WorldWideScience

Sample records for projecting population-level responses

  1. PROJECTING POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE OF PURPLE SEA URCHINS TO LEAD CONTAMINATION FOR AN ESTUARINE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an ecological risk assessment case study at the Portsmouth naval Shipyard (PNS), Kittery, Maine, USA, the population level effects of lead exposure to purple sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, were investigated using a stage-classified matrix population model. The model d...

  2. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben P; McKeown, Niall J; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W; Small, Daniel P; Moore, Pippa J

    2016-01-29

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories.

  3. Population level response of downy brome to soil growing medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) is the most ubiquitous exotic invasive weed in the Intermountain West. A major issue for management is the extreme generalist plastic nature of downy brome. We hypothesized that soil growing medium would effect all measured response variables representing some degree of...

  4. Ecological interactions affecting population-level responses to chemical stress in Mesocyclops leuckarti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Devdutt; Hommen, Udo; Schäffer, Andreas; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-10-01

    Higher tiers of ecological risk assessment (ERA) consider population and community-level endpoints. At the population level, the phenomenon of density dependence is one of the most important ecological processes that influence population dynamics. In this study, we investigated how different mechanisms of density dependence would influence population-level ERA of the cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops leuckarti under toxicant exposure. We used a combined approach of laboratory experiments and individual-based modelling. An individual-based model was developed for M. leuckarti to simulate population dynamics under triphenyltin exposure based on individual-level ecological and toxicological data from laboratory experiments. The study primarily aimed to-(1) determine which life-cycle processes, based on feeding strategies, are most significant in determining density dependence (2) explore how these mechanisms of density dependence affect extrapolation from individual-level effects to the population level under toxicant exposure. Model simulations showed that cannibalism of nauplii that were already stressed by TPT exposure contributed to synergistic effects of biotic and abiotic factors and led to a twofold stress being exerted on the nauplii, thereby resulting in a higher population vulnerability compared to the scenario without cannibalism. Our results suggest that in population-level risk assessment, it is easy to underestimate toxicity unless underlying ecological interactions including mechanisms of population-level density regulation are considered. This study is an example of how a combined approach of experiments and mechanistic modelling can lead to a thorough understanding of ecological processes in ecotoxicology and enable a more realistic ERA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of single bacterial cells to stress gives rise to complex history dependence at the population level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Roland; Ackermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria live in ever-changing environments where periods of stress are common. One fundamental question is whether individual bacterial cells have an increased tolerance to stress if they recently have been exposed to lower levels of the same stressor. To address this question, we worked with the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus and asked whether exposure to a moderate concentration of sodium chloride would affect survival during later exposure to a higher concentration. We found that the effects measured at the population level depended in a surprising and complex way on the time interval between the two exposure events: The effect of the first exposure on survival of the second exposure was positive for some time intervals but negative for others. We hypothesized that the complex pattern of history dependence at the population level was a consequence of the responses of individual cells to sodium chloride that we observed: (i) exposure to moderate concentrations of sodium chloride caused delays in cell division and led to cell-cycle synchronization, and (ii) whether a bacterium would survive subsequent exposure to higher concentrations was dependent on the cell-cycle state. Using computational modeling, we demonstrated that indeed the combination of these two effects could explain the complex patterns of history dependence observed at the population level. Our insight into how the behavior of single cells scales up to processes at the population level provides a perspective on how organisms operate in dynamic environments with fluctuating stress exposure. PMID:26960998

  6. Present limits to heat-adaptability in corals and population-level responses to climate extremes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard M Riegl

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios suggest an increase in tropical ocean temperature by 1-3°C by 2099, potentially killing many coral reefs. But Arabian/Persian Gulf corals already exist in this future thermal environment predicted for most tropical reefs and survived severe bleaching in 2010, one of the hottest years on record. Exposure to 33-35°C was on average twice as long as in non-bleaching years. Gulf corals bleached after exposure to temperatures above 34°C for a total of 8 weeks of which 3 weeks were above 35°C. This is more heat than any other corals can survive, providing an insight into the present limits of holobiont adaptation. We show that average temperatures as well as heat-waves in the Gulf have been increasing, that coral population levels will fluctuate strongly, and reef-building capability will be compromised. This, in combination with ocean acidification and significant local threats posed by rampant coastal development puts even these most heat-adapted corals at risk. WWF considers the Gulf ecoregion as "critically endangered". We argue here that Gulf corals should be considered for assisted migration to the tropical Indo-Pacific. This would have the double benefit of avoiding local extinction of the world's most heat-adapted holobionts while at the same time introducing their genetic information to populations naïve to such extremes, potentially assisting their survival. Thus, the heat-adaptation acquired by Gulf corals over 6 k, could benefit tropical Indo-Pacific corals who have <100 y until they will experience a similarly harsh climate. Population models suggest that the heat-adapted corals could become dominant on tropical reefs within ∼20 years.

  7. Translating crustacean biological responses from CO2 bubbling experiments into population-level predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies of animal responses to ocean acidification focus on uniformly conditioned age cohorts that lack complexities typically found in wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for predicting higher level ecological effects, but the roles of intras...

  8. Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies-Population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstroem, Elin; Bjoerlenius, Berndt; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Persson, Jan-Olov; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    proved a useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology.

  9. Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies-Population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstroem, Elin, E-mail: elin.lundstrom@itm.su.se [Stockholm University, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bjoerlenius, Berndt [Stockholm Water Company, S-106 36 Stockholm (Sweden); Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Ecosystem Analysis, D-520 74 Aachen (Germany); Persson, Jan-Olov [Stockholm University, Department of Mathematics, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Breitholtz, Magnus [Stockholm University, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    modeling proved a useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology.

  10. Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies--population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Elin; Björlenius, Berndt; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Persson, Jan-Olov; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2010-03-01

    useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  12. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C; Shinneman, Douglas J; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2018-03-14

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  13. Contrasting population-level responses to Pleistocene climatic oscillations in an alpine bat revealed by complete mitochondrial genomes and evolutionary history inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi, Antton; Gilbert, M. Thomas P; Razgour, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We used an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the alpine long-eared bat, Plecotus macrobullaris, to test whether the variable effects of Pleistocene climatic oscillations across geographical regions led to contrasting population-level demographic histories within...... a single species. Location: The Western Palaearctic. Methods: We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 57 individuals from across the distribution of the species. The analysis integrated ecological niche modelling (ENM), approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), measures of genetic diversity...... and Bayesian phylogenetic methods. Results: We identified two deep lineages: a western lineage, restricted to the Pyrenees and the Alps, and an eastern lineage, which expanded across the mountain ranges east of the Dinarides (Croatia). ENM projections of past conditions predicted that climatic suitability...

  14. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  15. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection and smoking on gastric cancer incidence in China: a population-level analysis of trends and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Sue J.; Kuntz, Karen M.; Ezzati, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although gastric cancer incidence is declining in China, trends may differ from historical patterns in developed countries. Our aim was to (1) retrospectively estimate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and smoking on past gastric cancer incidence and (2) project how interventions on these two risk factors can reduce future incidence. Methods We used a population-based model of intestinal-type gastric cancer to estimate gastric cancer incidence between 1985 and 2050. Disease and risk factor data in the model were from community-based epidemiological studies and national prevalence surveys. Results Between 1985 and 2005, age-standardized gastric cancer incidence among Chinese men declined from 30.8 to 27.2 per 100,000 (12%); trends in H. pylori and smoking prevalences accounted for >30% of overall decline. If past risk factor trends continue, gastric cancer incidence will decline an additional 30% by 2050. Yet, annual cases will increase from 116,000 to 201,000 due to population growth and aging. Assuming that H. pylori prevention/treatment and tobacco control are implemented in 2010, the decline in gastric cancer incidence is projected to increase to 33% with universal H. pylori treatment for 20-year-olds, 42% for a hypothetical childhood H. pylori vaccine, and 34% for aggressive tobacco control. Conclusions The decline in gastric cancer incidence has been slower than in developed countries and will be offset by population growth and aging. Public health interventions should be implemented to reduce the total number of cases. PMID:19642005

  16. Time-specific and population-level differences in physiological responses of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) exposed to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, John D; Pistole, David H; Moffe, Mickey C

    2012-03-01

    The influence of exposure time on gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity and metabolic rate in populations of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) hatcheries in Ohio (OH) and Pennsylvania (PA) when exposed to sublethal concentrations of copper (Cu) was examined. The pattern of change in gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity was similar in all species/populations and results support expectations based on the concept of acclimation. In all populations, Na+/K+ ATPase activity declined significantly compared to reference values within 24 h, recovered by 48 h, and then continued to increase before exceeding reference values by 192 h. With the exception of PA fathead minnows, Na+/K+ ATPase activities returned to reference levels by 384 h. Although metabolic rates of individual fish were not strongly correlated with Na+/K+ ATPase activities, the pattern of change in mean values of these physiological parameters was very similar. However, OH populations of both fathead minnows and golden shiners demonstrated much more dramatic changes in metabolic rate compared to PA fish. At 24 h, metabolic rate of PA fathead minnows had decreased by 16% compared to the reference value whereas the OH population had decreased by 31%; metabolic rate of PA golden shiners declined by 23% compared to 59% in OH shiners at 24 h. Similar differences were observed in the maximum metabolic rates achieved at 192 h. While the increased sensitivity of OH fish to Cu is not readily explainable by genetic or environmental factors, results suggest the need for considering population level differences when evaluating the physiological effects of toxicants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-Term Impact of Valid Case Criterion on Capturing Population-Level Growth under Item Response Theory Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-17-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiling; Monfils, Lora

    2017-01-01

    Using simulated data, this study examined the impact of different levels of stringency of the valid case inclusion criterion on item response theory (IRT)-based true score equating over 5 years in the context of K-12 assessment when growth in student achievement is expected. Findings indicate that the use of the most stringent inclusion criterion…

  18. Population-Level Transcriptomic Responses of the Southern Ocean Salp Salpa thompsoni to Environment Variability of the Western Antarctic Peninsula Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, A. C.; Batta Lona, P. G.; Maas, A. E.; O'Neill, R. J.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the changing Antarctic climate, the Southern Ocean salp Salpa thompsoni has shown altered patterns of distribution and abundance that are anticipated to have profound impacts on pelagic food webs and ecosystem dynamics. The physiological and molecular processes that underlay ecological function and biogeographical distribution are key to understanding present-day dynamics and predicting future trajectories. This study examined transcriptome-wide patterns of gene expression in relation to biological and physical oceanographic conditions in coastal, shelf and offshore waters of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region during austral spring and summer 2011. Based on field observations and collections, seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of salps of different life stages were associated with differences in water mass structure of the WAP. Our observations are consistent with previous suggestions that bathymetry and currents in Bransfield Strait could generate a retentive cell for an overwintering population of S. thompsoni, which may generate the characteristic salp blooms found throughout the region later in summer. The statistical analysis of transcriptome-wide patterns of gene expression revealed differences among salps collected in different seasons and from different habitats (i.e., coastal versus offshore) in the WAP. Gene expression patterns also clustered by station in austral spring - but not summer - collections, suggesting stronger heterogeneity of environmental conditions. During the summer, differentially expressed genes covered a wider range of functions, including those associated with stress responses. Future research using novel molecular transcriptomic / genomic characterization of S. thompsoni will allow more complete understanding of individual-, population-, and species-level responses to environmental variability and prediction of future dynamics of Southern Ocean food webs and ecosystems.

  19. Response of Listeria monocytogenes to disinfection stress at the single-cell and population levels as monitored by intracellular pH measurements and viable-cell counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    of the bacterium. In situ analyses of Listeria monocytogenes single cells were performed during exposure to different concentrations of the disinfectant Incimaxx DES to study a possible population subdivision. Bacterial survival was quantified with plate counting and disinfection stress at the single-cell level...... by measuring intracellular pH (pHi) over time by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy. pHi values were initially 7 to 7.5 and decreased in both attached and planktonic L. monocytogenes cells during exposure to sublethal and lethal concentrations of Incimaxx DES. The response of the bacterial population...... was homogenous; hence, subpopulations were not detected. However, pregrowth with NaCl protected the planktonic bacterial cells during disinfection with Incimaxx (0.0015%) since pHi was higher (6 to 6.5) for the bacterial population pregrown with NaCl than for cells grown without NaCl (pHi 5 to 5.5) (P

  20. Metal-induced stress in bivalves living along a gradient of Cd contamination: relating sub-cellular metal distribution to population-level responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perceval, Olivier; Couillard, Yves; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette; Giguere, Anik; Campbell, Peter G.C.

    2004-01-01

    The use of biomarkers to assess the impacts of contaminants on aquatic ecosystems has noticeably increased over the past few years. Few of these studies, however, have contributed to the prediction of ecologically significant effects (i.e., at the population or community levels). The present field study was designed to evaluate the potential of metallothionein (MT) and sub-cellular metal partitioning measurements for predicting toxic effects at higher levels of the biological organization in freshwater bivalves (Pyganodon grandis) chronically exposed to Cd. For that purpose, we quantitatively sampled P. grandis populations in the littoral zone of nine lakes on the Precambrian Canadian Shield during two consecutive summers (1998 and 1999); lakes were characterized by contrasting Cd levels but similar trophic status. We tested relationships between the population status of P. grandis (i.e., growth parameters, density, biomass, secondary production, turnover ratio and cumulative fecundity) and (i) ambient Cd concentrations, (ii) sub-organismal responses (MT concentrations in the gill cytosol of individuals and Cd concentrations in three metal-ligand pools identified as M-HMW, the high molecular weight pool, M-MT, the metallothionein-like pool and M-LMW, the low molecular weight pool) and (iii) ecological confounding factors (food resources, presence of host fishes for the obligatory parasitic larval stage of P. grandis). Our results show that littoral density, live weight, dry viscera biomass, production and cumulative fecundity decreased with increasing concentrations of the free-cadmium ion in the environment (Pearson's r ranging from -0.63 to -0.78). On the other hand, theoretical maximum shell lengths (L ∞ ) in our populations were related to both the dissolved Ca concentration and food quality (sestonic C and N concentrations). Overall, Cd concentrations in the gill cytosolic HMW pool of the individual molluscs were the biomarker response that was most

  1. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-12

    The objective of this project was to develop a “roadmap” to guide the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) demand response (DR) planning and implementation in support of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) 70% clean energy goal by 2030.

  2. Estimation of Potential Population Level Effects of Contaminants on Wildlife; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide DOE with improved methods to assess risks from contaminants to wildlife populations. The current approach for wildlife risk assessment consists of comparison of contaminant exposure estimates for individual animals to literature-derived toxicity test endpoints. These test endpoints are assumed to estimate thresholds for population-level effects. Moreover, species sensitivities to contaminants is one of several criteria to be considered when selecting assessment endpoints (EPA 1997 and 1998), yet data on the sensitivities of many birds and mammals are lacking. The uncertainties associated with this approach are considerable. First, because toxicity data are not available for most potential wildlife endpoint species, extrapolation of toxicity data from test species to the species of interest is required. There is no consensus on the most appropriate extrapolation method. Second, toxicity data are represented as statistical measures (e.g., NOAEL s or LOAELs) that provide no information on the nature or magnitude of effects. The level of effect is an artifact of the replication and dosing regime employed, and does not indicate how effects might increase with increasing exposure. Consequently, slight exceedance of a LOAEL is not distinguished from greatly exceeding it. Third, the relationship of toxic effects on individuals to effects on populations is poorly estimated by existing methods. It is assumed that if the exposure of individuals exceeds levels associated with impaired reproduction, then population level effects are likely. Uncertainty associated with this assumption is large because depending on the reproductive strategy of a given species, comparable levels of reproductive impairment may result in dramatically different population-level responses. This project included several tasks to address these problems: (1) investigation of the validity of the current allometric scaling approach for interspecies extrapolation

  3. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Rowe, Christopher L.; Eisenreich, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  4. 7 CFR 550.32 - Project supervision and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Management of Agreements Program Management § 550.32 Project supervision and responsibilities. (a) The... with a project plan for use for external peer review. ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project supervision and responsibilities. 550.32...

  5. Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Project: Student Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Christine M.; Wechsler, Suzanne P.; Whitney, David J.; Ambos, Elizabeth L.; Ramirez-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Behl, Richard; Francis, Robert D.; Larson, Daniel O.; Hazen, Crisanne

    This paper describes an interdisciplinary project at California State University (Long Beach) designed to increase the attractiveness of the geosciences to underrepresented groups. The project is called the Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Project (GDEP). It is a 3-year program which began in the fall of 2001 with funding from the National Science…

  6. An Assessment of risk response strategies practiced in software projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Bhoola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and success in projects are highly intertwined – better approaches to project risk management tend to increase chances of project success in terms of achieving scope & quality, schedule and cost targets. The process of responding to risk factors during a project’s life cycle is a crucial aspect of risk management referred to as risk response strategies, in this paper. The current research explores the status of risk response strategies applied in the software development projects in India. India provides a young IT-savvy English-speaking population, which is also cost effective. Other than the workforce, the environment for implementation of software projects in India is different from the matured economies. Risk management process is a commonly discussed theme, though its implementation in practice has a huge scope for improvement in India. The paper talks about four fundamental treatments to risk response – Avoidance, Transference, Mitigation and Acceptance (ATMA. From a primary data of 302 project managers, the paper attempts to address the risk response factors that lead to successful achievement of project scope & quality, schedule and cost targets, by using a series of regressions followed with Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations (SURE modelling. Mitigation emerged as the most significant risk response strategy to achieve project targets. Acceptance, transference, and avoidance of risk were mostly manifested in the forms of transparency in communication across stakeholders, careful study of the nature of risks and close coordination between project team, customers/end-users and top management.

  7. The responsibility of the contractor for project deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pušac Jovana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes a civil law responsibility of the Contractor for project deficiencies resulting in reduced quality of the construction, i.e. not affecting its solidity. Primary obligation of the Contractor is to perform works in compliance with professional standards, the contract and the approved project. The Contractor cannot change the approved project at will, even when he has designed it. Hence, the question must be raised of the obligation of the Contractor to strictly abide by the project, assigned to him by the Authority, regardless of evident deficiencies of the Project and of his responsibility for performing works in compliance with the said project resulting in deficiencies in the construction, that is construction works. If the latter hypothesis is correct, then it must be established what deficiencies in the project fall under the responsibility of the Contractor (visible or hidden, i.e. the issue of dividing responsibility between the Project Designer and the Contractor in terms of the project deficiencies must be set up and solved. Finally, it is also important to define the realization of rights and duties of the Contractor in case the Contractor has to recede from the Project. In this paper the author tries to offer detail and complete answers to raised questions.

  8. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  9. The utility of estimating population-level trajectories of terminal wellbeing decline within a growth mixture modelling framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R A; Byles, J; Magliano, D J; Mitchell, P; Anstey, K J

    2015-03-01

    Mortality-related decline has been identified across multiple domains of human functioning, including mental health and wellbeing. The current study utilised a growth mixture modelling framework to establish whether a single population-level trajectory best describes mortality-related changes in both wellbeing and mental health, or whether subpopulations report quite different mortality-related changes. Participants were older-aged (M = 69.59 years; SD = 8.08 years) deceased females (N = 1,862) from the dynamic analyses to optimise ageing (DYNOPTA) project. Growth mixture models analysed participants' responses on measures of mental health and wellbeing for up to 16 years from death. Multi-level models confirmed overall terminal decline and terminal drop in both mental health and wellbeing. However, modelling data from the same participants within a latent class growth mixture framework indicated that most participants reported stability in mental health (90.3 %) and wellbeing (89.0 %) in the years preceding death. Whilst confirming other population-level analyses which support terminal decline and drop hypotheses in both mental health and wellbeing, we subsequently identified that most of this effect is driven by a small, but significant minority of the population. Instead, most individuals report stable levels of mental health and wellbeing in the years preceding death.

  10. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence N. Hudson; Joseph Wunderle M.; And Others

    2016-01-01

    The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to...

  11. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L L; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R P; Alhusseini, Tamera I; Bedford, Felicity E; Bennett, Dominic J; Booth, Hollie; Burton, Victoria J; Chng, Charlotte W T; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L P; Day, Julie; Echeverría-Londoño, Susy; Emerson, Susan R; Gao, Di; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L K; Ingram, Daniel J; Jung, Martin; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Martin, Callum D; Pan, Yuan; Pask-Hale, Gwilym D; Pynegar, Edwin L; Robinson, Alexandra N; Sanchez-Ortiz, Katia; Senior, Rebecca A; Simmons, Benno I; White, Hannah J; Zhang, Hanbin; Aben, Job; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Adum, Gilbert B; Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia; Aizen, Marcelo A; Albertos, Belén; Alcala, E L; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Alignier, Audrey; Ancrenaz, Marc; Andersen, Alan N; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Armbrecht, Inge; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aumann, Tom; Axmacher, Jan C; Azhar, Badrul; Azpiroz, Adrián B; Baeten, Lander; Bakayoko, Adama; Báldi, András; Banks, John E; Baral, Sharad K; Barlow, Jos; Barratt, Barbara I P; Barrico, Lurdes; Bartolommei, Paola; Barton, Diane M; Basset, Yves; Batáry, Péter; Bates, Adam J; Baur, Bruno; Bayne, Erin M; Beja, Pedro; Benedick, Suzan; Berg, Åke; Bernard, Henry; Berry, Nicholas J; Bhatt, Dinesh; Bicknell, Jake E; Bihn, Jochen H; Blake, Robin J; Bobo, Kadiri S; Bóçon, Roberto; Boekhout, Teun; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bonham, Kevin J; Borges, Paulo A V; Borges, Sérgio H; Boutin, Céline; Bouyer, Jérémy; Bragagnolo, Cibele; Brandt, Jodi S; Brearley, Francis Q; Brito, Isabel; Bros, Vicenç; Brunet, Jörg; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Buddle, Christopher M; Bugter, Rob; Buscardo, Erika; Buse, Jörn; Cabra-García, Jimmy; Cáceres, Nilton C; Cagle, Nicolette L; Calviño-Cancela, María; Cameron, Sydney A; Cancello, Eliana M; Caparrós, Rut; Cardoso, Pedro; Carpenter, Dan; Carrijo, Tiago F; Carvalho, Anelena L; Cassano, Camila R; Castro, Helena; Castro-Luna, Alejandro A; Rolando, Cerda B; Cerezo, Alexis; Chapman, Kim Alan; Chauvat, Matthieu; Christensen, Morten; Clarke, Francis M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Colombo, Giorgio; Connop, Stuart P; Craig, Michael D; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Cunningham, Saul A; D'Aniello, Biagio; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Dallimer, Martin; Danquah, Emmanuel; Darvill, Ben; Dauber, Jens; Davis, Adrian L V; Dawson, Jeff; de Sassi, Claudio; de Thoisy, Benoit; Deheuvels, Olivier; Dejean, Alain; Devineau, Jean-Louis; Diekötter, Tim; Dolia, Jignasu V; Domínguez, Erwin; Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth; Dorn, Silvia; Draper, Isabel; Dreber, Niels; Dumont, Bertrand; Dures, Simon G; Dynesius, Mats; Edenius, Lars; Eggleton, Paul; Eigenbrod, Felix; Elek, Zoltán; Entling, Martin H; Esler, Karen J; de Lima, Ricardo F; Faruk, Aisyah; Farwig, Nina; Fayle, Tom M; Felicioli, Antonio; Felton, Annika M; Fensham, Roderick J; Fernandez, Ignacio C; Ferreira, Catarina C; Ficetola, Gentile F; Fiera, Cristina; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Fırıncıoğlu, Hüseyin K; Flaspohler, David; Floren, Andreas; Fonte, Steven J; Fournier, Anne; Fowler, Robert E; Franzén, Markus; Fraser, Lauchlan H; Fredriksson, Gabriella M; Freire, Geraldo B; Frizzo, Tiago L M; Fukuda, Daisuke; Furlani, Dario; Gaigher, René; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; García, Karla P; Garcia-R, Juan C; Garden, Jenni G; Garilleti, Ricardo; Ge, Bao-Ming; Gendreau-Berthiaume, Benoit; Gerard, Philippa J; Gheler-Costa, Carla; Gilbert, Benjamin; Giordani, Paolo; Giordano, Simonetta; Golodets, Carly; Gomes, Laurens G L; Gould, Rachelle K; Goulson, Dave; Gove, Aaron D; Granjon, Laurent; Grass, Ingo; Gray, Claudia L; Grogan, James; Gu, Weibin; Guardiola, Moisès; Gunawardene, Nihara R; Gutierrez, Alvaro G; Gutiérrez-Lamus, Doris L; Haarmeyer, Daniela H; Hanley, Mick E; Hanson, Thor; Hashim, Nor R; Hassan, Shombe N; Hatfield, Richard G; Hawes, Joseph E; Hayward, Matt W; Hébert, Christian; Helden, Alvin J; Henden, John-André; Henschel, Philipp; Hernández, Lionel; Herrera, James P; Herrmann, Farina; Herzog, Felix; Higuera-Diaz, Diego; Hilje, Branko; Höfer, Hubert; Hoffmann, Anke; Horgan, Finbarr G; Hornung, Elisabeth; Horváth, Roland; Hylander, Kristoffer; Isaacs-Cubides, Paola; Ishida, Hiroaki; Ishitani, Masahiro; Jacobs, Carmen T; Jaramillo, Víctor J; Jauker, Birgit; Hernández, F Jiménez; Johnson, McKenzie F; Jolli, Virat; Jonsell, Mats; Juliani, S Nur; Jung, Thomas S; Kapoor, Vena; Kappes, Heike; Kati, Vassiliki; Katovai, Eric; Kellner, Klaus; Kessler, Michael; Kirby, Kathryn R; Kittle, Andrew M; Knight, Mairi E; Knop, Eva; Kohler, Florian; Koivula, Matti; Kolb, Annette; Kone, Mouhamadou; Kőrösi, Ádám; Krauss, Jochen; Kumar, Ajith; Kumar, Raman; Kurz, David J; Kutt, Alex S; Lachat, Thibault; Lantschner, Victoria; Lara, Francisco; Lasky, Jesse R; Latta, Steven C; Laurance, William F; Lavelle, Patrick; Le Féon, Violette; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Légaré, Jean-Philippe; Lehouck, Valérie; Lencinas, María V; Lentini, Pia E; Letcher, Susan G; Li, Qi; Litchwark, Simon A; Littlewood, Nick A; Liu, Yunhui; Lo-Man-Hung, Nancy; López-Quintero, Carlos A; Louhaichi, Mounir; Lövei, Gabor L; Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban; Luja, Victor H; Luskin, Matthew S; MacSwiney G, M Cristina; Maeto, Kaoru; Magura, Tibor; Mallari, Neil Aldrin; Malone, Louise A; Malonza, Patrick K; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Mandujano, Salvador; Måren, Inger E; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Marsh, Charles J; Marshall, E J P; Martínez, Eliana; Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Moreno Mateos, David; Mayfield, Margaret M; Mazimpaka, Vicente; McCarthy, Jennifer L; McCarthy, Kyle P; McFrederick, Quinn S; McNamara, Sean; Medina, Nagore G; Medina, Rafael; Mena, Jose L; Mico, Estefania; Mikusinski, Grzegorz; Milder, Jeffrey C; Miller, James R; Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel R; Moir, Melinda L; Morales, Carolina L; Muchane, Mary N; Muchane, Muchai; Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja; Munira, A Nur; Muoñz-Alonso, Antonio; Munyekenye, B F; Naidoo, Robin; Naithani, A; Nakagawa, Michiko; Nakamura, Akihiro; Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Naoe, Shoji; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Navarrete Gutierrez, Dario A; Navarro-Iriarte, Luis; Ndang'ang'a, Paul K; Neuschulz, Eike L; Ngai, Jacqueline T; Nicolas, Violaine; Nilsson, Sven G; Noreika, Norbertas; Norfolk, Olivia; Noriega, Jorge Ari; Norton, David A; Nöske, Nicole M; Nowakowski, A Justin; Numa, Catherine; O'Dea, Niall; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Oduro, William; Oertli, Sabine; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oke, Christopher Omamoke; Oostra, Vicencio; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Page, Navendu V; Paritsis, Juan; Parra-H, Alejandro; Parry, Luke; Pe'er, Guy; Pearman, Peter B; Pelegrin, Nicolás; Pélissier, Raphaël; Peres, Carlos A; Peri, Pablo L; Persson, Anna S; Petanidou, Theodora; Peters, Marcell K; Pethiyagoda, Rohan S; Phalan, Ben; Philips, T Keith; Pillsbury, Finn C; Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy; Pineda, Eduardo; Pino, Joan; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime; Plumptre, A J; Poggio, Santiago L; Politi, Natalia; Pons, Pere; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F; Presley, Steven J; Proença, Vânia; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Rader, Romina; Ramesh, B R; Ramirez-Pinilla, Martha P; Ranganathan, Jai; Rasmussen, Claus; Redpath-Downing, Nicola A; Reid, J Leighton; Reis, Yana T; Rey Benayas, José M; Rey-Velasco, Juan Carlos; Reynolds, Chevonne; Ribeiro, Danilo Bandini; Richards, Miriam H; Richardson, Barbara A; Richardson, Michael J; Ríos, Rodrigo Macip; Robinson, Richard; Robles, Carolina A; Römbke, Jörg; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Rös, Matthias; Rosselli, Loreta; Rossiter, Stephen J; Roth, Dana S; Roulston, T'ai H; Rousseau, Laurent; Rubio, André V; Ruel, Jean-Claude; Sadler, Jonathan P; Sáfián, Szabolcs; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Sam, Katerina; Samnegård, Ulrika; Santana, Joana; Santos, Xavier; Savage, Jade; Schellhorn, Nancy A; Schilthuizen, Menno; Schmiedel, Ute; Schmitt, Christine B; Schon, Nicole L; Schüepp, Christof; Schumann, Katharina; Schweiger, Oliver; Scott, Dawn M; Scott, Kenneth A; Sedlock, Jodi L; Seefeldt, Steven S; Shahabuddin, Ghazala; Shannon, Graeme; Sheil, Douglas; Sheldon, Frederick H; Shochat, Eyal; Siebert, Stefan J; Silva, Fernando A B; Simonetti, Javier A; Slade, Eleanor M; Smith, Jo; Smith-Pardo, Allan H; Sodhi, Navjot S; Somarriba, Eduardo J; Sosa, Ramón A; Soto Quiroga, Grimaldo; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Starzomski, Brian M; Stefanescu, Constanti; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stouffer, Philip C; Stout, Jane C; Strauch, Ayron M; Struebig, Matthew J; Su, Zhimin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Sugiura, Shinji; Summerville, Keith S; Sung, Yik-Hei; Sutrisno, Hari; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Teder, Tiit; Threlfall, Caragh G; Tiitsaar, Anu; Todd, Jacqui H; Tonietto, Rebecca K; Torre, Ignasi; Tóthmérész, Béla; Tscharntke, Teja; Turner, Edgar C; Tylianakis, Jason M; Uehara-Prado, Marcio; Urbina-Cardona, Nicolas; Vallan, Denis; Vanbergen, Adam J; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Vassilev, Kiril; Verboven, Hans A F; Verdasca, Maria João; Verdú, José R; Vergara, Carlos H; Vergara, Pablo M; Verhulst, Jort; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Vu, Lien Van; Waite, Edward M; Walker, Tony R; Wang, Hua-Feng; Wang, Yanping; Watling, James I; Weller, Britta; Wells, Konstans; Westphal, Catrin; Wiafe, Edward D; Williams, Christopher D; Willig, Michael R; Woinarski, John C Z; Wolf, Jan H D; Wolters, Volkmar; Woodcock, Ben A; Wu, Jihua; Wunderle, Joseph M; Yamaura, Yuichi; Yoshikura, Satoko; Yu, Douglas W; Zaitsev, Andrey S; Zeidler, Juliane; Zou, Fasheng; Collen, Ben; Ewers, Rob M; Mace, Georgina M; Purves, Drew W; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Purvis, Andy

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of

  12. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity ...

  13. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, L. N.; Newbold, T.; Contu, S.; Hill, S. L.; Lysenko, I.; De Palma, A.; Phillips, H. R.; Alhusseini, T. I.; Bedford, F. E.; Bennett, D. J.; Booth, H.; Burton, V. J.; Chng, C. W.; Choimes, A.; Correia, D. L.

    2017-01-01

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make free...

  14. Responsible Mining: A Human Resources Strategy for Mine Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar, Sriram (Ram)

    2012-01-01

    Mining is a global industry. Most mining companies operate internationally, often in remote, challenging environments and consequently frequently have respond to unusual and demanding Human Resource (HR) requirements. It is my opinion that the strategic imperative behind success in mining industry is responsible mining. The purpose of this paper is to examine how an effective HR strategy can be a competitive advantage that contributes to the success of a mining project in the global mining in...

  15. Incorporating adaptive responses into future projections of coral bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cheryl A; Dunne, John P; Eakin, C Mark; Donner, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming threatens to increase mass coral bleaching events, and several studies have projected the demise of tropical coral reefs this century. However, recent evidence indicates corals may be able to respond to thermal stress though adaptive processes (e.g., genetic adaptation, acclimatization, and symbiont shuffling). How these mechanisms might influence warming-induced bleaching remains largely unknown. This study compared how different adaptive processes could affect coral bleaching projections. We used the latest bias-corrected global sea surface temperature (SST) output from the NOAA/GFDL Earth System Model 2 (ESM2M) for the preindustrial period through 2100 to project coral bleaching trajectories. Initial results showed that, in the absence of adaptive processes, application of a preindustrial climatology to the NOAA Coral Reef Watch bleaching prediction method overpredicts the present-day bleaching frequency. This suggests that corals may have already responded adaptively to some warming over the industrial period. We then modified the prediction method so that the bleaching threshold either permanently increased in response to thermal history (e.g., simulating directional genetic selection) or temporarily increased for 2-10 years in response to a bleaching event (e.g., simulating symbiont shuffling). A bleaching threshold that changes relative to the preceding 60 years of thermal history reduced the frequency of mass bleaching events by 20-80% compared with the 'no adaptive response' prediction model by 2100, depending on the emissions scenario. When both types of adaptive responses were applied, up to 14% more reef cells avoided high-frequency bleaching by 2100. However, temporary increases in bleaching thresholds alone only delayed the occurrence of high-frequency bleaching by ca. 10 years in all but the lowest emissions scenario. Future research should test the rate and limit of different adaptive responses for coral species across latitudes and

  16. Project plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center: Project 95L-EWT-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center will provide for classroom lectures and hands-on practical training in realistic situations for workers and emergency responders who are tasked with handling and cleanup of toxic substances. The primary objective of the HAMMER project is to provide hands-on training and classroom facilities for hazardous material workers and emergency responders. This project will also contribute towards complying with the planning and training provisions of recent legislation. In March 1989 Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1910 Rules and National Fire Protection Association Standard 472 defined professional requirements for responders to hazardous materials incidents. Two general types of training are addressed for hazardous materials: training for hazardous waste site workers and managers, and training for emergency response organizations

  17. Population levels of wellbeing and the association with social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A W; Kelly, G; Dal Grande, E; Kelly, D; Marin, T; Hey, N; Burke, K J; Licinio, J

    2017-07-03

    This research investigates wellbeing at the population level across demographic, social and health indicators and assesses the association between wellbeing and social capital. Data from a South Australian monthly chronic disease/risk factor surveillance system of randomly selected adults (mean age 48.7 years; range 16-99) from 2014/5 (n = 5551) were used. Univariable analyses compared wellbeing/social capital indicators, socio-demographic, risk factors and chronic conditions. Multi-nominal logistic regression modelling, adjusting for multiple covariates was used to simultaneously estimate odds ratios for good wellbeing (reference category) versus neither good nor poor, and good wellbeing versus poor wellbeing. 48.6% were male, mean age 48.7 (sd 18.3), 54.3% scored well on all four of the wellbeing indicators, and positive social capital indicators ranged from 93.1% for safety to 50.8% for control over decisions. The higher level of social capital corresponded with the good wellbeing category. Modeling showed higher odds ratios for all social capital variables for the lowest level of wellbeing. These higher odds ratios remained after adjusting for confounders. The relationship between wellbeing, resilience and social capital highlights areas for increased policy focus.

  18. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, LN; Newbold, T; Contu, S; Hill, SLL; Lysenko, I; De Palma, A; Phillips, HRP; Alhusseini, TI; Bedford, FE; Bennett, DJ; Booth, H; Burton, VJ; Chng, CWT; Choimes, A; Correia, DLP

    2017-01-01

    The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make free...

  20. Progress report for project modeling Arctic barrier island-lagoon system response to projected Arctic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Storlazzi, Curt; B.M. Jones,

    2012-01-01

    Changes in Arctic coastal ecosystems in response to global warming may be some of the most severe on the planet. A better understanding and analysis of the rates at which these changes are expected to occur over the coming decades is crucial in order to delineate high-priority areas that are likely to be affected by climate changes. In this study we investigate the likelihood of changes to habitat-supporting barrier island – lagoon systems in response to projected changes in atmospheric and oceanographic forcing associated with Arctic warming. To better understand the relative importance of processes responsible for the current and future coastal landscape, key parameters related to increasing arctic temperatures are investigated and used to establish boundary conditions for models that simulate barrier island migration and inundation of deltaic deposits and low-lying tundra. The modeling effort investigates the dominance and relative importance of physical processes shaping the modern Arctic coastline as well as decadal responses due to projected conditions out to the year 2100.

  1. NRC source term assessment for incident response dose projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easley, P.; Pasedag, W.

    1984-01-01

    The NRC provides advice and assistance to licensees and State and local authorities in responding to accidents. The TACT code supports this function by providing source term projections for two situations during early (15 to 60 minutes) accident response: (1) Core/containment damage is indicated, but there are no measured releases. Quantification of a predicted release permits emergency response before people are exposed. With TACT, response personnel can estimate releases based on fuel and cladding conditions, coolant boundary and containment integrity, and mitigative systems operability. For this type of estimate, TACT is intermediate between default assumptions and time-consuming mechanistic codes. (2) A combination of plant status and limited release data are available. For this situation, iterations between predictions based on known conditions which are compared to measured releases gives reasonable confidence in supplemental source term information otherwise unavailable: nuclide mix, releases not monitored, and trending or abrupt changes. The assumptions and models used in TACT, and examples of its use, are given in this paper

  2. Velocity-based movement modeling for individual and population level inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim M Hanks

    Full Text Available Understanding animal movement and resource selection provides important information about the ecology of the animal, but an animal's movement and behavior are not typically constant in time. We present a velocity-based approach for modeling animal movement in space and time that allows for temporal heterogeneity in an animal's response to the environment, allows for temporal irregularity in telemetry data, and accounts for the uncertainty in the location information. Population-level inference on movement patterns and resource selection can then be made through cluster analysis of the parameters related to movement and behavior. We illustrate this approach through a study of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus movement in the Bering Sea, Alaska, USA. Results show sex differentiation, with female northern fur seals exhibiting stronger response to environmental variables.

  3. Project Muskan : Social responsibility of the plastic surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Yogesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are not available, Indian plastic surgeons see around 7,00,000-8,00,000 burn admissions annually with around 10,00,000 cleft patients yet to be operated. In spite of this voluminous load, India does not have national health programs for the various deformities Indian plastic surgeons typically treat. As Plastic Surgeons, it is our social responsibility to treat these patients and bring ′ muskan ′ (smile in Hindi back into their lives. Project Muskan was initiated as an innovative model for targeting these patients and is probably one of its kind in the field of plastic surgery in our country. It is unique because it is a perfect collaboration of government institutions, a Non Government Organization (NGO, and cooperative sectors providing free health care at the doorstep. Identification of the patients was done with the help of the extensive milk dairy network in the state of Gujarat. Provision of transport and other facilities was done by the NGOs and quality health care provision was taken care of by the government hospital. Project Muskan started from a single village but now covers around 3000 villages and tribal areas of Gujarat. It is a system that can be easily reproducible in all hospitals and has reestablished the faith of the common man in government institutes.

  4. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L L; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R P; Alhusseini, Tamera I; Bedford, Felicity E; Bennett, Dominic J; Booth, Hollie; Burton, Victoria J; Chng, Charlotte W T; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L P; Day, Julie; Echeverría-Londoño, Susy; Emerson, Susan R; Gao, Di; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L K; Ingram, Daniel J; Jung, Martin; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Martin, Callum D; Pan, Yuan; Pask-Hale, Gwilym D; Pynegar, Edwin L; Robinson, Alexandra N; Sanchez-Ortiz, Katia; Senior, Rebecca A; Simmons, Benno I; White, Hannah J; Zhang, Hanbin; Aben, Job; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Adum, Gilbert B; Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia; Aizen, Marcelo A; Albertos, Belén; Alcala, E L; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Alignier, Audrey; Ancrenaz, Marc; Andersen, Alan N; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Armbrecht, Inge; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aumann, Tom; Axmacher, Jan C; Azhar, Badrul; Azpiroz, Adrián B; Baeten, Lander; Bakayoko, Adama; Báldi, András; Banks, John E; Baral, Sharad K; Barlow, Jos; Barratt, Barbara I P; Barrico, Lurdes; Bartolommei, Paola; Barton, Diane M; Basset, Yves; Batáry, Péter; Bates, Adam J; Baur, Bruno; Bayne, Erin M; Beja, Pedro; Benedick, Suzan; Berg, Åke; Bernard, Henry; Berry, Nicholas J; Bhatt, Dinesh; Bicknell, Jake E; Bihn, Jochen H; Blake, Robin J; Bobo, Kadiri S; Bóçon, Roberto; Boekhout, Teun; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bonham, Kevin J; Borges, Paulo A V; Borges, Sérgio H; Boutin, Céline; Bouyer, Jérémy; Bragagnolo, Cibele; Brandt, Jodi S; Brearley, Francis Q; Brito, Isabel; Bros, Vicenç; Brunet, Jörg; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Buddle, Christopher M; Bugter, Rob; Buscardo, Erika; Buse, Jörn; Cabra-García, Jimmy; Cáceres, Nilton C; Cagle, Nicolette L; Calviño-Cancela, María; Cameron, Sydney A; Cancello, Eliana M; Caparrós, Rut; Cardoso, Pedro; Carpenter, Dan; Carrijo, Tiago F; Carvalho, Anelena L; Cassano, Camila R; Castro, Helena; Castro-Luna, Alejandro A; Rolando, Cerda B; Cerezo, Alexis; Chapman, Kim Alan; Chauvat, Matthieu; Christensen, Morten; Clarke, Francis M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Colombo, Giorgio; Connop, Stuart P; Craig, Michael D; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Cunningham, Saul A; D'Aniello, Biagio; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Dallimer, Martin; Danquah, Emmanuel; Darvill, Ben; Dauber, Jens; Davis, Adrian L V; Dawson, Jeff; de Sassi, Claudio; de Thoisy, Benoit; Deheuvels, Olivier; Dejean, Alain; Devineau, Jean-Louis; Diekötter, Tim; Dolia, Jignasu V; Domínguez, Erwin; Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth; Dorn, Silvia; Draper, Isabel; Dreber, Niels; Dumont, Bertrand; Dures, Simon G; Dynesius, Mats; Edenius, Lars; Eggleton, Paul; Eigenbrod, Felix; Elek, Zoltán; Entling, Martin H; Esler, Karen J; de Lima, Ricardo F; Faruk, Aisyah; Farwig, Nina; Fayle, Tom M; Felicioli, Antonio; Felton, Annika M; Fensham, Roderick J; Fernandez, Ignacio C; Ferreira, Catarina C; Ficetola, Gentile F; Fiera, Cristina; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Fırıncıoğlu, Hüseyin K; Flaspohler, David; Floren, Andreas; Fonte, Steven J; Fournier, Anne; Fowler, Robert E; Franzén, Markus; Fraser, Lauchlan H; Fredriksson, Gabriella M; Freire, Geraldo B; Frizzo, Tiago L M; Fukuda, Daisuke; Furlani, Dario; Gaigher, René; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; García, Karla P; Garcia-R, Juan C; Garden, Jenni G; Garilleti, Ricardo; Ge, Bao-Ming; Gendreau-Berthiaume, Benoit; Gerard, Philippa J; Gheler-Costa, Carla; Gilbert, Benjamin; Giordani, Paolo; Giordano, Simonetta; Golodets, Carly; Gomes, Laurens G L; Gould, Rachelle K; Goulson, Dave; Gove, Aaron D; Granjon, Laurent; Grass, Ingo; Gray, Claudia L; Grogan, James; Gu, Weibin; Guardiola, Moisès; Gunawardene, Nihara R; Gutierrez, Alvaro G; Gutiérrez-Lamus, Doris L; Haarmeyer, Daniela H; Hanley, Mick E; Hanson, Thor; Hashim, Nor R; Hassan, Shombe N; Hatfield, Richard G; Hawes, Joseph E; Hayward, Matt W; Hébert, Christian; Helden, Alvin J; Henden, John-André; Henschel, Philipp; Hernández, Lionel; Herrera, James P; Herrmann, Farina; Herzog, Felix; Higuera-Diaz, Diego; Hilje, Branko; Höfer, Hubert; Hoffmann, Anke; Horgan, Finbarr G; Hornung, Elisabeth; Horváth, Roland; Hylander, Kristoffer; Isaacs-Cubides, Paola; Ishida, Hiroaki; Ishitani, Masahiro; Jacobs, Carmen T; Jaramillo, Víctor J; Jauker, Birgit; Hernández, F Jiménez; Johnson, McKenzie F; Jolli, Virat; Jonsell, Mats; Juliani, S Nur; Jung, Thomas S; Kapoor, Vena; Kappes, Heike; Kati, Vassiliki; Katovai, Eric; Kellner, Klaus; Kessler, Michael; Kirby, Kathryn R; Kittle, Andrew M; Knight, Mairi E; Knop, Eva; Kohler, Florian; Koivula, Matti; Kolb, Annette; Kone, Mouhamadou; Kőrösi, Ádám; Krauss, Jochen; Kumar, Ajith; Kumar, Raman; Kurz, David J; Kutt, Alex S; Lachat, Thibault; Lantschner, Victoria; Lara, Francisco; Lasky, Jesse R; Latta, Steven C; Laurance, William F; Lavelle, Patrick; Le Féon, Violette; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Légaré, Jean-Philippe; Lehouck, Valérie; Lencinas, María V; Lentini, Pia E; Letcher, Susan G; Li, Qi; Litchwark, Simon A; Littlewood, Nick A; Liu, Yunhui; Lo-Man-Hung, Nancy; López-Quintero, Carlos A; Louhaichi, Mounir; Lövei, Gabor L; Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban; Luja, Victor H; Luskin, Matthew S; MacSwiney G, M Cristina; Maeto, Kaoru; Magura, Tibor; Mallari, Neil Aldrin; Malone, Louise A; Malonza, Patrick K; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Mandujano, Salvador; Måren, Inger E; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Marsh, Charles J; Marshall, E J P; Martínez, Eliana; Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Moreno Mateos, David; Mayfield, Margaret M; Mazimpaka, Vicente; McCarthy, Jennifer L; McCarthy, Kyle P; McFrederick, Quinn S; McNamara, Sean; Medina, Nagore G; Medina, Rafael; Mena, Jose L; Mico, Estefania; Mikusinski, Grzegorz; Milder, Jeffrey C; Miller, James R; Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel R; Moir, Melinda L; Morales, Carolina L; Muchane, Mary N; Muchane, Muchai; Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja; Munira, A Nur; Muoñz-Alonso, Antonio; Munyekenye, B F; Naidoo, Robin; Naithani, A; Nakagawa, Michiko; Nakamura, Akihiro; Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Naoe, Shoji; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Navarrete Gutierrez, Dario A; Navarro-Iriarte, Luis; Ndang'ang'a, Paul K; Neuschulz, Eike L; Ngai, Jacqueline T; Nicolas, Violaine; Nilsson, Sven G; Noreika, Norbertas; Norfolk, Olivia; Noriega, Jorge Ari; Norton, David A; Nöske, Nicole M; Nowakowski, A Justin; Numa, Catherine; O'Dea, Niall; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Oduro, William; Oertli, Sabine; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oke, Christopher Omamoke; Oostra, Vicencio; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Page, Navendu V; Paritsis, Juan; Parra-H, Alejandro; Parry, Luke; Pe'er, Guy; Pearman, Peter B; Pelegrin, Nicolás; Pélissier, Raphaël; Peres, Carlos A; Peri, Pablo L; Persson, Anna S; Petanidou, Theodora; Peters, Marcell K; Pethiyagoda, Rohan S; Phalan, Ben; Philips, T Keith; Pillsbury, Finn C; Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy; Pineda, Eduardo; Pino, Joan; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime; Plumptre, A J; Poggio, Santiago L; Politi, Natalia; Pons, Pere; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F; Presley, Steven J; Proença, Vânia; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Rader, Romina; Ramesh, B R; Ramirez-Pinilla, Martha P; Ranganathan, Jai; Rasmussen, Claus; Redpath-Downing, Nicola A; Reid, J Leighton; Reis, Yana T; Rey Benayas, José M; Rey-Velasco, Juan Carlos; Reynolds, Chevonne; Ribeiro, Danilo Bandini; Richards, Miriam H; Richardson, Barbara A; Richardson, Michael J; Ríos, Rodrigo Macip; Robinson, Richard; Robles, Carolina A; Römbke, Jörg; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Rös, Matthias; Rosselli, Loreta; Rossiter, Stephen J; Roth, Dana S; Roulston, T'ai H; Rousseau, Laurent; Rubio, André V; Ruel, Jean-Claude; Sadler, Jonathan P; Sáfián, Szabolcs; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Sam, Katerina; Samnegård, Ulrika; Santana, Joana; Santos, Xavier; Savage, Jade; Schellhorn, Nancy A; Schilthuizen, Menno; Schmiedel, Ute; Schmitt, Christine B; Schon, Nicole L; Schüepp, Christof; Schumann, Katharina; Schweiger, Oliver; Scott, Dawn M; Scott, Kenneth A; Sedlock, Jodi L; Seefeldt, Steven S; Shahabuddin, Ghazala; Shannon, Graeme; Sheil, Douglas; Sheldon, Frederick H; Shochat, Eyal; Siebert, Stefan J; Silva, Fernando A B; Simonetti, Javier A; Slade, Eleanor M; Smith, Jo; Smith-Pardo, Allan H; Sodhi, Navjot S; Somarriba, Eduardo J; Sosa, Ramón A; Soto Quiroga, Grimaldo; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Starzomski, Brian M; Stefanescu, Constanti; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stouffer, Philip C; Stout, Jane C; Strauch, Ayron M; Struebig, Matthew J; Su, Zhimin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Sugiura, Shinji; Summerville, Keith S; Sung, Yik-Hei; Sutrisno, Hari; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Teder, Tiit; Threlfall, Caragh G; Tiitsaar, Anu; Todd, Jacqui H; Tonietto, Rebecca K; Torre, Ignasi; Tóthmérész, Béla; Tscharntke, Teja; Turner, Edgar C; Tylianakis, Jason M; Uehara-Prado, Marcio; Urbina-Cardona, Nicolas; Vallan, Denis; Vanbergen, Adam J; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Vassilev, Kiril; Verboven, Hans A F; Verdasca, Maria João; Verdú, José R; Vergara, Carlos H; Vergara, Pablo M; Verhulst, Jort; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Vu, Lien Van; Waite, Edward M; Walker, Tony R; Wang, Hua-Feng; Wang, Yanping; Watling, James I; Weller, Britta; Wells, Konstans; Westphal, Catrin; Wiafe, Edward D; Williams, Christopher D; Willig, Michael R; Woinarski, John C Z; Wolf, Jan H D; Wolters, Volkmar; Woodcock, Ben A; Wu, Jihua; Wunderle, Joseph M; Yamaura, Yuichi; Yoshikura, Satoko; Yu, Douglas W; Zaitsev, Andrey S; Zeidler, Juliane; Zou, Fasheng; Collen, Ben; Ewers, Rob M; Mace, Georgina M; Purves, Drew W; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Purvis, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

  5. Population-level resource selection by sympatric brown and American black bears in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belant, Jerrold L.; Griffith, Brad; Zhang, Yingte; Follmann, Erich H.; Adams, Layne G.

    2010-01-01

    Distribution theory predicts that for two species living in sympatry, the subordinate species would be constrained from using the most suitable resources (e.g., habitat), resulting in its use of less suitable habitat and spatial segregation between species. We used negative binomial generalized linear mixed models with fixed effects to estimate seasonal population-level resource selection at two spatial resolutions for female brown bears (Ursus arctos) and female American black bears (U. americanus) in southcentral Alaska during May–September 2000. Black bears selected areas occupied by brown bears during spring which may be related to spatially restricted (i.e., restricted to low elevations) but dispersed or patchy availability of food. In contrast, black bears avoided areas occupied by brown bears during summer. Brown bears selected areas near salmon streams during summer, presumably to access spawning salmon. Use of areas with high berry production by black bears during summer appeared in response to avoidance of areas containing brown bears. Berries likely provided black bears a less nutritious, but adequate food source. We suggest that during summer, black bears were displaced by brown bears, which supports distribution theory in that black bears appeared to be partially constrained from areas containing salmon, resulting in their use of areas containing less nutritious forage. Spatial segregation of brown and American black bears apparently occurs when high-quality resources are spatially restricted and alternate resources are available to the subordinate species. This and previous work suggest that individual interactions between species can result in seasonal population-level responses.

