Duan's fixed point theorem: Proof and generalization
Arkowitz Martin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Let be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, any map and the th power map. Duan proved that has a fixed point if . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a -structure as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that and each has a fixed point.
Open Assessment of Proofs in Litigation
Kaltrina Zekolli
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The key of existence and success in all domains of life to the entity of justice is the thorough compliance to the truth and justice. Therefore when a certain right is violated, liable or challenged entrusted to solve that, are the institutions of justice, rather the courts. Courts are competent to find the right path towards the truth applying different methods with intention to satisfy the justice. In this paper special attention we dedicated to the method of open assessment of proofs in litigation, that in fact is the subject of this research.
A standardisation proof for algebraic pattern calculi
Kesner, Delia; Ríos, Alejandro; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.5
2011-01-01
This work gives some insights and results on standardisation for call-by-name pattern calculi. More precisely, we define standard reductions for a pattern calculus with constructor-based data terms and patterns. This notion is based on reduction steps that are needed to match an argument with respect to a given pattern. We prove the Standardisation Theorem by using the technique developed by Takahashi and Crary for lambda-calculus. The proof is based on the fact that any development can be specified as a sequence of head steps followed by internal reductions, i.e. reductions in which no head steps are involved.
Mathematics and Proof Presentation in Pcoq
Amerkad, Ahmed; Bertot, Yves; Pottier, Loïc; Rideau, Laurence
2001-01-01
We present PCOQ , a user-interface for the Coq system which provides elaborate mathematical formulas lay-out.We first show how the organization of thegraphic- al user-interface around structured data makes it possible to obtain this. In particular, we insist on the three-level extension mechanisms that supports the customiation of the layout for specific applications. In the next section, we describe the data-structure that is used in the logical engine to record proofs-in-the-making and we s...
Gerlach, Moritz
2011-01-01
We prove that every bounded, positive, irreducible, stochastically continuous semigroup on the space of bounded, measurable functions which is strong Feller, consists of kernel operators and possesses an invariant measure converges pointwise. This differs from Doob's theorem in that we do not require the semigroup to be Markovian and request a fairly weak kind of irreducibility. In addition, we elaborate on the various notions of kernel operators in this context, show the stronger result that the adjoint semigroup converges strongly and discuss as an example diffusion equations on rough domains. The proofs are based on the theory of positive semigroups and do not use probability theory.
Microprocessor controlled proof-mass actuator
Horner, Garnett C.
1987-01-01
The objective of the microprocessor controlled proof-mass actuator is to develop the capability to mount a small programmable device on laboratory models. This capability will allow research in the active control of flexible structures. The approach in developing the actuator will be to mount all components as a single unit. All sensors, electronic and control devices will be mounted with the actuator. The goal for the force output capability of the actuator will be one pound force. The programmable force actuator developed has approximately a one pound force capability over the usable frequency range, which is above 2 Hz.
Minimal proofs of state-independent contextuality
Cabello, Adan
2012-01-01
We show that a corollary of the results in arXiv:1112.5149v1 provides proofs of state-independent contextuality (SIC) in any finite dimension d>2 with a smaller number of rays than those recently presented by Yu and Oh (arXiv:1112.5513v1). Specifically, we show that d+10 rays are sufficient to prove SIC. These results are compared with the Kochen-Specker (KS) sets with the smallest number of rays known. We also identify in which dimensions the minimum SIC and KS sets are still unknown.
Proof of a Quantum Bousso Bound
Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-01-01
We prove the generalized Covariant Entropy Bound, $\\Delta S\\leq (A-A')/4G\\hbar$, for light-sheets with initial area $A$ and final area $A'$. The entropy $\\Delta S$ is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.
Trusted computing for embedded systems
Soudris, Dimitrios; Anagnostopoulos, Iraklis
2015-01-01
This book describes the state-of-the-art in trusted computing for embedded systems. It shows how a variety of security and trusted computing problems are addressed currently and what solutions are expected to emerge in the coming years. The discussion focuses on attacks aimed at hardware and software for embedded systems, and the authors describe specific solutions to create security features. Case studies are used to present new techniques designed as industrial security solutions. Coverage includes development of tamper resistant hardware and firmware mechanisms for lightweight embedded devices, as well as those serving as security anchors for embedded platforms required by applications such as smart power grids, smart networked and home appliances, environmental and infrastructure sensor networks, etc. · Enables readers to address a variety of security threats to embedded hardware and software; · Describes design of secure wireless sensor networks, to address secure authen...
Involving users in the development of embedded technology in construction
Storgaard, Kresten; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius; Ærenlund, Lærke
2011-01-01
Based on a project about user driven innovation and embedded technology in construction (BIIB), the paper discusses methodological issues on user involvement. In the paper especially focus is on the experiences on involving users in collaborative development of scenarios, in the validation...... of scenarios and in developing innovative solutions on a conceptual level. The project discusses 1) concepts of users and 2) methods for collaborative involvement. The first discussion involves presentation of an extended user concept and a discussion of differences between lead users and need-advanced users....... The second discussion on collaborative involvement, discuss experiences with methods for communication across cultural and professional competences with reference to boundary objects, tangible systems and visualization. In the project four segments of situations for use of embedded technology in construction...
System Level Modelling and Performance Estimation of Embedded Systems
Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer
is simulation based and allows performance estimation to be carried out throughout all design phases ranging from early functional to cycle accurate and bit true descriptions of the system, modelling both hardware and software components in a unied way. Design space exploration and performance estimation...... an efficient system level design methodology, a modelling framework for performance estimation and design space exploration at the system level is required. This thesis presents a novel component based modelling framework for system level modelling and performance estimation of embedded systems. The framework...... is performed by having the framework produce detailed quantitative information about the system model under investigation. The project is part of the national Danish research project, Danish Network of Embedded Systems (DaNES), which is funded by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation. The project...
Embedding of Virtual Network requests over heterogeneous wireless and wired networks
Bellot Aubanell, Montserrat
2014-01-01
This project implements an embedding algorithm to serve Virtual network requests over a heterogeneous network that integrates wired an wireless mesh networks. [ANGLÈS] Implementation of an embedding algorithm to serve Virtual network requests over a heterogeneous network that integrates wired an wireless mesh networks.This project integrates Sofware Defined Networking and Network Functions virtualization principles. [CASTELLÀ] Creación de un algoritmo de incrustación, para la provisión ...
Significant issues in proof testing: A critical appraisal
Chell, G. G.; McClung, R. C.; Russell, D. A.; Chang, K. J.; Donnelly, B.
1994-09-01
Issues which impact on the interpretation and quantification of proof test benefits are reviewed. The importance of each issue in contributing to the extra quality assurance conferred by proof testing components is discussed, particularly with respect to the application of advanced fracture mechanics concepts to enhance the flaw screening capability of a proof test analysis. Items covered include the role in proof testing of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, ductile instability analysis, deterministic versus probabilistic analysis, single versus multiple cycle proof testing, and non-destructive examination (NDE). The effects of proof testing on subsequent service life are reviewed, particularly with regard to stress redistribution and changes in fracture behavior resulting from the overload. The importance of proof test conditions are also addressed, covering aspects related to test temperature, simulation of service environments, test media and the application of real-time NDE. The role of each issue in a proof test methodology is assessed with respect to its ability to: promote proof test practice to a state-of-the-art; aid optimization of proof test design; and increase awareness and understanding of outstanding issues.
Design Methodologies for Secure Embedded Systems
Biedermann, Alexander
2011-01-01
Embedded systems have been almost invisibly pervading our daily lives for several decades. They facilitate smooth operations in avionics, automotive electronics, or telecommunication. New problems arise by the increasing employment, interconnection, and communication of embedded systems in heterogeneous environments: How secure are these embedded systems against attacks or breakdowns? Therefore, how can embedded systems be designed to be more secure? And how can embedded systems autonomically react to threats? Facing these questions, Sorin A. Huss is significantly involved in the exploration o
Embedding Graphs in Lorentzian Spacetime
Clough, James R
2016-01-01
Geometric approaches to network analysis combine simply defined models with great descriptive power. In this work we provide a method for embedding directed acyclic graphs into Minkowski spacetime using Multidimensional scaling (MDS). First we generalise the classical MDS algorithm, defined only for metrics with a Euclidean signature, to manifolds of any metric signature. We then use this general method to develop an algorithm to be used on networks which have causal structure allowing them to be embedded in Lorentzian manifolds. The method is demonstrated by calculating embeddings for both causal sets and citation networks in Minkowski spacetime. We finally suggest a number of applications in citation analysis such as paper recommendation, identifying missing citations and fitting citation models to data using this geometric approach.
Embedded Processor Oriented Compiler Infrastructure
DJUKIC, M.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In the recent years, research of special compiler techniques and algorithms for embedded processors broaden the knowledge of how to achieve better compiler performance in irregular processor architectures. However, industrial strength compilers, besides ability to generate efficient code, must also be robust, understandable, maintainable, and extensible. This raises the need for compiler infrastructure that provides means for convenient implementation of embedded processor oriented compiler techniques. Cirrus Logic Coyote 32 DSP is an example that shows how traditional compiler infrastructure is not able to cope with the problem. That is why the new compiler infrastructure was developed for this processor, based on research. in the field of embedded system software tools and experience in development of industrial strength compilers. The new infrastructure is described in this paper. Compiler generated code quality is compared with code generated by the previous compiler for the same processor architecture.
