Factors affecting the effectiveness of a projection dephaser in 2D gradient-echo imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakker, Chris J G; Peters, Nicky H G M; Vincken, Koen L; Bom, Martijn van der; Seppenwoolde, Jan-Henry
2007-01-01
Projection dephasers are often used for background suppression and dynamic range improvement in thick-slab 2D imaging in order to promote the visibility of subslice structures, e.g., blood vessels and interventional devices. In this study, we explored the factors that govern the effectiveness of a projection dephaser by simulations and phantom experiments. This was done for the ideal case of a single subslice hyper- or hypointensity against a uniform background in the absence of susceptibility effects. Simulations and experiments revealed a pronounced influence of the slice profile, the nominal flip angle and the TE and TR of the acquisition, the size, intraslice position and MR properties of the subslice structure, and T 1 of the background. The complexity of the ideal case points to the necessity of additional explorations when considering the use of projection dephasers under less ideal conditions, e.g., in the presence of tissue heterogeneities and susceptibility gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Ming; Dai Hongyi; Xi Zairong; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen
2007-01-01
We propose a scheme to overcome phase damping decoherence by periodically performing open loop tracking control and projective measurement. Although it is impossible to stabilize a qubit subject to Markovian dynamics only by open loop coherent control, one can attain a 'softened' control goal with the help of periodical projective measurement. The 'softened' control objective in our scheme is to keep the state of the controlled qubit to stay near a reference pure state with a high probability for a sufficiently long time. Two suboptimal control problems are given in the sense of trace distance and fidelity, respectively, and they are eventually reduced to the design of a period T. In our scheme, one can choose the period T as long as possible if the 'softened' control goal is attained. This is in contrast to the observation that quantum Zeno effect takes place only if measurements are performed in a very frequent manner, i.e., the period T must be extremely small
Sulc, Miroslav; Hernandez, Henar; Martinez, Todd J.; Vanicek, Jiri
2014-03-01
We recently showed that the Dephasing Representation (DR) provides an efficient tool for computing ultrafast electronic spectra and that cellularization yields further acceleration [M. Šulc and J. Vaníček, Mol. Phys. 110, 945 (2012)]. Here we focus on increasing its accuracy by first implementing an exact Gaussian basis method (GBM) combining the accuracy of quantum dynamics and efficiency of classical dynamics. The DR is then derived together with ten other methods for computing time-resolved spectra with intermediate accuracy and efficiency. These include the Gaussian DR (GDR), an exact generalization of the DR, in which trajectories are replaced by communicating frozen Gaussians evolving classically with an average Hamiltonian. The methods are tested numerically on time correlation functions and time-resolved stimulated emission spectra in the harmonic potential, pyrazine S0 /S1 model, and quartic oscillator. Both the GBM and the GDR are shown to increase the accuracy of the DR. Surprisingly, in chaotic systems the GDR can outperform the presumably more accurate GBM, in which the two bases evolve separately. This research was supported by the Swiss NSF Grant No. 200021_124936/1 and NCCR Molecular Ultrafast Science & Technology (MUST), and by the EPFL.
Dephasing in InAs/GaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Mørk, Jesper
1999-01-01
The room-temperature dephasing in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots is measured using two independent methods: spectal-hole burning and four-wave mixing. Dephasing times weakly dependent on the excitation density are found, with a low density value of 290+/-80 fs from spectal-hole burning...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin
1999-01-01
When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....
Room-Temperature Dephasing in InAs Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Mørk, Jesper
2000-01-01
The room temperature dephasing in InAs/InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots, embedded in a waveguide for laser applications, is measured using two independent methods: spectral hole burning and four-wave mixing. Without the application of bias current for electrical carrier injection......, a dephasing time of ~260 fs, weakly dependent on the optical excitation density, is found and attributed to phonon interaction. The application of bias current, leading to population inversion in the dot ground state and optical gain, strongly decreases the dephasing time to less than 50 fs, likely due...
Universal dephasing control during quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordon, Goren; Kurizki, Gershon
2007-01-01
Dephasing is a ubiquitous phenomenon that leads to the loss of coherence in quantum systems and the corruption of quantum information. We present a universal dynamical control approach to combat dephasing during all stages of quantum computation, namely, storage and single- and two-qubit operators. We show that (a) tailoring multifrequency gate pulses to the dephasing dynamics can increase fidelity; (b) cross-dephasing, introduced by entanglement, can be eliminated by appropriate control fields; (c) counterintuitively and contrary to previous schemes, one can increase the gate duration, while simultaneously increasing the total gate fidelity
Heat transport in the XXZ spin chain: from ballistic to diffusive regimes and dephasing enhancement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendoza-Arenas, J J; Al-Assam, S; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D
2013-01-01
In this work we study the heat transport in an XXZ spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with homogeneous magnetic field, incoherently driven out of equilibrium by reservoirs at the boundaries. We focus on the effect of bulk dephasing (energy-dissipative) processes in different parameter regimes of the system. The non-equilibrium steady state of the chain is obtained by simulating its evolution under the corresponding Lindblad master equation, using the time evolving block decimation method. In the absence of dephasing, the heat transport is ballistic for weak interactions, while being diffusive in the strongly interacting regime, as evidenced by the heat current scaling with the system size. When bulk dephasing takes place in the system, diffusive transport is induced in the weakly interacting regime, with the heat current monotonically decreasing with the dephasing rate. In contrast, in the strongly interacting regime, the heat current can be significantly enhanced by dephasing for systems of small size. (paper)
Wave attenuation model for dephasing and measurement of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
There are different ways to model dephasing in mesoscopic systems. An interesting method is to attach a voltage probe [3] to the sample as in the inset of figure 1 (Buttiker's model). In this model, an electron captured by a voltage probe is injected back with an uncorrelated phase leading to irreversible loss of phase memory ...
Qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zanker, Sebastian; Marthaler, Michael; Schoen, Gerd [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2015-07-01
We study dephasing of a superconducting qubit due to quasiparticle tunneling through a Josephson junction. While qubit decay due to tunneling processes is well understood within a golden rule approximation, pure dephasing due to BCS quasiparticles gives rise to a divergent golden rule rate. We calculate qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling beyond lowest order approximation in coupling between qubit and quasiparticles. Summing up a certain class of diagrams we show that qubit dephasing due to purely longitudinal coupling to quasiparticles leads to dephasing ∝ exp(-x(t)) where x(t) ∝ t{sup 3/2} for short time scales and x(t) ∝ tlog(t) for long time scales.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, K.
1987-01-01
A relationship between the number projection and the shell model methods is investigated in the case of a single-j shell. We can find a one-to-one correspondence between the number projected and the shell model states
Vempala, Santosh S
2005-01-01
Random projection is a simple geometric technique for reducing the dimensionality of a set of points in Euclidean space while preserving pairwise distances approximately. The technique plays a key role in several breakthrough developments in the field of algorithms. In other cases, it provides elegant alternative proofs. The book begins with an elementary description of the technique and its basic properties. Then it develops the method in the context of applications, which are divided into three groups. The first group consists of combinatorial optimization problems such as maxcut, graph coloring, minimum multicut, graph bandwidth and VLSI layout. Presented in this context is the theory of Euclidean embeddings of graphs. The next group is machine learning problems, specifically, learning intersections of halfspaces and learning large margin hypotheses. The projection method is further refined for the latter application. The last set consists of problems inspired by information retrieval, namely, nearest neig...
Coherence-generating power of quantum dephasing processes
Styliaris, Georgios; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2018-03-01
We provide a quantification of the capability of various quantum dephasing processes to generate coherence out of incoherent states. The measures defined, admitting computable expressions for any finite Hilbert-space dimension, are based on probabilistic averages and arise naturally from the viewpoint of coherence as a resource. We investigate how the capability of a dephasing process (e.g., a nonselective orthogonal measurement) to generate coherence depends on the relevant bases of the Hilbert space over which coherence is quantified and the dephasing process occurs, respectively. We extend our analysis to include those Lindblad time evolutions which, in the infinite-time limit, dephase the system under consideration and calculate their coherence-generating power as a function of time. We further identify specific families of such time evolutions that, although dephasing, have optimal (over all quantum processes) coherence-generating power for some intermediate time. Finally, we investigate the coherence-generating capability of random dephasing channels.
Coherence and dephasing in self-assembled quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan
2003-01-01
We measured dephasing times in InGaAl/As self-assembled quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At 0K, the coherence time of the quantum dots is lifetime limited, whereas at finite temperatures pure dephasing by exciton-phonon interactions governs the quantum dot...
Dephasing of optically generated electron spins in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idrish Miah, M.
2010-01-01
Dephasing of optically generated electron spins in the presence of the external magnetic field and electric bias in semiconductor nano-structures has been studied by time- and polarization-resolved spectrometry. The obtained experimental data are presented in dependence of the strength of the magnetic field. The optically generated electron-spin precession frequency and dephasing time and rate are estimated. It is found that both the spin precession frequency and dephasing rate increase linearly with the external magnetic field up to about 9 T. However, the spin dephasing time is within sub-μs and is found to decrease exponentially with the strength of the external magnetic field. The results are discussed by exploring possible mechanisms of spin dephasing in low-dimensional semiconductor structures, where the quantum-confinement persists within the nano-range.
Dephasing of optically generated electron spins in semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idrish Miah, M., E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong - 4331 (Bangladesh)
2010-09-13
Dephasing of optically generated electron spins in the presence of the external magnetic field and electric bias in semiconductor nano-structures has been studied by time- and polarization-resolved spectrometry. The obtained experimental data are presented in dependence of the strength of the magnetic field. The optically generated electron-spin precession frequency and dephasing time and rate are estimated. It is found that both the spin precession frequency and dephasing rate increase linearly with the external magnetic field up to about 9 T. However, the spin dephasing time is within sub-{mu}s and is found to decrease exponentially with the strength of the external magnetic field. The results are discussed by exploring possible mechanisms of spin dephasing in low-dimensional semiconductor structures, where the quantum-confinement persists within the nano-range.
Many-Particle Dephasing after a Quench
Kiendl, Thomas; Marquardt, Florian
2017-03-01
After a quench in a quantum many-body system, expectation values tend to relax towards long-time averages. However, temporal fluctuations remain in the long-time limit, and it is crucial to study the suppression of these fluctuations with increasing system size. The particularly important case of nonintegrable models has been addressed so far only by numerics and conjectures based on analytical bounds. In this work, we are able to derive analytical predictions for the temporal fluctuations in a nonintegrable model (the transverse Ising chain with extra terms). Our results are based on identifying a dynamical regime of "many-particle dephasing," where quasiparticles do not yet relax but fluctuations are nonetheless suppressed exponentially by weak integrability breaking.
Quantum capacity of dephasing channels with memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Arrigo, A; Benenti, G; Falci, G
2007-01-01
We show that the amount of coherent quantum information that can be reliably transmitted down a dephasing channel with memory is maximized by separable input states. In particular, we model the channel as a Markov chain or a multimode environment of oscillators. While in the first model, the maximization is achieved for the maximally mixed input state, in the latter it is convenient to exploit the presence of a decoherence-protected subspace generated by memory effects. We explicitly compute the quantum channel capacity for the first model while numerical simulations suggest a lower bound for the latter. In both cases memory effects enhance the coherent information. We present results valid for arbitrary input size
Dephasing and hyperfine interaction in carbon nanotubes double quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynoso, Andres Alejandro; Flensberg, Karsten
2012-01-01
We study theoretically the return probability experiment, which is used to measure the dephasing time T-2*, in a double quantum dot (DQD) in semiconducting carbon nanotubes with spin-orbit coupling and disorder-induced valley mixing. Dephasing is due to hyperfine interaction with the spins of the C...... with these for DQDs in clean nanotubes, whereas the disorder effect is always relevant when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nanotube axis....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Da-wei; Sun, Meng-le; Zuo, Zheng-wei; Wang, Hui-xian; Lv, Shi-jie; Li, Xin-zhong; Li, Li-ben
2016-01-01
The charge transport properties of the G4-DNA molecular device in the presence of counter ions and dephasing effect are investigated based on the Green function method and Landauer–Büttiker theory. The currents through the G4-DNA molecular device depend on the interference patterns at different coupling configurations. There is an effective electrostatic interaction between the counter ions and the G4-DNA molecule which introduces disorder into the on-site energies of G bases. The current through the device can be enhanced by the small disorder which avoids the strong interference of electrons at the same energy in some coupling configurations, however the diagonal disorder can suppress the overall current due to the Anderson localization of charge carriers when the disorder is large. In the presence of dephasing effect the current through the device at all coupling configurations can be enhanced as a result of the phase coherence losing of electron. As for the magnetic field response, the magnetoresistance of the device is always suppressed by the counter ions and dephasing effect. - Highlights: • The counter ions can some times enhance the current through G4-DNA molecule. • The dephasing effect can enhance the current of the device at all four coupling configurations. • The magnetoresistance is always suppressed by the counter ions and dephasing effect.
Time-resolved photoelectron spectrometry of a dephasing process in pyrazine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlov, R.L.; Pavlov, L.I.; Delchev, Ya.I.; Pavlova, S.I.
2001-01-01
The first femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging (PEI) is presented. The method is characterized by photoionization of NO and further applied to ultrafast dephasing in pyrazine. Intermediate case behaviour in radiationless transition is clearly observed in time-resolved photoelectron kinetic energy distribution. Femtosecond PEI is with much improved efficiency than conventional photoelectron spectroscopies. It is anticipated that the unifield approach of time-resolved photoelectron and photoion imaging opens the possibility of observing photon-induced dynamics in real time
Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project: Project Management Methods
Millis, Marc G.
2004-01-01
To leap past the limitations of existing propulsion, the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) Project seeks further advancements in physics from which new propulsion methods can eventually be derived. Three visionary breakthroughs are sought: (1) propulsion that requires no propellant, (2) propulsion that circumvents existing speed limits, and (3) breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify credible research that will make measurable progress toward these goals in the near-term. The management techniques to address this challenge are presented, with a special emphasis on the process used to review, prioritize, and select research tasks. This selection process includes these key features: (a) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects or critical issues, (b) reliability of assertions is more important than the implications of the assertions, which includes the practice where the reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility, and (c) total scores are obtained by multiplying the criteria scores rather than by adding. Lessons learned and revisions planned are discussed.
Relaxometry and Dephasing Imaging of Superparamagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a Single Qubit
Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Häberle, Thomas; Reinhard, Friedemann; Zappe, Andrea; Slota, Michael; Bogani, Lapo; Finkler, Amit; Wrachtrup, Jörg
2015-08-01
To study the magnetic dynamics of superparamagnetic nanoparticles we use scanning probe relaxometry and dephasing of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, characterizing the spin-noise of a single 10-nm magnetite particle. Additionally, we show the anisotropy of the NV sensitivity's dependence on the applied decoherence measurement method. By comparing the change in relaxation (T 1 ) and dephasing (T 2 ) time in the NV center when scanning a nanoparticle over it, we are able to extract the nanoparticle's diameter and distance from the NV center using an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model for the nanoparticle's fluctuations. This scanning-probe technique can be used in the future to characterize different spin label substitutes for both medical applications and basic magnetic nanoparticle behavior.
Quantum Metrology beyond the Classical Limit under the Effect of Dephasing
Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Benjamin, Simon; Nakayama, Shojun; Saito, Shiro; Munro, William J.
2018-04-01
Quantum sensors have the potential to outperform their classical counterparts. For classical sensing, the uncertainty of the estimation of the target fields scales inversely with the square root of the measurement time T . On the other hand, by using quantum resources, we can reduce this scaling of the uncertainty with time to 1 /T . However, as quantum states are susceptible to dephasing, it has not been clear whether we can achieve sensitivities with a scaling of 1 /T for a measurement time longer than the coherence time. Here, we propose a scheme that estimates the amplitude of globally applied fields with the uncertainty of 1 /T for an arbitrary time scale under the effect of dephasing. We use one-way quantum-computing-based teleportation between qubits to prevent any increase in the correlation between the quantum state and its local environment from building up and have shown that such a teleportation protocol can suppress the local dephasing while the information from the target fields keeps growing. Our method has the potential to realize a quantum sensor with a sensitivity far beyond that of any classical sensor.
Prisoners' dilemma in the presence of collective dephasing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nawaz, Ahmad
2012-01-01
We quantize prisoners' dilemma in the presence of collective dephasing with a dephasing rate γ. It is shown that for a two-parameter set of strategies, Q⊗Q is Nash equilibrium below a cut-off value of time. Beyond this cut-off it bifurcates into two new Nash equilibria Q⊗D and D⊗Q. Furthermore, for the maximum value of decoherence C⊗D and D⊗C also become Nash equilibria. At this stage the game has four Nash equilibria. On the other hand, for a three-parameter set of strategies, there is no pure strategy Nash equilibrium; however, there is a mixed strategy (non-unique) Nash equilibrium that is not affected by collective dephasing. (paper)
Magneto-exciton dephasing in a single quantum dot
Rodriguez, F. J.; Reyes, A.; Olaya-Castro, A.; Quiroga, L.
2001-03-01
Ultrafast spectroscopy experiments on single quantum dot (SQD) in magnetic fields provide a variety of unexpected results, one of them being the recently reported entanglement of exciton states. In order to explore the entanglement robustness, dephasing mechanisms must be considered. By calculating the non-linear time resolved optical spectrum of a SQD, we present a theoretical study on the exciton-exciton scattering contribution to the magneto-exciton dephasing time. Our results show that the time evolution of \\chi^(3) presents, under non-steady-state condition, a beating between the bound biexciton and the first unbound biexciton state in the strong confinement regime. The contribution coming from both left and right polarized emitted photons allows us to predict the creation of exciton entanglement, in agreement with recent experimental results. Previous theoretical works have only addressed the stationary optical response. By contrast, our results based on a full time dependent calculation show new features specially for the fast dephasing case.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Zimmermann, R.
1999-01-01
). This method determines the decays of intensity and coherence separately, thus distinguishing lifetime from pure dephasing. The secondary emission of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells is investigated. Here the combination of static disorder and inelastic scattering leads to a partially coherent emission....... The temperature dependence is well explained by phonon scattering....
A comparative study of two phenomenological models of dephasing in series and parallel resistors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandopadhyay, Swarnali; Chaudhuri, Debasish; Jayannavar, Arun M.
2010-01-01
We compare two recent phenomenological models of dephasing using a double barrier and a quantum ring geometry. While the stochastic absorption model generates controlled dephasing leading to Ohm's law for large dephasing strengths, a Gaussian random phase based statistical model shows many inconsistencies.
Resonance Raman and optical dephasing study of tricarbocyanine dyes
Ashworth, SH; Kummrow, A; Lenz, K
Fluorescence lineshape analysis based on resonance Raman spectra of the dye HITCI was used to determine the details and magnitude of the vibrational part of the line broadening function, Forced light scattering (FLS) was applied to measure optical dephasing of HITCI in ethylene glycol, pumping at
Exciton dephasing in ZnSe quantum wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Hans Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1998-01-01
The homogeneous linewidths of excitons in wet-etched ZnSe quantum wires of lateral sizes down to 23 nm are studied by transient four-wave mixing. The low-density dephasing time is found to increase with decreasing wire width. This is attributed mainly to a reduction of electron-exciton scattering...
Binding-energy distribution and dephasing of localized biexcitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Umlauff, M.
1997-01-01
We report on the binding energy and dephasing of localized biexciton states in narrow ZnSe multiple quantum wells. The measured binding-energy distribution of the localized biexcitons shows a width of 2.2 meV centered at 8.5 meV, and is fairly independent of the exciton localization energy. In fo...
Influence of pure dephasing on emission spectra from single photon sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Næsby Rasmussen, Andreas; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Kristensen, Philip Trøst
2008-01-01
We investigate the light-matter interaction of a quantum dot with the electromagnetic field in a lossy microcavity and calculate emission spectra for nonzero detuning and dephasing. It is found that dephasing shifts the intensity of the emission peaks for nonzero detuning. We investigate the char......We investigate the light-matter interaction of a quantum dot with the electromagnetic field in a lossy microcavity and calculate emission spectra for nonzero detuning and dephasing. It is found that dephasing shifts the intensity of the emission peaks for nonzero detuning. We investigate...
Dephasing in self-organized InAlGaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2002-01-01
We report the first direct measurements of dephasing in III-V semiconductor quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At OK, the coherence time is limited by the population lifetime whereas pure dephasing due to exciton-phonon interactions appears only at finite temperatu......We report the first direct measurements of dephasing in III-V semiconductor quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At OK, the coherence time is limited by the population lifetime whereas pure dephasing due to exciton-phonon interactions appears only at finite...
Dephasing times in quantum dots due to elastic LO phonon-carrier collisions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uskov, A. V.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Tromborg, Bjarne
2000-01-01
Interpretation of experiments on quantum dot (QD) lasers presents a challenge: the phonon bottleneck, which should strongly suppress relaxation and dephasing of the discrete energy states, often seems to be inoperative. We suggest and develop a theory for an intrinsic mechanism for dephasing in Q......: second-order elastic interaction between quantum dot charge carriers and LO phonons. The calculated dephasing times are of the order of 200 fs at room temperature, consistent with experiments. The phonon bottleneck thus does not prevent significant room temperature dephasing....
Qinshan CANDU project open top construction method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrunik, K.J.; Wittann, K.; Khan, A.; Ricciuti, R.; Ivanov, A.; Chen, S.
2003-01-01
The significant schedule reductions achieved on the Qinshan CANDU Project were due in large part to the incorporation of advanced construction technologies in project design and delivery. For the Qinshan Project, a number of key advantages were realized through the use of the 'Open Top' construction method. This paper discusses the Qinshan Phase III CANDU Project Open Top implementation method. The Open Top method allowed major equipment to be installed simply, via the use of a Very Heavy Lift (VHL) crane and permitted the use of large-scale modularization. The advantages of Open Top construction, such as simplified access, more flexible project scheduling, improved construction safety and quality, and reduced labours are presented. The large-scale modularization of the Reactor Building Dousing System and the Open Top installation method and advantages relative to traditional CANDU 6 construction practices are also presented. Finally, major improvements for future CANDU plant construction using the Open Top method are discussed. (author)
Dephasing in coherent communication with weak signal states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarzyna, Marcin; Banaszek, Konrad; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał
2014-01-01
We analyse the ultimate quantum limit on the accessible information for an optical communication scheme when time bins carry coherent light pulses prepared in one of several orthogonal modes and the phase undergoes diffusion after each channel use. This scheme, an example of a quantum memory channel, can be viewed as noisy pulse position modulation (PPM) keying with phase fluctuations occurring between consecutive PPM symbols. We derive a general expression for the output states in the Fock basis and implement a numerical procedure to calculate the Holevo quantity. Using asymptotic properties of Toeplitz matrices, we also present an analytic expression for the Holevo quantity valid for very weak signals and sufficiently strong dephasing when the dominant contribution comes from the single-photon sector in the Hilbert space of signal states. Based on numerical results we conjecture an inequality for contributions to the Holevo quantity from multiphoton sectors which implies that in the asymptotic limit of weak signals, for arbitrarily small dephasing the accessible information scales linearly with the average number of photons contained in the pulse. Such behaviour presents a qualitative departure from the fully coherent case. (paper)
Spin-Dephasing Anisotropy for Electrons in a Diffusive Quasi-1D GaAs Wire
Liu, J.; Last, T.; Koop, E. J.; Denega, S.; van Wees, B. J.; van der Wal, C. H.
We present a numerical study of dephasing of electron spin ensembles in a diffusive quasi-one-dimensional GaAs wire due to the D'yakonov-Perel' spin-dephasing mechanism. For widths of the wire below the spin precession length and for equal strength of Rashba and linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit fields
Dephasing in semiconductor-superconductor structures by coupling to a voltage probe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Niels Asger; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flensberg, Karsten
2000-01-01
We study dephasing in semiconductor-superconductor structures caused by coupling to a voltage probe. We consider structures where the semiconductor consists of two scattering regions between which partial dephasing is possible. As a particular example we consider a situation with a double barrier...
Exciton dephasing and biexciton binding in CdSe/ZnSe islands
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Hans Peter; Tranitz, H.-P.; Preis, H
1999-01-01
The dephasing of excitons and the formation of biexcitons in self-organized CdSe/ZnSe islands grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is investigated using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing. A distribution of exciton-exciton scattering efficiencies and dephasing times in the range of 0.5-10 ps...
Rationale and methods of the EFCOSUM project
Brussaard, J.H.; Johansson, L.; Kearney, J.
2002-01-01
Objective: To describe the rationale and methods for a European project (EFCOSUM) to develop a method for a European food consumption survey that delivers internationally comparable data on a set of policy-relevant nutritional indicators. Rationale and methods: Currently Member States are collecting
Temporal fluctuations after a quantum quench: Many-particle dephasing
Marquardt, Florian; Kiendl, Thomas
After a quantum quench, the expectation values of observables continue to fluctuate in time. In the thermodynamic limit, one expects such fluctuations to decrease to zero, in order for standard statistical physics to hold. However, it is a challenge to determine analytically how the fluctuations decay as a function of system size. So far, there have been analytical predictions for integrable models (which are, naturally, somewhat special), analytical bounds for arbitrary systems, and numerical results for moderate-size systems. We have discovered a dynamical regime where the decrease of fluctuations is driven by many-particle dephasing, instead of a redistribution of occupation numbers. On the basis of this insight, we are able to provide exact analytical expressions for a model with weak integrability breaking (transverse Ising chain with additional terms). These predictions explicitly show how fluctuations are exponentially suppressed with system size.
Quantum correlation of high dimensional system in a dephasing environment
Ji, Yinghua; Ke, Qiang; Hu, Juju
2018-05-01
For a high dimensional spin-S system embedded in a dephasing environment, we theoretically analyze the time evolutions of quantum correlation and entanglement via Frobenius norm and negativity. The quantum correlation dynamics can be considered as a function of the decoherence parameters, including the ratio between the system oscillator frequency ω0 and the reservoir cutoff frequency ωc , and the different environment temperature. It is shown that the quantum correlation can not only measure nonclassical correlation of the considered system, but also perform a better robustness against the dissipation. In addition, the decoherence presents the non-Markovian features and the quantum correlation freeze phenomenon. The former is much weaker than that in the sub-Ohmic or Ohmic thermal reservoir environment.
Exciton dephasing in single InGaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis
2000-01-01
The homogeneous linewidth of excitonic transitions is a parameter of fundamental physical importance. In self-assembled quantum dot systems, a strong inhomogeneous broadening due to dot size fluctuations masks the homogeneous linewidth associated with transitions between individual states....... The homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening of InGaAs quantum dot luminescence is of central importance for the potential application of this material system in optoelectronic devices. Recent measurements of MOCVD-grown InAs/InGaAs quantum dots indicate a large homogeneous broadening at room temperature due...... to fast dephasing. We present an investigation of the low-temperature homogeneous linewidth of individual PL lines from MBE-grown In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots....
General solution to inhomogeneous dephasing and smooth pulse dynamical decoupling
Zeng, Junkai; Deng, Xiu-Hao; Russo, Antonio; Barnes, Edwin
2018-03-01
In order to achieve the high-fidelity quantum control needed for a broad range of quantum information technologies, reducing the effects of noise and system inhomogeneities is an essential task. It is well known that a system can be decoupled from noise or made insensitive to inhomogeneous dephasing dynamically by using carefully designed pulse sequences based on square or delta-function waveforms such as Hahn spin echo or CPMG. However, such ideal pulses are often challenging to implement experimentally with high fidelity. Here, we uncover a new geometrical framework for visualizing all possible driving fields, which enables one to generate an unlimited number of smooth, experimentally feasible pulses that perform dynamical decoupling or dynamically corrected gates to arbitrarily high order. We demonstrate that this scheme can significantly enhance the fidelity of single-qubit operations in the presence of noise and when realistic limitations on pulse rise times and amplitudes are taken into account.
The effect of dephasing on edge state transport through p-n junctions in HgTe/CdTe quantum wells.
Zhang, Ying-Tao; Song, Juntao; Sun, Qing-Feng
2014-02-26
Using the Landauer-Büttiker formula, we study the effect of dephasing on the transport properties of the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction. It is found that in the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction the topologically protected gapless helical edge states manifest a quantized 2e²/h plateau robust against dephasing, in sharp contrast to the case for the normal HgTe/CdTe quantum well. This robustness of the transport properties of the edge states against dephasing should be attributed to the special construction of the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction, which limits the gapless helical edge states to a very narrow region and thus weakens the influence of the dephasing on the gapless edge states to a large extent. Our results demonstrate that the p-n junction could be a substitute device for use in experimentally observing the robust edge states and quantized plateau. Finally, we present a feasible scheme based on current experimental methods.
Telescopic projective methods for parabolic differential equations
Gear, C W
2003-01-01
Projective methods were introduced in an earlier paper [C.W. Gear, I.G. Kevrekidis, Projective Methods for Stiff Differential Equations: problems with gaps in their eigenvalue spectrum, NEC Research Institute Report 2001-029, available from http://www.neci.nj.nec.com/homepages/cwg/projective.pdf Abbreviated version to appear in SISC] as having potential for the efficient integration of problems with a large gap between two clusters in their eigenvalue spectrum, one cluster containing eigenvalues corresponding to components that have already been damped in the numerical solution and one corresponding to components that are still active. In this paper we introduce iterated projective methods that allow for explicit integration of stiff problems that have a large spread of eigenvalues with no gaps in their spectrum as arise in the semi-discretization of PDEs with parabolic components.
Telescopic projective methods for parabolic differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gear, C.W.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.
2003-01-01
Projective methods were introduced in an earlier paper [C.W. Gear, I.G. Kevrekidis, Projective Methods for Stiff Differential Equations: problems with gaps in their eigenvalue spectrum, NEC Research Institute Report 2001-029, available from http://www.neci.nj.nec.com/homepages/cwg/projective.pdf Abbreviated version to appear in SISC] as having potential for the efficient integration of problems with a large gap between two clusters in their eigenvalue spectrum, one cluster containing eigenvalues corresponding to components that have already been damped in the numerical solution and one corresponding to components that are still active. In this paper we introduce iterated projective methods that allow for explicit integration of stiff problems that have a large spread of eigenvalues with no gaps in their spectrum as arise in the semi-discretization of PDEs with parabolic components
Using Replication Projects in Teaching Research Methods
Standing, Lionel G.; Grenier, Manuel; Lane, Erica A.; Roberts, Meigan S.; Sykes, Sarah J.
2014-01-01
It is suggested that replication projects may be valuable in teaching research methods, and also address the current need in psychology for more independent verification of published studies. Their use in an undergraduate methods course is described, involving student teams who performed direct replications of four well-known experiments, yielding…
Constraints on dephasing widths and shifts in three-level quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, P.R.; O'Connell, Ross C.
2005-01-01
It is shown that the density matrix equations for a three-level quantum system interacting with external radiation fields can lead to negative populations if arbitrary dephasing rates and shifts are included in these equations. To guarantee non-negative populations, the equations themselves impose certain restrictions on the dephasing widths and shifts. The constraints on the widths are shown to be identical to those that can be derived from a model of Markovian dephasing events, independent of any atom-field interaction
Project Oriented Immersion Learning: Method and Results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Icaza, José I.; Heredia, Yolanda; Borch, Ole M.
2005-01-01
A pedagogical approach called “project oriented immersion learning” is presented and tested on a graduate online course. The approach combines the Project Oriented Learning method with immersion learning in a virtual enterprise. Students assumed the role of authors hired by a fictitious publishing...... house that develops digital products including e-books, tutorials, web sites and so on. The students defined the problem that their product was to solve; choose the type of product and the content; and built the product following a strict project methodology. A wiki server was used as a platform to hold...
Projection preconditioning for Lanczos-type methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bielawski, S.S.; Mulyarchik, S.G.; Popov, A.V. [Belarusian State Univ., Minsk (Belarus)
1996-12-31
We show how auxiliary subspaces and related projectors may be used for preconditioning nonsymmetric system of linear equations. It is shown that preconditioned in such a way (or projected) system is better conditioned than original system (at least if the coefficient matrix of the system to be solved is symmetrizable). Two approaches for solving projected system are outlined. The first one implies straightforward computation of the projected matrix and consequent using some direct or iterative method. The second approach is the projection preconditioning of conjugate gradient-type solver. The latter approach is developed here in context with biconjugate gradient iteration and some related Lanczos-type algorithms. Some possible particular choices of auxiliary subspaces are discussed. It is shown that one of them is equivalent to using colorings. Some results of numerical experiments are reported.
Feedback controlled dephasing and population relaxation in a two-level system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jin
2009-01-01
This Letter presents the maximum achievable stability and purity that can be obtained in a two-level system with both dephasing and population relaxation processes by using homodyne-mediated feedback control. An analytic formula giving the optimal amplitudes of the driving and feedback for the steady-state is also presented. Experimental examples are used to show the importance of controlling the dephasing process.
Extended abstract: Partial row projection methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bramley, R.; Lee, Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)
1996-12-31
Accelerated row projection (RP) algorithms for solving linear systems Ax = b are a class of iterative methods which in theory converge for any nonsingular matrix. RP methods are by definition ones that require finding the orthogonal projection of vectors onto the null space of block rows of the matrix. The Kaczmarz form, considered here because it has a better spectrum for iterative methods, has an iteration matrix that is the product of such projectors. Because straightforward Kaczmarz method converges slowly for practical problems, typically an outer CG acceleration is applied. Definiteness, symmetry, or localization of the eigenvalues, of the coefficient matrix is not required. In spite of this robustness, work has generally been limited to structured systems such as block tridiagonal matrices because unlike many iterative solvers, RP methods cannot be implemented by simply supplying a matrix-vector multiplication routine. Finding the orthogonal projection of vectors onto the null space of block rows of the matrix in practice requires accessing the actual entries in the matrix. This report introduces a new partial RP algorithm which retains advantages of the RP methods.
Uncertainty Analyses for Back Projection Methods
Zeng, H.; Wei, S.; Wu, W.
2017-12-01
So far few comprehensive error analyses for back projection methods have been conducted, although it is evident that high frequency seismic waves can be easily affected by earthquake depth, focal mechanisms and the Earth's 3D structures. Here we perform 1D and 3D synthetic tests for two back projection methods, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) (Meng et al., 2011) and Compressive Sensing (CS) (Yao et al., 2011). We generate synthetics for both point sources and finite rupture sources with different depths, focal mechanisms, as well as 1D and 3D structures in the source region. The 3D synthetics are generated through a hybrid scheme of Direct Solution Method and Spectral Element Method. Then we back project the synthetic data using MUSIC and CS. The synthetic tests show that the depth phases can be back projected as artificial sources both in space and time. For instance, for a source depth of 10km, back projection gives a strong signal 8km away from the true source. Such bias increases with depth, e.g., the error of horizontal location could be larger than 20km for a depth of 40km. If the array is located around the nodal direction of direct P-waves the teleseismic P-waves are dominated by the depth phases. Therefore, back projections are actually imaging the reflection points of depth phases more than the rupture front. Besides depth phases, the strong and long lasted coda waves due to 3D effects near trench can lead to additional complexities tested here. The strength contrast of different frequency contents in the rupture models also produces some variations to the back projection results. In the synthetic tests, MUSIC and CS derive consistent results. While MUSIC is more computationally efficient, CS works better for sparse arrays. In summary, our analyses indicate that the impact of various factors mentioned above should be taken into consideration when interpreting back projection images, before we can use them to infer the earthquake rupture physics.
Projection operator method for collective tunneling transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohmura, Toshitake; Ohta, Hirofumi; Hashimoto, Yukio; Maruyama, Masahiro
2002-01-01
Collective tunneling transitions take place in the case that a system has two nearly degenerate ground states with a slight energy splitting, which provides the time scale of the tunneling. The Liouville equation determines the evolution of the density matrix, while the Schroedinger equation determines that of a state. The Liouville equation seems to be more powerful for calculating accurately the energy splitting of two nearly degenerate eigenstates. However, no method to exactly solve the Liouville eigenvalue equation has been established. The usual projection operator method for the Liouville equation is not feasible. We analytically solve the Liouville evolution equation for nuclear collective tunneling from one Hartree minimum to another, proposing a simple and solvable model Hamiltonian for the transition. We derive an analytical expression for the splitting of energy eigenvalues from a spectral function of the Liouville evolution using a half-projected operator method. A full-order analytical expression for the energy splitting is obtained. We define the collective tunneling path of a microscopic Hamiltonian for collective tunneling, projecting the nuclear ground states onto n-particle n-hole state spaces. It is argued that the collective tunneling path sector of a microscopic Hamiltonian can be transformed into the present solvable model Hamiltonian. (author)
How Agile Methods Conquers General Project Management - The Project Half Double Initiative
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tordrup Heeager, Lise; Svejvig, Per; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup
2016-01-01
Increased complexity in projects has forced new project management initiatives. In software development several agile methods have emerged and methods such as Scrum are today highly implemented in practice. General project management practice has been inspired by agile software development...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kahnoj, Sina Soleimani; Touski, Shoeib Babaee [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourfath, Mahdi, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Microelectronics, TU Wien, Gusshausstrasse 27–29/E360, 1040 Vienna (Austria)
2014-09-08
The effect of dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons is theoretically investigated. In the presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons, wavefunction of electrons can set up standing waves along the channel and the conductance exponentially decreases with the ribbon's length. Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism along with an accurate model for describing the dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction, we show that this kind of interaction prevents localization and transport of electrons remains in the diffusive regime where the conductance is inversely proportional to the ribbon's length.
Spatial correlation in matter-wave interference as a measure of decoherence, dephasing, and entropy
Chen, Zilin; Beierle, Peter; Batelaan, Herman
2018-04-01
The loss of contrast in double-slit electron diffraction due to dephasing and decoherence processes is studied. It is shown that the spatial intensity correlation function of diffraction patterns can be used to distinguish between dephasing and decoherence. This establishes a measure of time reversibility that does not require the determination of coherence terms of the density matrix, while von Neumann entropy, another measure of time reversibility, does require coherence terms. This technique is exciting in view of the need to understand and control the detrimental experimental effect of contrast loss and for fundamental studies on the transition from the classical to the quantum regime.
Dissipation, dephasing and quantum Darwinism in qubit systems with random unitary interactions
Balaneskovic, Nenad; Mendler, Marc
2016-09-01
We investigate the influence of dissipation and decoherence on quantum Darwinism by generalizing Zurek's original qubit model of decoherence and the establishment of pointer states [W.H. Zurek, Nat. Phys. 5, 181 (2009); see also arXiv: quant-ph/0707.2832v1, pp. 14-19.]. Our model allows for repeated multiple qubit-qubit couplings between system and environment which are described by randomly applied two-qubit quantum operations inducing entanglement, dissipation and dephasing. The resulting stationary qubit states of system and environment are investigated. They exhibit the intricate influence of entanglement generation, dissipation and dephasing on this characteristic quantum phenomenon.
Reducing dephasing in coupled quantum dot-cavity systems by engineering the carrier wavefunctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper
2012-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically how photon-assisted dephasing by the electron-phonon interaction in a coupled cavity-quantum dot system can be significantly reduced for specific QD-cavity detunings. Our starting point is a recently published theory,1 which considers longitudinal acoustic phonons......, described by a non-Markovian model, interacting with a coupled quantum dot-cavity system. The reduction of phonon-induced dephasing is obtained by placing the cavity-quantum dot system inside an infinite slab, assuming spherical electronic wavefunctions. Based on our calculations, we expect this to have...
Project as an education method in teaching of physics
ŽAHOUREK, Martin
2011-01-01
The diploma thesis ?Project as an educational method for teaching physics ?deals with the possibilities of using project-based method for teaching physics at primary schools. Not only does it contain the theoretical background of project-based teaching, but also deals with practical issues in the form of an implementation of a chosen project ?Physics and physical education?. The aim of said project was to evaluate the efficiency of project-based teaching as far as the knowledge of pupils and ...
Commutative algebra constructive methods finite projective modules
Lombardi, Henri
2015-01-01
Translated from the popular French edition, this book offers a detailed introduction to various basic concepts, methods, principles, and results of commutative algebra. It takes a constructive viewpoint in commutative algebra and studies algorithmic approaches alongside several abstract classical theories. Indeed, it revisits these traditional topics with a new and simplifying manner, making the subject both accessible and innovative. The algorithmic aspects of such naturally abstract topics as Galois theory, Dedekind rings, Prüfer rings, finitely generated projective modules, dimension theory of commutative rings, and others in the current treatise, are all analysed in the spirit of the great developers of constructive algebra in the nineteenth century. This updated and revised edition contains over 350 well-arranged exercises, together with their helpful hints for solution. A basic knowledge of linear algebra, group theory, elementary number theory as well as the fundamentals of ring and module theory is r...
Method for the Drawing of Newman Projections: Understanding ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
hands-on learning/manipula- tives, Newman projections. Method for the Drawing of Newman Projections: Understanding Newman Projections with the Help of Hands. The interconversion between the perspective formulae and. Newman projections is illustrated here. The method describes how students can look at their ...
The Project Method in Agricultural Education: Then and Now
Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.
2007-01-01
The purpose of this philosophical paper was to synthesize theoretical and historical foundations of the project method and compare them to modern best-practices. A review of historical and contemporary literature related to the project method yielded six themes: 1) purpose of projects; 2) project classification; 3) the process; 4) the context; 5)…
Applying a life cycle approach to project management methods
Biggins, David; Trollsund, F.; Høiby, A.L.
2016-01-01
Project management is increasingly important to organisations because projects are the method\\ud by which organisations respond to their environment. A key element within project management\\ud is the standards and methods that are used to control and conduct projects, collectively known as\\ud project management methods (PMMs) and exemplified by PRINCE2, the Project Management\\ud Institute’s and the Association for Project Management’s Bodies of Knowledge (PMBOK and\\ud APMBOK. The purpose of t...
Rapid adiabatic passage in quantum dots: Influence of scattering and dephasing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schuh, K.; Jahnke, F.; Lorke, Michael
2011-01-01
Theoretical investigations for the realization of population inversion of semiconductor quantum dot ground-state transitions by means of adiabatic passage with chirped optical pulses are presented. While the inversion due to Rabi oscillations depends sensitively on the resonance condition...... to describe carrier scattering and dephasing in the corresponding simulations and allow to quantify the conditions to simultaneously invert an ensamble of quantum dots....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.
2009-01-01
We present a measurement series of the efficiency of periodically poled KTP used for second-harmonic generation in an external phase-locked cavity. Due to the high absorption (0.01 cm^−1) in the PPKTP crystal at the pump wavelength a strong thermal dephasing of the periodically poled grating...
Multi-Role Project (MRP): A New Project-Based Learning Method for STEM
Warin, Bruno; Talbi, Omar; Kolski, Christophe; Hoogstoel, Frédéric
2016-01-01
This paper presents the "Multi-Role Project" method (MRP), a broadly applicable project-based learning method, and describes its implementation and evaluation in the context of a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) course. The MRP method is designed around a meta-principle that considers the project learning activity…
Project Management Methods in Projects Co-financed by EU Funds
Kostalova, Jana; Tetrevova, Libena; Patak, Michal
2017-01-01
This paper deals with the management of projects co-financed by European Union funds (structural funds and the Cohesion Fund) in the Czech Republic (EU projects). The authors aimed to analyze and assess the scope of familiarity with basic project management methods and their application within the implementation of EU projects in the Czech Republic in the Programming Period 2007–2013. Based on a questionnaire survey of EU project organisers, the authors evaluate their attitudes to project man...
Datta, Anjali; Cheng, Joseph Y; Hargreaves, Brian A; Baron, Corey A; Nishimura, Dwight G
2018-06-01
To mitigate artifacts from through-plane flow at the locations of steady-state stopbands in balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) using partial dephasing. A 60° range in the phase accrual during a TR was created over the voxel by slightly unbalancing the slice-select dephaser. The spectral profiles of SSFP with partial dephasing for various constant flow rates and during pulsatile flow were simulated to determine if partial dephasing decreases through-plane flow artifacts originating near SSFP dark bands while maintaining on-resonant signal. Simulations were then validated in a flow phantom. Lastly, phase-cycled SSFP cardiac cine images were acquired with and without partial dephasing in six subjects. Partial dephasing decreased the strength and non-linearity of the dependence of the signal at the stopbands on the through-plane flow rate. It thus mitigated hyper-enhancement from out-of-slice signal contributions and transient-related artifacts caused by variable flow both in the phantom and in vivo. In six volunteers, partial dephasing noticeably decreased artifacts in all of the phase-cycled cardiac cine datasets. Partial dephasing can mitigate the flow artifacts seen at the stopbands in balanced SSFP while maintaining the sequence's desired signal. By mitigating hyper-enhancement and transient-related artifacts originating from the stopbands, partial dephasing facilitates robust multiple-acquisition phase-cycled SSFP in the heart. Magn Reson Med 79:2944-2953, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Projective Method for Generic Sensor Fusion Problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, N.S.V.
1999-01-01
In a multiple sensor system, each sensor produces an output which is related to the desired feature according to a certain probability distribution. We propose a fuser that combines the sensor outputs to more accurately predict the desired feature. The fuser utilizes the lower envelope of regression curves of sensors to project the sensor with the least error at each point of the feature space. This fuser is optimal among all projective fusers and also satisfies the isolation property that ensures a performance at least as good as the best sensor. In the case the sensor distributions are not known, we show that a consistent estimator of this fuser can be computed entirely based on a training sample. Compared to linear fusers, the projective fusers provide a complementary performance. We propose two classes of metafusers that utilize both linear and projectives fusers to perform at least as good as the best sensor as well as the best fuser
Manufacturing Methods and Technology Project Summary Reports
1984-12-01
Powder ME-16 Type Recoil Mechanism Testing Machine (Powder Gymnasticator ) Projects 677, 78 7814 - Synthetic Quenchants for ME-18 Heat Treating Weapon...were deemed most urgent. These two were the prime candidates for the GEPTTA. Figure I is an artist depiction of the General Purpose Transportability...REPORT (RCS DRCMT-302) MMT Project 677 7753 titled "Noise Suppressor for Powder Type Recoil Mecha- nism Testing Machine (Powder Gymnasticator )" was
Distributed Research Project Scheduling Based on Multi-Agent Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constanta Nicoleta Bodea
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Different project planning and scheduling approaches have been developed. The Operational Research (OR provides two major planning techniques: CPM (Critical Path Method and PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique. Due to projects complexity and difficulty to use classical methods, new approaches were developed. Artificial Intelligence (AI initially promoted the automatic planner concept, but model-based planning and scheduling methods emerged later on. The paper adresses the project scheduling optimization problem, when projects are seen as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. Taken into consideration two different approaches for project scheduling optimization: TCPSP (Time- Constrained Project Scheduling and RCPSP (Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling, the paper focuses on a multiagent implementation in MATLAB for TCSP. Using the research project as a case study, the paper includes a comparison between two multi-agent methods: Genetic Algorithm (GA and Ant Colony Algorithm (ACO.
Efficient and effective implementation of alternative project delivery methods.
2017-05-01
Over the past decade, the Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway : Administration (MDOT SHA) has implemented Alternative Project Delivery (APD) methods : in a number of transportation projects. While these innovative practices have produ...
Method ranks competing projects by priorities, risk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeckel, D.R.