  6. Community-wide intervention and population-level physical activity: a 5-year cluster randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Masamitsu; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi; Taguri, Masataka; Inoue, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Bauman, Adrian; Lee, I-Min; Miyachi, Motohiko; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence from a limited number of short-term trials indicates the difficulty in achieving population-level improvements in physical activity (PA) through community-wide interventions (CWIs). We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a 5-year CWI for promoting PA in middle-aged and older adults using a cluster randomized design. Methods We randomized 12 communities in Unnan, Japan, to either intervention (9) or control (3). Additionally, intervention communities were randomly allocated to three subgroups by different PA types promoted. Randomly sampled residents aged 40–79 years responded to the baseline survey (n = 4414; 74%) and were followed at 1, 3 and 5 years (78–83% response rate). The intervention was a 5-year CWI using social marketing to promote PA. The primary outcome was a change in recommended levels of PA. Results Compared with control communities, adults achieving recommended levels of PA increased in intervention communities [adjusted change difference = 4.6 percentage points (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 8.8)]. The intervention was effective for promoting all types of recommended PAs, i.e. aerobic (walking, 6.4%), flexibility (6.1%) and muscle-strengthening activities (5.7%). However, a bundled approach, which attempted to promote all forms of PAs above simultaneously, was not effective (1.3–3.4%, P ≥ 0.138). Linear dose–response relationships between the CWI awareness and changes in PA were observed (P ≤ 0.02). Pain intensity decreased in shoulder (intervention and control) and lower back (intervention only) but there was little change difference in all musculoskeletal pain outcomes between the groups. Conclusions The 5-year CWI using the focused social marketing strategy increased the population-level of PA. PMID:29228255

  7. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology demonstration and evaluation for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in Seattle City Light's (SCL) service territory. This report summarizes the process and results of deploying open automated demand response (OpenADR) in Seattle area with winter morning peaking commercial buildings. The field tests were designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying fully automated demand response (DR) in four to six sites in the winter and the savings from various building systems. The project started in November of 2008 and lasted 6 months. The methodology for the study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment and enhancements, and evaluation of sites participation in DR test events. LBNL subcontracted McKinstry and Akuacom for this project. McKinstry assisted with recruitment, site survey collection, strategy development and overall participant and control vendor management. Akuacom established a new server and enhanced its operations to allow for scheduling winter morning day-of and day-ahead events. Each site signed a Memorandum of Agreement with SCL. SCL offered each site $3,000 for agreeing to participate in the study and an additional $1,000 for each event they participated. Each facility and their control vendor worked with LBNL and McKinstry to select and implement control strategies for DR and developed their automation based on the existing Internet connectivity and building control system. Once the DR strategies were programmed, McKinstry commissioned them before actual test events. McKinstry worked with LBNL to identify control points that can be archived at each facility. For each site LBNL collected meter data and trend logs from the energy management and control system. The communication system allowed the sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of DR test event signals. Measurement of DR was

  8. Neural population-level memory traces in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guifen; Wang, L Phillip; Tsien, Joe Z

    2009-12-16

    One of the fundamental goals in neurosciences is to elucidate the formation and retrieval of brain's associative memory traces in real-time. Here, we describe real-time neural ensemble transient dynamics in the mouse hippocampal CA1 region and demonstrate their relationships with behavioral performances during both learning and recall. We employed the classic trace fear conditioning paradigm involving a neutral tone followed by a mild foot-shock 20 seconds later. Our large-scale recording and decoding methods revealed that conditioned tone responses and tone-shock association patterns were not present in CA1 during the first pairing, but emerged quickly after multiple pairings. These encoding patterns showed increased immediate-replay, correlating tightly with increased immediate-freezing during learning. Moreover, during contextual recall, these patterns reappeared in tandem six-to-fourteen times per minute, again correlating tightly with behavioral recall. Upon traced tone recall, while various fear memories were retrieved, the shock traces exhibited a unique recall-peak around the 20-second trace interval, further signifying the memory of time for the expected shock. Therefore, our study has revealed various real-time associative memory traces during learning and recall in CA1, and demonstrates that real-time memory traces can be decoded on a moment-to-moment basis over any single trial.

  9. Neural population-level memory traces in the mouse hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifen Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental goals in neurosciences is to elucidate the formation and retrieval of brain's associative memory traces in real-time. Here, we describe real-time neural ensemble transient dynamics in the mouse hippocampal CA1 region and demonstrate their relationships with behavioral performances during both learning and recall. We employed the classic trace fear conditioning paradigm involving a neutral tone followed by a mild foot-shock 20 seconds later. Our large-scale recording and decoding methods revealed that conditioned tone responses and tone-shock association patterns were not present in CA1 during the first pairing, but emerged quickly after multiple pairings. These encoding patterns showed increased immediate-replay, correlating tightly with increased immediate-freezing during learning. Moreover, during contextual recall, these patterns reappeared in tandem six-to-fourteen times per minute, again correlating tightly with behavioral recall. Upon traced tone recall, while various fear memories were retrieved, the shock traces exhibited a unique recall-peak around the 20-second trace interval, further signifying the memory of time for the expected shock. Therefore, our study has revealed various real-time associative memory traces during learning and recall in CA1, and demonstrates that real-time memory traces can be decoded on a moment-to-moment basis over any single trial.

  10. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Crawford, Hayley; Pymm, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    these regions encode epitopes presented by ~30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ~60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions...... of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most...

  11. Market Design Project. Demand Response Resources in Sweden - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter

    2006-06-01

    An important discussion in later years has been whether the necessary reserves in the electricity market are to be generated through normal market mechanisms, i.e. with the price as the primary controlling parameter, or if it requires a collectively financed capacity reserve and how regulations in such a case should be shaped. The issue is first and foremost a matter of where the line is drawn between that which 'the market' should handle and that which can be assured through regulation. Autumn 2002 Svenska Kraftnaet (the Swedish TSO) presented an investigation to the government in which it was suggested that the capacity balance should primarily be managed through the use of normal pricing mechanisms, but that the state should strengthen responsibility for the nation's capacity balance in the period up until 2008. When approaching an effect loss situation, spot prices and balancing power prices will skyrocket. Today, most people are in agreement that a condition for maintained delivery safety is that normal pricing mechanisms are in place and that consumption actually is affected by high prices. The main reason for this conclusion is that it is very expensive to keep production facilities in reserve for situations that are expected to occur very seldom - it is cheaper to encourage large customers to reduce their consumption. The other reason is that increased price sensitivity creates conditions for a more stable and more predictable pricing development in strained situations. While being aware that a response to increased demand is needed, we see too little of that on the market today. The aim of this project is to present concrete measures that will awaken this slumbering resource. In order to judge how much demand response that can reasonably be expected and if there is any financial gain for customers, electricity suppliers and grid operators; it has been necessary to cast a few predictions about future price peaks. We estimate price peaks in the 3-10 SEK

  12. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  13. Direct/Delayed Response Project: Soil-characterization comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermaker, L.K.; Byers, G.E.; Starks, T.H.; Miah, M.J.; Palmer, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    A large amount of soil characterization data has been collected as a component of the Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) in the acid rain Aquatic Effects Research Program. An interlaboratory comparison study was undertaken to identify the comparability of the data to that obtained from representative soil characterization laboratories. Participating laboratories were selected at random from four regions of the U.S. and two regions of Canada. Two original DDRP contract laboratories also participated. Duplicate samples of six soil audit materials and two liquid soil extracts were sent to each of the laboratories in two separate batches. Laboratories used their own protocols to perform the analyses requested except for the contract laboratories which followed the DDRP protocol. Liquid audits were used in an effort to identify if interlaboratory differences were due to extraction procedures or chemical measurements. A component of the variability in the results was attributed to differences in the methods used such as soil/solution ratios, extractants or extraction procedures. The largest number of different methods used was for the measurement of cation exchange capacity. The results between the DDRP soil survey data and the study's results were compared using Youden-pair plots. In addition, standard statistical tests were performed. Overall, the DDRP data were comparable to the data from the study. However, out of the total 141 comparisons involving results from six or more laboratories, the results from the two contract laboratories did not meet the comparison criteria in 19 cases. Since there was never a case in which both contract laboratories failed, it would appear that the 19 cases which were not comparable were due to random analytical errors, incorrectly reported results, or misapplication of DDRP protocol

  14. Role of quality assurance vs project manager's responsibility for waste projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solecki, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper takes a project manager's perspective and discusses the role of the quality assurance organization in the development, implementation and interface related to the QA program for waste projects. The author describes the role which the QA program plays in allowing project management to assure that the project manager knows what is placed in the repository and the characteristics of the surrounding environment meet closure requirements

  15. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  17. PREDICTS: Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity in Changing Terrestrial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Mace

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The PREDICTS project (www.predicts.org.uk is a three-year NERC-funded project to model and predict at a global scale how local terrestrial diversity responds to human pressures such as land use, land cover, pollution, invasive species and infrastructure. PREDICTS is a collaboration between Imperial College London, the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Microsoft Research Cambridge, UCL and the University of Sussex. In order to meet its aims, the project relies on extensive data describing the diversity and composition of biological communities at a local scale. Such data are collected on a vast scale through the committed efforts of field ecologists. If you have appropriate data that you would be willing to share with us, please get in touch (enquiries@predicts.org.uk. All contributions will be acknowledged appropriately and all data contributors will be included as co-authors on an open-access paper describing the database.

  18. Projective Item Response Model for Test-Independent Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward Hak-Sing; Chen, Shyh-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The problem of fitting unidimensional item-response models to potentially multidimensional data has been extensively studied. The focus of this article is on response data that contains a major dimension of interest but that may also contain minor nuisance dimensions. Because fitting a unidimensional model to multidimensional data results in…

  19. Rainfall response to dam/irrigation projects in northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we examine the possibility that the increasing number and size of dam/irrigation projects in northern Nigeria are having a corresponding increase in rainfall in spite of the threat of climate change. We modeled the rainfall trends over 11 meteorological stations over a period of 34 years (1971 - 2004). The trends ...

  20. Response of streamflow to projected climate change scenarios in an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snowmelt run-off model (SRM) based on degree-day approach has been employed to evaluate the change in snow-cover depletion and corresponding streamflow under different projected climatic scenarios foran eastern Himalayan catchment in India. Nuranang catchment located at Tawang district of ArunachalPradesh ...

  1. Taking Responsibility: The integration of Sustainability and Project Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasper van den Brink; Gilbert Gilbert Silvius

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time. How can we develop prosperity, without compromising the life of future generations? Companies are integrating ideas of sustainability in their marketing, corporate communications, annual reports and in their actions. Projects as

  2. Estimating the Population-Level Effectiveness of Vaccination Programs in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijhe, Maarten; McDonald, Scott A; de Melker, Hester E; Postma, Maarten J; Wallinga, Jacco

    There are few estimates of the effectiveness of long-standing vaccination programs in developed countries. To fill this gap, we investigate the direct and indirect effectiveness of childhood vaccination programs on mortality at the population level in the Netherlands.

  3. Frequency-specific modulation of population-level frequency tuning in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Larry E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under natural circumstances, attention plays an important role in extracting relevant auditory signals from simultaneously present, irrelevant noises. Excitatory and inhibitory neural activity, enhanced by attentional processes, seems to sharpen frequency tuning, contributing to improved auditory performance especially in noisy environments. In the present study, we investigated auditory magnetic fields in humans that were evoked by pure tones embedded in band-eliminated noises during two different stimulus sequencing conditions (constant vs. random under auditory focused attention by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results In total, we used identical auditory stimuli between conditions, but presented them in a different order, thereby manipulating the neural processing and the auditory performance of the listeners. Constant stimulus sequencing blocks were characterized by the simultaneous presentation of pure tones of identical frequency with band-eliminated noises, whereas random sequencing blocks were characterized by the simultaneous presentation of pure tones of random frequencies and band-eliminated noises. We demonstrated that auditory evoked neural responses were larger in the constant sequencing compared to the random sequencing condition, particularly when the simultaneously presented noises contained narrow stop-bands. Conclusion The present study confirmed that population-level frequency tuning in human auditory cortex can be sharpened in a frequency-specific manner. This frequency-specific sharpening may contribute to improved auditory performance during detection and processing of relevant sound inputs characterized by specific frequency distributions in noisy environments.

  4. Community-based population-level interventions for promoting child oral health.

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, AM; Hegde, S; Akudo Nwagbara, B; Calache, H; Gussy, MG; Nasser, M; Morrice, HR; Riggs, E; Leong, PM; Meyenn, LK; Yousefi-Nooraie, R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental caries and gingival and periodontal disease are commonly occurring, preventable chronic conditions. Even though much is known about how to treat oral disease, currently we do not know which community-based population-level interventions are most effective and equitable in preventing poor oral health. OBJECTIVES: Primary • To determine the effectiveness of community-based population-level oral health promotion interventions in preventing dental caries and gingival and period...

  5. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  6. Plutonium Reclamation Facility incident response project progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides status of Hanford activities in response to process deficiencies highlighted during and in response to the May 14, 1997, explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility. This report provides specific response to the August 4, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary which requested a progress report, in 120 days, on activities associated with reassessing the known and evaluating new vulnerabilities (chemical and radiological) at facilities that have been shut down, are in standby, are being deactivated or have otherwise changed their conventional mode of operation in the last several years. In addition, this report is intended to provide status on emergency response corrective activities as requested in the memorandum from the Secretary on August 28, 1997. Status is also included for actions requested in the second August 28, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary, regarding timely notification of emergencies

  7. Plutonium Reclamation Facility incident response project progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, B.A.

    1997-11-25

    This report provides status of Hanford activities in response to process deficiencies highlighted during and in response to the May 14, 1997, explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility. This report provides specific response to the August 4, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary which requested a progress report, in 120 days, on activities associated with reassessing the known and evaluating new vulnerabilities (chemical and radiological) at facilities that have been shut down, are in standby, are being deactivated or have otherwise changed their conventional mode of operation in the last several years. In addition, this report is intended to provide status on emergency response corrective activities as requested in the memorandum from the Secretary on August 28, 1997. Status is also included for actions requested in the second August 28, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary, regarding timely notification of emergencies.

  8. THE MANAGEMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PROJECTS: A HIGH-PRIORITY ETHICAL PROBLEM IN THE UNIVERSITY AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palencia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work paper points out that the management of social responsibility is a high-priority project in the agenda of university organizations. Social Responsibility is reasoned as a macro university ethical project; about how the projects in the university scope have been handled and finally about how the Intellectus Model is a successful option. By means of a documentary research, it was conclude that the university organizations come dragging a culture lack from ethics, which has taken it to assume the Social Responsibility with an extencionist approach. It is recommended to assume the Social Responsibility Project as a coexistence culture and to manage it by means of the Projects Management.

  9. FORMATION OF RESPONSIBILITY AS A BEHAVIORAL SPECIALIST COMPETENCE IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Семенович ПОНОМАРЬОВ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the phenomenon of responsibility is considered. It plays an important role in the life of man and society. A sense of personal responsibility is essential for professional project management. However, with respect to the standard IPMA behavioral competencies of the specialist does not consider responsibility as a competence. This article explains the need to consider the responsibility of one of the most important behavioral competencies of project management specialists. The paper analyzes the problem of studying the phenomenon of responsibility. Examples of his studies in philosophy, psychology, and pedagogy. The approaches to the formation and development of students' responsibility. Emphasized the lack of an integrated system of education accountability in higher education. Illuminated by the author's practical experience in the formation and development of responsibility in the process of teaching of the discipline "managerial competence". In particular, the standard program is supplemented with important topics of the course on the philosophy of management, psychology, management and culture management. It is shown that the effective formation of responsibility of students is necessary to ensure the integrity of the system of educational process and consistently apply active learning methods. It was stressed that the responsibility is required professionally and socially important personal characteristics of a person. This primarily relates to the project and to the members of his project team. It is proposed to include responsibility in behavioral specialist competencies in project management as one of the most important components.

  10. Genetic predictors of response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uher, Rudolf; Huezo-Diaz, Patricia; Perroud, Nader

    2009-01-01

    -reuptake-inhibiting and norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibiting antidepressants. A total of 116 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 candidate genes were genotyped in 760 adult patients with moderate-to-severe depression, treated with escitalopram (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or nortriptyline (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor......) for 12 weeks in an open-label part-randomized multicenter study. The effect of genetic variants on change in depressive symptoms was evaluated using mixed linear models. Several variants in a serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A) predicted response to escitalopram with one marker (rs9316233) explaining 1...... to the serotonin-reuptake-inhibiting escitalopram, genes encoding proteins in norepinephrine signaling influencing response to the norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibiting nortriptyline and a common pathway gene influencing response to both antidepressants. The single marker associations explained only a small...

  11. Asymmetric Damage Segregation Constitutes an Emergent Population-Level Stress Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Nunns, Harry; Košmrlj, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric damage segregation (ADS) is a mechanism for increasing population fitness through non-random, asymmetric partitioning of damaged macromolecules at cell division. ADS has been reported across multiple organisms, though the measured effects on fitness of individuals are often small. Here...

  12. Predicting population level risk effects of predation from the responses of individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Macleod, Colin D.; Macleod, Ross; Learmonth, Jennifer A.; Cresswell, Will; Pierce, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Fear of predation produces large effects on prey population dynamics through indirect risk effects that can cause even greater impacts than direct predation mortality. As yet, there is no general theoretical framework for predicting when and how these population risk effects will arise in specific prey populations, meaning there is often little consideration given to the key role predator risk effects can play in understanding conservation and wildlife management challenges. Here, we propose ...

  13. Spinal sensory projection neuron responses to spinal cord stimulation are mediated by circuits beyond gate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhe C; Janik, John J; Peters, Ryan V; Chen, Gang; Ji, Ru-Rong; Grill, Warren M

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a therapy used to treat intractable pain with a putative mechanism of action based on the Gate Control Theory. We hypothesized that sensory projection neuron responses to SCS would follow a single stereotyped response curve as a function of SCS frequency, as predicted by the Gate Control circuit. We recorded the responses of antidromically identified sensory projection neurons in the lumbar spinal cord during 1- to 150-Hz SCS in both healthy rats and neuropathic rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI). The relationship between SCS frequency and projection neuron activity predicted by the Gate Control circuit accounted for a subset of neuronal responses to SCS but could not account for the full range of observed responses. Heterogeneous responses were classifiable into three additional groups and were reproduced using computational models of spinal microcircuits representing other interactions between nociceptive and nonnociceptive sensory inputs. Intrathecal administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, increased spontaneous and evoked activity in projection neurons, enhanced excitatory responses to SCS, and reduced inhibitory responses to SCS, suggesting that GABAA neurotransmission plays a broad role in regulating projection neuron activity. These in vivo and computational results challenge the Gate Control Theory as the only mechanism underlying SCS and refine our understanding of the effects of SCS on spinal sensory neurons within the framework of contemporary understanding of dorsal horn circuitry. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Complex Projective Synchronization in Drive-Response Stochastic Complex Networks by Impulsive Pinning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex projective synchronization in drive-response stochastic coupled networks with complex-variable systems is considered. The impulsive pinning control scheme is adopted to achieve complex projective synchronization and several simple and practical sufficient conditions are obtained in a general drive-response network. In addition, the adaptive feedback algorithms are proposed to adjust the control strength. Several numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  15. Association of RGS4 variants with schizotypy and cognitive endophenotypes at the population level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyrnis Nikos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While association studies on schizophrenia show conflicting results regarding the importance of the regulator of the G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4 gene, recent work suggests that RGS4 may impact on the structural and functional integrity of the prefrontal cortex. We aimed to study associations of common RGS4 variants with prefrontal dependent cognitive performance and schizotypy endophenotypes at the population level. Methods Four RGS4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP1 [rs10917670], SNP4 [rs951436], SNP7 [rs951439], and SNP18 [rs2661319] and their haplotypes were selected. Their associations with self-rated schizotypy (SPQ, vigilance, verbal, spatial working memory and antisaccade eye performance were tested with regressions in a representative population of 2,243 young male military conscripts. Results SNP4 was associated with negative schizotypy (higher SPQ negative factor for common T allele, p = 0.009; p = 0.031 for differences across genotypes and a similar trend was seen also for common A allele of SNP18 (p = 0.039 for allele-load model; but p = 0.12 for genotype differences. Haplotype analyses showed a similar pattern with a dose-response for the most common haplotype (GGGG on the negative schizotypy score with or without adjustment for age, IQ and their interaction (p = 0.011 and p = 0.024, respectively. There was no clear evidence for any association of the RGS4 variants with cognitive endophenotypes, except for an isolated effect of SNP18 on antisaccade error rate (p = 0.028 for allele-load model. Conclusion Common RGS4 variants were associated with negative schizotypal personality traits amongst a large cohort of young healthy individuals. In accordance with recent findings, this may suggest that RGS4 variants impact on the functional integrity of the prefrontal cortex, thus increasing susceptibility for psychotic spectrum disorders.

  16. Achieving population-level immunity to rabies in free-roaming dogs in Africa and Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K Morters

    Full Text Available Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least

  17. Ethical issues in using Twitter for population-level depression monitoring: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikal, Jude; Hurst, Samantha; Conway, Mike

    2016-04-14

    Recently, significant research effort has focused on using Twitter (and other social media) to investigate mental health at the population-level. While there has been influential work in developing ethical guidelines for Internet discussion forum-based research in public health, there is currently limited work focused on addressing ethical problems in Twitter-based public health research, and less still that considers these issues from users' own perspectives. In this work, we aim to investigate public attitudes towards utilizing public domain Twitter data for population-level mental health monitoring using a qualitative methodology. The study explores user perspectives in a series of five, 2-h focus group interviews. Following a semi-structured protocol, 26 Twitter users with and without a diagnosed history of depression discussed general Twitter use, along with privacy expectations, and ethical issues in using social media for health monitoring, with a particular focus on mental health monitoring. Transcripts were then transcribed, redacted, and coded using a constant comparative approach. While participants expressed a wide range of opinions, there was an overall trend towards a relatively positive view of using public domain Twitter data as a resource for population level mental health monitoring, provided that results are appropriately aggregated. Results are divided into five sections: (1) a profile of respondents' Twitter use patterns and use variability; (2) users' privacy expectations, including expectations regarding data reach and permanence; (3) attitudes towards social media based population-level health monitoring in general, and attitudes towards mental health monitoring in particular; (4) attitudes towards individual versus population-level health monitoring; and (5) users' own recommendations for the appropriate regulation of population-level mental health monitoring. Focus group data reveal a wide range of attitudes towards the use of public

  18. Identification of shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipkarasulu, Yilmaz; Gill, James H

    2004-04-01

    The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse auctions for construction projects, the ethical issues involved in the bidding technique directly reflects on the owner's ethical and social responsibilities to their shareholders. The goal of this paper is to identify the shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects by analyzing the ethical issues for the parties involved in the process. The identification of the ethical issues and responsibilities requires clear definition and understanding of professional ethics and the roles of the involved parties. In this paper, first, the concept of professional ethics and social responsibility is described in a general form. To illustrate the ethical issues and responsibilities, a sample case of bidding for a construction project using online reverse auction techniques is presented in which the shareholders were actively involved in questioning the ethical issues. The issues involved in the bidding process and their reflection on the shareholder responsibilities are described and analyzed for each stage of the process. A brief discussion of the overall process is also included to address the general ethical issues involved in online reverse auctions.

  19. The One Plan Project: A cooperative effort of the National Response Team and the Region 6 Regional Response Team to simplify facility emergency response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staves, J.; McCormick, K.

    1997-01-01

    The National Response Team (NRT) in coordination with the Region 6 Response Team (RRT) have developed a facility contingency plan format which would integrate all existing regulatory requirements for contingency planning. This format was developed by a multi-agency team, chaired by the USEPA Region 6, in conjunction with various industry, labor, and public interest groups. The impetus for this project came through the USEPA Office of Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention (CEPPO). The current national oil and hazardous material emergency preparedness and response system is an amalgam of federal, state, local, and industrial programs which are often poorly coordinated. In a cooperative effort with the NRT, the CEPPO conducted a Presidential Review of federal agency authorities and coordination responsibilities regarding release prevention, mitigation, and response. Review recommendations led to a Pilot Project in USEPA Region 6. The Region 6 Pilot Project targeted end users in the intensely industrialized Houston Ship Channel (HSC) area, which is comprised of petroleum and petrochemical companies

  20. What is the most bothersome lower urinary tract symptom? Individual- and population-level perspectives for both men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Arnav; Eryuzlu, Leyla N; Cartwright, Rufus; Thorlund, Kristian; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Guyatt, Gordon H; Auvinen, Anssi; Tikkinen, Kari A O

    2014-06-01

    No study has compared the bothersomeness of all lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) using a population-based sample of adults. Despite this lack of evidence, investigators have often cited their LUTS of interest as the "most bothersome" or "one of the most bothersome." To compare the population- and individual-level burden of LUTS in men and women. In this population-based cross-sectional study, questionnaires were mailed to 6000 individuals (18-79 yr of age) randomly identified from the Finnish Population Register. The validated Danish Prostatic Symptom Score questionnaire was used for assessment of bother of 12 different LUTS. The age-standardized prevalence of at least moderate bother was calculated for each symptom (population-level burden). Among symptomatic individuals, the proportion of affected individuals with at least moderate bother was calculated for each symptom (individual-level bother). A total of 3727 individuals (62.4%) participated (53.7% female). The LUTS with the greatest population-level burden were urgency (7.9% with at least moderate bother), stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (6.5%), nocturia (6.0%), postmicturition dribble (5.8%), and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) (5.0%). Burden from incontinence symptoms was higher in women than men, and the opposite was true for voiding and postmicturition symptoms. At the individual level, UUI was the most bothersome for both genders. Although the response proportion was high, approximately a third did not participate. Both men and women with UUI report moderate or major bother more frequently than individuals with other LUTS. At the population level, the most prevalent bothersome symptoms are urgency, SUI, and nocturia. Urinary urgency was the most common troubling symptom in a large population-based study; however, for individuals, urgency incontinence was the most likely to be rated as bothersome. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. All rights reserved.

  1. Population-level interventions in government jurisdictions for dietary sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; Sumar, Nureen; Barberio, Amanda M; Trieu, Kathy; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Tarasuk, Valerie; Webster, Jacqui; Campbell, Norman Rc

    2016-09-16

    Excess dietary sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Currently, dietary sodium consumption in almost every country is too high. Excess sodium intake is associated with high blood pressure, which is common and costly and accounts for significant burden of disease. A large number of jurisdictions worldwide have implemented population-level dietary sodium reduction initiatives. No systematic review has examined the impact of these initiatives. • To assess the impact of population-level interventions for dietary sodium reduction in government jurisdictions worldwide.• To assess the differential impact of those initiatives by social and economic indicators. We searched the following electronic databases from their start date to 5 January 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register; MEDLINE; MEDLINE In Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; EMBASE; Effective Public Health Practice Project Database; Web of Science; Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) databases; and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). We also searched grey literature, other national sources and references of included studies.This review was conducted in parallel with a comprehensive review of national sodium reduction efforts under way worldwide (Trieu 2015), through which we gained additional information directly from country contacts.We imposed no restrictions on language or publication status. We included population-level initiatives (i.e. interventions that target whole populations, in this case, government jurisdictions, worldwide) for dietary sodium reduction, with at least one pre-intervention data point and at least one post-intervention data point of comparable jurisdiction. We included populations of all ages and the following types of study designs: cluster-randomised, controlled pre-post, interrupted time series

  2. Modelling population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Emilie [Laboratoire de modelisation pour l' expertise environnementale (LM2E) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Alonzo, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr [Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie des radionucleides (LECO) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent [Laboratoire de biogeochimie, biodisponibilite et transferts des radionucleides (L2BT) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline [Laboratoire de modelisation pour l' expertise environnementale (LM2E) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France)

    2012-07-01

    We modelled population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions. We used Leslie matrices to combine life-history characteristics (duration of life stages, survival and fecundity rates) and dose rate-response curves for hatching, survival and reproduction fitted on effect data from the FREDERICA database. Changes in net reproductive rate R{sub 0} (offspring per individual) and asymptotic population growth rate {lambda} (dimensionless) were calculated over a range of dose rates in two marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata and Ophryotrocha diadema) and a freshwater gastropod (Physa heterostropha). Sensitivities in R{sub 0} and {lambda} to changes in life-history traits were analysed in each species. Results showed that fecundity has the strongest influence on R{sub 0}. A delay in age at first reproduction is most critical for {lambda} independent of the species. Fast growing species were proportionally more sensitive to changes in individual endpoints than slow growing species. Reduction of 10% in population {lambda} were predicted at dose rates of 6918, 5012 and 74,131 {mu}Gy{center_dot}h{sup -1} in N. arenaceodentata, O. diadema and P. heterostropha respectively, resulting from a combination of strong effects on several individual endpoints in each species. These observations made 10%-reduction in {lambda} a poor criterion for population protection. The lowest significant changes in R{sub 0} and {lambda} were respectively predicted at a same dose rate of 1412 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in N. arenaceodentata, at 760 and 716 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in O. diadema and at 12,767 and 13,759 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in P. heterostropha. These values resulted from a combination of slight but significant changes in several measured endpoints and were lower than effective dose rates calculated for the individual level in O. diadema and P. heterostropha. The relevance of the experimental dataset (external irradiation rather

  3. Building the Evidence Base for Population-Level Interventions: Barriers and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifsey, Sarah; Cash, Amanda; Anthony, Jodi; Mathis, Sheryl; Silva, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Population-level interventions focused on policy, systems, and environmental change strategies are increasingly being used to affect and improve the health of populations. At the same time, emphasis on implementing evidence-based public health practices and programming is increasing, particularly at the federal level. Valuing strategies in the…

  4. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundModelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-a...

  5. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  6. Facultative anadromy in salmonids: linking habitat, individual life history decisions, and population-level consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and management of facultative anadromous salmonids is complicated by their ability to select anadromous or resident life histories. Conventional theory for this behavior assumes individuals select the strategy offering highest expected reproductive success but does not predict how population-level consequences such as a stream’s smolt production emerge from...

  7. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Chapelain

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  8. The costs, efects and cost-effetiveness of counteracting overweight on a population level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.; van Baal, P; Wendel-Vos, W.; Schuit, A.J.; Feskens, E.; Ament, A.; Hoogenveen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To gain insight in realistic policy targets for overweight at a population level and the accompanying costs. Therefore, the effect on overweight prevalence was estimated of large scale implementation of a community intervention (applied to 90% of general population) and an intensive

  9. Contributions of international cooperation projects to the HIV/AIDS response in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiangping; Liu, Hui; Li, Hui; Wang, Liqiu; Guo, Haoyan; Shan, Duo; Bulterys, Marc; Korhonen, Christine; Hao, Yang; Ren, Minghui

    2010-12-01

    For 20 years, China has participated in 267 international cooperation projects against the HIV/AIDS epidemic and received ∼526 million USD from over 40 international organizations. These projects have played an important role by complementing national efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS in China. The diverse characteristics of these projects followed three phases over 20 years. Initially, stand-alone projects provided technical support in surveillance, training or advocacy for public awareness. As the epidemic spread across China, projects became a part of the comprehensive and integrated national response. Currently, international best practices encourage the inclusion of civil society and non-governmental organizations in an expanded response to the epidemic. Funding from international projects has accounted for one-third of the resources provided for the HIV/AIDS response in China. Beyond this strong financial support, these programmes have introduced best practices, accelerated the introduction of AIDS policies, strengthened capacity, improved the development of grassroots social organizations and established a platform for communication and experience sharing with the international community. However, there are still challenges ahead, including integrating existing resources and exploring new programme models. The National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) in China is consolidating all international projects into national HIV prevention, treatment and care activities. International cooperation projects have been an invaluable component of China's response to HIV/AIDS, and China has now been able to take this information and share its experiences with other countries with the help of these same international programmes.

  10. Introducing Social Responsibility in Local Government Bodies and the Golden Thread Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Miklavc

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social responsibility in connection with the field of human resource management affects both economic and social relations and also the ways the problems that arise in local and broader communities are addressed. Socially responsible behaviour, which is also promoted by the European Union, can bring a competitive advantage to organisations in various branches of economy, while in the public sector it ensures effective and high-quality services for citizens, and, consequently, a reduction of costs for the state. The article presents the Golden Thread project (“Zlata nit” – a media-supported nationwide research project designed to find Slovenia‘s best employers. The project, or rather the model developed, focuses on the quality of the relationship between organisation and employees. The model follows the guidelines of modern approaches in the field of employment and human resource management and can be applied both to business organisations and to the non-business sphere. Since the project is both a research project and a media campaign, one of its aims is the promotion of those organisations that are identified as an example of a good (or best employer in Slovenia from the point of view of human resource management and social responsibility. The article also considers the possibility of transferring the project to the public administration and, in particular, to the field of local government.

  11. Teaching social responsibility: the Manhattan project. Commentary on "The Six Domains of Research".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Penny J; DuBois, Michael

    2002-04-01

    This paper discusses the critical necessity of teaching students about the social and ethical responsibilities of scientists. Both a university scientist and a middle school science teacher reflect on the value of teaching the ethical issues that confront scientists. In the development of the atomic bomb in the US-led Manhattan Project, scientists faced the growing threat of atomic bombs by the Germans and Japanese and the ethical issues involved in successfully completing such a destructive weapon. The Manhattan Project is a prime example of the types of ethical dilemmas and social responsibilities that scientists may confront.

  12. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase 1. Project V. Structural sub-system response: subsystem response review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelquist, J.; Kaul, M.K.; Koppe, R.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Thailer, H.; Uffer, R.

    1980-03-01

    This project is directed toward a portion of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program which includes one link in the seismic methodology chain. The link addressed here is the structural subsystem dynamic response which consists of those components and systems whose behavior is often determined decoupled from the major structural response. Typically the mathematical model utilized for the major structural response will include only the mass effects of the subsystem and the main model is used to produce the support motion inputs for subsystem seismic qualification. The main questions addressed in this report have to do with the seismic response uncertainty of safety-related components or equipment whose seismic qualification is performed by (a) analysis, (b) tests, or (c) combinations of analysis and tests, and where the seismic input is assumed to have no uncertainty

  13. Choice of baseline climate data impacts projected species' responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David J; Hartley, Andrew J; Butchart, Stuart H M; Willis, Stephen G

    2016-07-01

    Climate data created from historic climate observations are integral to most assessments of potential climate change impacts, and frequently comprise the baseline period used to infer species-climate relationships. They are often also central to downscaling coarse resolution climate simulations from General Circulation Models (GCMs) to project future climate scenarios at ecologically relevant spatial scales. Uncertainty in these baseline data can be large, particularly where weather observations are sparse and climate dynamics are complex (e.g. over mountainous or coastal regions). Yet, importantly, this uncertainty is almost universally overlooked when assessing potential responses of species to climate change. Here, we assessed the importance of historic baseline climate uncertainty for projections of species' responses to future climate change. We built species distribution models (SDMs) for 895 African bird species of conservation concern, using six different climate baselines. We projected these models to two future periods (2040-2069, 2070-2099), using downscaled climate projections, and calculated species turnover and changes in species-specific climate suitability. We found that the choice of baseline climate data constituted an important source of uncertainty in projections of both species turnover and species-specific climate suitability, often comparable with, or more important than, uncertainty arising from the choice of GCM. Importantly, the relative contribution of these factors to projection uncertainty varied spatially. Moreover, when projecting SDMs to sites of biodiversity importance (Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas), these uncertainties altered site-level impacts, which could affect conservation prioritization. Our results highlight that projections of species' responses to climate change are sensitive to uncertainty in the baseline climatology. We recommend that this should be considered routinely in such analyses. © 2016 John Wiley

  14. A critical discussion of the benefits of e-health in population-level dental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Population-level research is an essential area of health with the potential to affect quality of life and the broader economy. There are excellent epidemiological studies that have improved health services, but traditional research requires a considerable investment. Although electronic technology has changed the practice of many industries with improved efficiency, its application to health is relatively new. Termed 'e-health', this emerging area has been defined by the World Health Organization as the use of information technology to support many aspects of health such as in administration and scientific information. However, not all professionals are convinced of its use. This paper presents a novel application of this emerging area to describe the benefit in data collation and research to support one of the most pressing issues in public health: oral health and policy. Using the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme as an example, a critical discussion of its benefit to population-level research is presented. The Chronic Disease Dental Scheme method of electronic administration has been shown to enhance research and to complement existing progress in health data linkage. e-Health is an invaluable tool for population-level dental research.

  15. Public health response to radiation emergencies and the role of the Helsinki Project Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, Keith F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the public health element of nuclear emergency preparedness, defined as the mitigation of the long-term effects of radiation on exposed populations, as opposed to dealing with the health consequences of an exposure in an individual (termed medical aspects). The paper also approaches to the role of the Helsinki Project Office which is concerned with the protection of public health through effective response to nuclear emergencies, and falling into two categories, namely contingency planning or preparedness, and response

  16. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities

  17. A Bayesian random effects discrete-choice model for resource selection: Population-level selection inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.L.; Johnson, D.; Griffith, B.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling the probability of use of land units characterized by discrete and continuous measures, we present a Bayesian random-effects model to assess resource selection. This model provides simultaneous estimation of both individual- and population-level selection. Deviance information criterion (DIC), a Bayesian alternative to AIC that is sample-size specific, is used for model selection. Aerial radiolocation data from 76 adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and calf pairs during 1 year on an Arctic coastal plain calving ground were used to illustrate models and assess population-level selection of landscape attributes, as well as individual heterogeneity of selection. Landscape attributes included elevation, NDVI (a measure of forage greenness), and land cover-type classification. Results from the first of a 2-stage model-selection procedure indicated that there is substantial heterogeneity among cow-calf pairs with respect to selection of the landscape attributes. In the second stage, selection of models with heterogeneity included indicated that at the population-level, NDVI and land cover class were significant attributes for selection of different landscapes by pairs on the calving ground. Population-level selection coefficients indicate that the pairs generally select landscapes with higher levels of NDVI, but the relationship is quadratic. The highest rate of selection occurs at values of NDVI less than the maximum observed. Results for land cover-class selections coefficients indicate that wet sedge, moist sedge, herbaceous tussock tundra, and shrub tussock tundra are selected at approximately the same rate, while alpine and sparsely vegetated landscapes are selected at a lower rate. Furthermore, the variability in selection by individual caribou for moist sedge and sparsely vegetated landscapes is large relative to the variability in selection of other land cover types. The example analysis illustrates that, while sometimes computationally intense, a

  18. Response to "The Shaky Legal Foundations of the Global Human Rights Education Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Felisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is a response to "The Shaky Legal Foundations of the Global Human Rights Education Project," an article written by Barend Vlaardingerbroek, in which Vlaardingerbroek characterizes current practices of human rights education (HRE) as having an overriding agenda of activism, one that can draw on an ideologically-driven…

  19. Inclusive innovation: a research project on the inclusion of social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Fisscher, O.A.M.; de Bakker, F.G.A.

    2001-01-01

    The research project 'Inclusive Innovation' aims at stimulating dialogue about inclusion of social responsibility based on universal human rights in the conduct of business. This dialogue concerns both the communication within the organisation and between the organisation and interested parties in

  20. The paradigm of consumer-driven and responsive supply chains: An integrated project approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, K.L.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated project approach that forms the basis of the studies on consumer-driven innovative and responsive supply chains in ISAFRUIT Pillar 1. This integrated approach leads to a wide range of indepth results on trends, preferences, and innovativeness of the European

  1. Yield Responses of Black Spruce to Forest Vegetation Management Treatments: Initial Responses and Rotational Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 quantitatively summarize the early yield responses of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. to forest vegetation management (FVM treatments through a meta-analytical review of the scientific literature, and (2 given (1, estimate the rotational consequences of these responses through model simulation. Based on a fixed-effects meta-analytic approach using 44 treated-control yield pairs derived from 12 experiments situated throughout the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence and Canadian Boreal Forest Regions, the resultant mean effect size (response ratio and associated 95% confidence interval for basal diameter, total height, stem volume, and survival responses, were respectively: 54.7% (95% confidence limits (lower/upper: 34.8/77.6, 27.3% (15.7/40.0, 198.7% (70.3/423.5, and 2.9% (−5.5/11.8. The results also indicated that early and repeated treatments will yield the largest gains in terms of mean tree size and survival. Rotational simulations indicated that FVM treatments resulted in gains in stand-level operability (e.g., reductions of 9 and 5 yr for plantations established on poor-medium and good-excellent site qualities, resp.. The challenge of maintaining coniferous forest cover on recently disturbed sites, attaining statutory-defined free-to-grow status, and ensuring long-term productivity, suggest that FVM will continue to be an essential silvicultural treatment option when managing black spruce plantations.

  2. Scaling the consequences of interactions between invaders from the individual to the population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Blaine D

    2016-03-01

    The impact of human-induced stressors, such as invasive species, is often measured at the organismal level, but is much less commonly scaled up to the population level. Interactions with invasive species represent an increasingly common source of stressor in many habitats. However, due to the increasing abundance of invasive species around the globe, invasive species now commonly cause stresses not only for native species in invaded areas, but also for other invasive species. I examine the European green crab Carcinus maenas, an invasive species along the northeast coast of North America, which is known to be negatively impacted in this invaded region by interactions with the invasive Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus. Asian shore crabs are known to negatively impact green crabs via two mechanisms: by directly preying on green crab juveniles and by indirectly reducing green crab fecundity via interference (and potentially exploitative) competition that alters green crab diets. I used life-table analyses to scale these two mechanistic stressors up to the population level in order to examine their relative impacts on green crab populations. I demonstrate that lost fecundity has larger impacts on per capita population growth rates, but that both predation and lost fecundity are capable of reducing population growth sufficiently to produce the declines in green crab populations that have been observed in areas where these two species overlap. By scaling up the impacts of one invader on a second invader, I have demonstrated that multiple documented interactions between these species are capable of having population-level impacts and that both may be contributing to the decline of European green crabs in their invaded range on the east coast of North America.

  3. Achieving population-level violence declines: implications of the international crime drop for prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Manuel; Nivette, Amy; Murray, Aja Louise; Krisch, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations for the period 2016-2030 aim to achieve a substantial reduction of interpersonal violence. An increasing body of evidence of what works, emerging from randomized controlled trials, can inform public health policy decisions. However, there is very limited evidence on the kinds of mechanisms that lead to sustained declines in interpersonal violence at the population level. We discuss the implications of what is known about recent major declines in violence to guide violence-reduction policies.

  4. Project T100 -- Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center (HAMMER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) is to provide a system of Quality Assurance reviews and verifications on the design and construction of the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center, project 95L-EWT-100 at Hanford. The reviews and verifications will be on activities associated with design, procurement, and construction of the HAMMER project which includes, but is not limited to earthwork, placement of concrete, laying of rail, drilling of wells, water and sewer line fabrication and installation, communications systems, fire protection/detection systems, line tie-ins, building and mock-up (prop) construction, electrical, instrumentation, pump and valves and special coatings

  5. Mobile Phone Surveys for Collecting Population-Level Estimates in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dustin G; Pereira, Amanda; Farrenkopf, Brooke A; Labrique, Alain B; Pariyo, George W; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    National and subnational level surveys are important for monitoring disease burden, prioritizing resource allocation, and evaluating public health policies. As mobile phone access and ownership become more common globally, mobile phone surveys (MPSs) offer an opportunity to supplement traditional public health household surveys. The objective of this study was to systematically review the current landscape of MPSs to collect population-level estimates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Primary and gray literature from 7 online databases were systematically searched for studies that deployed MPSs to collect population-level estimates. Titles and abstracts were screened on primary inclusion and exclusion criteria by two research assistants. Articles that met primary screening requirements were read in full and screened for secondary eligibility criteria. Articles included in review were grouped into the following three categories by their survey modality: (1) interactive voice response (IVR), (2) short message service (SMS), and (3) human operator or computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Data were abstracted by two research assistants. The conduct and reporting of the review conformed to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 6625 articles were identified through the literature review. Overall, 11 articles were identified that contained 19 MPS (CATI, IVR, or SMS) surveys to collect population-level estimates across a range of topics. MPSs were used in Latin America (n=8), the Middle East (n=1), South Asia (n=2), and sub-Saharan Africa (n=8). Nine articles presented results for 10 CATI surveys (10/19, 53%). Two articles discussed the findings of 6 IVR surveys (6/19, 32%). Three SMS surveys were identified from 2 articles (3/19, 16%). Approximately 63% (12/19) of MPS were delivered to mobile phone numbers collected from previously administered household surveys. The majority of MPS (11

  6. From individual to population level effects of toxicants in the tubicifid Branchiura sowerbyi using threshold effect models in a Bayesian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Billoir, Elise; Péry, Alexandre R R; Garric, Jeanne; Charles, Sandrine

    2010-05-01

    Effects of zinc were studied in the freshwater worm Branchiura sowerbyi using partial and full life-cycle tests. Only newborn and juveniles were sensitive to zinc, displaying effects on survival, growth, and age at first brood at environmentally relevant concentrations. Threshold effect models were proposed to assess toxic effects on individuals. They were fitted to life-cycle test data using Bayesian inference and adequately described life-history trait data in exposed organisms. The daily asymptotic growth rate of theoretical populations was then simulated with a matrix population model, based upon individual-level outputs. Population-level outputs were in accordance with existing literature for controls. Working in a Bayesian framework allowed incorporating parameter uncertainty in the simulation of the population-level response to zinc exposure, thus increasing the relevance of test results in the context of ecological risk assessment.

  7. A Population-Level Data Analytics Portal for Self-Administered Lifestyle and Mental Health Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xindi; Warren, Jim; Corter, Arden; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes development of a prototype data analytics portal for analysis of accumulated screening results from eCHAT (electronic Case-finding and Help Assessment Tool). eCHAT allows individuals to conduct a self-administered lifestyle and mental health screening assessment, with usage to date chiefly in the context of primary care waiting rooms. The intention is for wide roll-out to primary care clinics, including secondary school based clinics, resulting in the accumulation of population-level data. Data from a field trial of eCHAT with sexual health questions tailored to youth were used to support design of a data analytics portal for population-level data. The design process included user personas and scenarios, screen prototyping and a simulator for generating large-scale data sets. The prototype demonstrates the promise of wide-scale self-administered screening data to support a range of users including practice managers, clinical directors and health policy analysts.

  8. Individual and population level effects of partner notification for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L Althaus

    Full Text Available Partner notification (PN or contact tracing is an important aspect of treating bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. It facilitates the identification of new infected cases that can be treated through individual case management. PN also acts indirectly by limiting onward transmission in the general population. However, the impact of PN, both at the level of individuals and the population, remains unclear. Since it is difficult to study the effects of PN empirically, mathematical and computational models are useful tools for investigating its potential as a public health intervention. To this end, we developed an individual-based modeling framework called Rstisim. It allows the implementation of different models of STI transmission with various levels of complexity and the reconstruction of the complete dynamic sexual partnership network over any time period. A key feature of this framework is that we can trace an individual's partnership history in detail and investigate the outcome of different PN strategies for C. trachomatis. For individual case management, the results suggest that notifying three or more partners from the preceding 18 months yields substantial numbers of new cases. In contrast, the successful treatment of current partners is most important for preventing re-infection of index cases and reducing further transmission of C. trachomatis at the population level. The findings of this study demonstrate the difference between individual and population level outcomes of public health interventions for STIs.

  9. Population-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Fred; Tyner, Elizabeth; Lorenc, Theo; Petticrew, Mark; Lock, Karen

    2013-10-01

    To analyse available review-level evidence on the effectiveness of population-level interventions in non-clinical settings to reduce alcohol consumption or related health or social harm. Health, social policy and specialist review databases between 2002 and 2012 were searched for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of population-level alcohol interventions on consumption or alcohol-related health or social outcomes. Data were extracted on review research aim, inclusion criteria, outcome indicators, results, conclusions and limitations. Reviews were quality-assessed using AMSTAR criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted overall and by policy area. Fifty-two reviews were included from ten policy areas. There is good evidence for policies and interventions to limit alcohol sale availability, to reduce drink-driving, to increase alcohol price or taxation. There is mixed evidence for family- and community-level interventions, school-based interventions, and interventions in the alcohol server setting and the mass media. There is weak evidence for workplace interventions and for interventions targeting illicit alcohol sales. There is evidence of the ineffectiveness of interventions in higher education settings. There is a pattern of support from the evidence base for regulatory or statutory enforcement interventions over local non-regulatory approaches targeting specific population groups. © 2013.

  10. Mass media as a population-level intervention tool for Chlamydia trachomatis screening: report of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, M Kim; Grimley, Diane M; Merchant, Jeanne S; Brown, Pernell R; Cecil, Heather; Hook, Edward W

    2002-07-01

    To determine the feasibility and affect of mass media use in a population-level intervention for chlamydia screening promotion. A population-level chlamydia intervention protocol was field tested. The intervention, targeting 15-25-year-old individuals, was designed to: (a) increase awareness of personal risk for chlamydial infection; (b) facilitate dissemination of chlamydia knowledge by use of a telephone hot line; and (c) promote care-seeking behavior (report for a chlamydia screening program). The intervention activities included: (a) mail outreach, (b) a television and radio campaign, (c) a prerecorded Check-It-Out chlamydia hot line, (d) a staffed chlamydia Options information line, and (e) a free confidential urine ligase chain reaction (LCR) test for chlamydia. Mass mailings were scheduled at intervals, starting two-weeks before the beginning of the television advertisement. The 30-second television advertisement was aired on local television stations 130 times in a 6-week period. The outcome measures were quantity and characteristics of incoming calls to the automated hot line and staffed chlamydia information phone line in response to the chlamydia campaign, and response to the urine screening program. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to evaluate the outcomes. The hot line was called 642 times during the monitoring period (November 1, 1999 to March 8, 2000), the majority (92%) during the 6 weeks of television advertisement, with an average of 99 calls per week, compared with an average of 9 calls per week after the commercial ended. Each bulk mailing was accompanied by a boost in the incoming hot line calls. The research staff triaged 133 calls to the "Options" phone line, 81% in the 6 weeks of the TV ad. The mean age of the 133 callers was 23.9 +/- 7.7 years (range 14-49 years). A majority called for screening information; 67% of callers were females and 84% of female callers were under age 26 years. Five percent of callers identified

  11. Towards revitalization of the world economy: Japan responsible for four projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaku, A

    1983-05-10

    A progress report by the Working Group on Technology, Growth, and Employment not only stresses the importance of science and technology, but analyzes their employment, cultural, and other effects. Japan's responsibility in four areas covers safety research on light water reactors, photovoltaic energy for direct conversion into electricity, the use of photosynthesis processes to produce energy, and the introduction of advanced robotics. Japan's goal is to support international cooperation in these and the remaining 18 projects. 2 tables. (DCK)

  12. Patient- and population-level health consequences of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy in settings with inadequate HIV treatment availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmel April D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings, HIV budgets are flattening or decreasing. A policy of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy (ART after HIV treatment failure was modeled to highlight trade-offs among competing policy goals of optimizing individual and population health outcomes. Methods In settings with two available ART regimens, we assessed two strategies: (1 continue ART after second-line failure (Status Quo and (2 discontinue ART after second-line failure (Alternative. A computer model simulated outcomes for a single cohort of newly detected, HIV-infected individuals. Projections were fed into a population-level model allowing multiple cohorts to compete for ART with constraints on treatment capacity. In the Alternative strategy, discontinuation of second-line ART occurred upon detection of antiretroviral failure, specified by WHO guidelines. Those discontinuing failed ART experienced an increased risk of AIDS-related mortality compared to those continuing ART. Results At the population level, the Alternative strategy increased the mean number initiating ART annually by 1,100 individuals (+18.7% to 6,980 compared to the Status Quo. More individuals initiating ART under the Alternative strategy increased total life-years by 15,000 (+2.8% to 555,000, compared to the Status Quo. Although more individuals received treatment under the Alternative strategy, life expectancy for those treated decreased by 0.7 years (−8.0% to 8.1 years compared to the Status Quo. In a cohort of treated patients only, 600 more individuals (+27.1% died by 5 years under the Alternative strategy compared to the Status Quo. Results were sensitive to the timing of detection of ART failure, number of ART regimens, and treatment capacity. Although we believe the results robust in the short-term, this analysis reflects settings where HIV case detection occurs late in the disease course and treatment capacity and the incidence of newly detected patients are

  13. Population-level associations between preschool vulnerability and grade-four basic skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo D'Angiulli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a predictive validity study examining the extent to which developmental vulnerability at kindergarten entry (as measured by the Early Development Instrument, EDI is associated with children's basic skills in 4th grade (as measured by the Foundation Skills Assessment, FSA.Relative risk analysis was performed on a large database linking individual-level EDI ratings to the scores the same children obtained on a provincial assessment of academic skills (FSA--Foundation Skills Assessment four years later. We found that early vulnerability in kindergarten is associated with the basic skills that underlie populations of children's academic achievement in reading, writing and math, indicating that the Early Development Instrument permits to predict achievement-related skills four years in advance.The EDI can be used to predict children's educational trends at the population level and can help select early prevention and intervention programs targeting pre-school populations at minimum cost.