Phase space embedding of electrocardiograms
Richter, M; Richter, Marcus; Schreiber, Thomas
1998-01-01
We study properties of the human electrocardiogram under the working hypothesis that fluctuations beyond the regular structure of single cardiac cycles are unpredictable. On this background we discuss the possibility to use the phase space embedding method for this kind of signal. In particular, the specific nature of the stochastic or high dimensional component allows to use phase space embeddings for certain signal processing tasks. As practical applications, we discuss noise filtering, fetal ECG extraction, and the automatic detection of clinically relevant features. The main purpose of the paper is to connect results of embedding theory which had not been previously applied in practise, and practical applications which had not yet been justified theoretically.
Strong embeddings of minimum genus
Mohar, Bojan
2009-01-01
A "folklore conjecture, probably due to Tutte" (as described in [P.D. Seymour, Sums of circuits, Graph theory and related topics (Proc. Conf., Univ. Waterloo, 1977), pp. 341-355, Academic Press, 1979]) asserts that every bridgeless cubic graph can be embedded on a surface of its own genus in such a way that the face boundaries are cycles of the graph. In this paper we consider closed 2-cell embeddings of graphs and show that certain (cubic) graphs (of any fixed genus) have closed 2-cell embedding only in surfaces whose genus is very large (proportional to the order of these graphs), thus providing plethora of strong counterexamples to the above conjecture. The main result yielding such counterexamples may be of independent interest.
Shafer, M.; Boone, M.; Keim, B. D.
2015-12-01
With the rapidly-increasing number of climate services providers, the landscape for putting climate into practice is getting both easier to access and more confusing. Each provider serves a different clientele, and in so doing draws more stakeholder organizations into the sphere of those using climate information in decision-making. The challenge has been in connecting these new stakeholders with expertise that may reside within a different provider organization. To help close the gap, the Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program (SCIPP; http://www.southernclimate.org), a NOAA RISA Team, initiated a summer internship program, where students with expertise in meteorology or climatology would work for an organization more closely aligned with another climate services provider network. The format was patterned after the successful NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program at the National Weather Center, where students are selected from undergraduate programs across the nation to spend a summer conducting research under a scientific mentor. The SCIPP initiative flipped this model, instead sending students to organizations with operational needs for climate information to work under their mentorship in partnership with SCIPP scientists. Over the past two summers, SCIPP has recruited students to work at landscape-based (Gulf Coast Joint Venture and National Wetlands Research Center) and community-based (Tulsa Partners) organizations. Students worked alongside the organizations' staff on a daily basis and were supported through periodic calls with the SCIPP team to help identify appropriate datasets and work through methodological issues. This presentation will discuss how these relationships were created, the expertise of each of the organizations involved, and outcomes from the projects.
A Coinductive Approach to Proof Search
José Espírito Santo
2013-08-01
Full Text Available We propose to study proof search from a coinductive point of view. In this paper, we consider intuitionistic logic and a focused system based on Herbelin's LJT for the implicational fragment. We introduce a variant of lambda calculus with potentially infinitely deep terms and a means of expressing alternatives for the description of the "solution spaces" (called Böhm forests, which are a representation of all (not necessarily well-founded but still locally well-formed proofs of a given formula (more generally: of a given sequent. As main result we obtain, for each given formula, the reduction of a coinductive definition of the solution space to a effective coinductive description in a finitary term calculus with a formal greatest fixed-point operator. This reduction works in a quite direct manner for the case of Horn formulas. For the general case, the naive extension would not even be true. We need to study "co-contraction" of contexts (contraction bottom-up for dealing with the varying contexts needed beyond the Horn fragment, and we point out the appropriate finitary calculus, where fixed-point variables are typed with sequents. Co-contraction enters the interpretation of the formal greatest fixed points - curiously in the semantic interpretation of fixed-point variables and not of the fixed-point operator.
Semantic Contamination and Mathematical Proof: Can a Non-Proof Prove?
Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Inglis, Matthew
2011-01-01
The way words are used in natural language can influence how the same words are understood by students in formal educational contexts. Here we argue that this so-called semantic contamination effect plays a role in determining how students engage with mathematical proof, a fundamental aspect of learning mathematics. Analyses of responses to…
Secondary Teachers' Knowledge of Elementary Number Theory Proofs: The Case of General-Cover Proofs
Tabach, Michal; Levenson, Esther; Barkai, Ruthi; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Dreyfus, Tommy
2011-01-01
In light of recent reform recommendations, teachers are expected to turn proofs and proving into an ongoing component of their classroom practice. Two questions emerging from this requirement are: Is the mathematical knowledge of high school teachers sufficient to prove various kinds of statements? Does teachers' knowledge allow them to determine…
Semantic Contamination and Mathematical Proof: Can a Non-Proof Prove?
Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Inglis, Matthew
2011-01-01
The way words are used in natural language can influence how the same words are understood by students in formal educational contexts. Here we argue that this so-called semantic contamination effect plays a role in determining how students engage with mathematical proof, a fundamental aspect of learning mathematics. Analyses of responses to…
Graph Embedding for Pattern Analysis
Ma, Yunqian
2013-01-01
Graph Embedding for Pattern Analysis covers theory methods, computation, and applications widely used in statistics, machine learning, image processing, and computer vision. This book presents the latest advances in graph embedding theories, such as nonlinear manifold graph, linearization method, graph based subspace analysis, L1 graph, hypergraph, undirected graph, and graph in vector spaces. Real-world applications of these theories are spanned broadly in dimensionality reduction, subspace learning, manifold learning, clustering, classification, and feature selection. A selective group of experts contribute to different chapters of this book which provides a comprehensive perspective of this field.
Habitual Tastes and Embedded Taste
Hedegaard, Liselotte
2016-01-01
of the national cuisine indicates continuity over time. There seems, hence, to be a gap between the multiplicity of instances of experience and recollection that belongs to the sphere of the individual and a historical memory embedded in the larger context of a society. From a common-sense perspective, this gap...... may be bridged by story-telling or other ways of handing over historically embedded practices, but this leaves a more fundamental question unanswered. Namely, that given that all remembrance has individual recollection as the point of departure, then how does individual recollection of tastes...
Evolution of Deeply Embedded Protostars
Frimann, Søren
of this comparison is both to benchmark the simulations by testing if observational results can be reproduced, and to use the simulations to aid in the interpretation of the observations. The research deals with the earliest stages of star formation – the protostellar phase – where the protostars are still embedded...... tolink evidence of accretion bursts together with evidence of circumstellardisks. The study targets 20 embedded protostars in the Perseusmolecular cloud, and reveals plenty of evidence for variable accretionthrough observations of C18O (an optically thin isotopologue of CO).The study also reveals...
Chiang Loh, Poh; Gao, Feng; Blaabjerg, Frede
2010-01-01
of embedded EZ-source inverters that can produce the same gain as the Z-source inverters but with smoother and smaller current/voltage maintained across the dc input source and within the impedance network. These latter features are attained without using any additional passive filter, which surely...... is a favorable advantage, since an added filter will raise the system cost and, at times, can complicate the dynamic tuning and resonant consideration of the inverters. The same embedded concept can also be used for designing a full range of voltage- and current-type inverters with each of them tested...
Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, F.
2008-01-01
-voltage oscillations to the system. Therefore, Z-source inverters are in effect safer and less complex, and can be implemented using only passive elements with no additional active semiconductor needed. Believing in the prospects of Z-source inverters, this paper contributes by introducing a new family of embedded EZ...... since an added filter will raise the system cost, and at times can complicate the dynamic tuning and resonant consideration of the inverters. The same embedded concept can also be used for designing a full range of voltage and current-type inverters with each of them tested experimentally using a number...
FMI for Co-Simulation of Embedded Control Software
Pedersen, Nicolai; Bojsen, Tom; Madsen, Jan
2016-01-01
Increased complexity of cyber-physical systems within the maritime industry demands closer cooperation be-tween engineering disciplines. The functional mockup interface (FMI) is an initiative aiding cross-discipline in-teraction by providing, a widely accepted, standard for model exchange and co......-simulation. The standard is sup-ported by a number of modelling tools. However, to im-plement it on an existing platform requires adaptation. This paper investigates how to adapt the software of an embedded control system to comply with the FMI for co-simulation standard. In particular, we suggest a way of advancing...... the clock of a real time operating system (RTOS), by overwriting the idle thread and waiting for a signal to start execution until return to idle. This ap-proach ensures a deterministic and temporal execution of the simulation across multiple nodes. As proof of concept, a co-simulation is conducted, showing...
Introduction to sofic and hyperlinear groups and Connes' embedding conjecture
Capraro, Valerio
2015-01-01
This monograph presents some cornerstone results in the study of sofic and hyperlinear groups and the closely related Connes' embedding conjecture. These notions, as well as the proofs of many results, are presented in the framework of model theory for metric structures. This point of view, rarely explicitly adopted in the literature, clarifies the ideas therein, and provides additional tools to attack open problems. Sofic and hyperlinear groups are countable discrete groups that can be suitably approximated by finite symmetric groups and groups of unitary matrices. These deep and fruitful notions, introduced by Gromov and Radulescu, respectively, in the late 1990s, stimulated an impressive amount of research in the last 15 years, touching several seemingly distant areas of mathematics including geometric group theory, operator algebras, dynamical systems, graph theory, and quantum information theory. Several long-standing conjectures, still open for arbitrary groups, are now settled for sofic or hyperlinear ...
van den Brink, Margo; Meijerink, Sander; Termeer, Catrien; Gupta, Joyeeta
2014-01-01
It is generally acknowledged that adapting low-lying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses proble
Brink, van den M.A.; Meijerink, S.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Gupta, J.