1993-01-01
A practical, objective guide for ranking projects based on risk-based priorities has been developed by Sun Pipe Line Co. The deliberately simple system guides decisions on how to allocate scarce company resources because all managers employ the same criteria in weighing potential risks to the company versus benefits. Managers at all levels are continuously having to comply with an ever growing amount of legislative and regulatory requirements while at the same time trying to run their businesses effectively. The system primarily is designed for use as a compliance oversight and tracking process to document, categorize, and follow-up on work concerning various issues or projects. That is, the system consists of an electronic database which is updated periodically, and is used by various levels of management to monitor progress of health, safety, environmental and compliance-related projects. Criteria used in determining a risk factor and assigning a priority also have been adapted and found useful for evaluating other types of projects. The process enables management to better define potential risks and/or loss of benefits that are being accepted when a project is rejected from an immediate work plan or budget. In times of financial austerity, it is extremely important that the right decisions are made at the right time
Sun, Qi-C.; Ding, Yuchen; Goodman, Samuel M.; H. Funke, Hans; Nagpal, Prashant
2014-10-01
Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain boundary scattering on the decay of localized surface plasmon waves. Using our quantitative analysis and different temperature dependent measurements, we show that electron-phonon interactions dominate over other scattering mechanisms in dephasing plasmon waves. While interband transitions in copper metal contributes substantially to plasmon losses, tuning surface plasmon modes to infrared frequencies leads to a five-fold enhancement in the quality factor. These findings demonstrate that conformal ALD coatings can improve the chemical stability for copper nanoparticles, even at high temperatures (>300 °C) in ambient atmosphere, and nanoscaled copper is a good alternative material for many potential applications in nanophotonics, plasmonics, catalysis and nanoscale electronics.Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain
Combining AHP and DEA Methods for Selecting a Project Manager
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baruch Keren
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A project manager has a major influence on the success or failure of the project. A good project manager can match between the strategy and objectives of the organization and the goals of the project. Therefore, the selection of the appropriate project manager is a key factor for the success of the project. A potential project manager is judged by his or her proven performance and personal qualifications. This paper proposes a method to calculate the weighted scores and the full rank of candidates for managing a project, and to select the best of those candidates. The proposed method combines specific methodologies: the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP and uses DEA Ranking Methods to enhance selection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burr, G.W.; Harris, Todd L.; Babbitt, Wm. Randall; Jefferson, C. Michael
2004-01-01
We describe the incorporation of excitation-induced dephasing (EID) into the Maxwell-Bloch numerical simulation of photon echoes. At each time step of the usual numerical integration, stochastic frequency jumps of ions--caused by excitation of neighboring ions--is modeled by convolving each Bloch vector with the Bloch vectors of nearby frequency detunings. The width of this convolution kernel follows the instantaneous change in overall population, integrated over the simulated bandwidth. This approach is validated by extensive comparison against published and original experimental results. The enhanced numerical model is then used to investigate the accuracy of experiments designed to extrapolate to the intrinsic dephasing time T 2 from data taken in the presence of EID. Such a modeling capability offers improved understanding of experimental results, and should allow quantitative analysis of engineering tradeoffs in realistic optical coherent transient applications
Vibronic dephasing model for coherent-to-incoherent crossover in DNA
Karasch, Patrick; Ryndyk, Dmitry A.; Frauenheim, Thomas
2018-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the interplay between coherent and incoherent charge transport in cytosine-guanine (GC-) rich DNA molecules. Our objective is to introduce a physically grounded approach to dephasing in large molecules and to understand the length-dependent charge transport characteristics, and especially the crossover from the coherent tunneling to incoherent hopping regime at different temperatures. Therefore, we apply the vibronic dephasing model and compare the results to the Büttiker probe model which is commonly used to describe decoherence effects in charge transport. Using the full ladder model and simplified one-dimensional model of DNA, we consider molecular junctions with alternating and stacked GC sequences and compare our results to recent experimental measurements.
Budgetary Approach to Project Management by Percentage of Completion Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leszek Borowiec
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Efficient and effective project management process is made possible by the use of methods and techniques of project management. The aim of this paper is to present the problems of project management by using Percentage of Completion method. The research material was gathered based on the experience in implementing this method by the Johnson Controls International Company. The article attempts to demonstrate the validity of the thesis that the POC project management method, allows for effective implementation and monitoring of the project and thus is an effective tool in the managing of companies which exploit the budgetary approach. The study presents planning process of basic parameters affecting the effectiveness of the project (such as costs, revenue, margin and characterized how the primary measurements used to evaluate it. The present theme is illustrating by numerous examples for showing the essence of the raised problems and the results are presenting by using descriptive methods, graphical and tabular.
Raman study of vibrational dephasing in liquid CH3CN and CD3CN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, J.; Schiemann, V.H.; Sharko, P.T.; Jonas, J.
1977-01-01
The Raman line shapes of the ν 1 (a 1 ) C--H and C--D fundamentals in liquid acetonitrile and acetonitrile-d 3 have been measured as a function of pressure up to 4 kbar within the temperature interval 30--120 degreeC. Densities have also been determined. From the isotropic component of the vibrational Raman band shape the vibrational relaxation times have been obtained as a function of temperature and pressure (density). The experimental results can be summarized as follows: (i) as T increases at constant density rho, the vibrational relaxation rate (tau/sub vib/) -1 increases; (ii) at constant T as density is raised tau/sub vib/ -1 increases; (iii) at constant pressure the T increase produces higher tau/sub vib/ -1 , however, the change is more pronounced for the CD 3 CN liquid. Isotopic dilution studies of the CH 3 CN/CD 3 CN mixtures shows no significant effect on (tau/sub vib/ -1 ). The experimental data are interpreted in terms of the Kubo stochastic line shape theory and the dephasing model of Fischer and Laubereau. The results based on Kubo formalism indicate that dephasing is the dominant relaxation mechanism and that the modulation is fast. The isolated binary collision model proposed by Fischer and Laubereau for vibrational dephasing reproduces the essential features of the density and temperature dependence of the (tau/sub vib/) -1 and suggests that pure dephasing is the dominant broadening mechanism for the isotropic line shapes studied. In the calculation the elastic collision times were approximated by the Enskog relaxation times
Dynamical decoupling sequences for multi-qubit dephasing suppression and long-time quantum memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A; Lee, Seung-Woo; Green, Todd J; Viola, Lorenza
2016-01-01
We consider a class of multi-qubit dephasing models that combine classical noise sources and linear coupling to a bosonic environment, and are controlled by arbitrary sequences of dynamical decoupling pulses. Building on a general transfer filter-function framework for open-loop control, we provide an exact representation of the controlled dynamics for arbitrary stationary non-Gaussian classical and quantum noise statistics, with analytical expressions emerging when all dephasing sources are Gaussian. This exact characterization is used to establish two main results. First, we construct multi-qubit sequences that ensure maximum high-order error suppression in both the time and frequency domain and that can be exponentially more efficient than existing ones in terms of total pulse number. Next, we show how long-time multi-qubit storage may be achieved by meeting appropriate conditions for the emergence of a fidelity plateau under sequence repetition, thereby generalizing recent results for single-qubit memory under Gaussian dephasing. In both scenarios, the key step is to endow multi-qubit sequences with a suitable displacement anti-symmetry property, which is of independent interest for applications ranging from environment-assisted entanglement generation to multi-qubit noise spectroscopy protocols. (paper)
Numerical evaluation of methods for computing tomographic projections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuang, W.; Gopal, S.S.; Hebert, T.J.
1994-01-01
Methods for computing forward/back projections of 2-D images can be viewed as numerical integration techniques. The accuracy of any ray-driven projection method can be improved by increasing the number of ray-paths that are traced per projection bin. The accuracy of pixel-driven projection methods can be increased by dividing each pixel into a number of smaller sub-pixels and projecting each sub-pixel. The authors compared four competing methods of computing forward/back projections: bilinear interpolation, ray-tracing, pixel-driven projection based upon sub-pixels, and pixel-driven projection based upon circular, rather than square, pixels. This latter method is equivalent to a fast, bi-nonlinear interpolation. These methods and the choice of the number of ray-paths per projection bin or the number of sub-pixels per pixel present a trade-off between computational speed and accuracy. To solve the problem of assessing backprojection accuracy, the analytical inverse Fourier transform of the ramp filtered forward projection of the Shepp and Logan head phantom is derived
Methods of Choosing an Optimal Portfolio of Projects
Yakovlev, A.; Chernenko, M.
2016-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of existing methods for a portfolio of project optimization. The necessity for their improvement is shown. It is suggested to assess the portfolio of projects on the basis of the amount in the difference between the results and costs during development and implementation of selected projects and the losses caused by non-implementation or delayed implementation of projects that were not included in the portfolio. Consideration of capital and current costs compon...
CHARACTERISTICS OF MIRR METHOD IN EVALUATION OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS' EFFECTIVENESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Kukhta
2014-09-01
Full Text Available There were analyzed characteristics of the Modified Internal Rate of Return method in the evaluation of investment projects, restrictions connected with its application, advantages and disadvantages compared with indicators of the original Internal Rate of Return and Net Present Value for projects with certain baseline characteristics. It was determined opportunities to adapt the method of Modified Internal Rate of Return to alternative computational approaches of the project cash flows evaluation.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MIRR METHOD IN EVALUATION OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS' EFFECTIVENESS
P. Kukhta
2014-01-01
There were analyzed characteristics of the Modified Internal Rate of Return method in the evaluation of investment projects, restrictions connected with its application, advantages and disadvantages compared with indicators of the original Internal Rate of Return and Net Present Value for projects with certain baseline characteristics. It was determined opportunities to adapt the method of Modified Internal Rate of Return to alternative computational approaches of the project cash flows evalu...
Applying scrum methods to ITS projects.
2017-08-01
The introduction of new technology generally brings new challenges and new methods to help with deployments. Agile methodologies have been introduced in the information technology industry to potentially speed up development. The Federal Highway Admi...
An Analytical Method for Measuring Competence in Project Management
González-Marcos, Ana; Alba-Elías, Fernando; Ordieres-Meré, Joaquín
2016-01-01
The goal of this paper is to present a competence assessment method in project management that is based on participants' performance and value creation. It seeks to close an existing gap in competence assessment in higher education. The proposed method relies on information and communication technology (ICT) tools and combines Project Management…
How Agile Methods Inspire Project Management - The Half Double Initiative
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Svejvig, Per; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup
Increased complexity in projects has forced new project management initiatives. In software development several agile methods have emerged and are today highly implemented in practice. Observations of general project management practice show how it has been inspired by agile software development......, but very little research addresses the issue of agile project management. In order to understand and to provide suggestions for future practice on how agility can be incorporated in general project management, this paper provides an analysis which compares ten characteristics of agile software development...... (identified in theory) and the Half Double Methodology developed by the Danish Project Half Double initiative; a Methodology developed with practitioners and tested in seven Danish case companies. The analysis shows how the general project management to a great extent has been inspired by agile methods...
Manufacturing Methods and Technology Project Summary Reports.
1980-12-01
process using Glidden’s epoxy modified t polyester varnish offered potential economic advantages over the current finish and method of application...fabricate hose and gaskets for fuel service at arctic conditions. Fluorophosphazene polymers with varying concentrations of fluorine content were used to...determine the optimum fluorine content needed to provide the essential fuel resistance and low temperature flexibility. The polymers used in this
Equitable Financial Evaluation Method for Public-Private Partnership Projects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KE Yongjian; LIU Xinping; WANG Shouqing
2008-01-01
The feasibility study of a public-private partnership (PPP) project is regarded as one of the critical factors for successful implementation,but unfortunately the common financial evaluation methods currently used only represent the benefits of the private sector.There is,therefore,an urgent need to develop an equitable financial evaluation method for PPP projects.This paper presents a comprehensive literature review that examines international practices.An equitable financial evaluation method was then developed taking into account the inherent characteristics of PPP projects using six separate indicators and Monte Carlo simulations.The result for a bridge project in Romania shows that the method combines the viewpoints of all the relevant stakeholders to achieve an equitable financial evaluation of PPP projects.
Constrained variable projection method for blind deconvolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornelio, A; Piccolomini, E Loli; Nagy, J G
2012-01-01
This paper is focused on the solution of the blind deconvolution problem, here modeled as a separable nonlinear least squares problem. The well known ill-posedness, both on recovering the blurring operator and the true image, makes the problem really difficult to handle. We show that, by imposing appropriate constraints on the variables and with well chosen regularization parameters, it is possible to obtain an objective function that is fairly well behaved. Hence, the resulting nonlinear minimization problem can be effectively solved by classical methods, such as the Gauss-Newton algorithm.
Educational integrating projects as a method of interactive learning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Иван Николаевич Куринин
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article describes a method of interactive learning based on educational integrating projects. Some examples of content of such projects for the disciplines related to the study of information and Internet technologies and their application in management are presented.
Effective Teaching Methods--Project-based Learning in Physics
Holubova, Renata
2008-01-01
The paper presents results of the research of new effective teaching methods in physics and science. It is found out that it is necessary to educate pre-service teachers in approaches stressing the importance of the own activity of students, in competences how to create an interdisciplinary project. Project-based physics teaching and learning…
Projected oriented organizations as development of enterprise management methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.I. Pavlova
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Dynamic external environment, significant shortage of product life cycle, increase of product technological difficulty, extension of innovative knowledge motivates managers to look for and use in their activities keys that will provide constant, stable development of organizational structures. The methodology of project enterprise management meets the requirements of «preservation through development». The articles researches the integration of methods and procedures of project management into the enterprise management system. Project management philosophy is the efficient way of existence in the competitive environment and the means for internal development of a company. The author conducts an analysis, determines the essence and peculiarities of a project-oriented enterprise, performs comparing characteristics of functional and project management, describes the stages of gradual transformation of an enterprise organizational structure into a project-oriented one. It is defined that a project-oriented enterprise is that one which functions on the base of innovative development and are scientific, creative and widely use the project activity as the means of a steady development. The article describes internal and external instruments of project management, base knowledge systems on project management and possibilities of enterprises on audit of state of system project management in an enterprise according to the IPMA certification program on the territory of Ukraine.
Reducing pure dephasing of quantum bits by collective encoding in quantum dot arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grodecka, A; Machnikowski, P; Jacak, L
2006-01-01
We show that phonon-induced pure dephasing of an excitonic (charge) quantum bit in a quantum dot (QD) may be reduced by collective encoding of logical qubits in QD arrays. We define the logical qubit on an array of 2, 4 and 8 QDs, connecting the logical 0) state with the presence of excitons in the appropriately chosen half of dots and the logical 1) state with the other half of the dots occupied. We give quantitative estimates of the resulting total error of a single qubit operation for an InAs/GaAs system
Hole dephasing caused by hole-hole interaction in a multilayered black phosphorus.
Li, Lijun; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Lee, Yoontae; Lee, Inyeal; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho
2017-11-01
We study the magnetotransport of holes in a multilayered black phosphorus in a temperature range of 1.9 to 21.5 K. We observed a negative magnetoresistance at magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. This negative magetoresistance was analyzed by weak localization theory in diffusive regime. At the lowest temperature and the highest carrier density we found a phase coherence length of 48 nm. The linear temperature dependence of the dephasing rate shows that the hole-hole scattering processes with small energy transfer are the dominant contribution in breaking the carrier phase coherence.
Ultrafast Dephasing and Incoherent Light Photon Echoes in Organic Amorphous Systems
Yano, Ryuzi; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Tani, Toshiro; Nakatsuka, Hiroki
1989-10-01
Incoherent light photon echoes were observed in organic amorphous systems (cresyl violet in polyvinyl alcohol and 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone in polymethacrylic acid) by using temporally-incoherent nanosecond laser pulses. It was found that an echo decay curve of an organic amorphous system is composed of a sharp peak which decays very rapidly and a slowly decaying wing at the tail. We show that the persistent hole burning (PHB) spectra were reproduced by the Fourier-cosine transforms of the echo decay curves. We claim that in general, we must take into account the multi-level feature of the system in order to explain ultrafast dephasing at very low temperatures.
METHODS OF SELECTING THE EFFECTIVE MODELS OF BUILDINGS REPROFILING PROJECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Александр Иванович МЕНЕЙЛЮК
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The article highlights the important task of project management in reprofiling of buildings. It is expedient to pay attention to selecting effective engineering solutions to reduce the duration and cost reduction at the project management in the construction industry. This article presents a methodology for the selection of efficient organizational and technical solutions for the reconstruction of buildings reprofiling. The method is based on a compilation of project variants in the program Microsoft Project and experimental statistical analysis using the program COMPEX. The introduction of this technique in the realigning of buildings allows choosing efficient models of projects, depending on the given constraints. Also, this technique can be used for various construction projects.
On projection methods, convergence and robust formulations in topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Fengwen; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
alleviated using various projection methods. In this paper we show that simple projection methods do not ensure local mesh-convergence and propose a modified robust topology optimization formulation based on erosion, intermediate and dilation projections that ensures both global and local mesh-convergence.......Mesh convergence and manufacturability of topology optimized designs have previously mainly been assured using density or sensitivity based filtering techniques. The drawback of these techniques has been gray transition regions between solid and void parts, but this problem has recently been...
Semiclassical Monte Carlo simulation studies of spin dephasing in InP and InSb nanowires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashish Kumar
2012-03-01
Full Text Available We use semiclassical Monte Carlo approach to investigate spin polarized transport in InP and InSb nanowires. D’yakonov-Perel (DP relaxation and Elliott-Yafet (EY relaxation are the two main relaxation mechanisms for spin dephasing in III-V channels. The DP relaxation occurs because of bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction and structural inversion asymmetry (Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The injection polarization direction studied is that along the length of the channel. The dephasing rate is found to be very strong for InSb as compared to InP which has larger spin dephasing lengths. The ensemble averaged spin components vary differently for both InP and InSb nanowires. The steady state spin distribution also shows a difference between the two III-V nanowires.
Project Method, as One of the Basic Methods of Environmental Education
Szállassy, Noémi
2008-01-01
Our aim was to present in this paper the one of the most important methods of environmental education, the project method. We present here the steps and phases of project method and we give an example of how to use these elements in planning an activity for celebrating the World Day for Water.
Towards optimized suppression of dephasing in systems subject to pulse timing constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodgson, Thomas E.; D'Amico, Irene; Viola, Lorenza
2010-01-01
We investigate the effectiveness of different dynamical decoupling protocols for storage of a single qubit in the presence of a purely dephasing bosonic bath, with emphasis on comparing quantum coherence preservation under uniform versus nonuniform delay times between pulses. In the limit of instantaneous bit-flip pulses, this is accomplished by establishing a different representation of the controlled qubit evolution, where the decoherence behavior after an arbitrary number of pulses is directly expressed in terms of the uncontrolled decoherence function. In particular, analytical expressions are obtained for approximation of the long- and short-term coherence behavior for both Ohmic and supra-Ohmic environments. By focusing on the realistic case of pure dephasing in an excitonic qubit, we quantitatively assess the impact of physical constraints on achievable pulse separations, and show that little advantage of high-level decoupling schemes based on concatenated or optimal design may be expected if pulses cannot be applied sufficiently fast. In such constrained scenarios, we demonstrate how simple modifications of repeated periodic-echo protocols can offer significantly improved coherence preservation in realistic parameter regimes. We expect similar conclusions to be relevant to other constrained qubit devices exposed to quantum or classical phase noise.
Project-Method Fit: Exploring Factors That Influence Agile Method Use
Young, Diana K.
2013-01-01
While the productivity and quality implications of agile software development methods (SDMs) have been demonstrated, research concerning the project contexts where their use is most appropriate has yielded less definitive results. Most experts agree that agile SDMs are not suited for all project contexts. Several project and team factors have been…
The rate of convergence in the method of alternating projections
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Badea, C.; Grivaux, S.; Müller, Vladimír
2012-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 3 (2012), s. 413-434 ISSN 1061-0022 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473; GA AV ČR IAA100190903 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Friedrichs angle * method of alternating projections * arbitrarily slow convergence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.460, year: 2012 http://www.ams.org/journals/spmj/2012-23-03/S1061-0022-2012-01202-1/home.html
Extension of moment projection method to the fragmentation process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Shaohua; Yapp, Edward K.Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian; Xu, Rong; Yang, Wenming; Kraft, Markus
2017-01-01
The method of moments is a simple but efficient method of solving the population balance equation which describes particle dynamics. Recently, the moment projection method (MPM) was proposed and validated for particle inception, coagulation, growth and, more importantly, shrinkage; here the method is extended to include the fragmentation process. The performance of MPM is tested for 13 different test cases for different fragmentation kernels, fragment distribution functions and initial conditions. Comparisons are made with the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), hybrid method of moments (HMOM) and a high-precision stochastic solution calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA) and advantages of MPM are drawn.
Projection methods for line radiative transfer in spherical media.
Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N.
An efficient numerical method called the Preconditioned Bi-Conjugate Gradient (Pre-BiCG) method is presented for the solution of radiative transfer equation in spherical geometry. A variant of this method called Stabilized Preconditioned Bi-Conjugate Gradient (Pre-BiCG-STAB) is also presented. These methods are based on projections on the subspaces of the n dimensional Euclidean space mathbb {R}n called Krylov subspaces. The methods are shown to be faster in terms of convergence rate compared to the contemporary iterative methods such as Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and Successive Over Relaxation (SOR).
Extension of moment projection method to the fragmentation process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Shaohua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Block EA, Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Yapp, Edward K.Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Xu, Rong [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore); Yang, Wenming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Block EA, Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Kraft, Markus, E-mail: mk306@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)
2017-04-15
The method of moments is a simple but efficient method of solving the population balance equation which describes particle dynamics. Recently, the moment projection method (MPM) was proposed and validated for particle inception, coagulation, growth and, more importantly, shrinkage; here the method is extended to include the fragmentation process. The performance of MPM is tested for 13 different test cases for different fragmentation kernels, fragment distribution functions and initial conditions. Comparisons are made with the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), hybrid method of moments (HMOM) and a high-precision stochastic solution calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA) and advantages of MPM are drawn.
Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia
2015-01-01
Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically
Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)
2015-12-15
Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically
SPANDOM - source projection analytic nodal discrete ordinates method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Tae Hyeong; Cho, Nam Zin
1994-01-01
We describe a new discrete ordinates nodal method for the two-dimensional transport equation. We solve the discrete ordinates equation analytically after the source term is projected and represented in polynomials. The method is applied to two fast reactor benchmark problems and compared with the TWOHEX code. The results indicate that the present method accurately predicts not only multiplication factor but also flux distribution
Reconstruction of CT images by the Bayes- back projection method
Haruyama, M; Takase, M; Tobita, H
2002-01-01
In the course of research on quantitative assay of non-destructive measurement of radioactive waste, the have developed a unique program based on the Bayesian theory for reconstruction of transmission computed tomography (TCT) image. The reconstruction of cross-section images in the CT technology usually employs the Filtered Back Projection method. The new imaging reconstruction program reported here is based on the Bayesian Back Projection method, and it has a function of iterative improvement images by every step of measurement. Namely, this method has the capability of prompt display of a cross-section image corresponding to each angled projection data from every measurement. Hence, it is possible to observe an improved cross-section view by reflecting each projection data in almost real time. From the basic theory of Baysian Back Projection method, it can be not only applied to CT types of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation. This reported deals with a reconstruction program of cross-section images in the CT of ...
Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results.
Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia
2015-12-01
phantom in terms of Hounsfield unit and high-contrast resolution. For the validation of the lesion realism, lesions of various types were successfully inserted, including well circumscribed and invasive lesions, homogeneous and heterogeneous lesions, high-contrast and low-contrast lesions, isolated and vessel-attached lesions, and small and large lesions. The two experienced radiologists who reviewed the original and inserted lesions could not identify the lesions that were inserted. The same lesion, when inserted into the projection domain and reconstructed with different parameters, demonstrated a parameter-dependent appearance. A framework has been developed for projection-domain insertion of lesions into commercial CT images, which can be potentially expanded to all geometries of CT scanners. Compared to conventional image-domain methods, the authors' method reflected the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance. Compared to prior projection-domain methods, the authors' method has the potential to achieve higher anatomical complexity by employing clinical patient projections and real patient lesions.
Computational methods for planning and evaluating geothermal energy projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goumas, M.G.; Lygerou, V.A.; Papayannakis, L.E.
1999-01-01
In planning, designing and evaluating a geothermal energy project, a number of technical, economic, social and environmental parameters should be considered. The use of computational methods provides a rigorous analysis improving the decision-making process. This article demonstrates the application of decision-making methods developed in operational research for the optimum exploitation of geothermal resources. Two characteristic problems are considered: (1) the economic evaluation of a geothermal energy project under uncertain conditions using a stochastic analysis approach and (2) the evaluation of alternative exploitation schemes for optimum development of a low enthalpy geothermal field using a multicriteria decision-making procedure. (Author)
An alternative extragradient projection method for quasi-equilibrium problems.
Chen, Haibin; Wang, Yiju; Xu, Yi
2018-01-01
For the quasi-equilibrium problem where the players' costs and their strategies both depend on the rival's decisions, an alternative extragradient projection method for solving it is designed. Different from the classical extragradient projection method whose generated sequence has the contraction property with respect to the solution set, the newly designed method possesses an expansion property with respect to a given initial point. The global convergence of the method is established under the assumptions of pseudomonotonicity of the equilibrium function and of continuity of the underlying multi-valued mapping. Furthermore, we show that the generated sequence converges to the nearest point in the solution set to the initial point. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method.
A Conceptual Grey Analysis Method for Construction Projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Mikela Chatzimichailidou
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Concerning engineers, project management is a crucial field of research and development. Projects of high uncertainty and scale are characterized by risk, primarily related to their completion time. Thus, safe duration estimations, throughout the planning of a project, are a key objective for project managers. However, traditional linear approaches fail to include and sufficiently serve the dynamic nature of activities duration. On this ground, attention should be paid to designing and implementing methodologies that approximate the duration of the activities during the phase of planning and scheduling too. The grey analysis mathematical modeling seems to gain grounds, since it gradually becomes a well-adapted and up-to-date technique for numerous scientific sectors. This paper examines the contribution of the logic behind the aforementioned analysis, aiming to predict possible future divergences of task durations in big construction projects. Based on time observations of critical instances, a conceptual method is developed for making duration estimations and communicating deviations from the original schedule, in a way that approximations will fit reality better. The whole procedure endeavors to investigate the decrease of uncertainty, regarding project completion time and reduce, up to a scale, a possible inaccurate estimation of a project manager. The utmost effort is about exploiting the gained experience and eliminating the “hedgehog syndrome”. This is attainable by designing a reliable, easily updated, and readable information system. An enlightening example is to be found in the last section.
A method for the efficient prioritization of infrastructure renewal projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karydas, D.M.; Gifun, J.F.
2006-01-01
The infrastructure renewal program at MIT consists of a large number of projects with an estimated budget that could approach $1 billion. Infrastructure renewal at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is the process of evaluating and investing in the maintenance of facility systems and basic structure to preserve existing campus buildings. The selection and prioritization of projects must be addressed with a systematic method for the optimal allocation of funds and other resources. This paper presents a case study of a prioritization method utilizing multi-attribute utility theory. This method was developed at MIT's Department of Nuclear Engineering and was deployed by the Department of Facilities after appropriate modifications were implemented to address the idiosyncrasies of infrastructure renewal projects and the competing criteria and constraints that influence the judgment of the decision-makers. Such criteria include minimization of risk, optimization of economic impact, and coordination with academic policies, programs, and operations of the Institute. A brief overview of the method is presented, as well as the results of its application to the prioritization of infrastructure renewal projects. Results of workshops held at MIT with the participation of stakeholders demonstrate the feasibility of the prioritization method and the usefulness of this approach
Integrated project delivery methods for energy renovation of social housing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Optimised project delivery methods forsocial housing energy renovations European Social Housing Organisations (SHOs are currently facing challenging times. The ageing of their housing stock and the economic crisis, which has affected both their finances and the finances of their tenants, are testing their capacity to stick to their aim of providing decent and affordable housing. Housing renovation projects offer the possibility of upgrading the health and comfort levels of their old housing stock to current standards and improve energy efficiency, and this solution also addresses the fuel poverty problems suffered by some tenants. Unfortunately, the limited financial capacity of SHOs is hampering the scale of housing renovation projects and the energy savings achieved. At the same time, the renovation of the existing housing stock is seen as one of the most promising alternative routes to achieving the ambitious CO2 emissions reduction targets set by European authorities – namely, to reduce EU CO2 emissions to 20% below their 1990 levels by 2020. The synergy between European targets and the aims of SHOs has been addressed by the energy policies of the member states, which focus on the potential energy savings achievable by renovating social housing. In fact, the European initiatives have prioritised energy savings in social housing renovations to such an extent that these are referred to as ‘energy renovations’. Energy renovation is therefore a renovation project with higher energy savings target than a regular renovation project. In total, European SHOs own 21.5 million dwellings representing around 9.4% of the total housing stock. Each SHO owns a large number of dwellings, which means there are fewer people to convince of the need to make energy savings through building renovations, maximising the potentially high impact of decisions. Moreover, SHOs are responsible for maintaining and upgrading their properties in order to continue
Projection-iteration methods for solving nonlinear operator equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Minh Chuong; Tran thi Lan Anh; Tran Quoc Binh
1989-09-01
In this paper, the authors investigate a nonlinear operator equation in uniformly convex Banach spaces as in metric spaces by using stationary and nonstationary generalized projection-iteration methods. Convergence theorems in the strong and weak sense were established. (author). 7 refs
Dephasing of LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes in n-type GaAs
Vallée, F.; Ganikhanov, F.; Bogani, F.
1997-11-01
The relaxation dynamics of coherent phononlike LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes is investigated in n-doped GaAs using an infrared time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering technique. Measurements performed for different crystal temperatures in the range 10-300 K as a function of the electron density injected by doping show a large reduction of the hybrid mode dephasing time compared to the bare LO-phonon one for densities larger than 1016 cm-3. The results are interpreted in terms of coherent decay of the LO-phonon-plasmon mixed mode in the weak-coupling regime and yield information on the plasmon and electron relaxation. The estimated average electron momentum relaxation times are smaller than those deduced from Hall mobility measurements, as expected from our theoretical model.
Interactions, Disorder and Dephasing in Superconducting Films and Quantum Hall Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auerbach, A.
1999-01-01
It is shown that a large class of two dimensional Superconductor to Insulator (SC-I), and (Quantum Hall to Insulator (QH-I) transitions can be understood by assuming that the thermodynamic transition in the clean system is first order. The finite correlation lengths at that transition yield a natural separation of the disorder into short and long wavelengths which are then straightforward to incorporate perturbatively and semi classically respectively. This approach reduces problems of disorder+interactions to puddle network models, whose studies have already yielded insight into experiments of QH-I and SC-I. For the CQH-I, the difference between Landauer-Buttiker and Boltzman theories highlights effects of dephasing
Dephasing due to Nuclear Spins in Large-Amplitude Electric Dipole Spin Resonance.
Chesi, Stefano; Yang, Li-Ping; Loss, Daniel
2016-02-12
We analyze effects of the hyperfine interaction on electric dipole spin resonance when the amplitude of the quantum-dot motion becomes comparable or larger than the quantum dot's size. Away from the well-known small-drive regime, the important role played by transverse nuclear fluctuations leads to a Gaussian decay with characteristic dependence on drive strength and detuning. A characterization of spin-flip gate fidelity, in the presence of such additional drive-dependent dephasing, shows that vanishingly small errors can still be achieved at sufficiently large amplitudes. Based on our theory, we analyze recent electric dipole spin resonance experiments relying on spin-orbit interactions or the slanting field of a micromagnet. We find that such experiments are already in a regime with significant effects of transverse nuclear fluctuations and the form of decay of the Rabi oscillations can be reproduced well by our theory.
Role of energy exchange in vibrational dephasing processes in liquids and solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marks, S.
1981-08-01
Three theories which claim relevance to the dephasing of molecular vibrations in condensed phase matter are presented. All of these theories predict (in certain limiting cases) that the widths and shifts of molecular vibrations will obey an Arrhenius temperature dependence. The basic tenets of the theories are detailed so that the differences between them may be used in an experiment to distinguish between them. One model, based on intermolecular energy exchange of low-frequency modes, results in dephasing the high-frequency modes when anharmonic coupling is present. A computer analysis of temperature dependent experimental lineshapes can result in the extraction of various parameters such as the anharmonic shifts and the exchange rates. It is shown that, in order to properly assess the relative validity of the three models, other evidence must be obtained such as the spectral parameters of the low-frequency modes, the combination bands, and the isotopic dilution behavior. This evidence is presented for d 14 -durene (perdeutero-1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene) and compared to previous data obtained on pure h 14 -durene. An extension of the (HSC) intermolecular energy exchange model which allows for the possibility of partial delocalization of the low-frequency modes gives an adequate description of the experimental evidence. Isotopic dilution experiments, in particular, have resulted in a detailed picture of the energy transfer dynamics of the low-frequency modes. A section in which some spontaneous Raman spectra support a model of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids based on results of picosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy is presented. The model is that a distribution of environmental sites is created by a distribution in the local density and thus creates inhomogeneous broadening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marks, S.; Cornelius, P.A.; Harris, C.B.
1980-01-01
A series of experiments have been conducted in order to evaluate the relative importance of several recent theories of vibrational dephasing in solids. The theories are discussed briefly, and are used to interpret the temperature dependence of the C--H and C--D stretch bands in the spontaneous Raman spectra of h 14 - and d 14 -1,2,4,5-tetramethyl benzene (durene). The infrared spectra of these same molecules are also reported in the region of the combination bands involving C--H (or C--D) stretches and low-frequency modes. The results support the applicability of the model of Harris et al., [C. B. Harris, R. M. Shelby and P. A. Cornelius, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1415 (1977); Chem Phys. Lett. 57, 8 (1978); R. M. Shelby, C. B. Harris, and P. A. Cornelius, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 34 (1979)], based on energy exchange in anharmonically coupled low-frequency modes. This theory is then used, in connection with Raman spectra obtained in isotopically mixed samples of durene, to elucidate the vibrational dynamics underlying the dephasing. It is found that the results are consistent with the hypothesis that some low-frequency modes in this molecule are significantly delocalized or ''excitonic'' in character, and that this delocalization may be studied by means of Raman spectroscopy on the low-frequency modes themselves, as well as by exchange analysis of the coupled high-frequency modes. These conclusions represent a generalization and extension of the previously published exchange model [R. M. Shelby, C. B. Harris, and P. A. Cornelius, J. Chem Phys. 70, 34 (1979)
Some Convergence Strategies for the Alternating Generalized Projection Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maricarmen Andrade
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we extend the application of the alternating projection algorithm to solve the problem of finding a point in the intersection of $n$ sets ($n\\geq2$, which are not all of them convex sets. Here we term such method as alternating generalized projection (AGP method. In particular, we are interested in addressing the problem of avoiding the so-called trap points, which may prevent an algorithm to obtain a feasible solution in two or more sets not all convex. Some strategies that allow us to reach the feasible solution are established and conjectured. Finally, we present simple numerical results that illustrate the efficiency of the iterative methods considered.
Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method
Frantisek Jelenciak; Michael Gerke; Ulrich Borgolte
2015-01-01
This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM) as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that - in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a...
Electronic-projecting Moire method applying CBR-technology
Kuzyakov, O. N.; Lapteva, U. V.; Andreeva, M. A.
2018-01-01
Electronic-projecting method based on Moire effect for examining surface topology is suggested. Conditions of forming Moire fringes and their parameters’ dependence on reference parameters of object and virtual grids are analyzed. Control system structure and decision-making subsystem are elaborated. Subsystem execution includes CBR-technology, based on applying case base. The approach related to analysing and forming decision for each separate local area with consequent formation of common topology map is applied.
Mathematical foundations of the projection-operator method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, S.M.
1979-01-01
Mathematical foundations are determined for the projection-operator method developed by Zwanzig and Mori and used in the study of cooperative phenomena in non-equilibrium processes. It is shown that the Hilbert space of operators can be taken as the Hilbert-Schmidt class. Comments are made on the possibility of a complete formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of this Hilbert space. (author)
Accelerated Test Method for Corrosion Protective Coatings Project
Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Calle, Luz
2015-01-01
This project seeks to develop a new accelerated corrosion test method that predicts the long-term corrosion protection performance of spaceport structure coatings as accurately and reliably as current long-term atmospheric exposure tests. This new accelerated test method will shorten the time needed to evaluate the corrosion protection performance of coatings for NASA's critical ground support structures. Lifetime prediction for spaceport structure coatings has a 5-year qualification cycle using atmospheric exposure. Current accelerated corrosion tests often provide false positives and negatives for coating performance, do not correlate to atmospheric corrosion exposure results, and do not correlate with atmospheric exposure timescales for lifetime prediction.
Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.
1996-12-31
We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.
Methods for cost estimation in software project management
Briciu, C. V.; Filip, I.; Indries, I. I.
2016-02-01
The speed in which the processes used in software development field have changed makes it very difficult the task of forecasting the overall costs for a software project. By many researchers, this task has been considered unachievable, but there is a group of scientist for which this task can be solved using the already known mathematical methods (e.g. multiple linear regressions) and the new techniques as genetic programming and neural networks. The paper presents a solution for building a model for the cost estimation models in the software project management using genetic algorithms starting from the PROMISE datasets related COCOMO 81 model. In the first part of the paper, a summary of the major achievements in the research area of finding a model for estimating the overall project costs is presented together with the description of the existing software development process models. In the last part, a basic proposal of a mathematical model of a genetic programming is proposed including here the description of the chosen fitness function and chromosome representation. The perspective of model described it linked with the current reality of the software development considering as basis the software product life cycle and the current challenges and innovations in the software development area. Based on the author's experiences and the analysis of the existing models and product lifecycle it was concluded that estimation models should be adapted with the new technologies and emerging systems and they depend largely by the chosen software development method.
[Adverse events management. Methods and results of a development project].
Rabøl, Louise Isager; Jensen, Elisabeth Brøgger; Hellebek, Annemarie H; Pedersen, Beth Lilja
2006-11-27
This article describes the methods and results of a project in the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (H:S) on preventing adverse events. The aim of the project was to raise awareness about patients' safety, test a reporting system for adverse events, develop and test methods of analysis of events and propagate ideas about how to prevent adverse events. H:S developed an action plan and a reporting system for adverse events, founded an organization and developed an educational program on theories and methods of learning from adverse events for both leaders and employees. During the three-year period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2004, the H:S staff reported 6011 adverse events. In the same period, the organization completed 92 root cause analyses. More than half of these dealt with events that had been optional to report, the other half events that had been mandatory to report. The number of reports and the front-line staff's attitude towards reporting shows that the H:S succeeded in founding a safety culture. Future work should be centred on developing and testing methods that will prevent adverse events from happening. The objective is to suggest and complete preventive initiatives which will help increase patient safety.
Joo, Taiha; Albrecht, A. C.
1993-06-01
Time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (TRDFWM) for an electronically resonant system in a phase-matching configuration that measures population decay is reported. Because the spectral width of input light exceeds the vibrational Bohr frequency of a strong Raman active mode, the vibrational coherence produces strong oscillations in the TRDFWM signal together with the usual population decay from the excited electronic state. The data are analyzed in terms of a four-level system: ground and excited electronic states each split by a vibrational quantum of a Raman active mode. Absolute frequencies and their dephasing times of the vibrational modes at ≈590 cm -1 are obtained for the excited as well as the ground electronic state. The vibrational dephasing rate in the excited electronic state is about an order of magnitude faster than that in the ground state, the origin of which is speculated upon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanton, C.J.; Kenrow, J.; El Sayed, K.; Jho, Y.D.; Kim, D.S.; Song, J.J.; Fischer, Arthur Joseph
2004-01-01
Femtosecond differential reflectivity spectroscopy (DRS) and four-wave mixing (FWM) experiments were performed simultaneously to study the initial temporal dynamics of the exciton line-shapes in GaN epilayers. Beats between the A-B excitons were found only for positive time delay in both DRS and FWM experiments. The rise time at negative time delay for the DRS was much slower than the FWM signal or differential transmission spectroscopy at the exciton resonance. A numerical solution of a six band semiconductor Bloch equation model including nonlinearities at the Hartree-Fock level shows that this slow rise in the DRS results from excitation induced dephasing, that is, the strong density dependence of the dephasing time which changes with the laser excitation energy.
Project JADE. Description of the MLH-method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandstedt, H.; Munier, R.; Wichmann, C.; Isaksson, Therese
2001-08-01
This report constitutes a part of a series of reports within project JADE, comparison of deposition methods. A comparison of the deposition methods MLH (Medium Long Holes with approximately 25 copper canisters emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels) and KBS-3 (copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels) has earlier been performed and KBS-3 was judged to be more advantageous than MLH. However, the prerequisites for the comparison have changed with time and an updated evaluation of MLH was therefore required. In this report, the current knowledge of MLH is summarized with focus on geological prerequisites, methods for boring long, horizontal deposition holes, reinforcement and sealing, deposition and cost. Comparisons with KBS-3 are performed sequentially. An MLH-repository is judged to be more sensitive to ingress of water to the deposition holes during the deposition process. This implies that a MLH repository based on today's knowledge is basically recommended for bedrock with fairly low water baring capacity. It has been demonstrated that MLH has considerable economic potential compared to KBS-3. However, the method is judged to be more technically immature than KBS-3. Particularly, methods and equipment for deposition of canisters need to be developed further. Methods and equipment for deposition can be developed, which fulfill the demands on function and safety, in the near future. MLH cannot therefore be rejected as deposition method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. A. Shields
2018-06-01
Full Text Available The Atmospheric River Tracking Method Intercomparison Project (ARTMIP is an international collaborative effort to understand and quantify the uncertainties in atmospheric river (AR science based on detection algorithm alone. Currently, there are many AR identification and tracking algorithms in the literature with a wide range of techniques and conclusions. ARTMIP strives to provide the community with information on different methodologies and provide guidance on the most appropriate algorithm for a given science question or region of interest. All ARTMIP participants will implement their detection algorithms on a specified common dataset for a defined period of time. The project is divided into two phases: Tier 1 will utilize the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2 reanalysis from January 1980 to June 2017 and will be used as a baseline for all subsequent comparisons. Participation in Tier 1 is required. Tier 2 will be optional and include sensitivity studies designed around specific science questions, such as reanalysis uncertainty and climate change. High-resolution reanalysis and/or model output will be used wherever possible. Proposed metrics include AR frequency, duration, intensity, and precipitation attributable to ARs. Here, we present the ARTMIP experimental design, timeline, project requirements, and a brief description of the variety of methodologies in the current literature. We also present results from our 1-month proof-of-concept trial run designed to illustrate the utility and feasibility of the ARTMIP project.
Acoustic phonon dephasing in shallow GaAs/Ga 1- xAl xAs single quantum wells
Cassabois, G.; Meccherini, S.; Roussignol, Ph.; Bogani, F.; Gurioli, M.; Colocci, M.; Planel, R.; Thierry-Mieg, V.
1998-07-01
The intermediate dimensionality regime is studied on a set of shallow GaAs/Ga 1- xAl xAs single quantum wells. Such heterostructures exhibit 2D strong excitonic electroabsorption together with near 3D fast transport properties. We report dephasing time measurements ( T2) of the heavy-hole exciton and we show that the acoustic phonon contribution decreases with x to a value in good agreement with theoretical predictions for GaAs bulk.
Choo, Kenny; Bissbort, Ulf; Poletti, Dario
2017-01-01
We study the response of a particle current to dissipative dephasing in an interacting, few-body fermionic lattice system. The particles are prepared in the ground state in presence of an artificial magnetic gauge field, which is subsequently quenched to zero. The initial current decays non-trivially in the dissipative environment and we explore the emerging dynamics and its dependence on various system parameters.
Song, Ya-Ju; Tan, Qing-Shou; Kuang, Le-Man
2017-03-08
We investigate the possibility to control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states by the use of periodic dynamical decoupling (PDD) pulses. It is indicated that the quantum speed limit time (QSLT) is determined by initial and final quantum coherence of the qubit, as well as the non-Markovianity of the system under consideration during the evolution when the qubit is subjected to a zero-temperature Ohmic-like dephasing reservoir. It is shown that final quantum coherence of the qubit and the non-Markovianity of the system can be modulated by PDD pulses. Our results show that for arbitrary initial states of the dephasing qubit with non-vanishing quantum coherence, PDD pulses can be used to induce potential acceleration of the quantum evolution in the short-time regime, while PDD pulses can lead to potential speedup and slow down in the long-time regime. We demonstrate that the effect of PDD on the QSLT for the Ohmic or sub-Ohmic spectrum (Markovian reservoir) is much different from that for the super-Ohmic spectrum (non-Markovian reservoir).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Tilborg, J. van; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Nieter, C.; Cary, J.; Leemans, W.P.
2005-01-01
High-quality electron beams, with a few 10 9 electrons within a few percent of the same energy above 80 MeV, were produced in a laser wakefield accelerator by matching the acceleration length to the length over which electrons were accelerated and outran (dephased from) the wake. A plasma channel guided the drive laser over long distances, resulting in production of the high-energy, high-quality beams. Unchanneled experiments varying the length of the target plasma indicated that the high-quality bunches are produced near the dephasing length and demonstrated that channel guiding was more stable and efficient than relativistic self-guiding. Consistent with these data, particle-in-cell simulations indicate production of high-quality electron beams when trapping of an initial bunch of electrons suppresses further injection by loading the wake. The injected electron bunch is then compressed in energy by dephasing, when the front of the bunch begins to decelerate while the tail is still accelerated
Lawless, Mary K.; Mathies, Richard A.
1992-06-01
Absolute resonance Raman cross sections are measured for Nile blue 690 perchlorate dissolved in ethylene glycol with excitation at 514, 531, and 568 nm. These values and the absorption spectrum are modeled using a time-dependent wave packet formalism. The excited-state equilibrium geometry changes are quantitated for 40 resonance Raman active modes, seven of which (590, 1141, 1351, 1429, 1492, 1544, and 1640 cm-1 ) carry 70% of the total resonance Raman intensity. This demonstrates that in addition to the prominent 590 and 1640 cm-1 modes, a large number of vibrational degrees of freedom are Franck-Condon coupled to the electronic transition. After exposure of the explicit vibrational progressions, the residual absorption linewidth is separated into its homogeneous [350 cm-1 half-width at half-maximum (HWHM)] and inhomogeneous (313 cm-1 HWHM) components through an analysis of the absolute Raman cross sections. The value of the electronic dephasing time derived from this study (25 fs) compares well to previously published results. These data should be valuable in multimode modeling of femtosecond experiments on Nile blue.
Dynamics of electronic dephasing in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayes, Dugan; Panitchayangkoon, Gitt; Fransted, Kelly A; Caram, Justin R; Freed, Karl F; Engel, Gregory S; Wen Jianzhong
2010-01-01
Electronic coherence has been shown to persist in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) antenna complex from green sulfur bacteria at 77 K for at least 660 fs, several times longer than the typical lifetime of a coherence in a dynamic environment at this temperature. Such long-lived coherence was proposed to improve energy transfer efficiency in photosynthetic systems by allowing an excitation to follow a quantum random walk as it approaches the reaction centre. Here we present a model for bath-induced electronic transitions, demonstrating that the protein matrix protects coherences by globally correlating fluctuations in transition energies. We also quantify the dephasing rates for two particular electronic coherences in the FMO complex at 77 K using two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy and find that the lifetimes of individual coherences are distinct. Within the framework of noise-assisted transport, this result suggests that the FMO complex has been locally tuned by natural selection to optimize transfer efficiency by exploiting quantum coherence.