  14. Achieving Population-Level Change Through a System-Contextual Approach to Supporting Competent Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Burke, Kylie; Prinz, Ronald J; Morawska, Alina

    2017-03-01

    The quality of parenting children receive affects a diverse range of child and youth outcomes. Addressing the quality of parenting on a broad scale is a critical part of producing a more nurturing society. To achieve a meaningful population-level reduction in the prevalence rates of child maltreatment and social and emotional problems that are directly or indirectly influenced by parenting practices requires the adoption of a broad ecological perspective in supporting families to raise children. We make the case for adopting a multilevel, whole of population approach to enhance competent parenting and describe the essential tasks that must be accomplished for the approach to be successful and its effects measurable. We describe how a theoretically integrated system of parenting support based on social learning and cognitive behavioral principles can be further strengthened when the broader community supports parental participation. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  15. Population-level interventions in government jurisdictions for dietary sodium reduction: a Cochrane Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Amanda M; Sumar, Nureen; Trieu, Kathy; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Tarasuk, Valerie; Webster, Jacqui; Campbell, Norman R C; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-10-01

    Worldwide, excessive salt consumption is common and is a leading cause of high blood pressure. Our objectives were to assess the overall and differential impact (by social and economic indicators) of population-level interventions for dietary sodium reduction in government jurisdictions worldwide. This is a Cochrane systematic review. We searched nine peer-reviewed databases, seven grey literature resources and contacted national programme leaders. We appraised studies using an adapted version of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. To assess impact, we computed the mean change in salt intake (g/day) from before to after intervention. Fifteen initiatives met the inclusion criteria and 10 provided sufficient data for quantitative analysis of impact. Of these, five showed a mean decrease in salt intake from before to after intervention including: China, Finland (Kuopio area), France, Ireland and the UK. When the sample was constrained to the seven initiatives that were multicomponent and incorporated activities of a structural nature (e.g. procurement policy), most (4/7) showed a mean decrease in salt intake. A reduction in salt intake was more apparent among men than women. There was insufficient information to assess differential impact by other social and economic axes. Although many initiatives had methodological strengths, all scored as having a high risk of bias reflecting the observational design. Study heterogeneity was high, reflecting different contexts and initiative characteristics. Population-level dietary sodium reduction initiatives have the potential to reduce dietary salt intake, especially if they are multicomponent and incorporate intervention activities of a structural nature. It is important to consider data infrastructure to permit monitoring of these initiatives. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  16. Population-level impact of active tuberculosis case finding in an Asian megacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Dowdy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential population-level impact of private-sector initiatives for tuberculosis (TB case finding in Southeast Asia remains uncertain. In 2011, the Indus Hospital TB Control Program in Karachi, Pakistan, undertook an aggressive case-finding campaign that doubled notification rates, providing an opportunity to investigate potential population-level effects. METHODS: We constructed an age-structured compartmental model of TB in the intervention area. We fit the model using field and literature data, assuming that TB incidence equaled the estimated nationwide incidence in Pakistan (primary analysis, or 1.5 times greater (high-incidence scenario. We modeled the intervention as an increase in the rate of formal-sector TB diagnosis and evaluated the potential impact of sustaining this rate for five years. RESULTS: In the primary analysis, the five-year intervention averted 24% (95% uncertainty range, UR: 18-30% of five-year cumulative TB cases and 52% (95% UR: 45-57% of cumulative TB deaths. Corresponding reductions in the high-incidence scenario were 12% (95% UR: 8-17% and 27% (95% UR: 21-34%, although the absolute number of lives saved was higher. At the end of five years, TB notification rates in the primary analysis were below their 2010 baseline, incidence had dropped by 45%, and annual mortality had fallen by 72%. About half of the cumulative impact on incidence and mortality could be achieved with a one-year intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained, multifaceted, and innovative approaches to TB case-finding in Asian megacities can have substantial community-wide epidemiological impact.

  17. Inferring individual-level processes from population-level patterns in cultural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Our species is characterized by a great degree of cultural variation, both within and between populations. Understanding how group-level patterns of culture emerge from individual-level behaviour is a long-standing question in the biological and social sciences. We develop a simulation model capturing demographic and cultural dynamics relevant to human cultural evolution, focusing on the interface between population-level patterns and individual-level processes. The model tracks the distribution of variants of cultural traits across individuals in a population over time, conditioned on different pathways for the transmission of information between individuals. From these data, we obtain theoretical expectations for a range of statistics commonly used to capture population-level characteristics (e.g. the degree of cultural diversity). Consistent with previous theoretical work, our results show that the patterns observed at the level of groups are rooted in the interplay between the transmission pathways and the age structure of the population. We also explore whether, and under what conditions, the different pathways can be distinguished based on their group-level signatures, in an effort to establish theoretical limits to inference. Our results show that the temporal dynamic of cultural change over time retains a stronger signature than the cultural composition of the population at a specific point in time. Overall, the results suggest a shift in focus from identifying the one individual-level process that likely produced the observed data to excluding those that likely did not. We conclude by discussing the implications for empirical studies of human cultural evolution. PMID:28989786

  18. Inferring individual-level processes from population-level patterns in cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Wilder, Bryan; Fortunato, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Our species is characterized by a great degree of cultural variation, both within and between populations. Understanding how group-level patterns of culture emerge from individual-level behaviour is a long-standing question in the biological and social sciences. We develop a simulation model capturing demographic and cultural dynamics relevant to human cultural evolution, focusing on the interface between population-level patterns and individual-level processes. The model tracks the distribution of variants of cultural traits across individuals in a population over time, conditioned on different pathways for the transmission of information between individuals. From these data, we obtain theoretical expectations for a range of statistics commonly used to capture population-level characteristics (e.g. the degree of cultural diversity). Consistent with previous theoretical work, our results show that the patterns observed at the level of groups are rooted in the interplay between the transmission pathways and the age structure of the population. We also explore whether, and under what conditions, the different pathways can be distinguished based on their group-level signatures, in an effort to establish theoretical limits to inference. Our results show that the temporal dynamic of cultural change over time retains a stronger signature than the cultural composition of the population at a specific point in time. Overall, the results suggest a shift in focus from identifying the one individual-level process that likely produced the observed data to excluding those that likely did not. We conclude by discussing the implications for empirical studies of human cultural evolution.

  19. Preconception healthcare delivery at a population level: construction of public health models of preconception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Alberg, Corinna; Nacul, Luis; Pashayan, Nora

    2014-08-01

    A key challenge of preconception healthcare is identifying how it can best be delivered at a population level. To review current strategies of preconception healthcare, explore methods of preconception healthcare delivery, and develop public health models which reflect different preconception healthcare pathways. Preconception care strategies, programmes and evaluations were identified through a review of Medline and Embase databases. Search terms included: preconception, pre-pregnancy, intervention, primary care, healthcare, model, delivery, program, prevention, trial, effectiveness, congenital disorders OR abnormalities, evaluation, assessment, impact. Inclusion criteria for review articles were: (1) English, (2) human subjects, (3) women of childbearing age, (4) 1980–current data, (5) all countries, (6) both high risk and universal approaches, (7) guidelines or recommendations, (8) opinion articles, (9) experimental studies. Exclusion criteria were: (1) non-human subjects, (2) non-English, (3) outside of the specified timeframe, (4) articles on male healthcare. The results of the literature review were synthesised into public health models of care: (1) primary care; (2) hospital-based and inter-conception care; (3) specific preconception care clinics; and, (4) community outreach. Fifteen evaluations of preconception care were identified. Community programmes demonstrated a significant impact on substance use, folic acid supplementation, diabetes optimization, and hyperphenylalaninemia. An ideal preconception visits entail risk screening, education, and intervention if indicated. Subsequently, four public health models were developed synthesizing preconception care delivery at a population level. Heterogeneity of risk factors, health systems and strategies of care reflect the lack of consensus about the best way to deliver preconception care. The proposed models aim to reflect differing aspects of preconception healthcare delivery.

  20. Population-level impacts of pesticide-induced chronic effects on individuals depend more on ecology than toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalkvist, Trine; Topping, Christopher John; Forbes, Valery, E.

    2009-01-01

    at the population-level. Here we demonstrate how, using ABM modelling, assessments at the population-level can be obtained even for a pesticide with complex long-term effects such as epigenetic transmission of reproductive depression. By objectively fitting nonlinear models to the simulation outputs it was possible...... to compare population depression and recovery rates for a range of scenarios in which toxicity and exposure factors were varied. The system was differentially sensitive to the various factors, but vole ecology and behaviour were at least as important predictors of population-level effects as toxicology...

  1. The Equator Principles, Project Finance and the Challenge of Social and Environmental Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Equator Principles, launched in 2003 and revamped in 2006, are a set of voluntary principles designed to help private lenders make socially and environmentally responsible project financing decisions. This paper explores the impact of these principles on the disclosures of two signatory banks, focusing on type of information disclosures that have resulted and the substance of these disclosures. The work considers whether it is  possible to ascertain from publicly available information how the practices of the banks may have changed in order to focus on their stated social and environmental responsibilities. It is concluded that although the Equator Principles have marked the beginning of the banking sectors acknowledgement of their role in social and environmental responsibility, at this stage insufficient information is being disclosed to determine the impact these principles are having on actual banking practices.

  2. Community response to large-scale federal projects: the case of the MX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of community response to large-scale defense projects, such as the proposals to site MX missiles in Utah and Nevada, is one way to identify those factors likely to be important in determining community response to nuclear waste repository siting. This chapter gives a brief overview of the MX system's characteristics and the potential impacts it would have had on the rural areas, describes the patterns of community mobilization that occurred in Utah and Nevada, and suggests where this response may parallel community concerns about a repository siting. Three lessons from the MX experience are that local residents, asked to assume a disproportionate share of the negative impacts, should be involved in the siting process, that local residents should be treated as equal, and that compensation should be offered when local residents suffer from political expediency

  3. SWFSC/MMTD/AK: Structure of Populations, Level of Abundance, and Status of Humpbacks (SPLASH) 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project was part of a larger international project (SPLASH) designed to estimate the abundance and determine the population structure for humpback whales...

  4. Selective toxin effects on faster and slower growing individuals in the formation of hormesis at the population level - A case study with Lactuca sativa and PCIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-10-01

    Natural plant populations have large phenotypic plasticity that enhances acclimation to local stress factors such as toxin exposures. While consequences of high toxin exposures are well addressed, effects of low-dose toxin exposures on plant populations are seldom investigated. In particular, the importance of 'selective low-dose toxicity' and hormesis, i.e. stimulatory effects, has not been studied simultaneously. Since selective toxicity can change the size distribution of populations, we assumed that hormesis alters the size distribution at the population level, and investigated whether and how these two low-dose phenomena coexist. The study was conducted with Lactuca sativa L. exposed to the auxin-inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB) in vitro. In two separate experiments, L. sativa was exposed to 12 PCIB doses in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate). Shoot/root growth responses at the population level were compared to the fast-growing (≥90% percentile) and the slow-growing subpopulations (≤10% percentile) by Mann-Whitney U testing and dose-response modelling. In the formation of pronounced PCIB hormesis at the population level, low-dose effects proved selective, but widely stimulatory which seems to counteract low-dose selective toxicity. The selectivity of hormesis was dose- and growth rate-dependent. Stimulation occurred at lower concentrations and stimulation percentage was higher among slow-growing individuals, but partly or entirely masked at the population level by moderate or negligible stimulation among the faster growing individuals. We conclude that the hormetic effect up to the maximum stimulation may be primarily facilitated by an increase in size of the most slow-growing individuals, while thereafter it seems that mainly the fast-growing individuals contributed to the observed hormesis at the population level. As size distribution within a population is related to survival, our study hints that selective effects on slow

  5. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  6. Use of Social Networking Sites and Risk of Cyberbullying Victimization: A Population-Level Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained considerable popularity among youth in recent years; however, there is a noticeable paucity of research examining the association between the use of these web-based platforms and cyberbullying victimization at the population level. This study examines the association between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization using a large-scale survey of Canadian middle and high school students. Data on 5,329 students aged 11-20 years were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization while adjusting for covariates. Overall, 19 percent of adolescents were cyberbullied in the past 12 months. Adolescents who were female, younger, of lower socioeconomic status, and who used alcohol or tobacco were at greater odds of being cyberbullied. The use of SNSs was associated with an increased risk of cyberbullying victimization in a dose-response manner (p-trend <0.001). Gender was not a significant moderator of the association between use of SNSs and being cyberbullied. Results from this study underscore the need for raising awareness and educating adolescents on effective strategies to prevent cyberbullying victimization.

  7. Project management plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the Hanford Site will involve the handling and cleanup of toxic substances. Thousands of workers involved in these new activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and associated risks. This project is an important part of the Hanford Site mission and will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet high standards for safety. The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center (HAMMER) project will construct a centralized regional training center dedicated to training hazardous materials workers and emergency responders in classrooms and with hands-on, realistic training aids representing actual field conditions. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a cost-effective, high-quality way to meet the Hanford Site training needs. The training center creates a partnership among DOE; government contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and selected institutions of higher education

  8. Alaska GRIN project : development of geospatial data management interface for oil spill and emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, S. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States); Robertson, T.L. [Nuka Research and Planning Group LLC, Seldovia, AK (United States); DeCola, E. [Nuka Research and Planning Group LLC, Plymouth, MA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A geographic response network (GRIN) project was conducted in 2005 to develop a computer-based tool for organizing maps and data related to oil spill and emergency response logistics and community resources. Originally conceived as an html-based website where information was organized based on incident command system divisions of responsibility, open source mapping applications are also being added to crate an interactive map interface with geospatially referenced information. GRIN information is organized by community. A locator map is embedded in the lower right-hand corner of each map. GRIN includes categories of information related to emergency management, air logistics, law enforcement, marine logistics, and shore-side logistics. A project is now being conducted by the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council to convert the html-based GRIN into a geospatial data management tool. A prototype has now been populated with data for several Cook Inlet communities. GRIN can also be accessed on only computer with an Internet browser. It was concluded that the use of open source programming will make GRIN an easy tool for planners and emergency responders. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Subseabed Disposal Project chemical response studies. Annual report, October 1982-September 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, L.H.

    1985-10-01

    Studies of the chemical response of deep-sea sediments to a subseabed repository for high-level radioactive waste continued during Fiscal Year 1983. Chemical Response Studies comprise Waste Package, Near-Field, and Far-Field Studies. This year, as in the past, investigators in the US Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) carried out most of these chemical response experiments with red clay from the MPG 1 study location 1500 km north of Hawaii. The results of all studies carried out to date imply that oxidized red clay would form a highly effective barrier to radionuclides that form cationic species, but that anionic radionuclides would begin to escape from the sediment to the overlying water column on the order of thousands of years after emplacement. In Fiscal Year 1984, investigators in the US SDP will initiate chemical response studies with mildly reduced Atlantic clay- and carbonate-rich sediments in cooperation with the Sediment Barrier Task Group of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - Nuclear Energy Agency Coordinated Program on the Assessment of the Subseabed Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Seabed Working Group). The objective of these US studies will be to quantify the chemical response of Atlantic sediments to a subseabed repository with a level of confidence similar to that for Pacific red clay

  10. A Canonical Response in Rainfall Characteristics to Global Warming: Projections by IPCC CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in rainfall characteristics induced by global warming are examined based on probability distribution function (PDF) analysis, from outputs of 14 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), CMIP (5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) models under various scenarios of increased CO2 emissions. Results show that collectively CMIP5 models project a robust and consistent global and regional rainfall response to CO2 warming. Globally, the models show a 1-3% increase in rainfall per degree rise in temperature, with a canonical response featuring large increase (100-250 %) in frequency of occurrence of very heavy rain, a reduction (5-10%) of moderate rain, and an increase (10-15%) of light rain events. Regionally, even though details vary among models, a majority of the models (>10 out of 14) project a consistent large scale response with more heavy rain events in climatologically wet regions, most pronounced in the Pacific ITCZ and the Asian monsoon. Moderate rain events are found to decrease over extensive regions of the subtropical and extratropical oceans, but increases over the extratropical land regions, and the Southern Oceans. The spatial distribution of light rain resembles that of moderate rain, but mostly with opposite polarity. The majority of the models also show increase in the number of dry events (absence or only trace amount of rain) over subtropical and tropical land regions in both hemispheres. These results suggest that rainfall characteristics are changing and that increased extreme rainfall events and droughts occurrences are connected, as a consequent of a global adjustment of the large scale circulation to global warming.

  11. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I final report - Major structure response (Project IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, B.J.; Johnson, J.J.; Lo, T.Y.

    1981-08-01

    The primary task of the Major Structure Response Project within the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was to develop detailed finite element models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant's containment building and auxiliary-fuel-turbine (AFT) complex. The resulting models served as input to the seismic methodology analysis chain. The containment shell was modeled as a series of beam elements with the shear and bending characteristics of a circular cylindrical shell. Masses and rotary inertias were lumped at nodal points; thirteen modes were included in the analysis. The internal structure was modeled with three-dimensional finite elements, with masses again lumped at selected nodes; sixty modes were included in the analysis. The model of the AFT complex employed thin plate and shell elements to represent the concrete shear walls and floor diaphragms, and beam and truss elements to model the braced frames. Because of the size and complexity of the model, and the potentially large number of degrees of freedom, masses were lumped at a limited number of node points. These points were selected so as to minimize the effect of the discrete mass distribution on structural response. One hundred and thirteen modes were extracted. A second objective of Project IV was to investigate the effects of uncertainty and variability on structural response. To this end, four side studies were conducted. Three of them, briefly summarized in this volume, addressed themselves respectively to an investigation of sources of random variability in the dynamic response of nuclear power plant structures; formulation of a methodology for modeling and evaluating the effects of structural uncertainty on predicted modal characteristics of major nuclear power plant structures and substructures; and a preliminary evaluation of nonlinear responses in shear-wall structures. A fourth side study, reported in detail in this volume, quantified variations in dynamic characteristics and seismic

  12. The Cool Little Kids randomised controlled trial: population-level early prevention for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jordana K; Rapee, Ronald M; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Clifford, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2011-01-05

    The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety) will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500) with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework) will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively) to compare outcomes between the trial arms. This trial addresses gaps

  13. The Cool Little Kids randomised controlled trial: Population-level early prevention for anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiscock Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. Methods/Design This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500 with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively to compare outcomes

  14. One more thing: Faculty response to increased emphasis on project teams in undergraduate engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jane

    Tenured and tenure-track faculty members at institutions of higher education, especially those at Research I institutions, are being asked to do more than ever before. With rapidly changing technology, significant decreases in public funding, the shift toward privately funded research, and the ever increasing expectations of students for an education that adequately prepares them for professional careers, engineering faculty are particularly challenged by the escalating demands on their time. In 1996, the primary accreditation organization for engineering programs (ABET) adopted new criteria that required, among other things, engineering programs to teach students to function on multidisciplinary teams and to communicate effectively. In response, most engineering programs utilize project teams as a strategy for teaching these skills. The purpose of this qualitative study of tenured and tenure track engineering faculty at a Research I institution in the southwestern United States was to explore the variety of ways in which the engineering faculty responded to the demands placed upon them as a result of the increased emphasis on project teams in undergraduate engineering education. Social role theory and organizational climate theory guided the study. Some faculty viewed project teams as an opportunity for students to learn important professional skills and to benefit from collaborative learning but many questioned the importance and feasibility of teaching teamwork skills and had concerns about taking time away from other essential fundamental material such as mathematics, basic sciences and engineering sciences. Although the administration of the College of Engineering articulated strong support for the use of project teams in undergraduate education, the prevailing climate did little to promote significant efforts related to effective utilization of project teams. Too often, faculty were unwilling to commit sufficient time or effort to make project teamwork a

  15. FINAL PROJECT REPORT - EVALUATION AND TESTING OF HTGR REACTOR BUILDING RESPONSE TO DEPRESSURIZATION ACCIDENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLIANCE LIMITED, NGNP INDUSTRY

    2017-07-25

    This report provides a description of the project, summarizes each phase of the project, and ends with project conclusions. In addition, the report contains a descriptive index of the technical reports generated during the course of the project.

  16. The Effects of Predator Evolution and Genetic Variation on Predator-Prey Population-Level Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Michael H; Patel, Swati

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores how predator evolution and the magnitude of predator genetic variation alter the population-level dynamics of predator-prey systems. We do this by analyzing a general eco-evolutionary predator-prey model using four methods: Method 1 identifies how eco-evolutionary feedbacks alter system stability in the fast and slow evolution limits; Method 2 identifies how the amount of standing predator genetic variation alters system stability; Method 3 identifies how the phase lags in predator-prey cycles depend on the amount of genetic variation; and Method 4 determines conditions for different cycle shapes in the fast and slow evolution limits using geometric singular perturbation theory. With these four methods, we identify the conditions under which predator evolution alters system stability and shapes of predator-prey cycles, and how those effect depend on the amount of genetic variation in the predator population. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the relations between the four methods. This work shows how the four methods can be used in tandem to make general predictions about eco-evolutionary dynamics and feedbacks.

  17. Genetic approaches to understanding the population-level impact of wind energy development on migratory bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonhof, Maarten J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Russell, Amy L. [Grand Valley State Univ. Allendale, MI (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. Yet there is little data on bat population sizes and trends to provide context for understanding the consequences of mortality due to wind power development. Using a large dataset of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation for eastern red bats, we demonstrated that: 1) this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population; 2) the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions; and 3) for large populations, genetic diversity measures and at least one coalescent method are insensitive to even very high rates of population decline over long time scales and until population size has become very small. Our data provide important context for understanding the population-level impacts of wind power development on affected bat species.

  18. Prevalence of Children's Mental Health Problems and the Effectiveness of Population-Level Family Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Noriko; Yanagawa, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morawska, Alina

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents is of growing importance. Intervening in children's mental health early in life has been shown to be more effective than trying to resolve these problems when children are older. With respect to prevention activities in community settings, the prevalence of problems should be estimated, and the required level of services should be delivered. The prevalence of children's mental health disorders has been reported for many countries. Preventive intervention has emphasized optimizing the environment. Because parents are the primary influence on their children's development, considerable attention has been placed on the development of parent training to strengthen parenting skills. However, a public-health approach is necessary to confirm that the benefits of parent-training interventions lead to an impact at the societal level. This literature review clarifies that the prevalence of mental health problems is measured at the national level in many countries and that population-level parenting interventions can lower the prevalence of mental health problems among children in the community.

  19. The Jari Project Managed By The Orsa Group: Corporate Social Responsibility Applied To The Amazon Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Greissing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Jari region, in the Northeastern part of Brazil’s Amazon region, since the middle of the 20th century, ha been intrinsically linked to the evolution of the Jari project, a huge private agro-industrial enterprise aiming at the large-scale production of cellulose. Harshly criticized during the 1970s and 1980s for its ecological impact and waste of human resources, but also due to the lack of economic viability, the project was eventually taken over by a new firm (the Orsa group after coming close to bankruptcy in 1997. Under Orsa’s management, centered on the concept of corporate social and environmental responsibility (CSR, the Jari project of the XXI century resurrects as an innovative, lucrative and certified firm, pioneer in the application of CSR policies in the Amazon context. This article discusses the manifold strategies developed by the Orsa group and its conveniences and shortcomings for both the firm and the local populations of the Jari region today.

  20. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  1. Responsibilities of the active participation of geoscientists in public funded projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    The European Federation of Geologists (EFG) is based in 24 European countries and represents over 50,000 geoscientists in Europe, working in organisations dealing with many of the critical societal challenges that came with fast population growing: soils fertility; fresh water; energy; and raw materials supply. This calls for the concerted contribution of networks of geoscientists to frame and answer the global challenges we are facing. In Europe, the Research and Innovation funding program Horizon 2020 provided a unique opportunity for EFG to play an active role in this context, and this justifies the direct involvement of EFG in several funded projects, ranging from international cooperation on raw materials supply to groundwater research or combined heat, power and metal extraction from ultra-deep ore bodies. But an active participation of a not for profit organization of geoscientists in such public funded projects brings responsibilities and reputational risks. The authors will describe how EFG is taking these responsibilities and facing the correspondent risks, through the involvement of certified professionals. The authors will highlight why EFG is keen in promoting the EurGeol professional title, ensuring title holders are skilled and competent to deliver high quality services within the practice of geology, framed by a Code of Ethics and a commitment towards continuing professional development.

  2. Idiosyncratic responses of grizzly bear habitat to climate change based on projected food resource changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David R; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-07-01

    Climate change vulnerability assessments for species of conservation concern often use species distribution and ecological niche modeling to project changes in habitat. One of many assumptions of these approaches is that food web dependencies are consistent in time and environmental space. Species at higher trophic levels that rely on the availability of species at lower trophic levels as food may be sensitive to extinction cascades initiated by changes in the habitat of key food resources. Here we assess climate change vulnerability for Ursus arctos (grizzly bears) in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains using projected changes to 17 of the most commonly consumed plant food items. We used presence-absence information from 7088 field plots to estimate ecological niches and to project changes in future distributions of each species. Model projections indicated idiosyncratic responses among food items. Many food items persisted or even increased, although several species were found to be vulnerable based on declines or geographic shifts in suitable habitat. These included Hedysarum alpinum (alpine sweet vetch), a critical spring and autumn root-digging resource when little else is available. Potential habitat loss was also identified for three fruiting species of lower importance to bears: Empetrum nigrum (crowberry), Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), and Fragaria virginiana (strawberry). A general trend towards uphill migration of bear foods may result in higher vulnerability to bear populations at low elevations, which are also those that are most likely to have human-bear conflict problems. Regardless, a wide diet breadth of grizzly bears, as well as wide environmental niches of most food items, make climate change a much lower threat to grizzly bears than other bear species such as polar bears and panda bears. We cannot exclude, however, future alterations in human behavior and land use resulting from climate change that may reduce survival rates.

  3. Cost effectiveness of tobacco control policies in Vietnam: the case of population-level interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hideki; Truong, Khoa D; Barendregt, Jan J; Nguyen, Phuong K; Vuong, Mai L; Nguyen, Thuy T; Hoang, Phuong T; Wallace, Angela L; Tran, Tien V; Le, Cuong Q; Doran, Christopher M

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the leading public health problems in the world. It is also possible to prevent and/or reduce the harm from tobacco use through the use of cost-effective tobacco control measures. However, most of this evidence comes from developed countries and little research has been conducted on this issue in developing countries. The objective of this study was to analyse the cost effectiveness of four population-level tobacco control interventions in Vietnam. Four tobacco control interventions were evaluated: excise tax increase; graphic warning labels on cigarette packs; mass media campaigns; and smoking bans (in public or in work places). A multi-state life table model was constructed in Microsoft® Excel to examine the cost effectiveness of the tobacco control intervention options. A government perspective was adopted, with costing conducted using a bottom-up approach. Health improvement was considered in terms of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. All assumptions were subject to sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. All the interventions fell within the definition of being very cost effective according to the threshold level suggested by the WHO (i.e. place smoking bans. If the cost offset was included in the analysis, all interventions would provide cost savings to the government health sector. All four interventions to reduce the harm from tobacco use appear to be highly cost effective and should be considered as priorities in the context of Vietnam. The government may initially consider graphic warning labels and tax increase, followed by other interventions.

  4. Can Family Planning Service Statistics Be Used to Track Population-Level Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Robert J; Ross, John; Williamson, Jessica; Weinberger, Michelle

    2018-03-21

    The need for annual family planning program tracking data under the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) initiative has contributed to renewed interest in family planning service statistics as a potential data source for annual estimates of the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR). We sought to assess (1) how well a set of commonly recorded data elements in routine service statistics systems could, with some fairly simple adjustments, track key population-level outcome indicators, and (2) whether some data elements performed better than others. We used data from 22 countries in Africa and Asia to analyze 3 data elements collected from service statistics: (1) number of contraceptive commodities distributed to clients, (2) number of family planning service visits, and (3) number of current contraceptive users. Data quality was assessed via analysis of mean square errors, using the United Nations Population Division World Contraceptive Use annual mCPR estimates as the "gold standard." We also examined the magnitude of several components of measurement error: (1) variance, (2) level bias, and (3) slope (or trend) bias. Our results indicate modest levels of tracking error for data on commodities to clients (7%) and service visits (10%), and somewhat higher error rates for data on current users (19%). Variance and slope bias were relatively small for all data elements. Level bias was by far the largest contributor to tracking error. Paired comparisons of data elements in countries that collected at least 2 of the 3 data elements indicated a modest advantage of data on commodities to clients. None of the data elements considered was sufficiently accurate to be used to produce reliable stand-alone annual estimates of mCPR. However, the relatively low levels of variance and slope bias indicate that trends calculated from these 3 data elements can be productively used in conjunction with the Family Planning Estimation Tool (FPET) currently used to produce annual m

  5. [Effectiveness, population-level effects, and heath economics of measles and rubella vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, O; Ultsch, B

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against measles and rubella has been included in national immunization programs worldwide for several decades. In this article, we present the evidence related to the effectiveness of measles and rubella vaccination based on published systematic reviews, and we describe the epidemiological and health economic effects of vaccination at a population level. Several observational studies demonstrate the high effectiveness (> 90 %) of both measles and rubella vaccination. The global measles mortality reduction and the dramatic decrease in rubella and measles incidences after introduction of routine immunization contribute to the very high quality of evidence. The countries of the Americas have proved that it is feasible to eliminate measles and rubella by strengthening infant immunization through routine vaccination services and by conducting supplemental immunization activities in other childhood age groups so as to close immunity gaps. An economic evaluation of measles and rubella vaccination specifically for the healthcare system in Germany does not exist. However, we conducted a systematic review and identified 11 health-economic studies from other industrialized countries and one for a hypothetical industrialized country. Results indicate that vaccination against measles and rubella had either a cost-effective or even a cost-saving potential, which could be assumed with some limitations also for the German setting. In conclusion, there is compelling evidence that the available vaccines are very effective and that measles and rubella elimination is feasible if adequate vaccination strategies are implemented. In Germany, catch-up vaccination programs are urgently needed for children, adolescents, and young adults specifically in the western federal states.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of population-level physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Johanna; Kuvaja-Köllner, Virpi; Pietilä, Eija; Koivuneva, Mikko; Valtonen, Hannu; Kankaanpää, Eila

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of population-level interventions to promote physical activity. A systematic literature search was conducted between May and August 2013 in four databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus. Only primary and preventive interventions aimed at promoting and maintaining physical activity in wide population groups were included. An economic evaluation of both effectiveness and cost was required. Secondary interventions and interventions targeting selected population groups or focusing on single individuals were excluded. Interventions were searched for in six different categories: (1) environment, (2) built environment, (3) sports clubs and enhanced access, (4) schools, (5) mass media and community-based, and (6) workplace. The systematic search yielded 2058 articles, of which 10 articles met the selection criteria. The costs of interventions were converted to costs per person per day in 2012 U.S. dollars. The physical activity results were calculated as metabolic equivalent of task hours (MET-hours, or MET-h) gained per person per day. Cost-effectiveness ratios were presented as dollars per MET-hours gained. The intervention scale and the budget impact of interventions were taken into account. The most efficient interventions to increase physical activity were community rail-trails ($.006/MET-h), pedometers ($.014/MET-h), and school health education programs ($.056/MET-h). Improving opportunities for walking and biking seems to increase physical activity cost-effectively. However, it is necessary to be careful in generalizing the results because of the small number of studies. This review provides important information for decision makers.

  7. Integrating Traditional and Evolutionary Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation: a Population Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan J. Fraser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their dual importance in the assessment of endangered/threatened species, there have been few attempts to integrate traditional ecological knowledge (TEK and evolutionary biology knowledge (EBK at the population level. We contrasted long-term aboriginal TEK with previously obtained EBK in the context of seasonal migratory habits and population biology of a salmonid fish, brook charr, (Salvelinus fontinalis inhabiting a large, remote postglacial lake. Compilation of TEK spanning four decades involved analytical workshops, semidirective interviews, and collaborative fieldwork with local aboriginal informants and fishing guides. We found that TEK complemented EBK of brook charr by providing concordant and additional information about (1 population viability; (2 breeding areas and migration patterns of divergent populations; and (3 the behavioral ecology of populations within feeding areas; all of which may ultimately affect the maintenance of population diversity. Aboriginal concerns related to human pressures on this species, not revealed by EBK, also help to focus future conservation initiatives for divergent populations and to encourage restoration of traditional fishing practices. However, relative to EBK, the relevance of TEK to salmonid biodiversity conservation was evident mainly at a smaller spatial scale, for example, that of individual rivers occupied by populations or certain lake sectors. Nevertheless, EBK was only collected over a 4-yr period, so TEK provided an essential long-term temporal window to evaluate population differences and persistence. We concluded that, despite different conceptual underpinnings, spatially and temporally varying TEK and EBK both contribute to the knowledge base required to achieve sustainability and effective biodiversity conservation planning for a given species. Such integration may be particularly relevant in many isolated regions, where intraspecific diversity can go unrecognized due to sparse

  8. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  9. Potential for a hazardous geospheric response to projected future climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, B

    2010-05-28

    Periods of exceptional climate change in Earth history are associated with a dynamic response from the geosphere, involving enhanced levels of potentially hazardous geological and geomorphological activity. The response is expressed through the adjustment, modulation or triggering of a broad range of surface and crustal phenomena, including volcanic and seismic activity, submarine and subaerial landslides, tsunamis and landslide 'splash' waves, glacial outburst and rock-dam failure floods, debris flows and gas-hydrate destabilization. In relation to anthropogenic climate change, modelling studies and projection of current trends point towards increased risk in relation to a spectrum of geological and geomorphological hazards in a warmer world, while observations suggest that the ongoing rise in global average temperatures may already be eliciting a hazardous response from the geosphere. Here, the potential influences of anthropogenic warming are reviewed in relation to an array of geological and geomorphological hazards across a range of environmental settings. A programme of focused research is advocated in order to: (i) understand better those mechanisms by which contemporary climate change may drive hazardous geological and geomorphological activity; (ii) delineate those parts of the world that are most susceptible; and (iii) provide a more robust appreciation of potential impacts for society and infrastructure.

  10. 41 CFR 102-80.55 - Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Risks and Risk Reduction Strategies § 102-80.55 Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects? 102-80.55 Section 102-80.55 Public...

  11. Overview of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Propulsion Technology Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project is focused on developing and demonstrating integrated systems technologies to TRL 4-6 by 2020 that enable reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise for futuristic air vehicles. The specific goals aim to simultaneously reduce fuel burn by 50%, reduce Landing and Take-off Nitrous Oxides emissions by 75% relative to the CAEP 6 guidelines, and reduce cumulative noise by 42 Decibels relative to the Stage 4 guidelines. These goals apply to the integrated vehicle and propulsion system and are based on a reference mission of 3000nm flight of a Boeing 777-200 with GE90 engines. This paper will focus primarily on the ERA propulsion technology portfolio, which consists of advanced combustion, propulsor, and core technologies to enable these integrated air vehicle systems goals. An overview of the ERA propulsion technologies will be described and the status and results to date will be presented.

  12. Response to state comments on the draft regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    In May, 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Crystalline Repository Project Office (CPO) issued six draft Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs) for review and comment to the 17 Crystalline States comprising the Northeastern, Southeastern, and North Central crystalline regions. Comment letters were received from 13 of the 17 states. The more than 2000 comments generally focused on the quality and content of the characterization reports and on their intended use in region-to-area screening. These comments were paraphrased and grouped into 23 subjects within the following four topical areas: (1) General and Programmatic; (2) Geologic; (3) Environmental and Socioeconomic; and (4) Editorial. This document provides responses to the comments submitted by the states

  13. Monitoring Space Radiation Hazards with the Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercially Hosted (REACH) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J. E.; Guild, T. B.; Crain, W.; Crain, S.; Holker, D.; Quintana, S.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Kelly, M. A.; Barnes, R. J.; Sotirelis, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercial Hosting (REACH) project uses radiation dosimeters on a commercial satellite constellation in low Earth orbit to provide unprecedented spatial and time sampling of space weather radiation hazards. The spatial and time scales of natural space radiation environments coupled with constraints for the hosting accommodation drove the instrumentation requirements and the plan for the final orbital constellation. The project has delivered a total of thirty two radiation dosimeter instruments for launch with each instrument containing two dosimeters with different passive shielding and electronic thresholds to address proton-induced single-event effects, vehicle charging, and total ionizing dose. There are two REACH instruments currently operating with four more planned for launch by the time of the 2017 meeting. Our aim is to field a long-lived system of highly-capable radiation detectors to monitor the hazards of single-event effects, total ionizing dose, and spacecraft charging with maximized spatial coverage and with minimal time latency. We combined a robust detection technology with a commercial satellite hosting to produce a new demonstration for satellite situational awareness and for other engineering and science applications.

  14. On the reliability of predictions of geomechanical response - project Cosa in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, N.C.; Lowe, M.J.S.; Come, B.

    1990-01-01

    Project COSA (Comparison of computer codes for Salt) was set up by the CEC as international benchmark exercise to compare the reliability of predictions of thermo-mechanical response of HLW repositories in salt. The first phase (COSA I) was conducted between 1984-1986 and attention was directed at code verification issues. The second phase (COSA II), carried out in the period 1986-1988, addressed code validation and other issues. Specifically, a series of experimental heat and pressure tests carried out at the Asse Mine in Wast Germany were modelled and predictions of the thermo-mechanical behaviour were compared. Ten European organisations participated. A key feature of this exercise was that, as far as possible, the calculations were performed blind (i.e. without any knowledge of the observed behaviour) using the best information available a priori, to describe the physical situation to be modelled. Interest centred around the various constitutive models (of material behaviour) for rock-salt and the assumptions about the in situ state of stress. The paper gives an overview of the project, presents some broad conclusions and attempts to assess their significance. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Population-level assessments should be emphasized over community/ecosystem-level assessments. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1535

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, W.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and the need to make decisions; and (4) the nature of societal and economic concerns. The conclusion on each of these four issues is that population-level assessments provide the optimal approach for evaluating the effects of entrainment and impingement mortality

  16. Determinants of Home Discharge Among Survivors of Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Population-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2016-07-01

    The majority of patients with necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in the United Sates survive their illness, and there is increasing interest in addressing the ability of survivors to return to their community following hospitalization. However, there are no data on the factors affecting home discharge among survivors of NF. We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to conduct a retrospective population-based examination of hospitalizations with NF aged 15 years or older between 2001 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to explore predictors of home discharge among hospital survivors. There were 10,724 NF hospitalizations surviving to discharge during study period, of which 62.5% were discharged home. The following key predictors have adversely affected odds of home discharge (odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals): age ≥ 75 years (0.349 (0.292 - 0.417)), Medicare insurance (0.582 (0.510 - 0.663)), congestive heart failure (0.836 (0.719 - 0.972)), chronic liver disease (0.684 (0.522 - 0.895)), respiratory failure (0.464 (0.386 - 0.558)), neurological failure (0.573 (0.418 - 0.787)), and need for mechanical ventilation (0.339 (0.199 - 0.578)). Increased odds of home discharge were found among males (1.116 (1.058 - 1.285)), Hispanics (1.193 (1.056 - 1.349)), those lacking health insurance (2.161 (1.183 - 2.521)) or managed at a teaching hospital (1.264 (1.127 - 1.418)). In this first population-level examination of the determinants of home discharge among survivors of NF, older age, Medicare insurance, selected comorbidities, and development of organ failure decreased patients' odds of home discharge. Unexpectedly, male gender, Hispanic ethnicity, lack of health insurance, and being managed at a teaching hospital were associated with favorable impact on patients' discharge disposition. Further studies are warranted in other populations and healthcare environments to corroborate the present findings and to refine our understanding of the

  17. Taxonomic structure and population level of colon microbial contents in white rats with experimental thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Sydorchuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Production of numerous biologically active compounds and their metabolites by intestinal microflora, interaction with the immune and other systems is of great importance while studying its changes in various diseases, one of which is thyrotoxicosis. So, the purpose of this study was to determine the severity of intestine microbioma disorder in white rats with experimental thyrotoxicosis (ET. Materials and methods. Studies were carried out on 25 mature male white rats (15 — control group, 10 — research group. ET was simulated by intragastric administration of L-thyroxine for 14 days. Under sterile conditions a laparotomy was performed, a section (2–3 cm of the large intestine with its contents was taken. Sterile 0.9% NaCl solution was added to the content. Series of ten-fold dilutions with a concentration of the initial mixture of 10–2 to 10–11 was prepared. From each test tube 0.01 ml was seeded on solid nutrient media with subsequent isolation and identification of microbes according to morphological, tinctorial, cultural and biochemical properties. Results. The results of the study demonstrated that in ET animals the main microbioma is represented by bacteria Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and also opportunistic enterobacteria (Escherichia, Proteus, Klebsiella, peptococcus, staphylococci and clostridia. This is accompanied by the elimination of Peptostreptococcus, Enterococcus from bacterial biotope and the contamination of K. oxytoca and staphylococci. There was a pronounced deficit of bifidobacteria by 42.81 %, lactobacillus by 22.57 %, normal intestinal bacillus by 16.48 %. By the population level, the coefficient of quantitative dominance and the significance factor, the leading place is occupied by bacteroids, role of which is increased by 21.72 %, and lactobacillus role decreases by 39.31 %, bifidobacteria decreases by 51.48 % and E. coli decreases by 57.49 %. In this case, the role of peptococcus 3

  18. Population-Level Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes From Claims Data and Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Narges; Blecker, Saul; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Nigam, Somesh; Sontag, David

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach to population health, in which data-driven predictive models are learned for outcomes such as type 2 diabetes. Our approach enables risk assessment from readily available electronic claims data on large populations, without additional screening cost. Proposed model uncovers early and late-stage risk factors. Using administrative claims, pharmacy records, healthcare utilization, and laboratory results of 4.1 million individuals between 2005 and 2009, an initial set of 42,000 variables were derived that together describe the full health status and history of every individual. Machine learning was then used to methodically enhance predictive variable set and fit models predicting onset of type 2 diabetes in 2009-2011, 2010-2012, and 2011-2013. We compared the enhanced model with a parsimonious model consisting of known diabetes risk factors in a real-world environment, where missing values are common and prevalent. Furthermore, we analyzed novel and known risk factors emerging from the model at different age groups at different stages before the onset. Parsimonious model using 21 classic diabetes risk factors resulted in area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.75 for diabetes prediction within a 2-year window following the baseline. The enhanced model increased the AUC to 0.80, with about 900 variables selected as predictive (p differences between AUCs). Similar improvements were observed for models predicting diabetes onset 1-3 years and 2-4 years after baseline. The enhanced model improved positive predictive value by at least 50% and identified novel surrogate risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as chronic liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.71), high alanine aminotransferase (OR 2.26), esophageal reflux (OR 1.85), and history of acute bronchitis (OR 1.45). Liver risk factors emerge later in the process of diabetes development compared with obesity-related factors such as hypertension and high hemoglobin A1c. In conclusion, population-level risk

  19. Tackling causes and costs of ED presentation for American football injuries: a population-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Blair J; Haring, R Sterling; Asemota, Anthony O; Scott, John W; Canner, Joseph K; Nejim, Besma J; George, Benjamin P; Alsulaim, Hatim; Kirsch, Thomas D; Schneider, Eric B

    2016-07-01

    injury type-specific variability. Overall, at the US population, estimated total charges of $771299862 were incurred over the 2-year period. In this nationally representative sample, most ED-treated injuries associated with football were not acutely life threatening and very few required major therapeutic intervention. This study provides a cross-sectional overview of ED presentation for acute football-related injury across age groups at the population level in recent years. Longitudinal studies may be warranted to examine associations between the patterns of injury observed in this study and long-term outcomes among American tackle football players. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    birth until the time of collection and to extract selected chambers for further studies. The variation in chamber number during the sampling period (in this study limited at 15 months) will allow the estimation of the mean chamber building rate for each investigated species. However, a number of morphological aberrations within the population can be observed: often multiple proloculi are present; their orientation to the equatorial plane (or planes) respectively the spatial position of the foramina between proloculus (or proloculi) to the reniform deuteroloculi, the geometry of septa and septula and their variation trough ontogeny and several other ontogenetic variation need further attention. Many new insights into the biology of living and fossil LBF will be obtained when the three dimensional morphology of the complete foraminiferal shell is raised to the population level.

  1. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  2. Population-level impact and herd effects following human papillomavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Mélanie; Bénard, Élodie; Boily, Marie-Claude; Ali, Hammad; Baandrup, Louise; Bauer, Heidi; Beddows, Simon; Brisson, Jacques; Brotherton, Julia M L; Cummings, Teresa; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Flagg, Elaine W; Johnson, Anne M; Kahn, Jessica A; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kliewer, Erich V; Lemieux-Mellouki, Philippe; Markowitz, Lauri; Mboup, Aminata; Mesher, David; Niccolai, Linda; Oliphant, Jeannie; Pollock, Kevin G; Soldan, Kate; Sonnenberg, Pam; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Tanton, Clare; Brisson, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes were first implemented in several countries worldwide in 2007. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the population-level consequences and herd effects after female HPV vaccination programmes, to verify whether or not the high efficacy reported in randomised controlled clinical trials are materialising in real-world situations. Methods We searched the Medline and Embase databases (between Jan 1, 2007 and Feb 28, 2014) and conference abstracts for time-trend studies that analysed changes, between the pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods, in the incidence or prevalence of at least one HPV-related endpoint: HPV infection, anogenital warts, and high-grade cervical lesions. We used random-effects models to derive pooled relative risk (RR) estimates. We stratified all analyses by age and sex. We did subgroup analyses by comparing studies according to vaccine type, vaccination coverage, and years since implementation of the vaccination programme. We assessed heterogeneity across studies using I2 and χ2 statistics and we did trends analysis to examine the dose–response association between HPV vaccination coverage and each study effect measure. Findings We identified 20 eligible studies, which were all undertaken in nine high-income countries and represent more than 140 million person-years of follow-up. In countries with female vaccination coverage of at least 50%, HPV type 16 and 18 infections decreased significantly between the pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods by 68% (RR 0·32, 95% CI 0·19–0·52) and anogenital warts decreased significantly by 61% (0·39, 0·22–0·71) in girls 13–19 years of age. Significant reductions were also recorded in HPV types 31, 33, and 45 in this age group of girls (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·54–0·96), which suggests cross-protection. Additionally, significant reductions in anogenital warts were also reported in boys younger than 20

  3. Ocean response to volcanic eruptions in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yanni

    2014-09-01

    We examine the oceanic impact of large tropical volcanic eruptions as they appear in ensembles of historical simulations from eight Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. These models show a response that includes lowering of global average sea surface temperature by 0.1–0.3 K, comparable to the observations. They show enhancement of Arctic ice cover in the years following major volcanic eruptions, with long-lived temperature anomalies extending to the middepth and deep ocean on decadal to centennial timescales. Regional ocean responses vary, although there is some consistent hemispheric asymmetry associated with the hemisphere in which the eruption occurs. Temperature decreases and salinity increases contribute to an increase in the density of surface water and an enhancement in the overturning circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean following these eruptions. The strength of this overturning increase varies considerably from model to model and is correlated with the background variability of overturning in each model. Any cause/effect relationship between eruptions and the phase of El Niño is weak.

  4. Nurturing social responsibility through community service-learning: Lessons learned from a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamsi, Shafik; Espinoza, Nancy; Cramer, Carl; Amin, Maryam; Bainbridge, Lesley; Poole, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Community service-learning (CSL) has been proposed as one way to enrich medical and dental students' sense of social responsibility toward people who are marginalized in society. We developed and implemented a new CSL option in the integrated medical/dental curriculum and assessed its educational impact. Focus groups, individual open-ended interviews, and a survey were used to assess dental students', faculty tutors' and community partners' experiences with CSL. CSL enabled a deeper appreciation for the vulnerabilities that people who are marginalized experience; students gained a greater insight into the social determinants of health and the related importance of community engagement; and they developed useful skills in health promotion project planning, implementation and evaluation. Community partners and faculty tutors indicated that equal partnership, greater collaboration, and a participatory approach to course development are essential to sustainability in CSL. CSL can play an important role in nurturing a purposeful sense of social responsibility among future practitioners. Our study enabled the implementation of an innovative longitudinal course (professionalism and community service) in all 4 years of the dental curriculum.

  5. Global warming response options in Brazil's forest sector: comparison of project-level costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A project-level assessment of monetary and carbon costs and benefits for five classes of global warming response options in the forest sector is attempted for typical Brazilian conditions. Options considered are: silvicultural plantations (for pulp, charcoal and sawlogs), sustainable timber management and reduction of deforestation. Comparison of pulpwood and sawlog plantations with the vegetation characteristic of deforested areas indicates of modest carbon benefit. Plantations for charcoal can produce a substantial carbon benefit through fossil fuel substitution, but much of this calculated benefit disappears if discount rates greater than zero are applied to carbon. Sustainable timber management, when compared with existing forest, represents a net carbon loss, accumulation of carbon in wood products being insufficient to compensate for biomass reduction over a 100 year time scale. Reduction of deforestation has great potential as a global warming response option, its per-hectare carbon benefits being approximately four times that of silvicultural plantation establishment for pulp and sawlogs over a 100 year period. The costs of reducing deforestation are difficult to assess, however, due to the importance of government policy changes such as removal of land speculation and land tenure establishment as motives for clearing. Although these changes would not cost money and would have tremendous carbon and other benefits, they have not yet occurred. (Author)

  6. The response of land-falling tropical cyclone characteristics to projected climate change in northeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Chelsea L.; Bruyère, Cindy L.; Mooney, Priscilla A.; Lynch, Amanda H.

    2018-01-01

    Land-falling tropical cyclones along the Queensland coastline can result in serious and widespread damage. However, the effects of climate change on cyclone characteristics such as intensity, trajectory, rainfall, and especially translation speed and size are not well-understood. This study explores the relative change in the characteristics of three case studies by comparing the simulated tropical cyclones under current climate conditions with simulations of the same systems under future climate conditions. Simulations are performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model and environmental conditions for the future climate are obtained from the Community Earth System Model using a pseudo global warming technique. Results demonstrate a consistent response of increasing intensity through reduced central pressure (by up to 11 hPa), increased wind speeds (by 5-10% on average), and increased rainfall (by up to 27% for average hourly rainfall rates). The responses of other characteristics were variable and governed by either the location and trajectory of the current climate cyclone or the change in the steering flow. The cyclone that traveled furthest poleward encountered a larger climate perturbation, resulting in a larger proportional increase in size, rainfall rate, and wind speeds. The projected monthly average change in the 500 mb winds with climate change governed the alteration in the both the trajectory and translation speed for each case. The simulated changes have serious implications for damage to coastal settlements, infrastructure, and ecosystems through increased wind speeds, storm surge, rainfall, and potentially increased size of some systems.

  7. Response to the Comment by G. Emch on projective group representations in quaternionic Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the differing definitions of complex and quaternionic projective group representations employed by us and by Emch. The definition of Emch (termed here a strong projective representation) is too restrictive to accommodate quaternionic Hilbert space embeddings of complex projective representations. Our definition (termed here a weak projective representation) encompasses such embeddings, and leads to a detailed theory of quaternionic, as well as complex, projective group representations. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Within- and among-population level differences in response to chronic copper exposure in southern toads, Anaxyrus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Stacey L.; Flynn, R. Wesley; Erickson, Matthew R.; Scott, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contaminants are implicated in the global decline of amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is a widespread contaminant that can be toxic at concentrations just above the normal physiological range. In the present study we examined the effects of chronic Cu aqueous exposure on embryos and larvae of southern toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) terrestris. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae, with tissue concentrations up to 27.5 μg Cu/g dry mass. Aqueous concentrations of Cu as low as 10 μg/L significantly reduced survival to the free-swimming stage and no larvae reached metamorphosis at concentrations above 15 μg/L. Clutches from populations with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. Among several populations there was significant variation in survivorship at different levels of Cu. More data are needed to understand the underlying causes of within- and among-population resilience to anthropogenic stressors. -- Highlights: ► Southern toad, Anaxyrus terrestris, embryos and larvae are highly sensitive to Cu. ► Significant variation in survivorship exists among clutches and populations. ► Clutches with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. ► Body burdens in larvae were up to 27.5 μg Cu/g dry mass. -- Capsule: Southern toad aquatic survival is significantly reduced at 15 μg Cu/L with variation in survivorship across clutches and populations

  9. Within- and among-population level differences in response to chronic copper exposure in southern toads, Anaxyrus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Stacey L; Flynn, R Wesley; Erickson, Matthew R; Scott, David E

    2013-06-01

    Environmental contaminants are implicated in the global decline of amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is a widespread contaminant that can be toxic at concentrations just above the normal physiological range. In the present study we examined the effects of chronic Cu aqueous exposure on embryos and larvae of southern toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) terrestris. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae, with tissue concentrations up to 27.5 μg Cu/g dry mass. Aqueous concentrations of Cu as low as 10 μg/L significantly reduced survival to the free-swimming stage and no larvae reached metamorphosis at concentrations above 15 μg/L. Clutches from populations with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. Among several populations there was significant variation in survivorship at different levels of Cu. More data are needed to understand the underlying causes of within- and among-population resilience to anthropogenic stressors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Results of expert response when forming an exhaustive list of potential risks of constructions projects using energy efficient technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryzhkova Anastasiya Igorevna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the most widely used methods of risk events identification. The expert response method is most applicable for construction projects using energy efficient technologies. The article presents the results of an opinion poll of the professional expert community using expert response method, which is aimed to identify the most likely potential “pure” risk of construction projects with energy-efficient technologies in use. 74 experts representing different levels of the construction process were polled: customers and directors of construction companies, project managers, risk managers, advisors. The answers were collected during private talks and also using a special website Survey Monkey. Experts from different countries took part: Russia, Great Britain, Austria, Luxemburg, Switzerland and Norway. Also the article presents the expert evaluation of the “effect” of risk implementation on the cost of a project, implementation time, the product quality, the environment and safety on the construction site.

