WorldWideScience

Sample records for projected waste generation

  1. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state

  2. The S-curve for forecasting waste generation in construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weisheng; Peng, Yi; Chen, Xi; Skitmore, Martin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-10-01

    Forecasting construction waste generation is the yardstick of any effort by policy-makers, researchers, practitioners and the like to manage construction and demolition (C&D) waste. This paper develops and tests an S-curve model to indicate accumulative waste generation as a project progresses. Using 37,148 disposal records generated from 138 building projects in Hong Kong in four consecutive years from January 2011 to June 2015, a wide range of potential S-curve models are examined, and as a result, the formula that best fits the historical data set is found. The S-curve model is then further linked to project characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs) so that it can be used to forecast waste generation in future construction projects. It was found that, among the S-curve models, cumulative logistic distribution is the best formula to fit the historical data. Meanwhile, contract sum, location, public-private nature, and duration can be used to forecast construction waste generation. The study provides contractors with not only an S-curve model to forecast overall waste generation before a project commences, but also with a detailed baseline to benchmark and manage waste during the course of construction. The major contribution of this paper is to the body of knowledge in the field of construction waste generation forecasting. By examining it with an S-curve model, the study elevates construction waste management to a level equivalent to project cost management where the model has already been readily accepted as a standard tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors contributing to the waste generation in building projects of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, N.A.; Memon, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of construction waste is a worldwide issue that concerns not only governments but also the building actors involved in construction industry. For developing countries like Pakistan, rising levels of waste generation, due to the rapid growth of towns and cities have become critical issue. Therefore this study is aimed to detect the factors, which are the main causes of construction waste generation. Questionnaire survey has been conducted to achieve this task and RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method has been used to analyze the results of this study. The important factors contributing to the generation of construction as identified in this study are: frequent changes/ revision in design during construction process; poor scheduling; unavailability of storage; poor workmanship; poor layout; inefficient planning and scheduling of resources and lack of coordination among supervision staff deployed at site. Based on the identified factors, the study also has presented some suggestions for the reduction of construction waste in building construction projects of Pakistan. (author)

  4. Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO's Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: FY 1994--FY 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO's Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project. FY 1994--FY 2001 is the third in a series of documents that report current estimates of the waste volumes expected to be generated as a result of Environmental Restoration activities at Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), sites. Considered in the scope of this document are volumes of waste expected to be generated as a result of remedial action and decontamination and decommissioning activities taking place at these sites. Sites contributing to the total estimates make up the DOE-ORO Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the off-site contaminated areas adjacent to the Oak Ridge facilities (collectively referred to as the Oak Ridge Reservation Off-Site area). Estimates are available for the entire fife of all waste generating activities. This document summarizes waste estimates forecasted for the 8-year period of FY 1994-FY 2001. Updates with varying degrees of change are expected throughout the refinement of restoration strategies currently in progress at each of the sites. Waste forecast data are relatively fluid, and this document represents remediation plans only as reported through September 1993

  5. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-08-28

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000.

  6. Operational waste volume projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreski, G.M.; Strode, J.N.

    1995-06-01

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the tri-party agreement. Assumptions are current as of June 1995

  7. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000

  8. Generation projection of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent radioactive sources in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia A, E.; Hernandez F, I. Y.; Fernandez R, E.; Monroy G, F.; Lizcano C, D.

    2014-10-01

    This work is focused to project the volumes of radioactive aqueous liquid wastes and spent radioactive sources that will be generated in our country in next 15 years, solids compaction and radioactive organic liquids in 10 years starting from the 2014; with the purpose of knowing the technological needs that will be required for their administration. The methodology involves six aspects to develop: the definition of general objectives, to specify the temporary horizon of projection, data collection, selection of the prospecting model and the model application. This approach was applied to the inventory of aqueous liquid wastes, as well as radioactive compaction organic and solids generated in Mexico by non energy applications from the 2001 to 2014, and of the year 1997 at 2014 for spent sources. The applied projection models were: Double exponential smoothing associating the tendency, Simple Smoothing and Lineal Regression. For this study was elected the first forecast model and its application suggests that: the volume of the compaction solid wastes, aqueous liquids and spent radioactive sources will increase respectively in 152%, 49.8% and 55.7%, while the radioactive organic liquid wastes will diminish in 13.15%. (Author)

  9. Major factors contributing to the construction waste generation in building projects of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Tareq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic growth and improvement of the construction industry witnessed by most countries, there has become a crucial need for employing modern possibilities in the construction sector to build taller, longer and deeper structures. However, one aspect that heads forward with the same intensity is the generation of 100 million tons of construction waste every year. This generation has occurred due to several factors with different levels of importance. Hence, this study reveals 15 factors influencing construction waste generation and categorizes them into 3 groups, (materials management on site, (materials handling, transportation and storage and (site management and practices. A questionnaire survey of 100 respondents was distributed among different engineers to assess the construction waste factors. Results showed that damage of materials on site, double handling of materials and incompetent contractor’s technical staff were the most significant factors of each category with Relative Importance Indexes (RII of 0.866, 0.844 and 0.83, respectively. These findings will help the practitioners to reduce construction waste quantities in sites and improve waste management performance factors to control the construction waste problems.