Orbital hyperfine interaction and qubit dephasing in carbon nanotube quantum dots
Palyi, Andras; Csiszar, Gabor
2015-03-01
Hyperfine interaction (HF) is of key importance for the functionality of solid-state quantum information processing, as it affects qubit coherence and enables nuclear-spin quantum memories. In this work, we complete the theory of the basic hyperfine interaction mechanisms (Fermi contact, dipolar, orbital) in carbon nanotube quantum dots by providing a theoretical description of the orbital HF. We find that orbital HF induces an interaction between the nuclear spins of the nanotube lattice and the valley degree of freedom of the electrons confined in the quantum dot. We show that the resulting nuclear-spin-electron-valley interaction (i) is approximately of Ising type, (ii) is essentially local, in the sense that an effective atomic interaction strength can be defined, and (iii) has a strength that is comparable to the combined strength of Fermi contact and dipolar interactions. We argue that orbital HF provides a new decoherence mechanism for single-electron valley qubits and spin-valley qubits in a range of multi-valley materials. We explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous dephasing time T2* for a nanotube-based valley qubit. We acknowledge funding from the EU Marie Curie CIG-293834, OTKA Grant PD 100373, and EU ERC Starting Grant CooPairEnt 258789. AP is supported by the Janos Bolyai Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Quality of the restricted variation after projection method with angular momentum projection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, Tomas R.; Egido, J.L.; Robledo, L.M.; Rodriguez-Guzman, R.
2005-01-01
Recently, the restricted angular momentum variation after projection method, using the quadrupole degree of freedom as a variational coordinate in conjunction with effective interactions of the Skyrme or Gogny type, has been used very successfully to study a variety of phenomena concerning the quadrupole degree of freedom. In this paper, we study the quality of such an approach by considering additional degrees of freedom as variational coordinates: the hexadecapole moment and the fluctuations on the quadrupole moment, particle number, and angular momentum operators. The study has been performed with the Gogny interaction (D1S parametrization) for the nuclei 32 Mg and 34 Mg. The results of the angular momentum projection and the subsequent generator coordinate calculations show that the extra degrees of freedom considered are irrelevant for the description of the lowest lying states for each angular momentum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-03-01
This report describes an interim evaluation method and a concrete evaluation method for projects promoted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, and NEDO. As a result of the survey, a method of highly practical interim evaluation, concrete evaluation items, and evaluation criteria have been proposed by assuming that the projects are evaluated by the project evaluation department independent of the project promotion department. Long-term issues for constructing the evaluation system are also described. It is the most essential for the evaluation to fulfill the function of effective promotion of the following projects. It is also indispensable for the evaluation method and issues proposed in this report to communicate closely to project promoters and researchers, and to reassess the projects continuously. Continuous consideration for the feedback of evaluation process and the improvement of evaluation are significant for the long-term construction of system. 21 refs., 9 figs., 23 tabs.
A method to study the management of urban development projects
Heurkens, E.
2011-01-01
The management of urban development projects in the Netherlands has changed significantly in recent years. These projects have become mainly ‘led’ by developers as they manage the entire life cycle of development projects, while public actors mainly facilitate development projects. This changes the
A Formula for Fixing Troubled Projects: The Scientific Method Meets Leadership
Wagner, Sandra
2006-01-01
This presentation focuses on project management, specifically addressing project issues using the scientific method of problem-solving. Two sample projects where this methodology has been applied are provided.
Sutinen, Ari
2013-01-01
The project method became a famous teaching method when William Heard Kilpatrick published his article "Project Method" in 1918. The key idea in Kilpatrick's project method is to try to explain how pupils learn things when they work in projects toward different common objects. The same idea of pupils learning by work or action in an…
Study on Top-Down Estimation Method of Software Project Planning
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jun-guang; L(U) Ting-jie; ZHAO Yu-mei
2006-01-01
This paper studies a new software project planning method under some actual project data in order to make software project plans more effective. From the perspective of system theory, our new method regards a software project plan as an associative unit for study. During a top-down estimation of a software project, Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) method and analogy method are combined to estimate its size, then effort estimation and specific schedules are obtained according to distributions of the phase effort. This allows a set of practical and feasible planning methods to be constructed. Actual data indicate that this set of methods can lead to effective software project planning.
Learning Unknown Structure in CRFs via Adaptive Gradient Projection Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Xue
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We study the problem of fitting probabilistic graphical models to the given data when the structure is not known. More specifically, we focus on learning unknown structure in conditional random fields, especially learning both the structure and parameters of a conditional random field model simultaneously. To do this, we first formulate the learning problem as a convex minimization problem by adding an l_2-regularization to the node parameters and a group l_1-regularization to the edge parameters, and then a gradient-based projection method is proposed to solve it which combines an adaptive stepsize selection strategy with a nonmonotone line search. Extensive simulation experiments are presented to show the performance of our approach in solving unknown structure learning problems.
Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frantisek Jelenciak
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that -in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a dynamics viewpoint. The principle of this method is based on applying Newton's mechanics, which are then combined with a specific form of the finite element method to cover additional effects. The main advantage of the PEM is that it is not necessary to carry out measurements in a wind tunnel for the identification of the model's parameters. The plausible dynamical behaviour of the model can be achieved by specific correction parameters, which can be determined on the basis of experimental data obtained during the flight of the aircraft. In this article, we present the PEM as applied to an airship as well as a comparison of the data calculated by the PEM and experimental flight data.
Implementing Kernel Methods Incrementally by Incremental Nonlinear Projection Trick.
Kwak, Nojun
2016-05-20
Recently, the nonlinear projection trick (NPT) was introduced enabling direct computation of coordinates of samples in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. With NPT, any machine learning algorithm can be extended to a kernel version without relying on the so called kernel trick. However, NPT is inherently difficult to be implemented incrementally because an ever increasing kernel matrix should be treated as additional training samples are introduced. In this paper, an incremental version of the NPT (INPT) is proposed based on the observation that the centerization step in NPT is unnecessary. Because the proposed INPT does not change the coordinates of the old data, the coordinates obtained by INPT can directly be used in any incremental methods to implement a kernel version of the incremental methods. The effectiveness of the INPT is shown by applying it to implement incremental versions of kernel methods such as, kernel singular value decomposition, kernel principal component analysis, and kernel discriminant analysis which are utilized for problems of kernel matrix reconstruction, letter classification, and face image retrieval, respectively.
Equivalence principle for quantum systems: dephasing and phase shift of free-falling particles
Anastopoulos, C.; Hu, B. L.
2018-02-01
We ask the question of how the (weak) equivalence principle established in classical gravitational physics should be reformulated and interpreted for massive quantum objects that may also have internal degrees of freedom (dof). This inquiry is necessary because even elementary concepts like a classical trajectory are not well defined in quantum physics—trajectories originating from quantum histories become viable entities only under stringent decoherence conditions. From this investigation we posit two logically and operationally distinct statements of the equivalence principle for quantum systems. Version A: the probability distribution of position for a free-falling particle is the same as the probability distribution of a free particle, modulo a mass-independent shift of its mean. Version B: any two particles with the same velocity wave-function behave identically in free fall, irrespective of their masses. Both statements apply to all quantum states, including those without a classical correspondence, and also for composite particles with quantum internal dof. We also investigate the consequences of the interaction between internal and external dof induced by free fall. For a class of initial states, we find dephasing occurs for the translational dof, namely, the suppression of the off-diagonal terms of the density matrix, in the position basis. We also find a gravitational phase shift in the reduced density matrix of the internal dof that does not depend on the particle’s mass. For classical states, the phase shift has a natural classical interpretation in terms of gravitational red-shift and special relativistic time-dilation.
Description of rotational excitations of odd nuclei by the method of projection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazepus, V.V.
1981-01-01
We have carried out a projection on the angular-momentum operator eigenspace for deformed nuclei. The space of the trial wave functions is chosen to be broader than in the ordinary projection approach. It is shown that this method of projection leads to the particle + rotor model but not to the cranking model. A comparison is made with the method of approximate projection
A projection method for under determined optimal experimental designs
Long, Quan; Scavino, Marco; Tempone, Raul; Wang, Suojin
2014-01-01
A new implementation, based on the Laplace approximation, was developed in (Long, Scavino, Tempone, & Wang 2013) to accelerate the estimation of the post–experimental expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. A closed–form approximation of the inner integral and the order of the corresponding dominant error term were obtained in the cases where the parameters are determined by the experiment. In this work, we extend that method to the general cases where the model parameters could not be determined completely by the data from the proposed experiments. We carry out the Laplace approximations in the directions orthogonal to the null space of the corresponding Jacobian matrix, so that the information gain (Kullback–Leibler divergence) can be reduced to an integration against the marginal density of the transformed parameters which are not determined by the experiments. Furthermore, the expected information gain can be approximated by an integration over the prior, where the integrand is a function of the projected posterior covariance matrix. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use Monte Carlo sampling or sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior probability density function, depending on the regularity of the integrand function. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear under determined numerical examples.
A projection method for under determined optimal experimental designs
Long, Quan
2014-01-09
A new implementation, based on the Laplace approximation, was developed in (Long, Scavino, Tempone, & Wang 2013) to accelerate the estimation of the post–experimental expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. A closed–form approximation of the inner integral and the order of the corresponding dominant error term were obtained in the cases where the parameters are determined by the experiment. In this work, we extend that method to the general cases where the model parameters could not be determined completely by the data from the proposed experiments. We carry out the Laplace approximations in the directions orthogonal to the null space of the corresponding Jacobian matrix, so that the information gain (Kullback–Leibler divergence) can be reduced to an integration against the marginal density of the transformed parameters which are not determined by the experiments. Furthermore, the expected information gain can be approximated by an integration over the prior, where the integrand is a function of the projected posterior covariance matrix. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use Monte Carlo sampling or sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior probability density function, depending on the regularity of the integrand function. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear under determined numerical examples.
Performance assessment plans and methods for the Salt Repository Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1984-08-01
This document presents the preliminary plans and anticipated methods of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) for assessing the postclosure and radiological aspects of preclosure performance of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan is intended to be revised on an annual basis. The emphasis in this preliminary effort is on the method of conceptually dividing the system into three subsystems (the very near field, the near field, and the far field) and applying models to analyze the behavior of each subsystem and its individual components. The next revision will contain more detailed plans being developed as part of Site Characterization Plan (SCP) activities. After a brief system description, this plan presents the performance targets which have been established for nuclear waste repositories by regulatory agencies (Chapter 3). The SRP approach to modeling, including sensitivity and uncertainty techniques is then presented (Chapter 4). This is followed by a discussion of scenario analysis (Chapter 5), a presentation of preliminary data needs as anticipated by the SRP (Chapter 6), and a presentation of the SRP approach to postclosure assessment of the very near field, the near field, and the far field (Chapters 7, 8, and 9, respectively). Preclosure radiological assessment is discussed in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 presents the SRP approach to code verification and validation. Finally, the Appendix lists all computer codes anticipated for use in performance assessments. The list of codes will be updated as plans are revised
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Jian, Chung-Chin; Chen, Po-Wen
2010-01-01
We evaluate the non-Markovian finite-temperature two-time correlation functions (CF's) of system operators of a pure-dephasing spin-boson model in two different ways, one by the direct exact operator technique and the other by the recently derived evolution equations, valid to second order in the system-environment interaction Hamiltonian. This pure-dephasing spin-boson model that is exactly solvable has been extensively studied as a simple decoherence model. However, its exact non-Markovian finite-temperature two-time system operator CF's, to our knowledge, have not been presented in the literature. This may be mainly due to the fact, illustrated in this article, that in contrast to the Markovian case, the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of the system (or the reduced quantum master equation) alone is not sufficient to calculate the two-time system operator CF's of non-Markovian open systems. The two-time CF's obtained using the recently derived evolution equations in the weak system-environment coupling case for this non-Markovian pure-dephasing model happen to be the same as those obtained from the exact evaluation. However, these results significantly differ from the non-Markovian two-time CF's obtained by wrongly directly applying the quantum regression theorem (QRT), a useful procedure to calculate the two-time CF's for weak-coupling Markovian open systems. This demonstrates clearly that the recently derived evolution equations generalize correctly the QRT to non-Markovian finite-temperature cases. It is believed that these evolution equations will have applications in many different branches of physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Ding
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Project delivery planning is a key stage used by the project owner (or project investor for organizing design, construction, and other operations in a construction project. The main task in this stage is to select an appropriate project delivery method. In order to analyze different factors affecting the PDM selection, this paper establishes a multiagent model mainly to show how project complexity, governance strength, and market environment affect the project owner’s decision on PDM. Experiment results show that project owner usually choose Design-Build method when the project is very complex within a certain range. Besides, this paper points out that Design-Build method will be the prior choice when the potential contractors develop quickly. This paper provides the owners with methods and suggestions in terms of showing how the factors affect PDM selection, and it may improve the project performance.
Information systems project management: methods, tools, and techniques
Mcmanus, John; Wood-Harper, Trevor
2004-01-01
Information Systems Project Management offers a clear and logical exposition of how to plan, organise and monitor projects effectively in order to deliver quality information systems within time, to budget and quality. This new book by John McManus and Trevor Wood-Harper is suitable for upper level undergraduates and postgraduates studying project management and Information Systems. Practising managers will also find it to be a valuable tool in their work. Managing information systems pro...
Participatory Methods and UCA Project: understanding technologies as culture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magda Pischetola
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract In the complex and changing context of digital culture, the media become an important space of relation, as they have the crucial role of articulating new cultural logics that lead to disruptions in the school environment. To understand this change, new methods of analysis and research have been created, the so-called Participatory Methodologies. They are action research strategies aimed at intervening in a given social situation. In the analysis proposed here, such methodologies will help us to address the challenge of involving digital technologies in school culture, through the participation of different individuals involved. Two qualitative case studies about the project Um Computador por Aluno – the Brazilian One Laptop per Child -, carried out in 2012 in the schools of Santa Catarina and Bahia, are the first of two phases of the research presented. The results concern a "vertical" form of technology insertion in schools, which led to frustration and de-motivation at several levels. Starting from these considerations, the second stage of research proposes a pedagogical intervention in one of four schools in the field. The methodologies of participatory video and photography are chosen as possibilities of action-reflection-action on the sociocultural reality of students through the experience of sharing. The results show the importance of carrying out creative activities, appropriate to a social conception of learning, as well as the centrality of children and youth as agency and a broader need to redefine the relationship between teacher and student, in a more "horizontal" perspective process of teaching and learning. Keywords: Projeto UCA. Participatory Research Method. Innovative teaching-learning.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Ning; Jiang Yong; Kato, Seizo
2005-01-01
This study uses ultrasound in combination with tomography to obtain three-dimensional temperature measurements using projection data obtained from limited projection angle. The main feature of the new computerized tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithm is to employ extrapolation scheme to make up for the incomplete projection data, it is based on the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) method while on top of that taking into account the correlation between the projection data and Fourier transform-based extrapolation. Computer simulation is conducted to verify the above algorithm. An experimental 3D temperature distribution measurement is also carried out to validate the proposed algorithm. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the extrapolated FBP CT algorithm is highly effective in dealing with projection data from limited projection angle
Final Report of the Project "From the finite element method to the virtual element method"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manzini, Gianmarco [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gyrya, Vitaliy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-12-20
The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a powerful numerical tool that is being used in a large number of engineering applications. The FEM is constructed on triangular/tetrahedral and quadrilateral/hexahedral meshes. Extending the FEM to general polygonal/polyhedral meshes in straightforward way turns out to be extremely difficult and leads to very complex and computationally expensive schemes. The reason for this failure is that the construction of the basis functions on elements with a very general shape is a non-trivial and complex task. In this project we developed a new family of numerical methods, dubbed the Virtual Element Method (VEM) for the numerical approximation of partial differential equations (PDE) of elliptic type suitable to polygonal and polyhedral unstructured meshes. We successfully formulated, implemented and tested these methods and studied both theoretically and numerically their stability, robustness and accuracy for diffusion problems, convection-reaction-diffusion problems, the Stokes equations and the biharmonic equations.
Project Management using Critical Path Method (CPM): A Pragmatic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Traditional techniques of decision-making have hindered the technical efficiency of most professionals and executors of the public project in many developing countries such as Nigeria. The use of Gantt chart in project planning has continued to increase as a source of last resort in spite of its severe limitations for ineffective ...
Utilizing the Project Method for Teaching Culture and Intercultural Competence
Euler, Sasha S.
2017-01-01
This article presents a detailed methodological outline for teaching culture through project work. It is argued that because project work makes it possible to gain transferrable and applicable knowledge and insight, it is the ideal tool for teaching culture with the aim of achieving real intercultural communicative competence (ICC). Preceding the…
Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project: Cross-site evaluation method
The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which th...
Social Science Methods Used in the RESTORE Project
Lynne M. Westphal; Cristy Watkins; Paul H. Gobster; Liam Heneghan; Kristen Ross; Laurel Ross; Madeleine Tudor; Alaka Wali; David H. Wise; Joanne Vining; Moira. Zellner
2014-01-01
The RESTORE (Rethinking Ecological and Social Theories of Restoration Ecology) project is an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional research endeavor funded by the National Science Foundation's Dynamics of Coupled Natural Human Systems program. The goal of the project is to understand the links between organizational type, decision making processes, and...
Evaluation of Sustainable Practices within Project Management Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shah Satya
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to investigate some of the sustainable practices within projects with a focus on social projects. The different research methodologies applied through this research consisted both primary and secondary research, including literature review and through case study. The stakeholder’s behavioural needs towards acting and implementing sustainable practices led to the adoption of sustainable practices within projects which are managed across profit and non-profit organisations. Nevertheless, lack of sustainable behaviour was outlined, and henceforth the integration of sustainable development within social projects is crucially important as such projects were identified as the drivers toward educating the society in order to help to produce generations of people who would be more sustainably aware. Currently, sustainable development is very often taken into account when it comes to managing projects. Nevertheless, if the adoption of sustainable practices is well established in some sectors such as construction, literature tends to demonstrate a lack of information regarding other sectors, especially within social projects. This research aims to investigate the adoption of sustainable practices within social projects and therefore to satisfy a literature gap.
Observation of the in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy in [111]-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Chunbo; Li, Junbin; Yu, Ying; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan; Zhang, Xinhui
2014-01-01
The electron density and temperature dependent in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy in [111]-grown GaAs quantum well (QW) has been investigated by time-resolved magneto-Kerr rotation technique. Due to the specific symmetry of [111]-grown quantum well, the in-plane Rashba and linear Dresselhaus effective spin-orbit magnetic field is parallel to each other for electron wave vectors in all directions. However, an obvious in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy comparing [2 ¯ 11] with [01 ¯ 1] crystalline orientations has been observed and discussed in this work. Our results demonstrate the innegligible spin dephasing channel through inhomogeneous broadening induced by the out-of-plane non-linear Dresselhaus field, which arises naturally from the C 3 symmetry of [111]-grown GaAs QW
A method multi criterio to evaluate projects of rural electrification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez Posse, E.
1994-01-01
In this document about the problem of the evaluation projects methodologies in rural electrification.The low analysis problem is of complex nature, because each project is evaluation object and an economic agent. One of these agents identifies different benefits and cost, and also has a different approaches for value them.In consequence, the form in that it is carried out the evaluation of the one project for each one of this agents that it is usually solved for mechanisms linked to the capacity of incidence or of determination of each one of them, this does not assures a satisfactory results for the general interest
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cosottini, M.; Calabrese, R.; Murri, L.; Puglioli, M.; Zampa, V.; Michelassi, M.C.; Ortori, S.; Bartolozzi, C.
2003-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MRA (CEMRA) compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in studying neck vessels of 48 patients. In three groups of patients, we used three MRA protocols differing for voxel size to assess if intravoxel dephasing effects could modify accuracy of CEMRA. Accuracy and correlation with DSA results were calculated in all patients and separately in the three groups. A qualitative analysis of the likeness between morphology of the stenosis in CEMRA and DSA images was also assessed. In all patients accuracy and agreement with DSA were 96% and k=0.85 in subclavian arteries, 96% and k=0.84 in vertebral artery, 97% and k=0.88 in common carotid arteries, and 94% and k=0.86 in internal carotid arteries. In the three groups accuracy and agreement with DSA did not show any significant difference. Qualitative analysis of CEMRA and DSA images revealed a better agreement in depicting the morphology of stenosis using a smaller voxel size. The CEMRA represents a powerful tool for the non-invasive evaluation of neck vessels. Overestimation trend of CEMRA is confirmed and the reduction of voxel size, decreasing the dephasing intravoxel effect, allows to have a better overlapping of stenosis morphology on CEMRA compared with DSA, but it does not yield diagnostic gain in the stenosis grading. (orig.)
Roy, Chiranjeeb; John, Sajeev
2010-02-01
We derive a quantum theory of the role of acoustic and optical phonons in modifying the optical absorption line shape, polarization dynamics, and population dynamics of a two-level atom (quantum dot) in the “colored” electromagnetic vacuum of a photonic band-gap (PBG) material. This is based on a microscopic Hamiltonian describing both radiative and vibrational processes quantum mechanically. We elucidate the extent to which phonon-assisted decay limits the lifetime of a single photon-atom bound state and derive the modified spontaneous emission dynamics due to coupling to various phonon baths. We demonstrate that coherent interaction with undamped phonons can lead to an enhanced lifetime of a photon-atom bound state in a PBG. This results in reduction of the steady-state atomic polarization but an increase in the fractionalized upper state population in the photon-atom bound state. We demonstrate, on the other hand, that the lifetime of the photon-atom bound state in a PBG is limited by the lifetime of phonons due to lattice anharmonicities (breakup of phonons into lower energy phonons) and purely nonradiative decay. We also derive the modified polarization decay and dephasing rates in the presence of such damping. This leads to a microscopic, quantum theory of the optical absorption line shapes. Our model and formalism provide a starting point for describing dephasing and relaxation in the presence of external coherent fields and multiple quantum dot interactions in electromagnetic reservoirs with radiative memory effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, Chiranjeeb; John, Sajeev
2010-01-01
We derive a quantum theory of the role of acoustic and optical phonons in modifying the optical absorption line shape, polarization dynamics, and population dynamics of a two-level atom (quantum dot) in the ''colored'' electromagnetic vacuum of a photonic band-gap (PBG) material. This is based on a microscopic Hamiltonian describing both radiative and vibrational processes quantum mechanically. We elucidate the extent to which phonon-assisted decay limits the lifetime of a single photon-atom bound state and derive the modified spontaneous emission dynamics due to coupling to various phonon baths. We demonstrate that coherent interaction with undamped phonons can lead to an enhanced lifetime of a photon-atom bound state in a PBG. This results in reduction of the steady-state atomic polarization but an increase in the fractionalized upper state population in the photon-atom bound state. We demonstrate, on the other hand, that the lifetime of the photon-atom bound state in a PBG is limited by the lifetime of phonons due to lattice anharmonicities (breakup of phonons into lower energy phonons) and purely nonradiative decay. We also derive the modified polarization decay and dephasing rates in the presence of such damping. This leads to a microscopic, quantum theory of the optical absorption line shapes. Our model and formalism provide a starting point for describing dephasing and relaxation in the presence of external coherent fields and multiple quantum dot interactions in electromagnetic reservoirs with radiative memory effects.
IMPORTANCE OF EARNED VALUE METHOD (EVA IN THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF PROJECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MARGARITA JANESKA
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The economics of the projects is an important process in the project management. Effective control of projects is based on appropriate methods for monitoring, and the entire project, the timetable, cost, quality and risk. Unlike accounting aspects in project management are looking for information that allow insight into the status and trends of financial progress of the project. Such information provide a method of earned value. It is a key component for assessing the actual performance of the project. The method of earned value is a better indicator of the progress of the project in comparison to the classical method of comparing planned and actual costs. This method shows the profit in relation to actual costs at a specific time point. This method is the basis for calculating the index of the project performance. In this sense, MS Project provides many opportunities for quality control and monitoring of the realization of the projects. In this study will be described the architecture of this method, outlined the benefits of the application of this method, and the basic criteria that should satisfy project management to be able to apply it.
Application fuzzy multi-attribute decision analysis method to prioritize project success criteria
Phong, Nguyen Thanh; Quyen, Nguyen Le Hoang Thuy To
2017-11-01
Project success is a foundation for project owner to manage and control not only for the current project but also for future potential projects in construction companies. However, identifying the key success criteria for evaluating a particular project in real practice is a challenging task. Normally, it depends on a lot of factors, such as the expectation of the project owner and stakeholders, triple constraints of the project (cost, time, quality), and company's mission, vision, and objectives. Traditional decision-making methods for measuring the project success are usually based on subjective opinions of panel experts, resulting in irrational and inappropriate decisions. Therefore, this paper introduces a multi-attribute decision analysis method (MADAM) for weighting project success criteria by using fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process approach. It is found that this method is useful when dealing with imprecise and uncertain human judgments in evaluating project success criteria. Moreover, this research also suggests that although cost, time, and quality are three project success criteria projects, the satisfaction of project owner and acceptance of project stakeholders with the completed project criteria is the most important criteria for project success evaluation in Vietnam.
A bi-projection method for Bingham type flows
Chupin , Laurent; Dubois , Thierry
2015-01-01
We propose and study a new numerical scheme to compute the isothermal and unsteady flow of an incompressible viscoplastic Bingham medium.The main difficulty, for both theoretical and numerical approaches, is due to the non-differentiability of the plastic part of stress tensor in regionswhere the rate-of-strain tensor vanishes. This is handled by reformulating the definition of the plastic stress tensor in terms ofa projection.A new time scheme, based on the classical incremental projection m...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Hans Peter; Schätz, A.; Maier, R.
1998-01-01
We investigate the interaction and dephasing of the excitons in wide ZnSe/Zn0.94Mg0.06Se quantum wells by spectrally resolved, femtosecond four-wave mixing (FWM). Polarization-dependent measurements indicate that excitation-induced dephasing is the dominant FWM process. The biexcitons of the center...... repulsion for coherent excitons. The exciton interaction rates with acoustic and optical phonons are deduced by their temperature dependencies. The acoustic-phonon scattering is found to be strongly reduced in the investigated wide wells due to the reduced accessible phonon wave vector....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Liang; Chen Zhiqiang; Xing Yuxiang; Zhang Li; Kang Kejun; Wang Ge
2006-01-01
In recent years, image reconstruction methods for cone-beam computed tomography (CT) have been extensively studied. However, few of these studies discussed computing parallel-beam projections from cone-beam projections. In this paper, we focus on the exact synthesis of complete or incomplete parallel-beam projections from cone-beam projections. First, an extended central slice theorem is described to establish a relationship between the Radon space and the Fourier space. Then, data sufficiency conditions are proposed for computing parallel-beam projection data from cone-beam data. Using these results, a general filtered backprojection algorithm is formulated that can exactly synthesize parallel-beam projection data from cone-beam projection data. As an example, we prove that parallel-beam projections can be exactly synthesized in an angular range in the case of circular cone-beam scanning. Interestingly, this angular range is larger than that derived in the Feldkamp reconstruction framework. Numerical experiments are performed in the circular scanning case to verify our method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksius Madu
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to predict the number of traffic accident victims who died in Timor Tengah Regency with Trend Projection method and Backpropagation method, and compare the two methods based on the degree of guilt and predict the number traffic accident victims in the Timor Tengah Regency for the coming year. This research was conducted in Timor Tengah Regency where data used in this study was obtained from Police Unit in Timor Tengah Regency. The data is on the number of traffic accidents in Timor Tengah Regency from 2000 – 2013, which is obtained by a quantitative analysis with Trend Projection and Backpropagation method. The results of the data analysis predicting the number of traffic accidents victims using Trend Projection method obtained the best model which is the quadratic trend model with equation Yk = 39.786 + (3.297 X + (0.13 X2. Whereas by using back propagation method, it is obtained the optimum network that consists of 2 inputs, 3 hidden screens, and 1 output. Based on the error rates obtained, Back propagation method is better than the Trend Projection method which means that the predicting accuracy with Back propagation method is the best method to predict the number of traffic accidents victims in Timor Tengah Regency. Thus obtained predicting the numbers of traffic accident victims for the next 5 years (Years 2014-2018 respectively - are 106 person, 115 person, 115 person, 119 person and 120 person. Keywords: Trend Projection, Back propagation, Predicting.
Arnault, Denise Saint; Fetters, Michael D.
2011-01-01
Mixed methods research has made significant in-roads in the effort to examine complex health related phenomenon. However, little has been published on the funding of mixed methods research projects. This paper addresses that gap by presenting an example of an NIMH funded project using a mixed methods QUAL-QUAN triangulation design entitled “The Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression.” We present the Cultural Determinants of Health Seeking model that framed the study, the specific aims, ...
A method for the efficient prioritization of infrastructure renewal projects
Karydas, D.M.; Gifun, Joe
2006-01-01
The infrastructure renewal program at MIT consists of a large number of projects with an estimated budget that could approach $1 billion. Infrastructure renewal at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is the process of evaluating and investing in the maintenance of facility systems and
Analysis of Conflict Centers in Projects Procured with Traditional and Integrated Methods in Nigeria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin O. Dada
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Conflicts in any organization can either be functional or dysfunctional and can contribute to or detract from the achievement of organizational or project objectives. This study investigated the frequency and intensity of conflicts, using five conflict centers, on projects executed with either the integrated or traditional method in Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered through purposive and snowballing techniques on 274 projects located in twelve states of Nigeria and Abuja. 94 usable responses were obtained. The collected data were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. In projects procured with traditional methods, conflicts relating to resources for project execution had the greatest frequency, while conflicts around project/client goals had the least frequency. For projects executed with integrated methods, conflicts due to administrative procedures were ranked highest while conflicts due to project/client goals were ranked least. Regarding seriousness of conflict, conflicts due to administrative procedures and resources for project execution were ranked highest respectively for projects procured with traditional and integrated methods. Additionally, in terms of seriousness, personality issues and project/client goals were the least sources of conflict in projects executed with traditional and integrated methods. There were no significant differences in the incidence of conflicts, using the selected conflict centers, between the traditional and integrated procurement methods. There was however significant difference in the intensity or seriousness of conflicts between projects executed with the traditional method and those executed with integrated methods in the following areas: technical issues, administrative matters and personality issues. The study recommends that conscious efforts should be made at teambuilding on projects executed with integrated methods.
Denega, S.Z.; Last, Thorsten; Liu, J.; Slachter, A.; Rizo, P.J.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Wees, B.J. van; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A.D.; Wal, C.H. van der
2010-01-01
We report a study of suppressed spin dephasing for quasi-one-dimensional electron ensembles in wires etched into a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction system. Time-resolved Kerr-rotation measurements show a suppression that is most pronounced for wires along the [110] crystal direction. This is the
Methods and Management of the Healthy Brain Study: A Large Multisite Qualitative Research Project
Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Friedman, Daniela B.; Mathews, Anna E.; Wilcox, Sara
2009-01-01
Purpose of the study: To describe processes used in the Healthy Brain project to manage data collection, coding, and data distribution in a large qualitative project, conducted by researchers at 9 universities in 9 states. Design and Methods: Project management protocols included: (a) managing audiotapes and surveys to ensure data confidentiality,…
Impact of Functional Characteristics on Usage of LSS Methods in IT and Perceived Project Success
Mushi, Francis Jeremiah
2014-01-01
High rates of Information Technology (IT) project failures continues; fail to meet established deadlines, exceeding budget, or not agreed-upon functionality. Failure often results from a fundamental confusion over what is involved in the project. Methods that have provided project success in Service and Manufacturing industries have not been…
THE RISKS’ ASSESSMENT IN INNOVATIVE PROJECTS BY THE METHOD OF VERIFIED EQUIVALENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Анатолій Валентинович ШАХОВ
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The article describes the concept of "risk of innovation", identified the causes of the risk and the methods of eliminating of negative manifestations of the risk situations in innovative projects. The advantages and disadvantages of the method of correction of the discount rate and the method of equivalent annuities are considered. The methodical approach in assessing the expected effect of the innovative project based on the concept of probability-interval uncertainty is proposed in the article. It was established that the analyzed approaches can be used for the accounting of the risk of innovative projects. Project manager makes his choice using any method of risk assessment individually, depending on the extent and characteristics of the project, the degree of novelty and scale introduction of innovative products, the number of participants and the level of requirements of the foundation of project efficiency and other factors.
Vinayaka : A Semi-Supervised Projected Clustering Method Using Differential Evolution
Satish Gajawada; Durga Toshniwal
2012-01-01
Differential Evolution (DE) is an algorithm for evolutionary optimization. Clustering problems have beensolved by using DE based clustering methods but these methods may fail to find clusters hidden insubspaces of high dimensional datasets. Subspace and projected clustering methods have been proposed inliterature to find subspace clusters that are present in subspaces of dataset. In this paper we proposeVINAYAKA, a semi-supervised projected clustering method based on DE. In this method DE opt...
Samáková, Jana; Babčanová, Dagmar; Hrablikchovanová, Henrieta; Mesárošová, Jana; Šujanová, Jana
2017-09-01
Effective communication is the most significant ability for project manager and successful project. However, during the management of projects communication, it is very often forgotten, often overlooked or taken for granted. In the management of projects, it is principally necessary to deal with communication during all project lifecycle. Within the project communication, it is very important to define the main methods, tools, support of communication and frequency of communication; these belong to the most important elements of the communication channel which is very often forgotten. Therefore, the main aim of the paper is to analyse the utilisation of the communication channel: communication methods, communication tools, communication frequency and to support project communication in industrial manufacturing enterprises in Slovakia. Based on the research, we can conclude that communication channel is not adequately elaborated in international methodologies and standards of project management as well as in industrial manufacturing enterprises. These facts are very negative, conclusion and it is therefore necessary to deal with the problem.
A Projected Conjugate Gradient Method for Sparse Minimax Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Jonasson, Kristjan
1993-01-01
A new method for nonlinear minimax problems is presented. The method is of the trust region type and based on sequential linear programming. It is a first order method that only uses first derivatives and does not approximate Hessians. The new method is well suited for large sparse problems...... as it only requires that software for sparse linear programming and a sparse symmetric positive definite equation solver are available. On each iteration a special linear/quadratic model of the function is minimized, but contrary to the usual practice in trust region methods the quadratic model is only...... with the method are presented. In fact, we find that the number of iterations required is comparable to that of state-of-the-art quasi-Newton codes....
Empirical projection-based basis-component decomposition method
Brendel, Bernhard; Roessl, Ewald; Schlomka, Jens-Peter; Proksa, Roland
2009-02-01
Advances in the development of semiconductor based, photon-counting x-ray detectors stimulate research in the domain of energy-resolving pre-clinical and clinical computed tomography (CT). For counting detectors acquiring x-ray attenuation in at least three different energy windows, an extended basis component decomposition can be performed in which in addition to the conventional approach of Alvarez and Macovski a third basis component is introduced, e.g., a gadolinium based CT contrast material. After the decomposition of the measured projection data into the basis component projections, conventional filtered-backprojection reconstruction is performed to obtain the basis-component images. In recent work, this basis component decomposition was obtained by maximizing the likelihood-function of the measurements. This procedure is time consuming and often unstable for excessively noisy data or low intrinsic energy resolution of the detector. Therefore, alternative procedures are of interest. Here, we introduce a generalization of the idea of empirical dual-energy processing published by Stenner et al. to multi-energy, photon-counting CT raw data. Instead of working in the image-domain, we use prior spectral knowledge about the acquisition system (tube spectra, bin sensitivities) to parameterize the line-integrals of the basis component decomposition directly in the projection domain. We compare this empirical approach with the maximum-likelihood (ML) approach considering image noise and image bias (artifacts) and see that only moderate noise increase is to be expected for small bias in the empirical approach. Given the drastic reduction of pre-processing time, the empirical approach is considered a viable alternative to the ML approach.
Risk Evaluation on UHV Power Transmission Construction Project Based on AHP and FCE Method
Huiru Zhao; Sen Guo
2014-01-01
Ultra high voltage (UHV) power transmission construction project is a high-tech power grid construction project which faces many risks and uncertainty. Identifying the risk of UHV power transmission construction project can help mitigate the risk loss and promote the smooth construction. The risk evaluation on “Zhejiang-Fuzhou” UHV power transmission construction project was performed based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) method in this paper. Afte...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou Liqiu; Liu Xiaoyi; Liu Xin; Feng Fei; Qi Yulong; Liu Pengcheng
2011-01-01
Objective: To investigate balanced steady-state free precession with flow-sensitive dephasing magnetization preparation (FSD-bSSFP) in the assessment of arteries of foot in diabetic patients. Methods: The lower-extremity peripheral arteries of 43 diabetic patients were evaluated by FSD-bSSFP no contrast MRA and contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) in. Two experienced observers assessed the image quality, degree of venous contaminated and visibility of pedal artery branches by FSD-bSSFP and CE-MRA respectively in consensus. The signal intensity (SI), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the source images of both groups were measured and Wilcoxon and t tests were performed. Results: The image score of FSD-bSSFP group was 2.7±1.1 and CE-MRA was 2.6±0.8, there was no statistical difference (Z= 0.134, P>0.05). The image score of demonstration of the pedal artery branches and degree of venous contamination on FSD-bSSFP were 3.2±0.9 and 1.8±0.4 respectively which were superior to that of CE-MRA (2.5±0.9 and 2.1±0.8 respectively). Significant statistical difference existed between the two groups in demonstration of pedal artery branches (Z=5.246, P 0.05). But CNR of CE-MRA was superior to that of FSD-bSSFP and significant statistical difference existed between these two methods (t=5.113, P<0.01). Conclusion: FSD-bSSFP without contrast could be used in the evaluation of foot arteries in patients of renal dysfunction and diabetes. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guedouar, R.; Zarrad, B.
2010-01-01
For algebraic reconstruction techniques both forward and back projection operators are needed. The ability to perform accurate reconstruction relies fundamentally on the forward projection and back projection methods which are usually, the transpose of each other. Even though the mis-matched pairs may introduce additional errors during the iterative process, the usefulness of mis-matched projector/back projector pairs has been proved in image reconstruction. This work investigates the performance of matched and mis-matched reconstruction pairs using popular forward projectors and their transposes when used in reconstruction tasks with additive simultaneous iterative reconstruction techniques (ASIRT) in a parallel beam approach. Simulated noiseless phantoms are used to compare the performance of the investigated pairs in terms of the root mean squared errors (RMSE) which are calculated between reconstructed slices and the reference in different regions. Results show that mis-matched projection/back projection pairs can promise more accuracy of reconstructed images than matched ones. The forward projection operator performance seems independent of the choice of the back projection operator and vice versa.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guedouar, R., E-mail: raja_guedouar@yahoo.f [Higher School of Health Sciences and Techniques of Monastir, Av. Avicenne, 5060 Monastir, B.P. 128 (Tunisia); Zarrad, B., E-mail: boubakerzarrad@yahoo.f [Higher School of Health Sciences and Techniques of Monastir, Av. Avicenne, 5060 Monastir, B.P. 128 (Tunisia)
2010-07-21
For algebraic reconstruction techniques both forward and back projection operators are needed. The ability to perform accurate reconstruction relies fundamentally on the forward projection and back projection methods which are usually, the transpose of each other. Even though the mis-matched pairs may introduce additional errors during the iterative process, the usefulness of mis-matched projector/back projector pairs has been proved in image reconstruction. This work investigates the performance of matched and mis-matched reconstruction pairs using popular forward projectors and their transposes when used in reconstruction tasks with additive simultaneous iterative reconstruction techniques (ASIRT) in a parallel beam approach. Simulated noiseless phantoms are used to compare the performance of the investigated pairs in terms of the root mean squared errors (RMSE) which are calculated between reconstructed slices and the reference in different regions. Results show that mis-matched projection/back projection pairs can promise more accuracy of reconstructed images than matched ones. The forward projection operator performance seems independent of the choice of the back projection operator and vice versa.
Risk management for engineering projects procedures, methods and tools
Munier, Nolberto
2014-01-01
Many people see risk in engineering projects as an imprecise and nebulous problem - something that exists, is feared and is impossible to deal with. Nothing could be further from the truth. While risk is certainly ubiquitous, sometimes difficult to detect, and cannot always be completely avoided, it can generally be mitigated, reduced or prevented through timely analysis and action. This book covers the entire process of risk management by providing methodologies for determining the sources of project risk, and once threats have been identified, managing them through: · identification and assessment (probability, relative importance, variables, risk breakdown structure, etc.) · implementation of measures for their prevention, reduction or mitigation · evaluation of impacts and quantification of risks · establishment of control measures It also considers sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of uncertain parameters values ...
METHOD FOR SELECTION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPROACH BASED ON FUZZY CONCEPTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor V. KONONENKO
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Literature analysis of works that devoted to research of the selection a project management approach and development of effective methods for this problem solution is given. Mathematical model and method for selection of project management approach with fuzzy concepts of applicability of existing approaches are proposed. The selection is made of such approaches as the PMBOK Guide, the ISO21500 standard, the PRINCE2 methodology, the SWEBOK Guide, agile methodologies Scrum, XP, and Kanban. The number of project parameters which have a great impact on the result of the selection and measure of their impact is determined. Project parameters relate to information about the project, team, communication, critical project risks. They include the number of people involved in the project, the customer's experience with this project team, the project team's experience in this field, the project team's understanding of requirements, adapting ability, initiative, and others. The suggested method is considered on the example of its application for selection a project management approach to software development project.
Project scheduling method with time using MRP system – A case study: Construction project in Libya
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdallah Ali Imetieg
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Materials Requirements and Planning (MRP is a system of production planning and inventory control, which is used to manage manufacturing processes. Most MRP systems are software-based and are used to ensure that the materials are available for production, that the products are available for delivery to customers, that the lowest possible material and product level is maintained in store, as well as to plan delivery schedules and purchasing activities. Upon completion of scheduling, begins the process of follow-up, which includes the achievement of the project goals in terms of quantity, quality and costs in accordance with deadlines. MRP system was applied to project of 5000 housing units in Solug area, which is close to Benghazi city, Libya, with the aim to provide necessary cash flow to pay dues on time without delay to all involved project sub-contractors and material suppliers, to ensure the smooth flow of operations, as well as to diminish costs by reduction of temporary storages and rented areas. There is a correlation between time and cost of each activity. If the required time is shorter than the scheduled time of the certain activity, it would demand more resources, which further leads to the increase in direct costs of the given activity. Therefore, the output of MRP is important since commands are issued through planning in order to launch the suggested orders with the required quantities and within the limited time period.
Sparse Pseudo Spectral Projection Methods with Directional Adaptation for Uncertainty Quantification
Winokur, J.; Kim, D.; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Le Maî tre, O. P.; Knio, Omar
2015-01-01
We investigate two methods to build a polynomial approximation of a model output depending on some parameters. The two approaches are based on pseudo-spectral projection (PSP) methods on adaptively constructed sparse grids, and aim at providing a
Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)
Jones, Harry
2005-01-01
The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation
Variational, projection methods and Pade approximants in scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turchetti, G.
1980-12-01
Several aspects on the scattering theory are discussed in a perturbative scheme. The Pade approximant method plays an important role in such a scheme. Solitons solutions are also discussed in this same scheme. (L.C.) [pt
Neutron method for NDA in the Sapphire Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, K.D.
1995-01-01
The implementation of Project Sapphire, the top-secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons-grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) repacking of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable U.S. containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the 235 U content of each container for nuclear criticality safety and compliance purposes; (3) packaging of the fissile material containers into 6M/2R drums, which are internationally approved for shipping fissile material; and (4) shipping or transport of the recovered fissile material to the United States. This paper discusses the development and application of a passive neutron counting technique used in the NDA phase of the Sapphire operations to analyze uranium/beryllium (U/Be) alloys and compounds for 235 U content
A neutron method for NDA analysis in the SAPPHIRE Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, K.D.
1995-01-01
The implementation of Project SAPPHIRE, the top secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) the re-packing of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable US containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the U-235 content of each container for Nuclear Criticality Safety and compliance purposes; (3) the packaging of the fissile material containers into 6M/2R drums, which are internationally approved for shipping fissile material; and (4) the shipping or transport of the recovered fissile material to the United States. This paper discusses the development and application of a passive neutron counting technique used in the NDA phase of SAPPHIRE operations to analyze uranium/beryllium (U/Be) alloys and compounds for U-235 content
Ossai, Peter Agbadobi Uloku
2016-01-01
This study examined the relationship between students' scores on Research Methods and statistics, and undergraduate project at the final year. The purpose was to find out whether students matched knowledge of research with project-writing skill. The study adopted an expost facto correlational design. Scores on Research Methods and Statistics for…
Projected Gauss-Seidel subspace minimization method for interactive rigid body dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silcowitz-Hansen, Morten; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny
2010-01-01
artifacts such as viscous or damped contact response. In this paper, we present a new approach to contact force determination. We formulate the contact force problem as a nonlinear complementarity problem, and discretize the problem to derive the Projected Gauss–Seidel method. We combine the Projected Gauss......–Seidel method with a subspace minimization method. Our new method shows improved qualities and superior convergence properties for specific configurations....
A method for weighted projections to the positive definite cone
Valkonen, Tuomo
2014-01-01
© 2014 Taylor & Francis. We study the numerical solution of the problem (Formula presented.) , where (Formula presented.) is a symmetric square matrix, and (Formula presented.) is a linear operator, such that (Formula presented.) is invertible. With (Formula presented.) the desired fractional duality gap, and (Formula presented.) the condition number of (Formula presented.) , we prove (Formula presented.) iteration complexity for a simple primal-dual interior point method directly based on those for linear programs with semi-definite constraints. We do not, however, require the numerically expensive scalings inherent in these methods to force fast convergence. For low-dimensional problems (Formula presented.), our numerical experiments indicate excellent performance and only a very slowly growing dependence of the convergence rate on (Formula presented.). While our algorithm requires somewhat more iterations than existing interior point methods, the iterations are cheaper. This gives better computational times.
A method for weighted projections to the positive definite cone
Valkonen, Tuomo
2014-06-24
© 2014 Taylor & Francis. We study the numerical solution of the problem (Formula presented.) , where (Formula presented.) is a symmetric square matrix, and (Formula presented.) is a linear operator, such that (Formula presented.) is invertible. With (Formula presented.) the desired fractional duality gap, and (Formula presented.) the condition number of (Formula presented.) , we prove (Formula presented.) iteration complexity for a simple primal-dual interior point method directly based on those for linear programs with semi-definite constraints. We do not, however, require the numerically expensive scalings inherent in these methods to force fast convergence. For low-dimensional problems (Formula presented.), our numerical experiments indicate excellent performance and only a very slowly growing dependence of the convergence rate on (Formula presented.). While our algorithm requires somewhat more iterations than existing interior point methods, the iterations are cheaper. This gives better computational times.
The Bolmen tunnel project - evaluation of geophysical site investigation methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanfors, R.
1987-12-01
The report presents geophysical measurements along and adjacent to the tunnel and an evaluation of the ability of the various methods to permit prediction of rock mass parameters of significance to stability and water bearing ability. The evaluation shows that, using airborne electro-magnetic surveys, it was possible to indicate about 80% of alla the zones of weakness more than 50 m wide in the tunnel. Airborne magnetic surveys located about 90% of all dolerite dykes more than 10 m wide. Ground-level VLF and Slingram methods of electro-magnetic measurement indicated 75% and 85% respectively of all zones of weakness more than 50 m wide. Resistivity methods were successfully used to locate clay filled and water-bearing fracture zones. About 75% of the length of tunnel over which resistivity values below 500 ohm m were measured required shotcrete support and pre-grouting. (orig./DG)
Tangent stiffness matrices for projection methods in elasto-plasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruttmann, F.; Stein, E.