  11. Response of permafrost to projected climate change: Results from global offline model simulations with JSBACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Tanja; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian; Hagemann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. As it is a thermal phenomenon, its characteristics are highly dependent on climatic factors. The impact of the currently observed warming, which is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input, certainly has effects for the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of these effects, however, is scientifically still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, where several feedbacks are interacting between land and atmosphere, sometimes counterbalancing each other. Moreover, until recently, many global circulation models (GCMs) lacked the sufficient representation of permafrost physics in their land surface schemes. In order to assess the response of permafrost to projected climate change for the 21st century, the land surface scheme of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, JSBACH, has recently been equipped with the important physical processes for permafrost studies, and was driven globally with bias corrected climate data, thereby spanning a period from 1850 until 2100. The applied land surface scheme JSBACH now considers the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water for both energy and water cycles, thermal properties depending on soil water and ice contents, and soil moisture movement being influenced by the presence of soil ice. To address the uncertainty range arising through different greenhouse gas concentrations as well as through different climate realisations when using various climate models, combinations of two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and two GCMs were used as driving data. In order to focus only on the climatic impact on permafrost, effects due to feedbacks between climate and permafrost (namely via carbon fluxes between land and atmosphere) are excluded in the experiments

  12. High-resolution tide projections reveal extinction threshold in response to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher R; Bayard, Trina S; Gjerdrum, Carina; Hill, Jason M; Meiman, Susan; Elphick, Chris S

    2017-05-01

    Sea-level rise will affect coastal species worldwide, but models that aim to predict these effects are typically based on simple measures of sea level that do not capture its inherent complexity, especially variation over timescales shorter than 1 year. Coastal species might be most affected, however, by floods that exceed a critical threshold. The frequency and duration of such floods may be more important to population dynamics than mean measures of sea level. In particular, the potential for changes in the frequency and duration of flooding events to result in nonlinear population responses or biological thresholds merits further research, but may require that models incorporate greater resolution in sea level than is typically used. We created population simulations for a threatened songbird, the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus), in a region where sea level is predictable with high accuracy and precision. We show that incorporating the timing of semidiurnal high tide events throughout the breeding season, including how this timing is affected by mean sea-level rise, predicts a reproductive threshold that is likely to cause a rapid demographic shift. This shift is likely to threaten the persistence of saltmarsh sparrows beyond 2060 and could cause extinction as soon as 2035. Neither extinction date nor the population trajectory was sensitive to the emissions scenarios underlying sea-level projections, as most of the population decline occurred before scenarios diverge. Our results suggest that the variation and complexity of climate-driven variables could be important for understanding the potential responses of coastal species to sea-level rise, especially for species that rely on coastal areas for reproduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; du Toit, Johan T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  14. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Bengis, Roy G.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood.

  15. A rapid response air quality analysis system for use in projects having stringent quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to solve air quality problems which frequently occur during iterations of the baseline change process. From a schedule standpoint, it is desirable to perform this evaluation in as short a time as possible while budgetary pressures limit the size of the staff available to do the work. Without a method in place to deal with baseline change proposal requests the environment analysts may not be able to produce the analysis results in the time frame expected. Using a concept called the Rapid Response Air Quality Analysis System (RAAS), the problems of timing and cost become tractable. The system could be adapted to assess other atmospheric pathway impacts, e.g., acoustics or visibility. The air quality analysis system used to perform the EA analysis (EA) for the Salt Repository Project (part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program), and later to evaluate the consequences of proposed baseline changes, consists of three components: Emission source data files; Emission rates contained in spreadsheets; Impact assessment model codes. The spreadsheets contain user-written codes (macros) that calculate emission rates from (1) emission source data (e.g., numbers and locations of sources, detailed operating schedules, and source specifications including horsepower, load factor, and duty cycle); (2) emission factors such as those published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and (3) control efficiencies

  16. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  17. Plant Responses to Increased UV-B Radiation: A Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAntoni, H. L.; Skiles, J. W.; Armstrong, R.; Coughlan, J.; Daleo, G.; Mayoral, A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Ozone decrease implies more ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface of the Earth. Increased UV-B radiation triggers responses by living organisms. Despite the large potential impacts on vegetation, little is known about UV-B effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Long-term ecological studies are needed to quantify the effects of increased UV radiation on terrestrial ecosystems, asses the risks, and produce reliable data for prediction. Screening pigments are part of one of the protective mechanism in plants. Higher concentrations of screening pigments in leaves may be interpreted as a response to increased UV radiation. If the screening effect is not sufficient, important molecules will be disturbed by incoming radiation. Thus, genetics, photosynthesis, growth, plant and leaf shape and size, and pollen grains may be affected. This will have an impact on ecosystem dynamics, structure and productivity. It is necessary to monitor selected terrestrial ecosystems to permit detection and interpretation of changes attributable to global climate change and depleted ozone shield. The objectives of this project are: (1) To identify and measure indicators of the effects of increased solar UV-B radiation on terrestrial plants; (2) to select indicators with the greatest responses to UV-B exposure; (3) to test, adapt or create ecosystem models that use the information gathered by this project for prediction and to enhance our understanding of the effects of increased UV-B radiation on terrestrial ecosystems. As a first step to achieve these objectives we propose a three-year study of forest and steppe vegetation on the North slope of the Brooks Range (within the Arctic circle, in Alaska), in the Saguaro National Monument (near Tucson, Arizona) and in the forests and steppes of Patagonia (Argentina). We selected (1) vegetation north of the Polar Circle because at 70N there is 8% risk of plant damage due to increased UV-B radiation; (2) the foothills of Catalina Mountains

  18. From Idea to Action: Promoting Responsible Management Education through a Semester-Long Academic Integrity Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Marc H.; Roussin, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a semester-long action-learning project where undergraduate or graduate management students learn about ethics, responsibility, and organizational behavior by examining the policy of their college or university that addresses academic integrity. Working in teams, students adopt a stakeholder management approach as they make…

  19. DOE responses to Ecology review comments for ''Sampling and analysis plans for the 100-D Ponds voluntary remediation project''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Sampling and Analysis Plan describes the sampling and analytical activities which will be performed to support closure of the 100-D Ponds at the Hanford Reservation. This report contains responses by the US Department of Energy to Ecology review for ''Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 100-D Ponds Voluntary Remediation Project.''

  20. From reactive to proactive use of social media in emergency response: A critical discussion of the Twitcident Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.K.; Diks, D.; Ferguson, J.E.; Wolbers, J.J.; Silvius, G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the introduction and implementation of the pilot project Twitcident in an emergency response room setting. Twitcident is a web-based system for filtering, searching and analyzing data on real-world incidents or crises. Social media data is seen as important for emergency

  1. Modeling Population-Level Consequences of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in East Greenland Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Grimm, Volker; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Gustavson, Kim; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can cause endocrine disruption, cancer, immunosuppression, or reproductive failure in animals. We used an individual-based model to explore whether and how PCB-associated reproductive failure could affect the dynamics of a hypothetical polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population exposed to PCBs to the same degree as the East Greenland subpopulation. Dose-response data from experimental studies on a surrogate species, the mink (Mustela vision), were used in the absence of similar data for polar bears. Two alternative types of reproductive failure in relation to maternal sum-PCB concentrations were considered: increased abortion rate and increased cub mortality. We found that the quantitative impact of PCB-induced reproductive failure on population growth rate depended largely on the actual type of reproductive failure involved. Critical potencies of the dose-response relationship for decreasing the population growth rate were established for both modeled types of reproductive failure. Comparing the model predictions of the age-dependent trend of sum-PCBs concentrations in females with actual field measurements from East Greenland indicated that it was unlikely that PCB exposure caused a high incidence of abortions in the subpopulation. However, on the basis of this analysis, it could not be excluded that PCB exposure contributes to higher cub mortality. Our results highlight the necessity for further research on the possible influence of PCBs on polar bear reproduction regarding their physiological pathway. This includes determining the exact cause of reproductive failure, i.e., in utero exposure versus lactational exposure of offspring; the timing of offspring death; and establishing the most relevant reference metrics for the dose-response relationship.

  2. The biological model of postradiation restoration of plants on the organismic and population levels of organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanishvili, N.I.; Gogebashvili, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : When studying postradiating restoration of plants, the question of working out of biological models for testing of biosystems' reliability has become rather urgent. It is known that each organization level of a live organism is characterized by certain mechanisms of postradiating restoration at the formation of various radiobiological reactions. For example, the basic processes at cellular, tissue and organism levels are reparation and regeneration whereas at cenosis level the leading processes are often the forms of population restoration. Besides, in spite of the fact that the population restoration at cenosis level is continuously inked with restoration at the lower organization levels, at this level the specific forms of restoration characterized for only this level are seen. It is natural that studying of the mechanisms of response to the influence of damaging factors needs new methodological approaches on various forms of population restoration with the use of adequate test systems. For this purpose the species of duckweed was used. It was seen that this test-system is characterized by the two levels of response to radiation influence. The first one - at a rather low level of radiation influence (up to 50Gy) when decrease in intensity of leaf growth as well as in colony formation was observed and the second one - at a high level of radiation influence (up to 200Gy) when a crushing of colonies took place and an increase in quantity of undeveloped plant leaves was seen. Thus, thanks to the step character of response of culture duckweed it becomes possible to definite quantity indicators for the investigated populations, not only at the influence of concrete physical and chemical factors but also at multifactorial influences that is often difficult to be calculated. It can be concluded that at the first level of damage an increase of plant resistance to unfavorable factors takes place that is due to the inhibition of growth processes

  3. Corticofugal projections induce long-lasting effects on somatosensory responses in the trigeminal complex of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eNunez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sensory information flow at subcortical relay stations is controlled by the action of topographic connections from the neocortex. To determinate the functional properties of the somatosensory corticofugal projections to the principal (Pr5 and caudal spinal (Sp5C trigeminal nuclei, we performed unitary recordings in anesthetized rats. To examine the effect of these cortical projections we used tactile stimulation of the whisker and electrical stimulation of somatosensory cortices. Corticofugal anatomical projections to Pr5 and Sp5C nuclei were detected by using retrograde fluorescent tracers. Neurons projecting exclusively to Pr5 were located in the cingulate cortex while neurons projecting to both Sp5C and Pr5 nuclei were located in the somatosensory and insular cortices (>75% of neurons. Physiological results indicated that primary somatosensory cortex produced a short-lasting facilitating or inhibiting effects (< 5 minutes of tactile responses in Pr5 nucleus through activation of NMDA glutamatergic or GABAA receptors since effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of APV and bicuculline, respectively. In contrast, stimulation of secondary somatosensory cortex did not affect most of the Pr5 neurons; however both cortices inhibited the nociceptive responses in the Sp5C nucleus through activation of glycinergic or GABAA receptors because effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These and anatomical results demonstrated that the somatosensory cortices projects to Pr5 nucleus to modulate tactile responses by excitatory and inhibitory actions, while projections to the Sp5C nucleus control nociceptive sensory transmission by only inhibitory effects. Thus, somatosensory cortices may modulate innocuous and noxious inputs simultaneously, contributing to the perception of specifically tactile or painful sensations.

  4. Response to Challenges and Opportunities for Mega-Infrastructure Projects and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sutphin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a very helpful and informative essay written by someone who is clearly very experienced with the complexity of urban archaeology. I would like to offer a perspective about these issues from New York City as although there are no projects that are truly analogous in both the scale and scope of the archaeology of the Crossrail Project, we do have similar projects from a construction standpoint (see New York City Department of Environment 2013 and MTA 2013.

  5. Episodic response project: Wet deposition at watersheds in three regions of the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchet, W.R.

    1991-11-01

    During the period from August 1988 to June 1990, wet-only sampling of precipitation was carried out at three Episodic Response Project sites and at one supplemental site. The three watershed sites are Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, and Linn Run. The supplemental site was the MAP3S site at Pennsylvania State University that characterizes the central group of northern Appalachian streams. The site operators adhered by varying degrees to the sample collection protocol based on the daily sampling protocol of the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network. Sulfate and nitrate ion together accounted for more than 80% of total anions (in μEq/L) in the precipitation at all sites. Wet deposition of sulfate at Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, Penn State, and Linn Run averaged 223, 230, 253, and 402 mg/m 2 /month, respectively, whereas nitrate wet deposition averaged 197, 195, 160, and 233 mg/m 2 /month, respectively. Sulfate deposition was a factor of 2 to 4 higher in summer than in winter. The seasonal pattern for nitrate deposition was weak; the seasonal contrast was less than a factor of 2.5 at all sites. The association between the wet deposition and precipitation chemistry at the MAP3S monitoring site and the average for the study watersheds was dependent on the distance between the site and watershed and the intervening terrain. Precipitation chemistry at the monitoring site is representative of that at the ERP study watersheds in the Adirondack and Catskill regions and in the south-western group of watersheds in the Appalachian region. High spatial variability in precipitation amounts makes this assumption weaker for wet deposition. Chemical input to watersheds from dry deposition has not been determined at any site but could range from a factor of 0.3 to 1.0 of the wet deposition. 7 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Response to the independent technical review of the UMTRA Project procedures and practices for well drilling and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report is a response to the findings and recommendations contained in the ITR report. The text of this document summarizes each ITR finding and recommendation, presents the TAC response, and concludes that implementation of many of the recommendations would benefit the UMTRA Project. Implementation of the recommendations represents ongoing improvement to the TAC well installation and development procedures and will result, in lower overall project costs. Appendix B is an implementation plan that groups similar or complementary action items, provides a schedule for implementation, identifies the group or people responsible for the changes, and estimates hours to implement the changes. The four major action items are as follows: (1) ITR Reevaluation, (2) Well Installation SOP Review and Revision, (3) Well Installation Contract Review and Revision, and (4) TAC and DOE Communications Improvement. The hours listed to implement the improvements are intended to be estimates for budgeting and planning purposes for the remainder of this fiscal year and the upcoming fiscal year

  7. Response to the independent technical review of the UMTRA Project procedures and practices for well drilling and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report is a response to the findings and recommendations contained in the ITR report. The text of this document summarizes each ITR finding and recommendation, presents the TAC response, and concludes that implementation of many of the recommendations would benefit the UMTRA Project. Implementation of the recommendations represents ongoing improvement to the TAC well installation and development procedures and will result, in lower overall project costs. Appendix B is an implementation plan that groups similar or complementary action items, provides a schedule for implementation, identifies the group or people responsible for the changes, and estimates hours to implement the changes. The four major action items are as follows: (1) ITR Reevaluation, (2) Well Installation SOP Review and Revision, (3) Well Installation Contract Review and Revision, and (4) TAC and DOE Communications Improvement. The hours listed to implement the improvements are intended to be estimates for budgeting and planning purposes for the remainder of this fiscal year and the upcoming fiscal year.

  8. Challenges in standardization of blood pressure measurement at the population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Naska, Androniki; Männistö, Satu; Broda, Grazyna; Palosaari, Tarja; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2015-04-10

    Accurate blood pressure measurements are needed in clinical practice, intervention studies and health examination surveys. Blood pressure measurements are sensitive: their accuracy can be affected by measurement environment, behaviour of the subject, measurement procedures, devices used for the measurement and the observer. To minimize errors in blood pressure measurement, a standardized measurement protocol is needed. The European Health Examination Survey (EHES) Pilot project was conducted in 2009-2012. A pilot health examination survey was conducted in 12 countries using a standardized protocol. The measurement protocols used in each survey, training provided for the measurers, measurement data, and observations during site visits were collected and evaluated to assess the level of standardization. The EHES measurement protocol for blood pressure was followed accurately in all 12 pilot surveys. Most of the surveys succeeded in organizing a quiet and comfortable measurement environment, and staff instructed survey participants appropriately before examination visits. In all surveys, blood pressure was measured three times, from the right arm in a sitting posture. The biggest variation was in the device used for the blood pressure measurement. It is possible to reach a high level of standardization for blood pressure measurements across countries and over time. A detailed, standardized measurement protocol, and adequate training and monitoring during the fieldwork and centrally organized quality assessment of the data are needed. The recent EU regulation banning the sale of mercury sphygmomanometer in European Union Member States has set new challenges for the standardization of measurement devices since the validity of oscillometric measurements is device-specific and performance of aneroid devices depends very much on calibration.

  9. Models to understand the population-level impact of mixed strain M. tuberculosis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Rinat; Colijn, Caroline; Cohen, Ted

    2011-07-07

    Over the past decade, numerous studies have identified tuberculosis patients in whom more than one distinct strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is present. While it has been shown that these mixed strain infections can reduce the probability of treatment success for individuals simultaneously harboring both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains, it is not yet known if and how this phenomenon impacts the long-term dynamics for tuberculosis within communities. Strain-specific differences in immunogenicity and associations with drug resistance suggest that a better understanding of how strains compete within hosts will be necessary to project the effects of mixed strain infections on the future burden of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis. In this paper, we develop a modeling framework that allows us to investigate mechanisms of strain competition within hosts and to assess the long-term effects of such competition on the ecology of strains in a population. These models permit us to systematically evaluate the importance of unknown parameters and to suggest priority areas for future experimental research. Despite the current scarcity of data to inform the values of several model parameters, we are able to draw important qualitative conclusions from this work. We find that mixed strain infections may promote the coexistence of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains in two ways. First, mixed strain infections allow a strain with a lower basic reproductive number to persist in a population where it would otherwise be outcompeted if has competitive advantages within a co-infected host. Second, some individuals progressing to phenotypically drug-sensitive tuberculosis from a state of mixed drug-sensitive and drug-resistant infection may retain small subpopulations of drug-resistant bacteria that can flourish once the host is treated with antibiotics. We propose that these types of mixed infections, by increasing the ability of low fitness drug

  10. Local Responses to Development and Conservation Projects - A case study in Río San Juan, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlbom, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study in the buffer zone to the Biological Reserve Indio-Maíz, Nicaragua, and by employing an actor-oriented approach, this thesis sets out to explore how locals respond to conservation and development projects, and what factors facilitate these responses. It will be argued that differentiation in people’s capitals, such as access to wider social networks and information, capability to adapt to changes in livelihoods and deal with project requirements, as well as coping with i...

  11. The Relationship Between Structural Game Characteristics and Gambling Behavior: A Population-Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Tony; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Blaszczynski, Alex; Griffiths, Mark; Mentzoni, Rune; Pallesen, Ståle; Molde, Helge

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the structural characteristics and gambling behavior among video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers. The study was ecological valid, because the data consisted of actual gambling behavior registered in the participants natural gambling environment without intrusion by researchers. Online behavioral tracking data from Multix, an eight game video lottery terminal, were supplied by Norsk-Tipping (the state owned gambling company in Norway). The sample comprised the entire population of Multix gamblers (N = 31,109) who had gambled in January 2010. The individual number of bets made across games was defined as the dependent variable, reward characteristics of a game (i.e., payback percentage, hit frequency, size of winnings and size of jackpot) and bet characteristics of a game (i.e., range of betting options and availability of advanced betting options) served as the independent variables. Control variables were age and gender. Two separate cross-classified multilevel random intercepts models were used to analyze the relationship between bets made, reward characteristics and bet characteristics, where the number of bets was nested within both individuals and within games. The results show that the number of bets is positively associated with payback percentage, hit frequency, being female and age, and negatively associated with size of wins and range of available betting options. In summary, the results show that the reward characteristics and betting options explained 27% and 15% of the variance in the number of bets made, respectively. It is concluded that structural game characteristics affect gambling behavior. Implications of responsible gambling are discussed.

  12. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  13. Hydrologic Responses to Projected Climate Change in Ecologically-Vulnerable Watersheds of the Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, R. P.; Ficklin, D. L.; Knouft, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is likely to have significant effects on the water cycle of the Gulf Coast watersheds in the United States, which contain some of the highest levels of biodiversity of all freshwater systems in North America. Understanding potential hydrologic responses to continued climate change in these watersheds is important for management of water resources and to sustain ecological diversity. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate hydrologic processes and estimate the potential hydrological changes for the mid-21st century (2050s) and the late-21st century (2080s) in the Mobile River, Apalachicola River, and Suwannee River watersheds located in the Gulf Coast, USA. These estimates were based on downscaled future climate projections from 20 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5). Models were calibrated and validated using observed data from 58, 19, and 14 streamflow gauges in the Mobile River, Apalachicola River, and Suwannee River watersheds, respectively. Evaluation indices including the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of determination (R2), and refined index of agreement (dr) were used to assess model quality. The mean values derived during calibration (NSE=0.68, R2=0.77, and dr=0.73) and validation (NSE=0.70, R2=0.78, and dr=0.74) of all watersheds indicated that the models performed well at simulating monthly streamflow. Our simulation results indicated an overall increase in mean annual streamflow for all the watersheds with a maximum increase in discharge of 28.6% for the Suwannee River watershed for RCP 4.5 during the 2080s, which is associated with a 6.8% increase in precipitation during the same time period. We observed an overall warming (4.2oC) with an increase in future precipitation (3.8%) in all watersheds during the 2080s under the worst-case RCP 8.5 scenario compared to the historical time period. Despite an increase in future precipitation, surface

  14. Inclusive innovation: a research project on the inclusion of social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Fisscher, O.A.M.; Looise, Jan C.

    2002-01-01

    The focus of attention in research on corporate social responsibility has shifted away from convincing companies to live up to social responsibilities. Nowadays, the focus is much more on developing tools and methods for supporting companies to incorporate these responsibilities in their conduct of

  15. Report: Response to Congressional Request on Signage Requirements for Projects Funded by the Recovery Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-X-0175, August 2, 2010. EPA developed two forms of guidance that discuss the need for recipients to display a Recovery Act logo to communicate to the public that the project is a Recovery Act investment.

  16. In Vivo Observation of Structural Changes in Neocortical Catecholaminergic Projections in Response to Drugs of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Mai M; Tanaka, Shinji; Mizutani, Shunsuke; Urata, Shinji; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Okabe, Shigeo

    2018-01-01

    Catecholaminergic (dopamine and norepinephrine) projections to the cortex play an important role in cognitive functions and dysfunctions including learning, addiction, and mental disorders. While dynamics of glutamatergic synapses have been well studied in such contexts, little is known regarding catecholaminergic projections, owing to lack of robust methods. Here we report a system to monitor catecholaminergic projections in vivo over the timeframes that such events occur. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by tyrosine hydroxylase promoter in a transgenic mouse line enabled us to perform two-photon imaging of cortical catecholaminergic projections through a cranial window. Repetitive imaging of the same axons over 24 h revealed the highly dynamic nature of catecholaminergic boutons. Surprisingly, administration of single high dose methamphetamine (MAP) induced a transient increase in bouton volumes. This new method opens avenues for longitudinal in vivo evaluation of structural changes at single release sites of catecholamines in association with physiology and pathology of cortical functions.

  17. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Air Response to the Tet Offensive 30 January - 29 February 1968

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, A. W; Thorndale, C. W

    1968-01-01

    Project CHECO was established in 1962 to document and analyze air operations in Southeast Asia, Over the years the meaning of the acronym changed several times to reflect the escalation of operations...

  18. Piloting a Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Evaluating Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Clevenger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, wildlife crossing structures should enhance the viability of wildlife populations. Previous research has demonstrated that a broad range of species will use crossing structures, however, questions remain as to whether these measures actually provide benefits to populations. To assess this, studies will need to determine the number of individuals using crossings, their sex, and their genetic relationships. Obtaining empirical data demonstrating population-level benefits for some species can be problematic and challenging at best. Molecular techniques now make it possible to identify species, individuals, their sex, and their genetic relatedness from hair samples collected through non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS. We describe efforts to pilot a method to assess potential population-level benefits of wildlife crossing structures. We tested the feasibility of a prototype NGS system designed to sample hair from black bears (Ursus americanus and grizzly bears (U. arctos at two wildlife underpasses. The piloted hair-sampling method did not deter animal use of the trial underpasses and was effective at sampling hair from more than 90% of the bear crossing events at the underpasses. Hair samples were also obtained from non-target carnivore species, including three out of five (60% cougar (Puma concolor crossing events. Individual identification analysis revealed that three female and two male grizzly bears used one wildlife underpass, whereas two female and three male black bears were identified as using the other underpass. Of the 36 hair samples from bears analyzed, five failed, resulting in an 87% extraction success rate, and six more were only identified to species. Overall, 70% of the hair samples from bears collected in the field had sufficient DNA for extraction purposes. Preliminary data from our NGS suggest the technique can be a reliable method to assess the population-level benefits of Banff wildlife crossings. Furthermore, NGS

  19. Population-Level Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution during Active Travel: Planning for Low-Exposure, Health-Promoting Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Lindsey, Greg; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-04-01

    Providing infrastructure and land uses to encourage active travel (i.e., bicycling and walking) are promising strategies for designing health-promoting cities. Population-level exposure to air pollution during active travel is understudied. Our goals were a ) to investigate population-level patterns in exposure during active travel, based on spatial estimates of bicycle traffic, pedestrian traffic, and particulate concentrations; and b ) to assess how those exposure patterns are associated with the built environment. We employed facility-demand models (active travel) and land use regression models (particulate concentrations) to estimate block-level ( n = 13,604) exposure during rush-hour (1600-1800 hours) in Minneapolis, Minnesota. We used the model-derived estimates to identify land use patterns and characteristics of the street network that are health promoting. We also assessed how exposure is correlated with indicators of health disparities (e.g., household income, proportion of nonwhite residents). Our work uses population-level rates of active travel (i.e., traffic flows) rather than the probability of walking or biking (i.e., "walkability" or "bikeability") to assess exposure. Active travel often occurs on high-traffic streets or near activity centers where particulate concentrations are highest (i.e., 20-42% of active travel occurs on blocks with high population-level exposure). Only 2-3% of blocks (3-8% of total active travel) are "sweet spots" (i.e., high active travel, low particulate concentrations); sweet spots are located a ) near but slightly removed from the city-center or b ) on off-street trails. We identified 1,721 blocks (~ 20% of local roads) where shifting active travel from high-traffic roads to adjacent low-traffic roads would reduce exposure by ~ 15%. Active travel is correlated with population density, land use mix, open space, and retail area; particulate concentrations were mostly unchanged with land use. Public health officials and

  20. Projected Response of Low-Level Convergence and Associated Precipitation to Greenhouse Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Evan; Jakob, Christian; Reeder, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    The parameterization of convection in climate models is a large source of uncertainty in projecting future precipitation changes. Here an objective method to identify organized low-level convergence lines has been used to better understand how atmospheric convection is organized and projected to change, as low-level convergence plays an important role in the processes leading to precipitation. The frequency and strength of convergence lines over both ocean and land in current climate simulations is too low compared to reanalysis data. Projections show a further reduction in the frequency and strength of convergence lines over the midlatitudes. In the tropics, the largest changes in frequency are generally associated with shifts in major low-latitude convergence zones, consistent with changes in the precipitation. Further, examining convergence lines when in the presence or absence of precipitation results in large spatial contrasts, providing a better understanding of regional changes in terms of thermodynamic and dynamic effects.

  1. Simulated hydrologic response to projected changes in precipitation and temperature in the Congo River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aloysius

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite their global significance, the impacts of climate change on water resources and associated ecosystem services in the Congo River basin (CRB have been understudied. Of particular need for decision makers is the availability of spatial and temporal variability of runoff projections. Here, with the aid of a spatially explicit hydrological model forced with precipitation and temperature projections from 25 global climate models (GCMs under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios, we explore the variability in modeled runoff in the near future (2016–2035 and mid-century (2046–2065. We find that total runoff from the CRB is projected to increase by 5 % [−9 %; 20 %] (mean – min and max – across model ensembles over the next two decades and by 7 % [−12 %; 24 %] by mid-century. Projected changes in runoff from subwatersheds distributed within the CRB vary in magnitude and sign. Over the equatorial region and in parts of northern and southwestern CRB, most models project an overall increase in precipitation and, subsequently, runoff. A simulated decrease in precipitation leads to a decline in runoff from headwater regions located in the northeastern and southeastern CRB. Climate model selection plays an important role in future projections for both magnitude and direction of change. The multimodel ensemble approach reveals that precipitation and runoff changes under business-as-usual and avoided greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP8.5 vs. RCP4.5 are relatively similar in the near term but deviate in the midterm, which underscores the need for rapid action on climate change adaptation. Our assessment demonstrates the need to include uncertainties in climate model and emission scenario selection during decision-making processes related to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  2. Simulated hydrologic response to projected changes in precipitation and temperature in the Congo River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, Noel; Saiers, James

    2017-08-01

    Despite their global significance, the impacts of climate change on water resources and associated ecosystem services in the Congo River basin (CRB) have been understudied. Of particular need for decision makers is the availability of spatial and temporal variability of runoff projections. Here, with the aid of a spatially explicit hydrological model forced with precipitation and temperature projections from 25 global climate models (GCMs) under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios, we explore the variability in modeled runoff in the near future (2016-2035) and mid-century (2046-2065). We find that total runoff from the CRB is projected to increase by 5 % [-9 %; 20 %] (mean - min and max - across model ensembles) over the next two decades and by 7 % [-12 %; 24 %] by mid-century. Projected changes in runoff from subwatersheds distributed within the CRB vary in magnitude and sign. Over the equatorial region and in parts of northern and southwestern CRB, most models project an overall increase in precipitation and, subsequently, runoff. A simulated decrease in precipitation leads to a decline in runoff from headwater regions located in the northeastern and southeastern CRB. Climate model selection plays an important role in future projections for both magnitude and direction of change. The multimodel ensemble approach reveals that precipitation and runoff changes under business-as-usual and avoided greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP8.5 vs. RCP4.5) are relatively similar in the near term but deviate in the midterm, which underscores the need for rapid action on climate change adaptation. Our assessment demonstrates the need to include uncertainties in climate model and emission scenario selection during decision-making processes related to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  3. Educating for Freedom and Responsibility: Lessons From the First Amendment Schools Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The First Amendment Schools project holds rich lessons in how to change school cultures into "laboratories of democracy"--as well as in how to increase the odds of success for any school reform effort. School reform programs of any sort need to make sure to build in sustainability, to provide ways to spread their lessons beyond the…

  4. Bromus response to climate and projected changes with climate change [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany A. Bradley; Caroline A. Curtis; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2016-01-01

    A prominent goal of invasive plant management is to prevent or reduce the spread of invasive species into uninvaded landscapes and regions. Monitoring and control efforts often rely on scientific knowledge of suitable habitat for the invasive species. However, rising temperatures and altered precipitation projected with climate change are likely to shift the...

  5. Transport fuel demand responses to fuel price and income projections : Comparison of integrated assessment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Bertram, C.; Carrara, S.; Emmerling, J.; Daly, H.; Kitous, A.; McCollum, D. L.; Saadi Failali, N.

    Income and fuel price pathways are key determinants in projections of the energy system in integrated assessment models. In recent years, more details have been added to the transport sector representation in these models. To better understand the model dynamics, this manuscript analyses transport

  6. "It Reminded Me of What Really Matters": Teacher Responses to the Lessons from Auschwitz Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitles, Henry; Cowan, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007, the Lessons from Auschwitz Project organised by the Holocaust Education Trust, has taken groups of Scottish senior school students (between 16 and 18 years) and where possible an accompanying teacher from their school, to Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum as part of a process of increasing young people's knowledge and…

  7. Promises, Premises and Risks: Sharing Responsibilities, Working Up Trust and Sustaining Commitment in Participatory Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Hartswood, Mark; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    2002-01-01

    While participatory design crosses the boundaries between technology production and use, it does not erase them. In accounts of participatory projects, the work of negotiating and changing these boundaries often recedes into the background, yet it is crucial in shaping the very nature and scope o...

  8. Ecological response of a multi-purpose river development project using macro-invertebrates richness and fish habitat value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellaud, M.

    2007-05-01

    SYNERGIE project optimizer taking into account all the project poles. The system of interest is composed of a buffering reservoir of ca. 1 km 2 , a run-off-the- river dam, a hydro power-plant, and an artificial river ensuring longitudinal continuum. The primary part of the work consisted in an extensive literature review on system understanding, anthropic alterations and quality assessment / prediction tool available. The approach consisted of two levels (1) the general ecological considerations to be followed at the project reservoir scale and (2) the measure of the downstream ecological response through modeling. General ecological considerations at the reservoir scale were the implementation of an artificial river ensuring longitudinal connectivity, implementation of artificial ecotonal boosters and the allocation of a sanctuary zone with limited public access. The downstream measure of ecological integrity was based on the choice of three taxonomic groups of macroinvertebrates and four ecological guilds (groups) of fish. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera) and caddisflies (Trichoptera) richness were predicted using simple hydrological and morphological covariates (i.e. substrate, current speed,...) coupled to system specific faunistic surveys. Bank, riffle, pool and midstream fish guilds habitat values were determined using existing methods. By using the simulation results of river development project scenarios as inputs, the ecological response (i.e. the measure of ecological integrity) was computed following the assumptions that high predicted macro-invertebrate richness and high guilds habitat values were linked to a high ecological integrity. An emphasis on the hydro peaking effect in relation with river morphology was performed on macroinvertebrates. They were found to respond well to hydrological and morphological changes induced by river development projects while the approach by fish habitat value encountered limitations in its applicability. Four

  9. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  10. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I final report - Subsystem response (Project V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, L.C.; Chuang, T.Y.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    This document reports on (1) the computation of the responses of subsystems, given the input subsystem support motion for components and systems whose failure can lead to an accident sequence (radioactive release), and (2) the results of a sensitivity study undertaken to determine the contributions of the several links in the seismic methodology chain (SMC) - seismic input (SI), soil-structure interaction (SSI), structure response (STR), and subsystem response (SUB) - to the uncertainty in subsystem response. For the singly supported subsystems (e.g., pumps, turbines, electrical control panels, etc.), we used the spectral acceleration response of the structure at the point where the subsystem components were mounted. For the multiple supported subsystems, we developed 13 piping models of five safety-related systems, and then used the pseudostatic-mode method with multisupport input motion to compute the response parameters in terms of the parameters used in the fragility descriptions (i.e., peak resultant accelerations for valves and peak resultant moments for piping). Damping and frequency were varied to represent the sources of modeling and random uncertainty. Two codes were developed: a modified version of SAPIV which assembles the piping supports into groups depending on the support's location relative to the attached structure, and SAPPAC a stand-alone modular program from which the time-history analysis module is extracted. On the basis of our sensitivity study, we determined that the variability in the combined soil-structure interaction, structural response, and subsystem response areas contribute more to uncertainty in subsystem response than does the variability in the seismic input area, assuming an earthquake within the limited peak ground acceleration range, i.e., 0.15 to 0.30g. The seismic input variations were in terms of different earthquake time histories. (author)

  11. Quantifying population-level health benefits and harms of e-cigarette use in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir S Soneji

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes may help cigarette smokers quit smoking, yet they may also facilitate cigarette smoking for never-smokers. We quantify the balance of health benefits and harms associated with e-cigarette use at the population level.Monte Carlo stochastic simulation model. Model parameters were drawn from census counts, national health and tobacco use surveys, and published literature. We calculate the expected years of life gained or lost from the impact of e-cigarette use on smoking cessation among current smokers and transition to long-term cigarette smoking among never smokers for the 2014 US population cohort.The model estimated that 2,070 additional current cigarette smoking adults aged 25-69 (95% CI: -42,900 to 46,200 would quit smoking in 2015 and remain continually abstinent from smoking for ≥7 years through the use of e-cigarettes in 2014. The model also estimated 168,000 additional never-cigarette smoking adolescents aged 12-17 and young adults aged 18-29 (95% CI: 114,000 to 229,000, would initiate cigarette smoking in 2015 and eventually become daily cigarette smokers at age 35-39 through the use of e-cigarettes in 2014. Overall, the model estimated that e-cigarette use in 2014 would lead to 1,510,000 years of life lost (95% CI: 920,000 to 2,160,000, assuming an optimistic 95% relative harm reduction of e-cigarette use compared to cigarette smoking. As the relative harm reduction decreased, the model estimated a greater number of years of life lost. For example, the model estimated-1,550,000 years of life lost (95% CI: -2,200,000 to -980,000 assuming an approximately 75% relative harm reduction and -1,600,000 years of life lost (95% CI: -2,290,000 to -1,030,000 assuming an approximately 50% relative harm reduction.Based on the existing scientific evidence related to e-cigarettes and optimistic assumptions about the relative harm of e-cigarette use compared to cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use currently

  12. How landscape dynamics link individual- to population-level movement patterns: A multispecies comparison of ungulate relocation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas; Olson, K.A.; Dressler, G.; Leimgruber, Peter; Fuller, Todd K.; Nicholson, Craig; Novaro, A.J.; Bolgeri, M.J.; Wattles, David W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Calabrese, J.M.; Fagan, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Aim  To demonstrate how the interrelations of individual movements form large-scale population-level movement patterns and how these patterns are associated with the underlying landscape dynamics by comparing ungulate movements across species.Locations  Arctic tundra in Alaska and Canada, temperate forests in Massachusetts, Patagonian Steppes in Argentina, Eastern Steppes in Mongolia.Methods  We used relocation data from four ungulate species (barren-ground caribou, Mongolian gazelle, guanaco and moose) to examine individual movements and the interrelation of movements among individuals. We applied and developed a suite of spatial metrics that measure variation in movement among individuals as population dispersion, movement coordination and realized mobility. Taken together, these metrics allowed us to quantify and distinguish among different large-scale population-level movement patterns such as migration, range residency and nomadism. We then related the population-level movement patterns to the underlying landscape vegetation dynamics via long-term remote sensing measurements of the temporal variability, spatial variability and unpredictability of vegetation productivity.Results  Moose, which remained in sedentary home ranges, and guanacos, which were partially migratory, exhibited relatively short annual movements associated with landscapes having very little broad-scale variability in vegetation. Caribou and gazelle performed extreme long-distance movements that were associated with broad-scale variability in vegetation productivity during the peak of the growing season. Caribou exhibited regular seasonal migration in which individuals were clustered for most of the year and exhibited coordinated movements. In contrast, gazelle were nomadic, as individuals were independently distributed and moved in an uncoordinated manner that relates to the comparatively unpredictable (yet broad-scale) vegetation dynamics of their landscape.Main conclusions

  13. Ocean response to volcanic eruptions in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yanni; Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Robock, Alan; Sentman, Lori T.; Krasting, John P.

    2014-01-01

    on decadal to centennial timescales. Regional ocean responses vary, although there is some consistent hemispheric asymmetry associated with the hemisphere in which the eruption occurs. Temperature decreases and salinity increases contribute to an increase

  14. Roles and Responsibilities of Coordinators/Alternates in Managing IAEA Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otwoma, D.

    2009-01-01

    Indicates that, the responsibilities of the coordinators include, to collect lessons learned from past experiences of coordinators/alternates in implementation and to collect information from all stake holders who include, coordinators' and alternates' institutions, regulatory,operations, general public

  15. Eliminating child labour in Malawi: a British American Tobacco corporate responsibility project to sidestep tobacco labour exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, M G; Muggli, M E; Hurt, R D; Glantz, S A

    2006-06-01

    To examine British American Tobacco and other tobacco industry support of the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. Analyses of internal tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data. British American Tobacco co-founded the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation (ECLT) in October 2000 and launched its pilot project in Malawi. ECLT's initial projects were budgeted at US2.3 million dollars over four years. Labour unions and leaf dealers, through ECLT funds, have undertook modest efforts such as building schools, planting trees, and constructing shallow wells to address the use of child labour in tobacco farming. In stark contrast, the tobacco companies receive nearly US40 million dollars over four years in economic benefit through the use of unpaid child labour in Malawi during the same time. BAT's efforts to combat child labour in Malawi through ECLT was developed to support the company's "corporate social responsibility agenda" rather than accepting responsibility for taking meaningful steps to eradicate child labour in the Malawi tobacco sector. In Malawi, transnational tobacco companies are using child labour projects to enhance corporate reputations and distract public attention from how they profit from low wages and cheap tobacco.

  16. Retention of retinal axon collateral is responsible for induced ipsilateral retinotectal projections in adult goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S C; Tsai, C

    1991-01-01

    In normal goldfish, optic axons innervate only the contralateral optic tectum. When one eye was enucleated and the optic nerve of the other eye crushed, the regenerating optic axons innervated both optic tecta. We studied the presence of bilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells by double retrograde cell labeling methods using Nuclear Yellow and True Blue dyes. About 10% of the retinal ganglion cells were double labeled and these cells were found throughout the retina. In addition, HRP application to the ipsilateral tectum revealed retrogradely-labeled retinal ganglion cells of all morphological types. These results suggest that induced ipsilateral projections are formed by regenerating axon collaterals and that all cell types are involved in the generation of normal mirror image typography.

  17. Teachers' response to the Punjab ICT education project: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Ramandeep

    2017-01-01

    Acknowledging the importance of digital technologies in education, the Government of India introduced the ICT in Schools Scheme in 2004 to improve the ICT skills of school students. Under this scheme, the government of Punjab state launched the ICT Education Project for computer education in 2005. This research study aims to explore the perceptions and practices of a small number of teachers in one government, rural girls’ senior secondary school in Punjab in relation to integration of IC...

  18. In-house coordination project for organ and tissue procurement: social responsibility and promising results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa Silva E; Moura, Luciana Carvalho; Martins, Luciana Ribeiro; Santos, Roberta Cristina Cardoso Dos; Schirmer, Janine; Roza, Bartira de Aguiar

    2016-01-01

    to report the results of evaluation regarding changes in the number of potential donor referrals, actual donors, and conversion rates after the implementation of an in-house organ and tissue donation for transplantation coordination project. epidemiological study, both retrospective and transversal, was performed with organ donation data from the Secretariat of Health for the State and the in-house organ donation coordination project of a beneficent hospital. The data was compared using nonparametric statistical Mann-Whitney test, and the Student's t-test, considering a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05), before and after the implementation of the project on the number of potential donor notification/month (3.05 - 4.7 ), number of actual donor/month (0.78 to 1.60) and rate of conversion ( 24.7 to 34.8 %). The hospitals 1, 2, 7 and 8 had significant results in potential donor, actual donor or conversion rate. the presence of an in-house coordinator is promising and beneficial, the specialist is important to change the indicators of efficiency, which consequently reduces the waiting lists for organ transplants.

  19. Community Responses to Government Defunding of Watershed Projects: A Comparative Study in India and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Tomas M.; Sen, Sucharita

    2013-03-01

    When central governments decentralize natural resource management (NRM), they often retain an interest in the local efforts and provide funding for them. Such outside investments can serve an important role in moving community-based efforts forward. At the same time, they can represent risks to the community if government resources are not stable over time. Our focus in this article is on the effects of withdrawal of government resources from community-based NRM. A critical question is how to build institutional capacity to carry on when the government funding runs out. This study compares institutional survival and coping strategies used by community-based project organizations in two different contexts, India and the United States. Despite higher links to livelihoods, community participation, and private benefits, efforts in the Indian cases exhibited lower survival rates than did those in the U.S. cases. Successful coping strategies in the U.S. context often involved tapping into existing institutions and resources. In the Indian context, successful coping strategies often involved building broad community support for the projects and creatively finding additional funding sources. On the other hand, the lack of local community interest, due to the top-down development approach and sometimes narrow benefit distribution, often challenged organizational survival and project maintenance.

  20. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  1. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Ramjee

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002-2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old, unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole.

  2. Ice-dynamic projections of the Greenland ice sheet in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Fürst

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuing global warming will have a strong impact on the Greenland ice sheet in the coming centuries. During the last decade (2000–2010, both increased melt-water runoff and enhanced ice discharge from calving glaciers have contributed 0.6 ± 0.1 mm yr−1 to global sea-level rise, with a relative contribution of 60 and 40% respectively. Here we use a higher-order ice flow model, spun up to present day, to simulate future ice volume changes driven by both atmospheric and oceanic temperature changes. For these projections, the flow model accounts for runoff-induced basal lubrication and ocean warming-induced discharge increase at the marine margins. For a suite of 10 atmosphere and ocean general circulation models and four representative concentration pathway scenarios, the projected sea-level rise between 2000 and 2100 lies in the range of +1.4 to +16.6 cm. For two low emission scenarios, the projections are conducted up to 2300. Ice loss rates are found to abate for the most favourable scenario where the warming peaks in this century, allowing the ice sheet to maintain a geometry close to the present-day state. For the other moderate scenario, loss rates remain at a constant level over 300 years. In any scenario, volume loss is predominantly caused by increased surface melting as the contribution from enhanced ice discharge decreases over time and is self-limited by thinning and retreat of the marine margin, reducing the ice–ocean contact area. As confirmed by other studies, we find that the effect of enhanced basal lubrication on the volume evolution is negligible on centennial timescales. Our projections show that the observed rates of volume change over the last decades cannot simply be extrapolated over the 21st century on account of a different balance of processes causing ice loss over time. Our results also indicate that the largest source of uncertainty arises from the surface mass balance and the underlying climate change

  3. Modeling the population-level effects of male circumcision as an HIV-preventive measure: a gendered perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dushoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from biological, epidemiological, and controlled intervention studies has demonstrated that male circumcision (MC protects males from HIV infection, and MC is now advocated as a public-health intervention against HIV. MC provides direct protection only to men, but is expected to provide indirect protection to women at risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual transmission. How such indirect protection interacts with the possibility that MC campaigns will lead to behavior changes, however, is not yet well understood. Our objective here is to investigate the link between individual-level effects of MC campaigns and long-term population-level outcomes resulting from disease dynamics, looking at both genders separately, over a broad range of parameters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use simple mathematical models of heterosexual transmission to investigate the potential effects of a circumcision scale-up, combined with possible associated behavioral disinhibition. We examine patterns in expected long-term prevalence using a simple equilibrium model based on transmission factors, and validate our results with ODE-based simulations, focusing on the link between effects on females and those on males.We find that the long-term population-level effects on females and males are not strongly linked: there are many possible ways in which an intervention which reduces prevalence in males might nonetheless increase prevalence in females. CONCLUSIONS: Since an intervention that reduces long-term male prevalence could nonetheless increase long-term female prevalence, MC campaigns should explicitly consider both the short-term and long-term effects of MC interventions on females. Our findings strongly underline the importance of pairing MC programs with education, support programs and HIV testing and counseling, together with other prevention measures.

  4. Equity impact of population-level interventions and policies to reduce smoking in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    There is strong evidence about which tobacco control policies reduce smoking. However, their equity impact is uncertain. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of population-level interventions/policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in adult smoking. Systematic review of studies of population-level interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in adults of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed. Results are presented in a narrative synthesis. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequality), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequality), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear. 117 studies of 130 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (44); price/tax (27); mass media campaigns (30); advertising controls (9); cessation support (9); settings-based interventions (7); multiple policies (4). The distribution of equity effects was: 33 positive, 36 neutral, 38 negative, 6 mixed, 17 unclear. Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Fourteen price/tax studies were equity positive. Voluntary, regional and partial smokefree policies were more likely to be equity negative than national, comprehensive smokefree policies. Mass media campaigns had inconsistent equity effects. Cigarette marketing controls were equity positive or neutral. Targeted national smoking cessation services can be equity positive by achieving higher reach among low SES, compensating for lower quit rates. Few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control policy/interventions. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for reducing smoking inequalities and to develop effective equity-orientated tobacco control strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Comparison of the response of various TLDs to cosmic radiation and ion beams: Current results of the HAMLET project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.; Berger, T.; Hajek, M.; Reitz, G.

    2011-01-01

    HAMLET is an European Commission research project aiming at optimal scientific exploitation of the data produced within the space experiment MATROSHKA. During phase 1 of this experiment a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors (mainly TLDs) was exposed outside the International Space Station for 1.5 years. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project includes also a ground-based program of intercomparison of detector response to high-energy ion beams. Within the paper, the relative response of main glow-curve peaks of various TLDs (mostly based on LiF) used in frame of the MATROSHKA experiment by three laboratories (DLR Cologne, ATI Vienna and IFJ Krakow) for radiation in space and several ion beams, has been compared. For LiF:Mg,Ti detectors a very good agreement between results obtained by the three laboratories was observed, both for space and accelerator-based exposures. This should be considered a remarkable result, taking into account that the studied TLDs originated from six different batches, manufactured by two producers exploiting different production techniques and were processed by three laboratories, using significantly different protocols (annealing, readout, calibration, glow-curve analysis). Another type of TL detectors, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, was found to show response to cosmic radiation lower than that of LiF:Mg,Ti by 5%–18%.

  6. A Conceptual Model for Projecting Coccolithophorid Growth, Calcification and Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation Rates in Response to Global Ocean Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A. Gafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, light and carbonate chemistry all influence the growth, calcification and photosynthetic rates of coccolithophores to a similar degree. There have been multiple attempts to project the responses of coccolithophores to changes in carbonate chemistry, but the interaction with light and temperature remains elusive. Here we devise a simple conceptual model to derive a fit equation for coccolithophorid growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates in response to simultaneous changes in carbonate chemistry, temperature and light conditions. The fit equation is able to account for up to 88% of the variability in measured metabolic rates. Equation projections indicate that temperature, light and carbonate chemistry all have different modulating effects on both optimal growth conditions and the sensitivity of responses to extreme environmental conditions. Calculations suggest that a single extreme environmental condition (CO2, temperature, light will reduce maximum rates regardless of how optimal the other environmental conditions may be. Thus, while the response of coccolithophores to ocean change depends on multiple variables, the one which is least optimal will have the most impact on overall rates. Finally, responses to ocean change are usually reported in terms of cellular rates. However, changes in cellular rates can be a poor predictor for assessing changes in production at the community level. We therefore introduce a new metric, the calcium carbonate production potential (CCPP, which combines the independent effects of changes in growth rate and cellular calcium carbonate content to assess how environmental changes will impact coccolith production. Direct comparison of CO2 impacts on cellular CaCO3 production rates and CCPP shows that while the former is still at 45% of its pre-industrial capacity at 1,000 μatm, the latter is reduced to 10%.

  7. Responses to Projected Changes in Climate and UV-B at the Species Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaghan, Terry V. [Abisko Scientific Research Station, Abisko (Sweden); Bjoern, Lars Olof [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Organism Biology; Cernov, Yuri [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Severtsov Inst. of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology] (and others)

    2004-11-01

    Environmental manipulation experiments showed that species respond individualistically to each environmental-change variable. The greatest responses of plants were generally to nutrient, particularly nitrogen, addition. Summer warming experiments showed that woody plant responses were dominant and that mosses and lichens became less abundant. Responses to warming were controlled by moisture availability and snow cover. Many invertebrates increased population growth in response to summer warming, as long as desiccation was not induced. CO{sub 2} and UV-B enrichment experiments showed that plant and animal responses were small. However, some microorganisms and species of fungi were sensitive to increased UV-B and some intensive mutagenic actions could, perhaps, lead to unexpected epidemic outbreaks. Tundra soil heating, CO{sub 2} enrichment and amendment with mineral nutrients generally accelerated microbial activity. Algae are likely to dominate cyanobacteria in milder climates. Expected increases in winter freeze-thaw cycles leading to ice-crust formation are likely to severely reduce winter survival rate and disrupt the population dynamics of many terrestrial animals. A deeper snow cover is likely to restrict access to winter pastures by reindeer/caribou and their ability to flee from predators while any earlier onset of the snow-free period is likely to stimulate increased plant growth. Initial species responses to climate change might occur at the sub-species level: an Arctic plant or animal species with high genetic/racial diversity has proved an ability to adapt to different environmental conditions in the past and is likely to do so also in the future. Indigenous knowledge, air photographs, satellite images and monitoring show that changes in the distributions of some species are already occurring: Arctic vegetation is becoming more shrubby and more productive, there have been recent changes in the ranges of caribou, and 'new' species of insects and

  8. The Involvement of the Business Sector in Corporate Social Responsability (SCR Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia NEGREA

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper endeavors to test the hypothesis according to which by non-governmental organizations and private companies, by means of social corporate activities, can interfere with the functioning of the market in the sense of reducing the effects of negative externalities generated by the market. The structure of the article is threefold: the first section represents the theoretical framework for the analysis (main concepts: social corporate responsibility, externalities, market failures; the second section addresses the evolution of this phenomenon in Romania while the third part discusses a case study that is focused on social corporate responsibility practices.

  9. Science in Hawaii/Haawina Hoopapau: A Culturally Responsive Curriculum Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, L. M.; Roberts, K.; Leake, D. W.; Stodden, R. S.; Crabbe, V.