  10. Waste Management Process Improvement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.; Borden, G.; Rangel, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford-led Environmental Restoration Contractor team's Waste Management Process Improvement Project is working diligently with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office to improve the waste management process to meet DOE's need for an efficient, cost-effective program for the management of dangerous, low-level and mixed-low-level waste. Additionally the program must meet all applicable regulatory requirements. The need for improvement was highlighted when a change in the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project's waste management practices resulted in a larger amount of waste being generated than the waste management organization had been set up to handle

  11. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  12. Waste generator services implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999

  13. One project's waste is another project's resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author describes the efforts being made toward pollution prevention within the DOE complex, as a way to reduce overall project costs, in addition to decreasing the amount of waste to be handled. Pollution prevention is a concept which is trying to be ingrained into project planning. Part of the program involves the concept that ultimately the responsibility for waste comes back to the generator. Parts of the program involve efforts to reuse materials and equipment on new projects, to recycle wastes to generate offsetting revenue, and to increase awareness, accountability and incentives so as to stimulate action on this plan. Summaries of examples are presented in tables

  14. Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP's mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP's LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility

  15. Operational waste volume projection. Revision 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreski, G.M.; Strode, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of July 1994

  16. Project control - the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorii, V.F.; McKinnon, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) second largest Major System Acquisition Project. We have developed an integrated planning and control system (called PACS) that we believe represents the 'Next Generation' in project control. PACS integrates technical scope, cost, and schedule information for over 50 participating organizations and produces performances measurement reports for science and engineering managers at all levels. Our 'Next Generation' project control too, PACS, has been found to be in compliance with the new DOE Project Control System Guidelines. Additionally, the nuclear utility oversight group of the Edison Electric Institute has suggested PACS be used as a model for other civilian radioactive waste management projects. A 'Next Generation' project control tool will be necessary to do science in the 21st century

  17. Projection of hospital and clinic health care risk waste generation quantities and treatment capacities for the national waste management strategy implementation project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available wastes from pathology test laboratories, and chemical wastes from laboratories and R&D pharmacies, eg, carcinogenic drugs oxidizing substances and organic solvents. • Specialist wards wastes, eg, isolation, and oncology wards, and operating theatres... cytotoxic toxicity Pharmaceutical stores, wards, returned drugs Smaller No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes -Cytotoxic pharmaceutical toxicity Laboratories, oncology, wards Larger No No Yes Yes Yes Can be Yes E: Radioactive radioactive Oncology, X...

  18. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward

    2016-01-01

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  19. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  20. Nuclear Waste Education Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In summary, both the Atlanta and Albuquerque pilot seminars achieved the Nuclear Waste Education Project's goal of informing citizens on both the substance and the process of nuclear waste policy so that they can better participate in future nuclear waste decisions. Nuclear waste issues are controversial, and the seminars exposed the nature of the controversy, and utilized the policy debates to create lively and provocative sessions. The format and content of any citizen education curriculum must be made to fit the particular goal that has been chosen. If the Department of Energy and the LWVEF decide to continue to foster an informed dialogue among presenters and participants, the principles of controversial issues education would serve this goal well. If, however, the Department of Energy and/or the LWVEF decide to go beyond imparting information and promoting a lively discussion of the issues, towards some kind of consensus-building process, it would be appropriate to integrate more interactive sessions into the format. As one evaluator wrote, ''In-depth participation in finding solutions or establishing policy -- small group discussion'' would have been preferable to the plenary sessions that mostly were in the form of lectures and expert panel discussion. The evaluator continued by saying, ''Since these [small group discussions] would require more time commitment, they might be part of follow-up workshops focused on particular topics.''

  1. Calculation of projected waste loads for transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.; Koebnick, B.; Wang, Y.; Kaicher, C.