1988-01-01
In classical elastoplasticity with v. Mises yield condition and associate flow rule it is necessary to integrate the plastic strain rate. The radial return integration algorithm is employed to calculate elastoplastic stresses. In the context of the finite element method, the formulation and numerical solution of nonlinear problems in continuum mechanics is based on the weak form of the momentum balance equation (principle of virtual work). The solution of the nonlinear equations is achieved by the Newton-Raphson method in which a sequence of linear problems is solved. If the linear problem is obtained by consistent linearization one gets a quadratic rate of convergence. (orig.) [de
Prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects using AHP-PROMETHEE II ranking method.
Kessili, Abdelhak; Benmamar, Saadia
2016-01-01
The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for the prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects for Algiers (Algeria) sewer networks to support the National Sanitation Office in its challenge to make decisions on prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects. The methodology applies multiple-criteria decision making. The study includes 47 projects (collectors) and 12 criteria to evaluate them. These criteria represent the different issues considered in the prioritization of the projects, which are structural, hydraulic, environmental, financial, social and technical. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine weights of the criteria and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE II) method is used to obtain the final ranking of the projects. The model was verified using the sewer data of Algiers. The results have shown that the method can be used for prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects.
Application of FMEA method in railway signalling projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szmel Dariusz
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The article presents the FMEA method application, which is relevant in verification of design of two separated railway signalling systems. The efficiency of the method at the stage of the design was discussed. The method was identified as an important element of safety management process and as safety analysis method, which is included in the Safety Case and is applied for the sake of safety arguments and its assessment. Safety process management comprises several phases and appropriate actions, linked with each other in the way to create safety life cycle consistent with system life cycle. The safety case is a set of documents demonstrating that the product is compliant with defined safety requirements including analysis that indicates the correctness of the design and the correct reaction of the system to the failures, with appropriate and requested fail-safe reaction. It is necessary that railway signalling system should fulfil SIL4 requirement and remain safe in case of occurrence any kind of single failure of the equipment considered as possible.
A New Group-Formation Method for Student Projects
Borges, Jose; Dias, Teresa Galvao; Cunha, Joao Falcao E.
2009-01-01
In BSc/MSc engineering programmes at Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), the need to provide students with teamwork experiences close to a real world environment was identified as an important issue. A new group-formation method that aims to provide an enriching teamwork experience is proposed. Students are asked to answer a…
Calculation Method for the Projection of Future Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
B. McLeod
2002-01-01
This report describes the calculation method developed for the projection of future utility spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharges in regard to their timing, quantity, burnup, and initial enrichment. This projection method complements the utility-supplied RW-859 data on historic discharges and short-term projections of SNF discharges by providing long-term projections that complete the total life cycle of discharges for each of the current U.S. nuclear power reactors. The method was initially developed in mid-1999 to update the SNF discharge projection associated with the 1995 RW-859 utility survey (CRWMS M and O 1996). and was further developed as described in Rev. 00 of this report (CRWMS M and O 2001a). Primary input to the projection of SNF discharges is the utility projection of the next five discharges from each nuclear unit, which is provided via the revised final version of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) 1998 RW-859 utility survey (EIA 2000a). The projection calculation method is implemented via a set of Excel 97 spreadsheets. These calculations provide the interface between receipt of the utility five-discharge projections that are provided in the RW-859 survey, and the delivery of projected life-cycle SNF discharge quantities and characteristics in the format requisite for performing logistics analysis to support design of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). Calculation method improvements described in this report include the addition of a reactor-specific maximum enrichment-based discharge burnup limit. This limit is the consequence of the enrichment limit, currently 5 percent. which is imposed as a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license condition on nuclear fuel fabrication plants. In addition, the calculation method now includes the capability for projecting future nuclear plant power upratings, consistent with many such recent plant uprates and the prospect of additional future uprates. Finally. this report
Discounted Cash Flow and Modern Asset Pricing Methods - Project Selection and Policy Implications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M.
2002-07-01
We examine the differences in the net present values (NPV's) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cash flow components. NPV differences of more than $1 Om were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model. (author)
Discounted Cash Flow and Modern Asset Pricing Methods - Project Selection and Policy Implications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M.
2002-01-01
We examine the differences in the net present values (NPV's) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cash flow components. NPV differences of more than $1 Om were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model. (author)
Discounted Cash Flow and Modern Asset Pricing Methods - Project Selection and Policy Implications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M
2002-07-01
We examine the differences in the net present values (NPV's) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cash flow components. NPV differences of more than $1 Om were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model. (author)
Study on operation I and C DCS test method of EPR project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng Ying; Lv Zhihong; Huang Xinnian; Fan Haiying; Li Zhuojia; Xiao Shushu
2014-01-01
Through summarization and optimization of the method for operation I and C DCS test of the European pressurized reactor project, the conclusions play a guiding role on the operation I and C DCS test of the domestic advanced nuclear power plant. The study of the method focuses on the test platform, the test process and the optimization of method of operation I and C DCS test with the practical experience. The reasonable and reliable test method for operation I and C DCS test of the European pressurized reactor project is worthy of the reference and the development in the project of the domestic advanced nuclear power plant. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M.
2003-01-01
We examine the differences in the net present values (NPVs) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the weighted average cost of capital and a modern asset pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cashflow components. NPV differences of more than $10 million were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies and could influence tax policy. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model
Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.
1986-07-01
Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.
Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.
1986-07-01
Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date
Manufacturing Methods & Technology Project Execution Report. Second Half CY 1980
1981-03-01
TO PURSUE DIETHYLENE GLYCOL PROCESS. 5 76 4114 P27 SOLID WASTE SOIL Dl FOSAL TECHNIQUES EYPERIMENTAL WORK AT CRANE IND PROVED THAT NO AIRBORNE TNT OR...DERIVATIVES RELEASED DURING COMPOSTING OPERATION. ALSO NO TOXIC PRODUCTS PRODUCED* FINAL COMFOSTED PRODUCT MAY BE RETURNED TO THE LAND AS A SOIL ...AND CONSIDERABLY MORE EFFICIENT THAN COMPETING METHODS, A NOZZLE OSN AND OPN COND WERE ESTAB WHICH WILL BE USL ) AS THE FIRST TRIAL DURING THE PILOT
Image/patient registration from (partial) projection data by the Fourier phase matching method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiguo Lu; You, J.
1999-01-01
A technique for 2D or 3D image/patient registration, PFPM (projection based Fourier phase matching method), is proposed. This technique provides image/patient registration directly from sequential tomographic projection data. The method can also deal with image files by generating 2D Radon transforms slice by slice. The registration in projection space is done by calculating a Fourier invariant (FI) descriptor for each one-dimensional projection datum, and then registering the FI descriptor by the Fourier phase matching (FPM) method. The algorithm has been tested on both synthetic and experimental data. When dealing with translated, rotated and uniformly scaled 2D image registration, the performance of the PFPM method is comparable to that of the IFPM (image based Fourier phase matching) method in robustness, efficiency, insensitivity to the offset between images, and registration time. The advantages of the former are that subpixel resolution is feasible, and it is more insensitive to image noise due to the averaging effect of the projection acquisition. Furthermore, the PFPM method offers the ability to generalize to 3D image/patient registration and to register partial projection data. By applying patient registration directly from tomographic projection data, image reconstruction is not needed in the therapy set-up verification, thus reducing computational time and artefacts. In addition, real time registration is feasible. Registration from partial projection data meets the geometry and dose requirements in many application cases and makes dynamic set-up verification possible in tomotherapy. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jobelin, M
2006-10-15
This thesis treats of time resolution methods for the Navier-Stokes equations. Based on the well-known projection method of Chorin and Temam, an original pressure correction method, named 'projection-penalty' is developed. Its specificity concerns the addition of a penalty term in the prediction step, which constrains the predicted velocity to fit with the mass balance. The precision improvements added by this method are demonstrated by some analysis results and by some numerical experiments of incompressible or dilatable flows. Finally, the potentialities offered by the use of the joint finite elements method in this type of fractionary step scheme is studied. Two applications are presented, one for local refinement purpose, the other for the resolution of a multi-physics problem. (J.S.)
Urologic diseases in America Project: analytical methods and principal findings.
Litwin, Mark S; Saigal, Christopher S; Yano, Elizabeth M; Avila, Chantal; Geschwind, Sandy A; Hanley, Jan M; Joyce, Geoffrey F; Madison, Rodger; Pace, Jennifer; Polich, Suzanne M; Wang, Mingming
2005-03-01
The burden of urological diseases on the American public is immense in human and financial terms but it has been under studied. We undertook a project, Urologic Diseases in America, to quantify the burden of urological diseases on the American public. We identified public and private data sources that contain population based data on resource utilization by patients with benign and malignant urological conditions. Sources included the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Department of Veterans Affairs, National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, and private data sets maintained by MarketScan Health and Productivity Management (MarketScan, Chichester, United Kingdom), Ingenix (Ingenix, Salt Lake City, Utah) and Center for Health Care Policy and Evaluation. Using diagnosis and procedure codes we described trends in the utilization of urological services. In 2000 urinary tract infections accounted for more than 6.8 million office visits and 1.3 million emergency room visits, and 245,000 hospitalizations in women with an annual cost of more than 2.4 billion dollars. Urinary tract infections accounted for more than 1.4 million office visits, 424,000 emergency room visits and 121,000 hospitalizations in men with an annual cost of more than 1 billion dollars. Benign prostatic hyperplasia was the primary diagnosis in more than 4.4 million office visits, 117,000 emergency room visits and 105,000 hospitalizations, accounting for 1.1 billion dollars in expenditures that year. Urolithiasis was the primary diagnosis for almost 2 million office visits, more than 600,000 emergency room visits, and more than 177,000 hospitalizations, totaling more than 2 billion dollars in annual expenditures. Urinary incontinence in women was the primary cause for more than 1.1 million office visits in 2000 and 452 million dollars in
A projection and density estimation method for knowledge discovery.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Stanski
Full Text Available A key ingredient to modern data analysis is probability density estimation. However, it is well known that the curse of dimensionality prevents a proper estimation of densities in high dimensions. The problem is typically circumvented by using a fixed set of assumptions about the data, e.g., by assuming partial independence of features, data on a manifold or a customized kernel. These fixed assumptions limit the applicability of a method. In this paper we propose a framework that uses a flexible set of assumptions instead. It allows to tailor a model to various problems by means of 1d-decompositions. The approach achieves a fast runtime and is not limited by the curse of dimensionality as all estimations are performed in 1d-space. The wide range of applications is demonstrated at two very different real world examples. The first is a data mining software that allows the fully automatic discovery of patterns. The software is publicly available for evaluation. As a second example an image segmentation method is realized. It achieves state of the art performance on a benchmark dataset although it uses only a fraction of the training data and very simple features.
A method for evaluating the funding of components of natural resource and conservation projects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wellington, John F., E-mail: welling@ipfw.edu [Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW), Doermer School of Business, 203 Stonegate Drive Erie, PA 16505 (United States); Lewis, Stephen A., E-mail: lewis.sa07@gmail.com [Mongrel Works, LLC., Columbus, OH 43209 (United States)
2016-02-15
Many public and private entities such as government agencies and private foundations have missions related to the improvement, protection, and sustainability of the environment. In pursuit of their missions, they fund projects with related outcomes. Typically, the funding scene consists of scarce funding dollars for the many project requests. In light of funding limitations and funder's search for innovative funding schemes, a method to support the allocation of scarce dollars among project components is presented. The proposed scheme has similarities to methods in the project selection literature but differs in its focus on project components and its connection to and enumeration of the universe of funding possibilities. The value of having access to the universe is demonstrated with illustrations. The presentation includes Excel implementations that should appeal to a broad spectrum of project evaluators and reviewers. Access to the space of funding possibilities facilitates a rich analysis of funding alternatives. - Highlights: • Method is given for allocating scarce funding dollars among competing projects. • Allocations are made to fund parts of projects • Proposed method provides access to the universe of funding possibilities. • Proposed method facilitates a rich analysis of funding possibilities. • Excel spreadsheet implementations are provided.
A method for evaluating the funding of components of natural resource and conservation projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wellington, John F.; Lewis, Stephen A.
2016-01-01
Many public and private entities such as government agencies and private foundations have missions related to the improvement, protection, and sustainability of the environment. In pursuit of their missions, they fund projects with related outcomes. Typically, the funding scene consists of scarce funding dollars for the many project requests. In light of funding limitations and funder's search for innovative funding schemes, a method to support the allocation of scarce dollars among project components is presented. The proposed scheme has similarities to methods in the project selection literature but differs in its focus on project components and its connection to and enumeration of the universe of funding possibilities. The value of having access to the universe is demonstrated with illustrations. The presentation includes Excel implementations that should appeal to a broad spectrum of project evaluators and reviewers. Access to the space of funding possibilities facilitates a rich analysis of funding alternatives. - Highlights: • Method is given for allocating scarce funding dollars among competing projects. • Allocations are made to fund parts of projects • Proposed method provides access to the universe of funding possibilities. • Proposed method facilitates a rich analysis of funding possibilities. • Excel spreadsheet implementations are provided
PROBLEM-SOLVING METHODS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Александр Васильевич СИДОРЧУК
2015-05-01
Full Text Available There have been proposed projects of technical development for agricultural producers. The conclusions about system features research projects that underlie the problem-solving methods of project management, have been made. There have been proved these projects (systems that can be simulated with the help of the research and formalization of many events. These events are components of the seven main factors of the agricultural production. The conclusion about the using the research method of the probabilistic nature events in the field of the crops projects with the help of the statistical and imitational models, have been developed. There have been considered the relation between the forecasting of functional marks of the technological systems and the estimation of their cost. And there have been found the optimum correspondence between parameters of the technical supply and planned features of the crops projects.
COGNITIVE MODELING AS A METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF IT PROJECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Інна Ігорівна ОНИЩЕНКО
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The example project implementing automated CRM-system demonstrated the possibility and features of cognitive modeling in the qualitative analysis of project risks to determine their additional features. Proposed construction of cognitive models of project risks in information technology within the qualitative risk analysis, additional assessments as a method of ranking risk to characterize the relationship between them. The proposed cognitive model reflecting the relationship between the risk of IT project to assess the negative and the positive impact of certain risks for the remaining risks of project implementation of the automated CRM-system. The ability to influence the risk of a fact of other project risks can increase the priority of risk with low impact on results due to its relationship with other project risks.
Analysis of Conflict Centers in Projects Procured with Traditional and Integrated Methods in Nigeria
Martin O. Dada
2012-01-01
Conflicts in any organization can either be functional or dysfunctional and can contribute to or detract from the achievement of organizational or project objectives. This study investigated the frequency and intensity of conflicts, using five conflict centers, on projects executed with either the integrated or traditional method in Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered through purposive and snowballing techniques on 274 projects located in twelve states of Nigeria and Abuja. 94 usable ...
Statistical methods for mechanistic model validation: Salt Repository Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eggett, D.L.
1988-07-01
As part of the Department of Energy's Salt Repository Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the emplacement of nuclear waste containers in a salt repository. One objective of the SRP program is to develop an overall waste package component model which adequately describes such phenomena as container corrosion, waste form leaching, spent fuel degradation, etc., which are possible in the salt repository environment. The form of this model will be proposed, based on scientific principles and relevant salt repository conditions with supporting data. The model will be used to predict the future characteristics of the near field environment. This involves several different submodels such as the amount of time it takes a brine solution to contact a canister in the repository, how long it takes a canister to corrode and expose its contents to the brine, the leach rate of the contents of the canister, etc. These submodels are often tested in a laboratory and should be statistically validated (in this context, validate means to demonstrate that the model adequately describes the data) before they can be incorporated into the waste package component model. This report describes statistical methods for validating these models. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs
Davis, Eric J.; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan
2017-01-01
Presented is a project-based learning (PBL) laboratory approach for an upper-division environmental chemistry or quantitative analysis course. In this work, a combined laboratory class of 11 environmental chemistry students developed a method based on published EPA methods for the extraction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its…
"A Marriage on the Rocks": An Unknown Letter by William H. Kilpatrick about His Project Method
Knoll, Michael
2010-01-01
William H. Kilpatrick is worldwide known as "Mr. Project Method." But the origin of his celebrated paper of 1918 has never been explored. The discovery of a hitherto unknown letter reveals that Kilpatrick was an educational entrepreneur who, without regard for language and tradition, adopted the term "project" and used it in a provocative new way…
Experience in Use of Project Method during Technology Lessons in Secondary Schools of the USA
Sheludko, Inna
2015-01-01
The article examines the opportunities and prospects for the use of experience of project method during "technology lessons" in US secondary schools, since the value of project technology implementation experience into the educational process in the USA for ensuring holistic development of children, preparing them for adult life, in…
4D CAD Based Method for Supporting Coordination of Urban Subsurface Utility Projects
olde Scholtenhuis, Léon Luc; Hartmann, T.; Doree, Andries G.
Coordinators of inner city utility construction works face increasing difficulty in managing their projects due to tight physical restrictions, strict deadlines and growing stakeholder fragmentation. This paper therefore presents a 4D CAD based coordination method that supports project plan scoping,
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiu Guohua
2008-01-01
Based on the characteristics and environmental radiological impact of the highway construction project, the basic procedure of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project is put forward, including analysis and determination of contamination sources, selection of evaluation factors, determination of assessment range and dose limit, environmental investigation, environmental impact prediction and assessment. The working method of each procedure is analyzed. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Qing-Hua
2014-01-01
In this paper, a new fractional projective Riccati equation method is proposed to establish exact solutions for fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann—Liouville derivative. This method can be seen as the fractional version of the known projective Riccati equation method. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply this method to solve the space-time fractional Whitham—Broer—Kaup (WBK) equations and the nonlinear fractional Sharma—Tasso—Olever (STO) equation, and as a result, some new exact solutions for them are obtained. (general)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kisielnicki Jerzy
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The global Business Intelligence (BI market grew by 7.3% in 2016 according to the Gartner report (2017. Today, organizations require better use of data and analytics to support their business decisions. Internet power and business trend changes have provided a broad term for data analytics - Big Data. To be able to handle it and leverage a value of having access to Big Data, organizations have no other choice than to get proper systems implemented and working. However, traditional methods are not efficient for changing business needs. Long time between project start and go-live causes a gap between initial solution blueprint and actual user requirements at the end of the project. This article presents the latest market trends in BI systems implementation by comparing agile with traditional methods. It presents a case study provided in a large telecommunications company (350 BI users and the results of a pilot research provided in the three large companies: media, digital, and insurance. Both studies prove that agile methods might be more effective in BI projects from an end-user perspective and give first results and added value in a much shorter time compared to a traditional approach.
Convergence Properties of Projection and Contraction Methods for Variational Inequality Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiu, N.; Wang, C.; Zhang, J.
2001-01-01
In this paper we develop the convergence theory of a general class of projection and contraction algorithms (PC method), where an extended stepsize rule is used, for solving variational inequality (VI) problems. It is shown that, by defining a scaled projection residue, the PC method forces the sequence of the residues to zero. It is also shown that, by defining a projected function, the PC method forces the sequence of projected functions to zero. A consequence of this result is that if the PC method converges to a nondegenerate solution of the VI problem, then after a finite number of iterations, the optimal face is identified. Finally, we study local convergence behavior of the extragradient algorithm for solving the KKT system of the inequality constrained VI problem
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Staker, R
2003-01-01
This report demonstrates the application of a Bayesian Belief Network decision support method for Force Level Systems Engineering to a collection of projects related to Aerospace Surveillance and Battle Management...
Lessons learned applying CASE methods/tools to Ada software development projects
Blumberg, Maurice H.; Randall, Richard L.
1993-01-01
This paper describes the lessons learned from introducing CASE methods/tools into organizations and applying them to actual Ada software development projects. This paper will be useful to any organization planning to introduce a software engineering environment (SEE) or evolving an existing one. It contains management level lessons learned, as well as lessons learned in using specific SEE tools/methods. The experiences presented are from Alpha Test projects established under the STARS (Software Technology for Adaptable and Reliable Systems) project. They reflect the front end efforts by those projects to understand the tools/methods, initial experiences in their introduction and use, and later experiences in the use of specific tools/methods and the introduction of new ones.
Roszak, Katarzyna; Cywiński, Łukasz
2018-01-01
We find that when a qubit initialized in a pure state experiences pure dephasing due to interaction with an environment, separable qubit-environment states generated during the evolution also have zero quantum discord with respect to the environment. What follows is that the set of separable states which can be reached during the evolution has zero volume, and hence, such effects as sudden death of qubit-environment entanglement are very unlikely. In the case of the discord with respect to the qubit, a vast majority of qubit-environment separable states is discordant, but in specific situations zero-discord states are possible. This is conceptually important since there is a connection between the discordance with respect to a given subsystem and the possibility of describing the evolution of this subsystem using completely positive maps. Finally, we use the formalism to find an exemplary evolution of an entangled state of two qubits that is completely positive, and occurs solely due to interaction of only one of the qubits with its environment (so one could guess that it corresponds to a local operation, since it is local in a physical sense), but which nevertheless causes the enhancement of entanglement between the qubits. While this simply means that the considered evolution is completely positive, but does not belong to local operations and classical communication, it shows how much caution has to be exercised when identifying evolution channels that belong to that class.
New Method of Selecting Efficient Project Portfolios in the Presence of Hybrid Uncertainty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogdan Rębiasz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A new methods of selecting efficient project portfolios in the presence of hybrid uncertainty has been presented. Pareto optimal solutions have been defined by an algorithm for generating project portfolios. The method presented allows us to select efficient project portfolios taking into account statistical and economic dependencies between projects when some of the parameters used in the calculation of effectiveness can be expressed in the form of an interactive possibility distribution and some in the form of a probability distribution. The procedure for processing such hybrid data combines stochastic simulation with nonlinear programming. The interaction between data are modeled by correlation matrices and the interval regression. Economic dependences are taken into account by the equations balancing the production capacity of the company. The practical example presented indicates that an interaction between projects has a significant impact on the results of calculations. (original abstract
Phase retrieval with the reverse projection method in the presence of object's scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang
2017-01-01
X-ray grating interferometry can provide substantially increased contrast over traditional attenuation-based techniques in biomedical applications, and therefore novel and complementary information. Recently, special attention has been paid to quantitative phase retrieval in X-ray grating interferometry, which is mandatory to perform phase tomography, to achieve material identification, etc. An innovative approach, dubbed “Reverse Projection” (RP), has been developed for quantitative phase retrieval. The RP method abandons grating scanning completely, and is thus advantageous in terms of higher efficiency and reduced radiation damage. Therefore, it is expected that this novel method would find its potential in preclinical and clinical implementations. Strictly speaking, the reverse projection method is applicable for objects exhibiting only absorption and refraction. In this contribution, we discuss the phase retrieval with the reverse projection method for general objects with absorption, refraction and scattering simultaneously. Especially, we investigate the influence of the object's scattering on the retrieved refraction signal. Both theoretical analysis and numerical experiments are performed. The results show that the retrieved refraction signal is the product of object's refraction and scattering signals for small values. In the case of a strong scattering, the reverse projection method cannot provide reliable phase retrieval. Those presented results will guide the use of the reverse projection method for future practical applications, and help to explain some possible artifacts in the retrieved images and/or reconstructed slices. - Highlights: • Accurate phase retrieval by the reverse projection method without object's scattering. • Retrieved refraction signal contaminated by the object's scattering. • Refraction signal underestimated by the reverse projection method. • Guide the use of the reverse projection method for
Tang, Yang; Fang, Jian-an
2008-03-01
This work is concerned with the general methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems. A systematic method of active control is developed to synchronize two hyperchaotic systems with known parameters. Moreover, by combining the adaptive control and linear feedback methods, general sufficient conditions for the modified projective synchronization of identical or different chaotic systems with fully unknown or partially unknown parameters are presented. Meanwhile, the speed of parameters identification can be regulated by adjusting adaptive gain matrix. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Selection of Investment Projects by Monte Carlo Method in Risk Condition
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M. E.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The Monte Carlo method (also known as the Monte Carlo simulation was proposed by Nicholas Metropolis, S. Ulam and Jhon Von Neiman in 50-th years of the past century. The method can be widely applied to analysis of investment projects due to the advantages recognized both by practitioners and the academic community. The balance model of a project with discounted financial flows has been implemented for Microsoft Excel and Google Docs spread-sheet solutions. The Monte Carlo method for project with low and high correlated net present value (NPV parameters in the environment of the electronic tables of MS Excel/Google Docs. A distinct graduation of risk was identified. A necessity of account of correlation effects and the use of multivariate imitation during the project selection has been demonstrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ru Liang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The magnitude of business dynamics has increased rapidly due to increased complexity, uncertainty, and risk of large-scale infrastructure projects. This fact made it increasingly tough to “go alone” into a contractor. As a consequence, joint venture contractors with diverse strengths and weaknesses cooperatively bid for bidding. Understanding project complexity and making decision on the optimal joint venture contractor is challenging. This paper is to study how to select joint venture contractors for undertaking large-scale infrastructure projects based on a multiattribute mathematical model. Two different methods are developed to solve the problem. One is based on ideal points and the other one is based on balanced ideal advantages. Both of the two methods consider individual difference in expert judgment and contractor attributes. A case study of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao-Bridge (HZMB project in China is used to demonstrate how to apply these two methods and their advantages.
Han, Shenchao; Yang, Yanchun; Liu, Yude; Zhang, Peng; Li, Siwei
2018-01-01
It is effective to reduce haze in winter by changing the distributed heat supply system. Thus, the studies on comprehensive index system and scientific evaluation method of distributed heat supply project are essential. Firstly, research the influence factors of heating modes, and an index system with multiple dimension including economic, environmental, risk and flexibility was built and all indexes were quantified. Secondly, a comprehensive evaluation method based on AHP was put forward to analyze the proposed multiple and comprehensive index system. Lastly, the case study suggested that supplying heat with electricity has great advantage and promotional value. The comprehensive index system of distributed heating supply project and evaluation method in this paper can evaluate distributed heat supply project effectively and provide scientific support for choosing the distributed heating project.
Fuzzy based method for project planning of the infrastructure design for the diagnostic in ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piros, Attila; Veres, Gábor
2013-01-01
The long-term design projects need special preparation before the start of the execution. This preparation usually includes the drawing of the network diagram for the whole procedure. This diagram includes the time estimation of the individual subtasks and gives us information about the predicted dates of the milestones. The calculated critical path in this network characterizes a specific design project concerning to its duration very well. Several methods are available to support this step of preparation. This paper describes a new method to map the structure of the design process and clarify the milestones and predict the dates of these milestones. The method is based on the PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) network but as a novelty it applies fuzzy logic to find out the concerning times in this graph. With the application of the fuzzy logic the handling of the different kinds of design uncertainties becomes feasible. Many kinds of design uncertainties exist from the possible electric blackout up to the illness of an engineer. In many cases these uncertainties are related with human errors and described with linguistic expressions. The fuzzy logic enables to transform these ambiguous expressions into numeric values for further mathematical evaluation. The method is introduced in the planning of the design project of the infrastructure for the diagnostic systems of ITER. The method not only helps the project in the planning phase, but it will be a powerful tool in mathematical modeling and monitoring of the project execution
Fuzzy based method for project planning of the infrastructure design for the diagnostic in ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piros, Attila, E-mail: attila.piros@gt3.bme.hu [Department of Machine and Product Design, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Veres, Gábor [Department of Plasma Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)
2013-10-15
The long-term design projects need special preparation before the start of the execution. This preparation usually includes the drawing of the network diagram for the whole procedure. This diagram includes the time estimation of the individual subtasks and gives us information about the predicted dates of the milestones. The calculated critical path in this network characterizes a specific design project concerning to its duration very well. Several methods are available to support this step of preparation. This paper describes a new method to map the structure of the design process and clarify the milestones and predict the dates of these milestones. The method is based on the PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) network but as a novelty it applies fuzzy logic to find out the concerning times in this graph. With the application of the fuzzy logic the handling of the different kinds of design uncertainties becomes feasible. Many kinds of design uncertainties exist from the possible electric blackout up to the illness of an engineer. In many cases these uncertainties are related with human errors and described with linguistic expressions. The fuzzy logic enables to transform these ambiguous expressions into numeric values for further mathematical evaluation. The method is introduced in the planning of the design project of the infrastructure for the diagnostic systems of ITER. The method not only helps the project in the planning phase, but it will be a powerful tool in mathematical modeling and monitoring of the project execution.
The Use of the Nelder-Mead Method in Determining Projection Parameters for Globe Photographs
Gede, M.
2009-04-01
A photo of a terrestrial or celestial globe can be handled as a map. The only hard issue is its projection: the so-called Tilted Perspective Projection which, if the optical axis of the photo intersects the globe's centre, is simplified to the Vertical Near-Side Perspective Projection. When georeferencing such a photo, the exact parameters of the projections are also needed. These parameters depend on the position of the viewpoint of the camera. Several hundreds of globe photos had to be georeferenced during the Virtual Globes Museum project, which made necessary to automatize the calculation of the projection parameters. The author developed a program for this task which uses the Nelder-Mead Method in order to find the optimum parameters when a set of control points are given as input. The Nelder-Mead method is a numerical algorithm for minimizing a function in a many-dimensional space. The function in the present application is the average error of the control points calculated from the actual values of parameters. The parameters are the geographical coordinates of the projection centre, the image coordinates of the same point, the rotation of the projection, the height of the perspective point and the scale of the photo (calculated in pixels/km). The program reads the Global Mappers Ground Control Point (.GCP) file format as input and creates projection description files (.PRJ) for the same software. The initial values of the geographical coordinates of the projection centre are calculated as the average of the control points, while the other parameters are set to experimental values which represent the most common circumstances of taking a globe photograph. The algorithm runs until the change of the parameters sinks below a pre-defined limit. The minimum search can be refined by using the previous result parameter set as new initial values. This paper introduces the calculation mechanism and examples of the usage. Other possible other usages of the method are
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aristarchus Pranayama Kuntjara
2009-01-01
Full Text Available I have devised a methodical research outline for students’ final projects that involve photography as their main medium. The method accommodates the two major kinds of photographic project characteristics. The first is the conceptual or the commercial type, and second is the observational or the photo story type. This article focuses on a photo story type project by a student who has followed the method closely. Osel Gunarso focused his study on documenting a unique acculturation between Christian tradition and Balinese customs in the village of Blimbingsari in Jembrana County, Bali. Through ethnography and qualitative analysis, Gunarso achieved visual discourse for understanding a cultural phenomenon. Although he had beautifully exhibited his documentary project, it also projected several problems and issues that would be important to consider in future projects with similar conditions, especially undergraduate final projects that are confined to a single semester. Technical and non-technical issues in documentary photography become significant and therefore must be addressed in advance along with the methodology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Miaoer; Ren Yuxin; Zhang Hanxin
2004-01-01
In this paper, a continuous projection method is designed and analyzed. The continuous projection method consists of a set of partial differential equations which can be regarded as an approximation of the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in each time interval of a given time discretization. The local truncation error (LTE) analysis is applied to the continuous projection methods, which yields a sufficient condition for the continuous projection methods to be temporally second order accurate. Based on this sufficient condition, a fully second order accurate discrete projection method is proposed. A heuristic stability analysis is performed to this projection method showing that the present projection method can be stable. The stability of the present scheme is further verified through numerical experiments. The second order accuracy of the present projection method is confirmed by several numerical test cases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fledelius, Walther; Keall, Paul J.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Lu Jun; Brackbill, Emily; Hugo, Geoffrey D.
2011-01-01
Purpose: Implanted markers are commonly used in radiotherapy for x-ray based target localization. The projected marker position in a series of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections can be used to estimate the three dimensional (3D) target trajectory during the CBCT acquisition. This has important applications in tumor motion management such as motion inclusive, gating, and tumor tracking strategies. However, for irregularly shaped markers, reliable segmentation is challenged by large variations in the marker shape with projection angle. The purpose of this study was to develop a semiautomated method for robust and reliable segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections. Methods: The segmentation method involved the following three steps: (1) Threshold based segmentation of the marker in three to six selected projections with large angular separation, good marker contrast, and uniform background; (2) construction of a 3D marker model by coalignment and backprojection of the threshold-based segmentations; and (3) construction of marker templates at all imaging angles by projection of the 3D model and use of these templates for template-based segmentation. The versatility of the segmentation method was demonstrated by segmentation of the following structures in the projections from two clinical CBCT scans: (1) Three linear fiducial markers (Visicoil) implanted in or near a lung tumor and (2) an artificial cardiac valve in a lung cancer patient. Results: Automatic marker segmentation was obtained in more than 99.9% of the cases. The segmentation failed in a few cases where the marker was either close to a structure of similar appearance or hidden behind a dense structure (data cable). Conclusions: A robust template-based method for segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections was developed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Argaw Tarekegn Gurmu
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This research investigates management practices that have the potential to enhance productivity in building projects by focusing on construction methods. In phase 1 of the study, face-to-face interviews with nineteen experts were conducted to identify the best management practices for construction methods. The qualitative data analysis reached saturation and resulted in a list of best practices for construction methods that are relevant to the local industry. The second phase used an industry-wide survey to prioritize the best practices. Accordingly, project start-up plan, traffic control plan, machinery positioning strategy, project completion plan, and dynamic site layout plan were shown to be the top five best practices for construction methods. The study also revealed that high levels of implementation of best practices are associated with low levels of project delays. The use of best practices also varied according to the project costs. There were no discernible differences between the top five best practices. The authors suggest that they should be implemented jointly to improve productivity in building projects. Contractors could use the logistic regression model developed, to predict the probability of exceeding a baseline productivity factor and, on that basis, implement corrective actions to achieve the desired level of productivity.
Investigation of the Relationship between Green Design and Project Delivery Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bilec, Melissa M.; Ries, Robert J.
2008-04-24
The selection of the project delivery method (PDM) for any project is critical--it establishes communication, coordination, and contractual issues between the owner, contractor, and designer. With an increase in the number of green design projects, understanding the relationship between the PDM and green design is paramount to project and contract management. It is reasonable to assume that a positive relationship between green design and design-build (DB) exists since both theoretically are intended to foster an integrated, holistic, and collaborative project. This research examines the relationship between the design-bid-build (DBB), construction management (CM), and DB PDMs and green design with the goal of establishing best practices and identifying potential synergies between them. The research collected information by conducting primarily telephone interviews with approximately twenty-five individuals, including owners, contractors, and designers involved in completed green design projects, mainly in the public sector. The interviews developed a general understanding of the current state of knowledge and experience and not a rigorous quantitative analysis. Upon completion of the interviews, the tabulated results were summarized and green project characteristics and project-PDM interactions emerged. Existing published research was evaluated to reveal aspects of PDMs independent of green design. Best practices were ascertained by combining information from the interviews and published research. Best practices are as follows: (1) Project implementation features--The decision to use DB as PDM on green design or other projects should be based on the specific project features; e.g., well-defined scope and adequate owner staffing. DB will not produce successful results on all projects. (2) Collaboration--Project team collaboration early in the design and construction process is an important aspect of green projects, and collaboration was considered somewhat more
Chen, Zhiwen
2017-01-01
Zhiwen Chen aims to develop advanced fault detection (FD) methods for the monitoring of industrial processes. With the ever increasing demands on reliability and safety in industrial processes, fault detection has become an important issue. Although the model-based fault detection theory has been well studied in the past decades, its applications are limited to large-scale industrial processes because it is difficult to build accurate models. Furthermore, motivated by the limitations of existing data-driven FD methods, novel canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and projection-based methods are proposed from the perspectives of process input and output data, less engineering effort and wide application scope. For performance evaluation of FD methods, a new index is also developed. Contents A New Index for Performance Evaluation of FD Methods CCA-based FD Method for the Monitoring of Stationary Processes Projection-based FD Method for the Monitoring of Dynamic Processes Benchmark Study and Real-Time Implementat...
Zurovac, Jelena; Esposito, Dominick
2014-11-01
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) directed nearly US$29.2 million to comparative effectiveness research (CER) methods development. To help inform future CER methods investments, we describe the ARRA CER methods projects, identify barriers to this research and discuss the alignment of topics with published methods development priorities. We used several existing resources and held discussions with ARRA CER methods investigators. Although funded projects explored many identified priority topics, investigators noted that much work remains. For example, given the considerable investments in CER data infrastructure, the methods development field can benefit from additional efforts to educate researchers about the availability of new data sources and about how best to apply methods to match their research questions and data.
Esser, P.M.; Staalduinen, P.C. van; Tas, A.C.
1999-01-01
Woodcare was a European project coordinated by English heritage. The aim of the research was to develop more targeted and more environmentally friendly treatment methods for Death watch beetle infections in Oak constructions of historical buildings. TNO has developed two new methods for fast and
Kaliszyk, C.; Urban, J.; Vyskocil, J.; Geuvers, J.H.; Watt, S.M.; Davenport, J.H.; Sexton, A.P.; Sojka, P.; Urban, J.
2014-01-01
The goal of this project is to (i) accumulate annotated informal/formal mathematical corpora suitable for training semi-automated translation between informal and formal mathematics by statistical machine-translation methods, (ii) to develop such methods oriented at the formalization task, and in
An Accurate and Impartial Expert Assignment Method for Scientific Project Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingliang Yue
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper proposes an expert assignment method for scientific project review that considers both accuracy and impartiality. As impartial and accurate peer review is extremely important to ensure the quality and feasibility of scientific projects, enhanced methods for managing the process are needed. Design/methodology/approach: To ensure both accuracy and impartiality, we design four criteria, the reviewers’ fitness degree, research intensity, academic association, and potential conflict of interest, to express the characteristics of an appropriate peer review expert. We first formalize the expert assignment problem as an optimization problem based on the designed criteria, and then propose a randomized algorithm to solve the expert assignment problem of identifying reviewer adequacy. Findings: Simulation results show that the proposed method is quite accurate and impartial during expert assignment. Research limitations: Although the criteria used in this paper can properly show the characteristics of a good and appropriate peer review expert, more criteria/conditions can be included in the proposed scheme to further enhance accuracy and impartiality of the expert assignment. Practical implications: The proposed method can help project funding agencies (e.g. the National Natural Science Foundation of China find better experts for project peer review. Originality/value: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first publication that proposes an algorithm that applies an impartial approach to the project review expert assignment process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Collaborative decision-making on wind power projects based on AHP method
Badea, A.; Proştean, G.; Tămăşilă, M.; Vârtosu, A.
2017-01-01
The complexity of projects implementation in Renewable Energy Sources (RES) requires finding collaborative alliances between suppliers and project developers in RES. Links activities in supply chain in RES, respectively, transportation of heavy components, processing orders to purchase quality raw materials, storage and materials handling, packaging, and other complex activities requiring a logistics system collaboratively to be permanently dimensioned properly selected and monitored. Requirements imposed by stringency of wind power energy projects implementation inevitably involves constraints in infrastructure, implementation and logistics. Thus, following an extensive research in RES project, to eliminate these constraints were identified alternative collaboration to provide feasible solutions on different levels of performance. The paper presents a critical analysis of different collaboration alternatives in supply chain for RES projects, selecting the ones most suitable for particular situations by using decision-making method Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The role of AHP method was to formulate a decision model by which can be establish the collaboration alternative choice through mathematical calculation to reduce the impact created by constraints encountered. The solution provided through AHP provides a framework for detecting optimal alternative collaboration between suppliers and project developers in RES and avoids some breaks in the chain by resizing safety buffers for leveling orders in RES projects.
Tools and Methods for Risk Management in Multi-Site Engineering Projects
Zhou, Mingwei; Nemes, Laszlo; Reidsema, Carl; Ahmed, Ammar; Kayis, Berman
In today's highly global business environment, engineering and manufacturing projects often involve two or more geographically dispersed units or departments, research centers or companies. This paper attempts to identify the requirements for risk management in a multi-site engineering project environment, and presents a review of the state-of-the-art tools and methods that can be used to manage risks in multi-site engineering projects. This leads to the development of a risk management roadmap, which will underpin the design and implementation of an intelligent risk mapping system.
INFORMATION SUPPORT OF THE PROJECT AS A METHOD OF FORMING METASUBJECT KNOWLEDGE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
И Ф Зыкова
2016-12-01
Full Text Available One of the fastest growing educational facilities is an online training. it is aimed at the remote receive quality knowledge in different subjects and disciplines. Given the prospects for the development of teaching aids, we have considered the possibility of its integration into the traditional school systems. In particular, we have demonstrated the implementation of this method of learning through project- based learning - students create educational materials that will be posted on the Internet.In the article the different software tools were analyzed, allowing to implement all stages of the project development with the help of cloud computing, that is, providing a collaborative and interactive way to work on the project. There are online boards for the initial stages of project development, software for management and structured storage of documents, as well as platforms that enable aesthetically and creatively presentation of the project.Given the metasubject nature of topology, the integrative component of a method of projects, we have created an online tutorial on “A method of solving mazes.” Which answers our goal - to investigate the possibility of forming metasubject knowledge by studying the topological elements in the school course.
A method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.
1981-01-01
A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not from observed data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Michael [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Haeri, Hossein [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States); Reynolds, Arlis [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States)
2017-09-28
This chapter provides a set of model protocols for determining energy and demand savings that result from specific energy efficiency measures implemented through state and utility efficiency programs. The methods described here are approaches that are or are among the most commonly used and accepted in the energy efficiency industry for certain measures or programs. As such, they draw from the existing body of research and best practices for energy efficiency program evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V). These protocols were developed as part of the Uniform Methods Project (UMP), funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective for the project was to establish easy-to-follow protocols based on commonly accepted methods for a core set of widely deployed energy efficiency measures.
Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.
Sezan, M I; Stark, H
1982-01-01
The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.
Gurmu, Argaw Tarekegn; Aibinu, Ajibade Ayodeji; Chan, Toong Khuan
2016-01-01
This research investigates management practices that have the potential to enhance productivity in building projects by focusing on construction methods. In phase 1 of the study, face-to-face interviews with nineteen experts were conducted to identify the best management practices for construction methods. The qualitative data analysis reached saturation and resulted in a list of best practices for construction methods that are relevant to the local industry. The second phase used an industry...
Ando, Yoshinobu; Eguchi, Yuya; Mizukawa, Makoto
In this research, we proposed and evaluated a management method of college mechatronics education. We applied the project management to college mechatronics education. We practiced our management method to the seminar “Microcomputer Seminar” for 3rd grade students who belong to Department of Electrical Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology. We succeeded in management of Microcomputer Seminar in 2006. We obtained the good evaluation for our management method by means of questionnaire.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-ping Bai
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Selecting construction schemes of the building engineering project is a complex multiobjective optimization decision process, in which many indexes need to be selected to find the optimum scheme. Aiming at this problem, this paper selects cost, progress, quality, and safety as the four first-order evaluation indexes, uses the quantitative method for the cost index, uses integrated qualitative and quantitative methodologies for progress, quality, and safety indexes, and integrates engineering economics, reliability theories, and information entropy theory to present a new evaluation method for building construction project. Combined with a practical case, this paper also presents detailed computing processes and steps, including selecting all order indexes, establishing the index matrix, computing score values of all order indexes, computing the synthesis score, sorting all selected schemes, and making analysis and decision. Presented method can offer valuable references for risk computing of building construction projects.
Bai, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Xi-wei
2013-01-01
Selecting construction schemes of the building engineering project is a complex multiobjective optimization decision process, in which many indexes need to be selected to find the optimum scheme. Aiming at this problem, this paper selects cost, progress, quality, and safety as the four first-order evaluation indexes, uses the quantitative method for the cost index, uses integrated qualitative and quantitative methodologies for progress, quality, and safety indexes, and integrates engineering economics, reliability theories, and information entropy theory to present a new evaluation method for building construction project. Combined with a practical case, this paper also presents detailed computing processes and steps, including selecting all order indexes, establishing the index matrix, computing score values of all order indexes, computing the synthesis score, sorting all selected schemes, and making analysis and decision. Presented method can offer valuable references for risk computing of building construction projects.
Improvement of image quality using interpolated projection data estimation method in SPECT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takaki, Akihiro; Soma, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya; Kojima, Akihiro; Asao, Kimie; Kamada, Shinya; Matsumoto, Masanori
2009-01-01
General data acquisition for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is performed in 90 or 60 directions, with a coarse pitch of approximately 4-6 deg for a rotation of 360 deg or 180 deg, using a gamma camera. No data between adjacent projections will be sampled under these circumstances. The aim of the study was to develop a method to improve SPECT image quality by generating lacking projection data through interpolation of data obtained with a coarse pitch such as 6 deg. The projection data set at each individual degree in 360 directions was generated by a weighted average interpolation method from the projection data acquired with a coarse sampling angle (interpolated projection data estimation processing method, IPDE method). The IPDE method was applied to the numerical digital phantom data, actual phantom data and clinical brain data with Tc-99m ethyle cysteinate dimer (ECD). All SPECT images were reconstructed by the filtered back-projection method and compared with the original SPECT images. The results confirmed that streak artifacts decreased by apparently increasing a sampling number in SPECT after interpolation and also improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of the root mean square uncertainty value. Furthermore, the normalized mean square error values, compared with standard images, had similar ones after interpolation. Moreover, the contrast and concentration ratios increased their effects after interpolation. These results indicate that effective improvement of image quality can be expected with interpolation. Thus, image quality and the ability to depict images can be improved while maintaining the present acquisition time and image quality. In addition, this can be achieved more effectively than at present even if the acquisition time is reduced. (author)
Text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections
Duan, Li-juan; Zhang, Xi-qun; Ma, Long-long; Wu, Jian
2017-11-01
Text extraction is an important initial step in digitizing the historical documents. In this paper, we present a text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections. The task of text extraction is considered as text area detection and location problem. The images are divided equally into blocks and the blocks are filtered by the information of the categories of connected components and corner point density. By analyzing the filtered blocks' projections, the approximate text areas can be located, and the text regions are extracted. Experiments on the dataset of historical Tibetan documents demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Level Set Projection Method for Incompressible Navier-Stokes on Arbitrary Boundaries
Williams-Rioux, Bertrand
2012-01-12
Second order level set projection method for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is proposed to solve flow around arbitrary geometries. We used rectilinear grid with collocated cell centered velocity and pressure. An explicit Godunov procedure is used to address the nonlinear advection terms, and an implicit Crank-Nicholson method to update viscous effects. An approximate pressure projection is implemented at the end of the time stepping using multigrid as a conventional fast iterative method. The level set method developed by Osher and Sethian [17] is implemented to address real momentum and pressure boundary conditions by the advection of a distance function, as proposed by Aslam [3]. Numerical results for the Strouhal number and drag coefficients validated the model with good accuracy for flow over a cylinder in the parallel shedding regime (47 < Re < 180). Simulations for an array of cylinders and an oscillating cylinder were performed, with the latter demonstrating our methods ability to handle dynamic boundary conditions.