    2005-12-01

    The marvels of modern science often fail to engage indigenous students, as the content and instructional style are usually rooted in the Western experience. This 3 year project, funded by the US Dept. of Education for the Education of Native Hawaiians, offers a curriculum that teaches science through (rather than just about) Native Hawaiian culture. The curriculum focuses on the interdependence of natural resources in our ahupuaa, or watersheds, and helps students strengthen their sense of place and self to malama i ka aina, to care for the land. Further, the curriculum is designed to: engage students in scientific study with relevant, interesting content and activities; improve student achievement of state department of education standards; increase student knowledge and skills in science, math and language arts; respond to the learning needs of Native Hawaiian and/or at-risk students. The project will be presented by a curriculum writer who created and adapted more than a year's worth of materials by teaming with kupuna (respected elders), local cultural experts and role models, educators (new, veteran, Hawaiian, non-Hawaiian, mainland, general and special education teachers), and professionals at the Center on Disability Studies at the University of Hawaii and ALU LIKE, Inc, a non-profit organization to assist Native Hawaiians. The materials created thus far are available for viewing at: www.scihi.hawaii.edu The curriculum, designed for grades 8-11 science classes, can be used to teach a year-long course, a unit, or single lesson related to astronomy, biology, botany, chemistry, geology, oceanography, physical and environmental sciences. This project is in its final year of field testing, polishing and dissemination, and therefore this session will encourage idea sharing, as does our copyright free Web site.

  10. Circumpolar arctic tundra biomass and productivity dynamics in response to projected climate change and herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Epstein, Howard; Engstrom, Ryan; Walker, Donald

    2017-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing data have indicated a general 'greening' trend in the arctic tundra biome. However, the observed changes based on remote sensing are the result of multiple environmental drivers, and the effects of individual controls such as warming, herbivory, and other disturbances on changes in vegetation biomass, community structure, and ecosystem function remain unclear. We apply ArcVeg, an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model, to estimate potential changes in vegetation biomass and net primary production (NPP) at the plant community and functional type levels. ArcVeg is driven by soil nitrogen output from the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model, existing densities of Rangifer populations, and projected summer temperature changes by the NCAR CCSM4.0 general circulation model across the Arctic. We quantified the changes in aboveground biomass and NPP resulting from (i) observed herbivory only; (ii) projected climate change only; and (iii) coupled effects of projected climate change and herbivory. We evaluated model outputs of the absolute and relative differences in biomass and NPP by country, bioclimate subzone, and floristic province. Estimated potential biomass increases resulting from temperature increase only are approximately 5% greater than the biomass modeled due to coupled warming and herbivory. Such potential increases are greater in areas currently occupied by large or dense Rangifer herds such as the Nenets-occupied regions in Russia (27% greater vegetation increase without herbivores). In addition, herbivory modulates shifts in plant community structure caused by warming. Plant functional types such as shrubs and mosses were affected to a greater degree than other functional types by either warming or herbivory or coupled effects of the two. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genome-wide pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uher, Rudolf; Perroud, Nader; Ng, Mandy Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    . A set of 72 a priori-selected candidate genes did not show pharmacogenetic associations above a chance level, but an association with response to escitalopram was detected in the interleukin-6 gene, which is a close homologue of IL11. Conclusions: While limited statistical power means that a number...

  12. The Coconut Wireless Project: Sharing Culturally Responsive Pedagogy through the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Barber, Sharon; Trumbull, Elise; Wenn, Richard

    Beginning in the 1997-98 school year, WestEd staff, with the support of the Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), worked intensively with a group of five Chamorro teachers from Rota Elementary School (Hawaii) to develop culturally responsive, standards-based science units. The larger goal was to develop Web-based case examples of…

  13. A Flight Research Overview of WSPR, a Pilot Project for Sonic Boom Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Jones, Thomas P.; Waggoner, Erin R.; Flattery, Ashley K.; Wiley, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to identify the methods, tools, and best practices for a large-scale quiet (or low) sonic boom community human response test. The name of the effort was Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR). Such tests will be applied to building a dataset that governing agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization will use to establish regulations for acceptable sound levels of overland sonic booms. The WSPR test was the first such effort that studied responses to non-traditional low sonic booms while the subject persons were in their own homes and performing daily activities.The WSPR test was a NASA collaborative effort with several industry partners, in response to a NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Aeronautics. The primary contractor was Wyle (El Segundo, California). Other partners included Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (Savannah, Georgia); Pennsylvania State University (University Park, Pennsylvania); Tetra Tech, Inc. (Pasadena, California); and Fidell Associates, Inc. (Woodland Hills, California).A major objective of the effort included exposing a community to the sonic boom magnitudes and occurrences that would be expected to occur in high-air traffic regions having a network of supersonic commercial aircraft in place. Low-level sonic booms designed to simulate those produced by the next generation of commercial supersonic aircraft were generated over a small residential community. The sonic boom footprint was recorded with an autonomous wireless microphone array that spanned the entire community. Human response data were collected using multiple

  14. A Flight Research Overview of WSPR, a Pilot Project for Sonic Boom Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry James; Haering, Ed; Jones, Thomas P.; Waggoner, Erin R.; Flattery, Ashley K.; Wiley, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    In support of NASAs ongoing effort to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to identify the methods, tools, and best practices for a large-scale quiet (or low) sonic boom community human response test. The name of the effort was Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response. Such tests will go towards building a dataset that governing agencies like the Federal Aviation Administration and International Civil Aviation Organization will use to establish regulations for acceptable sound levels of overland sonic booms. Until WSPR, there had never been an effort that studied the response of people in their own homes and performing daily activities to non-traditional, low sonic booms.WSPR was a NASA collaborative effort with several industry partners, in response to a NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Aeronautics. The primary contractor was Wyle. Other partners included Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Pennsylvania State University, Tetra Tech, and Fidell Associates, Inc.A major objective of the effort included exposing a community with the sonic boom magnitudes and occurrences expected in high-air traffic regions with a network of supersonic commercial aircraft in place. Low-level sonic booms designed to simulate those produced by the next generation of commercial supersonic aircraft were generated over a small residential community. The sonic boom footprint was recorded with an autonomous wireless microphone array that spanned the entire community. Human response data was collected using multiple survey methods. The research focused on essential elements of community response testing including subject recruitment, survey methods, instrumentation systems, flight planning and operations, and data analysis methods.This paper focuses on NASAs role in the efforts

  15. Response to state comments on the revised draft North Central Regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the North Central Region on the revised draft North Central Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft North Central RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to North Central State comments on both the revised draft North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  16. Response to state comments on the revised draft Southeastern Regional Characterization Reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the Southeastern Region on the revised draft Southeastern Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft Southeastern RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to Southeastern State comments on both the revised draft Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  17. Response to state comments on the revised draft northeastern regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the States of the Northeastern Region on the revised draft Northeastern Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft Northeastern RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to Northeastern State comments on both the revised draft Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  18. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  19. Effects of baseline conditions on the simulated hydrologic response to projected climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in temperature and precipitation projected from five general circulation models, using one late-twentieth-century and three twenty-first-century emission scenarios, were downscaled to three different baseline conditions. Baseline conditions are periods of measured temperature and precipitation data selected to represent twentieth-century climate. The hydrologic effects of the climate projections are evaluated using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), which is a watershed hydrology simulation model. The Almanor Catchment in the North Fork of the Feather River basin, California, is used as a case study. Differences and similarities between PRMS simulations of hydrologic components (i.e., snowpack formation and melt, evapotranspiration, and streamflow) are examined, and results indicate that the selection of a specific time period used for baseline conditions has a substantial effect on some, but not all, hydrologic variables. This effect seems to be amplified in hydrologic variables, which accumulate over time, such as soil-moisture content. Results also indicate that uncertainty related to the selection of baseline conditions should be evaluated using a range of different baseline conditions. This is particularly important for studies in basins with highly variable climate, such as the Almanor Catchment.

  20. The simulation of man-machine interaction in NPPs: the system response analyser project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the ongoing research at Joint Research Centre-Ispra on the simulation of man-machine interaction is reviewed with reference to the past experience of system modelling and to the advances of the technological world. These require the coalescence of mixed disciplines covering the fields of engineering, psychology and sociology. In particular, the complexity of man-machine systems with respect to safety analysis is depicted. The developments and issues in modelling humans and machines are discussed: the possibility of combining them through the System Response Analyser methodology is presented as a balanced to be applied when the objective is the study of safety of systems during abnormal sequences. The three analytical tools which constitute the body of system response analysis namely a quasi-classical simulation of the actual plant, a cognitive model of the operator activities and a driver model, are described. (author)

  1. Skill Transfer and Virtual Training for IND Response Decision-Making: Project Summary and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    Lincoln Laboratory MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LEXINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS Technical Report 1209 Skill Transfer and Virtual ...specifically authorized by the U.S. Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. Skill Transfer and Virtual Training for IND Response...lns:ull of lmme<lla:e 0 evacua!lon). but many aspects are the same (such as !’laVIng fresh water . knowing evacua:Jon routn. and tlavtng a

  2. A Corporate Social Responsibility Project to Improve the Democratization of Scientific Education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Levy

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear technology is part of our everyday life and its beneficial applications help to improve the quality of our lives. Nevertheless, in Brazil, most often the media and social networks tend to associate radiation to nuclear weapons and major accidents, and there is still great misunderstanding about the peaceful applications of nuclear science. The Educational Portal Radioatividades (Radioactivities) is a corporate social responsibility initiative that takes advantage of the growing impact...

  3. Police Mental Health Partnership project: Police Ambulance Crisis Emergency Response (PACER) model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, David; Griffiths, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    To review internationally recognized models of police interactions with people experiencing mental health crises that are sometimes complex and associated with adverse experience for the person in crisis, their family and emergency service personnel. To develop, implement and review a partnership model trial between mental health and emergency services that offers alternative response pathways with improved outcomes in care. Three unique models of police and mental health partnership in the USA were reviewed and used to develop the PACER (Police Ambulance Crisis Emergency Response) model. A three month trial of the model was implemented and evaluated. Significant improvements in response times, the interactions with and the outcomes for people in crisis were some of the benefits shown when compared with usual services. The pilot showed that a partnership involving mental health and police services in Melbourne, Australia could be replicated based on international models. Initial data supported improvements compared with usual care. Further data collection regarding usual care and this new model is required to confirm observed benefits. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  4. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  5. Comment and response document for the UMTRA Project vitro processing site completion report Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Comment and Response Document is a series of UMTRA document review forms regarding the UMTRA Project Vitro Processing Site Completion Report for Salt Lake City, Utah in March, 1995. The completion report provides evidence that the final Salt Lake City, Utah, processing site property conditions are in accordance with the approved design and that all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been satisfied. Included as appendices to support the stated conclusions are the record drawings; a summary of grid test results; contract specifications and construction drawings, the EPA standards (40 CFR Part 192); the audit, inspection, and surveillance summary; the permit information; and project photographs. The principal objective of the remedial action at Salt Lake City is to remove the tailings from the processing site, render the site free of contamination to EPA standards, and restore the site to the final design grade elevations. Each section is evaluated in detail to check all aspects of above report, especially the inclusion of adequate verification data. Each review form contains a section entitled State of Utah Response and Action, which is an explanation or correction of DOE criticisms of the report

  6. Social and Environmental Responsibility and Local Sustainable Development: The Case of the Environmental Education Project and Asset – PEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Rosa Cabral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the actions of social responsibility expressed by the Environmental and Heritage Education Project (PEAP, which has been  implemented in the Boa Vista and Moura communities, both located in Oriximiná, State of Pará. This project purported to promote the rescue and preservation of environmental and cultural heritage in local communities, developed in a partnership between the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (Emilio Goeldi [a painter] Pará Museum] (MPEG, the private company Mineração Rio do Norte (Rio do Norte Mining (MRN and representatives of local communities. This study examines to what extent the actions of PEAP can be considered drivers of sustainable local development. To answer this question, the research focused on the implementation of the PEAP actions and their effects on the two communities under study. Specifically, we sought to identify potential social, cultural and economic impacts of the actions of PEAP on both communities, and to identify future expectations of social subjects involved. This is a case study that follows a qualitative approach. The data collected in documents and interviews were analyzed according to the concepts of sustainable local development, corporate social responsibility and tri-sector partnership. The study identified that the actions taken by the PEAP result of management practices and participatory social planning, and reflecting the redemption of traditional practices, socialization of information and income generation, which together contribute to sustainable local development.

  7. The uncertainty of crop yield projections is reduced by improved temperature response functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Enli; Martre, Pierre; Zhao, Zhigan

    2017-01-01

    , we show that variations in the mathematical functions currently used to simulate temperature responses of physiological processes in 29 wheat models account for >50% of uncertainty in simulated grain yields for mean growing season temperatures from 14 °C to 33 °C. We derived a set of new temperature......Quality) and analysing their results against the HSC data and an additional global dataset from the International Heat Stress Genotpye Experiment (IHSGE)8 carried out by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). More importantly, we derive, based on newest knowledge and data, a set of new...

  8. Microbial and biogeochemical responses to projected future nitrate enrichment in the California upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal California is a dynamic upwelling region where nitrogen (N and iron (Fe can both limit productivity and influence biogeochemistry over different spatial and temporal scales. With global change, the flux of nitrate from upwelling is expected to increase over the next century, potentially driving additional oceanic regions toward Fe limitation. In this study we explored the effect of changes in Fe/N ratio on native phytoplankton from five currently Fe-replete sites near the major California upwelling centers at Bodega Bay and Monterey Bay using nutrient addition incubation experiments. Despite the high nitrate levels (13-30 M in the upwelled water, phytoplankton at three of the five sites showed increased growth when 10 M nitrate was added. None of the sites showed enhanced growth following addition of 10 nM Fe. Nitrate additions favored slow sinking single-celled diatoms over faster sinking chain-forming diatoms, suggesting that future increases in nitrate flux could affect carbon and silicate export and alter grazer populations. In particular, solitary cells of Cylindrotheca were more abundant than the toxin-producing genus Pseudonitzschia following nitrate addition. These responses suggest the biogeochemistry of coastal California could change in response to future increases in nitrate, and multiple stressors like ocean acidification and hypoxia may further result in ecosystem shifts.

  9. Using an Ongoing Study of Terrestrial Plant Response to Ultraviolet Radiation in Project ALERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Estelle; Skiles, J. W.; Seitz, Jeffery C.; Dantoni, Hector L.

    1998-01-01

    The ALERT (Augmented Learning Environment for Renewable Teaching) Project is a cooperative California-based program with two main partners: California State University (CSU) geoscience and education departments and two NASA Centers, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena and the Ames Research Center (ARC) in Mountain View. This paper presents an example of how a NASA research effort can be used in the undergraduate classroom. A study, now in the fourth year, subjects test plants to exposures of varying solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (280 - 340 nm); a full solar UV exposure, a solar UV exposure less about 14% of ambient UV flux, and a UV-blocked regime. This experiment is simple in that only modest amounts of expense are required yet it is elegant since only one variable, UV-flux is involved. The experiment lends itself to teaching several of the Earth Sciences because it uses information from botany, taxonomy, and ecology. Aspects of physics are inherent in the study since portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are studied. Further, since only one of many variables are manipulated, UV flux, the study demonstrates how the scientific method is used in formulating and testing hypotheses. Based on the ALERT experience this summer, this study will be implemented at a CSU campus with the expectation that it will serve as a pedagogical tool and where it will involve students in actual research.

  10. Projected response of an endangered marine turtle population to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Vincent S.; Stock, Charles A.; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V.; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrián

    2012-11-01

    Assessing the potential impacts of climate change on individual species and populations is essential for the stewardship of ecosystems and biodiversity. Critically endangered leatherback turtles in the eastern Pacific Ocean are excellent candidates for such an assessment because their sensitivity to contemporary climate variability has been substantially studied. If incidental fisheries mortality is eliminated, this population still faces the challenge of recovery in a rapidly changing climate. Here we combined an Earth system model, climate model projections assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and a population dynamics model to estimate a 7% per decade decline in the Costa Rica nesting population over the twenty-first century. Whereas changes in ocean conditions had a small effect on the population, the ~2.5°C warming of the nesting beach was the primary driver of the decline through reduced hatching success and hatchling emergence rate. Hatchling sex ratio did not substantially change. Adjusting nesting phenology or changing nesting sites may not entirely prevent the decline, but could offset the decline rate. However, if future observations show a long-term decline in hatching success and emergence rate, anthropogenic climate mitigation of nests (for example, shading, irrigation) may be able to preserve the nesting population.

  11. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Yoffe, Paula; Hills, Nancy; Lustig, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    While experimental and observational studies suggest that sugar intake is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes, independent of its role in obesity, it is unclear whether alterations in sugar intake can account for differences in diabetes prevalence among overall populations. Using econometric models of repeated cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries, we found that every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) was associated with increased diabetes prevalence by 1.1% (p <0.001) after testing for potential selection biases and controlling for other food types (including fibers, meats, fruits, oils, cereals), total calories, overweight and obesity, period-effects, and several socioeconomic variables such as aging, urbanization and income. No other food types yielded significant individual associations with diabetes prevalence after controlling for obesity and other confounders. The impact of sugar on diabetes was independent of sedentary behavior and alcohol use, and the effect was modified but not confounded by obesity or overweight. Duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner, while declines in sugar exposure correlated with significant subsequent declines in diabetes rates independently of other socioeconomic, dietary and obesity prevalence changes. Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity.

  12. A population-level analysis of birth weight indices in Peel Region, Ontario: the impact of ethnic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramuscak, Nancy L; Jiang, Depeng; Dooling, Kathleen L; Mowat, David L

    2012-07-18

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the elevated rate of low birth weight (LBW) in the Region of Peel, Ontario can be attributed to the high proportion of immigrants in the population. In addition, we examined how the infant birth weight distribution in Peel differs by maternal region of birth. Provincial live birth registration data were used to compare rates of LBW, preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births in Peel and Ontario for the years 2002 through 2006 by maternal region of birth. Birth weight for gestational age curves were developed for singletons and were specific for infant sex and maternal region of birth using the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method. Quantile regression was used to examine whether the median birth weight at term (37 to 42 weeks) differed by maternal region of birth. The rate of LBW was higher in Peel than in Ontario (6.8% and 6.0%, respectively). This is the result of a higher SGA rate and not due to differences in rates of preterm birth. Infants of immigrant mothers had significantly lower median birth weights at all gestations, showing that the birth weight distribution among infants of immigrant mothers is shifted towards lower birth weights. At the population level, the shifted birth weight distribution among singleton infants of immigrant mothers has significant impact on the LBW rate observed in Peel.

  13. Simulation to aid in interpreting biological relevance and setting of population-level protection goals for risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Christopher John; Luttik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Specific protection goals (SPGs) comprise an explicit expression of the environmental components that need protection and the maximum impacts that can be tolerated. SPGs are set by risk managers and are typically based on protecting populations or functions. However, the measurable endpoints available to risk managers, at least for vertebrates, are typically laboratory tests. We demonstrate, using the example of eggshell thinning in skylarks, how simulation can be used to place laboratory endpoints in context of population-level effects as an aid to setting the SPGs. We develop explanatory scenarios investigating the impact of different assumptions of eggshell thinning on skylark population size, density and distribution in 10 Danish landscapes, chosen to represent the range of typical Danish agricultural conditions. Landscape and timing of application of the pesticide were found to be the most critical factors to consider in the impact assessment. Consequently, a regulatory scenario of monoculture spring barley with an early spray treatment eliciting the eggshell thinning effect was applied using concentrations eliciting effects of zero to 100% in steps of 5%. Setting the SPGs requires balancing scientific, social and political realities. However, the provision of clear and detailed options such as those from comprehensive simulation results can inform the decision process by improving transparency and by putting the more abstract testing data into the context of real-world impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing population-level morphometric variation of the Mountain Mullet Agonostomus monticola (Teleostei: Mugilidae across its Middle American distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha P. Díaz-Murillo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Population-level morphometric variation of the Mountain Mullet (Agonostomus monticola was assessed in 419 adult specimens from 25 sample sites (river basins across its Middle American distribution (Pacific and Atlantic-Caribbean drainages. This analysis was based on 36 standardized linear measurements and 19 landmarks on geometric morphometrics approach. Discriminant function analysis (DFA revealed 19 linear morphological characters with significant variation among groups. Geometrically, the most notable changes were associated to the curvature of the frontal region of the head, the anterior and posterior insertion of the first dorsal and anal fins. The resulting grouping based on the DFA and geometric morphometrics techniques (Pacific-A, Pacific-B and NE México-Caribbean were similar to those previously recovered by genetic techniques, where the Pacific-B (Ayuquila river basin was the most different group. Our results provide morphological evidence for considering Agonostomus monticola as a complex of evolutionary entities, represented by two forms in the Pacific Ocean and another in the Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Individual- and population-level effects of Odocoileus virginianus herbivory on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Benson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Odocoileus virginianus  (white-tailed deer grazing can impact rare plant species dramatically given their risk for local extirpation and extinction. To determine if O. virginianus management could aid conservation of federally threatened Scutellaria montana  (large-flowered skullcap, we conducted an exclosure experiment across a large occurrence of this rare species in Catoosa County, Georgia, USA. We aimed to: (1 quantify the effects of O. virginianus  grazing on S. montana  individuals, and (2 evaluate the potential of O. virginianus  to influence S. montana  populations. A lesser percentage of S. montana  individuals protected from O. virginianus  were grazed than plants accessible to grazers and additional protection from smaller grazers did not reduce grazing, suggesting that O. virginianus  primarily do graze S. montana. But grazing did not significantly influence S. montana  individuals as evidenced by changes in stem height or the number of leaves per plant assessed during two single growing seasons or across those growing seasons. At the population-level, grazing impacts were buffered by a lack of grazer preferences for specific plant life stages. Although mostly not significant, our findings are biologically interesting given the numerous ecological concerns associated with O. virginianus abundance, including their demonstrated and proposed impact on rare plants.

  16. Review Article: Mapping of children's health and development data on population level using the classification system ICF-CY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Ylva; Granlund, Mats; Gäre-Andersson, Boel; Enskär, Karin

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if essential health and development data of all children in Sweden in the Child Health Service (CHS) and School Health Service (SHS) can be linked to the classification system International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health--Children and Youth (ICF-CY). Lists of essential health terms, compiled by professionals from CHS and SHS, expected to be used in the national standardised records form the basis for the analysis in this study. The essential health terms have been linked to the codes of ICF-CY by using linking rules and a verification procedure. After exclusion of terms not directly describing children's health, a majority of the health terms could be linked into the ICF-CY with a high proportion of terms in body functions and a lower proportion in activity/participation and environment respectively. Some health terms had broad description and were linked to several ICF-CY codes. The precision of the health terms was at a medium level of detail. ICF-CY can be useful as a tool for documenting child health. It provides not only a code useful for statistical purposes but also a language useful for the CHS and SHS in their work on individual as well as population levels. It was noted that the health terms used by services mainly focused on health related to body function. This indicates that more focus is needed on health data related to child's functioning in everyday life situations.

  17. Identifying individual- and population-level characteristics that influence rates of risky alcohol consumption in regional communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Courtney; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; D'Este, Catherine; Mattick, Richard P; Gilmour, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    To examine the extent to which individual- and community- level characteristics account for differences in risky alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2,977 randomly selected individuals from 20 regional communities in NSW, Australia. Individuals drinking at harmful levels on the AUDIT and for risk of harm in the short term and long-term were identified. Multi-level modelling of the correlates of risky alcohol consumption at the individual and community level was conducted. There were differences between communities in alcohol consumption patterns. Being male, unmarried and reporting worse health were significant individual-level correlates for drinking at levels for risk of harm in the long term. The number of GPs (+) and police (-) were significant community characteristics. Being younger (≤25), unmarried, Australian born and with a larger income was associated with drinking at levels for risk of harm in the short term and harmful drinking on the AUDIT. The number of hotels and clubs was positively associated with drinking at levels for risk of harm in the short term. Rates of risky drinking vary significantly between communities and both individual and community characteristics are significantly associated with risky alcohol consumption. A combination of individual- and population-level interventions, tailored to the risk profile of individual communities, is most likely to be optimally effective. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Visible-Light-Responsive Catalyst Development for Volatile Organic Carbon Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Hintze, Paul E.; Coutts, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is a process in which light energy is used to 'activate' oxidation/reduction reactions. Unmodified titanium dioxide (TiO2), a common photocatalyst, requires high-energy UV light for activation due to its large band gap (3.2 eV). Modification of TiO2 can reduce this band gap, leading to visible-light-responsive (VLR) photocatalysts. These catalysts can utilize solar and/or visible wavelength LED lamps as an activation source, replacing mercury-containing UV lamps, to create a "greener," more energy-efficient means for air and water revitalization. Recently, KSC developed several VLR catalysts that, on preliminary evaluation, possessed high catalytic activity within the visible spectrum; these samples out-performed existing commercial VLR catalysts.

  19. Spatial and body-size dependent response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Stelly; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Arsouze, Thomas; Gehlen, Marion; Maury, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, oxygen, and food availability directly affect marine life. Climate models project a global warming of the ocean's surface (~+3 °C), a de-oxygenation of the ocean's interior (~-3%) and a decrease in total marine net primary production (~-8%) under the 'business as usual' climate change scenario (RCP8.5). We estimated the effects of these changes on biological communities using a coupled biogeochemical (PISCES)--ecosystems (APECOSM) model forced by the physical outputs of the last generation of the IPSL-CM Earth System Model. The APECOSM model is a size-structured bio-energetic model that simulates the 3D dynamical distributions of three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, mesopelagic, and migratory) under the effects of multiple environmental factors. The PISCES-APECOSM model ran from 1850 to 2100 under historical forcing followed by RCP8.5. Our RCP8.5 simulation highlights significant changes in the spatial distribution, biomass, and maximum body-size of the simulated pelagic communities. Biomass and maximum body-size increase at high latitude over the course of the century, reflecting the capacity of marine organisms to respond to new suitable environment. At low- and midlatitude, biomass and maximum body-size strongly decrease. In those regions, large organisms cannot maintain their high metabolic needs because of limited and declining food availability. This resource reduction enhances the competition and modifies the biomass distribution among and within the three communities: the proportion of small organisms increases in the three communities and the migrant community that initially comprised a higher proportion of small organisms is favored. The greater resilience of small body-size organisms resides in their capacity to fulfill their metabolic needs under reduced energy supply and is further favored by the release of predation pressure due to the decline of large organisms. These results suggest that small body-size organisms might be

  20. Large-scale dam removal in the northeast United States: documenting ecological responses to the Penobscot River Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Aponte Clarke, G.; Baeder, C.; McCaw, D.; Royte, J.; Saunders, R.; Sheehan, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project aims to improve aquatic connectivity in New England's second largest watershed ( 22,000 km2) by removing the two lowermost, mainstem dams and bypassing a third dam on a principal tributary upstream. Project objectives include: restoring unobstructed access to the entire historic riverine range for five lower river diadromous species including Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon; significantly improving access to upstream habitat for six upper river diadromous species including Atlantic salmon; reconnecting trophic linkages between headwater areas and the Gulf of Maine; restoring fluvial processes to the former impoundments; improving recreational and Penobscot Nation cultural opportunities; and maintaining basin-wide hydropower output. The project is expected to have landscape-scale benefits and the need for a significant investment in long-term monitoring and evaluation to formally quantify ecosystem response has been recognized. A diverse group of federal, state, tribal, NGO, and academic partners has developed a long-term monitoring and evaluation program composed of nine studies that began in 2009. Including American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding that leveraged partner contributions, we have invested nearly $2M to date in pre- and post-removal investigations that evaluate geomorphology/bed sediment, water quality, wetlands, and fisheries. Given the number of affected diadromous species and the diversity of their life histories, we have initiated six distinct, but related, fisheries investigations to document these expected changes: Atlantic salmon upstream and downstream passage efficiency using passive integrated transponder (PIT) and acoustic telemetry; fish community structure via an index of biotic integrity (IBI); total diadromous fish biomass through hydroacoustics; shortnose sturgeon spawning and habitat use via active and passive acoustic telemetry; and freshwater-marine food web interactions by

  1. Finite-time hybrid projective synchronization of the drive-response complex networks with distributed-delay via adaptive intermittent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Yang, Yongqing; Li, Li; Sui, Xin

    2018-06-01

    This paper studies the finite-time hybrid projective synchronization of the drive-response complex networks. In the model, general transmission delays and distributed delays are also considered. By designing the adaptive intermittent controllers, the response network can achieve hybrid projective synchronization with the drive system in finite time. Based on finite-time stability theory and several differential inequalities, some simple finite-time hybrid projective synchronization criteria are derived. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Changes in DNA methylation fingerprint of Quercus ilex trees in response to experimental field drought simulating projected climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, L; Ogaya, R; Barbeta, A; Peñuelas, J

    2014-03-01

    Rapid genetic changes in plants have been reported in response to current climate change. We assessed the capacity of trees in a natural forest to produce rapid acclimation responses based on epigenetic modifications. We analysed natural populations of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species of Mediterranean forests, using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to assess patterns and levels of methylation in individuals from unstressed forest plots and from plots experimentally exposed to drought for 12 years at levels projected for the coming decades. The percentage of hypermethylated loci increased, and the percentage of fully methylated loci clearly decreased in plants exposed to drought. Multivariate analyses exploring the status of methylation at MSAP loci also showed clear differentiation depending on stress. The PCA scores for the MSAP profiles clearly separated the genetic from the epigenetic structure, and also significantly separated the samples within each group in response to drought. Changes in DNA methylation highlight the large capacity of plants to rapidly acclimate to changing environmental conditions, including trees with long life spans, and our results demonstrate those changes. These changes, although unable to prevent the decreased growth and higher mortality associated with this experimental drought, occurred together with a dampening in such decreases as the long-term treatment progressed. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Glutamatergic Tuning of Hyperactive Striatal Projection Neurons Controls the Motor Response to Dopamine Replacement in Parkinsonian Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Jenkins, Meagan A; Burke, Kenneth J; Beck, Goichi; Jenkins, Andrew; Scimemi, Annalisa; Traynelis, Stephen F; Papa, Stella M

    2018-01-23

    Dopamine (DA) loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) alters the function of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) and causes motor deficits, but DA replacement can induce further abnormalities. A key pathological change in animal models and patients is SPN hyperactivity; however, the role of glutamate in altered DA responses remains elusive. We tested the effect of locally applied AMPAR or NMDAR antagonists on glutamatergic signaling in SPNs of parkinsonian primates. Following a reduction in basal hyperactivity by antagonists at either receptor, DA inputs induced SPN firing changes that were stable during the entire motor response, in clear contrast with the typically unstable effects. The SPN activity reduction over an extended putamenal area controlled the release of involuntary movements in the "on" state and therefore improved motor responses to DA replacement. These results demonstrate the pathophysiological role of upregulated SPN activity and support strategies to reduce striatal glutamate signaling for PD therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced sealing project: monitoring the THM response of a full-scale shaft seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Holowick, B.; Priyanto, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Closure of the subsurface facilities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was completed in 2010 with installation of a concrete surface cap. Additionally, as part of decommissioning, seals were installed at the penetration of the shafts through the major hydro-geological feature known as Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2). The seal construction was funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) under the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The shaft seals at the URL were based on the composite seal concept developed for application in a deep geological repository for disposal of used nuclear fuel. The access shaft seal consists of two 3-m thick concrete segments that rigidly confine a 6-m long section of swelling clay-based material (40% bentonite clay - 60% sand by dry mass). Monitoring of the regional groundwater recovery following flooding of the lower shaft is a closure requirement and was included in the design. It was widely recognized that the installation of the seals at the URL represented a unique opportunity to monitor the evolution of the type of seal that might be installed in an actual repository but the NLLP mandate did not include any monitoring of shaft seal evolution. As a result the Enhanced Sealing Project (ESP) partnership composed of NWMO, Posiva, SKB and ANDRA was established and a set of 68 instruments (containing 100 sensors) were installed to monitor the evolution of the seal. In the first year of operation sensors have monitored the following parameters in the ESP: thermal evolution and strain of the concrete components, thermal, hydraulic and mechanical changes in the clay component and its contacts with the rock and concrete confinement. Additionally, monitoring of the near-field and regional groundwater evolution has been undertaken. Monitoring of the short-term thermal-mechanical evolution of the concrete components was successfully accomplished and only a small temperature rise occurred due to

  5. Enhanced sealing project: monitoring the THM response of a full-scale shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Holowick, B.; Priyanto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Closure of the subsurface facilities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was completed in 2010 with installation of a concrete surface cap. Additionally, as part of decommissioning, seals were installed at the penetration of the shafts through the major hydro-geological feature known as Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2). The seal construction was funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) under the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The shaft seals at the URL were based on the composite seal concept developed for application in a deep geological repository for disposal of used nuclear fuel. The access shaft seal consists of two 3-m thick concrete segments that rigidly confine a 6-m long section of swelling clay-based material (40% bentonite clay - 60% sand by dry mass). Monitoring of the regional groundwater recovery following flooding of the lower shaft is a closure requirement and was included in the design. It was widely recognized that the installation of the seals at the URL represented a unique opportunity to monitor the evolution of the type of seal that might be installed in an actual repository but the NLLP mandate did not include any monitoring of shaft seal evolution. As a result the Enhanced Sealing Project (ESP) partnership composed of NWMO, Posiva, SKB and ANDRA was established and a set of 68 instruments (containing 100 sensors) were installed to monitor the evolution of the seal. In the first year of operation sensors have monitored the following parameters in the ESP: thermal evolution and strain of the concrete components, thermal, hydraulic and mechanical changes in the clay component and its contacts with the rock and concrete confinement. Additionally, monitoring of the near-field and regional groundwater evolution has been undertaken. Monitoring of the short-term thermal-mechanical evolution of the concrete components was successfully accomplished and only a small temperature rise occurred due to

  6. Evaluating the response of Lake Prespa (SW Balkan) to future climate change projections from a high-resolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Varotsos, Konstantinos V.; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean stands out globally due to its sensitivity to (future) climate change. Projections suggest that the Balkans will experience precipitation and runoff decreases of up to 30% by 2100. However, these projections show large regional spatial variability. Mediterranean lake-wetland systems are particularly threatened by projected climate changes that compound increasingly intensive human impacts (e.g. water extraction, drainage, pollution and dam-building). Protecting the remaining systems is extremely important for supporting global biodiversity. This protection should be based on a clear understanding of individual lake-wetland hydrological responses to future climate changes, which requires fine-resolution projections and a good understanding of the impact of hydro-climate variability on individual lakes. Climate change may directly affect lake level (variability), volume and water temperatures. In turn, these variables influence lake-ecology, habitats and water quality. Land-use intensification and water abstraction multiply these climate-driven changes. To date, there are no projections of future water level and -temperature of individual Mediterranean lakes under future climate scenarios. These are, however, of crucial importance to steer preservation strategies on the relevant catchment-scale. Here we present the first projections of water level and -temperature of the Prespa Lakes covering the period 2071-2100. These lakes are of global significance for biodiversity, and of great regional socio-economic importance as a water resource and tourist attraction. Impact projections are assessed by the Regional Climate Model RCA4 of the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) driven by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology global climate model MPI-ESM-LR under two RCP future emissions scenarios, the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5, with the simulations carried out in the framework of EURO-CORDEX. Temperature, evapo(transpi)ration and

  7. The Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM1-M – Part 2: Climate response and scenario projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iversen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NorESM is a generic name of the Norwegian earth system model. The first version is named NorESM1, and has been applied with medium spatial resolution to provide results for CMIP5 (http://cmip-pcmdi.llnl.gov/cmip5/index.html without (NorESM1-M and with (NorESM1-ME interactive carbon-cycling. Together with the accompanying paper by Bentsen et al. (2012, this paper documents that the core version NorESM1-M is a valuable global climate model for research and for providing complementary results to the evaluation of possible anthropogenic climate change. NorESM1-M is based on the model CCSM4 operated at NCAR, but the ocean model is replaced by a modified version of MICOM and the atmospheric model is extended with online calculations of aerosols, their direct effect and their indirect effect on warm clouds. Model validation is presented in the companion paper (Bentsen et al., 2012. NorESM1-M is estimated to have equilibrium climate sensitivity of ca. 2.9 K and a transient climate response of ca. 1.4 K. This sensitivity is in the lower range amongst the models contributing to CMIP5. Cloud feedbacks dampen the response, and a strong AMOC reduces the heat fraction available for increasing near-surface temperatures, for evaporation and for melting ice. The future projections based on RCP scenarios yield a global surface air temperature increase of almost one standard deviation lower than a 15-model average. Summer sea-ice is projected to decrease considerably by 2100 and disappear completely for RCP8.5. The AMOC is projected to decrease by 12%, 15–17%, and 32% for the RCP2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, respectively. Precipitation is projected to increase in the tropics, decrease in the subtropics and in southern parts of the northern extra-tropics during summer, and otherwise increase in most of the extra-tropics. Changes in the atmospheric water cycle indicate that precipitation events over continents will become more intense and dry spells more frequent. Extra

  8. Move-by-move dynamics of the advantage in chess matches reveals population-level learning of the game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo V Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The complexity of chess matches has attracted broad interest since its invention. This complexity and the availability of large number of recorded matches make chess an ideal model systems for the study of population-level learning of a complex system. We systematically investigate the move-by-move dynamics of the white player's advantage from over seventy thousand high level chess matches spanning over 150 years. We find that the average advantage of the white player is positive and that it has been increasing over time. Currently, the average advantage of the white player is 0.17 pawns but it is exponentially approaching a value of 0.23 pawns with a characteristic time scale of 67 years. We also study the diffusion of the move dependence of the white player's advantage and find that it is non-Gaussian, has long-ranged anti-correlations and that after an initial period with no diffusion it becomes super-diffusive. We find that the duration of the non-diffusive period, corresponding to the opening stage of a match, is increasing in length and exponentially approaching a value of 15.6 moves with a characteristic time scale of 130 years. We interpret these two trends as a resulting from learning of the features of the game. Additionally, we find that the exponent [Formula: see text] characterizing the super-diffusive regime is increasing toward a value of 1.9, close to the ballistic regime. We suggest that this trend is due to the increased broadening of the range of abilities of chess players participating in major tournaments.

  9. Move-by-move dynamics of the advantage in chess matches reveals population-level learning of the game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V; Mendes, Renio S; Lenzi, Ervin K; del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Amaral, Luís A N

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of chess matches has attracted broad interest since its invention. This complexity and the availability of large number of recorded matches make chess an ideal model systems for the study of population-level learning of a complex system. We systematically investigate the move-by-move dynamics of the white player's advantage from over seventy thousand high level chess matches spanning over 150 years. We find that the average advantage of the white player is positive and that it has been increasing over time. Currently, the average advantage of the white player is 0.17 pawns but it is exponentially approaching a value of 0.23 pawns with a characteristic time scale of 67 years. We also study the diffusion of the move dependence of the white player's advantage and find that it is non-Gaussian, has long-ranged anti-correlations and that after an initial period with no diffusion it becomes super-diffusive. We find that the duration of the non-diffusive period, corresponding to the opening stage of a match, is increasing in length and exponentially approaching a value of 15.6 moves with a characteristic time scale of 130 years. We interpret these two trends as a resulting from learning of the features of the game. Additionally, we find that the exponent [Formula: see text] characterizing the super-diffusive regime is increasing toward a value of 1.9, close to the ballistic regime. We suggest that this trend is due to the increased broadening of the range of abilities of chess players participating in major tournaments.

  10. Ongoing challenges to finding people with Parkinson's disease for epidemiological studies: a comparison of population-level case ascertainment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M Anne; Koehoorn, Mieke; Teschke, Kay

    2011-07-01

    Locating Parkinson's disease cases for epidemiological studies has long been challenging. Self reports, secondary records of physician diagnosis and drug tracer methods each exhibit known disadvantages but have rarely been compared directly. Prescriptions of levodopa have in some studies been considered to comprise a reasonable proxy for Parkinson's disease diagnosis. We tested this assumption by comparing three methods of population-level case ascertainment. We compared the number of Parkinson's disease cases in British Columbia derived from self-reports in the 2001 Canadian Community Health Survey to those obtained from administrative records of filled levodopa prescriptions and to Parkinson's disease diagnoses from physician visit billing and hospital discharge records in 1996 and 2005. We directly compared a case definition based on levodopa prescriptions with a definition based on records of physician diagnosis by calculating positive predictive value and sensitivity. Crude prevalence estimates ranged from approximately 100 to 200 per 100,000. Levodopa-based case definitions overestimated prevalence, while physician- and hospital-record-based case definitions provided lower prevalence estimates compared to survey derived estimates. The proportion of levodopa users with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease declined from 62% to 52% between 1996 and 2005. This decrease was most dramatic among women (64%-44%) and those under age 65 (54%-39%). Sex and age trends suggest increasing use of levodopa among patients with conditions other than Parkinson's disease, such as restless legs syndrome. Increased non-Parkinson's levodopa use decreases the efficiency of levodopa as a Parkinson's disease case tracer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxide_Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Exhaust Mixer Development in the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, J. Douglas; Bansal, Narottam P.; Szelagowski, James; Sokhey, Jagdish; Heffernan, Tab; Clegg, Joseph; Pierluissi, Anthony; Riedell, Jim; Wyen, Travis; Atmur, Steven; hide

    2015-01-01

    LibertyWorks®, a subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Corporation, first studied CMC (ceramic matrix composite) exhaust mixers for potential weight benefits in 2008. Oxide CMC potentially offered weight reduction, higher temperature capability, and the ability to fabricate complex-shapes for increased mixing and noise suppression. In 2010, NASA was pursuing the reduction of NOx emissions, fuel burn, and noise from turbine engines in Phase I of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project (within the Integrated Systems Research Program). ERA subtasks, including those focused on CMC components, were being formulated with the goal of maturing technology from Proof of Concept Validation (Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3)) to System/Subsystem or Prototype Demonstration in a Relevant Environment (TRL 6). LibertyWorks®, a subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Corporation, first studied CMC (ceramic matrix composite) exhaust mixers for potential weight benefits in 2008. Oxide CMC potentially offered weight reduction, higher temperature capability, and the ability to fabricate complex-shapes for increased mixing and noise suppression. In 2010, NASA was pursuing the reduction of NOx emissions, fuel burn, and noise from turbine engines in Phase I of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project (within the Integrated Systems Research Program). ERA subtasks, including those focused on CMC components, were being formulated with the goal of maturing technology from Proof of Concept Validation (Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3)) to System/Subsystem or Prototype Demonstration in a Relevant Environment (TRL 6). Oxide CMC component at both room and elevated temperatures. A TRL˜5 (Component Validation in a Relevant Environment) was attained and the CMC mixer was cleared for ground testing on a Rolls-Royce AE3007 engine for performance evaluation to achieve TRL 6.

  12. Response of roseate tern to a shoreline protection project on Falkner Island, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Fischer, Richard A.; Pashley, David N.; Lott, Casey A.

    2007-01-01

    Construction was initiated following the 2000 tern breeding season for Phase 1 of a planned two-phase ?Shoreline Protection and Erosion Control Project? at the Falkner Island Unit of the USFWS Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge located in Long Island Sound off the coast of Guilford, CT. When the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) and federally endangered Roseate Tern (S. dougallii) arrived in spring 2001, they encountered several major habitat changes from what had existed in previous years. These changes included: a rock revetment covering most of the former nesting habitat on the beach from the northwestern section around the northern tip and covering about 60% of the eastern side; an elevated 60- ? 4-m shelf covering the beach and lower bank of the southwestern section; and about 2,000 sq m of devegetated areas on top of the island on the northeast side above the revetment, and about one-third of the southern half of the island. The southwest shelf was created by bulldozing and compacting extra construction fill and in situ materials. This shelf differed in internal structure from the main revetment on the north and eastern sections of the island because it lacked the deep internal crevices of the revetment. The deep internal crevices were created from the large stones and boulders (up to 2 tons) used in the construction of the main revetment. Small rock and gravel was used to fill the crevices to within 3 feet (0.9 m) of the surface of the revetment. Because half-buried tires and nest boxes for the six Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) sub-colony areas were deployed in similar patterns on the remaining beach, and nest boxes were placed on the newly elevated shelf areas several meters above previous locations on the now-covered beach areas, the distribution of Roseate Tern nests did not change much from 2000 to 2001. However, the movements of Roseate Tern chicks ? in many cases led by their parents towards traditional hiding places ? into the labyrinth of

  13. Population-level body condition correlates with productivity in an arctic wader, the dunlin Calidris alpina, during post-breeding migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Grzegorz; Pilacka, Lucyna; Zieliński, Piotr; Gromadzka, Jadwiga

    2017-01-01

    Weather and predation constitute the two main factors affecting the breeding success of those Arctic waders whose productivity is highly variable over the years. We tested whether reproductive success is associated with the post-breeding condition of adults, in which in 'good' years (with warm weather, plentiful food and low predation pressure) the condition of breeders and their productivity is high. To verify this hypothesis, we used a 10-year dataset comprising 20,792 dunlins Calidris alpina, trapped during migration at a stopover site on the southern Baltic Sea shore. Males were consistently in a slightly worse condition than females, likely due to male-biased parental investment in brood rearing. Annual productivity indices were positively correlated with the respective condition indices of breeders from the Eurasian Arctic, indicating that in 'good' years, despite great effort spent on reproduction, breeders leave the breeding grounds in better condition. The pattern did not hold for 1992: productivity was low, but the average condition of adults during migration was the highest noted over the decade. We suggest that the delayed effect of the Mount Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, could be responsible for the unexpected high condition of Arctic breeders in 1992. High population-level average condition, coupled with the low productivity could stem from severe weather caused by the volcano eruption a year before and strong predation pressure, which in turn lead to a reduced investment in reproduction. The importance of large-scale episodic phenomena, like this volcano eruption, may blur the statistical associations of wildlife with local environmental drivers.

  14. Population-level body condition correlates with productivity in an arctic wader, the dunlin Calidris alpina, during post-breeding migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Neubauer

    Full Text Available Weather and predation constitute the two main factors affecting the breeding success of those Arctic waders whose productivity is highly variable over the years. We tested whether reproductive success is associated with the post-breeding condition of adults, in which in 'good' years (with warm weather, plentiful food and low predation pressure the condition of breeders and their productivity is high. To verify this hypothesis, we used a 10-year dataset comprising 20,792 dunlins Calidris alpina, trapped during migration at a stopover site on the southern Baltic Sea shore. Males were consistently in a slightly worse condition than females, likely due to male-biased parental investment in brood rearing. Annual productivity indices were positively correlated with the respective condition indices of breeders from the Eurasian Arctic, indicating that in 'good' years, despite great effort spent on reproduction, breeders leave the breeding grounds in better condition. The pattern did not hold for 1992: productivity was low, but the average condition of adults during migration was the highest noted over the decade. We suggest that the delayed effect of the Mount Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, could be responsible for the unexpected high condition of Arctic breeders in 1992. High population-level average condition, coupled with the low productivity could stem from severe weather caused by the volcano eruption a year before and strong predation pressure, which in turn lead to a reduced investment in reproduction. The importance of large-scale episodic phenomena, like this volcano eruption, may blur the statistical associations of wildlife with local environmental drivers.

  15. Understanding the sub-cellular dynamics of silicon transportation and synthesis in diatoms using population-level data and computational optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Javaheri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled synthesis of silicon is a major challenge in nanotechnology and material science. Diatoms, the unicellular algae, are an inspiring example of silica biosynthesis, producing complex and delicate nano-structures. This happens in several cell compartments, including cytoplasm and silica deposition vesicle (SDV. Considering the low concentration of silicic acid in oceans, cells have developed silicon transporter proteins (SIT. Moreover, cells change the level of active SITs during one cell cycle, likely as a response to the level of external nutrients and internal deposition rates. Despite this topic being of fundamental interest, the intracellular dynamics of nutrients and cell regulation strategies remain poorly understood. One reason is the difficulties in measurements and manipulation of these mechanisms at such small scales, and even when possible, data often contain large errors. Therefore, using computational techniques seems inevitable. We have constructed a mathematical model for silicon dynamics in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in four compartments: external environment, cytoplasm, SDV and deposited silica. The model builds on mass conservation and Michaelis-Menten kinetics as mass transport equations. In order to find the free parameters of the model from sparse, noisy experimental data, an optimization technique (global and local search, together with enzyme related penalty terms, has been applied. We have connected population-level data to individual-cell-level quantities including the effect of early division of non-synchronized cells. Our model is robust, proven by sensitivity and perturbation analysis, and predicts dynamics of intracellular nutrients and enzymes in different compartments. The model produces different uptake regimes, previously recognized as surge, externally-controlled and internally-controlled uptakes. Finally, we imposed a flux of SITs to the model and compared it with previous classical kinetics

  16. An item response theory analysis of the Executive Interview and development of the EXIT8: A Project FRONTIER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; Dressel, Jeffrey A; Gavett, Brandon E; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2015-01-01

    The Executive Interview (EXIT25) is an effective measure of executive dysfunction, but may be inefficient due to the time it takes to complete 25 interview-based items. The current study aimed to examine psychometric properties of the EXIT25, with a specific focus on determining whether a briefer version of the measure could comprehensively assess executive dysfunction. The current study applied a graded response model (a type of item response theory model for polytomous categorical data) to identify items that were most closely related to the underlying construct of executive functioning and best discriminated between varying levels of executive functioning. Participants were 660 adults ages 40 to 96 years living in West Texas, who were recruited through an ongoing epidemiological study of rural health and aging, called Project FRONTIER. The EXIT25 was the primary measure examined. Participants also completed the Trail Making Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Test, among other measures, to examine the convergent validity of a brief form of the EXIT25. Eight items were identified that provided the majority of the information about the underlying construct of executive functioning; total scores on these items were associated with total scores on other measures of executive functioning and were able to differentiate between cognitively healthy, mildly cognitively impaired, and demented participants. In addition, cutoff scores were recommended based on sensitivity and specificity of scores. A brief, eight-item version of the EXIT25 may be an effective and efficient screening for executive dysfunction among older adults.

  17. Measuring the Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy Roll-Out on Population Level Fertility in Three African Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milly Marston

    Full Text Available UNAIDS official estimates of national HIV prevalence are based on trends observed in antenatal clinic surveillance, after adjustment for the reduced fertility of HIV positive women. Uptake of ART may impact on the fertility of HIV positive women, implying a need to re-estimate the adjustment factors used in these calculations. We analyse the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART provision on population-level fertility in Southern and East Africa, comparing trends in HIV infected women against the secular trends observed in uninfected women.We used fertility data from four community-based demographic and HIV surveillance sites: Kisesa (Tanzania, Masaka and Rakai (Uganda and uMkhanyakude (South Africa. All births to women aged 15-44 years old were included in the analysis, classified by mother's age and HIV status at time of birth, and ART availability in the community. Calendar time period of data availability relative to ART Introduction varied across the sites, from 5 years prior to ART roll-out, to 9 years after. Calendar time was classified according to ART availability, grouped into pre ART, ART introduction (available in at least one health facility serving study site and ART available (available in all designated health facilities serving study site. We used Poisson regression to calculate age adjusted fertility rate ratios over time by HIV status, and investigated the interaction between ART period and HIV status to ascertain whether trends over time were different for HIV positive and negative women.Age-adjusted fertility rates declined significantly over time for HIV negative women in all four studies. However HIV positives either had no change in fertility (Masaka, Rakai or experienced a significant increase over the same period (Kisesa, uMkhanyakude. HIV positive fertility was significantly lower than negative in both the pre ART period (age adjusted fertility rate ratio (FRR range 0.51 95%CI 0.42-0.61 to 0.73 95%CI 0.64-0.83 and when

  18. Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugel, Emily J; Henderson, Sarah B; Carpiano, Richard M; Brauer, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e.g., parks and street trees) and bluespace (e.g., oceans and lakes). The index was developed for greater Vancouver, Canada. Greenness presence was derived from remote sensing (NDVI/EVI); forms were extracted from municipal and private databases; and accessibility was based on restrictions such as private ownership. Quality appraisals were conducted for 200 randomly sampled parks using the Public Open Space Desktop Appraisal Tool (POSDAT). Integrating these measures in GIS, exposure was assessed for 60,242 postal codes using 100- to 1,600-m buffers based on hypothesized pathways to mental health. A single index was then derived using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparing NDVI with alternate approaches for assessing natural space resulted in widely divergent results, with quintile rankings shifting for 22-88% of postal codes, depending on the measure. Overall park quality was fairly low (mean of 15 on a scale of 0-45), with no significant difference seen by neighborhood-level household income. The final PCA identified three main sets of variables, with the first two components explaining 68% of the total variance. The first component was dominated by the percentages of public and private greenspace and bluespace and public greenspace within 250m, while the second component was driven by lack of access to bluespace within 1 km. Many current approaches to modeling natural space may misclassify exposures and have limited specificity. The Natural Space Index

  19. Modeling the cellular mechanisms and olfactory input underlying the triphasic response of moth pheromone-sensitive projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Gu

    Full Text Available In the antennal lobe of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon, most pheromone-sensitive projection neurons (PNs exhibit a triphasic firing pattern of excitation (E1-inhibition (I-excitation (E2 in response to a pulse of the sex pheromone. To understand the mechanisms underlying this stereotypical discharge, we developed a biophysical model of a PN receiving inputs from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs via nicotinic cholinergic synapses. The ORN is modeled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process whose firing rate is a function of time and is fitted to extracellular data recorded in response to pheromone stimulations at various concentrations and durations. The PN model is based on the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism with realistic ionic currents whose parameters were derived from previous studies. Simulations revealed that the inhibitory phase I can be produced by a SK current (Ca2+-gated small conductance K+ current and that the excitatory phase E2 can result from the long-lasting response of the ORNs. Parameter analysis further revealed that the ending time of E1 depends on some parameters of SK, Ca2+, nACh and Na+ currents; I duration mainly depends on the time constant of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, conductance of Ca2+ currents and some parameters of nACh currents; The mean firing frequency of E1 and E2 depends differentially on the interaction of various currents. Thus it is likely that the interplay between PN intrinsic currents and feedforward synaptic currents are sufficient to generate the triphasic firing patterns observed in the noctuid moth A. ipsilon.