2014-01-01
It is generally acknowledged that adapting lowlying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses problem
van den Brink, M.; Meijerink, S.; Termeer, C.; Gupta, J.
2014-01-01
It is generally acknowledged that adapting low-lying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses proble
Experience with PROOF-Lite in ATLAS data analysis
Panitkin S. Y.; Hollowell C.; Ma H.; Ye S.
2011-01-01
We discuss our experience with PROOF-Lite in a context of ATLAS Collaboration physics analysis of data obtained during the LHC physics run of 2009-2010. In particular we discuss PROOF-Lite performance in virtual and physical machines, its scalability on different types of multi-core processors and effects of multithreading. We will also describe PROOF-Lite performance with Solid State Drives (SSDs).
Proof Validation in Real Analysis: Inferring and Checking Warrants
Alcock, Lara; Weber, Keith
2005-01-01
In the study reported here, we investigate the skills needed to validate a proof in real analysis, i.e., to determine whether a proof is valid. We first argue that when one is validating a proof, it is not sufficient to make certain that each statement in the argument is true. One must also check that there is good reason to believe that each…
Develop Efficient Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal
2014-05-07
UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED ER-GLSV11389-001.docx Develop Efficient Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal SBIR Phase I: Topic A13-061...Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal Christian Muehfeld Steve Pennala Great Lakes Sound & Vibration, Inc. 47140 North Main Street Houghton, MI 49931 ER...061. The purpose of this report is to show the feasibility of developing an efficient, leak proof plenum seal for the M1 Abrams . It also shows the
MEMS Gyroscope with Interferometric Detection Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop a MEMS gyroscope that uses an ultra high resolution sensing technique for measuring proof mass motion. The goal is to...
DWT and DCT embedded watermarking using chaos theory
McLauchlan, Lifford; Mehrübeoglu, Mehrübe
2010-08-01
In this research, a new combination discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based watermarking system is studied. The first embedded watermark is encrypted using a chaos function, specifically the Lorenz function, based key to further conceal the data. A chaos based embedded watermark method in the DCT domain with blind watermark identification is developed and tested. Next the system is modified to utilize a second watermark embedding and identification/detection process. The second uses a pseudo random number generated (PRNG) watermark that is developed with a function of a Lorenz attractor data point as the seed state for the PRNG watermark in the detection process in the DWT domain. The efficacy of the DCT based technique, DWT based method as well as the combined DCT and DWT method is then compared to a previous techniques such as a NN based DWT based watermark embedding and identification. The three studied methods are subjected to a subset of the Checkmark attacks. Results for projection, shearing, warping, linear distortions, and Wiener filtering attacks are shown for the DWT embedded case.
Morphware - Fremtidens Embedded System Platform
Madsen, Jan
2006-01-01
FPGA'er bliver i stigende grad brugt som komponenter i embedded systemer. Faldende priser, større kapacitet og en større felksibilitet har gjort FPGA'en til en attraktiv og konkurrencedygtig teknologi der tillader en stadig stigende grad af system integration, hvor traditionel hardware og software...
Software for Embedded Control Systems
Broenink, Jan F.; Hilderink, Gerald H.; Jovanovic, Dusko S.
2001-01-01
The research of our team deals with the realization of control schemes on digital computers. As such the emphasis is on embedded control software implementation. Applications are in the field of mechatronic devices, using a mechatronic design approach (the integrated and optimal design of a mechanic
Embedding Sensors During Additive Manufacturing
Sbriglia, Lexey Raylene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-08-10
This PowerPoint presentation had the following headings: Fused deposition modeling (FDM); Open source 3D printing; Objectives; Vibration analysis; Equipment; Design; Material choices; Failure causes, such as tension, bubbling; Potential solutions; Simulations; Embedding the sensors; LabView programming; Alternate data acquisition; Problem and proposed solution; and, Conclusions
Embedding Laboratory Experience in Lectures
Morgan, James R.; Barroso, Luciana R.; Simpson, Nancy
2009-01-01
Demonstrations can be very effective at enhancing student learning and represent a mechanism for embedding laboratory experiences within a classroom setting. A key component to an effective demonstration is active student engagement throughout the entire process, leading to a guided laboratory experience in a lecture setting. Students are involved…
An Application of Quantum Finite Automata to Interactive Proof Systems
Nishimura, H; Nishimura, Harumichi; Yamakami, Tomoyuki
2004-01-01
Quantum finite automata have been studied intensively since their introduction in late 1990s as a natural model of a quantum computer with finite-dimensional quantum memory space. This paper seeks their direct application to interactive proof systems in which a mighty quantum prover communicates with a quantum-automaton verifier through a common communication cell. Our quantum interactive proof systems are juxtaposed to Dwork-Stockmeyer's classical interactive proof systems whose verifiers are two-way probabilistic automata. We demonstrate strengths and weaknesses of our systems and further study how various restrictions on the behaviors of quantum-automaton verifiers affect the power of quantum interactive proof systems.
Two dimensional discriminant neighborhood preserving embedding in face recognition
Pang, Meng; Jiang, Jifeng; Lin, Chuang; Wang, Binghui
2015-03-01
One of the key issues of face recognition is to extract the features of face images. In this paper, we propose a novel method, named two-dimensional discriminant neighborhood preserving embedding (2DDNPE), for image feature extraction and face recognition. 2DDNPE benefits from four techniques, i.e., neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE), locality preserving projection (LPP), image based projection and Fisher criterion. Firstly, NPE and LPP are two popular manifold learning techniques which can optimally preserve the local geometry structures of the original samples from different angles. Secondly, image based projection enables us to directly extract the optimal projection vectors from twodimensional image matrices rather than vectors, which avoids the small sample size problem as well as reserves useful structural information embedded in the original images. Finally, the Fisher criterion applied in 2DDNPE can boost face recognition rates by minimizing the within-class distance, while maximizing the between-class distance. To evaluate the performance of 2DDNPE, several experiments are conducted on the ORL and Yale face datasets. The results corroborate that 2DDNPE outperforms the existing 1D feature extraction methods, such as NPE, LPP, LDA and PCA across all experiments with respect to recognition rate and training time. 2DDNPE also delivers consistently promising results compared with other competing 2D methods such as 2DNPP, 2DLPP, 2DLDA and 2DPCA.
PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab
Jianxun Yan, Trent Allison, Sue Witherspoon, Anthony Cuffe
2009-10-01
Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.
Duan's fixed point theorem: proof and generalization
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:X→X any map and p k :X→X the k th power map. Duan proved that p k f :X→X has a fixed point if k≥2 . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a θ -structure μ θ :X→X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that μ θ f and f μ θ each has a fixed point.
Scada Malware, a Proof of Concept
Carcano, Andrea; Fovino, Igor Nai; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto
Critical Infrastructures are nowadays exposed to new kind of threats. The cause of such threats is related to the large number of new vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses introduced by the extensive use of ICT and Network technologies into such complex critical systems. Of particular interest are the set of vulnerabilities related to the class of communication protocols normally known as “SCADA” protocols, under which fall all the communication protocols used to remotely control the RTU devices of an industrial system. In this paper we present a proof of concept of the potential effects of a set of computer malware specifically designed and created in order to impact, by taking advantage of some vulnerabilities of the ModBUS protocol, on a typical Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system.
A Toy Penrose Inequality and its Proof
Bengtsson, Ingemar
2016-01-01
We formulate and prove a toy version of the Penrose inequality. The formulation mimics the original Penrose inequality in which the scenario is the following: A shell of null dust collapses in Minkowski space and a marginally trapped surface forms on it. Through a series of arguments relying on established assumptions, an inequality relating the area of this surface to the total energy of the shell is formulated. Then a further reformulation turns the inequality into a statement relating the area and the outer null expansion of a class of surfaces in Minkowski space itself. The inequality has been proven to hold true in many special cases, but there is no proof in general. In the toy version here presented, an analogous inequality in (2+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space turns out to hold true.
A toy Penrose inequality and its proof
Bengtsson, Ingemar; Jakobsson, Emma
2016-12-01
We formulate and prove a toy version of the Penrose inequality. The formulation mimics the original Penrose inequality in which the scenario is the following: a shell of null dust collapses in Minkowski space and a marginally trapped surface forms on it. Through a series of arguments relying on established assumptions, an inequality relating the area of this surface to the total energy of the shell is formulated. Then a further reformulation turns the inequality into a statement relating the area and the outer null expansion of a class of surfaces in Minkowski space itself. The inequality has been proven to hold true in many special cases, but there is no proof in general. In the toy version here presented, an analogous inequality in (2 + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space turns out to hold true.
A simple Proof of Stolarsky's Invariance Principle
Brauchart, Johann S
2011-01-01
Stolarsky [Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 41 (1973), 575--582] showed a beautiful relation that balances the sums of distances of points on the unit sphere and their spherical cap $\\mathbb{L}_2$-discrepancy to give the distance integral of the uniform measure on the sphere a potential-theoretical quantity (Bj{\\"o}rck [Ark. Mat. 3 (1956), 255--269]). Read differently it expresses the worst-case numerical integration error for functions from the unit ball in a certain Hilbert space setting in terms of the $\\mathbb{L}_2$-discrepancy and vice versa (first author and Womersley [Preprint]). In this note we give a simple proof of the invariance principle using reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces.