    1995-01-01

    The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives

  2. Dynamics of radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina

    2008-01-01

    In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)

  3. Generation projection of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent radioactive sources in Mexico; Proyeccion de generacion de desechos radiactivos solidos, liquidos y fuentes radiactivas gastadas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, E.; Hernandez F, I. Y.; Fernandez R, E. [Universidad Politecnica del Valle de Toluca, Km 5.7 Carretera Almoloya de Juarez, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Lizcano C, D., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is focused to project the volumes of radioactive aqueous liquid wastes and spent radioactive sources that will be generated in our country in next 15 years, solids compaction and radioactive organic liquids in 10 years starting from the 2014; with the purpose of knowing the technological needs that will be required for their administration. The methodology involves six aspects to develop: the definition of general objectives, to specify the temporary horizon of projection, data collection, selection of the prospecting model and the model application. This approach was applied to the inventory of aqueous liquid wastes, as well as radioactive compaction organic and solids generated in Mexico by non energy applications from the 2001 to 2014, and of the year 1997 at 2014 for spent sources. The applied projection models were: Double exponential smoothing associating the tendency, Simple Smoothing and Lineal Regression. For this study was elected the first forecast model and its application suggests that: the volume of the compaction solid wastes, aqueous liquids and spent radioactive sources will increase respectively in 152%, 49.8% and 55.7%, while the radioactive organic liquid wastes will diminish in 13.15%. (Author)

  4. One project`s waste is another project`s resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, J.

    1997-02-01

    The author describes the efforts being made toward pollution prevention within the DOE complex, as a way to reduce overall project costs, in addition to decreasing the amount of waste to be handled. Pollution prevention is a concept which is trying to be ingrained into project planning. Part of the program involves the concept that ultimately the responsibility for waste comes back to the generator. Parts of the program involve efforts to reuse materials and equipment on new projects, to recycle wastes to generate offsetting revenue, and to increase awareness, accountability and incentives so as to stimulate action on this plan. Summaries of examples are presented in tables.

  5. Review to give the public clear information on near surface disposal project of low-level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Nobuhiro; Amazawa, Hiroya; Koibuchi, Hiroto; Nakata, Hisakazu; Kato, Masatoshi; Takao, Tomoe; Terashima, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yoshie; Shirasu, Hisanori

    2013-12-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereafter abbreviated as “JAEA”) has promoted near surface disposal project for low-level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities after receiving project approval from the government in November 2009. JAEA has carried out public information about low-level radioactive wastes disposal project on the web site. When some town meetings are held toward mutual understanding with the public, more detailed and clear explanations for safety management of near surface disposal are needed especially. Therefore, the information provision method to make the public understand should be reviewed. Moreover, a web-based survey should be carried out in order to get a sense of what the public knows, what it values and where it stands on nuclear energy and radiation issues, because the social environment surrounding nuclear energy and radiation issues has drastically changed as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011. This review clarified the points to keep in mind about public information on near surface disposal project for low-level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities, and that public awareness and understanding toward nuclear energy and radiation was changed before and after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  6. Spent fuel and waste inventories and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, W.L.; Finney, B.C.; Alexander, C.W.; Blomeke, J.O.; McNair, J.M.

    1980-08-01

    Current inventories of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled, based on judgments of the most reliable information available from Government sources and the open literature. Future waste generation rates and quantities to be accumulated over the remainder of this century are also presented, based on a present projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related activities. Spent fuel projections are based on the current DOE/EIA estimate of nuclear growth, which projects 180 GW(e) in the year 2000. It is recognized that the calculated spent fuel discharges are probably high in view of recent reactor cancellations; hence adjustments will be made in future updates of this report. Wastes considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, low-level wastes, mill tailings (active sites), and remedial action wastes. The latter category includes mill tailings (inactive sites), surplus facilities, formerly utilized sites, and the Grand Junction Project. For each category, waste volume inventories and projections are given through the year 2000. The land usage requirements are given for storage/disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes, and for present inventories of mill tailings

  7. Model for future waste generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov; Stenmarck, Aasa; Ekvall, Tomas

    2010-06-15

    The research presented in this report is part of the effort to estimate future Swedish waste quantities in the research programme Towards Sustainable Waste Management. More specifically, we estimate future waste coefficients that are designed to be fed into EMEC, which describes the Swedish economy in terms of 26 industrial sectors, a public sector, and households. Production in the model of industry and public sector requires input of labour, capital, energy, and other commodities. With waste-intensity coefficients added to each production parameter in each sector, EMEC can calculate the future waste quantities generated in different economic scenarios. To produce the waste-intensity coefficients, we make a survey of the current Swedish waste statistics. For each waste category from each sector we estimate whether the quantity depends primarily on the production in the sector, on the inputs of commodities, on the depreciation of capital goods, or on the size of the workforce in the sector. We calculate current waste-intensity coefficients by dividing the waste quantities by the parameter(s) to which they are assigned. We also present five different scenarios to describe how the waste intensity can develop until the year 2030. As far as possible and when deemed to be relevant, we have set the industrial waste generation to depend on the use of a commodity or an energy carrier. The quantity of spent vehicles and most equipment is set to depend on the depreciation of capital goods. Some wastes have been allocated to the staff, for example household waste from business. The quantities of wastes from households have a similar approach where every waste category is assigned to a combination of 26 different commodities