Improvement of methods of evaluation of investment projects in the context of import substitution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuvshinov M.S.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the imposition of sanctions, based more on geopolitical interests, there were additional essential restrictions on sources of external credits, use of import raw materials and technologies, possibilities of attraction to work of the qualified employees which do not have the Russian nationality, participation in the international technology and scientific projects. At similar restrictions of different resources investment decisions are made extremely carefully, and especially careful and reasonable efficiency evaluation of the investments is required. Traditionally used techniques of efficiency evaluation of investment projects not fully consider strategic interests of owners of industrial enterprises and investors. Decrease in risks requires higher quality of project evaluation. In this work the method of multi-level consistently complex integral assessment of investment projects on an indicator of the integral indicator of their efficiency implementing consecutive selection of investment projects from a portfolio on essential indicators of commercial effectiveness, efficiency of production business activities, a financial state and productivity of activity is provided. The developed method of a complex assessment of investment projects is implemented for practical application by the software product allowing to create on the basis of economic-mathematical modeling specific recommendations in economic practice of industrial enterprises during the developing and implementation of investment strategies. The conclusion that for the Russian economy in the conditions of import substitution accounting of all set of interests of investors and owners of the enterprises provides development and implementation of reasonable investment strategies is drawn.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Олег Богданович ЗАЧКО
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The methods and models of safety-oriented project management of the development of complex systems are proposed resulting from the convergence of existing approaches in project management in contrast to the mechanism of value-oriented management. A cognitive model of safety oriented project management of the development of complex systems is developed, which provides a synergistic effect that is to move the system from the original (pre condition in an optimal one from the viewpoint of life safety - post-project state. The approach of assessment the project complexity is proposed, which consists in taking into account the seasonal component of a time characteristic of life cycles of complex organizational and technical systems with occupancy. This enabled to take into account the seasonal component in simulation models of life cycle of the product operation in complex organizational and technical system, modeling the critical points of operation of systems with occupancy, which forms a new methodology for safety-oriented management of projects, programs and portfolios of projects with the formalization of the elements of complexity.
Optimal pulse spacing for dynamical decoupling in the presence of a purely dephasing spin bath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajoy, Ashok; Alvarez, Gonzalo A.; Suter, Dieter
2011-01-01
Maintaining quantum coherence is a crucial requirement for quantum computation; hence protecting quantum systems against their irreversible corruption due to environmental noise is an important open problem. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is an effective method for reducing decoherence with a low control overhead. It also plays an important role in quantum metrology, where, for instance, it is employed in multiparameter estimation. While a sequence of equidistant control pulses [the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence] has been ubiquitously used for decoupling, Uhrig recently proposed that a nonequidistant pulse sequence [the Uhrig dynamic decoupling (UDD) sequence] may enhance DD performance, especially for systems where the spectral density of the environment has a sharp frequency cutoff. On the other hand, equidistant sequences outperform UDD for soft cutoffs. The relative advantage provided by UDD for intermediate regimes is not clear. In this paper, we analyze the relative DD performance in this regime experimentally, using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Our system qubits are 13 C nuclear spins and the environment consists of a 1 H nuclear spin bath whose spectral density is close to a normal (Gaussian) distribution. We find that in the presence of such a bath, the CPMG sequence outperforms the UDD sequence. An analogy between dynamical decoupling and interference effects in optics provides an intuitive explanation as to why the CPMG sequence performs better than any nonequidistant DD sequence in the presence of this kind of environmental noise.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.
2017-01-01
CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...
Project evaluation and selection using fuzzy Delphi method and zero - one goal programming
Alias, Suriana; Adna, Nofarziah; Arsad, Roslah; Soid, Siti Khuzaimah; Ali, Zaileha Md
2014-12-01
Project evaluation and selection is a factor affecting the impotence of board director in which is trying to maximize all the possible goals. Assessment of the problem occurred in organization plan is the first phase for decision making process. The company needs a group of expert to evaluate the problems. The Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) is a systematic procedure to evoke the group's opinion in order to get the best result to evaluate the project performance. This paper proposes an evaluation and selection of the best alternative project based on combination of FDM and Zero - One Goal Programming (ZOGP) formulation. ZOGP is used to solve the multi-criteria decision making for final decision part by using optimization software LINDO 6.1. An empirical example on an ongoing decision making project in Johor, Malaysia is implemented for case study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Тетяна Олександрівна ПРОКОПЕНКО
2016-02-01
Full Text Available There have been proposed methods of fuzzy situational approach, providing decision-making in project management in enterprises with seasonal nature of production. The model of fuzzy graph situational project management in the investment phase, providing adequate and effective opportunity to describe the project taking into account seasonality and uncertainty in the tasks of planning and decision making. The conclusions about the choice of alternative strategic solutions for companies considering the seasonality of production based on the proposed fuzzy graph situational solutions that allow for the special factors such as the nature of the project and the environment; uncertainty in the design and environment; take account of the conditions of the process; and evaluate the results of actions and make choices alternatives for achieving the strategic objectives of the various activities of the enterprise, taking into account the seasonal factor.
Time-Frequency Analysis and Hermite Projection Method Applied to Swallowing Accelerometry Signals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ervin Sejdić
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Fast Hermite projections have been often used in image-processing procedures such as image database retrieval, projection filtering, and texture analysis. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for the analysis of one-dimensional biomedical signals that combines the Hermite projection method with time-frequency analysis. In particular, we propose a two-step approach to characterize vibrations of various origins in swallowing accelerometry signals. First, by using time-frequency analysis we obtain the energy distribution of signal frequency content in time. Second, by using fast Hermite projections we characterize whether the analyzed time-frequency regions are associated with swallowing or other phenomena (vocalization, noise, bursts, etc.. The numerical analysis of the proposed scheme clearly shows that by using a few Hermite functions, vibrations of various origins are distinguishable. These results will be the basis for further analysis of swallowing accelerometry to detect swallowing difficulties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florin POPESCU
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Early warning system (EWS based on a reliable forecasting process has become a critical component of the management of large complex industrial projects in the globalized transnational environment. The purpose of this research is to critically analyze the forecasting methods from the point of view of early warning, choosing those useful for the construction of EWS. This research addresses complementary techniques, using Bayesian Networks, which addresses both uncertainties and causality in project planning and execution, with the goal of generating early warning signals for project managers. Even though Bayesian networks have been widely used in a range of decision-support applications, their application as early warning systems for project management is still new.
Measuring efficiency of university-industry Ph.D. projects using best worst method.
Salimi, Negin; Rezaei, Jafar
A collaborative Ph.D. project, carried out by a doctoral candidate, is a type of collaboration between university and industry. Due to the importance of such projects, researchers have considered different ways to evaluate the success, with a focus on the outputs of these projects. However, what has been neglected is the other side of the coin-the inputs. The main aim of this study is to incorporate both the inputs and outputs of these projects into a more meaningful measure called efficiency. A ratio of the weighted sum of outputs over the weighted sum of inputs identifies the efficiency of a Ph.D. The weights of the inputs and outputs can be identified using a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method. Data on inputs and outputs are collected from 51 Ph.D. candidates who graduated from Eindhoven University of Technology. The weights are identified using a new MCDM method called Best Worst Method (BWM). Because there may be differences in the opinion of Ph.D. candidates and supervisors on weighing the inputs and outputs, data for BWM are collected from both groups. It is interesting to see that there are differences in the level of efficiency from the two perspectives, because of the weight differences. Moreover, a comparison between the efficiency scores of these projects and their success scores reveals differences that may have significant implications. A sensitivity analysis divulges the most contributing inputs and outputs.
Bias-correction of CORDEX-MENA projections using the Distribution Based Scaling method
Bosshard, Thomas; Yang, Wei; Sjökvist, Elin; Arheimer, Berit; Graham, L. Phil
2014-05-01
Within the Regional Initiative for the Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources and Socio-Economic Vulnerability in the Arab Region (RICCAR) lead by UN ESCWA, CORDEX RCM projections for the Middle East Northern Africa (MENA) domain are used to drive hydrological impacts models. Bias-correction of newly available CORDEX-MENA projections is a central part of this project. In this study, the distribution based scaling (DBS) method has been applied to 6 regional climate model projections driven by 2 RCP emission scenarios. The DBS method uses a quantile mapping approach and features a conditional temperature correction dependent on the wet/dry state in the climate model data. The CORDEX-MENA domain is particularly challenging for bias-correction as it spans very diverse climates showing pronounced dry and wet seasons. Results show that the regional climate models simulate too low temperatures and often have a displaced rainfall band compared to WATCH ERA-Interim forcing data in the reference period 1979-2008. DBS is able to correct the temperature biases as well as some aspects of the precipitation biases. Special focus is given to the analysis of the influence of the dry-frequency bias (i.e. climate models simulating too few rain days) on the bias-corrected projections and on the modification of the climate change signal by the DBS method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keates, Steven [ADM Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)
2017-10-09
This protocol is intended to describe the recommended method when evaluating the whole-building performance of new construction projects in the commercial sector. The protocol focuses on energy conservation measures (ECMs) or packages of measures where evaluators can analyze impacts using building simulation. These ECMs typically require the use of calibrated building simulations under Option D of the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP).
Projective-Dual Method for Solving Systems of Linear Equations with Nonnegative Variables
Ganin, B. V.; Golikov, A. I.; Evtushenko, Yu. G.
2018-02-01
In order to solve an underdetermined system of linear equations with nonnegative variables, the projection of a given point onto its solutions set is sought. The dual of this problem—the problem of unconstrained maximization of a piecewise-quadratic function—is solved by Newton's method. The problem of unconstrained optimization dual of the regularized problem of finding the projection onto the solution set of the system is considered. A connection of duality theory and Newton's method with some known algorithms of projecting onto a standard simplex is shown. On the example of taking into account the specifics of the constraints of the transport linear programming problem, the possibility to increase the efficiency of calculating the generalized Hessian matrix is demonstrated. Some examples of numerical calculations using MATLAB are presented.
Molecular biological methods for studying the gut microbiota : the EU human gut flora project
Blaut, M; Collins, MD; Welling, GW; Dore, J; van Loo, J; de Vos, W
Seven European laboratories co-operated in a joint project (FAIR CT97-3035) to develop, refine and apply molecular methods towards facilitating elucidation of the complex composition of the human intestinal microflora and to devise robust methodologies for monitoring the gut flora in response to
Bondar, Irina Alekseevna; Kulbakova, Renata Ivanovna; Svintorzhitskaja, Irina Andreevna; Pilat, Larisa Pavlovna; Zavrumov, Zaur Aslanovich
2016-01-01
The article explains how to use a project-based method as an effective means of interdisciplinary interaction when teaching a foreign language on the example of The Institute of service, tourism and design (branch) of the North Caucasus Federal University (Pyatigorsk, Stavropol Territory Russia). The article holds the main objectives of the…
Variational formulation and projectional methods for the second order transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borysiewicz, M.; Stankiewicz, R.
1979-01-01
Herein the variational problem for a second-order boundary value problem for the neutron transport equation is formulated. The projectional methods solving the problem are examined. The approach is compared with that based on the original untransformed form of the neutron transport equation
"I Had Made a Mistake": William H. Kilpatrick and the Project Method
Knoll, Michael
2012-01-01
Background/Context: William H. Kilpatrick is known worldwide as "Mr. Project Method." Despite considerable scholarship by Lawrence A. Cremin, Herbert M. Kliebard, Milton A. Bleeke, John A. Beineke, and others, the origin of Kilpatrick's celebrated paper of 1918 has never been explored in depth and its historical context. Focus of Study:…
Rationale and methods of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project
Boer, de E.J.; Slimani, N.; Boeing, H.; Feinberg, M.; Leclerq, C.; Trolle, E.; Amiano, P.; Andersen, L.F.; Freisling, H.; Geelen, A.; Harttig, U.; Huybrechts, I.; Kaic-Rak, A.; Lafay, L.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Ruprich, J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Ocke, M.C.
2011-01-01
Background/Objectives: The overall objective of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project was to further develop and validate a trans-European food consumption method to be used for the evaluation of the intake of foods, nutrients and potentially hazardous chemicals within the
An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy
Gamso, Nancy M.
2011-01-01
The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…
Critical path method applied to research project planning: Fire Economics Evaluation System (FEES)
Earl B. Anderson; R. Stanton Hales
1986-01-01
The critical path method (CPM) of network analysis (a) depicts precedence among the many activities in a project by a network diagram; (b) identifies critical activities by calculating their starting, finishing, and float times; and (c) displays possible schedules by constructing time charts. CPM was applied to the development of the Forest Service's Fire...
Prediction and optimization methods for electric vehicle charging schedules in the EDISON project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aabrandt, Andreas; Andersen, Peter Bach; Pedersen, Anders Bro
2012-01-01
project has been launched to investigate various areas relevant to electric vehicle integration. As part of EDISON an electric vehicle aggregator has been developed to demonstrate smart charging of electric vehicles. The emphasis of this paper is the mathematical methods on which the EDISON aggregator...
Binding energy and dephasing of biexcitons in In0.18Ga0.82As/GaAs single quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1999-01-01
Biexciton binding energies and biexciton dephasing in In0.18Ga0.82As/GaAs single quantum wells have been measured by time-integrated and spectrally resolved four-wave mixing. The biexciton binding energy increases from 1.5 to 2.6 meV for well widths increasing from 1 to 4 nm. The ratio between...... exciton and biexciton binding energy changes from 0.23 to 0.3 with increasing inhomogeneous broadening, corresponding to increasing well width. From the temperature dependence of the exciton and biexciton four-wave mixing signal decay, we have deduced the acoustic-phonon scattering of the exciton...
Shamim, Saquib; Mahapatra, S; Scappucci, G; Klesse, W M; Simmons, M Y; Ghosh, Arindam
2017-05-04
We report quantum transport measurements on two dimensional (2D) Si:P and Ge:P δ-layers and compare the inelastic scattering rates relevant for weak localization (WL) and universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) for devices of various doping densities (0.3-2.5 × 10 18 m -2 ) at low temperatures (0.3-4.2 K). The phase breaking rate extracted experimentally from measurements of WL correction to conductivity and UCF agree well with each other within the entire temperature range. This establishes that WL and UCF, being the outcome of quantum interference phenomena, are governed by the same dephasing rate.
Ananiev, Sergey
2006-01-01
The paper demonstrates the equivalence between the optimality criteria (OC) method, initially proposed by Bendsoe & Kikuchi for topology optimization problem, and the projected gradient method. The equivalence is shown using Hestenes definition of Lagrange multipliers. Based on this development, an alternative formulation of the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition is suggested. Such reformulation has some advantages, which will be also discussed in the paper. For verification purposes the modi...
REAL OPTIONS ANALYSIS – ASSESSMENT METHOD OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN GREEN ENERGY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MAFTEI DANIEL
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This article highlights the importance of real options as a evaluation method of investment in green energy. Article consider several theoretical and practical approaches, the analysis based on real options by many authors who have theorized and used this method. Each approach provides a operationalisation through a steps series of specific evaluation. This paper highlights the different views: academics, financiers, managers and facilitates the access to an accurate evaluation decisions of projects.
Analysis of Paralleling Limited Capacity Voltage Sources by Projective Geometry Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandr Penin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The droop current-sharing method for voltage sources of a limited capacity is considered. Influence of equalizing resistors and load resistor is investigated on uniform distribution of relative values of currents when the actual loading corresponds to the capacity of a concrete source. Novel concepts for quantitative representation of operating regimes of sources are entered with use of projective geometry method.
A method for volumetric imaging in radiotherapy using single x-ray projection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Yuan; Yan, Hao; Ouyang, Luo; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Steve B.; Jia, Xun; Zhou, Linghong; Cervino, Laura
2015-01-01
Purpose: It is an intriguing problem to generate an instantaneous volumetric image based on the corresponding x-ray projection. The purpose of this study is to develop a new method to achieve this goal via a sparse learning approach. Methods: To extract motion information hidden in projection images, the authors partitioned a projection image into small rectangular patches. The authors utilized a sparse learning method to automatically select patches that have a high correlation with principal component analysis (PCA) coefficients of a lung motion model. A model that maps the patch intensity to the PCA coefficients was built along with the patch selection process. Based on this model, a measured projection can be used to predict the PCA coefficients, which are then further used to generate a motion vector field and hence a volumetric image. The authors have also proposed an intensity baseline correction method based on the partitioned projection, in which the first and the second moments of pixel intensities at a patch in a simulated projection image are matched with those in a measured one via a linear transformation. The proposed method has been validated in both simulated data and real phantom data. Results: The algorithm is able to identify patches that contain relevant motion information such as the diaphragm region. It is found that an intensity baseline correction step is important to remove the systematic error in the motion prediction. For the simulation case, the sparse learning model reduced the prediction error for the first PCA coefficient to 5%, compared to the 10% error when sparse learning was not used, and the 95th percentile error for the predicted motion vector was reduced from 2.40 to 0.92 mm. In the phantom case with a regular tumor motion, the predicted tumor trajectory was successfully reconstructed with a 0.82 mm error for tumor center localization compared to a 1.66 mm error without using the sparse learning method. When the tumor motion
Evaluation and selection of decision-making methods to assess landfill mining projects.
Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Vorbach, Stefan; Ragossnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland
2015-09-01
For the first time in Austria, fundamental technological and economic studies on recovering secondary raw materials from large landfills have been carried out, based on the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Austria' pilot project. A main focus of the research - and the subject of this article - was to develop an assessment or decision-making procedure that allows landfill owners to thoroughly examine the feasibility of a landfill mining project in advance. Currently there are no standard procedures that would sufficiently cover all the multiple-criteria requirements. The basic structure of the multiple attribute decision making process was used to narrow down on selection, conceptual design and assessment of suitable procedures. Along with a breakdown into preliminary and main assessment, the entire foundation required was created, such as definitions of requirements to an assessment method, selection and accurate description of the various assessment criteria and classification of the target system for the present 'landfill mining' vs. 'retaining the landfill in after-care' decision-making problem. Based on these studies, cost-utility analysis and the analytical-hierarchy process were selected from the range of multiple attribute decision-making procedures and examined in detail. Overall, both methods have their pros and cons with regard to their use for assessing landfill mining projects. Merging these methods or connecting them with single-criteria decision-making methods (like the net present value method) may turn out to be reasonable and constitute an appropriate assessment method. © The Author(s) 2015.
An Appraisal of Project Procurement Methods in the Nigerian Construction Industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ujaddughe I.C.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of every client at the beginning of any project is to have at the end of the day a quality structure delivered on time and within budget. However, researches have shown that in most cases this aim is not met. The aim of the study that formed the basis for this paper was to identify and assess procurement methods in use in the Nigerian construction industry and identify the factors that affect the choice of the variants under the traditional and the non-conventional procurement methods. Data were collected using well-structured questionnaires administered to professionals in Lagos metropolis. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study reveals that the variants of traditional method of contract procurement are the most adopted in project execution in Nigeria. In making choice of procurement method, the study reveals that project completion at estimated time ranks as the highest factor considered for traditional method, while quality assurance ranks highest with non-conventional method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, H.T.; Muether, H.; Faessler, A.
1978-01-01
Pairing vibrational and isospin rotational states are described in different approximations based on particle number and isospin projected, proton-proton, neutron-neutron and proton-neutron pairing wave functions and on the generator coordinate method (GCM). The investigations are performed in models for which an exact group theoretical solution exists. It turns out that a particle number and isospin projection is essential to yield a good approximation to the ground state or isospin yrast state energies. For strong pairing correlations (pairing force constant equal to the single-particle level distance) isospin cranking (-ωTsub(x)) yields with particle number projected pairing wave function also good agreement with the exact energies. GCM wave functions generated by particle number and isospin projected BCS functions with different amounts of pairing correlations yield for the lowest T=0 and T=2 states energies which are practically indistinguishable from the exact solutions. But even the second and third lowest energies of charge-symmetric states are still very reliable. Thus it is concluded that also in realistic cases isospin rotational and pairing vibrational states may be described in the framework of the GCM method with isospin and particle number projected generating wave functions. (Auth.)
Method of surface error visualization using laser 3D projection technology
Guo, Lili; Li, Lijuan; Lin, Xuezhu
2017-10-01
In the process of manufacturing large components, such as aerospace, automobile and shipping industry, some important mold or stamped metal plate requires precise forming on the surface, which usually needs to be verified, if necessary, the surface needs to be corrected and reprocessed. In order to make the correction of the machined surface more convenient, this paper proposes a method based on Laser 3D projection system, this method uses the contour form of terrain contour, directly showing the deviation between the actually measured data and the theoretical mathematical model (CAD) on the measured surface. First, measure the machined surface to get the point cloud data and the formation of triangular mesh; secondly, through coordinate transformation, unify the point cloud data to the theoretical model and calculate the three-dimensional deviation, according to the sign (positive or negative) and size of the deviation, use the color deviation band to denote the deviation of three-dimensional; then, use three-dimensional contour lines to draw and represent every coordinates deviation band, creating the projection files; finally, import the projection files into the laser projector, and make the contour line projected to the processed file with 1:1 in the form of a laser beam, compare the Full-color 3D deviation map with the projection graph, then, locate and make quantitative correction to meet the processing precision requirements. It can display the trend of the machined surface deviation clearly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marko Mladineo
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In the last 20 years, priority setting in mine actions, i.e. in humanitarian demining, has become an increasingly important topic. Given that mine action projects require management and decision-making based on a multi -criteria approach, multi-criteria decision-making methods like PROMETHEE and AHP have been used worldwide for priority setting. However, from the aspect of mine action, where stakeholders in the decision-making process for priority setting are project managers, local politicians, leaders of different humanitarian organizations, or similar, applying these methods can be difficult. Therefore, a specialized web-based decision support system (Web DSS for priority setting, developed as part of the FP7 project TIRAMISU, has been extended using a module for developing custom priority setting scenarios in line with an exceptionally easy, user-friendly approach. The idea behind this research is to simplify the multi-criteria analysis based on the PROMETHEE method. Therefore, a simplified PROMETHEE method based on statistical analysis for automated suggestions of parameters such as preference function thresholds, interactive selection of criteria weights, and easy input of criteria evaluations is presented in this paper. The result is web-based DSS that can be applied worldwide for priority setting in mine action. Additionally, the management of mine action projects is supported using modules for providing spatial data based on the geographic information system (GIS. In this paper, the benefits and limitations of a simplified PROMETHEE method are presented using a case study involving mine action projects, and subsequently, certain proposals are given for the further research.
A moment projection method for population balance dynamics with a shrinkage term
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Shaohua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Block EA, Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Yapp, Edward K.Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Xu, Rong [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore); Yang, Wenming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Block EA, Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Kraft, Markus, E-mail: mk306@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)
2017-02-01
A new method of moments for solving the population balance equation is developed and presented. The moment projection method (MPM) is numerically simple and easy to implement and attempts to address the challenge of particle shrinkage due to processes such as oxidation, evaporation or dissolution. It directly solves the moment transport equation for the moments and tracks the number of the smallest particles using the algorithm by Blumstein and Wheeler (1973) . The performance of the new method is measured against the method of moments (MOM) and the hybrid method of moments (HMOM). The results suggest that MPM performs much better than MOM and HMOM where shrinkage is dominant. The new method predicts mean quantities which are almost as accurate as a high-precision stochastic method calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA).
The rationale for selecting the method of calculation of project products coast (works, services
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. V. Molchanova
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In modern conditions of management it is necessary to develop a number of recommendations on the introduction of management accounting at state-owned enterprises that carry out revenue-generating activities or based on the right of economic management. It is necessary to apply the correct cost-accounting method for the production of products, works, services for a more rational calculation of the cost price. This will allow management personnel to receive timely objective information about their cost price, identify the feasibility of production and sales, justify the assortment, plan profits. The procedure for determining the cost price of the project products (works, services in the theory and practice of the state enterprise of the Astrakhan region “Kasprybproekt” is investigated in the work. With the existing practice of planning in design organizations, the planned cost price of design and survey works for established cost items is planned in the cost estimate for production by the design organization as a whole and by the types of work: design, survey and others, without subdividing it by orders (projects. According to this, accounting of the actual costs for work in the design organizations is based. The study showed that the state enterprise of the Astrakhan region “Kasprybproyekt” performs different projects with different execution periods; therefore, it is advisable to use one method of calculating the cost price - job (order costing method, and link it to the responsibility centers depending on the department of the performer. Based on the research of the used method to the cost price calculate of the project products (works, services in the state enterprise of the Astrakhan region “Kasprybproekt”, it was proposed to use the job (order costing method that allows to detail all the project costs without distorting the final financial result and optimize the project costs. If the calculation method is correctly determined
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Guo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Information system (IS project selection is of critical importance to every organization in dynamic competing environment. The aim of this paper is to develop a hybrid multicriteria group decision making approach based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory for IS project selection. The decision makers’ assessment information can be expressed in the form of real numbers, interval-valued numbers, linguistic variables, and intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs. All these evaluation pieces of information can be transformed to the form of IFNs. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group opinion. Intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is used to obtain the entropy weights of the criteria. TOPSIS method combined with intuitionistic fuzzy set is proposed to select appropriate IS project in group decision making environment. Finally, a numerical example for information system projects selection is given to illustrate application of hybrid multi-criteria group decision making (MCGDM method based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory and TOPSIS method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.
2015-01-01
Information on extreme precipitation for future climate is needed to assess the changes in the frequency and intensity of flooding. The primary source of information in climate change impact studies is climate model projections. However, due to the coarse resolution and biases of these models......), three are bias correction (BC) methods, and one is a perfect prognosis method. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from 15 regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project for 11 catchments in Europe. The overall results point to an increase in extreme precipitation...... that at least 30% and up to approximately half of the total variance is derived from the SDMs. This study illustrates the large variability in the expected changes in extreme precipitation and highlights the need for considering an ensemble of both SDMs and climate models. Recommendations are provided...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Lawrence, Deborah
2016-01-01
The effect of methods of statistical downscaling of daily precipitation on changes in extreme flow indices under a plausible future climate change scenario was investigated in 11 catchments selected from 9 countries in different parts of Europe. The catchments vary from 67 to 6171km2 in size...... catchments to simulate daily runoff. A set of flood indices were derived from daily flows and their changes have been evaluated by comparing their values derived from simulations corresponding to the current and future climate. Most of the implemented downscaling methods project an increase in the extreme...... flow indices in most of the catchments. The catchments where the extremes are expected to increase have a rainfall-dominated flood regime. In these catchments, the downscaling methods also project an increase in the extreme precipitation in the seasons when the extreme flows occur. In catchments where...
Neural network CT image reconstruction method for small amount of projection data
Ma, X F; Takeda, T
2000-01-01
This paper presents a new method for two-dimensional image reconstruction by using a multi-layer neural network. Though a conventionally used object function of such a neural network is composed of a sum of squared errors of the output data, we define an object function composed of a sum of squared residuals of an integral equation. By employing an appropriate numerical line integral for this integral equation, we can construct a neural network which can be used for CT image reconstruction for cases with small amount of projection data. We applied this method to some model problems and obtained satisfactory results. This method is especially useful for analyses of laboratory experiments or field observations where only a small amount of projection data is available in comparison with the well-developed medical applications.
Neural network CT image reconstruction method for small amount of projection data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, X.F.; Fukuhara, M.; Takeda, T.
2000-01-01
This paper presents a new method for two-dimensional image reconstruction by using a multi-layer neural network. Though a conventionally used object function of such a neural network is composed of a sum of squared errors of the output data, we define an object function composed of a sum of squared residuals of an integral equation. By employing an appropriate numerical line integral for this integral equation, we can construct a neural network which can be used for CT image reconstruction for cases with small amount of projection data. We applied this method to some model problems and obtained satisfactory results. This method is especially useful for analyses of laboratory experiments or field observations where only a small amount of projection data is available in comparison with the well-developed medical applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Vosoughi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A mix of public and private funding is employed worldwide to enable the construction of large public projects and even, in some cases, the work of public services. In this study, the selected methods of financing of participatory projects of water and water wastes were studied and prioritized. Questionnaires and comments of experts were used along with AHP decision-making and Expert Choice software. Different financing methods include: BOT and BOO and its types, the publication of bonds, foreign direct investment, the method of buyback, internal financing, current financing, development banks, Barter transactions, new tax resources and foreign financing. Results are shown and discussed and a final ranking is provided.
Liu, Rong
2017-01-01
Obtaining a fast and reliable decision is an important issue in brain-computer interfaces (BCI), particularly in practical real-time applications such as wheelchair or neuroprosthetic control. In this study, the EEG signals were firstly analyzed with a power projective base method. Then we were applied a decision-making model, the sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT), for single-trial classification of motor imagery movement events. The unique strength of this proposed classification method lies in its accumulative process, which increases the discriminative power as more and more evidence is observed over time. The properties of the method were illustrated on thirteen subjects' recordings from three datasets. Results showed that our proposed power projective method outperformed two benchmark methods for every subject. Moreover, with sequential classifier, the accuracies across subjects were significantly higher than that with nonsequential ones. The average maximum accuracy of the SPRT method was 84.1%, as compared with 82.3% accuracy for the sequential Bayesian (SB) method. The proposed SPRT method provides an explicit relationship between stopping time, thresholds, and error, which is important for balancing the time-accuracy trade-off. These results suggest SPRT would be useful in speeding up decision-making while trading off errors in BCI. PMID:29348781
Guérin, Bastien; Stockmann, Jason P; Baboli, Mehran; Torrado-Carvajal, Angel; Stenger, Andrew V; Wald, Lawrence L
2016-08-01
To design parallel transmission spokes pulses with time-shifted profiles for joint mitigation of intensity variations due to B1+ effects, signal loss due to through-plane dephasing, and the specific absorption rate (SAR) at 7T. We derived a slice-averaged small tip angle (SA-STA) approximation of the magnetization signal at echo time that depends on the B1+ transmit profiles, the through-slice B0 gradient and the amplitude and time-shifts of the spoke waveforms. We minimize a magnitude least-squares objective based on this signal equation using a fast interior-point approach with analytical expressions of the Jacobian and Hessian. Our algorithm runs in less than three minutes for the design of two-spoke pulses subject to hundreds of local SAR constraints. On a B0/B1+ head phantom, joint optimization of the channel-dependent time-shifts and spoke amplitudes allowed signal recovery in high-B0 regions at no increase of SAR. Although the method creates uniform magnetization profiles (ie, uniform intensity), the flip angle varies across the image, which makes it ill-suited to T1-weighted applications. The SA-STA approach presented in this study is best suited to T2*-weighted applications with long echo times that require signal recovery around high B0 regions. Magn Reson Med 76:540-554, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tan, F.; Wang, G.; Chen, C.; Ge, Z.
2016-12-01
Back-projection of teleseismic P waves [Ishii et al., 2005] has been widely used to image the rupture of earthquakes. Besides the conventional narrowband beamforming in time domain, approaches in frequency domain such as MUSIC back projection (Meng 2011) and compressive sensing (Yao et al, 2011), are proposed to improve the resolution. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages and should be properly used in different cases. Therefore, a thorough research to compare and test these methods is needed. We write a GUI program, which puts the three methods together so that people can conveniently use different methods to process the same data and compare the results. Then we use all the methods to process several earthquake data, including 2008 Wenchuan Mw7.9 earthquake and 2011 Tohoku-Oki Mw9.0 earthquake, and theoretical seismograms of both simple sources and complex ruptures. Our results show differences in efficiency, accuracy and stability among the methods. Quantitative and qualitative analysis are applied to measure their dependence on data and parameters, such as station number, station distribution, grid size, calculate window length and so on. In general, back projection makes it possible to get a good result in a very short time using less than 20 lines of high-quality data with proper station distribution, but the swimming artifact can be significant. Some ways, for instance, combining global seismic data, could help ameliorate this method. Music back projection needs relatively more data to obtain a better and more stable result, which means it needs a lot more time since its runtime accumulates obviously faster than back projection with the increase of station number. Compressive sensing deals more effectively with multiple sources in a same time window, however, costs the longest time due to repeatedly solving matrix. Resolution of all the methods is complicated and depends on many factors. An important one is the grid size, which in turn influences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, N; Frey, E C; He, B; Wahl, R L
2011-01-01
Optimizing targeted radionuclide therapy requires patient-specific estimation of organ doses. The organ doses are estimated from quantitative nuclear medicine imaging studies, many of which involve planar whole body scans. We have previously developed the quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method and demonstrated its ability to provide more accurate activity estimates than conventional geometric-mean-based planar (CPlanar) processing methods using physical phantom and simulation studies. The QPlanar method uses the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm, 3D organ volume of interests (VOIs), and rigorous models of physical image degrading factors to estimate organ activities. However, the QPlanar method requires alignment between the 3D organ VOIs and the 2D planar projections and assumes uniform activity distribution in each VOI. This makes application to patients challenging. As a result, in this paper we propose an extended QPlanar (EQPlanar) method that provides independent-organ rigid registration and includes multiple background regions. We have validated this method using both Monte Carlo simulation and patient data. In the simulation study, we evaluated the precision and accuracy of the method in comparison to the original QPlanar method. For the patient studies, we compared organ activity estimates at 24 h after injection with those from conventional geometric mean-based planar quantification using a 24 h post-injection quantitative SPECT reconstruction as the gold standard. We also compared the goodness of fit of the measured and estimated projections obtained from the EQPlanar method to those from the original method at four other time points where gold standard data were not available. In the simulation study, more accurate activity estimates were provided by the EQPlanar method for all the organs at all the time points compared with the QPlanar method. Based on the patient data, we concluded that the EQPlanar method provided a
A Projected Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Method for Interactive Inverse Kinematics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engell-Nørregård, Morten; Erleben, Kenny
2009-01-01
Inverse kinematics is the problem of posing an articulated figure to obtain a wanted goal, without regarding inertia and forces. Joint limits are modeled as bounds on individual degrees of freedom, leading to a box-constrained optimization problem. We present A projected Non-linear Conjugate...... Gradient optimization method suitable for box-constrained optimization problems for inverse kinematics. We show application on inverse kinematics positioning of a human figure. Performance is measured and compared to a traditional Jacobian Transpose method. Visual quality of the developed method...
Gallart, M.; Ziegler, M.; Crégut, O.; Feltin, E.; Carlin, J.-F.; Butté, R.; Grandjean, N.; Hönerlage, B.; Gilliot, P.
2017-07-01
Applying four-wave mixing spectroscopy to a high-quality GaN/AlGaN single quantum well, we report on the experimental determination of excitonic dephasing times at different temperatures and exciton densities in III-nitride heterostructures. By comparing the evolution with the temperature of the dephasing and the spin-relaxation rate, we conclude that both processes are related to the rate of excitonic collisions. When spin relaxation occurs in the motional-narrowing regime, it remains constant over a large temperature range as the spin-precession frequency increases linearly with temperature, hence compensating for the observed decrease in the dephasing time. From those measurements, a value of the electron-hole exchange interaction strength of 0.45 meV at T =10 K is inferred.
Capital Finance Decisions for project managers - A reflection on current methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Scheepers
2003-12-01
Full Text Available This paper evaluates some of current financial investment selection methodologies for capital projects. The proc ess (and criteria of capital investment decisions is reviewed. The capital budget for most organisations is prepared annually by a committee of senior managers who then present it for approval by the board of directors. Investment proposals are usually subjected to two financial tests, "payback" and "internal rate of return (IRR". The management committee usually decides on the tests and acceptance criteria vary according to the type of project. Some shortcomings of these most frequently used current tests (Payback & IRR are identified and it is recommended that the Net Present Value (NPV should be used as the primary method for analysing, comparing and selecting capital projects.
Balbale, Salva N; Locatelli, Sara M; LaVela, Sherri L
2016-08-01
In this methodological article, we examine participatory methods in depth to demonstrate how these methods can be adopted for quality improvement (QI) projects in health care. We draw on existing literature and our QI initiatives in the Department of Veterans Affairs to discuss the application of photovoice and guided tours in QI efforts. We highlight lessons learned and several benefits of using participatory methods in this area. Using participatory methods, evaluators can engage patients, providers, and other stakeholders as partners to enhance care. Participant involvement helps yield actionable data that can be translated into improved care practices. Use of these methods also helps generate key insights to inform improvements that truly resonate with stakeholders. Using participatory methods is a valuable strategy to harness participant engagement and drive improvements that address individual needs. In applying these innovative methodologies, evaluators can transcend traditional approaches to uniquely support evaluations and improvements in health care. © The Author(s) 2015.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.
impact studies. Four methods are based on change factors and four are bias correction methods. The change factor methods perturb the observations according to changes in precipitation properties estimated from the Regional Climate Models (RCMs). The bias correction methods correct the output from...... the RCMs. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from fifteen RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project for eleven catchments in Europe. The performance of the bias correction methods depends on the catchment, but in all cases they represent an improvement compared to RCM output. The overall...... results point to an increase in extreme precipitation in all the catchments in winter and in most catchments in summer. For each catchment, the results tend to agree on the direction of the change but differ in the magnitude. These differences can be mainly explained due to differences in the RCMs....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Violette, Daniel M. [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Rathbun, Pamela [Tetra Tech, Madison, WI (United States)
2017-11-02
This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM and V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to a program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings but does not prescribe methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadejda Shatsilo
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose is to justify the principles of assessing the effectiveness of innovation and investment projects of rural areas development on the basis of sustainability. Research methodology. In the course of the research general scientific and special methods for solving the tasks and obtaining the corresponding results were used, in particular: the method of logical analysis - in determining the factors of influence on the efficiency of investment projects; Systematization and generalization - in the synthesis of modern methodological approaches to the evaluation of innovation and investment projects of rural areas development; Abstract-logical - for theoretical generalizations and formulation of the findings of the study. Results.The principles of estimation of efficiency of innovative-investment projects are generalized. The interrelation and interdependence of goals and tasks in the development of three subsystems of sustainability have been studied, which need to be taken into account when identifying the effects arising from the implementation of investment projects. The methodological principles of evaluation of innovation-investment projects of rural areas development in conditions of observance of the requirements of sustainable development are highlighted. The deterrent factors hindering the implementation of the processes of investment of investment resources in the development of rural areas are determined. The principles of implementation of investment projects oriented on sustainable development are substantiated. Priority directions of investing resources investment in the development of rural areas on the principles of sustainability within the framework of solving economic, social and environmental problems have been identified. The mechanism of estimation of efficiency of innovative-investment project of development of rural territory in the conditions of limited financial resources is offered. It is substantiated that it is
2012-10-05
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, November 13, 2012, at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time via...
2012-08-07
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, September 11, 2012, at 2 p.m. Eastern Time via...
2012-02-14
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, March 13, 2012, at 2 p.m...
2011-12-16
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, January 10, 2012, at 2 p.m. Eastern Time via...
2012-01-18
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, February 14, 2012, at 2 p.m. Eastern Time via...
A projection gradient method for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Hanquan, E-mail: hanquan.wang@gmail.com [School of Statistics and Mathematics, Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650221 (China); Yunnan Tongchang Scientific Computing and Data Mining Research Center, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650221 (China)
2014-10-01
In this paper, a projection gradient method is presented for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC). We first propose the general projection gradient method for solving energy functional minimization problem under multiple constraints, in which the energy functional takes real functions as independent variables. We next extend the method to solve a similar problem, where the energy functional now takes complex functions as independent variables. We finally employ the method into finding the ground state of spin-2 BEC. The key of our method is: by constructing continuous gradient flows (CGFs), the ground state of spin-2 BEC can be computed as the steady state solution of such CGFs. We discretized the CGFs by a conservative finite difference method along with a proper way to deal with the nonlinear terms. We show that the numerical discretization is normalization and magnetization conservative and energy diminishing. Numerical results of the ground state and their energy of spin-2 BEC are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical method.
A projection gradient method for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Hanquan
2014-01-01
In this paper, a projection gradient method is presented for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC). We first propose the general projection gradient method for solving energy functional minimization problem under multiple constraints, in which the energy functional takes real functions as independent variables. We next extend the method to solve a similar problem, where the energy functional now takes complex functions as independent variables. We finally employ the method into finding the ground state of spin-2 BEC. The key of our method is: by constructing continuous gradient flows (CGFs), the ground state of spin-2 BEC can be computed as the steady state solution of such CGFs. We discretized the CGFs by a conservative finite difference method along with a proper way to deal with the nonlinear terms. We show that the numerical discretization is normalization and magnetization conservative and energy diminishing. Numerical results of the ground state and their energy of spin-2 BEC are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical method
Demographic Models for Projecting Population and Migration: Methods for African Historical Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Manning
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This study presents methods for projecting population and migration over time in cases were empirical data are missing or undependable. The methods are useful for cases in which the researcher has details of population size and structure for a limited period of time (most obviously, the end point, with scattered evidence on other times. It enables estimation of population size, including its structure in age, sex, and status, either forward or backward in time. The program keeps track of all the details. The calculated data can be reported or sampled and compared to empirical findings at various times and places to expected values based on other procedures of estimation. The application of these general methods that is developed here is the projection of African populations backwards in time from 1950, since 1950 is the first date for which consistently strong demographic estimates are available for national-level populations all over the African continent. The models give particular attention to migration through enslavement, which was highly important in Africa from 1650 to 1900. Details include a sensitivity analysis showing relative significance of input variables and techniques for calibrating various dimensions of the projection with each other. These same methods may be applicable to quite different historical situations, as long as the data conform in structure to those considered here.
Nikazad, T; Davidi, R; Herman, G T
2012-03-01
We study the convergence of a class of accelerated perturbation-resilient block-iterative projection methods for solving systems of linear equations. We prove convergence to a fixed point of an operator even in the presence of summable perturbations of the iterates, irrespective of the consistency of the linear system. For a consistent system, the limit point is a solution of the system. In the inconsistent case, the symmetric version of our method converges to a weighted least squares solution. Perturbation resilience is utilized to approximate the minimum of a convex functional subject to the equations. A main contribution, as compared to previously published approaches to achieving similar aims, is a more than an order of magnitude speed-up, as demonstrated by applying the methods to problems of image reconstruction from projections. In addition, the accelerated algorithms are illustrated to be better, in a strict sense provided by the method of statistical hypothesis testing, than their unaccelerated versions for the task of detecting small tumors in the brain from X-ray CT projection data.
On the rate of convergence of the alternating projection method in finite dimensional spaces
Galántai, A.
2005-10-01
Using the results of Smith, Solmon, and Wagner [K. Smith, D. Solomon, S. Wagner, Practical and mathematical aspects of the problem of reconstructing objects from radiographs, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 83 (1977) 1227-1270] and Nelson and Neumann [S. Nelson, M. Neumann, Generalizations of the projection method with application to SOR theory for Hermitian positive semidefinite linear systems, Numer. Math. 51 (1987) 123-141] we derive new estimates for the speed of the alternating projection method and its relaxed version in . These estimates can be computed in at most O(m3) arithmetic operations unlike the estimates in papers mentioned above that require spectral information. The new and old estimates are equivalent in many practical cases. In cases when the new estimates are weaker, the numerical testing indicates that they approximate the original bounds in papers mentioned above quite well.
Restoration of the analytically reconstructed OpenPET images by the method of convex projections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tashima, Hideaki; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Katsunuma, Takayuki; Suga, Mikio [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Kinouchi, Shoko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Obi, Takashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering; Kudo, Hiroyuki [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering
2011-07-01
We have proposed the OpenPET geometry which has gaps between detector rings and physically opened field-of-view. The image reconstruction of the OpenPET is classified into an incomplete problem because it does not satisfy the Orlov's condition. Even so, the simulation and experimental studies have shown that applying iterative methods such as the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm successfully reconstruct images in the gap area. However, the imaging process of the iterative methods in the OpenPET imaging is not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analytically analyze the OpenPET imaging and estimate implicit constraints involved in the iterative methods. To apply explicit constraints in the OpenPET imaging, we used the method of convex projections for restoration of the images reconstructed by the analytical way in which low-frequency components are lost. Numerical simulations showed that the similar restoration effects are involved both in the ML-EM and the method of convex projections. Therefore, the iterative methods have advantageous effect of restoring lost frequency components of the OpenPET imaging. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong Lv
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The vibration signals of bearings and gears measured from rotating machinery usually have nonlinear, nonstationary characteristics. The local projection algorithm cannot only reduce the noise of the nonlinear system, but can also preserve the nonlinear deterministic structure of the signal. The influence of centroid selection on the performance of noise reduction methods is analyzed, and the multiscale local projection method of centroid was proposed in this paper. This method considers both the geometrical shape and statistical error of the signal in high dimensional phase space, which can effectively eliminate the noise and preserve the complete geometric structure of the attractors. The diagonal slice spectrum can identify the frequency components of quadratic phase coupling and enlarge the coupled frequency component in the nonlinear signal. Therefore, the proposed method based on the above two algorithms can achieve more accurate results of fault diagnosis of gears and rolling bearings. The simulated signal is used to verify its effectiveness in a numerical simulation. Then, the proposed method is conducted for fault diagnosis of gears and rolling bearings in application researches. The fault characteristics of faulty bearings and gears can be extracted successfully in the researches. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the novel proposed method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Brandão
2015-06-01
• In the development of design practice and studio teaching methods We shall see in this paper how interdisciplinary approaches correspond to new and complex urban transformations, focusing on the importance of actors’ interaction processes, combining professional and non-professional knowledge and theory-practice relations. Therefore, we aim at a deepening in public space area of knowledge under the growing complexity of urban life. We see it as a base for further development of collaborative projects and their implications on community empowerment and urban governance at local level. Motivations of this line of work are persistent in several ongoing research projects, aiming to: - Understand public space as a cohesion factor both in urban life and urban form - Manage processes and strategies as elements of urban transformation, - Stimulate the understanding of actors’ roles in urban design practices. - Favoring the questioning of emerging aspects of urban space production… The paper presents and analyses processes, methods and results from civic participation projects developed in the neighbourhood of Barò de Viver (Barcelona and in the District of Marvila (Lisbon. In the first case, a long process initiated in 2004 and partially completed in 2011, neighbours developed the projects "Memory Wall" and Ciutat d'Asuncion Promenade as part of identity construction in public space, in collaboration with a team of facilitators from CrPolis group. In the second case, different participatory processes dated from 2001 and 2003 have resulted in the implementation of a specific identity urban brand and communication system with an ongoing project of "maps" construction according to the neighbours perception and representation systems. We may conclude that processes of urban governance require more active participation of citizens in projects regarding the improvement of quality of life. At the same time, the implementation of these processes requires a clear
Project Lifespan-based Nonstationary Hydrologic Design Methods for Changing Environment
Xiong, L.
2017-12-01
Under changing environment, we must associate design floods with the design life period of projects to ensure the hydrologic design is really relevant to the operation of the hydrologic projects, because the design value for a given exceedance probability over the project life period would be significantly different from that over other time periods of the same length due to the nonstationarity of probability distributions. Several hydrologic design methods that take the design life period of projects into account have been proposed in recent years, i.e. the expected number of exceedances (ENE), design life level (DLL), equivalent reliability (ER), and average design life level (ADLL). Among the four methods to be compared, both the ENE and ER methods are return period-based methods, while DLL and ADLL are risk/reliability- based methods which estimate design values for given probability values of risk or reliability. However, the four methods can be unified together under a general framework through a relationship transforming the so-called representative reliability (RRE) into the return period, i.e. m=1/1(1-RRE), in which we compute the return period m using the representative reliability RRE.The results of nonstationary design quantiles and associated confidence intervals calculated by ENE, ER and ADLL were very similar, since ENE or ER was a special case or had a similar expression form with respect to ADLL. In particular, the design quantiles calculated by ENE and ADLL were the same when return period was equal to the length of the design life. In addition, DLL can yield similar design values if the relationship between DLL and ER/ADLL return periods is considered. Furthermore, ENE, ER and ADLL had good adaptability to either an increasing or decreasing situation, yielding not too large or too small design quantiles. This is important for applications of nonstationary hydrologic design methods in actual practice because of the concern of choosing the emerging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. O. Baklanov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The following principles are discussed as methodical bases of the choice of innovative project and enterprise management organizational structures: hierarchism, bureaucratization, adhocratie, tent organization, lean business engineering, rational organization, amorphous organization, teaching organization. Conditions that complicate industrial and technological processes influence enterprise management process dynamics. The variety of existing types of organizational structures is determined by industrial, economic, psychological and social conditions.