Quantifying reliability uncertainty : a proof of concept.
Diegert, Kathleen V.; Dvorack, Michael A.; Ringland, James T.; Mundt, Michael Joseph; Huzurbazar, Aparna (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Lorio, John F.; Fatherley, Quinn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Anderson-Cook, Christine (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Alyson G. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Zurn, Rena M.
2009-10-01
This paper develops Classical and Bayesian methods for quantifying the uncertainty in reliability for a system of mixed series and parallel components for which both go/no-go and variables data are available. Classical methods focus on uncertainty due to sampling error. Bayesian methods can explore both sampling error and other knowledge-based uncertainties. To date, the reliability community has focused on qualitative statements about uncertainty because there was no consensus on how to quantify them. This paper provides a proof of concept that workable, meaningful quantification methods can be constructed. In addition, the application of the methods demonstrated that the results from the two fundamentally different approaches can be quite comparable. In both approaches, results are sensitive to the details of how one handles components for which no failures have been seen in relatively few tests.
The direct liquefaction proof of concept program
Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)
1995-12-31
The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.
Density Matrix Embedding: A Strong-Coupling Quantum Embedding Theory.
Knizia, Gerald; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2013-03-12
We extend our density matrix embedding theory (DMET) [Phys. Rev. Lett.2012, 109, 186404] from lattice models to the full chemical Hamiltonian. DMET allows the many-body embedding of arbitrary fragments of a quantum system, even when such fragments are open systems and strongly coupled to their environment (e.g., by covalent bonds). In DMET, empirical approaches to strong coupling, such as link atoms or boundary regions, are replaced by a small, rigorous quantum bath designed to reproduce the entanglement between a fragment and its environment. We describe the theory and demonstrate its feasibility in strongly correlated hydrogen ring and grid models; these are not only beyond the scope of traditional embeddings but even challenge conventional quantum chemistry methods themselves. We find that DMET correctly describes the notoriously difficult symmetric dissociation of a 4 × 3 hydrogen atom grid, even when the treated fragments are as small as single hydrogen atoms. We expect that DMET will open up new ways of treating complex strongly coupled, strongly correlated systems in terms of their individual fragments.
On Embeddings of Tori in Euclidean Spaces
Matija CENCELJ; Du(s)an REPOV(S)
2005-01-01
Using the relation between the set of embeddings of tori into Euclidean spaces modulo ambient isotopies and the homotopy groups of Stiefel manifolds, we prove new results on embeddings of tori into Euclidean spaces.
A correctness proof of the bakery protocol in $ mu $CRL
Groote, J.F.; Korver, H.P.
1994-01-01
A specification of a bakery protocol is given in $mu$CRL. We provide a simple correctness criterion for the protocol. Then the protocol is proven correct using a proof system that has been developed for $mu$CRL. The proof primarily consists of algebraic manipulations based on specifications of abstr
7 CFR 1430.305 - Proof of production.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of production. 1430.305 Section 1430.305... Payment Program § 1430.305 Proof of production. (a) Evidence of production is required to establish the commercial marketing and production history of the dairy operation so that production and spoilage losses can...
7 CFR 1430.605 - Proof of production.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of production. 1430.605 Section 1430.605... Payment Program II (DDAP-II) § 1430.605 Proof of production. (a) Evidence of production is required to establish the commercial marketing and production history of the dairy operation so that dairy production...
A Simple Correctness Proof of the Direct-Style Transformation
Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein
2002-01-01
We build on Danvy and Nielsen's first-order program transformation into continuation-passing style (CPS) to present a new correctness proof of the converse transformation, i.e., a one-pass transformation from CPS back to direct style. Previously published proofs were based on, e.g., a one...
28 CFR 79.46 - Proof of nonmalignant respiratory disease.
2010-07-01
... section, and for proof of cor pulmonale must also submit one or more forms of documentation specified in... (d)(3) of this section, and for proof of cor pulmonale must also submit one or more forms of..., cor pulmonale related to fibrosis of the lung, silicosis, and pneumoconiosis: (i) Pathology report...
A new proof of Faber's intersection number conjecture
Buryak, A
2009-01-01
We give a new proof of Faber's intersection number conjecture concerning the top intersections in the tautological ring of the moduli space of curves $\\M_g$. The proof is based on a very straightforward geometric and combinatorial computation with double ramification cycles.
Why prove it again? alternative proofs in mathematical practice
Dawson, Jr , John W
2015-01-01
This monograph considers several well-known mathematical theorems and asks the question, “Why prove it again?” while examining alternative proofs. It explores the different rationales mathematicians may have for pursuing and presenting new proofs of previously established results, as well as how they judge whether two proofs of a given result are different. While a number of books have examined alternative proofs of individual theorems, this is the first that presents comparative case studies of other methods for a variety of different theorems. The author begins by laying out the criteria for distinguishing among proofs and enumerates reasons why new proofs have, for so long, played a prominent role in mathematical practice. He then outlines various purposes that alternative proofs may serve. Each chapter that follows provides a detailed case study of alternative proofs for particular theorems, including the Pythagorean Theorem, the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Desargues’ Theorem, the...
Towards Verification of Constituent Systems through Automated Proof
Couto, Luis Diogo Monteiro Duarte; Foster, Simon; Payne, R
2014-01-01
to specify contractual obligations on the constituent systems of a SoS. To support verification of these obligations we have developed a proof obligation generator and theorem prover plugin for Symphony. The latter uses the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover to automatically discharge the proof obligations arising...
A Choice Option between Proofs in Linear Algebra
Rensaa, Ragnhild Johanne
2007-01-01
At their final exam in linear algebra students at the author's university were given the possibility to choose between two types of proofs to be done. They could either prove two short statements by themselves or they could explain four steps in a given proof. This paper reports on investigations of students' responses to the choice option…
Velocity feedback control with a flywheel proof mass actuator
Kras, Aleksander; Gardonio, Paolo
2017-08-01
This paper presents four new proof mass actuators to be used in velocity feedback control systems for the control of vibrations of machines and flexible structures. A classical proof mass actuator is formed by a coil-magnet linear motor, with either the magnet or the armature-coil proof mass suspended on soft springs. This arrangement produces a net force effect at frequencies above the fundamental resonance frequency of the springs-proof mass system. Thus, it can be used to implement point velocity feedback loops, although the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system poses some stability and control performance limitations. The four proof mass actuators presented in this study include a flywheel element, which is used to augment the inertia effect of the suspended proof mass. The paper shows that the flywheel element modifies both the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system in such a way as the stability and control performance of velocity feedback loops using these actuators are significantly improved.
Automated Proof Compression by Invention of New Definitions
Vyskočil, Jiří; Stanovský, David; Urban, Josef
State-of-the-art automated theorem provers (ATPs) are today able to solve relatively complicated mathematical problems. But as ATPs become stronger and more used by mathematicians, the length and human unreadability of the automatically found proofs become a serious problem for the ATP users. One remedy is automated proof compression by invention of new definitions.
A simple proof of the density Hales-Jewett theorem
Dodos, Pandelis; Kanellopoulos, Vassilis; Tyros, Konstantinos
2012-01-01
We give a purely combinatorial proof of the density Hales--Jewett Theorem that is modeled after Polymath's proof but is significantly simpler. In particular, we avoid the use of the equal-slices measure and work exclusively with the uniform measure.
Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Proof by Mathematical Induction
Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.; Philippou, George N.
2007-01-01
There is a growing effort to make "proof" central to all students' mathematical experiences across all grades. Success in this goal depends highly on teachers' knowledge of proof, but limited research has examined this knowledge. This paper contributes to this domain of research by investigating preservice elementary and secondary school…
A simple proof of Renner's exponential de Finetti theorem
Vidick, Thomas; Yuen, Henry
2016-01-01
We give a simple proof of the exponential de Finetti theorem due to Renner. Like Renner's proof, ours combines the post-selection de Finetti theorem, the Gentle Measurement lemma, and the Chernoff bound, but avoids virtually all calculations, including any use of the theory of types.
A Formal Proof Of The Riesz Representation Theorem
Anthony Narkawicz
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a formal proof of the Riesz representation theorem in the PVS theorem prover. The Riemann Stieltjes integral was defined in PVS, and the theorem relies on this integral. In order to prove the Riesz representation theorem, it was necessary to prove that continuous functions on a closed interval are Riemann Stieltjes integrable with respect to any function of bounded variation. This result follows from the equivalence of the Riemann Stieltjes and Darboux Stieltjes integrals, which would have been a lengthy result to prove in PVS, so a simpler lemma was proved that captures the underlying concept of this integral equivalence. In order to prove the Riesz theorem, the Hahn Banach theorem was proved in the case where the normed linear spaces are the continuous and bounded functions on a closed interval. The proof of the Riesz theorem follows the proof in Haaser and Sullivan's book Real Analysis. The formal proof of this result in PVS revealed an error in textbook's proof. Indeed, the proof of the Riesz representation theorem is constructive, and the function constructed in the textbook does not satisfy a key property. This error illustrates the ability of formal verification to find logical errors. A specific counterexample is given to the proof in the textbook. Finally, a corrected proof of the Riesz representation theorem is presented.