  8. EPRI waste processing projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) manages research for its sponsoring electric utilities in the United States. Research in the area of low level radioactive waste (LLRW) from light water reactors focuses primarily on waste processing within the nuclear power plants, monitoring of the waste packages, and assessments of disposal technologies. Accompanying these areas and complimentary to them is the determination and evaluation of the sources of nuclear power plants radioactive waste. This paper focuses on source characterization of nuclear power plant waste, LLRW processing within nuclear power plants, and the monitoring of these wastes. EPRI's work in waste disposal technology is described in another paper in this proceeding by the same author. 1 reference, 5 figures

  9. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  10. Second Generation Waste Package Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.; Misra, M.; Kar, Piyush

    2007-01-01

    The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 ''Second Generation Waste Package Design Study'' under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion test environments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity

  11. Waste diminution in Construction projects: Environmental Predicaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehbaghi, Koorosh; Scott-Young, Christina

    2018-03-01

    Waste diminution in construction projects is not only a behavioural issue, but also an energy consumption and reduction concern. With construction waste equating to the significant amount of exhausted energy together with increased pollution, this contributes to a series of environmental predicaments. The overall goal of construction solid Waste Management is to collect, treat and dispose of solid wastes generated by project activities in an environmentally and socially satisfactory manner, using the most economical means available. As cities expand, their construction activities and consumption patterns further drive up the solid waste quantities. Governments are usually authorized to have responsibility for providing solid Waste Management services, and various administrative laws give them exclusive ownership over the waste produced. In addition, construction waste processing can be further controlled and minimized according to specialized authorities such as Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) and their relevant acts and regulations. Moreover, a Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP) can further control the treatment of waste and therefore, reduce the amount produced. Key elements of a CEMP not only include complying with relevant legislation, standards and guidance from the EPA; however, also to ensuring that there are systems in place to resolve any potential problems associated with site activities. Accordingly, as a part of energy consumption and lessening strategies, this paper will discuss various effective waste reduction methods for construction projects. Finally, this paper will also examine tactics to further improve energy efficiency through innovative construction Waste Management strategies (including desirability rating of most favourable options) to promote the lessening of overall CO2production.

  12. Waste Management Project Contingency Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward L. Parsons, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the office of Waste Management (WM) with recommended contingency calculation procedures for typical WM projects. Typical projects were defined as conventional construction-type activities that use innovative elements when necessary to meet the project objectives. Projects involve treatment, storage, and disposal of low level, mixed low level, hazardous, transuranic, and high level waste. Cost contingencies are an essential part of Total Cost Management. A contingency is an amount added to a cost estimate to compensate for unexpected expenses resulting from incomplete design, unforeseen and unpredictable conditions, or uncertainties in the project scope (DOE 1994, AACE 1998). Contingency allowances are expressed as percentages of estimated cost and improve cost estimates by accounting for uncertainties. The contingency allowance is large at the beginning of a project because there are more uncertainties, but as a project develops, the allowance shrinks to adjust for costs already incurred. Ideally, the total estimated cost remains the same throughout a project. Project contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by lack of project definition, and process contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by use of new technology. Different cost estimation methods were reviewed and compared with respect to terminology, accuracy, and Cost Guide standards. The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) methods for cost estimation were selected to represent best industry practice. AACE methodology for contingency analysis can be readily applied to WM Projects, accounts for uncertainties associated with different stages of a project, and considers both project and process contingencies and the stage of technical readiness. As recommended, AACE contingency allowances taper off linearly as a project nears completion

  13. Waste Generation Overview Refresher, Course 21464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-13

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Refresher (COURSE 21464), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to- grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL.