  20. Inflammation alters AMPA-stimulated calcium responses in dorsal striatal D2 but not D1 spiny projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winland, Carissa D; Welsh, Nora; Sepulveda-Rodriguez, Alberto; Vicini, Stefano; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A

    2017-11-01

    Neuroinflammation precedes neuronal loss in striatal neurodegenerative diseases and can be exacerbated by the release of proinflammatory molecules by microglia. These molecules can affect trafficking of AMPARs. The preferential trafficking of calcium-permeable versus impermeable AMPARs can result in disruptions of [Ca 2+ ] i and alter cellular functions. In striatal neurodegenerative diseases, changes in [Ca 2+ ] i and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) have been reported. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether a proinflammatory environment alters AMPA-stimulated [Ca 2+ ] i through calcium-permeable AMPARs and/or L-type VGCCs in dopamine-2- and dopamine-1-expressing striatal spiny projection neurons (D2 and D1 SPNs) in the dorsal striatum. Mice expressing the calcium indicator protein, GCaMP in D2 or D1 SPNs, were utilized for calcium imaging. Microglial activation was assessed by morphology analyses. To induce inflammation, acute mouse striatal slices were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we report that LPS treatment potentiated AMPA responses only in D2 SPNs. When a nonspecific VGCC blocker was included, we observed a decrease of AMPA-stimulated calcium fluorescence in D2 but not D1 SPNs. The remaining agonist-induced [Ca 2+ ] i was mediated by calcium-permeable AMPARs because the responses were completely blocked by a selective calcium-permeable AMPAR antagonist. We used isradipine, the highly selective L-type VGCC antagonist to determine the role of L-type VGCCs in SPNs treated with LPS. Isradipine decreased AMPA-stimulated responses selectively in D2 SPNs after LPS treatment. Our findings suggest that dorsal striatal D2 SPNs are specifically targeted in proinflammatory conditions and that L-type VGCCs and calcium-permeable AMPARs are important mediators of this effect. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Farmers' perceptions of the "Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Africa in Response to the Food Crisis" (UPoCA) project : Experiences from Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Thao Thi Phuong

    2012-01-01

    The “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Africa in Response to the Food Price Crisis” (UPoCA) project carried out by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture from 2008 to 2010 aimed to assist farmers to increase food security and improve livelihoods through promoting cassava cultivation. In this study, 120 beneficiary households of the UPoCA project in Kasungu and Dowa provinces in Malawi were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire together with key informant interviews a...

  2. The response of soil organic carbon of a rich fen peatland in interior Alaska to projected climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhaosheng; David McGuire, Anthony; Turetsky, Merritt R; Harden, Jennifer W; Michael Waddington, James; Kane, Evan S

    2013-02-01

    It is important to understand the fate of carbon in boreal peatland soils in response to climate change because a substantial change in release of this carbon as CO2 and CH4 could influence the climate system. The goal of this research was to synthesize the results of a field water table manipulation experiment conducted in a boreal rich fen into a process-based model to understand how soil organic carbon (SOC) of the rich fen might respond to projected climate change. This model, the peatland version of the dynamic organic soil Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (peatland DOS-TEM), was calibrated with data collected during 2005-2011 from the control treatment of a boreal rich fen in the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX). The performance of the model was validated with the experimental data measured from the raised and lowered water-table treatments of APEX during the same period. The model was then applied to simulate future SOC dynamics of the rich fen control site under various CO2 emission scenarios. The results across these emissions scenarios suggest that the rate of SOC sequestration in the rich fen will increase between year 2012 and 2061 because the effects of warming increase heterotrophic respiration less than they increase carbon inputs via production. However, after 2061, the rate of SOC sequestration will be weakened and, as a result, the rich fen will likely become a carbon source to the atmosphere between 2062 and 2099. During this period, the effects of projected warming increase respiration so that it is greater than carbon inputs via production. Although changes in precipitation alone had relatively little effect on the dynamics of SOC, changes in precipitation did interact with warming to influence SOC dynamics for some climate scenarios. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The response of soil organic carbon of a rich fen peatland in interior Alaska to projected climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhaosheng; McGuire, Anthony David; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Waddington, James Michael; Kane, Evan S.

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand the fate of carbon in boreal peatland soils in response to climate change because a substantial change in release of this carbon as CO2 and CH4 could influence the climate system. The goal of this research was to synthesize the results of a field water table manipulation experiment conducted in a boreal rich fen into a process-based model to understand how soil organic carbon (SOC) of the rich fen might respond to projected climate change. This model, the peatland version of the dynamic organic soil Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (peatland DOS-TEM), was calibrated with data collected during 2005–2011 from the control treatment of a boreal rich fen in the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX). The performance of the model was validated with the experimental data measured from the raised and lowered water-table treatments of APEX during the same period. The model was then applied to simulate future SOC dynamics of the rich fen control site under various CO2 emission scenarios. The results across these emissions scenarios suggest that the rate of SOC sequestration in the rich fen will increase between year 2012 and 2061 because the effects of warming increase heterotrophic respiration less than they increase carbon inputs via production. However, after 2061, the rate of SOC sequestration will be weakened and, as a result, the rich fen will likely become a carbon source to the atmosphere between 2062 and 2099. During this period, the effects of projected warming increase respiration so that it is greater than carbon inputs via production. Although changes in precipitation alone had relatively little effect on the dynamics of SOC, changes in precipitation did interact with warming to influence SOC dynamics for some climate scenarios.

  4. Beyond the line: exploring the HRM responsibilities of line managers, project managers and the HRM department in four project-oriented companies in the Netherlands, Austria, the UK and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegan, A.; Huemann, M.; Turner, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of what human resource management (HRM) responsibilities are devolved from the HRM department to line managers has attracted much interest in recent years. We report findings from a study on the devolution of HRM practices in four project-oriented companies (POCs) and argue that although

  5. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictions from transmission-dynamic models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie; Bogaards, Johannes A; Baussano, Iacopo; Vänskä, Simopekka; Jit, Mark; Boily, Marie-Claude; Smith, Megan A; Berkhof, Johannes; Canfell, Karen; Chesson, Harrell W; Burger, Emily A; Choi, Yoon H; De Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; De Vlas, Sake J; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Hontelez, Jan A C; Horn, Johannes; Jepsen, Martin R; Kim, Jane J; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Matthijsse, Suzette M; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Pavelyev, Andrew; Pillsbury, Matthew; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Tully, Stephen P; Turner, Hugo C; Usher, Cara; Walsh, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    Modelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of

  6. Socio-behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at an individual and population level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.; Alkilzy, M.; Slot, D.E.; Dörfer, C.E.; Schmoeckel, J.; Splieth, C.H.

    AIM: Aim was to systematically review behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level. MATERIAL & METHODS: With regard to caries, MEDLINE/PubMed was searched on three subheadings focusing on early childhood, proximal and

  7. Nationwide individual record linkage study showed poor agreement of causes of death and hospital diagnoses at individual level but reasonable agreement at population level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    Objectives: To investigate to what extent underlying and multiple causes of death represent end-of-life morbidity in individuals and at population level. Study Design and Setting: Cause of death and national hospital data were individually linked for all deaths at the age of 50-84 years, in 2005 in

  8. Variation in population levels of physical activity in European adults according to cross-European studies: a systematic literature review within DEDIPAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A.; Hecke, L. van; Verloigne, M.; Hendriksen, I.; Lakerveld, J.; Steene-Johannessen, J.; Vuillemin, A.; Koster, A.; Donnelly, A.; Ekelund, U.; Deforche, B.; Bourdeaudhuij, I. de; Brug, J.; Ploeg, H.P. van der

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is a well-known public health risk that should be monitored at the population level. Physical activity levels are often surveyed across Europe. This systematic literature review aims to provide an overview of all existing cross-European studies that assess physical

  9. Variation in population levels of physical activity in European adults according to cross-European studies: a systematic literature review within DEDIPAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A.; Van Hecke, L.; Verloigne, M.; Hendriksen, I.; Lakerveld, J.; Steene-Johannessen, J.; Vuillemin, A.; Koster, A.; Donnelly, A.; Ekelund, U.; Deforche, B.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Brug, J.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a well-known public health risk that should be monitored at the population level. Physical activity levels are often surveyed across Europe. This systematic literature review aims to provide an overview of all existing cross-European studies that assess physical

  10. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroer, A.F.W.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Brock, T.C.M.; Matser, A.M.; Maund, S.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with

  11. Trophic calculations reveal the mechanism of population-level variation in mercury concentrations between marine ecosystems: Case studies of two polar seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Polito, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ecosystem-specific baseline and consumer δ 15 N paired for population-specific trophic level. • Source of population-level variation in mercury exposure identified in two seabirds. • High mercury and trophic position suggests trophic driver of population-level variation. • Trophic similarities, differing mercury reveals geographic differences in bioavailability. -- Abstract: The incorporation of quantitative trophic level analysis in ecotoxicological studies provides explanatory power to identify the factors, trophic or environmental, driving population-level variation in mercury exposure at large geographic scales. In the Antarctic marine ecosystem, mercury concentrations and stable isotope values in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were compared between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Correcting tissue δ 15 N values for baseline δ 15 N values revealed population-level differences in trophic position which contributes to differences in mercury. Data from Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were synthesized from published values from Baffin Bay and Svalbard to demonstrate the utility of baseline δ 15 N values in identifying differences in environmental mercury exposure independent of diet. Here, we demonstrate the importance of calculating population-specific trophic level data to uncover the source of variation in mercury concentrations between geographically distinct populations of marine predators

  12. The costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of counteracting overweight on a population level. A scientific base for policy targets for the Dutch national plan for action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.; Baal, van P.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Schuit, J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ament, A.; Hoogenveen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To gain insight in realistic policy targets for overweight at a population level and the accompanying costs. Therefore, the effect on overweight prevalence was estimated of large scale implementation of a community intervention (applied to 90% of general population) and an intensive

  13. Temporal response of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum to 3,000 years of climatic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Webb

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphibians are sensitive indicators of environmental conditions and show measurable responses, such as changes in phenology, abundance and range limits to local changes in precipitation and temperature regimes. Amphibians offer unique opportunities to study the important ecological and evolutionary implications of responses in life history characteristics to climatic change. We analyzed a late-Holocene fossil record of the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum for evidence of population-level changes in body size and paedomorphosis to climatic change over the last 3000 years. Results We found a significant difference in body size index between paedomorphic and metamorphic individuals during the time interval dominated by the Medieval Warm Period. There is a consistent ratio of paedomorphic to metamorphic specimens through the entire 3000 years, demonstrating that not all life history characteristics of the population were significantly altered by changes in climate on this timescale. Conclusion The fossil record of Ambystoma tigrinum we used spans an ecologically relevant timescale appropriate for understanding population and community response to projected climatic change. The population-level responses we documented are concordant with expectations based on modern environmental studies, and yield insight into population-level patterns across hundreds of generations, especially the independence of different life history characteristics. These conclusions lead us to offer general predictions about the future response of this species based on likely scenarios of climatic warming in the Rocky Mountain region.

  14. Federal response to the environmental assessment report of the NRCB-CEAA joint review panel on the Little Bow project/Highwood diversion plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, a joint review panel released a report on a dam and diversion project proposed by Alberta Public Works, Supply and Services. This document is the response to that report addressing its recommendations to the federal government and other recommendations or statements pertinent to federal areas of jurisdiction and interest. It begins with background on the proposed project, then presents the report's recommendations or statements along with the federal responses with regard to the following issue areas: Regulatory approval; navigable waters and the public right of navigation; fish and fish habitat; wetlands and wildlife; and Aboriginal concerns

  15. 75 FR 34152 - Record of Decision for the Cape Wind Energy Project; Secretary of the Interior's Response to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Preservation on the Cape Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... announcing the availability of the ROD for the Cape Wind Energy Project (the Project). The ROD for the...), implementing the provisions of NHPA (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Cape Wind Energy...

  16. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.; Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities

  17. Microbiological and ecological responses to global environmental changes in polar regions (MERGE): An IPY core coordinating project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Takeshi; Wilmotte, Annick

    2009-11-01

    An integrated program, “Microbiological and ecological responses to global environmental changes in polar regions” (MERGE), was proposed in the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 and endorsed by the IPY committee as a coordinating proposal. MERGE hosts original proposals to the IPY and facilitates their funding. MERGE selected three key questions to produce scientific achievements. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in terrestrial, lacustrine, and supraglacial habitats were targeted according to diversity and biogeography; food webs and ecosystem evolution; and linkages between biological, chemical, and physical processes in the supraglacial biome. MERGE hosted 13 original and seven additional proposals, with two full proposals. It respected the priorities and achievements of the individual proposals and aimed to unify their significant results. Ideas and projects followed a bottom-up rather than a top-down approach. We intend to inform the MERGE community of the initial results and encourage ongoing collaboration. Scientists from non-polar regions have also participated and are encouraged to remain involved in MERGE. MERGE is formed by scientists from Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Spain, UK, Uruguay, USA, and Vietnam, and associates from Chile, Denmark, Netherlands, and Norway.

  18. Multichannel response analysis on 2D projection views for detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Chuan; Samala, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a new two-dimensional (2D) multichannel response (MCR) analysis approach for the detection of clustered microcalcifications (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Methods: With IRB approval and informed consent, a data set of two-view DBTs from 42 breasts containing biopsy-proven MC clusters was collected in this study. The authors developed a 2D approach for MC detection using projection view (PV) images rather than the reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) DBT volume. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement processing was first applied to each PV to enhance the potential MCs. The locations of MC candidates were then identified with iterative thresholding. The individual MCs were decomposed with Hermite–Gaussian (HG) and Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) basis functions and the channelized Hotelling model was trained to produce the MCRs for each MC on the 2D images. The MCRs from the PVs were fused in 3D by a coincidence counting method that backprojects the MC candidates on the PVs and traces the coincidence of their ray paths in 3D. The 3D MCR was used to differentiate the true MCs from false positives (FPs). Finally a dynamic clustering method was used to identify the potential MC clusters in the DBT volume based on the fact that true MCs of clinical significance appear in clusters. Using two-fold cross validation, the performance of the 3D MCR for classification of true and false MCs was estimated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the overall performance of the MCR approach for detection of clustered MCs was assessed by free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. Results: When the HG basis function was used for MCR analysis, the detection of MC cluster achieved case-based test sensitivities of 80% and 90% at the average FP rates of 0.65 and 1.55 FPs per DBT volume, respectively. With LG basis function, the average FP rates were 0.62 and 1.57 per DBT volume at

  19. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, A F W; Belgers, J D M; Brock, T C M; Matser, A M; Maund, S J; Van den Brink, P J

    2004-04-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with previous data on pyrethroids. The midge Chaoborus obscuripes was most sensitive (48- and 96-h EC50 = 2.8 ng/L). Other insect larvae (Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera) and macrocrustacea (Amphipoda, Isopoda) were also relatively sensitive, with 48- and 96-h EC50 values between 10 and 100 ng/L. Generally, microcrustacea (Cladocera, Copepoda) and larvae of certain insect groups (Odonata and Chironomidae) were less sensitive, with 48-h EC50 values higher than 100 ng/L. Mollusca and Plathelminthes were insensitive and were unaffected at concentrations at and above the water solubility (5 microg/L). Generally, the EC50 values based on initial population responses in field enclosures were similar to values derived from laboratory tests with the same taxa. Also, the corresponding fifth and tenth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5 and HC10) were similar (laboratory HC5 = 2.7 ng/L and field HC5 = 4.1 ng/L; laboratory and field HC10 = 5.1 ng/L), at least when based on the same sensitive taxonomic groups (insects and crustaceans) and when a similar concentration range was taken into account. In the three field enclosure experiments and at a treatment level of 10 ng/L, consistent effects were observed for only one population (Chaoborus obscuripes), with recovery taking place within 3 to 6 weeks. The laboratory HC5 (2.7 ng/L) and HC10 (5.1 ng/L) based on acute EC50 values of all aquatic arthropod taxa were both lower than this 10 ng/L, a concentration that might represent the "regulatory acceptable concentration." The HC5 and HC10 values in this study in The Netherlands (based on static laboratory tests with freshwater arthropods) were very similar to those derived from a previous study in

  20. Individual- and population-level effects of the synthetic musk, HHCB, on the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A life table response experiment lasting 120 d was used to investigate the effects of the synthetic polycyclic musk HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyrane; 0, 1.5, 26, 123, and 168 mg/kg dry wt sediment) on the life history of the infaunal polychaete...

  1. Population-level compensation impedes biological control of an invasive forb and indirect release of a native grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson; Lauren P. Waller; Nancy J. Sturdevant; John L. Maron

    2012-01-01

    The intentional introduction of specialist insect herbivores for biological control of exotic weeds provides ideal but understudied systems for evaluating important ecological concepts related to top-down control, plant compensatory responses, indirect effects, and the influence of environmental context on these processes. Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed) is a...

  2. Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing 'uncoupled' gene drive system components in the field.

  3. PETROBRAS and social responsibility: the artificial reefs project in Campos Basin, Brazil; PETROBRAS e responsabilidade social: a instalacao de recifes artificiais na Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortegiano, Adriana de Santa Marinha Pastorino de Almeida

    2004-07-01

    This article focus on an innovative project launched by PETROBRAS with the main purpose of minimizing the impacts of drilling activities in Campos Basin, over the fishery industry in the northeast region of Rio de Janeiro. This project is seen as a relevant part of PETROBRAS' corporate social responsibility actions. In this sense, it is supposed to consider the interests of all parts directly and indirectly related and affected by the companies' intervention. The major conclusion is that the project could be an important first step to restructure the fishery sector an to harmonize the 'sea users'. A potential improvement could be the promotion of a more effective participation of fishermen in the project and the inclusion of the social and environmental dimensions. (author)

  4. Population-level consequences of spatially heterogeneous exposure to heavy metals in soil: An individual-based model of springtails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meli, Mattia; Auclerc, Apolline; Palmqvist, Annemette

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of soil with toxic heavy metals poses a major threat to the environment and human health. Anthropogenic sources include smelting of ores, municipal wastes, fertilizers, and pesticides. In assessing soil quality and the environmental and ecological risk of contamination with heavy...... metals, often homogeneous contamination of the soil is assumed. However, soils are very heterogeneous environments. Consequently, both contamination and the response of soil organisms can be assumed to be heterogeneous. This might have consequences for the exposure of soil organisms...

  5. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (disincentives, and restricting choice. We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  6. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  7. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-15

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  8. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  9. Variability of cutaneous and nasal population levels between patients colonized and infected by multidrug-resistant bacteria in two Brazilian intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaceno, Quésia; Nicoli, Jacques R; Oliveira, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    To compare cutaneous and nasal population levels between patients colonized and infected by multidrug-resistant organisms in two intensive care units. A prospective cohort study was performed in adult intensive care units of two hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Brazil (April 2012 to February 2013). Clinical and demographic data were first collected by reviewing patients' charts. Then, samples collected with nasal, groin, and perineum swabs were cultivated in selective media for 48 h at 37°C. After isolation, determination of antimicrobial susceptibility and biochemical identification were performed. A total of 53 cases of colonization were observed by the following bacteria in decreasing frequencies: imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (50.9%), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (43.4%), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (37.7%), imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32.1%), oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7.5%), and imipenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.7%). Among these colonization cases, 26 (49.0%) were followed by infection with bacteria phenotypically similar to those of the colonization. A relation between high population levels of colonization by most of the multidrug-resistant organisms at anatomical sites and a subsequent infection was observed. After colonization/infection, bacterial population levels decreased progressively and spontaneously until disappearance by day 45 in all the anatomical sites and for all the multidrug-resistant organisms. There was a correlation between high population levels of colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms at anatomical sites and a subsequent infection. Reduction in multidrug-resistant organism populations after colonization at anatomical sites could be a preventive measure to reduce evolution to infection as well as transmission of these bacteria between patients in intensive care unit.

  10. Does Digital Video Advertising Increase Population-Level Reach of Multimedia Campaigns? Evidence From the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kevin C; Shafer, Paul R; Rodes, Robert; Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Patel, Deesha; Coln, Caryn; Beistle, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Federal and state public health agencies in the United States are increasingly using digital advertising and social media to promote messages from broader multimedia campaigns. However, little evidence exists on population-level campaign awareness and relative cost efficiencies of digital advertising in the context of a comprehensive public health education campaign. Objective Our objective was to compare the impact of increased doses of digital video and television advertising fro...

  11. The SOLUTIONS project : Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141376074; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J.; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/175518793; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification,

  12. Response of loblolly pine to complete woody and herbaceous control: projected yields and economic outcomes - the COMProject

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; R.L. Busby; B.R. Zutter; S.M. Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold

    1995-01-01

    Abstract.Age-8 and -9 data from the 13 study plantations of the Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) were used to project yields and derive economic outcomes for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). COMP treatments were chop-burn, complete woody plant control, complete herbaceous plant control for 4 years, and complete woody...

  13. The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, W.; Altenburger, R.; Schuurmann, G.; Krauss, M.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification,

  14. Ecosystem size structure response to 21st century climate projection: large fish abundance decreases in the central North Pacific and increases in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth-Jefcoats, Phoebe A; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Dunne, John P; Blanchard, Julia L

    2013-03-01

    Output from an earth system model is paired with a size-based food web model to investigate the effects of climate change on the abundance of large fish over the 21st century. The earth system model, forced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special report on emission scenario A2, combines a coupled climate model with a biogeochemical model including major nutrients, three phytoplankton functional groups, and zooplankton grazing. The size-based food web model includes linkages between two size-structured pelagic communities: primary producers and consumers. Our investigation focuses on seven sites in the North Pacific, each highlighting a specific aspect of projected climate change, and includes top-down ecosystem depletion through fishing. We project declines in large fish abundance ranging from 0 to 75.8% in the central North Pacific and increases of up to 43.0% in the California Current (CC) region over the 21st century in response to change in phytoplankton size structure and direct physiological effects. We find that fish abundance is especially sensitive to projected changes in large phytoplankton density and our model projects changes in the abundance of large fish being of the same order of magnitude as changes in the abundance of large phytoplankton. Thus, studies that address only climate-induced impacts to primary production without including changes to phytoplankton size structure may not adequately project ecosystem responses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Quantifying population-level risks using an individual-based model: sea otters, Harlequin Ducks, and the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Parker, Keith R

    2012-07-01

    Ecological risk assessments need to advance beyond evaluating risks to individuals that are largely based on toxicity studies conducted on a few species under laboratory conditions, to assessing population-level risks to the environment, including considerations of variability and uncertainty. Two individual-based models (IBMs), recently developed to assess current risks to sea otters and seaducks in Prince William Sound more than 2 decades after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are used to explore population-level risks. In each case, the models had previously shown that there were essentially no remaining risks to individuals from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the EVOS. New sensitivity analyses are reported here in which hypothetical environmental exposures to PAHs were heuristically increased until assimilated doses reached toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived at the no-observed-adverse-effects and lowest-observed-adverse-effects levels (NOAEL and LOAEL, respectively). For the sea otters, this was accomplished by artificially increasing the number of sea otter pits that would intersect remaining patches of subsurface oil residues by orders of magnitude over actual estimated rates. Similarly, in the seaduck assessment, the PAH concentrations in the constituents of diet, sediments, and seawater were increased in proportion to their relative contributions to the assimilated doses by orders of magnitude over measured environmental concentrations, to reach the NOAEL and LOAEL thresholds. The stochastic IBMs simulated millions of individuals. From these outputs, frequency distributions were derived of assimilated doses for populations of 500,000 sea otters or seaducks in each of 7 or 8 classes, respectively. Doses to several selected quantiles were analyzed, ranging from the 1-in-1000th most-exposed individuals (99.9% quantile) to the median-exposed individuals (50% quantile). The resulting families of quantile curves provide the basis for

  16. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Benson

    Full Text Available Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance.

  17. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  18. Population-level consequences of herbivory, changing climate, and source-sink dynamics on a long-lived invasive shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klinken, R D; Pichancourt, J B

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived plant species are highly valued environmentally, economically, and socially, but can also cause substantial harm as invaders. Realistic demographic predictions can guide management decisions, and are particularly valuable for long-lived species where population response times can be long. Long-lived species are also challenging, given population dynamics can be affected by factors as diverse as herbivory, climate, and dispersal. We developed a matrix model to evaluate the effects of herbivory by a leaf-feeding biological control agent released in Australia against a long-lived invasive shrub (mesquite, Leguminoseae: Prosopis spp.). The stage-structured, density-dependent model used an annual time step and 10 climatically diverse years of field data. Mesquite population demography is sensitive to source-sink dynamics as most seeds are consumed and redistributed spatially by livestock. In addition, individual mesquite plants, because they are long lived, experience natural climate variation that cycles over decadal scales, as well as anthropogenic climate change. The model therefore explicitly considered the effects of both net dispersal and climate variation. Herbivory strongly regulated mesquite populations through reduced growth and fertility, but additional mortality of older plants will be required to reach management goals within a reasonable time frame. Growth and survival of seeds and seedlings were correlated with daily soil moisture. As a result, population dynamics were sensitive to rainfall scenario, but population response times were typically slow (20-800 years to reach equilibrium or extinction) due to adult longevity. Equilibrium population densities were expected to remain 5% higher, and be more dynamic, if historical multi-decadal climate patterns persist, the effect being dampened by herbivory suppressing seed production irrespective of preceding rainfall. Dense infestations were unlikely to form under a drier climate, and required net

  19. Self-reported oral health of a metropolitan homeless population in Australia: comparisons with population-level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E J; Jamieson, L M; Steffens, M A; Cathro, P; Logan, R M

    2011-09-01

    There is limited information on self-perceived oral health of homeless populations. This study quantified self-reported oral health among a metropolitan homeless adult population and compared against a representative sample of the metropolitan adult population obtained from the National Survey of Adult Oral Health. A total of 248 homeless participants (age range 17-78 years, 79% male) completed a self-report questionnaire. Data for an age-matched, representative sample of metropolitan-dwelling adults were obtained from Australia's second National Survey of Adult Oral Health. Percentage responses and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, with non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals used to identify statistically significant differences between the two groups. Homeless adults reported poorer oral health than their age-matched general population counterparts. Twice as many homeless adults reported visiting a dentist more than a year ago and that their usual reason for dental attendance was for a dental problem. The proportion of homeless adults with a perceived need for fillings or extractions was also twice that of their age-matched general population counterparts. Three times as many homeless adults rated their oral health as 'fair' or 'poor'. A significantly greater proportion of homeless adults in an Australian metropolitan location reported poorer oral health compared with the general metropolitan adult population. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Development of absolute radiometric response functions for HyPlant & G-LiHT using SIRCUS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to provide absolute radiometric and cross-calibrated spectral characterizations for G-LiHT and HyPlant.  The objectives are: (i) to...

  1. Shuar Women’s Responses to Socio-Environmental Conflict in the Area of the Mirador Project (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Dolores Verdú Delgado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mirador Project is a large-scale mining project located in the Cordillera del Cóndor that plans to extract 60,000 metric tons of rock daily beginning in 2018. The severity of socio-environmental impacts resulting from the Mirador Project are amplified due to the fact that the project takes place in an area largely inhabited by the indigenous Shuar who have constitutional rights to maintain control over their ancestral territories. In this paper I analyze the impact that large-scale mining has on the S huar female population by examining their perception of the conflict in question. Data is analyzed within the ecofeminist discourse focusing on the particularity of rural women in the global South in relation to nature and development.

  2. Soil response to long-term projections of extreme temperature and precipitation in the southern La Plata Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pántano, Vanesa C.; Penalba, Olga C.

    2017-12-01

    Projected changes were estimated considering the main variables which take part in soil-atmosphere interaction. The analysis was focused on the potential impact of these changes on soil hydric condition under extreme precipitation and evapotranspiration, using the combination of Global Climate Models (GCMs) and observational data. The region of study is the southern La Plata Basin that covers part of Argentine territory, where rainfed agriculture production is one of the most important economic activities. Monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures were used from high quality-controlled observed data from 46 meteorological stations and the ensemble of seven CMIP5 GCMs in two periods: 1970-2005 and 2065-2100. Projected changes in monthly effective temperature and precipitation were analysed. These changes were combined with observed series for each probabilistic interval. The result was used as input variables for the water balance model in order to obtain consequent soil hydric condition (deficit or excess). Effective temperature and precipitation are expected to increase according to the projections of GCMs, with few exceptions. The analysis revealed increase (decrease) in the prevalence of evapotranspiration over precipitation, during spring (winter). Projections for autumn months show precipitation higher than potential evapotranspiration more frequently. Under dry extremes, the analysis revealed higher projected deficit conditions, impacting on crop development. On the other hand, under wet extremes, excess would reach higher values only in particular months. During December, projected increase in temperatures reduces the impact of extreme high precipitation but favours deficit conditions, affecting flower-fructification stage of summer crops.

  3. Relationship between out-of-home care placement history characteristics and educational achievement: A population level linked data study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Miriam J; Taylor, Catherine L; O'Donnell, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    Studies generally show children who have entered out-of-home care have worse educational outcomes than the general population, although recent research suggests maltreatment and other adversities are major contributing factors. Children's out-of-home care experiences vary and may affect their outcomes. This study examined the influence of placement stability, reunification, type of care, time in care and age at entry to care on children's educational outcomes. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of children born in Western Australia between 1990 and 2010 who sat State or national Year 3 reading achievement tests (N=235,045 children, including 2160 children with a history of out-of-home care). Children's educational outcomes varied with many aspects of their care experience. Children placed in residential care were particularly likely to have low scores, with an unadjusted OR 6.81, 95% CI[4.94, 9.39] for low reading scores, which was partially attenuated after adjusting for background risk factors but remained significant (OR=1.50, 95% CIs [1.08, 2.08]). Reading scores were also lower for children who had experienced changes in care arrangements in the year of the test. A dose-response effect for multiple placements was expected but not found. Older age at entering care was also associated with worse reading scores. Different characteristics of a child's care history were interwoven with each other as well as child, family and neighbourhood characteristics, highlighting a need for caution in attributing causality. Although the level of educational difficulties varied, the findings suggest a widespread need for additional educational support for children who have entered care, including after reunification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecotoxicity of triphenyltin on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus at various biological organisations: from molecular to population-level effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-01

    Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods.

  5. Radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and adsorbents for separation purposes. Final report of a coordinated research project 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    This coordinated research project coordinated research work for the development of novel materials prepared by radiation processing techniques. Single and multi-pore polyamide membranes, fast thermo-responsive hydrogels, porous polymer monoliths, stimuli-responsive hydrogels based on natural and synthetic polymers, temperature responsive membranes, selective adsorbents, polymeric nanogels and novel non-ionic thermo-sensitive hydrogels were produced. The application areas explored for beneficially utilizing these novel materials included specialized drug delivery systems (DDS), selective adsorbents, nanopores for single molecule detection, membranes for separation and concentration of solutes, health care and remediation of environmental pollution. The report provides basic information on radiation processing and promotes experience exchange for further developments of radiation technology. Protocols and procedures of preparation of various stimuli responsive membranes and their actual and perspective applications are described in the report. Public awareness and technology acceptance are other factors to be considered for further dissemination. This publication summarizes the present status and the prospects of this technology

  6. Federal Government response to the September 12, 2000 environmental assessment report of the EUB-CEAA Joint Review Panel on the Cheviot Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    The Federal Court noted four deficiencies in the joint EUB-CEAA environmental review dated September 12, 2000 for the Cheviot Coal Project. The Joint Review Panel reconvened to hear additional evidence about these deficiencies. This memorandum to cabinet comprises the Government of Canada's response to the additional evidence. Some of the Panel's recommendations are accepted. Comments are included regarding migratory birds, protection of traditional aboriginal sites, economic benefits, grizzly bears, and fish habitat.

  7. Modeled responses of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2: a comparison of simulations by the biogeochemistry models of the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yude; Melillo, Jerry M; McGuire, A David; Kicklighter, David W; Pitelka, Louis F; Hibbard, Kathy; Pierce, Lars L; Running, Steven W; Ojima, Dennis S; Parton, William J; Schimel, David S

    1998-04-01

    Although there is a great deal of information concerning responses to increases in atmospheric CO 2 at the tissue and plant levels, there are substantially fewer studies that have investigated ecosystem-level responses in the context of integrated carbon, water, and nutrient cycles. Because our understanding of ecosystem responses to elevated CO 2 is incomplete, modeling is a tool that can be used to investigate the role of plant and soil interactions in the response of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated CO 2 . In this study, we analyze the responses of net primary production (NPP) to doubled CO 2 from 355 to 710 ppmv among three biogeochemistry models in the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP): BIOME-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), Century, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). For the conterminous United States, doubled atmospheric CO 2 causes NPP to increase by 5% in Century, 8% in TEM, and 11% in BIOME-BGC. Multiple regression analyses between the NPP response to doubled CO 2 and the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation of biomes or grid cells indicate that there are negative relationships between precipitation and the response of NPP to doubled CO 2 for all three models. In contrast, there are different relationships between temperature and the response of NPP to doubled CO 2 for the three models: there is a negative relationship in the responses of BIOME-BGC, no relationship in the responses of Century, and a positive relationship in the responses of TEM. In BIOME-BGC, the NPP response to doubled CO 2 is controlled by the change in transpiration associated with reduced leaf conductance to water vapor. This change affects soil water, then leaf area development and, finally, NPP. In Century, the response of NPP to doubled CO 2 is controlled by changes in decomposition rates associated with increased soil moisture that results from reduced evapotranspiration. This change affects nitrogen availability for plants, which

  8. Loss of population levels of immunity to malaria as a result of exposure-reducing interventions: consequences for interpretation of disease trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra C Ghani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistence of malaria as an endemic infection and one of the major causes of childhood death in most parts of Africa has lead to a radical new call for a global effort towards eradication. With the deployment of a highly effective vaccine still some years away, there has been an increased focus on interventions which reduce exposure to infection in the individual and -by reducing onward transmission-at the population level. The development of appropriate monitoring of these interventions requires an understanding of the timescales of their effect. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using a mathematical model for malaria transmission which incorporates the acquisition and loss of both clinical and parasite immunity, we explore the impact of the trade-off between reduction in exposure and decreased development of immunity on the dynamics of disease following a transmission-reducing intervention such as insecticide-treated nets. Our model predicts that initially rapid reductions in clinical disease incidence will be observed as transmission is reduced in a highly immune population. However, these benefits in the first 5-10 years after the intervention may be offset by a greater burden of disease decades later as immunity at the population level is gradually lost. The negative impact of having fewer immune individuals in the population can be counterbalanced either by the implementation of highly-effective transmission-reducing interventions (such as the combined use of insecticide-treated nets and insecticide residual sprays for an indefinite period or the concurrent use of a pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine or prophylactic therapy in children to protect those at risk from disease as immunity is lost in the population. CONCLUSIONS: Effective interventions will result in rapid decreases in clinical disease across all transmission settings while population-level immunity is maintained but may subsequently result in increases in clinical disease many

  9. Interaction between serotonin transporter gene variants and life events predicts response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keers, R.; Uher, R.; Huezo-Diaz, P.

    2011-01-01

    , and several polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have been genotyped including the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Stressful life events were shown to predict a significantly better response to escitalopram but had no effect on response to nortriptyline...

  10. Landowner and visitor response to forest landscape restoration: the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Northeast Sands Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Floress; Anna Haines; Emily Usher; Paul Gobster; Mike. Dockry

    2018-01-01

    This report is intended to support the ongoing pine barrens restoration on work in the Lakewood-Laona Ranger District on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest (CNNF). The report provides the results from 2016 surveys and focus groups examining landowner and visitor attitudes toward forest management treatments, communication, and restoration project outcomes; their...

  11. Small-scale response in an avian community to a large-scale thinning project in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Bagne; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    Avian populations were monitored using point counts from 2002 to 2007, two years before and four years after a 2800 ha fuel reduction project. The study area was within a ponderosa pine forest near Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Adjacent unthinned areas were also monitored as a reference for population variation related to other factors. For individual bird species...

  12. Michigan forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Handler; Matthew J. Duveneck; Louis Iverson; Emily Peters; Robert M. Scheller; Kirk R. Wythers; Leslie Brandt; Patricia Butler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Amy Clark Eagle; Joshua G. Cohen; Rich Corner; Peter B. Reich; Tim Baker; Sophan Chhin; Eric Clark; David Fehringer; Jon Fosgitt; James Gries; Christine Hall; Kimberly R. Hall; Robert Heyd; Christopher L. Hoving; Ines Ibáñez; Don Kuhr; Stephen Matthews; Jennifer Muladore; Knute Nadelhoffer; David Neumann; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Matt Sands; Randy Swaty; Leiloni Wonch; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; Gary Johnson; Lucinda Johnson; David Neitzel; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert. Ziel

    2014-01-01

    Forests in northern Michigan will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate during the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Michigan's eastern Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate...

  13. Ecological response of a multi-purpose river development project using macro-invertebrates richness and fish habitat value[Dissertation 3807

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellaud, M.

    2007-05-15

    ) general SYNERGIE project optimizer taking into account all the project poles. The system of interest is composed of a buffering reservoir of ca. 1 km{sup 2}, a run-off-the- river dam, a hydro power-plant, and an artificial river ensuring longitudinal continuum. The primary part of the work consisted in an extensive literature review on system understanding, anthropic alterations and quality assessment / prediction tool available. The approach consisted of two levels (1) the general ecological considerations to be followed at the project reservoir scale and (2) the measure of the downstream ecological response through modeling. General ecological considerations at the reservoir scale were the implementation of an artificial river ensuring longitudinal connectivity, implementation of artificial ecotonal boosters and the allocation of a sanctuary zone with limited public access. The downstream measure of ecological integrity was based on the choice of three taxonomic groups of macroinvertebrates and four ecological guilds (groups) of fish. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera) and caddisflies (Trichoptera) richness were predicted using simple hydrological and morphological covariates (i.e. substrate, current speed,...) coupled to system specific faunistic surveys. Bank, riffle, pool and midstream fish guilds habitat values were determined using existing methods. By using the simulation results of river development project scenarios as inputs, the ecological response (i.e. the measure of ecological integrity) was computed following the assumptions that high predicted macro-invertebrate richness and high guilds habitat values were linked to a high ecological integrity. An emphasis on the hydro peaking effect in relation with river morphology was performed on macroinvertebrates. They were found to respond well to hydrological and morphological changes induced by river development projects while the approach by fish habitat value encountered limitations in its

  14. Age-dependent transition from cell-level to population-level control in murine intestinal homeostasis revealed by coalescence analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hu

    Full Text Available In multi-cellular organisms, tissue homeostasis is maintained by an exquisite balance between stem cell proliferation and differentiation. This equilibrium can be achieved either at the single cell level (a.k.a. cell asymmetry, where stem cells follow strict asymmetric divisions, or the population level (a.k.a. population asymmetry, where gains and losses in individual stem cell lineages are randomly distributed, but the net effect is homeostasis. In the mature mouse intestinal crypt, previous evidence has revealed a pattern of population asymmetry through predominantly symmetric divisions of stem cells. In this work, using population genetic theory together with previously published crypt single-cell data obtained at different mouse life stages, we reveal a strikingly dynamic pattern of stem cell homeostatic control. We find that single-cell asymmetric divisions are gradually replaced by stochastic population-level asymmetry as the mouse matures to adulthood. This lifelong process has important developmental and evolutionary implications in understanding how adult tissues maintain their homeostasis integrating the trade-off between intrinsic and extrinsic regulations.

  15. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J.; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mercury concentrations documented for 10 species of penguins (26 breeding populations). • Mercury concentrations ⩽2.00 ppm in feathers from 18/26 penguin populations. • Trophic level calculations revealed source of population-level variation in mercury. • First documentation of geographic mercury ‘hotspots’ for penguin populations. - Abstract: The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00 ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic ‘hot spots’ of mercury availability

  16. A qualitative assessment of personal and social responsibility for kidney disease: the Increasing Kidney Disease Awareness Network Transplant Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence; Lyles, Courtney Rees; Galvin, Georgia; Sabin, Janice; Davis, Connie; Dick, Andre; Young, Bessie A

    2011-01-01

    Limited qualitative research has explored opinions of kidney disease health care providers regarding racial and ethnic disparities in access to and receipt of kidney transplantation. Key informant interviews were conducted among transplant nephrologists, nephrologists, transplant social workers, and transplant coordinators to determine barriers to transplantation among African Americans compared to whites with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-eight interviews were audio recorded and transcribed to hardcopy for content analysis. Grounded theory was used to determine dominant themes within the interviews. Reliability and validity were ensured by several coinvestigators independently sorting verbatim responses used for generating themes and subsequent explanations. Several major categories arose from analysis of the transcripts. Under the category of personal and social responsibility for kidney transplantation, interviews revealed 4 major themes: negative personal behaviors, acquisition of and lack of self-treatment of comorbid conditions, lack of individual responsibility, and the need for more social responsibility. Many providers perceived patients as being largely responsible for the development of ESRD, while some providers expressed the idea that more social responsibility was needed to improve poor health status and disparities in kidney transplantation rates. Kidney disease health providers seemed torn between notions of patients' accountability and social responsibility for racial disparities in chronic kidney disease and ESRD. Further research is needed to clarify which aspects contribute most to disparities in access to transplantation.

  17. Projection of wave conditions in response to climate change: A community approach to global and regional wave downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Hemer, M.; Lionello, Piero; Mendez, Fernando J.; Mori, Nobuhito; Semedo, Alvaro; Wang, Xiaolan; Wolf, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Future changes in wind-wave climate have broad implications for coastal geomorphology and management. General circulation models (GCM) are now routinely used for assessing climatological parameters, but generally do not provide parameterizations of ocean wind-waves. To fill this information gap, a growing number of studies use GCM outputs to independently downscale wave conditions to global and regional levels. To consolidate these efforts and provide a robust picture of projected changes, we present strategies from the community-derived multi-model ensemble of wave climate projections (COWCLIP) and an overview of regional contributions. Results and strategies from one contributing regional study concerning changes along the eastern North Pacific coast are presented.

  18. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  19. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 1: Context and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Seto, Michael C; Côté, Gilles; Charette, Yanick; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-01-01

    The National Trajectory Project examined longitudinal data from a large sample of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) to assess the presence of provincial differences in the application of the law, to examine the characteristics of people with serious mental illness who come into conflict with the law and receive this verdict, and to investigate the trajectories of NCRMD–accused people as they traverse the mental health and criminal justice systems. Our paper describes the rationale for the National Trajectory Project and the methods used to collect data in Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia, the 3 most populous provinces in Canada and the 3 provinces with the most people found NCRMD. PMID:25886685

  20. Does Digital Video Advertising Increase Population-Level Reach of Multimedia Campaigns? Evidence From the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Shafer, Paul R; Rodes, Robert; Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Patel, Deesha; Coln, Caryn; Beistle, Diane

    2016-09-14

    Federal and state public health agencies in the United States are increasingly using digital advertising and social media to promote messages from broader multimedia campaigns. However, little evidence exists on population-level campaign awareness and relative cost efficiencies of digital advertising in the context of a comprehensive public health education campaign. Our objective was to compare the impact of increased doses of digital video and television advertising from the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign on overall campaign awareness at the population level. We also compared the relative cost efficiencies across these media platforms. We used data from a large national online survey of approximately 15,000 US smokers conducted in 2013 immediately after the conclusion of the 2013 Tips campaign. These data were used to compare the effects of variation in media dose of digital video and television advertising on population-level awareness of the Tips campaign. We implemented higher doses of digital video among selected media markets and randomly selected other markets to receive similar higher doses of television ads. Multivariate logistic regressions estimated the odds of overall campaign awareness via digital or television format as a function of higher-dose media in each market area. All statistical tests used the .05 threshold for statistical significance and the .10 level for marginal nonsignificance. We used adjusted advertising costs for the additional doses of digital and television advertising to compare the cost efficiencies of digital and television advertising on the basis of costs per percentage point of population awareness generated. Higher-dose digital video advertising was associated with 94% increased odds of awareness of any ad online relative to standard-dose markets (Pdigital advertising was associated with a marginally nonsignificant increase (46%) in overall campaign awareness regardless of media format (P=.09). Higher

  1. Does Digital Video Advertising Increase Population-Level Reach of Multimedia Campaigns? Evidence From the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Paul R; Rodes, Robert; Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Patel, Deesha; Coln, Caryn; Beistle, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Federal and state public health agencies in the United States are increasingly using digital advertising and social media to promote messages from broader multimedia campaigns. However, little evidence exists on population-level campaign awareness and relative cost efficiencies of digital advertising in the context of a comprehensive public health education campaign. Objective Our objective was to compare the impact of increased doses of digital video and television advertising from the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign on overall campaign awareness at the population level. We also compared the relative cost efficiencies across these media platforms. Methods We used data from a large national online survey of approximately 15,000 US smokers conducted in 2013 immediately after the conclusion of the 2013 Tips campaign. These data were used to compare the effects of variation in media dose of digital video and television advertising on population-level awareness of the Tips campaign. We implemented higher doses of digital video among selected media markets and randomly selected other markets to receive similar higher doses of television ads. Multivariate logistic regressions estimated the odds of overall campaign awareness via digital or television format as a function of higher-dose media in each market area. All statistical tests used the .05 threshold for statistical significance and the .10 level for marginal nonsignificance. We used adjusted advertising costs for the additional doses of digital and television advertising to compare the cost efficiencies of digital and television advertising on the basis of costs per percentage point of population awareness generated. Results Higher-dose digital video advertising was associated with 94% increased odds of awareness of any ad online relative to standard-dose markets (Pdigital advertising was associated with a marginally nonsignificant increase (46%) in overall campaign awareness regardless of

  2. Two distinct populations of projection neurons in the rat lateral parafascicular thalamic nucleus and their cholinergic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J A; Sylwestrak, E L; Cox, C L

    2009-08-04

    The lateral parafascicular nucleus (lPf) is a member of the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, a collection of nuclei that characteristically provides widespread projections to the neocortex and basal ganglia and is associated with arousal, sensory, and motor functions. Recently, lPf neurons have been shown to possess different characteristics than other cortical-projecting thalamic relay neurons. We performed whole cell recordings from lPf neurons using an in vitro rat slice preparation and found two distinct neuronal subtypes that were differentiated by distinct morphological and physiological characteristics: diffuse and bushy. Diffuse neurons, which had been previously described, were the predominant neuronal subtype (66%). These neurons had few, poorly-branching, extended dendrites, and rarely displayed burst-like action potential discharge, a ubiquitous feature of thalamocortical relay neurons. Interestingly, we discovered a smaller population of bushy neurons (34%) that shared similar morphological and physiological characteristics with thalamocortical relay neurons of primary sensory thalamic nuclei. In contrast to other thalamocortical relay neurons, activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors produced a membrane hyperpolarization via activation of M(2) receptors in most lPf neurons (60%). In a minority of lPf neurons (33%), muscarinic agonists produced a membrane depolarization via activation of predominantly M(3) receptors. The muscarinic receptor-mediated actions were independent of lPf neuronal subtype (i.e. diffuse or bushy neurons); however the cholinergic actions were correlated with lPf neurons with different efferent targets. Retrogradely-labeled lPf neurons from frontal cortical fluorescent bead injections primarily consisted of bushy type lPf neurons (78%), but more importantly, all of these neurons were depolarized by muscarinic agonists. On the other hand, lPf neurons labeled by striatal injections were predominantly hyperpolarized by muscarinic

  3. The SOLUTIONS project: challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2015-01-15

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case

  4. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictions from transmission-dynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie; Bogaards, Johannes A; Baussano, Iacopo; Vänskä, Simopekka; Jit, Mark; Boily, Marie-Claude; Smith, Megan A; Berkhof, Johannes; Canfell, Karen; Chesson, Harrell W; Burger, Emily A; Choi, Yoon H; De Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; De Vlas, Sake J; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Hontelez, Jan A C; Horn, Johannes; Jepsen, Martin R; Kim, Jane J; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Matthijsse, Suzette M; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Pavelyev, Andrew; Pillsbury, Matthew; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Tully, Stephen P; Turner, Hugo C; Usher, Cara; Walsh, Cathal

    2016-11-01

    Modelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of model predictions of the long-term population-level effectiveness of vaccination against HPV 16, 18, 6, and 11 infection in women and men, to examine the variability in predicted herd effects, incremental benefit of vaccinating boys, and potential for HPV-vaccine-type elimination. We searched MEDLINE and Embase for transmission-dynamic modelling studies published between Jan 1, 2009, and April 28, 2015, that predicted the population-level impact of vaccination on HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infections in high-income countries. We contacted authors to determine whether they were willing to produce new predictions for standardised scenarios. Strategies investigated were girls-only vaccination and girls and boys vaccination at age 12 years. Base-case vaccine characteristics were 100% efficacy and lifetime protection. We did sensitivity analyses by varying vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy, and duration of protection. For all scenarios we pooled model predictions of relative reductions in HPV prevalence (RR prev ) over time after vaccination and summarised results using the median and 10th and 90th percentiles (80% uncertainty intervals [UI]). 16 of 19 eligible models from ten high-income countries provided predictions. Under base-case assumptions, 40% vaccination coverage and girls-only vaccination, the RR prev of HPV 16 among women and men was 0·53 (80% UI 0·46-0·68) and 0·36 (0·28-0·61), respectively, after 70 years. With 80% girls-only vaccination coverage, the RR prev of HPV 16 among women and men was 0·93 (0·90-1·00) and 0·83 (0·75-1·00), respectively. Vaccinating boys in addition to girls increased the RR prev of HPV 16 among women and men by 0·18 (0·13-0

  5. Human-Centred Design Projects and Co-Design in/outside the Turkish Classroom: Responses and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouil, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other professional group in modern history, designers have felt compelled to undertake the responsibility of addressing and engaging with societal problems in their practice. Initially, this liability involved concerns of form and production methods during the industrial revolution era, and developed into existential, ethical…

  6. Mesencephalic cuneiform nucleus and its ascending and descending projections serve stress-related cardiovascular responses in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, Sijmen; Jaarsma, D.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Bohus, B.

    The aim of the present study was to explore the neuroanatomic network that underlies the cardiovascular responses of reticular formation origin in the region of the cuneiform nucleus (CNF). The study was performed in urethane anesthetized male Wistar rats. The left iliac artery was supplied with a

  7. The response of soil organic carbon of a rich fen peatland in interior Alaska to projecte climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaosheng Fan; David McGuire; Merritt R. Turetsky; Jennifer W. Harden; James Michael Waddington; Evan S. Kane

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand the fate of carbon in boreal peatland soils in response to climate change because a substantial change in release of this carbon as CO2 and CH4 could influence the climate system. The goal of this research was to synthesize the results of a field water table manipulation experiment conducted in...

  8. Integration of population genetic structure and plant response to climate change: sustaining genetic resources through evaluation of projected threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Marcus V. Warwell; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald

    2010-01-01

    To assess threats or predict responses to disturbances, or both, it is essential to recognize and characterize the population structures of forest species in relation to changing environments. Appropriate management of these genetic resources in the future will require (1) understanding the existing genetic diversity/variation and population structure of forest trees...

  9. Organizational Analysis and Career Projections Based on a Level-of-Responsibility/Equitable Payment Model. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, Stephen; And Others

    Following an explanation of the Level of Responsibility/Equitable Pay Function, its applicability is demonstrated to the analysis and to the design and redesign of organizational hierarchies. It is shown how certain common dysfuntional anomalies can be avoided by structuring an organization along the principles outlined. A technique is then…

  10. Project Ancient Acoustics Part 1 of 4 : a method for accurate impulse response measurements in large open air theatres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, C.C.J.M.; Hoekstra, N.; Nicolai, B.; Wenmaekers, R.H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate method for measuring ‘normal’ indoor concert hall acoustics is always a trade-off between time, stimulus type, number of measurements and measurement quality. For ISO 3382 room acoustic parameters to be derived accurately from impulse responses, this tradeoff aims at a

  11. The Challenges of Analyzing Behavioral Response Study Data: An Overview of the MOCHA (Multi-study OCean Acoustics Human Effects Analysis) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Catriona M; Thomas, Len; Sadykova, Dina; DeRuiter, Stacy L; Tyack, Peter L; Southall, Brandon L; Read, Andrew J; Miller, Patrick J O

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the MOCHA project which aims to develop novel approaches for the analysis of data collected during Behavioral Response Studies (BRSs). BRSs are experiments aimed at directly quantifying the effects of controlled dosages of natural or anthropogenic stimuli (typically sound) on marine mammal behavior. These experiments typically result in low sample size, relative to variability, and so we are looking at a number of studies in combination to maximize the gain from each one. We describe a suite of analytical tools applied to BRS data on beaked whales, including a simulation study aimed at informing future experimental design.