25 CFR 75.11 - Proof of relationship.
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof of relationship. 75.11 Section 75.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT REVISION OF THE MEMBERSHIP ROLL OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.11 Proof of relationship. If the applicant's...
31 CFR 346.4 - Proof of purchase.
2010-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of purchase. 346.4 Section 346.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.4 Proof of purchase. At the time an Individual Retirement Bond is issued, the...
14 CFR 25.651 - Proof of strength.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of strength. 25.651 Section 25.651 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Surfaces § 25.651 Proof of...
14 CFR 23.651 - Proof of strength.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of strength. 23.651 Section 23.651 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.651 Proof of strength. (a) Limit load tests of control surfaces are required. These...
14 CFR 23.641 - Proof of strength.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of strength. 23.641 Section 23.641 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....641 Proof of strength. The strength of stressed-skin wings must be proven by load tests or by...
28 CFR 79.16 - Proof of medical condition.
2010-07-01
... Cancer Institute can make a diagnosis of leukemia to a reasonable degree of medical certainty: (i) Bone... COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.16 Proof of medical condition. (a... leukemia. Proof that the claimant contracted leukemia must be made either by using the procedure outlined...
The burden of proof in dealing with political accountability
Andone, C.; Săftoiu, R.; Neagu, M.-L.; Măda, S.
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to explain from a pragma-dialectical argumentative perspective the use of the concept of burden of proof in dealing with political accountability. In the first part of the paper, a procedural view of the burden of proof is sketched which is fundamental for understanding its
21 CFR 1310.07 - Proof of identity.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof of identity. 1310.07 Section 1310.07 Food... CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.07 Proof of identity. (a) Each regulated person who engages in a... be accomplished by having the other party present documents which would verify the identity,...
A Proof Rule for While Loop in VDM
姜馨; 徐永森
1989-01-01
A proof rule for while loop which can be used in justification of programs w.r.t.specifications using two-state post-conditions is presented in this paper,accompanied with a soundness proof and a comparison with Aczel'w rule for while loop
14 CFR 29.307 - Proof of structure.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of structure. 29.307 Section 29.307... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 29.307 Proof of structure. (a... loading condition accounting for the environment to which the structure will be exposed in...
14 CFR 23.307 - Proof of structure.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of structure. 23.307 Section 23.307... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 23.307 Proof of structure. (a) Compliance with the strength and deformation requirements of § 23.305 must be shown for...
14 CFR 27.307 - Proof of structure.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of structure. 27.307 Section 27.307... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.307 Proof of structure. (a... loading condition accounting for the environment to which the structure will be exposed in...
14 CFR 25.307 - Proof of structure.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of structure. 25.307 Section 25.307... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.307 Proof of structure. (a) Compliance with... condition. Structural analysis may be used only if the structure conforms to that for which experience...
An Algebraic Proof of Quillen's Resolution Theorem for K_1
Whale, Ben
2009-01-01
In his 1973 paper Quillen proved a resolution theorem for the K-Theory of an exact category; his proof was homotopic in nature. By using the main result of a paper by Nenashev, we are able to give an algebraic proof of Quillen's Resolution Theorem for K_1 of an exact category.
A compositional proof system for the modal μ-calculus
Andersen, Henrik Reif; Stirling, C.; Winskel,, G.
1994-01-01
We present a proof system for determining satisfaction between processes in a fairly general process algebra and assertions of the modal μ-calculus. The proof system is compositional in the structure of processes. It extends earlier work on compositional reasoning within the modal μ-calculus and ...
Proof in Mathematics ("If,""Then," and "Perhaps").
Baxandall, P. R.; And Others
This collection of material is designed to illustrate the nature and variety of the idea of proof in mathematics. It is intended to be a "background book" for the use of teachers, particularly those in initial training courses. Individual chapter titles are: (1) The Role of Proof in Mathematics; (2) Logical Reasoning: The Idea of Implication; (3)…
Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions towards Proof and Proving
Ersen, Zeynep Bahar
2016-01-01
Since mathematical proof and proving are in the center of mathematics; preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions against these concepts have a great importance. Therefore, the study aimed to determine preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions towards proof and proving through metaphors. The participants consisted of 192 preservice…
Values and Norms of Proof for Mathematicians and Students
Dawkins, Paul Christian; Weber, Keith
2017-01-01
In this theoretical paper, we present a framework for conceptualizing proof in terms of mathematical values, as well as the norms that uphold those values. In particular, proofs adhere to the values of establishing a priori truth, employing decontextualized reasoning, increasing mathematical understanding, and maintaining consistent standards for…
47 CFR 80.862 - Proof of capacity.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proof of capacity. 80.862 Section 80.862 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... Proof of capacity. (a) When directed by the Commission or its authorized representative, the...
30 CFR 18.42 - Explosion-proof distribution boxes.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof distribution boxes. 18.42 Section 18.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... and Design Requirements § 18.42 Explosion-proof distribution boxes. (a) A cable passing through...
30 CFR 18.43 - Explosion-proof splice boxes.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof splice boxes. 18.43 Section 18.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... Design Requirements § 18.43 Explosion-proof splice boxes. Internal connections shall be rigidly held...
Embedding complementarity in HCI methods
Nielsen, Janni; Yssing, Carsten; Levinsen, Karin
2007-01-01
Differences in cultural contexts constitute differences in cognition, and research has shown that different cultures may use different cognitive tools for perception and reasoning. The cultural embeddings are significant in relation to HCI, because the cultural context is also embedded...... in the techniques and the tools that we apply. We lack a framework for discussing what and who we are, when we talk about a person as the user of an ICT system that has to be designed, developed and implemented. As a framework, we suggest a theory of complementary positions that insists on solid accounts from all...... observer posi-tions in relation to perspective, standpoint and focus. We need to develop com-plementary theories that embed complexity, and we need to reflect critically upon forty years of dominance by rationalistic, empirical understandings of the user as illustrated in the literature and practice within...
Forensic devices for activism: Metadata tracking and public proof
Lonneke van der Velden
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The central topic of this paper is a mobile phone application, ‘InformaCam’, which turns metadata from a surveillance risk into a method for the production of public proof. InformaCam allows one to manage and delete metadata from images and videos in order to diminish surveillance risks related to online tracking. Furthermore, it structures and stores the metadata in such a way that the documentary material becomes better accommodated to evidentiary settings, if needed. In this paper I propose InformaCam should be interpreted as a ‘forensic device’. By using the conceptualization of forensics and work on socio-technical devices the paper discusses how InformaCam, through a range of interventions, rearranges metadata into a technology of evidence. InformaCam explicitly recognizes mobile phones as context aware, uses their sensors, and structures metadata in order to facilitate data analysis after images are captured. Through these modifications it invents a form of ‘sensory data forensics'. By treating data in this particular way, surveillance resistance does more than seeking awareness. It becomes engaged with investigatory practices. Considering the extent by which states conduct metadata surveillance, the project can be seen as a timely response to the unequal distribution of power over data.
Forensic devices for activism: Metadata tracking and public proof
Lonneke van der Velden
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The central topic of this paper is a mobile phone application, ‘InformaCam’, which turns metadata from a surveillance risk into a method for the production of public proof. InformaCam allows one to manage and delete metadata from images and videos in order to diminish surveillance risks related to online tracking. Furthermore, it structures and stores the metadata in such a way that the documentary material becomes better accommodated to evidentiary settings, if needed. In this paper I propose InformaCam should be interpreted as a ‘forensic device’. By using the conceptualization of forensics and work on socio-technical devices the paper discusses how InformaCam, through a range of interventions, rearranges metadata into a technology of evidence. InformaCam explicitly recognizes mobile phones as context aware, uses their sensors, and structures metadata in order to facilitate data analysis after images are captured. Through these modifications it invents a form of ‘sensory data forensics'. By treating data in this particular way, surveillance resistance does more than seeking awareness. It becomes engaged with investigatory practices. Considering the extent by which states conduct metadata surveillance, the project can be seen as a timely response to the unequal distribution of power over data.
Corrosion Monitors for Embedded Evaluation
Robinson, Alex L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pfeifer, Kent B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casias, Adrian L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
We have developed and characterized novel in-situ corrosion sensors to monitor and quantify the corrosive potential and history of localized environments. Embedded corrosion sensors can provide information to aid health assessments of internal electrical components including connectors, microelectronics, wires, and other susceptible parts. When combined with other data (e.g. temperature and humidity), theory, and computational simulation, the reliability of monitored systems can be predicted with higher fidelity.
Characterization of Embedded BPM Collimators
VALENTINO, Gianluca
2015-01-01
During LS1, 16 tertiary collimators (TCTs) and 2 secondary collimators (TCSGs) in IR6 were replaced by new embedded BPM collimators. The BPM functionality allows the possibility to align the collimators more quickly and therefore be able to respond faster to machine configuration changes, as well as a direct monitoring of the beam orbit at the collimators. Following an initial commissioning phase, an MD was carried out to test the new collimators and acquisition electronics with beam in the LHC.
Cybersecurity of embedded computers systems
Carlioz, Jean
2016-01-01
International audience; Several articles have recently raised the issue of computer security of commercial flights by evoking the "connected aircraft, hackers target" or "Wi-Fi on planes, an open door for hackers ? " Or "Can you hack the computer of an Airbus or a Boeing ?". The feared scenario consists in a takeover of operational aircraft software that intentionally cause an accident. Moreover, several computer security experts have lately announced they had detected flaws in embedded syste...