  14. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  15. Solid waste generation in reprocessing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates are made of the solid wastes generated annually from a 750-ton/year plant (such as the NFS West Valley plant): high-level waste, hulls, intermediate level waste, failed equipment, HEPA filters, spent solvent, alpha contaminated combustible waste, and low specific activity waste. The annual volume of each category is plotted versus the activity level

  16. Flowsheets and source terms for radioactive waste projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Flowsheets and source terms used to generate radioactive waste projections in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program are given. Volumes of each waste type generated per unit product throughput have been determined for the following facilities: uranium mining, UF 6 conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, boiling-water reactors (BWRs), pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and fuel reprocessing. Source terms for DOE/defense wastes have been developed. Expected wastes from typical decommissioning operations for each facility type have been determined. All wastes are also characterized by isotopic composition at time of generation and by general chemical composition. 70 references, 21 figures, 53 tables

  17. Verifying generator waste certification: NTS waste characterization QA requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Brich, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) include the disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) and mixed waste (MW), waste which is both radioactive and hazardous. A majority of the packaged LLW is received from offsite DOE generators. Interim status for receipt of MW at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) was received from the state of Nevada in 1987. The RWMS Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is expected to be operational in 1988 for approved DOE MW generators. The Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification Requirements (NVO-185, Revision 5) delineates waste acceptance criteria for waste disposal at the NTS. Regulation of the hazardous component of mixed waste requires the implementation of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Waste generators must implement a waste certification program to provide assurance that the disposal site waste acceptance criteria are met. The DOE/Nevada Operations Office (NV) developed guidance for generator waste certification program plans. Periodic technical audits are conducted by DOE/NV to assess performance of the waste certification programs. The audit scope is patterned from the waste certification program plan guidance as it integrates and provides a common format for the applicable criteria. The criteria focus on items and activities critical to processing, characterizing, packaging, certifying, and shipping waste

  18. Training waste generators: The first responder in proper waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1989-01-01

    Dealing with waste effectively requires a ''cradle to grave'' approach to waste management. The first step in that chain of custody is the waste generator. The waste generator plays the key role in the correct identification, packaging, and disposal of waste. The Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed several short training programs for waste generators. This training presents a consistent approach to proper handling of waste within the ORNL waste management system. This training has been developed for generators of solid low-level radioactive waste, hazardous and mixed waste, and transuranic waste. In addition to the above, a Waste Minimization training program has been developed for use by all organizations at ORNL who generate any type of hazardous waste. These training programs represent a combined effort of the training staff and the technical staff to assure that all ORNL staff accept their responsibility for handling all types of radioactive and hazardous wastes correctly from its generation to its disposal. 4 refs

  19. Project Plan for the evaluation of REDC waste for TRU-waste radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, L.; Yong, L.; Chapman, J.

    1996-09-01

    This project plan describes the plan to determine whether the solid radioactive wastes generated by the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) meet the Department of Energy's definition of transuranic wastes. Existing waste characterization methods will be evaluated, as well as historical data, and recommendations will be made as necessary

  20. Radioactive waste inventories and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on radioactive waste inventories and projections included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through September 1982. The arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (25 abstracts)

  1. Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive wastes were compiled through December 31, 1983, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 37 years and characteristics of these materials are also presented, consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) or projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated, based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions. 48 figures, 107 tables

  2. Methane generation from waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  3. Basalt waste isolation project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlem, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    The proposed candidate site for a high-level nuclear waste repository is located beneath the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State. At this point, the Hanford Reservation has been selected as one of three preferred candidates in the draft environmental assessment. Project activities have concentrated on understanding the site location with respect to the 10CFR60, 40CFR191, and 10CFR960, identifying critical parameters for design of water package and repository seals, and identifying parameters for repository design. This paper describes the program to evaluate the site and to identify the natural processes that would effect isolation

  4. Charging generators for waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Implementation of a plan to charge waste management costs to the facility that generates such waste requires a long-term commitment and consistent administration. The benefit is that generators are provided the incentive to optimize waste management practices if the charges are appropriately applied. This paper summarizes (1) a plan to charge waste generators, (2) the administrative structure of the plan, (3) a comparison between the rate structure and changes in waste disposal operations, and (4) issues that have surfaced as the plan is implemented. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: revised waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste generated in the eleven Northeast states has undergone significant change since the inital 1982 analysis and projection. These revised projections incorporate improved data reporting and evidence of sharp declines in certain categories of waste. Volumes in the 1982-1983 period reflect waste shipped for disposal as reported by disposal site operators. Projected waste volumes represent waste intended for disposal. The recent dramatic changes in source reduction and waste management practices underscore the need for annual review of waste volume projections. The volume of waste shipped for off-site disposal has declined approximately 12% in two years, from an average 1,092,500 ft 3 annually in 1979 to 1981 to an average annual 956,500 ft 3 in 1982 to 1983; reactor waste disposal volumes declined by about 39,000 ft 3 or 7% during this period. Non-reactor waste volumes shipped for disposal declined by over 70,000 ft 3 or 15% during this period. The data suggest that generators increased their use of such management practices as source reduction, compaction, or, for carbon-14 and tritium, temporary storage followed by disposal as non-radioactive waste under the NRC de minimus standard effective March 1981. Using the Technical Subcommittee projection methodology, the volume of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states, individually and collectively, is expected to increase through the year 2000, but at a significantly lower rate of increase than initially projected. By the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 1,137,600 ft 3 of waste annually, an increase of about 20% over 1982 to 1983 average volume