  12. Isotopes Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairiki, J.M.; Browne, E.; Firestone, R.B.; Lederer, C.M.; Shirley, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Isotopes Project compiles and evaluates nuclear structure and decay data and disseminates these data to the scientific community. From 1940-1978 the Project had as its main objective the production of the Table of Isotopes. Since publication of the seventh (and last) edition in 1978, the group now coordinates its nuclear data evaluation efforts with those of other data centers via national and international nuclear data networks. The group is currently responsible for the evaluation of mass chains A = 167-194. All evaluated data are entered into the International Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and are published in Nuclear Data Sheets. In addition to the evaluation effort, the Isotopes Project is responsible for production of the Radioactivity Handbook

  13. Population Level Effects of a Mass Media Alcohol and Breast Cancer Campaign: A Cross-Sectional Pre-Intervention and Post-Intervention Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil; Buykx, Penny; Shevills, Colin; Sullivan, Claire; Clark, Lynsey; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2018-01-01

    To examine the relationship between a TV-led breast cancer mass-media campaign in the North East of England (conducted in two waves: Jul/2015 and Nov/2015), awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer, intention to reduce alcohol consumption and support for alcohol related policies. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted; one over the 2 weeks pre-campaign (n = 572); one immediately following campaign wave 1 (n = 576); and another immediately following campaign wave 2 (n = 552). Survey questions assessed; campaign exposure; awareness of the links between alcohol and related cancers; intention to change alcohol consumption; and support for alcohol related policies. The proportion of respondents indicating awareness of alcohol as a cancer risk factor was larger post-campaign compared to pre-campaign. The largest increase was seen for breast cancer with 45% aware of the links post-campaign wave 2 compared to 33% pre-campaign. The proportion of respondents indicating 'strong support' of the seven alcohol related policies significantly increased between surveys. The proportion of respondents both aware of alcohol as a cancer risk factor and supportive of the seven alcohol related policies significantly increased between surveys. There was no significant change in self-reported intention to reduce alcohol consumption amongst increasing/higher risk drinkers. These findings indicate that a mass-media campaign raising awareness of the links between alcohol and breast cancer is associated with increased awareness and alcohol related policy support at a population level. However, there was no association found with a change in short-term drinking intentions. A mass-media campaign raising awareness of the links between alcohol and breast cancer is associated with increased awareness and alcohol policy support at a population level but does not appear to be associated with a change in short term drinking intentions. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and

  14. The relationship between population-level exposure to alcohol advertising on television and brand-specific consumption among underage youth in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Padon, Alisa A; Borzekowski, Dina L G; Jernigan, David H

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the population-level relationship between exposure to brand-specific advertising and brand-specific alcohol use among US youth. We conducted an internet survey of a national sample of 1031 youth, ages 13-20, who had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all of the alcohol brands respondents consumed in the past 30 days, as well as which of 20 popular television shows they had viewed during that time period. Using a negative binomial regression model, we examined the relationship between aggregated brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on the 20 television shows [ad stock, measured in gross rating points (GRPs)] and youth brand-consumption prevalence, while controlling for the average price and overall market share of each brand. Brands with advertising exposure on the 20 television shows had a consumption prevalence about four times higher than brands not advertising on those shows. Brand-level advertising elasticity of demand varied by exposure level, with higher elasticity in the lower exposure range. The estimated advertising elasticity of 0.63 in the lower exposure range indicates that for each 1% increase in advertising exposure, a brand's youth consumption prevalence increases by 0.63%. At the population level, underage youths' exposure to brand-specific advertising was a significant predictor of the consumption prevalence of that brand, independent of each brand's price and overall market share. The non-linearity of the observed relationship suggests that youth advertising exposure may need to be lowered substantially in order to decrease consumption of the most heavily advertised brands. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationship Between Population-Level Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television and Brand-Specific Consumption Among Underage Youth in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S.; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Padon, Alisa A.; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We investigated the population-level relationship between exposure to brand-specific advertising and brand-specific alcohol use among US youth. Methods: We conducted an internet survey of a national sample of 1031 youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all of the alcohol brands respondents consumed in the past 30 days, as well as which of 20 popular television shows they had viewed during that time period. Using a negative binomial regression model, we examined the relationship between aggregated brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on the 20 television shows [ad stock, measured in gross rating points (GRPs)] and youth brand-consumption prevalence, while controlling for the average price and overall market share of each brand. Results: Brands with advertising exposure on the 20 television shows had a consumption prevalence about four times higher than brands not advertising on those shows. Brand-level advertising elasticity of demand varied by exposure level, with higher elasticity in the lower exposure range. The estimated advertising elasticity of 0.63 in the lower exposure range indicates that for each 1% increase in advertising exposure, a brand's youth consumption prevalence increases by 0.63%. Conclusions: At the population level, underage youths' exposure to brand-specific advertising was a significant predictor of the consumption prevalence of that brand, independent of each brand's price and overall market share. The non-linearity of the observed relationship suggests that youth advertising exposure may need to be lowered substantially in order to decrease consumption of the most heavily advertised brands. PMID:25754127

  16. A community's response to suicide through public art: stakeholder perspectives from the Finding the Light Within project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel V; Singer, Jonathan B; Evans, Arthur C; Matlin, Samantha L; Golden, Jane; Harris, Cathy; Burns, James; Siciliano, Catherine; Kiernan, Guy; Pelleritti, Margaret; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2013-09-01

    Suicide is a preventable public health problem and a leading cause of death in the United States. Despite recognized need for community-based strategies for suicide prevention, most suicide prevention programs focus on individual-level change. This article presents seven first person accounts of Finding the Light Within, a community mobilization initiative to reduce the stigma associated with suicide through public arts participation that took place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 2011 through 2012. The stigma associated with suicide is a major challenge to suicide prevention, erecting social barriers to effective prevention and treatment and enhancing risk factors for people struggling with suicidal ideation and recovery after losing a loved one to suicide. This project engaged a large and diverse audience and built a new community around suicide prevention through participatory public art, including community design and production of a large public mural about suicide, storytelling and art workshops, and a storytelling website. We present this project as a model for how arts participation can address suicide on multiple fronts-from raising awareness and reducing stigma, to promoting community recovery, to providing healing for people and communities in need.

  17. Project investigation and analysis of soil-structure interaction effects in seismic response of NPPs EBO, EMO, Slovakia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasova, E.

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report was devoted to investigation of expected seismic response of the structures of WWER-440/213 type NPPs, namely Mochovce and Bohunice. Special attention was devoted to the properties of subsoil materials and the transfer of seismic waves from the bedrock to the foundation structures. Theoretical background was elaborated and discussed for wave propagation of surface waves. Alternative procedure was derived for non-linear media accounting for complex modulus theory. Material characteristics of subsoils were investigated for both NPPs. The obtained results were used as a basis for forecasting and calculation of expected seismic response when the time history records from Paks explosion were used an input. It was pointed out that the used procedure, together with previous calculation of subsoil transfer characteristics completed well the comparison with experimental results

  18. Outline and results of study on excavation response of rock mass around shaft in shaft excavation effects project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Kozo; Matsui, Hiroya; Sato, Toshinori

    1993-01-01

    A shaft, with a diameter of 6 m and a depth of 150 m, has been newly excavated in sedimentary rock and excavation response of rock mass around the shaft has been measured and analyzed. Excavation response has been evaluated based on the results of measurement of rock mass movement, such as displacement and strain, and change of rock property, such as deformability and permeability. This study indicates that rock property has been changed with in about 1 m from the shaft wall, and rock mass movement and property change has been influenced by rock facies, fracture and re-distributed stress. The relation between property change and these factors is remained to be evaluated in future study. (author)

  19. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI

    2009-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks

  20. Spatially distinct response of rice yield to autonomous adaptation under the CMIP5 multi-model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yonghee; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Im, Eun-Soon; Jung, Il-Won

    2017-02-01

    Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is a very important staple crop, as it feeds more than half of the world's population. Numerous studies have focused on the negative impacts of climate change on rice production. However, there is little debate on which region of the world is more vulnerable to climate change and how adaptation to this change can mitigate the negative impacts on rice production. We investigated the impacts of climate change on rice yield, based on simulations combining a global crop model, M-GAZE, and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model projections. Our focus was the impact of mitigating emission forcings (representative concentration pathway RCP 4.5 vs. RCP 8.5) and autonomous adaptation (i.e., changing crop variety and planting date) on rice yield. In general, our results showed that climate change due to anthropogenic warming leads to a significant reduction in rice yield. However, autonomous adaptation provides the potential to reduce the negative impact of global warming on rice yields in a spatially distinct manner. The adaptation was less beneficial for countries located at a low latitude (e.g., Cambodia, Thailand, Brazil) compared to mid-latitude countries (e.g., USA, China, Pakistan), as regional climates at the lower latitudes are already near the upper temperature thresholds for acceptable rice growth. These findings suggest that the socioeconomic effects from rice production in lowlatitude countries can be highly vulnerable to anthropogenic global warming. Therefore, these countries need to be accountable to develop transformative adaptation strategies, such as adopting (or developing) heat-tolerant varieties, and/or improve irrigation systems and fertilizer use efficiency.

  1. In response to an open invitation for comments on AAAS project 2061's Benchmark books on science. Part 1: documentation of serious errors in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Project 2061 was founded by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to improve secondary school science education. An in-depth study of ten 9 to 12th grade biology textbooks led to the verdict that none conveyed "Big Ideas" that would give coherence and meaning to the profusion of lavishly illustrated isolated details. However, neither the Project report itself nor the Benchmark books put out earlier by the Project carries what deserves the designation of "Big Ideas." Worse, in the two earliest-published Benchmark books, the basic unit of all life forms--the living cell--is described as a soup enclosed by a cell membrane, that determines what can enter or leave the cell. This is astonishing since extensive experimental evidence has unequivocally disproved this idea 60 years ago. A "new" version of the membrane theory brought in to replace the discredited (sieve) version is the pump model--currently taught as established truth in all high-school and college biology textbooks--was also unequivocally disproved 40 years ago. This comment is written partly in response to Bechmark's gracious open invitation for ideas to improve the books and through them, to improve US secondary school science education.

  2. Neurophysiologic predictors of response to atomoxetine in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchter, Andrew F; McGough, James J; Korb, Alexander S; Hunter, Aimee M; Glaser, Paul E A; Deldar, Ahmed; Durell, Todd M; Cook, Ian A

    2014-07-01

    Atomoxetine is a non-stimulant medication with sustained benefit throughout the day, and is a useful pharmacologic treatment option for young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is difficult to determine, however, those patients for whom atomoxetine will be both effective and advantageous. Patients may need to take the medication for several weeks before therapeutic benefit is apparent, so a biomarker that could predict atomoxetine effectiveness early in the course of treatment could be clinically useful. There has been increased interest in the study of thalamocortical oscillatory activity using quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as a biomarker in ADHD. In this study, we investigated qEEG absolute power, relative power, and cordance, which have been shown to predict response to reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), as potential predictors of response to atomoxetine. Forty-four young adults with ADHD (ages 18-30) enrolled in a multi-site, double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of atomoxetine and underwent serial qEEG recordings at pretreatment baseline and one week after the start of medication. qEEG measures were calculated from a subset of the sample (N = 29) that provided useable qEEG recordings. Left temporoparietal cordance in the theta frequency band after one week of treatment was associated with ADHD symptom improvement and quality of life measured at 12 weeks in atomoxetine-treated subjects, but not in those treated with placebo. Neither absolute nor relative power measures selectively predicted improvement in medication-treated subjects. Measuring theta cordance after one week of treatment could be useful in predicting atomoxetine treatment response in adult ADHD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) Contribution to CMIP6: Investigation of Sea-Level and Ocean Climate Change in Response to CO2 Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sealevel rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the model

  4. Project implementation plan: ASTD remote deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CRASS, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the project implementation plan for the ASTD Remote Deployment Project. The Plan identifies the roles and responsibilities for the project and defines the integration between the ASTD Project and the B-Cell Cleanout Project

  5. Caribbean Reef Response to Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change: Results of the Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; McNeill, D. F.; Diaz, V.; Swart, P. K.; Pourmand, A.

    2014-12-01

    Caribbean reefs changed profoundly in taxonomic composition, diversity, and dominance structure during late Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic change. These changes coincide with protracted climatic deterioration and cooling between 2.0 to 0.8 Ma, and the onset of high amplitude sea-level fluctuations ~400 ka. The Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP) was initiated to determine how climate change and global high-amplitude sea level changes influenced depositional patterns in Pliocene to Recent reef systems of the Caribbean. A transect of 7 core borings (~700 m total depth) were collected along the southern coast of the DR. New age constraints based on U/Th geochronometry and radiogenic Sr isotopes, combined with depositional lithofacies, faunal indicators, and stable isotope profiles have allowed us to correlate between wells and define the internal anatomy and stratal geometry of the individual reef sigmoids and sigmoid sets. Faunal records suggest most extinction occurred prior to ~1 Ma. Following this extinction, fringing reef margins of the Caribbean display a characteristic zonation in which Acropora palmata dominates shallow high-energy reef crests and Acropora cervicornis calmer fore-reef slopes and backreef lagoons. The dominance of acroporids across this zonation has been attributed to growth rates 5-100 times faster than other corals.

  6. Rapid Response Products of The ARIA Project for the M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Milillo, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Dawson, T. E.; Mccrink, T. P.; Jo, M. J.; Barnhart, W. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Agram, P. S.; Moore, A. W.; Jung, H. S.; Webb, F.; Milillo, G.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    A magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck southern Napa county northeast of San Francisco, California, on Aug. 24, 2014, causing significant damage in the city of Napa and nearby areas. One day after the earthquake, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team produced and released observations of coseismic ground displacement measured with continuous GPS stations of the Plate Boundary Observatory (operated by UNAVCO for the National Science Foundation) and the Bay Area Rapid Deformation network (operated by Berkeley Seismological Laboratory). Three days after the earthquake (Aug. 27), the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) satellite acquired their first post-event data. On the same day, the ARIA team, in collaboration with ASI and University of Basilicata, produced and released a coseismic interferogram that revealed ground deformation and surface rupture. The depiction of the surface rupture - discontinuities of color fringes in the CSK interferogram - helped guide field geologists from the US Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey (CGS) to features that may have otherwise gone undetected. Small-scale cracks were found on a runway of the Napa County Airport, as well as bridge damage and damaged roads. ARIA's response to this event highlighted the importance of timeliness for mapping surface deformation features. ARIA's rapid response products were shared through Southern California Earthquake Center's response website and the California Earthquake Clearinghouse. A damage proxy map derived from InSAR coherence of CSK data was produced and distributed on Aug. 27. Field crews from the CGS identified true and false positives, including mobile home damage, newly planted grape vines, and a cripple wall failure of a house. Finite fault slip models constrained from CSK interferograms and continuous GPS observations reveal a north-propagating rupture with well-resolved slip from 0-10.5 km depth. We also measured along-track coseismic

  7. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and cadmium on cellular and population-level endpoints of the micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C. [Stockholm University (Sweden); Abdul Meseh, D.; Alasawi, H.; Qiang, M.; Nascimento, F. [Dept of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    A major challenge in evaluating the risks of radiation to organisms is that radioactive substances often co-occur with other contaminants in the environment. The combined effects of multiple contaminants is poorly understood, particularly where radiation is involved, but mixture toxicity can give rise to synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects. The challenge of understanding mixture toxicity in a radiation context is the focus of one of the work packages of the STAR EU Network of Excellence in Radioecology, of which this study is a part. This paper presents results from an experiment where the green micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was exposed to both acute external gamma irradiation and the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) (over 72 hours); the experiment had a fully factorial design with 4 gamma doses and 4 Cd concentrations. The endpoints measured were chosen to reflect subcellular, cellular and population-level effects: antioxidant enzyme expression; membrane damage; protein, vitamin and pigment content of the cells; individual cell biomass and growth; population growth (biomass per ml and cells per ml). Preliminary results suggest effects of both Cd and gamma on some of the cellular and subcellular endpoints such as thiamine (vitamin B1) and chlorophyll concentrations in the cells, and individual cell biomass. In some cases interactive effects of the combined Cd and gamma treatments were seen, and these appeared to be dose level dependent. This lack of a consistent pattern of interactive mixture toxicity effects across the endpoints measured means that such effects would be very hard to predict in a risk assessment context. The lack of measurable effects at the population level was probably due to the short experimental duration (72 hours). Other experiments in our research group on the same micro-alga species that have looked at longer term effects (weeks) have shown that effects may not manifest themselves until at least a week after an acute gamma

  8. Data-Constrained Projections of Methane Fluxes in a Northern Minnesota Peatland in Response to Elevated CO2 and Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Jiang, Jiang; Huang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zheng; Wilson, Rachel M.; Ricciuto, Daniel; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Hanson, Paul J.; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-11-01

    Large uncertainties exist in predicting responses of wetland methane (CH4) fluxes to future climate change. However, sources of the uncertainty have not been clearly identified despite the fact that methane production and emission processes have been extensively explored. In this study, we took advantage of manual CH4 flux measurements under ambient environment from 2011 to 2014 at the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) experimental site and developed a data-informed process-based methane module. The module was incorporated into the Terrestrial ECOsystem (TECO) model before its parameters were constrained with multiple years of methane flux data for forecasting CH4 emission under five warming and two elevated CO2 treatments at SPRUCE. We found that 9°C warming treatments significantly increased methane emission by approximately 400%, and elevated CO2 treatments stimulated methane emission by 10.4%-23.6% in comparison with ambient conditions. The relative contribution of plant-mediated transport to methane emission decreased from 96% at the control to 92% at the 9°C warming, largely to compensate for an increase in ebullition. The uncertainty in plant-mediated transportation and ebullition increased with warming and contributed to the overall changes of emissions uncertainties. At the same time, our modeling results indicated a significant increase in the emitted CH4:CO2 ratio. This result, together with the larger warming potential of CH4, will lead to a strong positive feedback from terrestrial ecosystems to climate warming. The model-data fusion approach used in this study enabled parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification for forecasting methane fluxes.

  9. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes - environmental impact statement. Volume II, comment response document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133, and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community as soon as practicable. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition, three other reasonable alternatives and a No Action alternative are analyzed in detail, The sites for these three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity. This document contains comments recieved from meetings held regarding the site selection for isotope production

  10. Preliminary test of the MONDO project secondary fast and ultrafast neutrons tracker response using protons and MIP particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, G.; Battistoni, G.; Giacometti, V.; Gioscio, E.; Marafini, M.; Mirabelli, R.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Patera, V.

    2018-04-01

    The risk of developing a second malignant cancer as a late time consequence of undergoing a treatment, is one of the main concerns in particle therapy (PT). Since neutrons can release a significant dose far away from the tumour region, a precise characterisation of their production point, kinetic energy and abundance is eagerly needed. The treatment planning system (TPS) software that predicts the normal tissue toxicity in the target region and the risk of late complications in the whole body is currently based on the poorly known production cross-sections and will greatly benefit from improved precision double differential measurements. The MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project aims to build an ultrafast neutron tracker that could be used to characterise the production of secondary neutrons with energies in the 20–400 MeV range. The neutron tracking will proceed via the detection of recoil protons produced in two consecutive (n, p) elastic scattering interactions. The MONDO detector consists of a 10 × 10 × 20 cm3 matrix of thin scintillating fibres, arranged in orthogonally oriented layers. A compact read-out sensor with single photon detection capabilities employing the CMOS SPAD technology has been developed in collaboration with Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK). The detector will be completed by the end of 2018. A 4 × 4 × 4.8 cm3 prototype has been built using 250 μ m thick scintillating fibres of squared section and was tested using a proton beam and minimum ionising particles. In this contribution we present the experimental results related to the prototype test performed with a proton beam at the Proton Therapy Centre of the Trento Hospital (PTC) in May 2017. The results are compared with the results of a Monte Carlo simulation performed with the FLUKA software.

  11. Interest in an online smoking cessation program and effective recruitment strategies: results from Project Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Greene, Sarah M; Wiese, Cheryl; Johnson, Karin E; Alexander, Gwen; Strecher, Victor

    2006-08-22

    The Internet is a promising venue for delivering smoking cessation treatment, either as a stand-alone program or as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. However, there is little data to indicate what percent of smokers are interested in receiving online smoking cessation services or how best to recruit smokers to Internet-based programs. Using a defined recruitment sample, this study aimed to identify the percentage of smokers who expressed interest in or enrolled in Project Quit, a tailored, online, cognitive-behavioral support program offered with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy patches. In addition, we examined the effectiveness of several individual-level versus population-level recruitment strategies. Members from two large health care organizations in the United States were invited to participate in Project Quit. Recruitment efforts included proactive invitation letters mailed to 34533 likely smokers and reactive population-level study advertisements targeted to all health plan members (> 560000 adults, including an estimated 98000 smokers across both health care organizations). An estimated 1.6% and 2.5% of adult smokers from each health care organization enrolled in Project Quit. Among likely smokers who received proactive study invitations, 7% visited the Project Quit website (n = 2260) and 4% (n = 1273) were eligible and enrolled. Response rates were similar across sites, despite using different sources to assemble the invitation mailing list. Proactive individual-level recruitment was more effective than other forms of recruitment, accounting for 69% of website visitors and 68% of enrollees. Smokers were interested in receiving online smoking cessation support, even though they had access to other forms of treatment through their health insurance. Uptake rates for this program were comparable to those seen when smokers are advised to quit and are referred to other forms of smoking cessation treatment. In this sample, proactive mailings were the best

  12. Distribution of ground rigidity and ground model for seismic response analysis in Hualian project of large scale seismic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokusho, T.; Nishi, K.; Okamoto, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Ueshima, T.; Kudo, K.; Kataoka, T.; Ikemi, M.; Kawai, T.; Sawada, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Yajima, K.; Higashi, S.

    1997-01-01

    An international joint research program called HLSST is proceeding. HLSST is large-scale seismic test (LSST) to investigate soil-structure interaction (SSI) during large earthquake in the field in Hualien, a high seismic region in Taiwan. A 1/4-scale model building was constructed on the gravelly soil in this site, and the backfill material of crushed stone was placed around the model plant after excavation for the construction. Also the model building and the foundation ground were extensively instrumental to monitor structure and ground response. To accurately evaluate SSI during earthquakes, geotechnical investigation and forced vibration test were performed during construction process namely before/after base excavation, after structure construction and after backfilling. And the distribution of the mechanical properties of the gravelly soil and the backfill are measured after the completion of the construction by penetration test and PS-logging etc. This paper describes the distribution and the change of the shear wave velocity (V s ) measured by the field test. Discussion is made on the effect of overburden pressure during the construction process on V s in the neighbouring soil and, further on the numerical soil model for SSI analysis. (orig.)

  13. Microbiome Responses to an Uncontrolled Short-Term Diet Intervention in the Frame of the Citizen Science Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, Natalia S; Tyakht, Alexander V; Popenko, Anna S; Vasiliev, Anatoly S; Altukhov, Ilya A; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Shashkova, Tatiana I; Efimova, Daria A; Nikogosov, Dmitri A; Osipenko, Dmitrii A; Musienko, Sergey V; Selezneva, Kseniya S; Baranova, Ancha; Kurilshikov, Alexander M; Toshchakov, Stepan M; Korzhenkov, Aleksei A; Samarov, Nazar I; Shevchenko, Margarita A; Tepliuk, Alina V; Alexeev, Dmitry G

    2018-05-08

    Personalized nutrition is of increasing interest to individuals actively monitoring their health. The relations between the duration of diet intervention and the effects on gut microbiota have yet to be elucidated. Here we examined the associations of short-term dietary changes, long-term dietary habits and lifestyle with gut microbiota. Stool samples from 248 citizen-science volunteers were collected before and after a self-reported 2-week personalized diet intervention, then analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Considerable correlations between long-term dietary habits and gut community structure were detected. A higher intake of vegetables and fruits was associated with increased levels of butyrate-producing Clostridiales and higher community richness. A paired comparison of the metagenomes before and after the 2-week intervention showed that even a brief, uncontrolled intervention produced profound changes in community structure: resulting in decreased levels of Bacteroidaceae , Porphyromonadaceae and Rikenellaceae families and decreased alpha-diversity coupled with an increase of Methanobrevibacter , Bifidobacterium , Clostridium and butyrate-producing Lachnospiraceae - as well as the prevalence of a permatype (a bootstrapping-based variation of enterotype) associated with a higher diversity of diet. The response of microbiota to the intervention was dependent on the initial microbiota state. These findings pave the way for the development of an individualized diet.

  14. Microbiome Responses to an Uncontrolled Short-Term Diet Intervention in the Frame of the Citizen Science Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S. Klimenko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Personalized nutrition is of increasing interest to individuals actively monitoring their health. The relations between the duration of diet intervention and the effects on gut microbiota have yet to be elucidated. Here we examined the associations of short-term dietary changes, long-term dietary habits and lifestyle with gut microbiota. Stool samples from 248 citizen-science volunteers were collected before and after a self-reported 2-week personalized diet intervention, then analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Considerable correlations between long-term dietary habits and gut community structure were detected. A higher intake of vegetables and fruits was associated with increased levels of butyrate-producing Clostridiales and higher community richness. A paired comparison of the metagenomes before and after the 2-week intervention showed that even a brief, uncontrolled intervention produced profound changes in community structure: resulting in decreased levels of Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae and Rikenellaceae families and decreased alpha-diversity coupled with an increase of Methanobrevibacter, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and butyrate-producing Lachnospiraceae- as well as the prevalence of a permatype (a bootstrapping-based variation of enterotype associated with a higher diversity of diet. The response of microbiota to the intervention was dependent on the initial microbiota state. These findings pave the way for the development of an individualized diet.

  15. The population-level impacts of a national health insurance program and franchise midwife clinics on achievement of prenatal and delivery care standards in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Valera, Madeleine R; Adams, Alyce S; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Adequate prenatal and delivery care are vital components of successful maternal health care provision. Starting in 1998, two programs were widely expanded in the Philippines: a national health insurance program (PhilHealth); and a donor-funded franchise of midwife clinics (Well Family Midwife Clinics). This paper examines population-level impacts of these interventions on achievement of minimum standards for prenatal and delivery care. Data from two waves of the Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted before (1998) and after (2003) scale-up of the interventions, are employed in a pre/post-study design, using longitudinal multivariate logistic and linear regression models. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the PhilHealth insurance program scale-up was associated with increased odds of receiving at least four prenatal visits (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.06]) and receiving a visit during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.01-1.06]). Exposure to midwife clinics was not associated with significant changes in achievement of prenatal care standards. While both programs were associated with slight increases in the odds of delivery in a health facility, these increases were not statistically significant. These results suggest that expansion of an insurance program with accreditation standards was associated with increases in achievement of minimal standards for prenatal care among women in the Philippines.

  16. A review of the validity and reliability of alcohol retail sales data for monitoring population levels of alcohol consumption: a Scottish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption.

  17. The population-level impacts of a national health insurance program and franchise midwife clinics on achievement of prenatal and delivery care standards in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Valera, Madeleine R.; Adams, Alyce S.; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Adequate prenatal and delivery care are vital components of successful maternal health care provision. Starting in 1998, two programs were widely expanded in the Philippines: a national health insurance program (PhilHealth); and a donor-funded franchise of midwife clinics (Well-Family Midwife Clinics). This paper examines population-level impacts of these interventions on achievement of minimum standards for prenatal and delivery care. Methods Data from two waves of the Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted before (1998) and after (2003) scale up of the interventions, are employed in a pre/post study design, using longitudinal multivariate logistic and linear regression models. Results After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the PhilHealth insurance program scale up was associated with increased odds of receiving at least four prenatal visits (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01–1.06]) and receiving a visit during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.01–1.06]). Exposure to midwife clinics was not associated with significant changes in achievement of prenatal care standards. While both programs were associated with slight increases in the odds of delivery in a health facility, these increases were not statistically significant. Conclusions These results suggest that expansion of an insurance program with accreditation standards was associated with increases in achievement of minimal standards for prenatal care among women in the Philippines. PMID:19327862

  18. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-08-15

    The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic 'hot spots' of mercury availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential Population-Level Nutritional Impact of Replacing Whole and Reduced-Fat Milk With Low-Fat and Skim Milk Among US Children Aged 2–19 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dietary guidance emphasizes plain low-fat and skim milk over whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]). The objective of this study was to evaluate the population-level impact of such a change on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Design Cross-sectional modeling study. Setting Data from the 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants A total of 8,112 children aged 2–19 years. Main Outcome Measures Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake before and after replacement of MER with low-fat or skim milk. Analysis Survey-weighted linear regression models. Results Milk eligible for replacement accounted for 46% of dairy servings. Among MER consumers, replacement with skim or low-fat milk would lead to a projected reduction in energy of 113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 107–119) and 77 (95% CI, 73–82) kcal/d and percent energy from saturated fat by an absolute value of 2.5% of total energy (95% CI, 2.4–2.6) and 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3–1.5), respectively. Replacement of MER does not change diet costs or calcium and potassium intake. Conclusions Substitution of MER has the potential to reduce energy and total and saturated fat intake with no impact on diet costs or micronutrient density. The feasibility of such replacement has not been examined and there may be negative consequences if replacement is done with non-nutrient–rich beverages. PMID:25528079

  20. Potential population-level nutritional impact of replacing whole and reduced-fat milk with low-fat and skim milk among US children aged 2-19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidance emphasizes plain low-fat and skim milk over whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]). The objective of this study was to evaluate the population-level impact of such a change on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Cross-sectional modeling study. Data from the 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 8,112 children aged 2-19 years. Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake before and after replacement of MER with low-fat or skim milk. Survey-weighted linear regression models. Milk eligible for replacement accounted for 46% of dairy servings. Among MER consumers, replacement with skim or low-fat milk would lead to a projected reduction in energy of 113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 107-119) and 77 (95% CI, 73-82) kcal/d and percent energy from saturated fat by an absolute value of 2.5% of total energy (95% CI, 2.4-2.6) and 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3-1.5), respectively. Replacement of MER does not change diet costs or calcium and potassium intake. Substitution of MER has the potential to reduce energy and total and saturated fat intake with no impact on diet costs or micronutrient density. The feasibility of such replacement has not been examined and there may be negative consequences if replacement is done with non-nutrient-rich beverages. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Response of net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of boreal forest ecosystems to projected future climate changes: results of a modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kurbatova, Julia

    2014-05-01

    It is presented the modeling results describing the possible response of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), gross (GPP) and net (NPP) primary production, as well as evapotranspiration (ET) of spruce forest ecosystems situated at central part of European part of Russia at the southern boundary of boreal forest community to projected future changes of climatic conditions and forest species composition. A process-based MixFor-SVAT model (Olchev et al 2002, 2008, 2009) has been used to describe the CO2 and H2O fluxes under present and projected future climate conditions. The main advantage of MixFor-SVAT is its ability not only to describe seasonal and daily dynamics of total CO2 and H2O fluxes at an ecosystem level, but also to adequately estimate the contributions of soil, forest understorey, and various tree species in overstorey into total ecosystem fluxes taking into account their individual responses to changes in environmental conditions as well as the differences in structure and biophysical properties. Results of modeling experiments showed that projected changes of climate conditions (moderate scenario A1B IPCC) and forest species composition at the end of 21 century can lead to small increase of annual evapotranspiration as well as to growth of NEE, GPP and NPP of the forests in case if the projected increase in temperature and elevated CO2 in the atmosphere in future will be strictly balanced with growth of available nutrients and water in plant and soil. It is obvious that any deficit of e.g. nitrogen in leaves (due to reduced transpiration, nitrogen availability in soil, etc.) may lead to decreases in the photosynthesis and respiration rates of trees and, as a consequence, to decreases in the GPP and NEE of entire forest ecosystem. Conducted modeling experiments have demonstrated that a 20% reduction of available nitrogen in tree leaves in a monospesific spruce forest stand may result in a 14% decrease in NEE, a 8% decrease in NPP, and a 4% decrease in

  2. Assessing the hydrological response from an ensemble of CMIP5 climate projections in the transition zone of the Atlantic region (Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaurio, Maite; Zabaleta, Ane; Boithias, Laurie; Epelde, Ane Miren; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, Jose-Miguel; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Antiguedad, Iñaki

    2017-05-01

    The climate changes projected for the 21st century will have consequences on the hydrological response of catchments. These changes, and their consequences, are most uncertain in the transition zones. The study area, in the Bay of Biscay, is located in the transition zone of the European Atlantic region, where hydrological impact of climate change was scarcely studied. In order to address this scarcity, the hydrological impacts of climate change on river discharge were assessed. To do so, a hydrological modelling was carried out considering 16 climate scenarios that include 5 General Circulation Models (GCM) from the 5th report of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), 2 statistical downscaling methods and 2 Representative Concentration Pathways. Projections for future discharge (2011-2100) were divided into three 30-year horizons (2030s, 2060s and 2090s) and a comparison was made between these time horizons and the baseline (1961-2000). The results show that the downscaling method used resulted in a higher source of uncertainty than GCM itself. In addition, the uncertainties inherent to the methods used at all the levels do not affect the results equally along the year. In spite of those uncertainties, general trends for the 2090s predict seasonal discharge decreases by around -17% in autumn, -16% in spring, -11% in winter and -7% in summer. These results are in line with those predicted for the Atlantic region (France and the Iberian Peninsula). Trends for extreme flows were also analysed: the most significant show an increase in the duration (days) of low flows. From an environmental point of view, and considering the need to meet the objectives established by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), this will be a major challenge for the future planning on water management.

  3. Large-amplitude mesospheric response to an orographic wave generated over the Southern Ocean Auckland Islands (50.7°S) during the DEEPWAVE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautet, P.-D.; Taylor, M. J.; Fritts, D. C.; Bossert, K.; Williams, B. P.; Broutman, D.; Ma, J.; Eckermann, S. D.; Doyle, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) project was conducted over New Zealand and the surrounding regions during June and July 2014, to more fully understand the generation, propagation, and effects of atmospheric gravity waves. A large suite of instruments collected data from the ground to the upper atmosphere (~100 km), with several new remote-sensing instruments operating on board the NSF Gulfstream V (GV) research aircraft, which was the central measurement platform of the project. On 14 July, during one of the research flights (research flight 23), a spectacular event was observed as the GV flew in the lee of the sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands (50.7°S). An apparent "ship wave" pattern was imaged in the OH layer (at ~83.5 km) by the Utah State University Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper and evolved significantly over four successive passes spanning more than 4 h. The waves were associated with orographic forcing generated by relatively strong (15-20 m/s) near-surface wind flowing over the rugged island topography. The mountain wave had an amplitude T' ~ 10 K, a dominant horizontal wavelength ~40 km, achieved a momentum flux exceeding 300 m2 s-2, and eventually exhibited instability and breaking at the OH altitude. This case of deep mountain wave propagation demonstrates the potential for strong responses in the mesosphere arising from a small source under suitable propagation conditions and suggests that such cases may be more common than previously believed.

  4. Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.

    2007-03-26

    We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in short-lived species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all short-lived species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the short-lived species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.

  5. Wisdom for Building the Project Manager/Project Sponsor Relationship: Partnership for Project Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patton, Nanette; Shechet, Allan

    2007-01-01

    .... This article discusses conventional roles and responsibilities of the project sponsor and then discusses strategies a project manager can employ to define boundaries to reduce role confusion and promote partnership to facilitate project success.

  6. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP contribution to CMIP6: investigation of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gregory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs. It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sea-level rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable

  7. Evidence acquisition and evaluation for evidence summit on population-level behavior change to enhance child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balster, Robert L; Levy, Stephanie; Stammer, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for evidence to inform public health officials and health care workers in the U.S. government and low- and middle-income country governments on efficient, effective behavior change policies, strategies, and programs for child health and development, the U.S. government convened the Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. This article summarizes the background and methods for the acquisition and evaluation of the evidence used to the achieve the goals of the summit that is reviewed in other articles in this special issue of the Journal of Health Communication. The process began by identifying focal questions intended to inform the U.S. and low- and middle-income governments about behavior change interventions that accelerate reductions in under-5 mortality and optimize healthy and protective child development to 5 years of age. Experts were selected representing the research and program communities, academia, relevant nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies and assembled into evidence review teams. This was followed by the systematic gathering of relevant peer-reviewed literature that would inform the focal questions. Members of the evidence review teams were invited to add relevant articles not identified in the initial literature review to complete the bibliographies. Details of the search processes and methods used for screening and quality reviews are described. The evidence review teams were asked to comply with a specific evaluation framework for recommendations on practice and policy on the basis of both expert opinion and the quality of the data reviewed.

  8. Setting Quality Improvement Priorities for Women Receiving Systemic Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer by Using Population-Level Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Katherine A; Taback, Nathan; Powis, Melanie Lynn; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Yun, Lingsong; Sutradhar, Rinku; Trudeau, Maureen E; Booth, Christopher M; Krzyzanowska, Monika K

    2017-10-01

    Purpose Routine evaluation of quality measures (QMs) can drive improvement in cancer systems by highlighting gaps in care. Targeting quality improvement at QMs that demonstrate substantial variation has the potential to make the largest impact at the population level. We developed an approach that uses both variation in performance and number of patients affected by the QM to set priorities for improving the quality of systemic therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer (EBC). Patients and Methods Patients with EBC diagnosed from 2006 to 2010 in Ontario, Canada, were identified in the Ontario Cancer Registry and linked deterministically to multiple health care databases. Individual QMs within a panel of 15 QMs previously developed to assess the quality of systemic therapy across four domains (access, treatment delivery, toxicity, and safety) were ranked on interinstitutional variation in performance (using interquartile range) and the number of patients who were affected; then the two rankings were averaged for a summative priority ranking. Results We identified 28,427 patients with EBC who were treated at 84 institutions. The use of computerized physician electronic order entry for chemotherapy, emergency room visits or hospitalizations during chemotherapy, and timely receipt of chemotherapy were identified as the QMs that had the largest potential to improve quality of care at a system level within this cohort. Conclusion A simple ranking system based on interinstitutional variation in performance and patient volume can be used to identify high-priority areas for quality improvement from a population perspective. This approach is generalizable to other health care systems that use QMs to drive improvement.

  9. Reporting the characteristics of the policy context for population-level alcohol interventions: a proposed 'Transparent Reporting of Alcohol Intervention ContExts' (TRAICE) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John; Meier, Petra S; Booth, Andrew; Brennan, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Effectiveness of alcohol policy interventions varies across times and places. The circumstances under which effective polices can be successfully transferred between contexts are typically unexplored with little attention given to developing reporting requirements that would facilitate systematic investigation. Using purposive sampling and expert elicitation methods, we identified context-related factors impacting on the effectiveness of population-level alcohol policies. We then drew on previous characterisations of alcohol policy contexts and methodological-reporting checklists to design a new checklist for reporting contextual information in evaluation studies. Six context factor domains were identified: (i) baseline alcohol consumption, norms and harm rates; (ii) baseline affordability and availability; (iii) social, microeconomic and demographic contexts; (iv) macroeconomic context; (v) market context; and (vi) wider policy, political and media context. The checklist specifies information, typically available in national or international reports, to be reported in each domain. The checklist can facilitate evidence synthesis by providing: (i) a mechanism for systematic and more consistent reporting of contextual data for meta-regression and realist evaluations; (ii) information for policy-makers on differences between their context and contexts of evaluations; and (iii) an evidence base for adjusting prospective policy simulation models to account for policy context. Our proposed checklist provides a tool for gaining better understanding of the influence of policy context on intervention effectiveness. Further work is required to rationalise and aggregate checklists across interventions types to make such checklists practical for use by journals and to improve reporting of important qualitative contextual data. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and

  10. The application of project management in construction projects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Project management is critical for successful project development. A crucial responsibility of the project manager is ensuring that the client is certified and the scope of work is of high quality, within the agreed budget and time frame. In some way, project financing is completed from the time of project conception. Indeed ...

  11. Brazilian responses to violence and new forms of mediation: the case of the Grupo Cultural AfroReggae and the experience of the project "Youth and the Police"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ramos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some aspects of the Brazilian response to urban violence, focusing both official public safety policies and actions of the civil society. The text identifies the lack of a national public safety policy, indicates successful governmental experiences carried out in some states and municipalities, and concentrates on the actions of the police. Analyzing the responses of the civil society, the paper is emphasizing the campaign for disarming the population and the role played by the media. It shows the appearance of groups of young people living in the favelas, organized in turn of cultural experiences that, in multiple aspects, are characterized as "new mediators" in society. These groups thematize violence and try to build new stereotypes dissociating them from the image of criminality. The article describes in particular the cases of the Grupo Cultural AfroReggae, of Rio de Janeiro, and the pilot experience carried out in collaboration with the Minas Gerais Military Police, called "Youth and the Police". The AfroReggae group is a typical example of such a "new mediator", and the initiative of carrying out a work in cooperation with the police opens new perspectives for the traditionally scarce participation of civil organizations engaged in public safety in cooperative projects with the police.

  12. SDN Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The SDN Project completed on time and on budget and successfully accomplished 100% of the scope of work outlined in the original Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The SDN Project formed an alliance between Ameren Corporation, University of Illinois Urbana- Champaign (UIUC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). The objective of the SDN Project is to address Topic Area of Interest 2: Sustain critical energy delivery functions while responding to a cyber-intrusion under Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-0000797. The goal of the project is to design and commercially release technology that provides a method to sustain critical energy delivery functions during a cyber intrusion and to do this control system operators need the ability to quickly identify and isolate the affected network areas, and re-route critical information and control flows around. The objective of the SDN Project is to develop a Flow Controller that monitors, configures, and maintains the safe, reliable network traffic flows of all the local area networks (LANs) on a control system in the Energy sector. The SDN team identified the core attributes of a control system and produced an SDN flow controller that has the same core attributes enabling networks to be designed, configured and deployed that maximize the whitelisted, deny-bydefault and purpose built networks. This project researched, developed and commercially released technology that: Enables all field networks be to configured and monitored as if they are a single asset to be protected; Enables greatly improved and even precalculated response actions to reliability and cyber events; Supports pre-configured localized response actions tailored to provide resilience against failures and centralized response to cyber-attacks that improve network reliability and availability; Architecturally enables the right subject matter experts, who are usually the information

  13. Nuclear safety projects 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl-Erik Christoffersen

    1996-01-01

    Action plans for the prevention of contamination in the Arctic regions is concretized in a number of international projects. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is responsible for the follow-up of 13 projects. The report describes the development of these projects in 1995

  14. HIV-1 transmission patterns in antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-infected North Americans based on phylogenetic analysis by population level and ultra-deep DNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L Ross

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, especially drug-resistant HIV-1 variants remain a significant public health concern. In-depth phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences obtained in the screening phase from antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients seeking enrollment in EPZ108859, a large open-label study in the USA, Canada and Puerto Rico (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00440947 were examined for insights into the roles of drug resistance and epidemiological factors that could impact disease dissemination. Viral transmission clusters (VTCs were initially predicted from a phylogenetic analysis of population level HIV-1 pol sequences obtained from 690 antiretroviral-naïve subjects in 2007. Subsequently, the predicted VTCs were tested for robustness by ultra deep sequencing (UDS using pyrosequencing technology and further phylogenetic analyses. The demographic characteristics of clustered and non-clustered subjects were then compared. From 690 subjects, 69 were assigned to 1 of 30 VTCs, each containing 2 to 5 subjects. Race composition of VTCs were significantly more likely to be white (72% vs. 60%; p = 0.04. VTCs had fewer reverse transcriptase and major PI resistance mutations (9% vs. 24%; p = 0.002 than non-clustered sequences. Both men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM (68% vs. 48%; p = 0.001 and Canadians (29% vs. 14%; p = 0.03 were significantly more frequent in VTCs than non-clustered sequences. Of the 515 subjects who initiated antiretroviral therapy, 33 experienced confirmed virologic failure through 144 weeks while only 3/33 were from VTCs. Fewer VTCs subjects (as compared to those with non-clustering virus had HIV-1 with resistance-associated mutations or experienced virologic failure during the course of the study. Our analysis shows specific geographical and drug resistance trends that correlate well with transmission clusters defined by HIV sequences of similarity

  15. Temporal Trends of the Clinical, Resource Use and Outcome Attributes of ICU-Managed Candidemia Hospitalizations: A Population-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2016-04-01

    There are mixed findings on the longitudinal patterns of the incidence of intensive care unit (ICU)-managed candidemia, with scarcity of reports on the corresponding evolving patterns of patients' clinical characteristics and outcomes. No population-level data were reported on the temporal trends of the attributes, care and outcomes of ICU-managed adults with candidemia. The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File was used to identify hospitalizations aged 18 years or older with a diagnosis of candidemia and ICU admission (C-ICU hospitalizations) between 2001 and 2010. Temporal trends of the demographics, clinical features, use of healthcare resources, and short-term outcomes were examined. Average annual percent changes (AAPCs) were derived. C-ICU hospitalizations (n = 7,552) became (AAPC) increasingly younger (age ≥ 65 years: -1.0%/year). The Charslon comorbidity index rose 4.2%/year, while the mean number of organ failures (OFs) increased by 8.2%/year, with a fast rise in the rate of those developing ≥ 3 OFs (+15.5%/year). Between 2001 and 2010, there was no significant change in utilization of mechanical ventilation and new hemodialysis among C-ICU hospitalizations with reported respiratory and renal failures (68.9% vs. 73.3%, P = 0.3653 and 15.5% vs. 21.8%, P = 0.8589, respectively). Hospital length of stay or total hospital charges remained unchanged during study period. Hospital mortality decreased between 2001 and 2010 from 39.3% to 23.8% (-5.2%/year). The majority of hospital survivors (61.6%) were discharged to another facility, and increasingly to long-term acute care hospitals, with routine home discharge decreasing to 11% by 2010. C-ICU hospitalizations demonstrated increasing comorbidity burden and rising development of OF, and matching rise in use of selected life-support interventions, though with unchanged in-hospital fiscal impact. There has been marked decrease in hospital mortality, but survivors had substantial residual morbidity with the

  16. Ligand-Enhanced Optical Response of Gold Nanomolecules and Its Fragment Projection Analysis: The Case of Au 30 (SR) 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sementa, Luca; Barcaro, Giovanni; Baseggio, Oscar; De Vetta, Martina; Dass, Amala; Apra, Edoardo; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2017-01-10

    Here we investigate via first-principles simulations the optical absorption spectra of three different Au30(SR)18 monolayer-protected clusters (MPC): Au30(StBu)18, which is known in the literature and whose crystal structure is available, and two species – Au30(SPh)18 and Au30(SPh-pNO2)18 – which have been designed by replacing the tert-butyl organic residues with aromatic ones so as to investigate the effects of ligand replacement on the optical response of Au nanomolecules. In analogy with previously studied but rather different Au23(SR)16- anionic species, a substantial ligand-enhancement of the absorption intensity in the optical region is obtained for the Au30(SPhpNO2)18 neutral MPC. This demonstrates that using conjugated aromatic ligands with properly chosen electron withdrawal substituents and exhibiting steric hindrance so as to also achieve charge decompression at the surface is a general approach to enhance MPC photo-absorption intensity in the optical region. Moreover, the ligand-enhancement phenomenon is subjected to a detailed analysis based on fragment projection of electronic excited states and on induced transition densities, leading to a better understanding of its physical origin, thus opening avenues to its more precise control and exploitation.

  17. The national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder in Canada. Part 4: criminal recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, Yanick; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Salem, Leila; Nicholls, Tonia L; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-03-01

    To examine criminal recidivism rates of a large sample of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada's 3 most populous provinces, British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec. Public concern about the dangerousness of people found NCRMD has been fed by media attention on high-profile cases. However, little research is available on the rate of reoffending among people found NCRMD across Canadian provinces. Using data from the National Trajectory Project, this study examined 1800 men and women in British Columbia (n = 222), Ontario (n = 484), and Quebec (n = 1094) who were found NCRMD between May 2000 and April 2005 and followed until December 2008. Recidivism was relatively low after 3 years (17%). There were interprovincial differences after controlling for number of prior criminal offences, diagnosis, seriousness of the index offence, and supervision by the review boards. British Columbia (10%) and Ontario (9%) were similar, whereas Quebec had almost twice the recidivism (22%). People who had committed severe violent index offences were less likely to reoffend than those who had committed less severe offences. People from the sample were less likely to reoffend when under the purview of review boards, across all 3 provinces. The results of this study, along with other research on processing differences, suggest systemic differences in the trajectories and outcomes of persons found NCRMD need to be better understood to guide national policies and practices.

  18. Insights into Spatial Sensitivities of Ice Mass Response to Environmental Change from the SeaRISE Ice Sheet Modeling Project I: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert A.; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Aschwanden, Andy; Bueler, Ed; Choi, Hyengu; Fastook, Jim; Granzow, Glen; Greve, Ralf; Gutowski, Gail; hide

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric, oceanic, and subglacial forcing scenarios from the Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) project are applied to six three-dimensional thermomechanical ice-sheet models to assess Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity over a 500 year timescale and to inform future modeling and field studies. Results indicate (i) growth with warming, except within low-latitude basins (where inland thickening is outpaced by marginal thinning); (ii) mass loss with enhanced sliding (with basins dominated by high driving stresses affected more than basins with low-surface-slope streaming ice); and (iii) mass loss with enhanced ice shelf melting (with changes in West Antarctica dominating the signal due to its marine setting and extensive ice shelves; cf. minimal impact in the Terre Adelie, George V, Oates, and Victoria Land region of East Antarctica). Ice loss due to dynamic changes associated with enhanced sliding and/or sub-shelf melting exceeds the gain due to increased precipitation. Furthermore, differences in results between and within basins as well as the controlling impact of sub-shelf melting on ice dynamics highlight the need for improved understanding of basal conditions, grounding-zone processes, ocean-ice interactions, and the numerical representation of all three.

  19. The national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder in Canada. Part 3: trajectories and outcomes through the forensic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Anne G; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C; Nicholls, Tonia L; Côté, Gilles; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-03-01

    To examine the processing and Review Board (RB) disposition outcomes of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) across the 3 most populous provinces in Canada. Although the Criminal Code is federally legislated, criminal justice is administered by provinces and territories. It follows that a person with mental illness who comes into conflict with the law and subsequently comes under the management of a legally mandated RB may experience different trajectories across jurisdictions. The National Trajectory Project examined 1800 men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (n = 222), Quebec (n = 1094), and Ontario (n = 484) between May 2000 and April 2005, followed until December 2008. We found significant interprovincial differences in the trajectories of people found NCRMD, including time detained in hospital and time under the supervision of an RB. The odds of being conditionally or absolutely discharged by the RB varied across provinces, even after number of past offences, diagnosis at verdict, and most severe index offence (all covariates decreased likelihood of discharge) were considered. Considerable discrepancies in the application of NCRMD legislation and the processing of NCRMD cases through the forensic system across the provinces suggests that fair and equitable treatment under the law could be enhanced by increased national integration and collaboration.

  20. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  1. Responsibility navigator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan; Edler, Jakob; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo; Randles, Sally; Walhout, Bart; Walhout, Bart; Gough, Clair; Lindner, Ralf; Lindner, Ralf; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Randles, Sally; Bedsted, Bjorn; Gorgoni, Guido; Griessler, Erich; Loconto, Allison; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Research and innovation activities need to become more responsive to societal challenges and concerns. The Responsibility Navigator, developed in the Res-AGorA project, supports decision-makers to govern such activities towards more conscious responsibility. What is considered “responsible” will

  2. FLORAM project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulauf, W E [Sao Paolos Environmental Secretariat, Sao Paolo (Brazil); Goelho, A S.R. [Riocell, S.A. (Brazil); Saber, A [IEA-Instituto de Estudos Avancados (Brazil); and others

    1996-12-31

    The project FLORAM was formulated at the `Institute for Advanced Studies` of the University of Sao Paulo. It aims at decreasing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thus curbing the green-house effect by way of a huge effort of forestation and reforestation. The resulting forests when the trees mature, will be responsible for the absorption of about 6 billion tons of excess carbon. It represents 5 % of the total amount of CO{sub 2} which is in excess in the earth`s atmosphere and represents 5 % of the available continental surfaces which can be forested as well. Therefore, if similar projects are implemented throughout the world, in theory all the exceeding CO{sub 2}, responsible for the `greenhouse effect`, (27 % or 115 billion tons of carbon) would be absorbed. Regarding this fact, there would be a 400 million hectar increase of growing forests. FLORAM in Brazil aims to plant 20.000.000 ha in 2 years at a cost of 20 billion dollars. If it reaches its goals that will mean that Brazil will have reforested an area almost half as big as France. (author)

  3. FLORAM project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulauf, W.E. [Sao Paolos Environmental Secretariat, Sao Paolo (Brazil); Goelho, A.S.R. [Riocell, S.A. (Brazil); Saber, A. [IEA-Instituto de Estudos Avancados (Brazil)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The project FLORAM was formulated at the `Institute for Advanced Studies` of the University of Sao Paulo. It aims at decreasing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thus curbing the green-house effect by way of a huge effort of forestation and reforestation. The resulting forests when the trees mature, will be responsible for the absorption of about 6 billion tons of excess carbon. It represents 5 % of the total amount of CO{sub 2} which is in excess in the earth`s atmosphere and represents 5 % of the available continental surfaces which can be forested as well. Therefore, if similar projects are implemented throughout the world, in theory all the exceeding CO{sub 2}, responsible for the `greenhouse effect`, (27 % or 115 billion tons of carbon) would be absorbed. Regarding this fact, there would be a 400 million hectar increase of growing forests. FLORAM in Brazil aims to plant 20.000.000 ha in 2 years at a cost of 20 billion dollars. If it reaches its goals that will mean that Brazil will have reforested an area almost half as big as France. (author)

  4. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  5. Leading global projects for professional and accidental project leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...