Fundamental cycles and graph embeddings
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate fundamental cycles in a graph G and their relations with graph embeddings. We show that a graph G may be embedded in an orientable surface with genus at least g if and only if for any spanning tree T , there exists a sequence of fundamental cycles C1, C2, . . . , C2g with C2i-1 ∩ C2i≠ф for 1≤ i ≤g. In particular, among β(G) fundamental cycles of any spanning tree T of a graph G, there are exactly 2γM (G) cycles C1, C2, . . . , C2γM (G) such that C2i-1 ∩ C2i≠ф for 1 ≤i≤γM (G), where β(G) and γM (G) are the Betti number and the maximum genus of G, respectively. This implies that it is possible to construct an orientable embedding with large genus of a graph G from an arbitrary spanning tree T (which may have very large number of odd components in G\\E(T )). This is different from the earlier work of Xuong and Liu, where spanning trees with small odd components are needed. In fact, this makes a common generalization of Xuong, Liu and Fu et al. Furthermore, we show that (1) this result is useful for locating the maximum genus of a graph having a specific edge-cut. Some known results for embedded graphs are also concluded; (2) the maximum genus problem may be reduced to the maximum matching problem. Based on this result and the algorithm of Micali-Vazirani, we present a new efficient algorithm to determine the maximum genus of a graph in O((β(G)) 25 ) steps. Our method is straight and quite different from the algorithm of Furst, Gross and McGeoch which depends on a result of Giles where matroid parity method is needed.
Embedded multiprocessors scheduling and synchronization
Sriram, Sundararajan
2009-01-01
Techniques for Optimizing Multiprocessor Implementations of Signal Processing ApplicationsAn indispensable component of the information age, signal processing is embedded in a variety of consumer devices, including cell phones and digital television, as well as in communication infrastructure, such as media servers and cellular base stations. Multiple programmable processors, along with custom hardware running in parallel, are needed to achieve the computation throughput required of such applications. Reviews important research in key areas related to the multiprocessor implementation of multi
A Characterization of Projective-free Rings
P.M. Cohn
2003-01-01
A simple condition is given for a projective module to be free, in terms of the matrix presenting it. This leads to a criterion for a ring to be projective-free,and it provides a simple proof that Sylvester domains are projective-free.
Embedding initial data for black hole collisions
Romano, J D; Romano, Joseph D; Price, Richard H
1994-01-01
We discuss isometric embedding diagrams for the visualization of initial data for the problem of the head-on collision of two black holes. The problem of constructing the embedding diagrams is explicitly presented for the best studied initial data, the Misner geometry. We present a partial solution of the embedding diagrams and discuss issues related to completing the solution.
Embedded Services in Chinese Academic Libraries
Si, Li; Xing, Wenming; Zhou, Limei; Liu, Sha
2012-01-01
Embedded librarianship service describes the practice of librarians integrating actively into the user's environment, rather than remaining in the library to await requests for service. This paper examines the concept of embedded service in the recent literature, within the past 5 years. It reports on a survey of embedded service in Chinese…
Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options
Pierce, Jeff G.
This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates
景强; 苏权科; 陈东兴
2015-01-01
The non‐navigable sea‐crossing bridge of Hongkong‐Zhuhai‐Macao Bridge seats on embedded pile caps that are constructed by prefabricating and assembling technique and connected to the pile foundation by the post concreting .To overcome the complex geological and environmen‐tal condition at the bridge site ,the piles caps were constructed by combined use of three schemes , including the dry assembly with large cylinder ,flexible water stopping by separated capsules and the double‐wall interlocked steel box cofferdam with no inner bracing .The large cylinder ,steel cofferdam and water stopping structure with separated capsules installed at the connection of the pile cap and the steel pipe pile ,steel box cofferdam and base sealing concrete were used ,such that dry construction environment can be created for the integrated installation of the pile cap and cast‐ing of the post cast concrete .The large cylinder was driven using large‐scale floating cranes and the vibration driver with eight synchronized hydraulic hammers .The separated capsule water stop‐ping structure is mainly made up of ring chassis ,inner water stopping capsules ,top GINA sealing belt and the tensioning and tightening devices .The double‐wall interlocked steel box cofferdam a‐dopts the technique of block‐by‐block assembling ,monolithic sinking and demolition .The three schemes were analyzed from aspects of feasibility ,construction effect ,construction convenience and economy .T he engineering practice proves that all the three schemes are able to overcome the influence of the severe sea condition well ,have sound applicability and construction efficiency ,and can ensure the pile cap construction to be completed in the scheduled period .%港珠澳大桥海中非通航孔桥承台为埋置式（最大外形尺寸16 m×12 m），采用预制安装工艺，通过后浇混凝土与桩基连接。为克服桥址复杂的地质情况及自然条件，承台采用3种施工方案
STRONG EMBEDDING OF HP-GRAPHS ON SURFACE WITH HIGHER GENUS
Erling WEI; Yanpei LIU
2006-01-01
In 1990, Bondy posed the small circuit double cover (SCDC) conjecture: Every 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover (CDC) with the number of circuits less than |V| (the order of the vertex set V). The strong embedding conjecture states that every 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface in which the boundary of each face is a circuit. In this paper, HP-graph is defined as the graph which has a strong embedding on the projective plane with one face of valence |V| and the other faces of valence 3. And it is proved that the HP-graph has a strong embedding with |V| - 1 or less faces on some surface, which confirms both the SCDC conjecture and the strong embedding conjecture.
Duan's fixed point theorem: Proof and generalization
Martin Arkowitz
2006-02-01
Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:XÃ¢Â†Â’X any map and pk:XÃ¢Â†Â’X the kth power map. Duan proved that pkf:XÃ¢Â†Â’X has a fixed point if kÃ¢Â‰Â¥2. We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a ÃŽÂ¸-structure ÃŽÂ¼ÃŽÂ¸:XÃ¢Â†Â’X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that ÃŽÂ¼ÃŽÂ¸f and fÃŽÂ¼ÃŽÂ¸ each has a fixed point.
BaffleText: a Human Interactive Proof
Chew, Monica; Baird, Henry S.
2003-01-01
Internet services designed for human use are being abused by programs. We present a defense against such attacks in the form of a CAPTCHA (Completely Automatic Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) that exploits the difference in ability between humans and machines in reading images of text. CAPTCHAs are a special case of 'human interactive proofs,' a broad class of security protocols that allow people to identify themselves over networks as members of given groups. We point out vulnerabilities of reading-based CAPTCHAs to dictionary and computer-vision attacks. We also draw on the literature on the psychophysics of human reading, which suggests fresh defenses available to CAPTCHAs. Motivated by these considerations, we propose BaffleText, a CAPTCHA which uses non-English pronounceable words to defend against dictionary attacks, and Gestalt-motivated image-masking degradations to defend against image restoration attacks. Experiments on human subjects confirm the human legibility and user acceptance of BaffleText images. We have found an image-complexity measure that correlates well with user acceptance and assists in engineering the generation of challenges to fit the ability gap. Recent computer-vision attacks, run independently by Mori and Jitendra, suggest that BaffleText is stronger than two existing CAPTCHAs.
Quantum interactive proofs with short messages
Beigi, Salman; Watrous, John
2010-01-01
This paper considers three variants of quantum interactive proof systems in which short (meaning logarithmic-length) messages are exchanged between the prover and verifier. The first variant is one in which the verifier sends a short message to the prover, and the prover responds with an ordinary, or polynomial-length, message; the second variant is one in which any number of messages can be exchanged, but where the combined length of all the messages is logarithmic; and the third variant is one in which the verifier sends polynomially many random bits to the prover, who responds with a short quantum message. We prove that in all of these cases the short messages can be eliminated without changing the power of the model, so the first variant has the expressive power of QMA and the second and third variants have the expressive power of BQP. These facts are proved through the use of quantum state tomography, along with the finite quantum de Finetti theorem for the first variant.
On Feynman's proof of the Maxwell equations
Noyes, H. P.
1991-03-01
Dyson has presented a derivation of the free space Maxwell Equations and the Lorentz force starting from Newton's Second Law and the commutation relations between x(sub i), x(sub j), and x(sub k). The proof is attributed to Feynman. The reason why it works is puzzling. The finite and discrete reconciliation between relativity and quantum mechanics offers a less problematic logical chain. The mass ratios are defined using deBroglie wave interference in a theory which necessarily entails the commutation relations. It is shown that this route implies Newton's Third Law. Following Mach, Newton's Second Law then becomes a definition of force, and given this the Lorentz force becomes a definition of the electromagnetic fields. The use of the relativistic Zitterbewegun with the step length h/mc consistently introduces the limiting velocity c into the calculation, and removes a puzzle about dimensions from the Feynman results. By adopting the Wheeler-Feynman point of view that the energy and momenta of massless quanta are defined by the sources and sinks, the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations are derived from quantum particle physics - which Feynman was unable to do - and hence the classical electromagnetic theory was established as a well defined continuum approximation to the fully discrete relativistic quantum mechanics. Exploration of quantum gravity along these lines appears to be promising.