  6. Biomass Energy Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olthoff, Edward [Cedar Falls Utilities, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The Municipal Electric Utility of the City of Cedar Falls (dba Cedar Fals Utilities or CFU) received a congressionally directed grant funded through DOE-EERE to run three short (4 hour) duration test burns and one long (10 days) duration test burn to test the viability of renewable fuels in Streeter Station Boiler #6, a stoker coal fired electric generation unit. The long test burn was intended to test supply chain assumptions, optimize boiler combustion and assess the effects of a longer duration burn of biomass on the boiler.

  7. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H 2 . CO 2 , N 2 0, NO, and NH 3 . For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H 2 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 , N 2 O and NO

  8. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states ''Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction

  9. FRIDA: A model for the generation and handling of solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helge V.; Møller Andersen, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Since 1994, Danish waste treatment plants have been obliged to report to the Danish EPA the annual amounts of waste treated. Applying these data, we analyse the development, link amounts of waste to economic and demographic variables, and present a model for the generation and treatment of waste...... in Denmark. Using the model and official projections of the economic development, a baseline projection for the generation and treatment of waste is presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randklev, E.H.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented

  11. Charging generators for waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need for waste management that incorporates improved waste-handling techniques and more stringent regulatory requirements to prevent future liabilities such as Superfund sites. DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) has recognized that an effective waste management program focuses on control at the source and that the burden for responsible waste management can be placed on generators by charging for waste management costs. The principle of including the waste management costs in the total cost of the product, even when the product is research and development, is being implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper summarizes a plan to charge waste generators, the administrative structure of the plan, a comparison between the rate structure and changes in waste disposal operations, and issues that have surfaced as the plan is implemented

  12. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  13. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  14. Charging generators for waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) has recognized that an effective waste management program focuses on control at the source and that the burden for responsible waste management can be placed on generators by charging for waste management costs. The principle of including the waste management costs in the total cost of the product, even when the product is research and development, is being implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Charging waste management costs to the pollutor creates an incentive to optimize processes so that less waste is produced and provides a basis for determining the cost effectiveness. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat-generating radioactive waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The study was sub-divided into the following major sections: manufacturing feasibility; stress analysis; integrity in accidents; cost benefit review. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarised as follows: (A) a thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. (B) an unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. (C) an unfilled carbon steel shell planted externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design Types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used. (author)

  17. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities.

  18. The Atlin Hydro Project : generation for generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S. [Atlin Tlingit Development Corp., Atlin, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation documented the step-by-step process by which the Atlin Hydro Project was developed. The Taku River Tlingit First Nation undertook the Atlin project as part of its vision for responsible resource management, sustainable economic development, and cultural revival. The Atlin Community Energy Plan involved an assessment of electricity demand, a 20-year demand projection, energy efficiency recommendations, and an assessment of power supply options such as wind towers, connection to the Yukon power grid, and hydro. The potential impact on fisheries, hydrology, wildlife habitat, roads and bridges, navigable waters and forests, existing rights, and First Nation archaeology were assessed, along with other factors such as hazards and flood control. A hydrology assessment of the Surprise-Pine Drainage Basin was undertaken, and stream-flow measurements were taken near the intake location on Pine Creek. The project comprises a discharge control structure and a fish ladder; an intake and weir on Pine Creek; a penstock pipeline from intake to powerhouse; a powerhouse with a 2.1 MW Pelton turbine generator and a switch yard; and a power line from the powerhouse to the interconnection with the existing grid. The impacts on fisheries, wildlife, and human movement are expected to be minimal. 28 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Waste management project fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaybaugh, R.R.

    1997-08-01

    The MYWP technical baseline describes the work to be accomplished by the Project and the technical standards which govern that work. The Waste Management Project manages and integrates (non-TWRS) waste management activities at the site. Activities include management of Hanford wastes as well as waste transferred to Hanford from other DOE, Department of Defense, or other facilities. This work includes handling, treatment, storage, and disposition of radioactive, nonradioactive, hazardous, and mixed solid and liquid wastes. Major Waste Management Projects are the Solid Waste Project (SW), Liquid Effluents Project (LEP), and Analytical Services. Existing facilities (e.g., grout vaults and canyons) shall be evaluated for reuse for these purposes to the maximum extent possible. The paper tabulates the major facilities that interface with this Project, identifying the major facilities that generate waste, materials, or infrastructure for this Project and the major facilities that will receive waste and materials from this Project