  6. Investing in Urban Studies to Ensure Urban Archaeology’s Future: A Response to ‘The Challenges and Opportunities for Mega-infrastructure Projects and Archaeology’

    OpenAIRE

    Linn, Meredith B

    2013-01-01

    In reading J. J. Carver’s excellent suggestions for how to better enable archaeology and large urban infrastructure projects to progress to mutual benefit, I found myself in enthusiastic agreement with his point that ‘professional working relationships are the most important challenge for archaeology in mega projects’ and that we must convince project directors, engineers, and site teams that archaeology ‘can enhance the value of the project they are building’ (4). This is especially crucial ...

  7. Analysis of the population-level impact of co-administering ivermectin with albendazole or mebendazole for the control and elimination of Trichuris trichiura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C. Turner

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Co-administering ivermectin notably increased the projected impact of preventive chemotherapy in high transmission settings and increased the feasibility for breaking transmission. This has important implications for control programmes, some of which may be shifting focus from morbidity control to interruption of transmission, and some of which may be logistically unable to provide preventive chemotherapy twice a year as recommended. However, the benefit of co-administering ivermectin is limited by the fact that 2–5 year olds are often ineligible to receive treatment.

  8. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 2: The People Behind the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Seto, Michael C; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychosocio-criminological characteristics of not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD)–accused people and compare them across the 3 most populous provinces. In Canada, the number of people found NCRMD has risen during the past 20 years. The Criminal Code is federally legislated but provincially administered, and mental health services are provincially governed. Our study offers a rare opportunity to observe the characteristics and trajectories of NCRMD–accused people. Method: The National Trajectory Project examined 1800 men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (n = 222), Quebec (n = 1094), and Ontario (n = 484) between May 2000 to April 2005, followed until December 2008. Results: The most common primary diagnosis was a psychotic spectrum disorder. One-third of NCRMD–accused people had a severe mental illness and a concomitant substance use disorder, with British Columbia having the highest rate of dually diagnosed NCRMD–accused people. Most accused people (72.4%) had at least 1 prior psychiatric hospitalization. Two-thirds of index NCRMD offences were against the person, with a wide range of severity. Family members, followed by professionals, such as police and mental health care workers, were the most frequent victims. Quebec had the highest proportion of people with a mood disorder and the lowest median offence severity. There were both interprovincial differences and similarities in the characteristics of NCRMD–accused people. Conclusions: Contrary to public perception, severe violent offenses such as murder, attempted murder or sexual offences represent a small proportion of all NCRMD verdict offences. The results reveal a heterogeneous population regarding mental health and criminological characteristics in need of hierarchically organized forensic mental health services and levels of security. NCRMD–accused people were well known to civil psychiatric services prior to being found NCRMD

  9. Benefit-cost analysis of fishery rehabilitation projects: A Great Lakes case study. Spec. issue: Responses to marine resource change/social sciences perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R.C.; Milliman, S.R.; Boyle, K.J.; Johnson, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Tools of benefit-cost analysis are used to evaluate a project to rehabilitate the yellow perch (Perca flavescens ) fishery of Green Bay, Wisconsin. Both sport and commercial fishers harvest from this stock, which has been suffering from much reduced productivity since the early 1960s. The project is composed of commercial quotas and other regulations. Measures of benefits and costs were used that explicitly incorporate uncertainly about the potential level of success of the project. The analysis shows that commercial fish producers will more or less break even compared to where they would have been without the project, but that substantial recreational benefits can be expected.

  10. Prediction of human population responses to toxic compounds by a collaborative competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduati, Federica; Mangravite, Lara M; Wang, Tao; Tang, Hao; Bare, J Christopher; Huang, Ruili; Norman, Thea; Kellen, Mike; Menden, Michael P; Yang, Jichen; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhong, Rui; Xiao, Guanghua; Xia, Menghang; Abdo, Nour; Kosyk, Oksana; Friend, Stephen; Dearry, Allen; Simeonov, Anton; Tice, Raymond R; Rusyn, Ivan; Wright, Fred A; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Xie, Yang; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2015-09-01

    The ability to computationally predict the effects of toxic compounds on humans could help address the deficiencies of current chemical safety testing. Here, we report the results from a community-based DREAM challenge to predict toxicities of environmental compounds with potential adverse health effects for human populations. We measured the cytotoxicity of 156 compounds in 884 lymphoblastoid cell lines for which genotype and transcriptional data are available as part of the Tox21 1000 Genomes Project. The challenge participants developed algorithms to predict interindividual variability of toxic response from genomic profiles and population-level cytotoxicity data from structural attributes of the compounds. 179 submitted predictions were evaluated against an experimental data set to which participants were blinded. Individual cytotoxicity predictions were better than random, with modest correlations (Pearson's r < 0.28), consistent with complex trait genomic prediction. In contrast, predictions of population-level response to different compounds were higher (r < 0.66). The results highlight the possibility of predicting health risks associated with unknown compounds, although risk estimation accuracy remains suboptimal.

  11. How Does Neighborhood Quality Moderate the Association Between Online Video Game Play and Depression? A Population-Level Analysis of Korean Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo; Ahn, Sun Joo Grace

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of our study is to assess the relationship between playing online video games and mental wellbeing of adolescents based on a nationally representative sample. Data come from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS), a government-funded multiyear research project. Through a secondary analysis of W2 and W3 of data collected in 2011 and 2012, we examine the extent to which time spent playing online games is related to depression, as measured by a battery of items modeled after the abridged version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R). For proper temporal ordering, the outcome variable is drawn from the latter wave (W3), whereas all time-lagged covariates are taken from the earlier wave (W2). Multilevel regression models show that more game playing is associated with greater depression. Findings also indicate that, net of individual-level variables (e.g., gender, health, family background), living in a community with more divorced families adds to adolescent depression. Finally, a cross-level interaction is observed: the positive association between game playing and depression is more pronounced in an area characterized by a lower aggregate divorce rate.

  12. One project's waste is another project's resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author describes the efforts being made toward pollution prevention within the DOE complex, as a way to reduce overall project costs, in addition to decreasing the amount of waste to be handled. Pollution prevention is a concept which is trying to be ingrained into project planning. Part of the program involves the concept that ultimately the responsibility for waste comes back to the generator. Parts of the program involve efforts to reuse materials and equipment on new projects, to recycle wastes to generate offsetting revenue, and to increase awareness, accountability and incentives so as to stimulate action on this plan. Summaries of examples are presented in tables

  13. HERMES project management I

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    A two-hours course on the HERMES Project Management Methodology to the attention of Project Leaders and Project Participants. The methodology is quickly presented; the focus is put on the roles and responsibilities and on the project initiation phase. The course is given in French with slides in English. On April 22nd 2013, a new version of the HERMES methodology was made public. For practical reasons, this course is still given based on the 2009 version of HERMES (a.k.a. HERMES 4).

  14. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  15. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015.......Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015....

  16. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  17. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  18. Project descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This part specifies the activities and project tasks of each project broken down according to types of financing, listing the current projects Lw 1 through 3 funded by long-term provisions (budget), the current projects LB 1 and 2, LG 1 through 5, LK1, LM1, and LU 1 through 6 financed from special funds, and the planned projects ZG 1 through 4 and ZU 1, also financed from special funds. (DG) [de

  19. Dynamic and static factors associated with discharge dispositions: the national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    The majority of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada spend some time in hospital before they are conditionally or absolutely (no conditions) discharged to the community by a legally mandated review board. By law, the decision to conditionally discharge an individual found NCRMD should be guided by the need to protect the public, the mental condition of the accused, and the other needs of the accused, especially regarding his/her community reintegration. At the time of this study, Canadian legislation and case law required that the review board disposition should be the "least onerous and least restrictive" possible for the accused. This means that, if there is no evidence that the person poses a significant risk to public safety, he/she must be released. However, the Canadian Criminal Code does not specify the criteria that must be considered when making this risk assessment. This leads to two questions. (1) What predicts review board dispositions? (2) To what extent do disposition determinations reflect evidence-based practices? The present study examined dynamic and static predictors of detention in custody, conditional discharge (CD), and absolute discharge (AD) dispositions among persons found NCRMD across the three largest provinces in Canada. The National Trajectory Project (NTP) examined men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (BC), Québec (QC), and Ontario (ON) between May 2000 and April 2005, followed until December 2008. For the purposes of this study, individuals who had at least one hearing with a review board were extracted from the NTP dataset (N = 1794: QC = 1089, ON = 483, BC = 222). Over the course of the study, 6743 review board hearings were examined (QC = 3505, ON = 2185, BC = 1053). Despite advances in the risk assessment field, presentation of a comprehensive structured risk assessment to the review board was not the norm. Yet our findings suggest that

  20. MOLAR. Measuring and modelling the dynamic response of remote mountain lake ecosystems to environmental change: A programme of Mountain Lake Research. MOLAR Project Manual. September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wathne, Bente M. [ed.; Hansen, Hege E.

    1997-12-31

    MOLAR (Mountain Lake Research) is an extensive European cooperative research project with 23 partners. It is funded within the European Commission Framework Programme IV: Environment and Climate with assistance from INCO. It is coordinated by the Environmental Change Research Centre (ECRE) at University College London and the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA). This report describes the practical working methods of the project. Preparatory work and methods for sampling in the field are given in detail. Also described are sample handling after field work, where to send the sample material for analysis and how to treat the results. 92 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geraldi, Joana; Söderlund, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Project organising is a growing field of scholarly inquiry and management practice. In recent years, two important developments have influenced this field: (1) the study and practice of projects have extended their level of analysis from mainly focussing on individual projects to focussing on micro......, and of the explanations of project practices they could offer. To discuss avenues for future research on projects and project practice, this paper suggests the notion of project studies to better grasp the status of our field. We combine these two sets of ideas to analyse the status and future options for advancing...... project research: (1) levels of analysis; and (2) type of research. Analysing recent developments within project studies, we observe the emergence of what we refer to as type 3 research, which reconciles the need for theoretical development and engagement with practice. Type 3 research suggests pragmatic...

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    , and documenting best practices and potential difficulties. Practical implications. For the purposes of the present research, the level of organizational project management maturity of the enterprise in question is evaluated according to the three-level model developed by H. Кеrzner. The conclusion is made that project management maturity of this enterprise corresponds to maturity level 2. Besides, the defined maturity level is specified in more detail along the life cycle phases in order to determine more precisely the position of project management activity of the enterprise within the maturity model. Potential problems (the so-called “bottlenecks” of the enterprise in the field of project management are identified. Based on the results of the analysis, a number of recommendations are suggested for further development of the corporate system of project management at the given enterprise. The results of the research showed that in order to achieve a higher level of maturity, it is necessary to create a project team, organize a project office, and distribute project management functions among the team members, develop a procedure of involving experts with different professional backgrounds into the project implementation, improve the procedure of creating project teams, ensure the accumulation of best practices of project implementation, establish the corporate standard of project management, and improve the strategic planning for project management, project implementation control, managing changes, labour resources and communication. The suggested guidelines are expected to facilitate the achievement of a higher level of maturity. They also envisage the terms of this transition and the responsible executives. Further enhancement of maturity level is achieved by means of performing a set of activities for improving and aligning various project management sub-processes aimed at managing costs, time, quality, and risks. Another important condition of enhancing

  3. Towards the Reform of Science Teaching in Spain: The Social and Personal Relevance of Junior Secondary School Science Projects for a Socially Responsible Understanding of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Pedro

    1999-01-01

    Discusses aspects of more than a decade of research and implementation of cross-curriculum themes as part of the curriculum for secondary school students in Spain. Comments on theoretical and practical issues encountered in developing similar projects. Contains 45 references. (Author/WRM)

  4. MOLAR. Measuring and modelling the dynamic response of remote mountain lake ecosystems to environmental change: A programme of Mountain Lake Research. MOLAR Project Manual. Draft of September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wathne, B M

    1996-09-01

    This report lays down the practical working methods of the MOLAR project. Requirements on preparatory work and methods for sampling in the field are given in detail. Also sample handling after field work, where to send the sample material for further analysis and how to treat the results are described. 97 refs., 10 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Some perspectives on research into the biological response to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. [relation to SETI, SPS, and other government projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Research on the biological effects of RF radiation in the United States has undergone a series of swings during the last three decades. The resurgence of research during the past decade is examined in the light of two projects: the proposed Space Power Station and SETI.

  6. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects....... The overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  7. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  8. Microsoft project

    OpenAIRE

    Markić, Lucija; Mandušić, Dubravka; Grbavac, Vitomir

    2005-01-01

    Microsoft Project je alat čije su prednosti u svakodnevnom radu nezamjenjive. Pomoću Microsoft Projecta omogućeno je upravljanje resursima, stvaranje izvještaja o projektima u vremenu, te analize različitih scenarija. Pojavljuje u tri verzije: Microsoft Project Professional, Microsoft Project Server i Microsoft Project Server Client Access Licenses. Upravo je trend da suvremeni poslovni ljudi zadatke povjeravaju Microsoft Projectu jer on znatno povećava produktivnost rada. Te prednos...

  9. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  10. Guide of social and ambient responsibility for projects of enterprises of refiners and petrochemicals; Guia de responsabilidade social e ambiental para projetos de empreendimentos de refinarias e petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruella, Nildemar Correa [PETROBRAS, Cubatao, SP (Brazil). Refinaria Presidente Bernardes Cubatao; Richa, Newton M.M. [Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo, Gas e Biocombustiveis (IBP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to provide practical guidelines for environmental, social accountability, occupational safety and health for all stages of the life cycle of projects (identification of opportunities, conceptual design, basic design, detail design, deployment (construction and assembly), pre-operation, operation, maintenance and deactivation) in large enterprises of the industry of refining and petrochemicals. This work was based on the legal requirements, guidelines Safety, Environment and Health of PETROBRAS, standards and international publications and the experience of the authors. (author)

  11. Sierra Pacific Power Company Alturas Transmission Line Project, Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company has proposed the construction and operation of a 345,000 volt overhead electric power transmission line from Alturas, California to Reno, Nevada. This Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project and alternatives. This report contains public comments which were received on the Draft EIR/S. Significant issues may be identified through public and agency comments

  12. Is the population level link between drinking and harm similar for women and men?--a time series analysis with focus on gender-specific drinking and alcohol-related hospitalizations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Barbro; Ramstedt, Mats

    2011-08-01

    A question that has not been addressed in the literature is whether the population level association between alcohol and harm differs between men and women. The main aim of this article is to fill this gap by analysing recently collected time series data of male and female self-reported drinking in relation to gender-specific harm indicators in Sweden. Male and female per capita and risk consumption was estimated on the basis of self-reported data from monthly alcohol surveys for the period 2002-07. Overall per capita consumption including recorded sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption were also collected for the same period. Alcohol-related hospitalizations were used as indicators of alcohol-related harm. Data were aggregated into quarterly observations and analysed by means of time series analyses (ARIMA-modelling). Overall per capita consumption was significantly related to both male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations. Male per capita consumption and risk consumption were also significantly related to alcohol-related hospitalizations among men. Female per capita consumption and risk consumption had also a positive association with alcohol-related hospitalizations but statistical significance was only reached for alcohol poisonings where the association was even stronger than for men. Changes in alcohol consumption in Sweden was associated with changes in male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations also in analyses based on gender-specific consumption measures. There was no clear evidence that the population level association between alcohol and harm differed between men and women.

  13. Projected atoll shoreline and run-up changes in response to sea-level rise and varying large wave conditions at Wake and Midway Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hoeke, Ron K.

    2017-10-01

    Atoll islands are dynamic features that respond to seasonal alterations in wave conditions and sea level. It is unclear how shoreline wave run-up and erosion patterns along these low elevation islands will respond to projected sea-level rise (SLR) and changes in wave climate over the next century, hindering communities' preparation for the future. To elucidate how these processes may respond to climate change, extreme boreal winter and summer wave conditions under future sea-level rise (SLR) and wave climate scenarios were simulated at two atolls, Wake and Midway, using a shallow-water hydrodynamic model. Nearshore wave conditions were used to compute the potential longshore sediment flux along island shorelines via the CERC empirical formula and wave-driven erosion was calculated as the divergence of the longshore drift; run-up and the locations where the run-up exceed the berm elevation were also determined. SLR is projected to predominantly drive future island morphological change and flooding. Seaward shorelines (i.e., ocean fronted shorelines directly facing incident wave energy) were projected to experience greater erosion and flooding with SLR and in hypothetical scenarios where changes to deep water wave directions were altered, as informed by previous climate change forced Pacific wave modeling efforts. These changes caused nearshore waves to become more shore-normal, increasing wave attack along previously protected shorelines. With SLR, leeward shorelines (i.e., an ocean facing shoreline but sheltered from incident wave energy) became more accretive on windward islands and marginally more erosive along leeward islands. These shorelines became more accretionary and subject to more flooding with nearshore waves becoming more shore-normal. Lagoon shorelines demonstrated the greatest SLR-driven increase in erosion and run-up. They exhibited the greatest relative change with increasing wave heights where both erosion and run-up magnitudes increased. Wider

  14. Projected atoll shoreline and run-up changes in response to sea-level rise and varying large wave conditions at Wake and Midway Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Hoeke, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Atoll islands are dynamic features that respond to seasonal alterations in wave conditions and sea level. It is unclear how shoreline wave run-up and erosion patterns along these low elevation islands will respond to projected sea-level rise (SLR) and changes in wave climate over the next century, hindering communities' preparation for the future. To elucidate how these processes may respond to climate change, extreme boreal winter and summer wave conditions under future sea-level rise (SLR) and wave climate scenarios were simulated at two atolls, Wake and Midway, using a shallow-water hydrodynamic model. Nearshore wave conditions were used to compute the potential longshore sediment flux along island shorelines via the CERC empirical formula and wave-driven erosion was calculated as the divergence of the longshore drift; run-up and the locations where the run-up exceed the berm elevation were also determined. SLR is projected to predominantly drive future island morphological change and flooding. Seaward shorelines (i.e., ocean fronted shorelines directly facing incident wave energy) were projected to experience greater erosion and flooding with SLR and in hypothetical scenarios where changes to deep water wave directions were altered, as informed by previous climate change forced Pacific wave modeling efforts. These changes caused nearshore waves to become more shore-normal, increasing wave attack along previously protected shorelines. With SLR, leeward shorelines (i.e., an ocean facing shoreline but sheltered from incident wave energy) became more accretive on windward islands and marginally more erosive along leeward islands. These shorelines became more accretionary and subject to more flooding with nearshore waves becoming more shore-normal. Lagoon shorelines demonstrated the greatest SLR-driven increase in erosion and run-up. They exhibited the greatest relative change with increasing wave heights where both erosion and run-up magnitudes increased. Wider

  15. Project and Sports Events Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Madalin MUNTEANU

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to capture the importance it holds the project management in socio-cultural sector which stands out when we refer to the sport. So when we talk about project management in sport, to consider a much larger vision, a new project management perspective, they involve a responsibility for the implementation of an event with global impact on very long term. Sports projects, as history shows us, played a significant role in developing societies. Also, all major sports industry proje...

  16. Organizational analysis of construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Will

    1989-01-01

    This research project is about the analysis of construction project organizations. The work is based on organizational theory and is a development of Linear Responsibility Analysis (LRA). The aim is to assess the extent to which project success is affected by organizational structure. The analysis of four public sector case studies raises several issues. First is the need for a systematic model of describing and analysing construction project environments. A framework has been developed that ...

  17. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  18. Population-level ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W.); Sorensen, Mary T; Munns, Wayne R

    2008-01-01

    ... and Effect Assessment Vethaak, Schrap, de Voogt, editors 2006 Assessing the Hazard of Metals and Inorganic Metal Substances in Aquatic and Terrestrial Systems Adams and Chapman, editors 2006 Pe...

  19. One project`s waste is another project`s resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, J.

    1997-02-01

    The author describes the efforts being made toward pollution prevention within the DOE complex, as a way to reduce overall project costs, in addition to decreasing the amount of waste to be handled. Pollution prevention is a concept which is trying to be ingrained into project planning. Part of the program involves the concept that ultimately the responsibility for waste comes back to the generator. Parts of the program involve efforts to reuse materials and equipment on new projects, to recycle wastes to generate offsetting revenue, and to increase awareness, accountability and incentives so as to stimulate action on this plan. Summaries of examples are presented in tables.

  20. Evolution of magnetic field and atmospheric response. I - Three-dimensional formulation by the method of projected characteristics. II - Formulation of proper boundary equations. [stellar magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The method described as the method of nearcharacteristics by Nakagawa (1980) is renamed the method of projected characteristics. Making full use of properties of the projected characteristics, a new and simpler formulation is developed. As a result, the formulation for the examination of the general three-dimensional problems is presented. It is noted that since in practice numerical solutions must be obtained, the final formulation is given in the form of difference equations. The possibility of including effects of viscous and ohmic dissipations in the formulation is considered, and the physical interpretation is discussed. A systematic manner is then presented for deriving physically self-consistent, time-dependent boundary equations for MHD initial boundary problems. It is demonstrated that the full use of the compatibility equations (differential equations relating variations at two spatial locations and times) is required in determining the time-dependent boundary conditions. In order to provide a clear physical picture as an example, the evolution of axisymmetric global magnetic field by photospheric differential rotation is considered.

  1. Asymmetric response of tropical cyclone activity to global warming over the North Atlantic and western North Pacific from CMIP5 model projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo-Sun R; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Chan, Johnny C L; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Hyeong-Seog; Kim, Jinwon; Kim, Joo-Hong

    2017-01-30

    Recent improvements in the theoretical understanding of the relationship between tropical cyclones (TCs) and their large-scale environments have resulted in significant improvements in the skill for forecasting TC activity at daily and seasonal time-scales. However, future changes in TC activity under a warmer climate remain uncertain, particularly in terms of TC genesis locations and subsequent pathways. Applying a track-pattern-based statistical model to 22 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model runs for the historical period and the future period corresponding to the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 emissions scenarios, this study shows that in future climate conditions, TC passage frequency will decrease over the North Atlantic, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico, but will increase over the western North Pacific, especially that hits Korea and Japan. Unlike previous studies based on fine-resolution models, an ensemble mean of CMIP5 models projects an increase in TC activity in the western North Pacific, which is owing to enhanced subtropical deep convection and favorable dynamic conditions therein in conjunction with the expansion of the tropics and vice versa for the North Atlantic. Our results suggest that North America will experience less TC landfalls, while northeast Asia will experience more TCs than in the present-day climate.

  2. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT-SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE-SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Abatt, F.G.; Johnson, K.I.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10 3 Pa and 4.135 x 10 9 Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks and tanks

  3. Understanding the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy crisis. A report to the California Energy Commission - Sylvia Bender, Project Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Lutzenhiser, Loren; Janda, Kathryn; Kunkle, Rick; Payne, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Beginning in the summer of 2000, California experienced serious energy supply problems, sharp increases in wholesale (and retail) electricity and natural gas prices, and isolated blackouts. In response to the rapidly worsening electricity situation in California in late 2000, the state set, as an initial goal, the reduction of the state's peak demand for the summer of 2001 by 5,000 megawatts. To meet this goal, the governor and legislature took a variety of steps to enhance supply, enco...

  4. Modeling the eco-hydrologic response of a Mediterranean type ecosystem to the combined impacts of projected climate change and altered fire frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tague, Christina; Seaby, Lauren Paige; Hope, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Global Climate Models (GCMs) project moderate warming along with increases in atmospheric CO2 for California Mediterranean type ecosystems (MTEs). In water-limited ecosystems, vegetation acts as an important control on streamflow and responds to soil moisture availability. Fires are also key...... disturbances in semiarid environments, and few studies have explored the potential interactions among changes in climate, vegetation dynamics, hydrology, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and fire. We model ecosystem productivity, evapotranspiration, and summer streamflow under a range of temperature...... climate scenarios, biomass in chaparral-dominated systems is likely to increase, leading to reductions in summer streamflow. However, within the range of GCM predictions, there are some scenarios in which vegetation may decrease, leading to higher summer streamflows. Changes due to increases in fire...

  5. Understanding the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy crisis. A report to the California Energy Commission - Sylvia Bender, Project Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzenhiser, Loren; Janda, Kathryn; Kunkle, Rick; Payne, Christopher

    2002-07-24

    Beginning in the summer of 2000, California experienced serious energy supply problems, sharp increases in wholesale (and retail) electricity and natural gas prices, and isolated blackouts. In response to the rapidly worsening electricity situation in California in late 2000, the state set, as an initial goal, the reduction of the state's peak demand for the summer of 2001 by 5,000 megawatts. To meet this goal, the governor and legislature took a variety of steps to enhance supply, encourage rapid voluntary reductions in demand, and provide incentives for actions that would result in load reductions. Three bills-Assembly Bill 970, Senate Bill X1 5 and Assembly Bill X1 29-allocated roughly $950 million for consumption and demand reduction programs. The governor also enacted a variety of additional measures, including the ''Flex Your Power'' (media awareness and direct business involvement) campaign, requirements for retail sector outdoor lighting reductions, and toughening of energy efficiency building codes. There were, in fact, significant reductions in electricity demand in California during the summer of 2001 and the large number of expected supply disruptions was avoided. To understand the nature of these demand reductions and the motivations for consumer response, Washington State University (WSU) undertook a study for the California Energy Commission (CEC) focusing on conservation behavior in the residential, commercial, and agricultural sectors. The research presented in this report represents an exploration of the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy situation and the unique set of influences that existed during this time. These influences included informational messages and media attention, program interventions, price changes, and external triggering events (e.g., blackouts). To better understand the effects of these influences on organizational response to the energy situation, we

  6. Exploring individual- to population-level impacts of disease on coral reef sponges: using spatial analysis to assess the fate, dynamics, and transmission of Aplysina Red Band Syndrome (ARBS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole G Easson

    Full Text Available Marine diseases are of increasing concern for coral reef ecosystems, but often their causes, dynamics and impacts are unknown. The current study investigated the epidemiology of Aplysina Red Band Syndrome (ARBS, a disease affecting the Caribbean sponge Aplysina cauliformis, at both the individual and population levels. The fates of marked healthy and ARBS-infected sponges were examined over the course of a year. Population-level impacts and transmission mechanisms of ARBS were investigated by monitoring two populations of A. cauliformis over a three year period using digital photography and diver-collected data, and analyzing these data with GIS techniques of spatial analysis. In this study, three commonly used spatial statistics (Ripley's K, Getis-Ord General G, and Moran's Index were compared to each other and with direct measurements of individual interactions using join-counts, to determine the ideal method for investigating disease dynamics and transmission mechanisms in this system. During the study period, Hurricane Irene directly impacted these populations, providing an opportunity to assess potential storm effects on A. cauliformis and ARBS.Infection with ARBS caused increased loss of healthy sponge tissue over time and a higher likelihood of individual mortality. Hurricane Irene had a dramatic effect on A. cauliformis populations by greatly reducing sponge biomass on the reef, especially among diseased individuals. Spatial analysis showed that direct contact between A. cauliformis individuals was the likely transmission mechanism for ARBS within a population, evidenced by a significantly higher number of contact-joins between diseased sponges compared to random. Of the spatial statistics compared, the Moran's Index best represented true connections between diseased sponges in the survey area. This study showed that spatial analysis can be a powerful tool for investigating disease dynamics and transmission in a coral reef ecosystem.

  7. Environmental Protection Agency Award Recipient Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itemized Award Phase information. Information about the Recipient's Responsibilities Upon Notification of the Award, The EPA Project Officer Responsibilities, and EPA Grant Specialists Responsibilities.

  8. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  9. OMEGA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The OMEGA - Observation of Multiple particle production, Exotic Interactions and Gamma-ray Air Shower-project is presented. The project try to associate photosensitive detectors from experiences of hadronic interactions with electronic detectors used by experiences that investigate extensive atmospheric showers. (M.C.K.)

  10. Project management v praxi

    OpenAIRE

    Králová, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    Project management approaches are commonly used to write and implement business plans. In this thesis standard project management tools and methods are applied to a real project, which aims to improve the properties of the product it offers (an online educational game). This project is unique in that it is based on a voluntary basis, has limited resources and is very responsive to market demands. Project management is broken down into four stages according to the project life cycle: initiatio...

  11. Descending projections from the nucleus accumbens shell excite activity of taste-responsive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Shu; Lu, Da-Peng; Cho, Young K

    2015-06-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and the parabrachial nuclei (PbN) are the first and second relays in the rodent central taste pathway. A series of electrophysiological experiments revealed that spontaneous and taste-evoked activities of brain stem gustatory neurons are altered by descending input from multiple forebrain nuclei in the central taste pathway. The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) is a key neural substrate of reward circuitry, but it has not been verified as a classical gustatory nucleus. A recent in vivo electrophysiological study demonstrated that the NAcSh modulates the spontaneous and gustatory activities of hamster pontine taste neurons. In the present study, we investigated whether activation of the NAcSh modulates gustatory responses of the NST neurons. Extracellular single-unit activity was recorded from medullary neurons in urethane-anesthetized hamsters. After taste response was confirmed by delivery of sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and quinine hydrochloride to the anterior tongue, the NAcSh was stimulated bilaterally with concentric bipolar stimulating electrodes. Stimulation of the ipsilateral and contralateral NAcSh induced firings from 54 and 37 of 90 medullary taste neurons, respectively. Thirty cells were affected bilaterally. No inhibitory responses or antidromic invasion was observed after NAcSh activation. In the subset of taste cells tested, high-frequency electrical stimulation of the NAcSh during taste delivery enhanced taste-evoked neuronal firing. These results demonstrate that two-thirds of the medullary gustatory neurons are under excitatory descending influence from the NAcSh, which is a strong indication of communication between the gustatory pathway and the mesolimbic reward pathway. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Managing a project's legacy: implications for organizations and project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Majchrzak, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Organizations that rely on projects to implement their products must find effective mechanisms for propagating lessons learned on one project throughout the organization. A broad view of what constitutes a project's 'legacy' is presented that includes not just the design products and leftover parts, but new processes, relationships, technology, skills, planning data, and performance metrics. Based on research evaluating knowledge reuse in innovative contexts, this paper presents an approach to project legacy management that focuses on collecting and using legacy knowledge to promote organizational learning and effective reuse, while addressing factors of post-project responsibility, information obsolescence, and the importance of ancillary contextual information. .

  13. Associations between disaster exposures, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress responses in Fukushima nuclear plant workers following the 2011 nuclear accident: the Fukushima NEWS Project study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Jun; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nomura, Soichiro; Yoshino, Aihide

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD), to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR). A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580) 2-3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%). The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; pdisaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience.

  14. Suspended-sediment and turbidity responses to sediment and turbidity reduction projects in the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek, Watersheds, New York, 2010–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; McHale, Michael R.; Davis, Wae Danyelle

    2016-12-05

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were monitored within the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek tributaries to the upper Esopus Creek in New York, the main source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir, from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2014. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine the effects of suspended-sediment and turbidity reduction projects (STRPs) on SSC and turbidity in two of the three streams; no STRPs were constructed in the Beaver Kill watershed. During the study period, four STRPs were completed in the Stony Clove Creek and Warner Creek watersheds. Daily mean SSCs decreased significantly for a given streamflow after the STRPs were completed. The most substantial decreases in daily mean SSCs were measured at the highest streamflows. Background SSCs, as measured in water samples collected in upstream reference stream reaches, in all three streams in this study were less than 5 milligrams per liter during low and high streamflows. Longitudinal stream sampling identified stream reaches with failing hillslopes in contact with the stream channel as the primary sediment sources in the Beaver Kill and Stony Clove Creek watersheds.

  15. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project: Providing Standard and On-Demand SAR products for Hazard Science and Hazard Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Rosen, P. A.; Agram, P. S.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Yun, S. H.; Sacco, G. F.; Liu, Z.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Moore, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    A new era of geodetic imaging arrived with the launch of the ESA Sentinel-1A/B satellites in 2014 and 2016, and with the 2016 confirmation of the NISAR mission, planned for launch in 2021. These missions assure high quality, freely and openly distributed regularly sampled SAR data into the indefinite future. These unprecedented data sets are a watershed for solid earth sciences as we progress towards the goal of ubiquitous InSAR measurements. We now face the challenge of how to best address the massive volumes of data and intensive processing requirements. Should scientists individually process the same data independently themselves? Should a centralized service provider create standard products that all can use? Are there other approaches to accelerate science that are cost effective and efficient? The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project, a joint venture co-sponsored by California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is focused on rapidly generating higher level geodetic imaging products and placing them in the hands of the solid earth science and local, national, and international natural hazard communities by providing science product generation, exploration, and delivery capabilities at an operational level. However, there are challenges in defining the optimal InSAR data products for the solid earth science community. In this presentation, we will present our experience with InSAR users, our lessons learned the advantages of on demand and standard products, and our proposal for the most effective path forward.

  16. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  17. Efficient and Effective Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Pene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to investigate different authorities and responsibilities of a project manager and of a project leader. Considering the fact that nowadays the project management is becoming the important factor in performing and leading the investments which are modified by modern leadership theories, we can say that the key element is the sovereign leadership of a manager and a project leader. The current multi-project environments and modern techniques at the project management area need the interdisciplinary leadership approach and at the same time they enable the strengthening of company’s competitive features so they are consistently satisfying high project expectations of the project investor or a client.

  18. The national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder. Part 5: how essential are gender-specific forensic psychiatric services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Wilson, Catherine M; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    To state the sociodemographic characteristics, mental health histories, index offence characteristics, and criminal histories of male and female forensic psychiatric patients. Clinicians and researchers advocate that mental health and criminal justice organizations implement gender-specific services; however, few studies have sampled forensic patients to evaluate the extent to which men's and women's treatment and management needs are different. Data were collected from Review Board files from May 2000 to April 2005 in the 3 largest Canadian provinces. Using official criminal records, participants were followed for 3 to 8 years, until December 2008. The final sample comprised 1800 individuals: 15.6% were women and 84.4% were men. There were few demographic differences, but women had higher psychosocial functioning than men. Both men and women had extensive mental health histories; women were more likely diagnosed with mood disorders and PDs and men were more likely diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and SUDs. The nature of the index offence did not differ by gender, except women were more likely to have perpetrated murders and attempted murders. For offences against a person, women were more likely to offend against offspring and partners and less likely to offend against strangers, compared with men. Women had significantly less extensive criminal histories than men. Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder-accused women have a distinct psychosocial, clinical, and criminological profile from their male counterparts, which may suggest gender-specific assessment, risk management, and treatment in forensic services could benefit patients. The findings are also consistent with traditional models (Risk-Need-Responsivity) and ultimately demonstrate the importance of individual assessment and client-centred services.

  19. Associations between disaster exposures, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress responses in Fukushima nuclear plant workers following the 2011 nuclear accident: the Fukushima NEWS Project study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shigemura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD, to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR. METHODS: A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580 2-3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%. The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. RESULTS: For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; p<0.001; vs. Daini: adjusted β, 0.67; p<0.001. PTSR also associated with discrimination/slurs experience (Daiichi: 0.11; p<0.001; vs. Daini, 0.09; p = 0.005 and presence of preexisting illness(es (Daiichi: 0.07; p = 0.005; vs. Daini: 0.15; p<.0001. Other disaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. CONCLUSION: Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience.

  20. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  1. MANAGING LARGE INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN GORJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU DORU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concept of project management is considered to be the best concept for efficient management of a project, so it is used all over the world, and most recently in our country. This concept is designed with all the general characteristics of project management, but adapted to the large investment projects. This paper presents the project management concept and project management organization for capital projects. This concept is conceived with all general characteristics of project management, but adopted to the condition of large investment projects. The concept also includes the project team and the project manager, the person authorized and responsible for achieving the objectives planned in the project. For efficient managing by project, it is necessary to insure a good compozition of project team, as a team of people who, in collaboration with project manager, work directly on managing the project. To effectively manage the project, it is necessary to ensure a proper composition of the project team, a team of people who, in collaboration with the project manager to work directly for project management. It is a particularly good method of achieving the objectives planned projects, which means a project with a certain level of performance required in a planned time, with planned costs.

  2. Integrated project risk management of nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Xu Yuanhui

    2001-01-01

    The concept and the features of risks in nuclear power projects are introduced, and in terms of nuclear power projects' own features, the Nuclear Power Project Integrated Risk Management Model is presented. The identification, estimation, evaluation, response plan development, control of risks and the theoretical basis of risk management are discussed. The model has feedback and control functions in order to control and manage the risks dynamically

  3. EBFA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    An engineering project office was established during the fall of 1976 to manage and coordinate all of the activities of the Electron Beam Fusion Project. The goal of the project is to develop the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator (EBFA) and its supporting systems, and integrate these systems into the new Electron Beam Fusion Facility (EBFF). Supporting systems for EBFA include a control/monitor system, a data acquistion/automatic data processing system, the liquid transfer systems, the insulating gas transfer systems, etc. Engineers and technicians were assigned to the project office to carry out the engineering design, initiate procurement, monitor the fabrication, perform the assembly and to assist the pulsed power research group in the activation of the EBFA

  4. Project Reptile!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Integrating curriculum is important in helping children make connections within and among areas. Presents a class project for kindergarten children which came out of the students' interests and desire to build a reptile exhibit. (ASK)

  5. Project Soar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Marion

    1982-01-01

    Project Soar, a Saturday enrichment program for gifted students (6-14 years old), allows students to work intensively in a single area of interest. Examples are cited of students' work in crewel embroidery, creative writing, and biochemistry. (CL)

  6. Bi-project management in engineering complex industrial construction projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, Robert R. van der; Donk, Dirk Pieter van

    2000-01-01

    Engineering large industrial construction projects is usually a complex task with several co-operating actors. This paper investigates such projects, characterised by two main actors: the owner of the installation (the client organisation) responsible for the engineering of the production process,

  7. EUROFANCOLEN Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueren, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The first follow-up report of European Project EUROFANCOLEN, the purpose of which is to develop a gene therapy clinical trial to resolve bone marrow failure in patients with a genetic disease known as Fanconi anemia (FA), was sent to the European Commission in September. The main objective of project EUROFANCOLEN is to develop a gene therapy trial for patients with Fanconi anemia Type A (FA-A), which affects 80% of the patients with FA in Spain. (Author)

  8. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2009-01-01

    In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception......In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception...

  9. First, build the project team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, J.C. [Duke/Fluor Daniel, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The EPC consortium of American, Japanese and Indonesian companies has been formed to construct the first phase of the coal-fired Paiton Power Project in Indonesia under a lump sum turnkey contract. A Consortium Agreement defines the respective roles, scope and responsibilities, as well as allocation of risks and rewards for each member. The roles of members have been assigned to match their experience and expertise and a Division of Responsibility document has been drawn up for each stage of the project. The management of the project depends on an effective team aligning the consortium members to a common set of project goals and objectives. Communication and understanding are all important. The project team have overcome some of the challenges of differences in culture, language, contractual practice and experience between the members. Some of the systems which are in place to minimise the effect of these differences and to focus on the execution of the project are outlined. (UK)

  10. The response of future projections of the North American monsoon when combining dynamical downscaling and bias correction of CCSM4 output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jonathan D. D.; Jin, Jiming

    2017-07-01

    A 20-km regional climate model (RCM) dynamically downscaled the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) to compare 32-year historical and future "end-of-the-century" climatologies of the North American Monsoon (NAM). CCSM4 and other phase 5 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project models have indicated a delayed NAM and overall general drying trend. Here, we test the suggested mechanism for this drier NAM where increasing atmospheric static stability and reduced early-season evapotranspiration under global warming will limit early-season convection and compress the mature-season of the NAM. Through our higher resolution RCM, we found the role of accelerated evaporation under a warmer climate is likely understated in coarse resolution models such as CCSM4. Improving the representation of mesoscale interactions associated with the Gulf of California and surrounding topography produced additional surface evaporation, which overwhelmed the convection-suppressing effects of a warmer troposphere. Furthermore, the improved land-sea temperature gradient helped drive stronger southerly winds and greater moisture transport. Finally, we addressed limitations from inherent CCSM4 biases through a form of mean bias correction, which resulted in a more accurate seasonality of the atmospheric thermodynamic profile. After bias correction, greater surface evaporation from average peak GoC SSTs of 32 °C compared to 29 °C from the original CCSM4 led to roughly 50 % larger changes to low-level moist static energy compared to that produced by the downscaled original CCSM4. The increasing destabilization of the NAM environment produced onset dates that were one to 2 weeks earlier in the core of the NAM and northern extent, respectively. Furthermore, a significantly more vigorous NAM signal was produced after bias correction, with >50 mm month-1 increases to the June-September precipitation found along east and west coasts of Mexico and into parts of Texas. A shift towards more

  11. Observed and Projected Changes in Thermal Growing Degree-Days and Growing Season and Their Divergent Responses to Warming over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, H.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation growth and phenology are largely regulated by the growing degree-days (GDD) and growing season (GS). By choosing 0°C, 5°C and 10°C, three key based temperatures (Tb) for vegetation growth, the GDD and GS in China during the observed period (1960-2011) were developed using homogenized daily mean temperatures (Td) in 536 meteorological stations. In addition, the GDD10 and GS10 in China were projected under the representative concentration pathway scenarios (RCPs) during 1961-2099, using the Td (0.5°×0.5°) derived from five general circulation models (GCMs), after model evaluation. Advance in the start of the growing season (SOS; 4.86-6.71 days; SOS0 > SOS5 > SOS10) and delay in the end of the growing season (EOS; 4.32-6.19 days; EOS0 GDD5 > GDD10), in China as a whole. Each observed variation has a substantial acceleration mostly in 1987 or 1996, and a speed reduction or a trend reversal in the early 2000s. Increases in the GDD10 and GS10 would continue in the 21st century, causing northward shifts in the temperature zones. Finally in the long-term (2071-2099), the nationally average GDD10 and GS10 would be 279.1°C·d higher and 16.5 d longer for RCP 2.6, and 964.4°C·d higher and 50.3 d longer for RCP 8.5, relative to 1981-2010. Regionally, the GDD enhancement were stronger in the tropics, east, northeast and northwest China during the observed period, and tend to be in southern China in the future. The largest GS extensions are consistently in the eastern and southern parts of the Tibetan Alpine zone, particularly in the future. During the observed period, advance in SOS and delay in EOS drove the GS extensions in the eastern monsoon zone and northwest arid/semi-arid zone respectively. In the future, an advanced SOS drives the GS extension in the northern (> ca. 33°N) Tibetan Alpine zone, the mountainous areas in northeast China, and south of the Tropic of Cancer. The GDD and GS showed positive sensitivity to the temperature (GDD0 > GDD5 > GDD10

  12. The effect of sliding velocity on the mechanical response of an artificial joint in Topopah Spring Member tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, W.A.

    1994-04-01

    A smooth artificial joint in Topopah Spring Member tuff was sheared at constant normal stress at velocities from 0 to 100 {mu}m/s to determine the velocity-dependence of shear strength. Two different initial conditions were used: (1) unprimed -- the joint had been shear stress-free since last application of normal stress, and before renewed shear loading; and (2) primed -- the joint had undergone a slip history after application of normal stress, but before the current shear loading. Observed steady-state rate effects were found to be about 3 times lager than for some other silicate rocks. These different initial conditions affected the character of the stress-slip curve immediately after the onset of slip. Priming the joint causes a peak in the stress-slip response followed by a transient decay to the steady-state stress, i.e., slip weakening. Slide-hold-slide tests exhibit time-dependent strengthening. When the joint was subjected to constant shear stress, no slip was observed; that is, joint creep did not occur. One set of rate data was collected from a surface submerged in tap water, the friction was higher for this surface, but the rate sensitivity was the same as that for surfaces tested in the air-dry condition.

  13. Instrument validation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells

  14. Reduction in HIV community viral loads following the implementation of a "Treatment as Prevention" strategy over 2 years at a population-level among men who have sex with men in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Yang, Jiezhe; Ma, Qiaoqin; Zhang, Jiafeng; Xu, Yun; Xia, Yan; Chen, Wanjun; Wang, Hui; Zheng, Jinlei; Jiang, Jun; Luo, Yan; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Xingliang; Xia, Shichang; Pan, Xiaohong

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) could reduce the community viral load (CVL) and reduce the occurrence of new HIV infections. However, the impact on the reduction of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) is much less certain. The frequency of HIV infections in MSM have been rapidly increasing in recent years in Hangzhou, China. The "Treatment as Prevention" strategy was implemented at a population-level for HIV-infected MSM from January 2014 to June 2016 in Hangzhou; it aimed to increase the ART coverage, reduce the CVL, and reduce HIV transmission. We investigated a subset of MSM diagnosed with HIV pre- and post-implementation of the strategy, using random sampling methods. Viral load (VL) testing was performed for all enrolled individuals; the lower limits of detection were 20 and 50 copies/mL. The data on infections were collected from the national epidemiology database of Hangzhou. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the differences in social demographic characteristics and available VL data. The ART coverage increased from 60.7% (839/1383) during the pre-implementation period to 92.3% (2183/2365) during the post-implementation period in Hangzhou. A total of 940 HIV-infected MSM were selected for inclusion in this study: 490 (52.1%) and 450 (47.9%) MSM in the pre- and post-implementation periods, respectively. In total, 89.5% (841/940) of patients had data available on VL rates. The mean CVL was 579 copies/mL pre-implementation and this decreased to 33 copies/mL post-implementation (Kruskal-Wallis implementation of the treatment strategy (P implementation period was 50.0% which increased to 84.7% post-implementation (P implementation (Kruskal-Wallis < 0.05). Our study confirmed a population-level association between increased ART coverage and decreased mean CVL; overall 84.7% of HIV infected MSM had an undetectable VL and were no longer

  15. Individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviours on sexually transmitted infections among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: results from the GOANNA survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Wand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have been increasing among Australian Indigenous young people for over two decades. Little is known about the association between alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviours and diagnosis of STIs among this population. Methods A cross-sectional, community based self-administered survey was conducted among young Aboriginal people aged 16–29 years of age. Questionnaires included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, sexual risk behaviours alcohol and other drug use and health service access including self-reported history of diagnosis with a STI. Logistic regression models and population attributable risks were used to assess individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use on high risk sexual behaviours and ever reported diagnosis of an STI. Results Of the 2877 participants, 2320 (81 % identified as sexually active and were included in this study. More than 50 % of the study population reported that they had used at least one illicit drug in past year. Cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamines were the three most commonly used illicit drugs in the past year. The prevalence of self-reported STI diagnosis was 25 %. Compared with people who did not report using illicit drugs, risky alcohol use and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners in the past year and sex with casual partners were all significantly higher among illicit drug users. In adjusted analysis, participants who reported using illicit drugs were significantly more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviours and to ever have been diagnosed with an STI. Adjusted Odds Ratios ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 (males and from 1.43 to 2.46 (females. At the population level, more than 70 % of the STI diagnoses were attributed to illicit drug-use and sexual risk behaviours for males and females. Conclusion Illicit drug use in this population is relatively high compared to other

  16. Repair and cell-cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Comprehensive project report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.

    1982-01-01

    Agents which cause damage to DNA leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis or faulty DNA replication or repair may cause cell death or mutation. Many organisms possess the ability to circumvent some or all of this DNA damage. Many DNA mutants of E. coli and B. subtilis provide a genetic approach to measuring the role of individual components of the DNA repair and replicative system. The information obtained with prokaryotes provides leads to assess the details of DNA repair and replication in mammalian systems including man. Escherichia coli cells treated with a low concentration of toluene become permeable to a variety of compounds, including the precursors and cofactors necessary for DNA synthesis. By their manipulation various aspects of DNA replication and repair can be selectively emphasized. Observations made by use of this system include: (1) Repair synthesis induced by x irradiation or exposure to alkylating chemicals of toluene-treated cells is more extensive if polynucleotide ligase is inhibited. (2) DNA replication in E. coli is carried out by DNA polymerase III. The replication of DNA is strongly inhibited by methylmethansulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. (3) Using a po1A1 po1B100 dnaB (po1I - , po1II - , po1III + ) mutant of E. coli, it was demonstrated that the dnaB gene product is not necessary for Po1III directed repair synthesis. (4) The physiological stage of cells and tissues affects their response to environmental hazards. (5) Procedures for permeabilizing mammalian cells have been developed or further refined; and (6) In earlier studies involving both alkylating agents and x rays, it was observed that the number of DNA single-strand breaks increased with dose along with repair synthesis. It appears that non-repaired sites do not serve as primer ends for Po1I-dependent repair synthesis in toluene-treated cells

  17. Exploring opportunities to project a "responsible man" image: gatekeepers views of young men's sexual and reproductive health needs in Uttaranchal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M E; Mishra, Anurag; Morankar, Sudhakar

    Increase in extramarital sex among youths, gender-based violence, lack of contraceptive knowledge among newly married couples and lack of knowledge of protection against diseases like STIs/HIV are the information and service needs of young people that need to be addressed urgently in order to make them future knowledgeable, responsible, and non-violent partners. In addressing these needs the gatekeepers, including parents, formal and informal community leaders and teachers, play a critical role, by facilitating/hindering access to appropriate and correct information about sexual and reproductive health to young people. The study was conducted in a district of Uttaranchal, India. The specific objective was to understand the social context and gatekeepers' views on family planning and sexual and reproductive health needs of young men. Thirty-two in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted with parents, formal and informal community leaders, teachers, and selected development officials. The findings indicate that gatekeepers are worried about rapid changes in the aspiration, expectation, and behavior of young men. Most of them were seriously concerned about the increasing drinking habit, use of drugs, and changing values of sexuality leading to various risk behaviors among young men. They felt that many of these changes are consequences of wider societal changes, rising aspirations, explosion of electronic media, and globalization of a new youth culture where extramarital sex, alcohol consumption, and violence are expressions of different facets of masculinity and symbols of the affluent class. Overall, there was a feeling that TV/films and their peers now influence more the socialization of young people and parents are losing control in guidance and mentoring of their children.

  18. Project mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Limbrick, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper identifies and reviews the issues to be addressed and the procedures to be followed during the mobilisation of projects using LFG as an energy source. Knowledge of the procedures involved in project mobilisation, their sequence and probable timescales, is essential for efficient project management. It is assumed that the majority of projects will be situated on existing, licensed landfill sites and, in addition to complying with the relevant conditions of the waste management licence and original planning consent, any proposed developments on the site will require a separate planning consent. Experience in the UK indicates that obtaining planning permission rarely constitutes a barrier to the development of schemes for the utilisation of LFG. Even so, an appreciation of the applicable environmental and planning legislation is essential as this will enable the developer to recognise the main concerns of the relevant planning authority at an early stage of the project, resulting in the preparation of an informed and well-structured application for planning permission. For a LFG utilisation scheme on an existing landfill site, the need to carry out an environmental assessment (EA) as part of the application for planning permission will, in vitually all cases, be discretionary. Even if not deemed necessary by the planning authority, an EA is a useful tool at the planning application stage, to identify and address potential problems and to support discussions with bodies such as the Environment Agency, from whom consents or authorisations may be required. Carrying out an EA can thus provide for more cost-effective project development and enhanced environmental protection. Typically, the principal contractual arrangements, such as the purchase of gas or the sale of electricity, will have been established before the project mobilisation phase. However, there are many other contractural arrangements that must be established, and consents and permits that may be

  19. Prediction of Pseudo relative velocity response spectra at Yucca Mountain for underground nuclear explosions conducted in the Pahute Mesa testing area at the Nevada testing site; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), managed by the Office of Geologic Disposal of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for commercial, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This work, intended to extend our understanding of the ground motion at Yucca Mountain resulting from testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS, was funded by the Yucca Mountain project and the Military Applications Weapons Test Program. This report summarizes one aspect of the weapons test seismic investigations conducted in FY88. Pseudo relative velocity response spectra (PSRV) have been calculated for a large body of surface ground motions generated by underground nuclear explosions. These spectra have been analyzed and fit using multiple linear regression techniques to develop a credible prediction technique for surface PSRVs. In addition, a technique for estimating downhole PSRVs at specific stations is included. A data summary, data analysis, prediction development, prediction evaluation, software summary and FORTRAN listing of the prediction technique are included in this report.

  20. Project CAPTURE: a U.S. national prioritization assessment of tree species for conservation, management, and restoration