Natural Tuning: Towards A Proof of Concept
Dubovsky, Sergei; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad
2013-01-01
The cosmological constant problem and the absence of new natural physics at the electroweak scale, if confirmed by the LHC, may either indicate that the nature is fine-tuned or that a refined notion of naturalness is required. We construct a family of toy UV complete quantum theories providing a proof of concept for the second possibility. Low energy physics is described by a tuned effective field theory, which exhibits relevant interactions not protected by any symmetries and separated by an arbitrary large mass gap from the new "gravitational" physics, represented by a set of irrelevant operators. Nevertheless, the only available language to describe dynamics at all energy scales does not require any fine-tuning. The interesting novel feature of this construction is that UV physics is not described by a fixed point, but rather exhibits asymptotic fragility. Observation of additional unprotected scalars at the LHC would be a smoking gun for this scenario. Natural tuning also favors TeV scale unification.
Isospectral Metrics on Projective Spaces
Rueckriemen, Ralf
2011-01-01
We construct isospectral non isometric metrics on real and complex projective space. We recall the construction using isometric torus actions by Carolyn Gordon in chapter 2. In chapter 3 we will recall some facts about complex projective space. In chapter 4 we build the isospectral metrics. Chapter 5 is devoted to the non isometry proof of the metrics built in chapter 4. In chapter 6 isospectral metrics on real projective space are derived from metrics on the sphere.
Isometric embeddings in cosmology and astrophysics
Gareth Amery; Jothi Moodley; James Paul Londal
2011-09-01
Recent interest in higher-dimensional cosmological models has prompted some signiﬁ-cant work on the mathematical technicalities of how one goes about embedding spacetimes into some higher-dimensional space. We survey results in the literature (existence theorems and simple explicit embeddings); brieﬂy outline our work on global embeddings as well as explicit results for more complex geometries; and provide some examples. These results are contextualized physically, so as to provide a foundation for a detailed commentary on several key issues in the ﬁeld such as: the meaning of `Ricci equivalent’ embeddings; the uniqueness of local (or global) embeddings; symmetry inheritance properties; and astrophysical constraints.
Node Embedding via Word Embedding for Network Community Discovery
Ding, Weicong; Ishwar, Prakash
2016-01-01
Neural node embeddings have recently emerged as a powerful representation for supervised learning tasks involving graph-structured data. We leverage this recent advance to develop a novel algorithm for unsupervised community discovery in graphs. Through extensive experimental studies on simulated and real-world data, we demonstrate that the proposed approach consistently improves over the current state-of-the-art. Specifically, our approach empirically attains the information-theoretic limits for community recovery under the benchmark Stochastic Block Models for graph generation and exhibits better stability and accuracy over both Spectral Clustering and Acyclic Belief Propagation in the community recovery limits.
Laplacian embedded regression for scalable manifold regularization.
Chen, Lin; Tsang, Ivor W; Xu, Dong
2012-06-01
Semi-supervised learning (SSL), as a powerful tool to learn from a limited number of labeled data and a large number of unlabeled data, has been attracting increasing attention in the machine learning community. In particular, the manifold regularization framework has laid solid theoretical foundations for a large family of SSL algorithms, such as Laplacian support vector machine (LapSVM) and Laplacian regularized least squares (LapRLS). However, most of these algorithms are limited to small scale problems due to the high computational cost of the matrix inversion operation involved in the optimization problem. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called Laplacian embedded regression by introducing an intermediate decision variable into the manifold regularization framework. By using ∈-insensitive loss, we obtain the Laplacian embedded support vector regression (LapESVR) algorithm, which inherits the sparse solution from SVR. Also, we derive Laplacian embedded RLS (LapERLS) corresponding to RLS under the proposed framework. Both LapESVR and LapERLS possess a simpler form of a transformed kernel, which is the summation of the original kernel and a graph kernel that captures the manifold structure. The benefits of the transformed kernel are two-fold: (1) we can deal with the original kernel matrix and the graph Laplacian matrix in the graph kernel separately and (2) if the graph Laplacian matrix is sparse, we only need to perform the inverse operation for a sparse matrix, which is much more efficient when compared with that for a dense one. Inspired by kernel principal component analysis, we further propose to project the introduced decision variable into a subspace spanned by a few eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian matrix in order to better reflect the data manifold, as well as accelerate the calculation of the graph kernel, allowing our methods to efficiently and effectively cope with large scale SSL problems. Extensive experiments on both toy and real
A Literary Study on Embedding Therapy
Kwang-Ho Lee
2003-12-01
Full Text Available Background : This study focuses on a new acupuncture method of embedding method which inserts a substance on the acupuncture points for continuous stimulation. Clinical applications and cautions were examined through literary investigations. Results : Based on the literary consideration of embedding method, the following results were obtained: 1. Embedding method is a combination of traditional and embedding technique to provide longer duration of stimulation on the acupuncture points. 2. To administer the embedding method, one needs to utilize a embedding thread besides acupuncture apparatus. Sheep gut is commonly used in China and the surgical thread is the choice in Korea. 3. Embedding method may vary from the patient to patient, depending on the nature and location of the illness. Piercing, embedding, and tying are some of the possibilities. 4. Embedding method may have different arrangement of threads based on the choice of usage. 5. Embedding method is effective for various chronic illnesses such as aches, functional diseases, and the diseases of internal organs. 6. When using the embedding methods, cautions against infection and side effects due to strong stimulation are mandatory.
Architecture design of a virtualized embedded system
A.Sbaa
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, embedded systems have become a major driver of technological developments particularly in the industrial sector. In an embedded system, the hardware and software components are so intertwined that evolution is often a big issue. Thanks to the contributions of virtualization it is possible to design more flexible and scalable embedded systems. In fact, virtualization adds an abstraction layer between the hardware and the software to make it less intimately dependent. In this paper we propose system architecture based on embedded virtualization that will be modeled by the multi-agent systems. In the first part, we will discuss the state of the art with respect to embedded systems, multi-agent systems and the concept of virtualization. In the second part, we explain theissues related to traditional embedded systems and the constraints associated with their architecture. Subsequently, we propose a virtualization based architecture for embedded systems. In the last part we will showcase this architecture through a prototype.
Proviola: A Tool for Proof Re-animation
Tankink, Carst; McKinna, James; Wiedijk, Freek
2010-01-01
To improve on existing models of interaction with a proof assistant (PA), in particular for storage and replay of proofs, we in- troduce three related concepts, those of: a proof movie, consisting of frames which record both user input and the corresponding PA response; a camera, which films a user's interactive session with a PA as a movie; and a proviola, which replays a movie frame-by-frame to a third party. In this paper we describe the movie data structure and we discuss a proto- type implementation of the camera and proviola based on the ProofWeb system. ProofWeb uncouples the interaction with a PA via a web- interface (the client) from the actual PA that resides on the server. Our camera films a movie by "listening" to the ProofWeb communication. The first reason for developing movies is to uncouple the reviewing of a formal proof from the PA used to develop it: the movie concept enables users to discuss small code fragments without the need to install the PA or to load a whole library into it. Other a...
Experiments concerning the automated search for elegant proofs
Wos, L.
1997-07-01
The research reported in this technical report was spawned by the request to find an elegant proof (of a theorem from Boolean algebra) to replace the known proof consisting of 816 deduced steps. The request was met by finding a proof consisting of 100 deduced steps. The methodology used to obtain the far shorter proof is presented in detail through a sequence of experiments. Although clearly not an algorithm, the methodology is sufficiently general to enable its use for seeking elegant proofs regardless of the domain of study. The methodology relies heavily on the assistance of McCune`s automated reasoning program OTTER. Of the aspects of proof elegance, the main focus here is on proof length, with brief attention paid to the type of term present, the number of variables required, and the complexity of deduced steps. The methodology is iterative, relying heavily on the use of three strategies: the resonance strategy, the hot list strategy, and McCune`s ratio strategy. To provide some insight regarding the value of the methodology, the author discusses its successful application to other problems from Boolean algebra and to problems from lattice theory. Research suggestions and challenges are also offered.
Code Generation for Embedded Software for Modeling Clear Box Structures
V. Chandra Prakash
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Cleanroom software Engineering (CRSE recommended that the code related to the Application systems be generated either manually or through code generation models or represents the same as a hierarchy of clear box structures. CRSE has even advocated that the code be developed using the State models that models the internal behavior of the systems. No framework has been recommended by any Author using which the Clear boxes are designed using the code generation methods. Code Generation is one of the important quality issues addressed in cleanroom software engineering. It has been investigated that CRSE can be used for life cycle management of the embedded systems when the hardware-software co-design is in-built as part and parcel of CRSE by way of adding suitable models to CRSE and redefining the same. The design of Embedded Systems involves code generation in respect of hardware and Embedded Software. In this paper, a framework is proposed using which the embedded software is generated. The method is unique that it considers various aspects of the code generation which includes Code Segments, Code Functions, Classes, Globalization, Variable propagation etc. The proposed Framework has been applied to a Pilot project and the experimental results are presented.
Distributed Parallel Interactive Data Analysis Using the Proof System
ReneBrun; FonsRademakers
2001-01-01
The only way Terabytes of data can be processed and analyzed in a reasonable time is by using parallel processing architectures.The Paralle ROOT Facility,PROOF,is s system for the parallel interactive analysis of such datasets on clusters of heterogeneous computers.Early prototypes have confirmed the validity of the basic PROOF architecture However,some important work still has to be done before PROOF can be used as a production facility.The basic architecture and the planned developments are described in this paper.