  20. Waste management project fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaybaugh, R.R.

    1997-08-29

    The MYWP technical baseline describes the work to be accomplished by the Project and the technical standards which govern that work. The Waste Management Project manages and integrates (non-TWRS) waste management activities at the site. Activities include management of Hanford wastes as well as waste transferred to Hanford from other DOE, Department of Defense, or other facilities. This work includes handling, treatment, storage, and disposition of radioactive, nonradioactive, hazardous, and mixed solid and liquid wastes. Major Waste Management Projects are the Solid Waste Project (SW), Liquid Effluents Project (LEP), and Analytical Services. Existing facilities (e.g., grout vaults and canyons) shall be evaluated for reuse for these purposes to the maximum extent possible. The paper tabulates the major facilities that interface with this Project, identifying the major facilities that generate waste, materials, or infrastructure for this Project and the major facilities that will receive waste and materials from this Project.

  1. Safe Management of Waste Generated during Shale Gas Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulska-Zając, Ewa; Król, Anna; Holewa-Rataj, Jadwiga

    2017-04-01

    Exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon deposits, regardless of their type, are connected with the generation of waste, which may have various environmental effects. Such wastes may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because they usually contain numerous potentially toxic chemicals. Waste associated with exploration and exploitation of unconventional hydrocarbon deposits is composed of a mixture of organic and inorganic materials, the qualitative and quantitative composition of which changes widely over time, depending on numerous factors. As a result the proper characteristic of this type of waste is very important. Information gained from detailed chemical analyses of drilling chemicals, drilling wastes, and flowback water can be used to manage shale gas-related wastes more appropriately, to develop treatment methods, to store the waste, and assess the potential environmental and health risk. The following paper will focus mainly on the results of research carried out on waste samples coming from the unconventional hydrogen exploration sites. Additionally, regulatory frameworks applicable to the management of wastes produced during this type of works will be discussed. The scope of research concerning physicochemical parameters for this type of wastes will also be presented. The presented results were obtained during M4ShaleGas project realization. The M4ShaleGas project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 640715.

  2. Integrated waste hydrogen utilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The BC Hydrogen Highway's, Integrated Waste Hydrogen Utilization Project (IWHUP) is a multi-faceted, synergistic collaboration that will capture waste hydrogen and promote its use through the demonstration of 'Hydrogen Economy' enabling technologies developed by Canadian companies. IWHUP involves capturing and purifying a small portion of the 600 kg/hr of by-product hydrogen vented to the atmosphere at the ERCO's electrochemical sodium chlorate plant in North Vancouver, BC. The captured hydrogen will then be compressed so it is suitable for transportation on roadways and can be used as a fuel in transportation and stationary fuel cell demonstrations. In summary, IWHUP invests in the following; Facilities to produce up to 20kg/hr of 99.999% pure 6250psig hydrogen using QuestAir's leading edge Pressure Swing Absorption technology; Ultra high-pressure transportable hydrogen storage systems developed by Dynetek Industries, Powertech Labs and Sacre-Davey Engineering; A Mobile Hydrogen Fuelling Station to create Instant Hydrogen Infrastructure for light-duty vehicles; Natural gas and hydrogen (H-CNG) blending and compression facilities by Clean Energy for fueling heavy-duty vehicles; Ten hydrogen, internal combustion engine (H-ICE), powered light duty pick-up vehicles and a specialized vehicle training, maintenance, and emissions monitoring program with BC Hydro, GVRD and the District of North Vancouver; The demonstration of Westport's H-CNG technology for heavy-duty vehicles in conjunction with local transit properties and a specialized vehicle training, maintenance, and emissions monitoring program; The demonstration of stationary fuel cell systems that will provide clean power for reducing peak-load power demands (peak shaving), grid independence and water heating; A comprehensive communications and outreach program designed to educate stakeholders, the public, regulatory bodies and emergency response teams in the local community, Supported by industry

  3. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies

  4. Otter Brook Lake, New Hampshire Connecticut River Basin, Flood Control Project, Solid Waste Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... This plan provides guidance to establish policies, and responsibilities, procedures, and instructions for proper handling, storage, disposal and recycling of solid waste generated at the flood control project...