1985-09-01
personal and telephone interviews. Ten individuals from each of the four AFWAL Laboratories were interrviewed. The results illustrated that few of the...680). Aaker and Tyebee. 1978. The authors constructed a model that dealt with the selection of interdependent R&D projects. The model covers three...of this research effort. Scope * The data collection method used in this study consisted of a combination of personal and telephone interviews. The
Projection methods for the analysis of molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grum-Grzhimailo, A.N.; Lucchese, R.R.; Liu, X.-J.; Pruemper, G.; Morishita, Y.; Saito, N.; Ueda, K.
2007-01-01
A projection method is developed for extracting the nondipole contribution from the molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions of linear molecules. A corresponding convenient parametric form for the angular distributions is derived. The analysis was performed for the N 1s photoionization of the NO molecule a few eV above the ionization threshold. No detectable nondipole contribution was found for the photon energy of 412 eV
Simple Radiowave-Based Method For Measuring Peripheral Blood Flow Project
Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.
2014-01-01
Project objective is to design small radio frequency based flow probes for the measurement of blood flow velocity in peripheral arteries such as the femoral artery and middle cerebral artery. The result will be the technological capability to measure peripheral blood flow rates and flow changes during various environmental stressors such as microgravity without contact to the individual being monitored. This technology may also lead to an easier method of detecting venous gas emboli during extravehicular activities.
A generalization of the Friedrichs angle and the method of alternating projections
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Badea, C.; Grivaux, S.; Müller, Vladimír
2010-01-01
Roč. 348, 1-2 (2010), s. 53-56 ISSN 1631-073X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Hilbert space * Neumann -Halperin method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631073X09004002
Ren, Weiwei; Yang, Tao; Shi, Pengfei; Xu, Chong-yu; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Xudong; Shao, Quanxi; Ciais, Philippe
2018-06-01
Climate change imposes profound influence on regional hydrological cycle and water security in many alpine regions worldwide. Investigating regional climate impacts using watershed scale hydrological models requires a large number of input data such as topography, meteorological and hydrological data. However, data scarcity in alpine regions seriously restricts evaluation of climate change impacts on water cycle using conventional approaches based on global or regional climate models, statistical downscaling methods and hydrological models. Therefore, this study is dedicated to development of a probabilistic model to replace the conventional approaches for streamflow projection. The probabilistic model was built upon an advanced Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) approach directly fed by the large-scale climate predictor variables and tested in a typical data sparse alpine region, the Kaidu River basin in Central Asia. Results show that BNN model performs better than the general methods across a number of statistical measures. The BNN method with flexible model structures by active indicator functions, which reduce the dependence on the initial specification for the input variables and the number of hidden units, can work well in a data limited region. Moreover, it can provide more reliable streamflow projections with a robust generalization ability. Forced by the latest bias-corrected GCM scenarios, streamflow projections for the 21st century under three RCP emission pathways were constructed and analyzed. Briefly, the proposed probabilistic projection approach could improve runoff predictive ability over conventional methods and provide better support to water resources planning and management under data limited conditions as well as enable a facilitated climate change impact analysis on runoff and water resources in alpine regions worldwide.
INFORMATION SUPPORT OF THE PROJECT AS A METHOD OF FORMING METASUBJECT KNOWLEDGE
И Ф Зыкова
2016-01-01
One of the fastest growing educational facilities is an online training. it is aimed at the remote receive quality knowledge in different subjects and disciplines. Given the prospects for the development of teaching aids, we have considered the possibility of its integration into the traditional school systems. In particular, we have demonstrated the implementation of this method of learning through project- based learning - students create educational materials that will be posted on the Int...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Maria Misiak
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The global Business Intelligence (BI market grew by 10% in 2013 according to the Gartner Report. Today organizations require better use of data and analytics to support their business decisions. Internet power and business trend changes have provided a broad term for data analytics – Big Data. To be able to handle it and leverage a value of having access to Big Data, organizations have no other choice than to get proper systems implemented and working. However traditional methods are not efficient for changing business needs. The long time between project start and go-live causes a gap between initial solution blueprint and actual user requirements in the end of the project. This article presents the latest market trends in BI systems implementation by comparing Agile with traditional methods. It presents a case study provided in a large telecommunications company (20K employees and the results of a pilot research provided in the three large companies: telecommunications, digital, and insurance. Both studies prove that Agile methods might be more effective in BI projects from an end-user perspective and give first results and added value in a much shorter time compared to a traditional approach.
[A Method for Selecting Self-Adoptive Chromaticity of the Projected Markers].
Zhao, Shou-bo; Zhang, Fu-min; Qu, Xing-hua; Zheng, Shi-wei; Chen, Zhe
2015-04-01
The authors designed a self-adaptive projection system which is composed of color camera, projector and PC. In detail, digital micro-mirror device (DMD) as a spatial light modulator for the projector was introduced in the optical path to modulate the illuminant spectrum based on red, green and blue light emitting diodes (LED). However, the color visibility of active markers is affected by the screen which has unknown reflective spectrum as well. Here active markers are projected spot array. And chromaticity feature of markers is sometimes submerged in similar spectral screen. In order to enhance the color visibility of active markers relative to screen, a method for selecting self-adaptive chromaticity of the projected markers in 3D scanning metrology is described. Color camera with 3 channels limits the accuracy of device characterization. For achieving interconversion of device-independent color space and device-dependent color space, high-dimensional linear model of reflective spectrum was built. Prior training samples provide additional constraints to yield high-dimensional linear model with more than three degrees of freedom. Meanwhile, spectral power distribution of ambient light was estimated. Subsequently, markers' chromaticity in CIE color spaces was selected via maximization principle of Euclidean distance. The setting values of RGB were easily estimated via inverse transform. Finally, we implemented a typical experiment to show the performance of the proposed approach. An 24 Munsell Color Checker was used as projective screen. Color difference in the chromaticity coordinates between the active marker and the color patch was utilized to evaluate the color visibility of active markers relative to the screen. The result comparison between self-adaptive projection system and traditional diode-laser light projector was listed and discussed to highlight advantage of our proposed method.
The method of projected characteristics for the evolution of magnetic arches
Nakagawa, Y.; Hu, Y. Q.; Wu, S. T.
1987-01-01
A numerical method of solving fully nonlinear MHD equation is described. In particular, the formulation based on the newly developed method of projected characteristics (Nakagawa, 1981) suitable to study the evolution of magnetic arches due to motions of their foot-points is presented. The final formulation is given in the form of difference equations; therefore, the analysis of numerical stability is also presented. Further, the most important derivation of physically self-consistent, time-dependent boundary conditions (i.e. the evolving boundary equations) is given in detail, and some results obtained with such boundary equations are reported.
Study on creep behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel using theta projection method
Ren, Facai; Tang, Xiaoying
2017-10-01
Creep behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel used for steam cooler was characterized using the theta projection method. Creep tests were conducted at the temperature of 923K under the stress ranging from 100-150MPa. Based on the creep curve results, four theta parameters were established using a nonlinear least square fitting method. Four theta parameters showed a good linearity as a function of stress. The predicted curves coincided well with the experimental data and creep curves were also modeled to the low stress level of 60MPa.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tolstooukhov, D.A.; Karkhov, A.N.
2001-01-01
At present time, a transition is made to market mechanisms of economy functioning based on equilibrium price formation for products of enterprises and their self-financing. Based on long-term forecasts of economic development, electric power industry should not only ensure preservation of the accumulated potential but should also provide for modernization, reconstruction, service life extension of operating power facilities and construction of new ones. Under market conditions, nuclear power installations will have to prove their right to exist and develop in competition with other power technologies. In these conditions, the responsibility is growing for the correctness of investment decisions taken in the power industry and methods on which they are based. This paper analyzes currently used calculation methods for economic efficiency of investment projects. It emphasizes the limitations and drawbacks of the existing methodical approaches, and their inconsistency with market economy and scientific and technological progress (STP). The said drawbacks lead to serious mistakes in evaluating the prospects for the development of nuclear power. The paper describes a methodical approach based on equilibrium price formation that does not have the said drawbacks and may be used as the basis for further work on creation of improved calculation methods for the economic efficiency of investment projects in nuclear power. (authors)
Kholil, Muhammad; Nurul Alfa, Bonitasari; Hariadi, Madjumsyah
2018-04-01
Network planning is one of the management techniques used to plan and control the implementation of a project, which shows the relationship between activities. The objective of this research is to arrange network planning on house construction project on CV. XYZ and to know the role of network planning in increasing the efficiency of time so that can be obtained the optimal project completion period. This research uses descriptive method, where the data collected by direct observation to the company, interview, and literature study. The result of this research is optimal time planning in project work. Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that the use of the both methods in scheduling of house construction project gives very significant effect on the completion time of the project. The company’s CPM (Critical Path Method) method can complete the project with 131 days, PERT (Program Evaluation Review and Technique) Method takes 136 days. Based on PERT calculation obtained Z = -0.66 or 0,2546 (from normal distribution table), and also obtained the value of probability or probability is 74,54%. This means that the possibility of house construction project activities can be completed on time is high enough. While without using both methods the project completion time takes 173 days. So using the CPM method, the company can save time up to 42 days and has time efficiency by using network planning.
Sparse Pseudo Spectral Projection Methods with Directional Adaptation for Uncertainty Quantification
Winokur, J.
2015-12-19
We investigate two methods to build a polynomial approximation of a model output depending on some parameters. The two approaches are based on pseudo-spectral projection (PSP) methods on adaptively constructed sparse grids, and aim at providing a finer control of the resolution along two distinct subsets of model parameters. The control of the error along different subsets of parameters may be needed for instance in the case of a model depending on uncertain parameters and deterministic design variables. We first consider a nested approach where an independent adaptive sparse grid PSP is performed along the first set of directions only, and at each point a sparse grid is constructed adaptively in the second set of directions. We then consider the application of aPSP in the space of all parameters, and introduce directional refinement criteria to provide a tighter control of the projection error along individual dimensions. Specifically, we use a Sobol decomposition of the projection surpluses to tune the sparse grid adaptation. The behavior and performance of the two approaches are compared for a simple two-dimensional test problem and for a shock-tube ignition model involving 22 uncertain parameters and 3 design parameters. The numerical experiments indicate that whereas both methods provide effective means for tuning the quality of the representation along distinct subsets of parameters, PSP in the global parameter space generally requires fewer model evaluations than the nested approach to achieve similar projection error. In addition, the global approach is better suited for generalization to more than two subsets of directions.
Liu, Ke; Chen, Xiaojing; Li, Limin; Chen, Huiling; Ruan, Xiukai; Liu, Wenbin
2015-02-09
The successive projections algorithm (SPA) is widely used to select variables for multiple linear regression (MLR) modeling. However, SPA used only once may not obtain all the useful information of the full spectra, because the number of selected variables cannot exceed the number of calibration samples in the SPA algorithm. Therefore, the SPA-MLR method risks the loss of useful information. To make a full use of the useful information in the spectra, a new method named "consensus SPA-MLR" (C-SPA-MLR) is proposed herein. This method is the combination of consensus strategy and SPA-MLR method. In the C-SPA-MLR method, SPA-MLR is used to construct member models with different subsets of variables, which are selected from the remaining variables iteratively. A consensus prediction is obtained by combining the predictions of the member models. The proposed method is evaluated by analyzing the near infrared (NIR) spectra of corn and diesel. The results of C-SPA-MLR method showed a better prediction performance compared with the SPA-MLR and full-spectra PLS methods. Moreover, these results could serve as a reference for combination the consensus strategy and other variable selection methods when analyzing NIR spectra and other spectroscopic techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sebok, Angelia; Green, Marit; Larsen, Marit; Miberg, Ann Britt; Morisseau, Dolores
1998-02-01
A workshop on Human Centred Automation (HCA) and Function Allocation Methods was organised in Halden, September 29-30, 1997. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss and make recommendations on requirements for the Halden Project research agenda. The workshop meeting began with several presentations summarising current issues in HCA, Function Allocation Methods and Functional Modelling. Invited speakers presented their research or modelling efforts. Following the presentations, the workshop was divided into three working groups, all tasked with answering the same four questions: (1) What are the most important issues in Human Centred Automation? (2) Which strengths could be achieved by integrating Functional Modelling Methods into experimental Human Centred Automation research? (3) How should analytical and experimental methods be balanced? (4) What are the most important aspects in automation design methodology? Each group discussed the questions and produced specific recommendations that were summarised by the group's facilitator in a joint session of the workshop. (author)
An Engineering Method of Civil Jet Requirements Validation Based on Requirements Project Principle
Wang, Yue; Gao, Dan; Mao, Xuming
2018-03-01
A method of requirements validation is developed and defined to meet the needs of civil jet requirements validation in product development. Based on requirements project principle, this method will not affect the conventional design elements, and can effectively connect the requirements with design. It realizes the modern civil jet development concept, which is “requirement is the origin, design is the basis”. So far, the method has been successfully applied in civil jet aircraft development in China. Taking takeoff field length as an example, the validation process and the validation method of the requirements are detailed introduced in the study, with the hope of providing the experiences to other civil jet product design.
Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias
This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...... optimization method based on the branch-and-cut concept was developed and implemented. In the method a large number of continuous relaxations were solved. We also present an algorithm for generating cuts to strengthen the quality of the relaxations. Several heuristics were also investigated to obtain efficient...... algorithms. The branch and cut method is used to solve benchmark examples which can be used to validate other methods and heuristics....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mysak, F.; Strba, J.
1979-01-01
A state research project is described divided into ten subprojects, viz.: New trends of ionizing radiation detection using television technology in nondestructive testing; the application of accelerators for thick-walled product testing; the atlas of butt welds of medium thicknesses; the application of radioanalytical methods in testing the wear of gearboxes and other components of instrument parts; multielemental analyses of combustion engine wear using radionuclides; the application of radioisotope methods in research into wear of antifriction bearings of trucks and railway cars; the application of radionuclides in assessing corrosion resistance of steels and corrosion protection systems; the application of radionuclide methods in improving the quality of high-grade steel production; the selection and testing of radionuclide instruments for building production control, intermediate and acceptance checks; and radioisotope methods for building machine and equipment control. (M.S.)
RISK ASSESSMENT IN PROJECT PLANNING USING FMEA AND CRITICAL PATH METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Milena CHOLES ARVILLA
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is based upon the research undertaken for the development of the doctoral thesis “Management of software projects based on object-oriented technology”. The study examines the existing risk management practices commonly used for classic software development. The goal is to integrate the elements of the traditional risk management methodologies to create a new agile risk management methodology. The thesis focuses on techniques that can be easily implemented in extreme programming (XP and SCRUM. This study is motivated by the following research questions: What are the elements of existing quality assurance tools that could meet the principles of agile development? And is it possible to use risk estimation for improving quality in agile projects? The thesis presents a synthesis of the most common risk management techniques, as well as an introduction to agile methods XP and SCRUM. The proposal integrates the concepts of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis into the iterative life cycle of an agile software project. The thesis presents a metamodel which integrates the concepts of agile development methodologies: SCRUM and XP with the FMEA concepts for risk quantification. The model was partly implemented into a real development project. Partial results show the improvement in early identification of failures and allowed to reconsider the Sprint plan.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Maria Carpaneto
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The Life Project “Monitoring of insects with public participation” (LIFE11 NAT/IT/000252 had as the main objective to develop and test methods for the monitoring of five beetle species listed in the Annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC: Osmoderma eremita (hermit beetle, Scarabaeidae, Lucanus cervus (European stag beetle, Lucanidae, Cerambyx cerdo (great capricorn beetle, Cerambycidae, Rosalia alpina (rosalia longicorn, Cerambycidae and Morimus asper/funereus (morimus longicorn, Cerambycidae. The data gathered represent an important contribution to the monitoring of these target species in Italy. The methods developed for monitoring of the target species are intended for use by the local management authorities and staff of protected areas. These developed methods are the result of extensive fieldwork and ensure scientific validity, ease of execution and limited labour costs. The detailed description of methods and the results for each species are published in separate articles of this special issue of Nature Conservation. A second objective of the project was to gather faunistic data with a Citizen Science approach, using the web and a mobile application software (app specifically built for mobile devices. The validation of the records collected by the citizens was carried out by experts, based on photographs, which were obligatory for all records. Dissemination activities represented the principal way to contact and engage citizens for the data collection and also offered the possibility of providing information on topics such as Natura 2000, the Habitats Directive, the role of monitoring in nature conservation, the importance of forest ecosystems and the ecological role of the saproxylic insects. An innovative method tested during the project was the training of a dog for searching and monitoring the elusive hermit beetle; the trained dog also added a “curiosity” factor to attract public attention towards this rare insect and
Purwanggono, Bambang; Margarette, Anastasia
2017-12-01
Completion time of highway construction is very meaningful for smooth transportation, moreover expected number of ownership motor vehicle will increase each year. Therefore, this study was conducted with to analyze the constraints that contained in an infrastructure development project. This research was conducted on Jatingaleh Underpass Project, Semarang. This research was carried out while the project is running, on the implementation, this project is experiencing delays. This research is done to find out what are the constraints that occur in execution of a road infrastructure project, in particular that causes delays. The method that used to find the root cause is fishbone diagram to obtain a possible means of mitigation. Coupled with the RFMEA method used to determine the critical risks that must be addressed immediately on road infrastructure project. The result of data tabulation in this study indicates that the most possible mitigation tool to make a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) recommendations to disrupt utilities that interfere project implementation. Process of risk assessment has been carried out systematically based on ISO 31000:2009 on risk management and for determination of delayed variables, the requirements of process groups according to ISO 21500:2013 on project management were used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betin, A Yu; Bobrinev, V I; Evtikhiev, N N; Zherdev, A Yu; Zlokazov, E Yu; Lushnikov, D S; Markin, V V; Odinokov, S B; Starikov, S N; Starikov, R S
2013-01-01
A method of computer generation and projection recording of microholograms for holographic memory systems is presented; the results of mathematical modelling and experimental implementation of the method are demonstrated. (holographic memory)
Calibration method for projector-camera-based telecentric fringe projection profilometry system.
Liu, Haibo; Lin, Huijing; Yao, Linshen
2017-12-11
By combining a fringe projection setup with a telecentric lens, a fringe pattern could be projected and imaged within a small area, making it possible to measure the three-dimensional (3D) surfaces of micro-components. This paper focuses on the flexible calibration of the fringe projection profilometry (FPP) system using a telecentric lens. An analytical telecentric projector-camera calibration model is introduced, in which the rig structure parameters remain invariant for all views, and the 3D calibration target can be located on the projector image plane with sub-pixel precision. Based on the presented calibration model, a two-step calibration procedure is proposed. First, the initial parameters, e.g., the projector-camera rig, projector intrinsic matrix, and coordinates of the control points of a 3D calibration target, are estimated using the affine camera factorization calibration method. Second, a bundle adjustment algorithm with various simultaneous views is applied to refine the calibrated parameters, especially the rig structure parameters and coordinates of the control points forth 3D target. Because the control points are determined during the calibration, there is no need for an accurate 3D reference target, whose is costly and extremely difficult to fabricate, particularly for tiny objects used to calibrate the telecentric FPP system. Real experiments were performed to validate the performance of the proposed calibration method. The test results showed that the proposed approach is very accurate and reliable.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silveira, T.B.; Cerbaro, B.Q.; Rosa, L.A.R. da, E-mail: thiago.fisimed@gmail.com, E-mail: tbsilveira@inca.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)
2017-07-01
The aim of this work was to implement a simple algorithm to evaluate isocenter dose in a phantom using the back-projected transmitted dose acquired using an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) available in a Varian Trilogy accelerator with two nominal 6 and 10 MV photon beams. This algorithm was developed in MATLAB language, to calibrate EPID measured dose in absolute dose, using a deconvolution process, and to incorporate all scattering and attenuation contributions due to photon interactions with phantom. Modeling process was simplified by using empirical curve adjustments to describe the contribution of scattering and attenuation effects. The implemented algorithm and method were validated employing 19 patient treatment plans with 104 clinical irradiation fields projected on the phantom used. Results for EPID absolute dose calibration by deconvolution have showed percent deviations lower than 1%. Final method validation presented average percent deviations between isocenter doses calculated by back-projection and isocenter doses determined with ionization chamber of 1,86% (SD of 1,00%) and -0,94% (SD of 0,61%) for 6 and 10 MV, respectively. Normalized field by field analysis showed deviations smaller than 2% for 89% of all data for 6 MV beams and 94% for 10 MV beams. It was concluded that the proposed algorithm possesses sufficient accuracy to be used for in vivo dosimetry, being sensitive to detect dose delivery errors bigger than 3-4% for conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques. (author)
A project to develop restoration methods for buildings and facilities after a terrorist attack
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Volchek, K.; Hornof, M.; Boudreau, L.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Best, M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Garbutt, M.; Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K. [Health Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Haslip, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
2004-07-01
A multi-agent project was initiated to review site restoration after a terrorist attack. The objective was to acquire and compile information on all known restoration procedures for buildings, exteriors of buildings, their interior contents, and adjacent areas such as parking lots, lawns and vehicles. All procedures were then tested and validated. Restoration procedures included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction/deposition of the contaminant, cleaning material and contaminated debris resulting from the terrorist act. This research and development project considered chemical, biological and nuclear contamination with the intent to develop methods to decontaminate and restore buildings after a chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attack. Ideas were collected from work conducted around the world. The efficacy of best candidates was tested along with all selected chemical target items. The project also involved the preparation of procedures for decontamination and restoration. Ultimately, a tradeoff decision basis will be developed to provide information on abandonment and quarantine versus cleanup. The study revealed that there are several technologies that can be used for the decontamination of structures and equipment after acts of terrorism, however, no one technique will work for all contaminants on all surfaces. The selection of a decontamination method depends on the contaminant, the surface being decontaminated and economic, social and health factors. The amount of waste generated by decontamination is a major feasibility factor. 25 refs., 6 tabs.
2012-06-20
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...
2012-07-09
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...
2012-04-09
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...
2012-09-10
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier
2007-01-01
The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as
Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier
2007-08-01
The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as
Fringe-period selection for a multifrequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Jiang, Kejian
2016-01-01
The multi-frequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method (MFPPUM) is a typical phase unwrapping algorithm for fringe projection profilometry. It has the advantage of being capable of correctly accomplishing phase unwrapping even in the presence of surface discontinuities. If the fringe frequency ratio of the MFPPUM is too large, fringe order error (FOE) may be triggered. FOE will result in phase unwrapping error. It is preferable for the phase unwrapping to be kept correct while the fewest sets of lower frequency fringe patterns are used. To achieve this goal, in this paper a parameter called fringe order inaccuracy (FOI) is defined, dominant factors which may induce FOE are theoretically analyzed, a method to optimally select the fringe periods for the MFPPUM is proposed with the aid of FOI, and experiments are conducted to research the impact of the dominant factors in phase unwrapping and demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. Some novel phenomena are revealed by these experiments. The proposed method helps to optimally select the fringe periods and detect the phase unwrapping error for the MFPPUM. (paper)
A two-factor method for appraising building renovation and energy efficiency improvement projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinaitis, Vytautas; Kazakevicius, Eduardas; Vitkauskas, Aloyzas
2007-01-01
The renovation of residential buildings usually involves a variety of measures aiming at reducing energy and building maintenance bills, increasing safety and market value, and improving comfort and aesthetics. A significant number of project appraisal methods in current use-such as calculations of payback time, net present value, internal rate of return or cost of conserved energy (CCE)-only quantify energy efficiency gains. These approaches are relatively easy to use, but offer a distorted view of complex modernization projects. On the other hand, various methods using multiple criteria take a much wider perspective but are usually time-consuming, based on sometimes uncertain assumptions and require sophisticated tools. A 'two-factor' appraisal method offers a compromise between these two approaches. The main idea of the method is to separate investments into those related to energy efficiency improvements, and those related to building renovation. Costs and benefits of complex measures, which both influence energy consumption and improve building constructions, are separated by using a building rehabilitation coefficient. The CCE is used for the appraisal of energy efficiency investments, while investments in building renovation are appraised using standard tools for the assessment of investments in maintenance, repair and rehabilitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Zhou
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose: As one of the most important overhead capital of urban economics and social development, the sustainable development of urban infrastructure is becoming a key issue of prosperous society growing. The purpose of this paper is to establish a basic model to analysis certain infrastructure project’s sustainable construction and operation. Design/methodology/approach: System dynamics is an effective stimulation method and tool to deal with such complex, dynamics, nonlinear systems, which could be used in analyzing and evaluating all aspects of infrastructure sustainability internally and externally. In this paper, the system is divided into four subsystems and 12 main impact indicators. Through setting the boundary and other basic hypothesis, this paper designs the basic causal loop diagrams and stock & flow diagrams to describe the relationship between variables and establish a quantifiable structure for the system. Findings: Adopting a sewerage treatment in China as a case to test our model, we could conclude that the model of internal sustainable subsystem is reasonable. However, this model is a basic model, and it need to be specific designed for the certain project due to the diversity of infrastructure types and the unique conditions of each projects. Originality/value: System Dynamics (SD is widely used in the study of sustainable development and has plentiful research achievements from macro perspective but few studies in the microcosmic project systems. This paper focuses on the unique characteristics of urban infrastructure in China and selects infrastructure project which is based on micro-system discussion. The model we designed has certain practical significance in policy setting, operation monitoring and adjustment of the urban projects with high rationality and accuracy.
Valtonen, Katariina; Leppänen, Mauri
Governments worldwide are concerned for efficient production of services to customers. To improve quality of services and to make service production more efficient, information and communication technology (ICT) is largely exploited in public administration (PA). Succeeding in this exploitation calls for large-scale planning which embraces issues from strategic to technological level. In this planning the notion of enterprise architecture (EA) is commonly applied. One of the sub-architectures of EA is business architecture (BA). BA planning is challenging in PA due to a large number of stakeholders, a wide set of customers, and solid and hierarchical structures of organizations. To support EA planning in Finland, a project to engineer a government EA (GEA) method was launched. In this chapter, we analyze the discussions and outputs of the project workshops and reflect emerged issues on current e-government literature. We bring forth insights into and suggestions for government BA and its development.
Sizova, Evgeniya; Zhutaeva, Evgeniya; Chugunov, Andrei
2018-03-01
The article highlights features of processes of urban territory renovation from the perspective of a commercial entity participating in the implementation of a project. The requirements of high-rise construction projects to the entities, that carry out them, are considered. The advantages of large enterprises as participants in renovation projects are systematized, contributing to their most efficient implementation. The factors, which influence the success of the renovation projects, are presented. A method for selecting projects for implementation based on criteria grouped by qualitative characteristics and contributing to the most complete and comprehensive evaluation of the project is suggested. Patterns to prioritize and harmonize renovation projects in terms of multi-project activity of the enterprise are considered.
Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.; Lang, M.; Renard, B.; Arnaud, P.; Aubert, Y.; Carre, J.
2013-12-01
In flood risk assessment the methods can be divided in two families: deterministic methods and probabilistic methods. In the French hydrologic community the probabilistic methods are historically preferred to the deterministic ones. Presently a French research project named EXTRAFLO (RiskNat Program of the French National Research Agency, https://extraflo.cemagref.fr) deals with the design values for extreme rainfall and floods. The object of this project is to carry out a comparison of the main methods used in France for estimating extreme values of rainfall and floods, to obtain a better grasp of their respective fields of application. In this framework we present the results of Task 7 of EXTRAFLO project. Focusing on French watersheds, we compare the main extreme flood estimation methods used in French background: (i) standard flood frequency analysis (Gumbel and GEV distribution), (ii) regional flood frequency analysis (regional Gumbel and GEV distribution), (iii) local and regional flood frequency analysis improved by historical information (Naulet et al., 2005), (iv) simplify probabilistic method based on rainfall information (i.e. Gradex method (CFGB, 1994), Agregee method (Margoum, 1992) and Speed method (Cayla, 1995)), (v) flood frequency analysis by continuous simulation approach and based on rainfall information (i.e. Schadex method (Paquet et al., 2013, Garavaglia et al., 2010), Shyreg method (Lavabre et al., 2003)) and (vi) multifractal approach. The main result of this comparative study is that probabilistic methods based on additional information (i.e. regional, historical and rainfall information) provide better estimations than the standard flood frequency analysis. Another interesting result is that, the differences between the various extreme flood quantile estimations of compared methods increase with return period, staying relatively moderate up to 100-years return levels. Results and discussions are here illustrated throughout with the example
Hakala, Kirsti; Addor, Nans; Seibert, Jan
2017-04-01
Streamflow stemming from Switzerland's mountainous landscape will be influenced by climate change, which will pose significant challenges to the water management and policy sector. In climate change impact research, the determination of future streamflow is impeded by different sources of uncertainty, which propagate through the model chain. In this research, we explicitly considered the following sources of uncertainty: (1) climate models, (2) downscaling of the climate projections to the catchment scale, (3) bias correction method and (4) parameterization of the hydrological model. We utilize climate projections at the 0.11 degree 12.5 km resolution from the EURO-CORDEX project, which are the most recent climate projections for the European domain. EURO-CORDEX is comprised of regional climate model (RCM) simulations, which have been downscaled from global climate models (GCMs) from the CMIP5 archive, using both dynamical and statistical techniques. Uncertainties are explored by applying a modeling chain involving 14 GCM-RCMs to ten Swiss catchments. We utilize the rainfall-runoff model HBV Light, which has been widely used in operational hydrological forecasting. The Lindström measure, a combination of model efficiency and volume error, was used as an objective function to calibrate HBV Light. Ten best sets of parameters are then achieved by calibrating using the genetic algorithm and Powell optimization (GAP) method. The GAP optimization method is based on the evolution of parameter sets, which works by selecting and recombining high performing parameter sets with each other. Once HBV is calibrated, we then perform a quantitative comparison of the influence of biases inherited from climate model simulations to the biases stemming from the hydrological model. The evaluation is conducted over two time periods: i) 1980-2009 to characterize the simulation realism under the current climate and ii) 2070-2099 to identify the magnitude of the projected change of
Household projections by the headship rates method: The case of Serbia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasić Petar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The headship rates method (HRM of household projections based on the share of household heads in the total population of the same demographic characteristics (age, sex, nationality, marital status, etc. is the most commonly used method, especially by statistical institutes and planning institutions. The specific rates of household heads by age are calculated by dividing the number of household holders of a certain age with the total number of residents of the appropriate age. The future number of households is then simply projected on the basis of population projections by age and assumptions about the future changes of HR. The HRM is based on the projection of the future age structure of the population. In that sense, the choice of methods of population projection, as well as the method of projecting HR-s have determining impact on the outcome of household projections. Given the methodological inconsistency typical for official population projections in Serbia and significant differences in addressing uncertainty of the future population change between deterministic and probabilistic approach in making population projections, the decision to use a probabilistic projection of the population of Serbia as the basis for calculating the future number of house-holds and their structure according to the age of the household head proved to be a logical choice. However, as the basic aim of this article is to show the simple method of household projections, the above-mentioned stochastic projection is used in utterly deterministic manner. The median of the prediction interval of the population distributed across age is interpreted as the most probable future, or as a prognosis. The HR-s based on the age structure estimates and estimated number of households by age of the household head from Household budget survey (HBS are used for the purpose of HR projecting so that the number of observations would be large enough for calculating inclination parameters
Liu, Peng; Xie, Shulin; Zhang, Lixiao; Zhou, Guangyi; Zhao, Xuefeng
2018-03-01
A certain level of horizontal displacement will occur during excavation or subsequent construction of deep foundation pit. If the support is improper and the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit is too large, it will cause collapse and even affect the buildings around the foundation pit, which will endanger people's life and property. Therefore, the horizontal displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit becomes more and more important. At present, the electronic total station is often used to monitor the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit, but this monitoring method is expensive, prone to accidental errors, and can not be used for real-time monitoring. Therefore, a method of monitoring the horizontal displacement of deep foundation pit by using laser projection sensing technique is proposed in this paper. The horizontal displacement of the foundation pit is replaced by the displacement of the laser spot emitted by the laser, and the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit can be obtained by identifying the displacement of the laser spot projected on the screen. A series of experiments show that the accuracy of this monitoring method meets the engineering requirements and greatly reduces the cost, which provides a new technology for the displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit.
Practical implications of procedures developed in IDEA project - Comparison with traditional methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrasi, A.; Bouvier, C.; Brandl, A.; De Carlan, L.; Fischer, H.; Franck, D.; Hoellriegl, V.; Li, W. B.; Oeh, U.; Ritt, J.; Roth, P.; Schlagbauer, M.; Schmitzer, Ch; Wahl, W.; Zombori, P.
2007-01-01
The idea of the IDEA project aimed to improve assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of more reliable and possibly faster in vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. In direct in vivo monitoring technique the optimum choice of the detectors to be applied for different monitoring tasks has been investigated in terms of material, size and background in order to improve conditions namely to increase counting efficiency and reduce background. Detailed studies have been performed to investigate the manifold advantageous applications and capabilities of numerical simulation method for the calibration and optimisation of in vivo counting systems. This calibration method can be advantageously applied especially in the measurement of low-energy photon emitting radionuclides, where individual variability is a significant source of uncertainty. In bioassay measurements the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can improve considerably both the measurement speed and the lower limit of detection currently achievable with alpha spectrometry for long-lived radionuclides. The work carried out in this project provided detailed guidelines for optimum performance of the technique of ICP-MS applied mainly for the determination of uranium and thorium nuclides in the urine including sampling procedure, operational parameters of the instruments and interpretation of the measured data. The paper demonstrates the main advantages of investigated techniques in comparison with the performances of methods commonly applied in routine monitoring practice. (authors)
New teaching methods for practical training in nursing within the project Tempus IV – CCNURCA
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Gabriela Kuriplachová
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present new teaching methods for practical training in nursing within the project Tempus IV – CCNURCA (Competency based Curriculum Reform in Nursing and Healthcare in Western Balkan Universities No. 544169-TEMPUS-1-2013-1-BE-TEMPUS-JPCR. Implementation of new practical teaching methods, such as learning with simulator mannequins, practical workshop, nursing process, mind mapping, case studies and problem-based learning (PBL in practical training could help to improve the quality of the educational process in nursing at Universities of Western Balkan countries that have been involved in this project. The realistic conditions in simulation laboratories are reflecting real hospital and patient´s care, communication with patient and hospital staff, discussion and analysis of all student´s activities. The methods of next nursing generation in practical training that can help nurses to get used to the recognition and management of patients by using of simulated real life situations.
Multi-example feature-constrained back-projection method for image super-resolution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Junlei Zhang; Dianguang Gai; Xin Zhang; Xuemei Li
2017-01-01
Example-based super-resolution algorithms,which predict unknown high-resolution image information using a relationship model learnt from known high- and low-resolution image pairs, have attracted considerable interest in the field of image processing. In this paper, we propose a multi-example feature-constrained back-projection method for image super-resolution. Firstly, we take advantage of a feature-constrained polynomial interpolation method to enlarge the low-resolution image. Next, we consider low-frequency images of different resolutions to provide an example pair. Then, we use adaptive k NN search to find similar patches in the low-resolution image for every image patch in the high-resolution low-frequency image, leading to a regression model between similar patches to be learnt. The learnt model is applied to the low-resolution high-frequency image to produce high-resolution high-frequency information. An iterative back-projection algorithm is used as the final step to determine the final high-resolution image.Experimental results demonstrate that our method improves the visual quality of the high-resolution image.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brut, F.
1982-01-01
The spectroscopy of odd-A nuclei, in the 1p and 2s-1d shells, is studied in the framework of the projected Hartree-Fock method and by the generator coordinate method. The nuclear effective interactions of Cohen and Kurath, on the one hand, and of Kuo or Preedom-Wildenthal, on the other hand, are used. The binding energies, the nuclear spectra, the static moments and the electromagnetic transitions obtained by these two approaches are compared to the same quantities given by a complete diagonalization in the shell model basis. This study of light nuclei gives some possibilities to put in order the energy levels by coupled rotational bands. In the microscopic approach, thus we find all the elements of the unified model of Bohr and Mottelson. To give evidence of such a relation, the functions of the angle β, in the integrals of the projection method of Peierls and Yoccoz, for a Slater determinant, are developed in the vicinity of the bounds β = O and β = π. The microscopic coefficients are evaluated in the Hartree-Fock approximation, using the particle-hole formalism. Calculations are made for 20 Ne and 21 Ne and the resulting microscopic coefficients are compared with the corresponding terms of the unified model of Bohr and Mottelson [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KUSDHIANTO SETIAWAN
Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of real options analysis for a project that is in the process of construction and was affected by a natural disaster. The use of the analytical method has become a way of thinking in making decisions that should be taught to business school students. The case in this paper is based on an MBA thesis at the University of Gadjah Mada that was intended as a showcase for application of real options to address real business problems. It shows one of the strategies in mainstreaming disaster risk management in the business school that also answers the needs of businesses in the disaster-prone country.
On the method of orthogonal projections in the theory of elasticity
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Valerii V. Struzhanov
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The method of orthogonal projections applied to the task of determining the stresses in the elastic deformable bodies, which allowed us to relax the requirements to the smoothness of the functions defining external forces and to the components of the tensor of the initial strains, which cause the appearance of balanced self-stresses. Examples of the calculation of quench stresses in a circular cylinder and residual stresses after shrinkage of the binder in composite cylinders made by winding are given.
Using Vector Projection Method to evaluate maintainability of mechanical system in design review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Lu; Cai Jianguo
2003-01-01
Maintainability of a mechanical system is one of the system design parameters that has a great impact in terms of ease of maintenance. In this article, based on the definition of the terms of maintenance and maintainability, an important tool of Design for Maintenance is developed as a way to improve maintainability through design. A set of standard and organized guidelines is provided and maintainability factors in terms of physical design, logistics support and ergonomics are identified. As a specific application of design review, a methodology so called Vector Projection Method is developed to evaluate the maintainability of the mechanical system. Lastly, an example is discussed
Use of the Contingent Valuation Method in the assessment of a landfill mining project.
Marella, Giuliano; Raga, Roberto
2014-07-01
A comprehensive approach for the evaluation of the economic feasibility of landfill mining (LFM) should take into account not only the direct costs and revenues for the private investor, but also the social benefits or costs (generally called externalities), in such a way that projects generating major social benefits (and no significant private revenues) are not overlooked. With a view to contributing to the development of a common framework for the evaluation of LFM projects, this paper presents the results of a case study where the issue of the assessment of social benefits from a LFM project is addressed. In particular, the Contingent Valuation Method is applied for the monetary assessment of the community-perceived benefits from the remediation of an old uncontrolled waste deposit by means of LFM and the conversion of the area into a park. Based on the results of a survey carried out on a random sample of people living near the old landfill, the economic values of the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for LFM and the subsequent creation of a public park were calculated and the correlations with the relevant variables (distance from the landfill site, age, income, sex, education level) assessed. The results were then suitably extended and the monetary value of the welfare increase of the whole population resident in the area and potentially affected both by LFM and the creation of the park was calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Two-level method for unsteady Navier-Stokes equations based on a new projection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou Yanren; Li Kaitai
2004-12-01
A two-level algorithm for the two dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations based on a new projection is proposed and investigated. The approximate solution is solved as a sum of a large eddy component and a small eddy component, which are in the sense of the new projection, constructed in this paper. These two terms advance in time explicitly. Actually, the new algorithm proposed here can be regarded as a sort of postprocessing algorithm for the standard Galerkin method (SGM). The large eddy part is solved by SGM in the usual L 2 -based large eddy subspace while the small eddy part (the correction part) is obtained in its complement subspace in the sense of the new projection. The stability analysis indicates the improvement of the stability comparing with SGM of the same scale, and the L 2 -error estimate shows that the scheme can improve the accuracy of SGM approximation for half order. We also propose a numerical implementation based on Lagrange multiplier for this two-level algorithm. (author)
Walter, Alexander I; Helgenberger, Sebastian; Wiek, Arnim; Scholz, Roland W
2007-11-01
Most Transdisciplinary Research (TdR) projects combine scientific research with the building of decision making capacity for the involved stakeholders. These projects usually deal with complex, societally relevant, real-world problems. This paper focuses on TdR projects, which integrate the knowledge of researchers and stakeholders in a collaborative transdisciplinary process through structured methods of mutual learning. Previous research on the evaluation of TdR has insufficiently explored the intended effects of transdisciplinary processes on the real world (societal effects). We developed an evaluation framework for assessing the societal effects of transdisciplinary processes. Outputs (measured as procedural and product-related involvement of the stakeholders), impacts (intermediate effects connecting outputs and outcomes) and outcomes (enhanced decision making capacity) are distinguished as three types of societal effects. Our model links outputs and outcomes of transdisciplinary processes via the impacts using a mediating variables approach. We applied this model in an ex post evaluation of a transdisciplinary process. 84 out of 188 agents participated in a survey. The results show significant mediation effects of the two impacts "network building" and "transformation knowledge". These results indicate an influence of a transdisciplinary process on the decision making capacity of stakeholders, especially through social network building and the generation of knowledge relevant for action.
Cooperative project on methods and techniques for assessment of ageing and safety of nuclear objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bundara, B.; Udovc, M.; Cvelbar, R.; Vojvodic Tuma, J.; Celin, R.; Cizelj, L.; Simonovski, I.; Pirs, B.; Zabric, I.
2007-01-01
Nuclear Power Plants are so far the most demanding electric power plants concerning the extent and complexity of knowledge that is needed for design, construction, installation, safe operation and proper maintenance. For safe operation of the NPP it is important to have reliable inspection procedures and methods to detect the relevant defects in the components. It is also important to have effective techniques and efficient methodology that enable precise estimation of the material degradation and reliable prediction of the remaining period of the safe service of structures and components. During the operation of NPP its materials, structures and components are exposed to various impacts that have for the result changes in the material. Changes usually manifest as deviation from the origin (generally considered as defects) and can be observed at level of microstructure and/or at structural level. Defects are consequence of ageing and ageing is a consequence of mechanical, thermal, chemical, radiation induced and other processes. Complexity of the NPP and continuous operation at high level of safety demands extensive cooperation of researchers and engineers with different scientific and educational background. In the paper is discussed the importance of sufficient support to the NPP related research projects and the need for cooperation between institutes. As an example is presented the cooperative project that bands the research groups with different scientific background into complementary team working on multidisciplinary project focused on assessment of ageing and safety of nuclear objects. (author)
Local blur analysis and phase error correction method for fringe projection profilometry systems.
Rao, Li; Da, Feipeng
2018-05-20
We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors. For defocus phenomenon, this method can be directly applied. With the aid of spatially varying point spread functions and local frontal plane assumption, experiments show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the system errors and improve the final reconstruction accuracy in various scenes. For a subsurface scattering scenario, if the translucent object is dominated by multiple scattering, the proposed method can also be applied to correct systematic errors once the bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function of the object material is measured.
Breast EIT using a new projected image reconstruction method with multi-frequency measurements.
Lee, Eunjung; Ts, Munkh-Erdene; Seo, Jin Keun; Woo, Eung Je
2012-05-01
We propose a new method to produce admittivity images of the breast for the diagnosis of breast cancer using electrical impedance tomography(EIT). Considering the anatomical structure of the breast, we designed an electrode configuration where current-injection and voltage-sensing electrodes are separated in such a way that internal current pathways are approximately along the tangential direction of an array of voltage-sensing electrodes. Unlike conventional EIT imaging methods where the number of injected currents is maximized to increase the total amount of measured data, current is injected only twice between two pairs of current-injection electrodes attached along the circumferential side of the breast. For each current injection, the induced voltages are measured from the front surface of the breast using as many voltage-sensing electrodes as possible. Although this electrode configurational lows us to measure induced voltages only on the front surface of the breast,they are more sensitive to an anomaly inside the breast since such an injected current tends to produce a more uniform internal current density distribution. Furthermore, the sensitivity of a measured boundary voltage between two equipotential lines on the front surface of the breast is improved since those equipotential lines are perpendicular to the primary direction of internal current streamlines. One should note that this novel data collection method is different from those of other frontal plane techniques such as the x-ray projection and T-scan imaging methods because we do not get any data on the plane that is perpendicular to the current flow. To reconstruct admittivity images using two measured voltage data sets, a new projected image reconstruction algorithm is developed. Numerical simulations demonstrate the frequency-difference EIT imaging of the breast. The results show that the new method is promising to accurately detect and localize small anomalies inside the breast.