Tree Resolution Proofs of the Weak Pigeon-Hole Principle
Dantchev, Stefan Stajanov; Riis, Søren
2001-01-01
We prove that any optimal tree resolution proof of PHPn m is of size 2&thetas;(n log n), independently from m, even if it is infinity. So far, only a 2Ω(n) lower bound has been known in the general case. We also show that any, not necessarily optimal, regular tree resolution proof PHPn m is bounded...... by 2O(n log m). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the worst case proof complexity has been considered. Finally, we discuss possible connections of our result to Riis' (1999) complexity gap theorem for tree resolution...
The direct Flow parametric Proof of Gauss' Divergence Theorem revisited
Markvorsen, Steen
The standard proof of the divergence theorem in undergraduate calculus courses covers the theorem for static domains between two graph surfaces. We show that within first year undergraduate curriculum, the flow proof of the dynamic version of the divergence theorem - which is usually considered...... only much later in more advanced math courses - is comprehensible with only a little extension of the first year curriculum. Moreover, it is more intuitive than the static proof. We support this intuition further by unfolding and visualizing a few examples with increasing complexity. In these examples...
Multipole moments for embedding potentials
Nørby, Morten Steen; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob
2016-01-01
Polarizable quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM)-embedding methods are currently among the most promising methods for computationally feasible, yet reliable, production calculations of localized excitations and molecular response properties of large molecular complexes, such as proteins...... extended with site polarizabilities including internal charge transfer terms. We present a new way of dealing with well-known problems in relation to the use of basis sets with diffuse functions in conventional atomic allocation algorithms, avoiding numerical integration schemes. Using this approach, we...
Testing Complex and Embedded Systems
Pries, Kim H
2010-01-01
Many enterprises regard system-level testing as the final piece of the development effort, rather than as a tool that should be integrated throughout the development process. As a consequence, test teams often execute critical test plans just before product launch, resulting in much of the corrective work being performed in a rush and at the last minute. Presenting combinatorial approaches for improving test coverage, Testing Complex and Embedded Systems details techniques to help you streamline testing and identify problems before they occur--including turbocharged testing using Six Sigma and
Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7
Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike
2011-01-01
Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm
Introduction to Embedded Systems Using ANSI C and the Arduino Development Environment
Russell, David
2010-01-01
Many electrical and computer engineering projects involve some kind of embedded system in which a microcontroller sits at the center as the primary source of control. The recently-developed Arduino development platform includes an inexpensive hardware development board hosting an eight-bit ATMEL ATmega-family processor and a Java-based software-development environment. These features allow an embedded systems beginner the ability to focus their attention on learning how to write embedded software instead of wasting time overcoming the engineering CAD tools learning curve. The goal of this text
Development of Embedded Vascular Networks in FRP for Active/Passive Thermal Management
2015-04-01
AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0019 Development of Embedded Vascular Networks in FRP for Active/Passive Thermal Management Katarzyna...To) 30 September 2012 – 31 December 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Embedded Vascular Networks in FRP for Active/Passive Thermal...Z39-18 Page 1 of 16 Project Title: Development of Embedded Vascular Networks in FRP for
Skolem and pessimism about proof in mathematics.
Cohen, Paul J
2005-10-15
Attitudes towards formalization and proof have gone through large swings during the last 150 years. We sketch the development from Frege's first formalization, to the debates over intuitionism and other schools, through Hilbert's program and the decisive blow of the Gödel Incompleteness Theorem. A critical role is played by the Skolem-Lowenheim Theorem, which showed that no first-order axiom system can characterize a unique infinite model. Skolem himself regarded this as a body blow to the belief that mathematics can be reliably founded only on formal axiomatic systems. In a remarkably prescient paper, he even sketches the possibility of interesting new models for set theory itself, something later realized by the method of forcing. This is in contrast to Hilbert's belief that mathematics could resolve all its questions. We discuss the role of new axioms for set theory, questions in set theory itself, and their relevance for number theory. We then look in detail at what the methods of the predicate calculus, i.e. mathematical reasoning, really entail. The conclusion is that there is no reasonable basis for Hilbert's assumption. The vast majority of questions even in elementary number theory, of reasonable complexity, are beyond the reach of any such reasoning. Of course this cannot be proved and we present only plausibility arguments. The great success of mathematics comes from considering 'natural problems', those which are related to previous work and offer a good chance of being solved. The great glories of human reasoning, beginning with the Greek discovery of geometry, are in no way diminished by this pessimistic view. We end by wishing good health to present-day mathematics and the mathematics of many centuries to come.
All-versus-nothing proof of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering.
Chen, Jing-Ling; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Wu, Chunfeng; Su, Hong-Yi; Cabello, Adán; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H
2013-01-01
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a form of quantum nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. Although Schrödinger already mooted the idea in 1935, steering still defies a complete understanding. In analogy to "all-versus-nothing" proofs of Bell nonlocality, here we present a proof of steering without inequalities rendering the detection of correlations leading to a violation of steering inequalities unnecessary. We show that, given any two-qubit entangled state, the existence of certain projective measurement by Alice so that Bob's normalized conditional states can be regarded as two different pure states provides a criterion for Alice-to-Bob steerability. A steering inequality equivalent to the all-versus-nothing proof is also obtained. Our result clearly demonstrates that there exist many quantum states which do not violate any previously known steering inequality but are indeed steerable. Our method offers advantages over the existing methods for experimentally testing steerability, and sheds new light on the asymmetric steering problem.
Testing framework for embedded languages
Leskó, Dániel; Tejfel, Máté
2012-09-01
Embedding a new programming language into an existing one is a widely used technique, because it fastens the development process and gives a part of a language infrastructure for free (e.g. lexical, syntactical analyzers). In this paper we are presenting a new advantage of this development approach regarding to adding testing support for these new languages. Tool support for testing is a crucial point for a newly designed programming language. It could be done in the hard way by creating a testing tool from scratch, or we could try to reuse existing testing tools by extending them with an interface to our new language. The second approach requires less work, and also it fits very well for the embedded approach. The problem is that the creation of such interfaces is not straightforward at all, because the existing testing tools were mostly not designed to be extendable and to be able to deal with new languages. This paper presents an extendable and modular model of a testing framework, in which the most basic design decision was to keep the - previously mentioned - interface creation simple and straightforward. Other important aspects of our model are the test data generation, the oracle problem and the customizability of the whole testing phase.
Information embedding meets distributed control
Grover, Pulkit; Sahai, Anant
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of information embedding where the encoder modifies a white Gaussian host signal in a power-constrained manner to encode the message, and the decoder recovers both the embedded message and the modified host signal. This extends the recent work of Sumszyk and Steinberg to the continuous-alphabet Gaussian setting. We show that a dirty-paper-coding based strategy achieves the optimal rate for perfect recovery of the modified host and the message. We also provide bounds for the extension wherein the modified host signal is recovered only to within a specified distortion. When specialized to the zero-rate case, our results provide the tightest known lower bounds on the asymptotic costs for the vector version of a famous open problem in distributed control -- the Witsenhausen counterexample. Using this bound, we characterize the asymptotically optimal costs for the vector Witsenhausen problem numerically to within a factor of 1.3 for all problem parameters, improving on the earlier best know...
Drilling azimuth gamma embedded design
Zhou Yi Ren
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Embedded drilling azimuth gamma design, the use of radioactive measuring principle embedded gamma measurement while drilling a short section analysis. Monte Carlo method, in response to the density of horizontal well logging numerical simulation of 16 orientation, the orientation of horizontal well analysed, calliper, bed boundary location, space, different formation density, formation thickness, and other factors inclined strata dip the impact by simulating 137Cs sources under different formation conditions of the gamma distribution, to determine the orientation of drilling density tool can detect window size and space, draw depth of the logging methods. The data 360° azimuth imaging, image processing method to obtain graph, display density of the formation, dip and strata thickness and other parameters, the logging methods obtain real-time geo-steering. To establish a theoretical basis for the orientation density logging while drilling method implementation and application of numerical simulation in-depth study of the MWD azimuth and density log response factors of horizontal wells.
Alternation-Trading Proofs, Linear Programming, and Lower Bounds
Williams, Ryan
2010-01-01
A fertile area of recent research has demonstrated concrete polynomial time lower bounds for solving natural hard problems on restricted computational models. Among these problems are Satisfiability, Vertex Cover, Hamilton Path, Mod6-SAT, Majority-of-Majority-SAT, and Tautologies, to name a few. The proofs of these lower bounds follow a certain proof-by-contradiction strategy that we call alternation-trading. An important open problem is to determine how powerful such proofs can possibly be. We propose a methodology for studying these proofs that makes them amenable to both formal analysis and automated theorem proving. We prove that the search for better lower bounds can often be turned into a problem of solving a large series of linear programming instances. Implementing a small-scale theorem prover based on this result, we extract new human-readable time lower bounds for several problems. This framework can also be used to prove concrete limitations on the current techniques.
An Elementary Proof of the Polynomial Matrix Spectral Factorization Theorem
Ephremidze, Lasha
2010-01-01
A very simple and short proof of the polynomial matrix spectral factorization theorem (on the unit circle as well as on the real line) is presented, which relies on elementary complex analysis and linear algebra.
20 CFR 726.312 - Burdens of proof.
2010-04-01
... Money Penalties § 726.312 Burdens of proof. (a) The Director shall bear the burden of proving the... Director has requested the operator to supply information with respect to its size under § 726.303 and the...