Breast EIT using a new projected image reconstruction method with multi-frequency measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Eunjung; Ts, Munkh-Erdene; Seo, Jin Keun; Woo, Eung Je
2012-01-01
We propose a new method to produce admittivity images of the breast for the diagnosis of breast cancer using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Considering the anatomical structure of the breast, we designed an electrode configuration where current-injection and voltage-sensing electrodes are separated in such a way that internal current pathways are approximately along the tangential direction of an array of voltage-sensing electrodes. Unlike conventional EIT imaging methods where the number of injected currents is maximized to increase the total amount of measured data, current is injected only twice between two pairs of current-injection electrodes attached along the circumferential side of the breast. For each current injection, the induced voltages are measured from the front surface of the breast using as many voltage-sensing electrodes as possible. Although this electrode configuration allows us to measure induced voltages only on the front surface of the breast, they are more sensitive to an anomaly inside the breast since such an injected current tends to produce a more uniform internal current density distribution. Furthermore, the sensitivity of a measured boundary voltage between two equipotential lines on the front surface of the breast is improved since those equipotential lines are perpendicular to the primary direction of internal current streamlines. One should note that this novel data collection method is different from those of other frontal plane techniques such as the x-ray projection and T-scan imaging methods because we do not get any data on the plane that is perpendicular to the current flow. To reconstruct admittivity images using two measured voltage data sets, a new projected image reconstruction algorithm is developed. Numerical simulations demonstrate the frequency-difference EIT imaging of the breast. The results show that the new method is promising to accurately detect and localize small anomalies inside the breast. (paper)
The ACTwatch project: methods to describe anti-malarial markets in seven countries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chapman Steven
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, governments and donors are faced with an information gap when considering ways to improve access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and malaria diagnostics including rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. To help address some of these gaps, a five-year multi-country research project called ACTwatch was launched. The project is designed to provide a comprehensive picture of the anti-malarial market to inform national and international anti-malarial drug policy decision-making. Methods The project is being conducted in seven malaria-endemic countries: Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia from 2008 to 2012. ACTwatch measures which anti-malarials are available, where they are available and at what price and who they are used by. These indicators are measured over time and across countries through three study components: outlet surveys, supply chain studies and household surveys. Nationally representative outlet surveys examine the market share of different anti-malarials passing through public facilities and private retail outlets. Supply chain research provides a picture of the supply chain serving drug outlets, and measures mark-ups at each supply chain level. On the demand side, nationally representative household surveys capture treatment seeking patterns and use of anti-malarial drugs, as well as respondent knowledge of anti-malarials. Discussion The research project provides findings on both the demand and supply side determinants of anti-malarial access. There are four key features of ACTwatch. First is the overlap of the three study components where nationally representative data are collected over similar periods, using a common sampling approach. A second feature is the number and diversity of countries that are studied which allows for cross-country comparisons. Another distinguishing feature is its ability to measure trends over time. Finally, the
The ACTwatch project: methods to describe anti-malarial markets in seven countries
2011-01-01
Background Policy makers, governments and donors are faced with an information gap when considering ways to improve access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and malaria diagnostics including rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). To help address some of these gaps, a five-year multi-country research project called ACTwatch was launched. The project is designed to provide a comprehensive picture of the anti-malarial market to inform national and international anti-malarial drug policy decision-making. Methods The project is being conducted in seven malaria-endemic countries: Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia from 2008 to 2012. ACTwatch measures which anti-malarials are available, where they are available and at what price and who they are used by. These indicators are measured over time and across countries through three study components: outlet surveys, supply chain studies and household surveys. Nationally representative outlet surveys examine the market share of different anti-malarials passing through public facilities and private retail outlets. Supply chain research provides a picture of the supply chain serving drug outlets, and measures mark-ups at each supply chain level. On the demand side, nationally representative household surveys capture treatment seeking patterns and use of anti-malarial drugs, as well as respondent knowledge of anti-malarials. Discussion The research project provides findings on both the demand and supply side determinants of anti-malarial access. There are four key features of ACTwatch. First is the overlap of the three study components where nationally representative data are collected over similar periods, using a common sampling approach. A second feature is the number and diversity of countries that are studied which allows for cross-country comparisons. Another distinguishing feature is its ability to measure trends over time. Finally, the project aims to disseminate
GPR used in combination with other NDT methods for assessing pavements in PPP projects
Loizos, Andreas; Plati, Christina
2014-05-01
In the recent decades, Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) has been adopted for highway infrastructure procurement in many countries. PPP projects typically take the form of a section of highway and connecting roadways which are to be construction and managed for a given concession period. Over the course of the highway concession period, the private agency takes over the pavement maintenance and rehabilitation duties. On this purpose, it is critical to find the most cost effective way to maintain the infrastructure in compliance with the agreed upon performance measures and a Pavement Management Systems (PMS) is critical to the success of this process. For the prosperous operation of a PMS it is necessary to have appropriate procedures for pavement monitoring and evaluation, which is important in many areas of pavement engineering. Non Destructive Testing (NDT) has played a major role in pavement condition monitoring, assessments and evaluation accomplishing continuous and quick collection of pavement data. The analysis of this data can lead to indicators related to trigger values (criteria) that define the pavement condition based on which the pavement "health" is perceived helping decide whether there is the need or not to intervene in the pavement. The accomplished perception appoints required management activities for preserving pavements in favor not only of the involved highway/road agencies but also of users' service. Amongst NDT methods Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) seems to be a very powerful toll, as it provides a range of condition and construction pavement information. It can support effectively the implementation of PMS activities in the framework of pavement monitoring and evaluation. Given that, the present work aims to the development and adaptation of a protocol for the use of GPR in combination with other NDT methods, such as Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD), for assessing pavements in PPP projects. It is based on the experience of Laboratory of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J.; Todor, Dorin A.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)
2011-01-15
Purpose: To generalize and experimentally validate a novel algorithm for reconstructing the 3D pose (position and orientation) of implanted brachytherapy seeds from a set of a few measured 2D cone-beam CT (CBCT) x-ray projections. Methods: The iterative forward projection matching (IFPM) algorithm was generalized to reconstruct the 3D pose, as well as the centroid, of brachytherapy seeds from three to ten measured 2D projections. The gIFPM algorithm finds the set of seed poses that minimizes the sum-of-squared-difference of the pixel-by-pixel intensities between computed and measured autosegmented radiographic projections of the implant. Numerical simulations of clinically realistic brachytherapy seed configurations were performed to demonstrate the proof of principle. An in-house machined brachytherapy phantom, which supports precise specification of seed position and orientation at known values for simulated implant geometries, was used to experimentally validate this algorithm. The phantom was scanned on an ACUITY CBCT digital simulator over a full 660 sinogram projections. Three to ten x-ray images were selected from the full set of CBCT sinogram projections and postprocessed to create binary seed-only images. Results: In the numerical simulations, seed reconstruction position and orientation errors were approximately 0.6 mm and 5 deg., respectively. The physical phantom measurements demonstrated an absolute positional accuracy of (0.78{+-}0.57) mm or less. The {theta} and {phi} angle errors were found to be (5.7{+-}4.9) deg. and (6.0{+-}4.1) deg., respectively, or less when using three projections; with six projections, results were slightly better. The mean registration error was better than 1 mm/6 deg. compared to the measured seed projections. Each test trial converged in 10-20 iterations with computation time of 12-18 min/iteration on a 1 GHz processor. Conclusions: This work describes a novel, accurate, and completely automatic method for reconstructing
Personalizing death in the intensive care unit: the 3 Wishes Project: a mixed-methods study.
Cook, Deborah; Swinton, Marilyn; Toledo, Feli; Clarke, France; Rose, Trudy; Hand-Breckenridge, Tracey; Boyle, Anne; Woods, Anne; Zytaruk, Nicole; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Sheppard, Robert
2015-08-18
Dying in the complex, efficiency-driven environment of the intensive care unit can be dehumanizing for the patient and have profound, long-lasting consequences for all persons attendant to that death. To bring peace to the final days of a patient's life and to ease the grieving process. Mixed-methods study. 21-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit. Dying patients and their families and clinicians. To honor each patient, a set of wishes was generated by patients, family members, or clinicians. The wishes were implemented before or after death by patients, families, clinicians (6 of whom were project team members), or the project team. Quantitative data included demographic characteristics, processes of care, and scores on the Quality of End-of-Life Care-10 instrument. Semistructured interviews of family members and clinicians were transcribed verbatim, and qualitative description was used to analyze them. Participants included 40 decedents, at least 1 family member per patient, and 3 clinicians per patient. The 159 wishes were implemented and classified into 5 categories: humanizing the environment, tributes, family reconnections, observances, and "paying it forward." Scores on the Quality of End-of-Life Care-10 instrument were high. The central theme from 160 interviews of 170 persons was how the 3 Wishes Project personalized the dying process. For patients, eliciting and customizing the wishes honored them by celebrating their lives and dignifying their deaths. For families, it created positive memories and individualized end-of-life care for their loved ones. For clinicians, it promoted interprofessional care and humanism in practice. Impaired consciousness limited understanding of patients' viewpoints. The 3 Wishes Project facilitated personalization of the dying process through explicit integration of palliative and spiritual care into critical care practice. Hamilton Academy of Health Science Research Organization, Canadian Intensive Care Foundation.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kopačka, Ján; Gabriel, Dušan; Plešek, Jiří; Ulbin, M.
2016-01-01
Roč. 105, č. 11 (2016), s. 803-833 ISSN 0029-5981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10114 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : closest point projection * local contact search * quadratic elements * Newtons methods * geometric iteration methods * simplex method Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.162, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nme.4994/abstract
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor
2005-07-14
Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Fujio; Yamaguchi, Shoichiro
1982-01-01
A method of the reconstruction of computed tomographic images was proposed to reduce the exposure dose to X-ray. The method is the small number of X-ray projection method by accelerative gradient method. The procedures of computation are described. The algorithm of these procedures is simple, the convergence of the computation is fast, and the required memory capacity is small. Numerical simulation was carried out to conform the validity of this method. A sample of simple shape was considered, projection data were given, and the images were reconstructed from 6 views. Good results were obtained, and the method is considered to be useful. (Kato, T.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
French Rebecca S
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since May 2004, ten Central and Eastern European (CEE countries have joined the European Union, leading to a large influx of CEE migrants to the United Kingdom (UK. The SALLEE project (sexual attitudes and lifestyles of London's Eastern Europeans set out to establish an understanding of the sexual lifestyles and reproductive health risks of CEE migrants. CEE nationals make up a small minority of the population resident in the UK with no sampling frame from which to select a probability sample. There is also difficulty estimating the socio-demographic and geographical distribution of the population. In addition, measuring self-reported sexual behaviour which is generally found to be problematic, may be compounded among people from a range of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This paper will describe the methods adopted by the SALLEE project to address these challenges. Methods The research was undertaken using quantitative and qualitative methods: a cross-sectional survey of CEE migrants based on three convenience samples (recruited from community venues, sexual health clinics and from the Internet and semi-structured in-depth interviews with a purposively selected sample of CEE migrants. A detailed social mapping exercise of the CEE community was conducted prior to commencement of the survey to identify places where CEE migrants could be recruited. A total of 3,005 respondents took part in the cross-sectional survey, including 2,276 respondents in the community sample, 357 in the clinic sample and 372 in the Internet sample. 40 in-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken with a range of individuals, as determined by the interview quota matrix. Discussion The SALLEE project has benefited from using quantitative research to provide generalisable data on a range of variables and qualitative research to add in-depth understanding and interpretation. The social mapping exercise successfully located a large number
A projection-adapted cross entropy (PACE) method for transmission network planning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eshragh, Ali; Filar, Jerzy [University of South Australia, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Mawson Lakes, SA (Australia); Nazar, Asef [University of South Australia, Institute for Sustainable Systems Technologies, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Mawson Lakes, SA (Australia)
2011-06-15
In this paper, we propose an adaptation of the cross entropy (CE) method called projection-adapted CE (PACE) to solve a transmission expansion problem that arises in management of national and provincial electricity grids. The aim of the problem is to find an expansion policy that is both economical and operational from the technical perspective. Often, the transmission network expansion problem is mathematically formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear program that is very challenging algorithmically. The challenge originates from the fact that a global optimum should be found despite the presence, of possibly a huge number, of local optima. The PACE method shows promise in solving global optimization problems regardless of continuity or other assumptions. In our approach, we sample the integer variables using the CE mechanism, and solve LPs to obtain matching continuous variables. Numerical results, on selected test systems, demonstrate the potential of this approach. (orig.)
Projection and nested force-gradient methods for quantum field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shcherbakov, Dmitry
2017-07-26
For the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm (HMC), often used to study the fundamental quantum field theory of quarks and gluons, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), on the lattice, one is interested in efficient numerical time integration schemes which preserve geometric properties of the flow and are optimal in terms of computational costs per trajectory for a given acceptance rate. High order numerical methods allow the use of larger step sizes, but demand a larger computational effort per step; low order schemes do not require such large computational costs per step, but need more steps per trajectory. So there is a need to balance these opposing effects. In this work we introduce novel geometric numerical time integrators, namely, projection and nested force-gradient methods in order to improve the efficiency of the HMC algorithm in application to the problems of quantum field theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Adrian Constantinescu; Loren Roberts; William Wieselquist
2007-01-01
This is a project in the field of fundamental research on numerical methods for solving the particle transport equation. Numerous practical problems require to use unstructured meshes, for example, detailed nuclear reactor assembly-level calculations, large-scale reactor core calculations, radiative hydrodynamics problems, where the mesh is determined by hydrodynamic processes, and well-logging problems in which the media structure has very complicated geometry. Currently this is an area of very active research in numerical transport theory. main issues in developing numerical methods for solving the transport equation are the accuracy of the numerical solution and effectiveness of iteration procedure. The problem in case of unstructured grids is that it is very difficult to derive an iteration algorithm that will be unconditionally stable
Bidding cost evaluation with fuzzy methods on building project in Jakarta
Susetyo, Budi; Utami, Tin Budi
2017-11-01
National construction companies today demanded to become more competitive to face increasingly competition. Every construction company especially the contractor must work better than ever. Ability to prepare cost of the work that represents the efficiency and effectiveness of the implementation of the work necessary to produce cost - competitive. The project is considered successful if the target meets the quality, cost and time. From the aspect of cost, the project has been designed in accordance with certain technical criteria to be taken into account based on standard costs. To ensure the cost efficiency of the bidding process carried out meet the rules of a fairly and competitive. The research objective is to formulate the proper way to compare several deals with the standard cost of the work. The fuzzy technique is used as a evaluation methods to decision making. The evaluation not merely based on the lowest prices. The methods is looking for the most valuable and reasonable prices. The comparison is conducted to determine the most cost-competitive and reasonable as the winner of the bidding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ibrahim Karahan
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H. Let {T_{n}}:C›H be a sequence of nearly nonexpansive mappings such that F:=?_{i=1}^{?}F(T_{i}?Ø. Let V:C›H be a ?-Lipschitzian mapping and F:C›H be a L-Lipschitzian and ?-strongly monotone operator. This paper deals with a modified iterative projection method for approximating a solution of the hierarchical fixed point problem. It is shown that under certain approximate assumptions on the operators and parameters, the modified iterative sequence {x_{n}} converges strongly to x^{*}?F which is also the unique solution of the following variational inequality: ?0, ?x?F. As a special case, this projection method can be used to find the minimum norm solution of above variational inequality; namely, the unique solution x^{*} to the quadratic minimization problem: x^{*}=argmin_{x?F}?x?². The results here improve and extend some recent corresponding results of other authors.
A Simple Sampling Method for Estimating the Accuracy of Large Scale Record Linkage Projects.
Boyd, James H; Guiver, Tenniel; Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B; Anderson, Phil; Dickinson, Teresa
2016-05-17
Record linkage techniques allow different data collections to be brought together to provide a wider picture of the health status of individuals. Ensuring high linkage quality is important to guarantee the quality and integrity of research. Current methods for measuring linkage quality typically focus on precision (the proportion of incorrect links), given the difficulty of measuring the proportion of false negatives. The aim of this work is to introduce and evaluate a sampling based method to estimate both precision and recall following record linkage. In the sampling based method, record-pairs from each threshold (including those below the identified cut-off for acceptance) are sampled and clerically reviewed. These results are then applied to the entire set of record-pairs, providing estimates of false positives and false negatives. This method was evaluated on a synthetically generated dataset, where the true match status (which records belonged to the same person) was known. The sampled estimates of linkage quality were relatively close to actual linkage quality metrics calculated for the whole synthetic dataset. The precision and recall measures for seven reviewers were very consistent with little variation in the clerical assessment results (overall agreement using the Fleiss Kappa statistics was 0.601). This method presents as a possible means of accurately estimating matching quality and refining linkages in population level linkage studies. The sampling approach is especially important for large project linkages where the number of record pairs produced may be very large often running into millions.
Lobatto-Milstein Numerical Method in Application of Uncertainty Investment of Solar Power Projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud A. Eissa
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing interest in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES. The RES investment is characterized by uncertainty, which is long-term, costly and depends on feed-in tariff and support schemes. In this paper, we address the real option valuation (ROV of a solar power plant investment. The real option framework is investigated. This framework considers the renewable certificate price and, further, the cost of delay between establishing and operating the solar power plant. The optimal time of launching the project and assessing the value of the deferred option are discussed. The new three-stage numerical methods are constructed, the Lobatto3C-Milstein (L3CM methods. The numerical methods are integrated with the concept of Black–Scholes option pricing theory and applied in option valuation for solar energy investment with uncertainty. The numerical results of the L3CM, finite difference and Monte Carlo methods are compared to show the efficiency of our methods. Our dataset refers to the Arab Republic of Egypt.
Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J; Todor, Dorin A; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F
2011-01-01
To generalize and experimentally validate a novel algorithm for reconstructing the 3D pose (position and orientation) of implanted brachytherapy seeds from a set of a few measured 2D cone-beam CT (CBCT) x-ray projections. The iterative forward projection matching (IFPM) algorithm was generalized to reconstruct the 3D pose, as well as the centroid, of brachytherapy seeds from three to ten measured 2D projections. The gIFPM algorithm finds the set of seed poses that minimizes the sum-of-squared-difference of the pixel-by-pixel intensities between computed and measured autosegmented radiographic projections of the implant. Numerical simulations of clinically realistic brachytherapy seed configurations were performed to demonstrate the proof of principle. An in-house machined brachytherapy phantom, which supports precise specification of seed position and orientation at known values for simulated implant geometries, was used to experimentally validate this algorithm. The phantom was scanned on an ACUITY CBCT digital simulator over a full 660 sinogram projections. Three to ten x-ray images were selected from the full set of CBCT sinogram projections and postprocessed to create binary seed-only images. In the numerical simulations, seed reconstruction position and orientation errors were approximately 0.6 mm and 5 degrees, respectively. The physical phantom measurements demonstrated an absolute positional accuracy of (0.78 +/- 0.57) mm or less. The theta and phi angle errors were found to be (5.7 +/- 4.9) degrees and (6.0 +/- 4.1) degrees, respectively, or less when using three projections; with six projections, results were slightly better. The mean registration error was better than 1 mm/6 degrees compared to the measured seed projections. Each test trial converged in 10-20 iterations with computation time of 12-18 min/iteration on a 1 GHz processor. This work describes a novel, accurate, and completely automatic method for reconstructing seed orientations, as well as
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caplin, J.L.; Flatman, W.D.; Dymond, D.S.
1985-01-01
There is no consensus as to the best projection or correction method for first-pass radionuclide studies of the right ventricle. We assessed the effects of two commonly used projections, 30 degrees right anterior oblique and anterior-posterior, on the calculation of right ventricular ejection fraction. In addition two background correction methods, planar background correction to account for scatter, and right atrial correction to account for right atrio-ventricular overlap were assessed. Two first-pass radionuclide angiograms were performed in 19 subjects, one in each projection, using gold-195m (half-life 30.5 seconds), and each study was analysed using the two methods of correction. Right ventricular ejection fraction was highest using the right anterior oblique projection with right atrial correction 35.6 +/- 12.5% (mean +/- SD), and lowest when using the anterior posterior projection with planar background correction 26.2 +/- 11% (p less than 0.001). The study design allowed assessment of the effects of correction method and projection independently. Correction method appeared to have relatively little effect on right ventricular ejection fraction. Using right atrial correction correlation coefficient (r) between projections was 0.92, and for planar background correction r = 0.76, both p less than 0.001. However, right ventricular ejection fraction was far more dependent upon projection. When the anterior-posterior projection was used calculated right ventricular ejection fraction was much more dependent on correction method (r = 0.65, p = not significant), than using the right anterior oblique projection (r = 0.85, p less than 0.001)
Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair
2013-01-01
While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003-2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275
Strongly Coupled Fluid-Body Dynamics in the Immersed Boundary Projection Method
Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.
2014-11-01
A computational algorithm is developed to simulate dynamically coupled interaction between fluid and rigid bodies. The basic computational framework is built upon a multi-domain immersed boundary method library, whirl, developed in previous work. In this library, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. A solver for the dynamics of rigid-body systems is also included. The fluid and rigid-body solvers are strongly coupled with an iterative approach based on the block Gauss-Seidel method. Interfacial force, with its intimate connection with the Lagrange multipliers used in the fluid solver, is used as the primary iteration variable. Relaxation, developed from a stability analysis of the iterative scheme, is used to achieve convergence in only 2-4 iterations per time step. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of linked plates and three-dimensional propulsion of flexible fluked tail. This work has been supported by AFOSR, under Award FA9550-11-1-0098.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Casanueva
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The study of extreme events has become of great interest in recent years due to their direct impact on society. Extremes are usually evaluated by using extreme indicators, based on order statistics on the tail of the probability distribution function (typically percentiles. In this study, we focus on the tail of the distribution of daily maximum and minimum temperatures. For this purpose, we analyse high (95th and low (5th percentiles in daily maximum and minimum temperatures on the Iberian Peninsula, respectively, derived from different downscaling methods (statistical and dynamical. First, we analyse the performance of reanalysis-driven downscaling methods in present climate conditions. The comparison among the different methods is performed in terms of the bias of seasonal percentiles, considering as observations the public gridded data sets E-OBS and Spain02, and obtaining an estimation of both the mean and spatial percentile errors. Secondly, we analyse the increments of future percentile projections under the SRES A1B scenario and compare them with those corresponding to the mean temperature, showing that their relative importance depends on the method, and stressing the need to consider an ensemble of methodologies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Norang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, the increase in competition has increased the relative importance of innovation for most firms and many managers believe a good innovation must be knowledge oriented. This paper has tried to determine different methods for creating knowledge in project oriented organizations. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 32 experts who were well informed about different methods of knowledge creation and lessons learned. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey were well above the desirable level. The study has detected 11 methods for knowledge creation and lessons learned. In terms of preliminary assessment, business transactions has received the highest impact while knowledge team has received the highest effect in terms of necessary assessment. The results of this survey have indicated that although there are several methods for detecting knowledge within organizations, in most cases, it is not easy to gain value added knowledge within an organization, quickly. The people who participated in our survey have indicated that organizational commitment, brainstorming, Delphi and storytelling also have played important role for creation of knowledge. The results have also shown that brainstorming, knowledge brokers, map knowledge and work experience were easier to use for knowledge creation and lessons learned compared with other forms of knowledge creation.
Fast Missile Boat Project Planning using CPM and What If Analysis Method
Silvianita; Firmansyah, R.; Rosyid, D. M.; Suntoyo; Chamelia, D. M.
2018-03-01
This paper discusses analysis of fast ship missile project planning with CPM and What If analysis.The poor performance can cause project delay and cost overruns, these two things often occur in a project management. Scheduling has an important role to control the project. Good scheduling is required because it will affect the product quality. Scheduling is useful to manage the activities so that the project completion time can be as short as possible and it is used to determine the costs of the project are in optimum condition. The alternatives that can be used to overcome the delay project namely increasing labor and equipment.Project planning can be done to determine whether the project is already in an optimum condition. Alternatives that can be used to overcome the delay in the project is to increase labor and equipment, the next is to look for the optimum solution taking into account the duration and gain of each alternative.
Projective methodical system of students training to the course «History of computer science»
С А Виденин
2008-01-01
Components of teachers readiness to professional activity are described in the item. The projective methods of training to a course « History of computer science « in favour to improve professional grounding of students' are considered.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maltais Lapointe, Genevieve; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, Robert D
2016-01-01
The most common method to predict nasal projection for forensic facial approximation is Gerasimov's two-tangent method. Ullrich H, Stephan CN (J Forensic Sci, 2011; 56: 470) argued that the method has not being properly implemented and a revised interpretation was proposed. The aim of this study......, and Ullrich H, Stephan CN (J Forensic Sci, 2011; 56: 470) interpretation should be used instead....
An integrated framework for cost- benefit analysis in road safety projects using AHP method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahsa Mohamadian
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Cost benefit analysis (CBA is a useful tool for investment decision-making from economic point of view. When the decision involves conflicting goals, the multi-attribute analysis approach is more capable; because there are some social and environmental criteria that cannot be valued or monetized by cost benefit analysis. The complex nature of decision-making in road safety normally makes it difficult to reach a single alternative solution that can satisfy all decision-making problems. Generally, the application of multi-attribute analysis in road sector is promising; however, the applications are in preliminary stage. Some multi-attribute analysis techniques, such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP have been widely used in practice. This paper presents an integrated framework with CBA and AHP methods to select proper alternative in road safety projects. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a case study of improving a road to reduce the accidents in Iran. The framework is used as an aid to cost benefit tool in road safety projects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MATTHIAS ZIEGLER
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Different means can be applied to assess noncognitive personality aspects: projective, semi-projective, self-report, and objective. However, so far little attention has been paid towards the different fakability of these methods. The present study investigated this question with different achievement motivation instruments. The instruments were randomly administered to three student groups: fake bad (n = 41, fake good (n = 37, and control group (n = 41. The faking groups were given specific faking instructions while the control group only received the standard instructions. All instruments were applied computer-assisted. The results show that all tests are fakeable with the exception of the objective measure which could not be faked good as was expected. The effect sizes (d ranged from .10 to 2.36. Cut-off scores for the detection of faking were computed based on sensitivity as well as specificity. Moreover, they were tested within a second student sample (n = 123. Sensitivity and specificity values are reported. The practical implications for test authors and practitioners are discussed.
A novel background field removal method for MRI using projection onto dipole fields (PDF).
Liu, Tian; Khalidov, Ildar; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Spincemaille, Pascal; Liu, Jing; Tsiouris, A John; Wang, Yi
2011-11-01
For optimal image quality in susceptibility-weighted imaging and accurate quantification of susceptibility, it is necessary to isolate the local field generated by local magnetic sources (such as iron) from the background field that arises from imperfect shimming and variations in magnetic susceptibility of surrounding tissues (including air). Previous background removal techniques have limited effectiveness depending on the accuracy of model assumptions or information input. In this article, we report an observation that the magnetic field for a dipole outside a given region of interest (ROI) is approximately orthogonal to the magnetic field of a dipole inside the ROI. Accordingly, we propose a nonparametric background field removal technique based on projection onto dipole fields (PDF). In this PDF technique, the background field inside an ROI is decomposed into a field originating from dipoles outside the ROI using the projection theorem in Hilbert space. This novel PDF background removal technique was validated on a numerical simulation and a phantom experiment and was applied in human brain imaging, demonstrating substantial improvement in background field removal compared with the commonly used high-pass filtering method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvério, Adriano Augusto
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Choosing from several alternative investment projects in hydropower to build a portfolio of projects is a complex matter. The most commonly used selection model for building the portfolio is the financial method, however it constraints options investments to the economic and financial parameters, which are limiting in nature. Alternatively, this paper proposes the use of multicriterial method Analytic Hierarchy Process – AHP, which incorporates measures to evaluate both quantitative and qualitative data. This method is based on criteria or parameters of operational processes that hinder or facilitate the execution of projects. In order to get the definition of the set of criteria, the Delphi technique was applied to a group of seven experts in managing hydropower projects. Main results show that essential criteria for selection of project investment portfolio, are not limited to financial aspects, but it involves criteria of bureaucratic, organizational, and political environment and technological characters. The conclusion is that the financial potential of hydropower projects are not the only determinants for investments on hydropower projects and, at large, these project are conditioned to other criteria such as, those of bureaucratic and technological nature.
Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
One of the key and challenging tasks of the ATLAS EventIndex project is to index and catalog all the produced events not only at CERN but also at hundreds of worldwide grid sites, and convey the data in real time to a central Hadoop instance at CERN. While this distributed data collection is currently operating correctly in production, there are some issues that might impose performance bottlenecks in the future, with an expected rise in the event production and reprocessing rates. In this work, we first describe the current approach based on a messaging system, which conveys the data from the sources to the central catalog, and we identify some weaknesses of this system. Then, we study a promising alternative transport method based on an object store, presenting a performance comparison with the current approach, and the architectural design changes needed to adapt the system to the next run of the ATLAS experiment at CERN.
National data analysis of general radiography projection method in medical imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jung Su; Seo, Deok Nam; Choi, In Seok [Dept. of Bio-Convergence Engineering, Korea University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others
2014-09-15
According to database of medical institutions of health insurance review and assessment service in 2013, 1,118 hospitals and clinics have department of radiology in Korea. And there are CT, fluoroscopic and general radiographic equipment in those hospitals. Above all, general radiographic equipment is the most commonly used in the radiology department. And most of the general radiographic equipment are changing the digital radiography system from the film-screen types of the radiography system nowadays. However, most of the digital radiography department are used the film-screen types of the radiography system. Therefore, in this study, we confirmed present conditions of technical items for general radiography used in hospital and research on general radiographic techniques in domestic medical institutions. We analyzed 26 radiography projection method including chest, skull, spine and pelvis which are generally used in the radiography department.
Local Projection-Based Stabilized Mixed Finite Element Methods for Kirchhoff Plate Bending Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuehai Huang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on stress-deflection variational formulation, we propose a family of local projection-based stabilized mixed finite element methods for Kirchhoff plate bending problems. According to the error equations, we obtain the error estimates of the approximation to stress tensor in energy norm. And by duality argument, error estimates of the approximation to deflection in H1-norm are achieved. Then we design an a posteriori error estimator which is closely related to the equilibrium equation, constitutive equation, and nonconformity of the finite element spaces. With the help of Zienkiewicz-Guzmán-Neilan element spaces, we prove the reliability of the a posteriori error estimator. And the efficiency of the a posteriori error estimator is proved by standard bubble function argument.
A human reliability assessment screening method for the NRU upgrade project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bremner, F.M.; Alsop, C.J.
1997-01-01
The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is a 130MW, low pressure, heavy water cooled and moderated research reactor. The reactor is used for research, both in support of Canada's CANDU development program, and for a wide variety of other research applications. In addition, NRU plays an important part in the production of medical isotopes, e.g., generating 80% of worldwide supplies of Molybdenum-99. NRU is owned and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), and is currently undergoing upgrading as part of AECL's continuing commitment to operate their facilities in a safe manner. As part of these upgrades both deterministic and probabilistic safety assessments are being carried out. It was recognized that the assignment of Human Error Probabilities (HEPs) is an important part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies, particularly for a facility whose design predates modern ergonomic practices, and which will undergo a series of backfitted modifications whilst continuing to operate. A simple Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) screening method, looking at both pre- and post-accident errors, was used in the initial safety studies. However, following review of this method within AECL and externally by the regulator, it was judged that benefits could be gained for future error reduction by including additional features, as later described in this document. The HRA development project consisted of several stages; needs analysis, literature review, development of method (including testing and evaluation), and implementation. This paper discusses each of these stages in further detail. (author)
Creep curve modeling of hastelloy-X alloy by using the theta projection method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woo Gon, Kim; Woo-Seog, Ryu; Jong-Hwa, Chang; Song-Nan, Yin
2007-01-01
To model the creep curves of the Hastelloy-X alloy which is being considered as a candidate material for the VHTR (Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor) components, full creep curves were obtained by constant-load creep tests for different stress levels at 950 C degrees. Using the experimental creep data, the creep curves were modeled by applying the Theta projection method. A number of computing processes of a nonlinear least square fitting (NLSF) analysis was carried out to establish the suitably of the four Theta parameters. The results showed that the Θ 1 and Θ 2 parameters could not be optimized well with a large error during the fitting of the full creep curves. On the other hand, the Θ 3 and Θ 4 parameters were optimized well without an error. For this result, to find a suitable cutoff strain criterion, the NLSF analysis was performed with various cutoff strains for all the creep curves. An optimum cutoff strain range for defining the four Theta parameters accurately was found to be a 3% cutoff strain. At the 3% cutoff strain, the predicted curves coincided well with the experimental ones. The variation of the four Theta parameters as the function of a stress showed a good linearity, and the creep curves were modeled well for the low stress levels. Predicted minimum creep rate showed a good agreement with the experimental data. Also, for a design usage of the Hastelloy-X alloy, the plot of the log stress versus log the time to a 1% strain was predicted, and the creep rate curves with time and a cutoff strain at 950 C degrees were constructed numerically for a wide rang of stresses by using the Theta projection method. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jörg Rekittke
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The research project “Grassroots GIS” focuses on the development of low-cost mapping and publishing methods for slums and slum-upgrading projects in Manila. In this project smartphones, collaborative mapping and 3D visualization applications are systematically employed to support landscape architectural analysis and design work in the context of urban poverty and urban informal settlements. In this paper we focus on the description of the developed methods and present preliminary results of this work-in-progress.
Mi, Jin-Rui; Ma, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Juan; Wang, Yi; Wen, Ya-Dong; Zhao, Long-Lian; Li, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Da
2011-04-01
The present paper builds a model based on Monte Carlo method in the projection of the blending tobacco. This model is made up of two parts: the projecting points of tobacco materials, whose coordinates are calculated by means of the PPF (projection based on principal component and Fisher criterion) projection method for the tobacco near-infrared spectrum; and the point of tobacco blend, which is produced by linear additive to the projecting point coordinates of tobacco materials. In order to analyze the projection points deviation from initial state levels, Monte Carlo method is introduced to simulate the differences and changes of raw material projection. The results indicate that there are two major factors affecting the relative deviation: the highest proportion of tobacco materials in the blend, which is too high to make the deviation under control; and the quantity of materials, which is so small to control the deviation. The conclusion is close to the principle of actual formulating designing, particularly, the more in the quantity while the lower in proportion of each. Finally the paper figures out the upper limit of the proportions in the different quantity of materials by theory. It also has important reference value for other agricultural products blend.
Kawamoto, Shigeru; Ikeda, Yuichi; Fukui, Chihiro; Tateshita, Fumihiko
Private finance initiative is a business scheme that materializes social infrastructure and public services by utilizing private-sector resources. In this paper we propose a new method to optimize capital structure, which is the ratio of capital to debt, and senior-sub structure, which is the ratio of senior loan to subordinated loan, for private finance initiative. We make the quantitative analysis of a private finance initiative's project using the proposed method. We analyze trade-off structure between risk and return in the project, and optimize capital structure and senior-sub structure. The method we propose helps to improve financial stability of the project, and to make a fund raising plan that is expected to be reasonable for project sponsor and moneylender.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anik Sunarsih
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This study aims to describe the science learning skills among students’ who follow contextual learning through project method with experiment method. The population of this research is the students’ of class VII MTS Negeri Miri Kab. Sragen on the teaching period of 2016/2017. Cluster random sampling technique is used as sample. This research was designed using contextual teaching through project method as an independent variable. The results of this Improvement show that there is a difference in the achievement of students' learning skill that follows contextual learning through the project method with the experimental method with Fobs = 8,83 and significant number 4,04 (p <0,05. Based on these findings contextual learning through the project is one of the learning methods that provide a positive influence on improving the achievement of science learning skills. This ain increase, because CTL is can help students’ understand the material by relating the problems that exist. Project methods are used by students’ in solving problems.
The Application of the Real Options Method for the Evaluation of High-Rise Construction Projects
Izotov, Aleksandr; Rostova, Olga; Dubgorn, Alissa
2018-03-01
The paper is devoted to the problem of evaluation of high-rise construction projects in a rapidly changing environment. The authors proposed an algorithm for constructing and embedding real options in high-rise construction projects, which makes it possible to increase the flexibility of managing multi-stage projects that have the ability to adapt to changing conditions of implementation.
Measuring efficiency of university-industry Ph.D. projects using best worst method
Salimi, N.; Rezaei, J.
2016-01-01
A collaborative Ph.D. project, carried out by a doctoral candidate, is a type of collaboration between university and industry. Due to the importance of such projects, researchers have considered different ways to evaluate the success, with a focus on the outputs of these projects. However, what
A method to determine the detector locations of the cone-beam projection of the balls’ centers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Lin; Xi, Xiaoqi; Li, Lei; Han, Yu; Yan, Bin
2015-01-01
In geometric calibration of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), sphere-like objects such as balls are widely imaged, the positioning information of which is obtained to determine the unknown geometric parameters. In this process, the accuracy of the detector location of CB projection of the center of the ball, which we call the center projection, is very important, since geometric calibration is sensitive to errors in the positioning information. Currently in almost all the geometric calibration using balls, the center projection is invariably estimated by the center of the support of the projection or the centroid of the intensity values inside the support approximately. Clackdoyle’s work indicates that the center projection is not always at the center of the support or the centroid of the intensity values inside, and has given a quantitative analysis of the maximum errors in evaluating the center projection by the centroid. In this paper, an exact method is proposed to calculate the center projection, utilizing both the detector location of the ellipse center and the two axis lengths of the ellipse. Numerical simulation results have demonstrated the precision and the robustness of the proposed method. Finally there are some comments on this work with non-uniform density balls, as well as the effect by the error occurred in the evaluation for the location of the orthogonal projection of the cone vertex onto the detector. (paper)
Medicinal Chemistry Projects Requiring Imaginative Structure-Based Drug Design Methods.
Moitessier, Nicolas; Pottel, Joshua; Therrien, Eric; Englebienne, Pablo; Liu, Zhaomin; Tomberg, Anna; Corbeil, Christopher R
2016-09-20
Computational methods for docking small molecules to proteins are prominent in drug discovery. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of documented examples-and several pertinent cases within our research program. Fifteen years ago, our first docking-guided drug design project yielded nanomolar metalloproteinase inhibitors and illustrated the potential of structure-based drug design. Subsequent applications of docking programs to the design of integrin antagonists, BACE-1 inhibitors, and aminoglycosides binding to bacterial RNA demonstrated that available docking programs needed significant improvement. At that time, docking programs primarily considered flexible ligands and rigid proteins. We demonstrated that accounting for protein flexibility, employing displaceable water molecules, and using ligand-based pharmacophores improved the docking accuracy of existing methods-enabling the design of bioactive molecules. The success prompted the development of our own program, Fitted, implementing all of these aspects. The primary motivation has always been to respond to the needs of drug design studies; the majority of the concepts behind the evolution of Fitted are rooted in medicinal chemistry projects and collaborations. Several examples follow: (1) Searching for HDAC inhibitors led us to develop methods considering drug-zinc coordination and its effect on the pKa of surrounding residues. (2) Targeting covalent prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) inhibitors prompted an update to Fitted to identify reactive groups and form bonds with a given residue (e.g., a catalytic residue) when the geometry allows it. Fitted-the first fully automated covalent docking program-was successfully applied to the discovery of four new classes of covalent POP inhibitors. As a result, efficient stereoselective syntheses of a few screening hits were prioritized rather than synthesizing large chemical libraries-yielding nanomolar inhibitors. (3) In order to study the metabolism of POP inhibitors by
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ChavarrIas, C; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; RodrIguez-Ruano, A; Soto-Montenegro, M L; GarcIa-Barreno, P; Desco, M
2008-01-01
We propose a retrospective respiratory gating algorithm to generate dynamic CT studies. To this end, we compared three different methods of extracting the respiratory signal from the projections of small-animal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Given a set of frames acquired from a certain axial angle, subtraction of their average image from each individual frame produces a set of difference images. Pixels in these images have positive or negative values (according to the respiratory phase) in those areas where there is lung movement. The respiratory signals were extracted by analysing the shape of the histogram of these difference images: we calculated the first four central and non-central moments. However, only odd-order moments produced the desired breathing signal, as the even-order moments lacked information about the phase. Each of these curves was compared to a reference signal recorded by means of a pneumatic pillow. Given the similar correlation coefficients yielded by all of them, we selected the mean to implement our retrospective protocol. Respiratory phase bins were separated, reconstructed independently and included in a dynamic sequence, suitable for cine playback. We validated our method in five adult rat studies by comparing profiles drawn across the diaphragm dome, with and without retrospective respiratory gating. Results showed a sharper transition in the gated reconstruction, with an average slope improvement of 60.7%
THE EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE ON THE CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS AND PROTECTION METHODS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Handan AKSUYEK,
2017-02-01
Full Text Available As with all sectors, recent extreme changes occurred in the exchange rates have substantially affected the construction operations. While the rise in foreign exchange rates leads to harmful effects in the negative direction at the operations having foreign exchange – based debt or it provides also advantageous effect in the positive direction at the construction companies having foreign exchange – indexed investments. In this context, this sudden change in foreign exchange rates which cannot be predicted beforehand and emerges as a result of speculative events. As with all operations carrying out foreign exchange – based tasks, these fluctuations in the foreign exchange rate head first among the factors which affect the achievement or failure of the cost or profit targets previously determined by the construction companies as well. Therefore, the companies whose costs and profits consist of different units of currency in their construction agreements should apply to the hedging methods in order to be protected against the exchange rate. As for the main tools of protection method are the derivative products such as forward, futures, swap and optional contracts. In this study, the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on the completion costs of construction projects is scrutinized. Moreover, the tools which may be employed by the construction companies in order to get rid of exchange rate which adversely influence the building companies in both directions have been comparatively evaluated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
ChavarrIas, C; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; RodrIguez-Ruano, A; Soto-Montenegro, M L; GarcIa-Barreno, P; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Anexo PsiquiatrIa, 1 Planta. C/Ibiza, 43. Madrid 28007 (Spain)
2008-09-07
We propose a retrospective respiratory gating algorithm to generate dynamic CT studies. To this end, we compared three different methods of extracting the respiratory signal from the projections of small-animal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Given a set of frames acquired from a certain axial angle, subtraction of their average image from each individual frame produces a set of difference images. Pixels in these images have positive or negative values (according to the respiratory phase) in those areas where there is lung movement. The respiratory signals were extracted by analysing the shape of the histogram of these difference images: we calculated the first four central and non-central moments. However, only odd-order moments produced the desired breathing signal, as the even-order moments lacked information about the phase. Each of these curves was compared to a reference signal recorded by means of a pneumatic pillow. Given the similar correlation coefficients yielded by all of them, we selected the mean to implement our retrospective protocol. Respiratory phase bins were separated, reconstructed independently and included in a dynamic sequence, suitable for cine playback. We validated our method in five adult rat studies by comparing profiles drawn across the diaphragm dome, with and without retrospective respiratory gating. Results showed a sharper transition in the gated reconstruction, with an average slope improvement of 60.7%.
Study of reconstruction methods for a time projection chamber with GEM gas amplification system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diener, R.
2006-12-15
A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy range up to 1TeV is planned in an international collaboration: the International Linear Collider (ILC). This collider will be able to do precision measurements of the Higgs particle and of physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) - which is one proposal for a detector at the ILC - a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To meet the requirements on the resolution and to be able to work in the environment at the ILC, the application of new gas amplification technologies in the TPC is necessary. One option is an amplification system based on Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Due to the - in comparison with older technologies - small spatial width of the signals, this technology poses new requirements on the readout structures and the reconstruction methods. In this work, the performance and the systematics of different reconstruction methods have been studied, based on data measured with a TPC prototype in high magnetic fields of up to 4T and data from a Monte Carlo simulation. The latest results of the achievable point resolution are presented and their limitations have been investigated. (orig.)
Study of reconstruction methods for a time projection chamber with GEM gas amplification system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diener, R.
2006-12-01
A new e + e - linear collider with an energy range up to 1TeV is planned in an international collaboration: the International Linear Collider (ILC). This collider will be able to do precision measurements of the Higgs particle and of physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) - which is one proposal for a detector at the ILC - a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To meet the requirements on the resolution and to be able to work in the environment at the ILC, the application of new gas amplification technologies in the TPC is necessary. One option is an amplification system based on Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Due to the - in comparison with older technologies - small spatial width of the signals, this technology poses new requirements on the readout structures and the reconstruction methods. In this work, the performance and the systematics of different reconstruction methods have been studied, based on data measured with a TPC prototype in high magnetic fields of up to 4T and data from a Monte Carlo simulation. The latest results of the achievable point resolution are presented and their limitations have been investigated. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Setty, D.S.; Rameswara Roa, A.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jaya Raj, R.N.
2008-01-01
In the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) fuel manufacturing, zirconium alloy appendages like spacer and bearing pads are welded to the thin wall zirconium alloy fuel tubes by using resistance projection welding process. Out of many joining processes available, resistance-welding process is reliable, environment friendly and best suitable for mass production applications. In the fuel assembly, spacer pads are used to get the required inter-element spacing and Bearing pads are used to get the required load-bearing surface for the fuel assembly. Performance of the fuel assembly in the reactor is greatly influenced by these weld joint's quality. Phase transformation from α to β phase is not acceptable while welding these tiny appendages. At present only destructive metallography test is available for this purpose. This can also be achieved by measuring weld nugget temperature where in the phase transformation temperature for zirconium alloy material is 853 o C. The temperature distribution during resistance welding of tiny parts cannot be measured by conventional methods due to very small space and short weld times involved in the process. Shear strength, dimensional accuracy and weld microstructures are some of the key parameters used to measure the quality of appendage weld joints. Weld parameters were optimized with the help of industrial experimentation methodology. Individual projection welding by split electrode concept, and during welding on empty tube firm support is achieved on inner side of the tube by using expandable pneumatic mandrel. In the present paper, an attempt was made to measure the weld nugget temperature by thermography technique and is correlated with standard microstructures of zirconium alloy material. The temperature profiles in the welding process are presented for different welding conditions. This technique has helped in measuring the weld nugget temperature more accurately. It was observed that in the present appendage welding
Kelly, C. L.; Lawrence, J. F.
2014-12-01
During October 2012, 51 geophones and 6 broadband seismometers were deployed in an ~50x50m region surrounding a periodically erupting columnar geyser in the El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile. The dense array served as the seismic framework for a collaborative project to study the mechanics of complex hydrothermal systems. Contemporaneously, complementary geophysical measurements (including down-hole temperature and pressure, discharge rates, thermal imaging, water chemistry, and video) were also collected. Located on the western flanks of the Andes Mountains at an elevation of 4200m, El Tatio is the third largest geyser field in the world. Its non-pristine condition makes it an ideal location to perform minutely invasive geophysical studies. The El Jefe Geyser was chosen for its easily accessible conduit and extremely periodic eruption cycle (~120s). During approximately 2 weeks of continuous recording, we recorded ~2500 nighttime eruptions which lack cultural noise from tourism. With ample data, we aim to study how the source varies spatially and temporally during each phase of the geyser's eruption cycle. We are developing a new back-projection processing technique to improve source imaging for diffuse signals. Our method was previously applied to the Sierra Negra Volcano system, which also exhibits repeating harmonic and diffuse seismic sources. We back-project correlated seismic signals from the receivers back to their sources, assuming linear source to receiver paths and a known velocity model (obtained from ambient noise tomography). We apply polarization filters to isolate individual and concurrent geyser energy associated with P and S phases. We generate 4D, time-lapsed images of the geyser source field that illustrate how the source distribution changes through the eruption cycle. We compare images for pre-eruption, co-eruption, post-eruption and quiescent periods. We use our images to assess eruption mechanics in the system (i.e. top-down vs. bottom-up) and
Applicability of the θ projection method to creep curves of Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurata, Yuji; Utsumi, Hirokazu
1998-01-01
Applicability of the θ projection method has been examined for constant-load creep test results at 800 and 1000degC on Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo alloy in the solution-treated and aged conditions. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Normal type creep curves obtained at 1000degC for aged Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo alloy are fitted using the θ projection method with four θ parameters. Stress dependence of θ parameters can be expressed in terms of simple equations. (2) The θ projection method with four θ parameters cannot be applied to the remaining creep curves where most of the life is occupied by a tertiary creep stage. Therefore, the θ projection method consisting of only the tertiary creep component with two θ parameters was applied. The creep curves can be fitted using this method. (3) If the θ projection method with four θ or two θ parameters is applied to creep curves in accordance with creep curve shapes, creep rupture time can be predicted in terms of formulation of stress and/or temperature dependence of θ parameters. (author)
Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project: design and methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Low Nicola
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii disclosure of sexuality; (iv use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH and
NERI PROJECT 99-119. TASK 1. ADVANCED CONTROL TOOLS AND METHODS. FINAL REPORT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
March-Leuba, J.A.
2002-09-09
Nuclear plants of the 21st century will employ higher levels of automation and fault tolerance to increase availability, reduce accident risk, and lower operating costs. Key developments in control algorithms, fault diagnostics, fault tolerance, and communication in a distributed system are needed to implement the fully automated plant. Equally challenging will be integrating developments in separate information and control fields into a cohesive system, which collectively achieves the overall goals of improved performance, safety, reliability, maintainability, and cost-effectiveness. Under the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), the U. S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a project to address some of the technical issues involved in meeting the long-range goal of 21st century reactor control systems. This project, ''A New Paradigm for Automated Development Of Highly Reliable Control Architectures For Future Nuclear Plants,'' involves researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Tennessee, and North Carolina State University. This paper documents a research effort to develop methods for automated generation of control systems that can be traced directly to the design requirements. Our final goal is to allow the designer to specify only high-level requirements and stress factors that the control system must survive (e.g. a list of transients, or a requirement to withstand a single failure.) To this end, the ''control engine'' automatically selects and validates control algorithms and parameters that are optimized to the current state of the plant, and that have been tested under the prescribed stress factors. The control engine then automatically generates the control software from validated algorithms. Examples of stress factors that the control system must ''survive'' are: transient events (e.g., set-point changes, or expected occurrences such a load rejection,) and postulated
Ortíz, Miguel A; Felizzola, Heriberto A; Nieto Isaza, Santiago
2015-01-01
The project selection process is a crucial step for healthcare organizations at the moment of implementing six sigma programs in both administrative and caring processes. However, six-sigma project selection is often defined as a decision making process with interaction and feedback between criteria; so that it is necessary to explore different methods to help healthcare companies to determine the Six-sigma projects that provide the maximum benefits. This paper describes the application of both ANP (Analytic Network process) and DEMATEL (Decision Making trial and evaluation laboratory)-ANP in a public medical centre to establish the most suitable six sigma project and finally, these methods were compared to evaluate their performance in the decision making process. ANP and DEMATEL-ANP were used to evaluate 6 six sigma project alternatives under an evaluation model composed by 3 strategies, 4 criteria and 15 sub-criteria. Judgement matrixes were completed by the six sigma team whose participants worked in different departments of the medical centre. The improving of care opportunity in obstetric outpatients was elected as the most suitable six sigma project with a score of 0,117 as contribution to the organization goals. DEMATEL-ANP performed better at decision making process since it reduced the error probability due to interactions and feedback. ANP and DEMATEL-ANP effectively supported six sigma project selection processes, helping to create a complete framework that guarantees the prioritization of projects that provide maximum benefits to healthcare organizations. As DEMATEL- ANP performed better, it should be used by practitioners involved in decisions related to the implementation of six sigma programs in healthcare sector accompanied by the adequate identification of the evaluation criteria that support the decision making model. Thus, this comparative study contributes to choosing more effective approaches in this field. Suggestions of further work are also
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Mehdi Mozaffari
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Complexity is one of the most important issues influencing success of any construction project and there are literally different studies devoted to detect important factors increasing complexity of projects. During the past few years, there have been growing interests in developing mass construction projects in Iran. The proposed study of this paper uses Delphi technique to find out about important factors as barriers of construction projects in Iran. The results show that among 47 project complexity factors, 19 factors are more important than others are. The study groups different factors into seven categories including environmental, organizational, objectives, tasks, stakeholders, technological, information systems and determines the relative importance of each. In each group, many other sub group activities are determined and they are carefully investigated. The study provides some detailed suggestions on each category to reduce the complexity of construction project.
Schepman, Sanneke; Valentijn, Pim; Bruijnzeels, Marc; Maaijen, Marlies; de Bakker, Dinny; Batenburg, Ronald; de Bont, Antoinette
2018-06-07
The need for organisational development in primary care has increased as it is accepted as a means of curbing rising costs and responding to demographic transitions. It is only within such inter-organisational networks that small-scale practices can offer treatment to complex patients and continuity of care. The aim of this paper is to explore, through the experience of professionals and patients, whether, and how, project management and network governance can improve the outcomes of projects which promote inter-organisational collaboration in primary care. This paper describes a study of projects aimed at improving inter-organisational collaboration in Dutch primary care. The projects' success in project management and network governance was monitored by interviewing project leaders and board members on the one hand, and improvement in the collaboration by surveying professionals and patients on the other. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied to assess the projects. These were analysed, finally, using multi-level models in order to account for the variation in the projects, professionals and patients. Successful network governance was associated positively with the professionals' satisfaction with the collaboration; but not with improvements in the quality of care as experienced by patients. Neither patients nor professionals perceived successful project management as associated with the outcomes of the collaboration projects. This study shows that network governance in particular makes a difference to the outcomes of inter-organisational collaboration in primary care. However, project management is not a predictor for successful inter-organisational collaboration in primary care.
The AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP): Methods and Protocols
Shukla, Sonali P.; Ruane, Alexander Clark
2014-01-01
Climate change is expected to alter a multitude of factors important to agricultural systems, including pests, diseases, weeds, extreme climate events, water resources, soil degradation, and socio-economic pressures. Changes to carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), temperature, and water (CTW) will be the primary drivers of change in crop growth and agricultural systems. Therefore, establishing the CTW-change sensitivity of crop yields is an urgent research need and warrants diverse methods of investigation. Crop models provide a biophysical, process-based tool to investigate crop responses across varying environmental conditions and farm management techniques, and have been applied in climate impact assessment by using a variety of methods (White et al., 2011, and references therein). However, there is a significant amount of divergence between various crop models' responses to CTW changes (Rotter et al., 2011). While the application of a site-based crop model is relatively simple, the coordination of such agricultural impact assessments on larger scales requires consistent and timely contributions from a large number of crop modelers, each time a new global climate model (GCM) scenario or downscaling technique is created. A coordinated, global effort to rapidly examine CTW sensitivity across multiple crops, crop models, and sites is needed to aid model development and enhance the assessment of climate impacts (Deser et al., 2012). To fulfill this need, the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP) (Ruane et al., 2014) was initiated within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP; Rosenzweig et al., 2013). The submitted results from C3MP Phase 1 (February 15, 2013-December 31, 2013) are currently being analyzed. This chapter serves to present and update the C3MP protocols, discuss the initial participation and general findings, comment on needed adjustments, and describe continued and future development. AgMIP aims to improve
Mostert, M.
2014-01-01
Mining companies sponsor a range of non-core, corporate social responsibility projects to adhere to social and labour plans and environmental management prerequisites that form part of a mining licence application. Some companies go above and beyond such projects, sponsoring initiatives that generate renewable energy through solar power, wind energy, natural gas, etc. The challenge for these companies is to choose between a variety of projects to ensure maximum value, especially in times when...
Sadat Hashemi, Somayeh; Ghavami Sabouri, Saeed; Khorsandi, Alireza
2018-04-01
We present a theoretical model in order to study the effect of a thermally loaded crystal on the quality of a second-harmonic (SH) beam generated in a high-power pumping regime. The model is provided based on using a particular structure of oven considered for MgO:PPsLT nonlinear crystal to compensate for the thermal de-phasing effect that as the pumping power reaches up to 50 W degrades the conversion efficiency and beam quality of the interacting beams. Hereupon, the quality of fundamental beam is involved in the modeling to investigate the final effect on the beam quality of generated SH beam. Beam quality evaluation is subsequently simulated using Hermite-Gaussian modal decomposition approach for a range of fundamental beam qualities varied from 1 to 3 and for different levels of input powers. To provide a meaningful comparison numerical simulation is correlated with real data deduced from a high-power SH generation (SHG) experimental device. It is found that when using the open-top oven scheme and fixing the fundamental M 2-factor at nearly 1, for a range of input powers changing from 15 to 30 W, the M 2-factor of SHG beam is degraded from 9% to 24%, respectively, confirming very good consistency with the reported experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin Jun; Yu Ling-Yao; Liu Xing; Wan Hui; Lin Zi-Yang; Niu Han-Ben
2011-01-01
In broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy with supercontinuum (SC), the simultaneously detectable spectral coverage is limited by the spectral continuity and the simultaneity of various spectral components of SC in an enough bandwidth. By numerical simulations, the optimal experimental conditions for improving the SC are obtained. The broadband time-resolved CARS spectrography based on the SC with required temporal and spectral distributions is realised. The global molecular vibrational spectrum with well suppressed nonresonant background noise can be obtained in a single measurement. At the same time, the measurements of dephasing times of various molecular vibrational modes can be conveniently achieved from intensities of a sequence of time-resolved CARS signals. It will be more helpful to provide a complete picture of molecular vibrations, and to exhibit a potential to understand not only both the solvent dynamics and the solute-solvent interactions, but also the mechanisms of chemical reactions in the fields of biology, chemistry and material science. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Mateo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Numerous contemporary problems that project managers face today can be considered as unstructured decision problems characterized by multiple actors and perspectives, incommensurable and/or conflicting objectives, and important intangibles. This work environment demands that project managers possess not only hard skills but also soft skills with the ability to take a management perspective and, above all, develop real leadership capabilities. In this paper, a family of problem structured methods for decision support aimed at assisting project managers in tackling complex problems are presented. Problem structured methods are a family of soft operations research methods for decision support that assist groups of diverse composition to agree a problem focus and make commitments to consequential action. Project management programs are challenged to implement these methodologies in such a way that it is organized around the key competences that a project manager needs in order to be more effective, work efficiently as members of interdisciplinary teams and successfully execute even a small project.
A Novel Method Based on Oblique Projection Technology for Mixed Sources Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weijian Si
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Reducing the computational complexity of the near-field sources and far-field sources localization algorithms has been considered as a serious problem in the field of array signal processing. A novel algorithm caring for mixed sources location estimation based on oblique projection is proposed in this paper. The sources are estimated at two different stages and the sensor noise power is estimated and eliminated from the covariance which improve the accuracy of the estimation of mixed sources. Using the idea of compress, the range information of near-field sources is obtained by searching the partial area instead of the whole Fresnel area which can reduce the processing time. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed algorithm has the lower computation complexity and has the ability to solve the two closed-spaced sources with high resolution and accuracy. The duplication of range estimation is also avoided. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.
Parmagnani, Federica; Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Lauriola, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco
2014-01-01
The Project Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants (SESPIR) included five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily) and the National Institute of Health in the period 2010-2013. SESPIR was funded by the Ministry of Health as part of the National centre for diseases prevention and control (CCM) programme of 2010 with the general objective to provide methods and operational tools for the implementation of surveillance systems for waste and health, aimed at assessing the impact of the municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment cycle on the health of the population. The specific objective was to assess health impacts resulting from the presence of disposal facilities related to different regional scenarios of waste management. Suitable tools for analysis of integrated assessment of environmental and health impact were developed and applied, using current demographic, environmental and health data. In this article, the methodology used for the quantitative estimation of the impact on the health of populations living nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants is showed, as well as the analysis of three different temporal scenarios: the first related to the existing plants in the period 2008-2009 (baseline), the second based on regional plans, the latter referring to MSW virtuous policy management based on reduction of produced waste and an intense recovery policy.
Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice
Othon, Bill
2009-01-01
NASA project managers attempt to manage risk by relying on mature, well-understood process and technology when designing spacecraft. In the case of crewed systems, the margin for error is even tighter and leads to risk aversion. But as we look to future missions to the Moon and Mars, the complexity of the systems will increase as the spacecraft and crew work together with less reliance on Earth-based support. NASA will be forced to look for new ways to do business. Formal methods technologies can help NASA develop complex but cost effective spacecraft in many domains, including requirements and design, software development and inspection, and verification and validation of vehicle subsystems. To realize these gains, the technologies must be matured and field-tested so that they are proven when needed. During this discussion, current activities used to evaluate FM technologies for Orion spacecraft design will be reviewed. Also, suggestions will be made to demonstrate value to current designers, and mature the technology for eventual use in safety-critical NASA missions.
The Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) project: origins, aims, and methods.
Davis, Ronald M; Douglas, Clifford E; Beasley, John K
2006-12-01
Research on previously secret tobacco industry documents has grown substantially during the past decade, since these documents first became available as the result of private and governmental litigation and investigations by the US Congress and the US Food and Drug Administration. Complementary research on tobacco litigation testimony is now being conducted through the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) project. We obtained transcripts of depositions and trial testimony, deposition and trial exhibits, expert reports, and other litigation documents from law firms, court reporter firms, individual lawyers and witnesses, tobacco company websites, and other sources. As of 3 March 2006, the publicly available collection of DATTA (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) contained 4850 transcripts of depositions and trial testimony, including a total of about 820,000 transcript pages. Transcripts covered testimony from 1957 to 2005 (85% were for testimony from 1990 to 2005) given by more than 1500 witnesses in a total of 232 lawsuits. Twelve research teams were established to study the transcripts, with each team covering a particular topic (for example, the health consequences of tobacco use, addiction and pharmacology, tobacco advertising and promotion, tobacco-product design and manufacture, economic impact of tobacco use, youth initiation of tobacco use, and public understanding of the risks of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke). The teams used qualitative research methods to analyse the documents, and their initial findings are published throughout this journal supplement.
The economics of project analysis: Optimal investment criteria and methods of study
Scriven, M. C.
1979-01-01
Insight is provided toward the development of an optimal program for investment analysis of project proposals offering commercial potential and its components. This involves a critique of economic investment criteria viewed in relation to requirements of engineering economy analysis. An outline for a systems approach to project analysis is given Application of the Leontief input-output methodology to analysis of projects involving multiple processes and products is investigated. Effective application of elements of neoclassical economic theory to investment analysis of project components is demonstrated. Patterns of both static and dynamic activity levels are incorporated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prell, Daniel; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Beister, Marcel; Kalender, Willi A [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Henkestrasse 91, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: daniel.prell@imp.uni-erlangen.de
2009-11-07
Metallic implants generate streak-like artifacts in flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT) reconstructed volumetric images. This study presents a novel method for reducing these disturbing artifacts by inserting discarded information into the original rawdata using a three-step correction procedure and working directly with each detector element. Computation times are minimized by completely implementing the correction process on graphics processing units (GPUs). First, the original volume is corrected using a three-dimensional interpolation scheme in the rawdata domain, followed by a second reconstruction. This metal artifact-reduced volume is then segmented into three materials, i.e. air, soft-tissue and bone, using a threshold-based algorithm. Subsequently, a forward projection of the obtained tissue-class model substitutes the missing or corrupted attenuation values directly for each flat detector element that contains attenuation values corresponding to metal parts, followed by a final reconstruction. Experiments using tissue-equivalent phantoms showed a significant reduction of metal artifacts (deviations of CT values after correction compared to measurements without metallic inserts reduced typically to below 20 HU, differences in image noise to below 5 HU) caused by the implants and no significant resolution losses even in areas close to the inserts. To cover a variety of different cases, cadaver measurements and clinical images in the knee, head and spine region were used to investigate the effectiveness and applicability of our method. A comparison to a three-dimensional interpolation correction showed that the new approach outperformed interpolation schemes. Correction times are minimized, and initial and corrected images are made available at almost the same time (12.7 s for the initial reconstruction, 46.2 s for the final corrected image compared to 114.1 s and 355.1 s on central processing units (CPUs))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prell, Daniel; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Beister, Marcel; Kalender, Willi A
2009-01-01
Metallic implants generate streak-like artifacts in flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT) reconstructed volumetric images. This study presents a novel method for reducing these disturbing artifacts by inserting discarded information into the original rawdata using a three-step correction procedure and working directly with each detector element. Computation times are minimized by completely implementing the correction process on graphics processing units (GPUs). First, the original volume is corrected using a three-dimensional interpolation scheme in the rawdata domain, followed by a second reconstruction. This metal artifact-reduced volume is then segmented into three materials, i.e. air, soft-tissue and bone, using a threshold-based algorithm. Subsequently, a forward projection of the obtained tissue-class model substitutes the missing or corrupted attenuation values directly for each flat detector element that contains attenuation values corresponding to metal parts, followed by a final reconstruction. Experiments using tissue-equivalent phantoms showed a significant reduction of metal artifacts (deviations of CT values after correction compared to measurements without metallic inserts reduced typically to below 20 HU, differences in image noise to below 5 HU) caused by the implants and no significant resolution losses even in areas close to the inserts. To cover a variety of different cases, cadaver measurements and clinical images in the knee, head and spine region were used to investigate the effectiveness and applicability of our method. A comparison to a three-dimensional interpolation correction showed that the new approach outperformed interpolation schemes. Correction times are minimized, and initial and corrected images are made available at almost the same time (12.7 s for the initial reconstruction, 46.2 s for the final corrected image compared to 114.1 s and 355.1 s on central processing units (CPUs)).
Garofalo , F.; Foti , S.; Hollender , F.; Bard , P.-Y.; Cornou , C.; Cox , B.R.; Dechamp , A.; Ohrnberger , M.; Sicilia , D.; Vergniault , C.
2017-01-01
International audience; The InterPacific project (Intercomparison of methods for site parameter and velocity profile characterization) aims to assess the reliability of seismic site characterization methods (borehole and surface wave methods) used for estimating shear wave velocity (VS) profiles and other related parameters (e.g., VS30). Three sites, representative of different geological conditions relevant for the evaluation of seismic site response effects, have been selected: (1) a hard r...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pierru, A.; Babusiaux, D.
2009-02-01
The problem studied is that of valuing investment projects of an international oil company subject to tax schemes that vary from one country to another. The existing disparities in the tax treatment of interest paid can lead the firm to seek an optimal allocation of its debt capacity among the various projects. In this context, the generalized ATWACC (After-Tax Weighted Average Cost of Capital) method presents numerous advantages over standard methods and is particularly well suited to the valuation of oil-field development projects where debt financing differs from the amount that would correspond to the debt ratio targeted by the firm at the corporate scale. In this paper, we discuss adapting the generalized ATWACC method to the specificities of the oil industry and offer new proof of its validity, based on a model that maximizes, under constraints, the firm's equity value. (authors)
Stochastic Drought Risk Analysis and Projection Methods For Thermoelectric Power Systems
Bekera, Behailu Belamo
Combined effects of socio-economic, environmental, technological and political factors impact fresh cooling water availability, which is among the most important elements of thermoelectric power plant site selection and evaluation criteria. With increased variability and changes in hydrologic statistical stationarity, one concern is the increased occurrence of extreme drought events that may be attributable to climatic changes. As hydrological systems are altered, operators of thermoelectric power plants need to ensure a reliable supply of water for cooling and generation requirements. The effects of climate change are expected to influence hydrological systems at multiple scales, possibly leading to reduced efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. This study models and analyzes drought characteristics from a thermoelectric systems operational and regulation perspective. A systematic approach to characterize a stream environment in relation to extreme drought occurrence, duration and deficit-volume is proposed and demonstrated. More specifically, the objective of this research is to propose a stochastic water supply risk analysis and projection methods from thermoelectric power systems operation and management perspectives. The study defines thermoelectric drought as a shortage of cooling water due to stressed supply or beyond operable water temperature limits for an extended period of time requiring power plants to reduce production or completely shut down. It presents a thermoelectric drought risk characterization framework that considers heat content and water quantity facets of adequate water availability for uninterrupted operation of such plants and safety of its surroundings. In addition, it outlines mechanisms to identify rate of occurrences of the said droughts and stochastically quantify subsequent potential losses to the sector. This mechanism is enabled through a model based on compound Nonhomogeneous Poisson Process. This study also demonstrates how
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L.
2012-09-15
Project ALTKUL was commissioned by DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden; the Danish Energy Agency followed the project closely. The starting point of the study was the need in Danish onshore areas for more knowledge on alternative methods that could be used for hydrocarbon exploration, as an alternative to seismic investigations. DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden approached GEUS, suggesting a study of seven different methods. The Danish Energy Agency was interested in the subject and requested that an actual test of a method be carried out as a part of the project. The seven methods considered and reviewed are: 1: Surface geochemistry; 2: Gravimetric modelling; 3: Magnetotellurics (MT, AMT and ZTEM); 4: High-Moment Electromagnetics (HMEM); 5: High-Powered Spectral Induced Polarization (HPSIP); 6: Electron Para-magnetic Resonance (EPR); 7: Airborne Transient Pulse Surveys. Getting a test of one of the methods based on electromagnetic theory organised caused some difficulties. An experiment with a galvanic controlled source was considered to be the optimum choice. However, based on various contacts and failed attempts to organise a test, a contract was entered with Uppsala University for some initial tests of the MT method. The test is to be carried out in August 2012 and will be reported in a separate report (ALTKUL Project Report Part 2). (LN)
Chan, Cecilia Ka Yuk
2012-01-01
Experiential learning pedagogy is taking a lead in the development of graduate attributes and educational aims as these are of prime importance for society. This paper shows a community service experiential project conducted in China. The project enabled students to serve the affected community in a post-earthquake area by applying their knowledge…
Exploring the Degree of Support by PMOs for New Project Management Techniques and Methods
Lopez, Kathleen P.
2012-01-01
An organization tends to seek out the best set of practices in order to achieve project success. Many organizations are implementing a Project Management Office (PMO) to serve as a central post for organizing and disseminating best practices. The PMO responsibilities in part is to examine all practices, old and new, to best determine which…
Bove, Liliana L.; Davies, W. Martin
2009-01-01
This case study outlines the use of client-sponsored research projects in a quantitative postgraduate marketing research subject conducted in a 12-week semester in a research-intensive Australian university. The case study attempts to address the dearth of recent literature on client-sponsored research projects in the discipline of marketing.…
Scholarship for Nuclear Communications and Methods for Evaluation of Nuclear Project Acceptability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golay, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
2016-10-30
This project aims to go beyond effective communication in understanding how to design nuclear enterprise projects that will gain stakeholder acceptability. Much of what we are studying is generally applicable to controversial projects, and we expect our results to be of broad value beyond the nuclear arena. Acceptability is more than effective communication; it also requires varying degrees of engagement with a disparate number of stakeholder groups. In the nuclear enterprise, previous attempts have been well designed physically (i.e., technologically sound), but have floundered by being insensitive concerning acceptance. Though effective communication is a necessary, but insufficient, condition for such success, there is a lack of scholarship regarding how to gain stakeholder acceptance for new controversial projects, including nuclear ones. Our work is building a model for use in assessing the performance of a project in the area of acceptability. In the nuclear-social nexus, gaining acceptance requires a clear understanding of factors regarded as being important by the many stakeholders that are common to new nuclear project (many of whom hold an effective veto power). Projects tend to become socially controversial when public beliefs, expert opinion and decision-maker understanding are misaligned. As such, stakeholder acceptance is hypothesized as both an ongoing process and an initial project design parameter comprised of complex, social, cognitive and technical components. Controversial projects may be defined as aspects of modern technologies that some people question, or are cautious about. They could range from genetic modifications, biological hazards, effects of chemical agents, nuclear radiation or hydraulic fracturing operations. We intend that our work will result in a model likely to be valuable for refining project design and implementation to increase the knowledge needed for successful management of stakeholder relationships.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tiessen, Alex [Posterity Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
2017-10-06
This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller - or multiple chillers - and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components.
Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill
2015-01-01
The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gwenda van der Vaart
2018-05-01
Full Text Available This article contributes to the discussion on the value of creative and arts-based research methods to researchers interested in community resilience. Based on a participatory research project that used a mix of these methods conducted in a Dutch village, we provide more nuanced, concrete insights into their value. We elaborate on the three project stages: walking interviews, group discussions, and a creative workshop that resulted in an exhibition, and on the challenges encountered during our project. We discuss how each project stage contributed to producing multifaceted knowledge. Researchers can benefit from the discussions about the process and implications of creative and arts-based methods such as ours as, to date, there has been relatively little methodological reflection on these methods. Based on our study, we conclude that despite some challenges, creative and arts-based research methods have much to offer researchers interested in community resilience. We found they can: 1. generate deep insight by going beyond rational-cognitive ways of knowing and providing new ways of understanding people's real lived experiences and views; and 2. offer ways to "give back" and contribute to a community, potentially igniting a spark among community members to engage in further action and contribute to their community's resilience. This aligns with the, currently often articulated, aims of researchers to directly benefit those involved and to share their research findings with a broader non-academic audience.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huiru Zhao
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In order to achieve the sustainable development of energy, Ultra High Voltage (UHV power transmission construction projects are being established in China currently. Their high-tech nature, the massive amount of money involved, and the need for multi-agent collaboration as well as complex construction environments bring many challenges and risks. Risk management, therefore, is critical to reduce the risks and realize sustainable development of projects. Unfortunately, many traditional risk assessment methods may not perform well due to the great uncertainty and randomness inherent in UHV power construction projects. This paper, therefore, proposes a risk evaluation index system and a hybrid risk evaluation model to evaluate the risk of UHV projects and find out the key risk factors. This model based on a cloud model and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE method combines the superiority of the cloud model for reflecting randomness and discreteness with the advantages of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method in handling uncertain and vague issues. For the sake of proving our framework, an empirical study of “Zhejiang-Fuzhou” UHV power transmission construction project is presented. As key contributions, we find the risk of this project lies at a “middle” to “high” level and closer to a “middle” level; the “management risk” and “social risk” are identified as the most important risk factors requiring more attention; and some risk control recommendations are proposed. This article demonstrates the value of our approach in risk identification, which seeks to improve the risk control level and the sustainable development of UHV power transmission construction projects.
Laugel, Amélie; Menendez, Melisa; Benoit, Michel; Mattarolo, Giovanni; Mendez, Fernando
2013-04-01
Wave climate forecasting is a major issue for numerous marine and coastal related activities, such as offshore industries, flooding risks assessment and wave energy resource evaluation, among others. Generally, there are two main ways to predict the impacts of the climate change on the wave climate at regional scale: the dynamical and the statistical downscaling of GCM (Global Climate Model). In this study, both methods have been applied on the French coast (Atlantic , English Channel and North Sea shoreline) under three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2, B1) simulated with the GCM ARPEGE-CLIMAT, from Météo-France (AR4, IPCC). The aim of the work is to characterise the wave climatology of the 21st century and compare the statistical and dynamical methods pointing out advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The statistical downscaling method proposed by the Environmental Hydraulics Institute of Cantabria (Spain) has been applied (Menendez et al., 2011). At a particular location, the sea-state climate (Predictand Y) is defined as a function, Y=f(X), of several atmospheric circulation patterns (Predictor X). Assuming these climate associations between predictor and predictand are stationary, the statistical approach has been used to project the future wave conditions with reference to the GCM. The statistical relations between predictor and predictand have been established over 31 years, from 1979 to 2009. The predictor is built as the 3-days-averaged squared sea level pressure gradient from the hourly CFSR database (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, http://cfs.ncep.noaa.gov/cfsr/). The predictand has been extracted from the 31-years hindcast sea-state database ANEMOC-2 performed with the 3G spectral wave model TOMAWAC (Benoit et al., 1996), developed at EDF R&D LNHE and Saint-Venant Laboratory for Hydraulics and forced by the CFSR 10m wind field. Significant wave height, peak period and mean wave direction have been extracted with an hourly-resolution at
Project monitoring and evaluation: an enhancing method for health research system management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shirin Djalalinia
2014-01-01
Conclusions: We concluded that; although monitoring and evaluation as an essential part of HRS Management light the improvement ahead way but we still need to advantage of the new project management advances.
MO-E-18C-02: Hands-On Monte Carlo Project Assignment as a Method to Teach Radiation Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pater, P; Vallieres, M; Seuntjens, J
2014-01-01
Purpose: To present a hands-on project on Monte Carlo methods (MC) recently added to the curriculum and to discuss the students' appreciation. Methods: Since 2012, a 1.5 hour lecture dedicated to MC fundamentals follows the detailed presentation of photon and electron interactions. Students also program all sampling steps (interaction length and type, scattering angle, energy deposit) of a MC photon transport code. A handout structured in a step-by-step fashion guides student in conducting consistency checks. For extra points, students can code a fully working MC simulation, that simulates a dose distribution for 50 keV photons. A kerma approximation to dose deposition is assumed. A survey was conducted to which 10 out of the 14 attending students responded. It compared MC knowledge prior to and after the project, questioned the usefulness of radiation physics teaching through MC and surveyed possible project improvements. Results: According to the survey, 76% of students had no or a basic knowledge of MC methods before the class and 65% estimate to have a good to very good understanding of MC methods after attending the class. 80% of students feel that the MC project helped them significantly to understand simulations of dose distributions. On average, students dedicated 12.5 hours to the project and appreciated the balance between hand-holding and questions/implications. Conclusion: A lecture on MC methods with a hands-on MC programming project requiring about 14 hours was added to the graduate study curriculum since 2012. MC methods produce “gold standard” dose distributions and slowly enter routine clinical work and a fundamental understanding of MC methods should be a requirement for future students. Overall, the lecture and project helped students relate crosssections to dose depositions and presented numerical sampling methods behind the simulation of these dose distributions. Research funding from governments of Canada and Quebec. PP acknowledges
MO-E-18C-02: Hands-On Monte Carlo Project Assignment as a Method to Teach Radiation Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pater, P; Vallieres, M; Seuntjens, J [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)
2014-06-15
Purpose: To present a hands-on project on Monte Carlo methods (MC) recently added to the curriculum and to discuss the students' appreciation. Methods: Since 2012, a 1.5 hour lecture dedicated to MC fundamentals follows the detailed presentation of photon and electron interactions. Students also program all sampling steps (interaction length and type, scattering angle, energy deposit) of a MC photon transport code. A handout structured in a step-by-step fashion guides student in conducting consistency checks. For extra points, students can code a fully working MC simulation, that simulates a dose distribution for 50 keV photons. A kerma approximation to dose deposition is assumed. A survey was conducted to which 10 out of the 14 attending students responded. It compared MC knowledge prior to and after the project, questioned the usefulness of radiation physics teaching through MC and surveyed possible project improvements. Results: According to the survey, 76% of students had no or a basic knowledge of MC methods before the class and 65% estimate to have a good to very good understanding of MC methods after attending the class. 80% of students feel that the MC project helped them significantly to understand simulations of dose distributions. On average, students dedicated 12.5 hours to the project and appreciated the balance between hand-holding and questions/implications. Conclusion: A lecture on MC methods with a hands-on MC programming project requiring about 14 hours was added to the graduate study curriculum since 2012. MC methods produce “gold standard” dose distributions and slowly enter routine clinical work and a fundamental understanding of MC methods should be a requirement for future students. Overall, the lecture and project helped students relate crosssections to dose depositions and presented numerical sampling methods behind the simulation of these dose distributions. Research funding from governments of Canada and Quebec. PP acknowledges
Zhou, Qin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Jun; Song, Jun; Chen, Lu; Lu, Yi
2016-01-01
For reasons of convenience and economy, attempts have been made to transform traditional dental gypsum casts into 3-dimensional (3D) digital casts. Different scanning devices have been developed to generate digital casts; however, each has its own limitations and disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to develop an advanced method for the 3D reproduction of dental casts by using a high-speed grating projection system and noncontact reverse engineering (RE) software and to evaluate the accuracy of the method. The methods consisted of 3 main steps: the scanning and acquisition of 3D dental cast data with a high-resolution grating projection system, the reconstruction and measurement of digital casts with RE software, and the evaluation of the accuracy of this method using 20 dental gypsum casts. The common anatomic landmarks were measured directly on the gypsum casts with a Vernier caliper and on the 3D digital casts with the Geomagic software measurement tool. Data were statistically assessed with the t test. The grating projection system had a rapid scanning speed, and smooth 3D dental casts were obtained. The mean differences between the gypsum and 3D measurements were approximately 0.05 mm, and no statistically significant differences were found between the 2 methods (P>.05), except for the measurements of the incisor tooth width and maxillary arch length. A method for the 3D reconstruction of dental casts was developed by using a grating projection system and RE software. The accuracy of the casts generated using the grating projection system was comparable with that of the gypsum casts. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oh, Seok-Geun; Suh, Myoung-Seok
2017-07-01
The projection skills of five ensemble methods were analyzed according to simulation skills, training period, and ensemble members, using 198 sets of pseudo-simulation data (PSD) produced by random number generation assuming the simulated temperature of regional climate models. The PSD sets were classified into 18 categories according to the relative magnitude of bias, variance ratio, and correlation coefficient, where each category had 11 sets (including 1 truth set) with 50 samples. The ensemble methods used were as follows: equal weighted averaging without bias correction (EWA_NBC), EWA with bias correction (EWA_WBC), weighted ensemble averaging based on root mean square errors and correlation (WEA_RAC), WEA based on the Taylor score (WEA_Tay), and multivariate linear regression (Mul_Reg). The projection skills of the ensemble methods improved generally as compared with the best member for each category. However, their projection skills are significantly affected by the simulation skills of the ensemble member. The weighted ensemble methods showed better projection skills than non-weighted methods, in particular, for the PSD categories having systematic biases and various correlation coefficients. The EWA_NBC showed considerably lower projection skills than the other methods, in particular, for the PSD categories with systematic biases. Although Mul_Reg showed relatively good skills, it showed strong sensitivity to the PSD categories, training periods, and number of members. On the other hand, the WEA_Tay and WEA_RAC showed relatively superior skills in both the accuracy and reliability for all the sensitivity experiments. This indicates that WEA_Tay and WEA_RAC are applicable even for simulation data with systematic biases, a short training period, and a small number of ensemble members.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaentaenen, Ari; Marttunen, Mika
2005-01-01
Public involvement is a process that involves the public in the decision making of an organization, for example a municipality or a corporation. It has developed into a widely accepted and recommended policy in environment altering projects. The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) took force in 2000 and stresses the importance of public involvement in composing river basin management plans. Therefore, the need to develop public involvement methods for different situations and circumstances is evident. This paper describes how various public involvement methods have been applied in a development project involving the most heavily regulated lake in Finland. The objective of the project was to assess the positive and negative impacts of regulation and to find possibilities for alleviating the adverse impacts on recreational use and the aquatic ecosystem. An exceptional effort was made towards public involvement, which was closely connected to planning and decision making. The applied methods were (1) steering group work, (2) survey, (3) dialogue, (4) theme interviews, (5) public meeting and (6) workshops. The information gathered using these methods was utilized in different stages of the project, e.g., in identifying the regulation impacts, comparing alternatives and compiling the recommendations for regulation development. After describing our case and the results from the applied public involvement methods, we will discuss our experiences and the feedback from the public. We will also critically evaluate our own success in coping with public involvement challenges. In addition to that, we present general recommendations for dealing with these problematic issues based on our experiences, which provide new insights for applying various public involvement methods in multi-objective decision making projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Shuaijun; Wu Zhifang
2008-01-01
Fast online inspection in steel pipe production is a big challenge. Radiographic CT imaging technology, a high performance non-destructive testing method, is quite appropriate for inspection and quality control of steel pipes. The method of rotating polar-coordinate is used to reconstruct the steel pipe section from few projections with the purpose of inspecting it online. It reduces the projection number needed and the data collection time, and accelerates the reconstruction algorithm and saves the inspection time evidently. The results of simulation experiment and actual experiment indicate that the image quality and reconstruction time of rotating polar-coordinate method meet the requirements of inspecting the steel tube section online basically. The study is of some theoretical significance and the method is expected to be widely used in practice. (authors)
Shakuto, Elena A.; Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Kozlova, Anastasia A.
2016-01-01
The relevance of the subject under analysis is determined by the lack of theoretical development of the problem of management of teacher scientific-methodical work in vocational educational institutions based upon innovative approaches in the framework of project paradigm. The purpose of the article is to develop and test a science-based…
Saatadjian, Esteban; Lesage, Francois; Mota, Jose Paulo B.
2013-01-01
A project that involves the numerical simulation of transport phenomena is an excellent method to teach this subject to senior/graduate chemical engineering students. The subject presented here has been used in our senior/graduate course, it concerns the study of natural convection heat transfer between two concentric, horizontal, saturated porous…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Ebrahimnejad
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The complexity of large-scale projects has led to numerous risks in their life cycle. This paper presents a new risk evaluation approach in order to rank the high risks in large-scale projects and improve the performance of these projects. It is based on the fuzzy set theory that is an effective tool to handle uncertainty. It is also based on an extended VIKOR method that is one of the well-known multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. The proposed decision-making approach integrates knowledge and experience acquired from professional experts, since they perform the risk identification and also the subjective judgments of the performance rating for high risks in terms of conflicting criteria, including probability, impact, quickness of reaction toward risk, event measure quantity and event capability criteria. The most notable difference of the proposed VIKOR method with its traditional version is just the use of fuzzy decision-matrix data to calculate the ranking index without the need to ask the experts. Finally, the proposed approach is illustrated with a real-case study in an Iranian power plant project, and the associated results are compared with two well-known decision-making methods under a fuzzy environment.
Rukanova, B.D.
2005-01-01
To summarize, with respect to research question one we constructed a system of concepts, while in answer to research question two we proposed a method of how to apply this system of concepts in practice in order to identify potential problems in early stages of standard implementation projects.
Kunst, Anton E.
2017-01-01
This article briefly assesses the research methods that were applied in the SOPHIE project to evaluate the impact of structural policies on population health and health inequalities. The evaluation of structural policies is one of the key methodological challenges in today's public health. The
2012-05-23
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face [[Page 30592... meeting will be held Thursday, June 7 from 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. Eastern Time and Friday, June 8 from 8:00 a...
Jewpanich, Chaiwat; Piriyasurawong, Pallop
2015-01-01
This research aims to 1) develop the project-based learning using discussion and lesson-learned methods via social media model (PBL-DLL SoMe Model) used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student, and 2) evaluate the PBL-DLL SoMe Model used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student.…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carlson, Stephen [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States)
2017-10-04
This Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol (the protocol) describes methods to account for energy savings resulting from programmatic installation of lighting control equipment in large populations of commercial, industrial, government, institutional, and other nonresidential facilities. This protocol does not address savings resulting from changes in codes and standards, or from education and training activities. When lighting controls are installed in conjunction with a lighting retrofit project, the lighting control savings must be calculated parametrically with the lighting retrofit project so savings are not double counted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colle, R.; Simonucci, S.
1996-01-01
The theoretical framework of a method that utilizes a projected potential operator to construct scattering wave functions is presented. Theorems and spectral properties of a Hamiltonian with the potential energy operator represented in terms of L'2(R'3)-functions are derived. The computational advantages offered by the method for calculating spectroscopic quantities, like resonance energies, decay probabilities and photoionization cross-sections, are discussed
Analysis of HITREX 1 using the reactor physics methods of the DRAGON project/KFA and the CEGB (BNL)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, U.; Neef, H.J.; Waterson, R.H.
1976-09-01
An analysis of the HIRTEX 1 reactor experiment at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories has been jointly performed by the DRAGON project/KFA and the CEGB, Berkeley, using the methods and codes currently in use within these organisations. This report describes the different methods and compares the results of the analyses with each other and with experiment. An investigation into the various observed discrepancies has been made in order to identify the reasons for them. (orig.) [de
Zengmei, L.; Guanghua, Q.; Zishen, C.
2015-05-01
results show that the waterlogging control benefit estimation model constructed is applicable to the changing conditions that occur in both the disaster-inducing environment of the waterlogging-prone zone and disaster-bearing bodies, considering all conditions when rainstorms of all frequencies meet different water levels in the drainage-accepting zone. Thus, the estimation method of waterlogging control benefit can reflect the actual situation more objectively, and offer a scientific basis for rational decision-making for waterlogging control projects.
Fan, Zhaoyang; Hodnett, Philip A; Davarpanah, Amir H; Scanlon, Timothy G; Sheehan, John J; Varga, John; Carr, James C; Li, Debiao
2011-08-01
: To develop a flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD) preparative scheme to facilitate multidirectional flow-signal suppression in 3-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession imaging and to validate the feasibility of the refined sequence for noncontrast magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) of the hand. : A new FSD preparative scheme was developed that combines 2 conventional FSD modules. Studies using a flow phantom (gadolinium-doped water 15 cm/s) and the hands of 11 healthy volunteers (6 males and 5 females) were performed to compare the proposed FSD scheme with its conventional counterpart with respect to the signal suppression of multidirectional flow. In 9 of the 11 healthy subjects and 2 patients with suspected vasculitis and documented Raynaud phenomenon, respectively, 3-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession imaging coupled with the new FSD scheme was compared with spatial-resolution-matched (0.94 × 0.94 × 0.94 mm) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (0.15 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine) in terms of overall image quality, venous contamination, motion degradation, and arterial conspicuity. : The proposed FSD scheme was able to suppress 2-dimensional flow signal in the flow phantom and hands and yielded significantly higher arterial conspicuity scores than the conventional scheme did on NC-MRA at the regions of common digitals and proper digitals. Compared with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography, the refined NC-MRA technique yielded comparable overall image quality and motion degradation, significantly less venous contamination, and significantly higher arterial conspicuity score at digital arteries. : The FSD-based NC-MRA technique is improved in the depiction of multidirectional flow by applying a 2-module FSD preparation, which enhances its potential to serve as an alternative magnetic resonance angiography technique for the assessment of hand vascular abnormalities.
Baillie, Lesley; Bromley, Barbara; Walker, Moira; Jones, Rebecca; Mhlanga, Fortune
2014-01-01
Preparing healthcare students for quality and service improvement is important internationally. A United Kingdom (UK) initiative aims to embed service improvement in pre-registration education. A UK university implemented service improvement teaching for all nursing students. In addition, the degree pathway students conducted service improvement projects as the basis for their dissertations. The study aimed to evaluate the implementation of service improvement projects within a pre-registration nursing curriculum. A multi-method case study was conducted, using student questionnaires, focus groups with students and academic staff, and observation of action learning sets. Questionnaire data were analysed using SPSS v19. Qualitative data were analysed using Ritchie and Spencer's (1994) Framework Approach. Students were very positive about service improvement. The degree students, who conducted service improvement projects in practice, felt more knowledgeable than advanced diploma students. Selecting the project focus was a key issue and students encountered some challenges in practice. Support for student service improvement projects came from action learning sets, placement staff, and academic staff. Service improvement projects had a positive effect on students' learning. An effective partnership between the university and partner healthcare organisations, and support for students in practice, is essential. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joseph, Sitara; Stevens, Andria M; Ledoux, Tracey; O'Connor, Teresia M; O'Connor, Daniel P; Thompson, Debbe
2015-01-01
The cross-site process evaluation plan for the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project is described here. The CORD project comprises 3 unique demonstration projects designed to integrate multi-level, multi-setting health care and public health interventions over a 4-year funding period. Three different communities in California, Massachusetts, and Texas. All CORD demonstration projects targeted 2-12-year-old children whose families are eligible for benefits under Title XXI (CHIP) or Title XIX (Medicaid). The CORD projects were developed independently and consisted of evidence-based interventions that aim to prevent childhood obesity. The interventions promote healthy behaviors in children by applying strategies in 4 key settings (primary care clinics, early care and education centers, public schools, and community institutions). The CORD process evaluation outlined 3 main outcome measures: reach, dose, and fidelity, on 2 levels (researcher to provider, and provider to participant). The plan described here provides insight into the complex nature of process evaluation for consortia of independently designed multi-level, multi-setting intervention studies. The process evaluation results will provide contextual information about intervention implementation and delivery with which to interpret other aspects of the program. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gowans, Dakers [Left Fork Energy, Harrison, NY (United States); Telarico, Chad [DNV GL, Mahwah, NJ (United States)
2017-11-02
The Commercial and Industrial Lighting Evaluation Protocol (the protocol) describes methods to account for gross energy savings resulting from the programmatic installation of efficient lighting equipment in large populations of commercial, industrial, and other nonresidential facilities. This protocol does not address savings resulting from changes in codes and standards, or from education and training activities. A separate Uniform Methods Project (UMP) protocol, Chapter 3: Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol, addresses methods for evaluating savings resulting from lighting control measures such as adding time clocks, tuning energy management system commands, and adding occupancy sensors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.H.; Moon, B.S.; Lee, J.H.
2014-01-01
The Earned Value Management System (EVMS) is a project management technique for measuring project performance and progress, and then forward projection through the integrated management and control of cost and schedule. This research reviewed the concept of the EVMS method, and proposes two Planned Value estimation methods for the potential application to succeeding NPP construction projects by using the historical data from the proceeding NPP projects. This paper is to introduce the solution for the problems caused by the absence of relevant management system incorporating schedule and cost, which has arisen as repeated issues in NPP construction project management. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.H.; Moon, B.S., E-mail: gustblast@khnp.co.kr, E-mail: moonbs@khnp.co.kr [Korea Hydro & Nuclear power co.,Ltd., Central Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H., E-mail: ljh@kkprotech.com [Kong Kwan Protech Co.,Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-07-01
The Earned Value Management System (EVMS) is a project management technique for measuring project performance and progress, and then forward projection through the integrated management and control of cost and schedule. This research reviewed the concept of the EVMS method, and proposes two Planned Value estimation methods for the potential application to succeeding NPP construction projects by using the historical data from the proceeding NPP projects. This paper is to introduce the solution for the problems caused by the absence of relevant management system incorporating schedule and cost, which has arisen as repeated issues in NPP construction project management. (author)
Lewis, Jared; Bodeker, Greg E.; Kremser, Stefanie; Tait, Andrew
2017-12-01
A method, based on climate pattern scaling, has been developed to expand a small number of projections of fields of a selected climate variable (X) into an ensemble that encapsulates a wide range of indicative model structural uncertainties. The method described in this paper is referred to as the Ensemble Projections Incorporating Climate model uncertainty (EPIC) method. Each ensemble member is constructed by adding contributions from (1) a climatology derived from observations that represents the time-invariant part of the signal; (2) a contribution from forced changes in X, where those changes can be statistically related to changes in global mean surface temperature (Tglobal); and (3) a contribution from unforced variability that is generated by a stochastic weather generator. The patterns of unforced variability are also allowed to respond to changes in Tglobal. The statistical relationships between changes in X (and its patterns of variability) and Tglobal are obtained in a training phase. Then, in an implementation phase, 190 simulations of Tglobal are generated using a simple climate model tuned to emulate 19 different global climate models (GCMs) and 10 different carbon cycle models. Using the generated Tglobal time series and the correlation between the forced changes in X and Tglobal, obtained in the training phase, the forced change in the X field can be generated many times using Monte Carlo analysis. A stochastic weather generator is used to generate realistic representations of weather which include spatial coherence. Because GCMs and regional climate models (RCMs) are less likely to correctly represent unforced variability compared to observations, the stochastic weather generator takes as input measures of variability derived from observations, but also responds to forced changes in climate in a way that is consistent with the RCM projections. This approach to generating a large ensemble of projections is many orders of magnitude more
Yuk Chan, Cecilia Ka
2012-08-01
Experiential learning pedagogy is taking a lead in the development of graduate attributes and educational aims as these are of prime importance for society. This paper shows a community service experiential project conducted in China. The project enabled students to serve the affected community in a post-earthquake area by applying their knowledge and skills. This paper documented the students' learning process from their project goals, pre-trip preparations, work progress, obstacles encountered to the final results and reflections. Using the data gathered from a focus group interview approach, the four components of Kolb's learning cycle, the concrete experience, reflection observation, abstract conceptualisation and active experimentation, have been shown to transform and internalise student's learning experience, achieving a variety of learning outcomes. The author will also explore how this community service type of experiential learning in the engineering discipline allowed students to experience deep learning and develop their graduate attributes.
The Basalt Waste Isolation Project technical program evaluation process: A criteria-based method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babad, H.; Evans, C.; Wolfe, B.A.
1982-01-01
The need to objectively evaluate the progress being made by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) toward establishing the feasibility of siting a nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) mandates a process for evaluating the technical work of the project. To assist BWIP management in the evaluation process, the Systems Department staff has developed a BWIP Technical Program Evaluation Process (TPEP). The basic process relates progress on project technical work to the BWIP Functional and System Performance Criteria as defined in National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Criteria Documents. The benefits of the TPEP to BWIP and future plans for TPEP are discussed. During fiscal year (FY) 1982, TPEP will be further formalized and further applied to the review of BWIP technical activities
Basalt Waste Isolation Project Technical Program Evaluation Process: a criteria-based method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babad, H.; Evans, G.C.; Wolfe, B.A.
1982-01-01
The need to objectively evaluate the progress being made by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) toward establishing the feasibility of siting a nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) mandates a process for evaluating the technical work of the project. To assist BWIP management in the evaluation process, the Systems Department staff has developed a BWIP Technical Program Evaluation Process (TPEP). The basic process relates progress on project technical work to the SWIP Functional and System Performance Criteria as defined in National Waste Terminal Storage (MWTS) Criteria Documents. The benefits of the TPEP to BWIP and future plans for TPEP are discussed. During fiscal year (FY) 1982, TPEP wll be further formalized and further applied to the review of BWIP technical activities