  5. Waste Generation in Denmark 1994-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Louise Lykke; Bentzen, Jan Børsen

    In recent years the amount of waste generated by Danish firms has increased significantly. In the present analysis we use the decomposition analysis, which has been widely used in the energy economics literature to explain the mechanisms influencing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In this p......In recent years the amount of waste generated by Danish firms has increased significantly. In the present analysis we use the decomposition analysis, which has been widely used in the energy economics literature to explain the mechanisms influencing energy consumption and CO2 emissions....... In this paper the methodology is transferred to the topic of waste generation and is used to analyse why the amount of business waste is increasing. The empirical application is related to data for the volumes of waste generated in the Danish economy for the main sectors as well as the manufacturing sector...... covering the time span 1994-2005 has been included. By means of the Log-Mean Divisia Index Method (LMDI) an algebraic decomposition of the data for the waste amounts generated is performed. This methodology separates the increases in waste amounts into effects related to economic activity, industrial...

  6. Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled through December 31, 1982, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 40 years and characteristics of these materials are also presented, based on the latest DOE/EIA projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter bases, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, active uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated, based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions. One chapter gives broad, summary data on the costs of spent fuel and radioactive waste management and disposal to provide an economic perspective. This chapter is not intended as a definitive guide, but it is a source of reasonable, order-of-magnitude costs and also provides references to more-detailed and scenario-specific studies. An appendix on generic flowsheets and source terms used for the projections is also included

  7. The Hanford Site solid waste treatment project; Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will provide treatment and temporary storage (consisting of in-process storage) for radioactive and radioactive/hazardous mixed waste. This facility must be constructed and operated in compliance with all appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The WRAP Facility will examine and certify, segregate/sort, and treat for disposal suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes in drums and boxes placed in 20-yr retrievable storage since 1970; low-level radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated and placed into storage at the Hanford Site since 1987; designated remote-handled wastes; and newly generated TRU and RMW wastes from high-level waste (HLW) recovery and processing operations. In order to accelerated the WRAP Project, a partitioning of the facility functions was done in two phases as a means to expedite those parts of the WRAP duties that were well understood and used established technology, while allowing more time to better define the processing functions needed for the remainder of WRAP. The WRAP Module 1 phase one, is to provide the necessary nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay services, as well as all transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT-2) shipping for both WRAP Project phases, with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; change rooms; and administrative services. Phase two of the project, WRAP Module 2, will provide all necessary waste treatment facilities for disposal of solid wastes. 1 tab

  8. Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In southeastern Washington State, Bechtel National, Inc. is designing, constructing and commissioning the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant for the...

  9. Methodology for generating waste volume estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.Q.; Hale, T.; Miller, D.

    1991-09-01

    This document describes the methodology that will be used to calculate waste volume estimates for site characterization and remedial design/remedial action activities at each of the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) facilities. This standardized methodology is designed to ensure consistency in waste estimating across the various sites and organizations that are involved in environmental restoration activities. The criteria and assumptions that are provided for generating these waste estimates will be implemented across all DOE-OR facilities and are subject to change based on comments received and actual waste volumes measured during future sampling and remediation activities. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) Waste Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VOLKMAN, D.D.

    1999-10-27

    This document is the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH), that implements the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) document, and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement with Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), Sections 6.5 and 7.8. WHM is responsible for the treatment, storage, and disposal of liquid and solid wastes generated at the Hanford Site as well as those wastes received from other US Department of Energy (DOE) and non-DOE sites. WMH operations include the Low-Level Burial Grounds, Central Waste Complex (a mixed-waste storage complex), a nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility, the Transuranic Storage Facility, T Plant, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facility, 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility, the 242-A Evaporator, 300 Area Treatment Effluent Disposal Facility, the 340 Facility (a radioactive liquid waste handling facility), 222-S Laboratory, the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility, and the Hanford TRU Waste Program.

  11. Spent fuel and radioactive-waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 40 years, and characteristics of these materials are also presented, based on a present DOE/EIA projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, remedial action waste, active uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, and decommissioning. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020. The land usage requirements are given for storage/disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes, and for the present inventories of inactive uranium mill tailings. For each waste category the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated. Isotopic compositions and cost data are given for each waste type and for spent fuel

  12. Solid Waste Projection Model: Model user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, D.L.; Crow, V.L.

    1990-08-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) specifically to address solid waste management issues at the Hanford Central Waste Complex (HCWC). This document, one of six documents supporting the SWPM system, contains a description of the system and instructions for preparing to use SWPM and operating Version 1 of the model. 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Projected Costs of Generating Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plante, J.

    1998-01-01

    Every 3 to 4 years, the NEA undertakes a study on projected costs of generating electricity in OECD countries. This started in 1983 and the last study (1997) has just be completed. All together 5 studies were performed, the first three dealing with nuclear and coal options, while the 1992 and 1997 included also the gas option. The goal of the study is to compare, country by country, generating costs of nuclear, coal-fired and gas-fired power plants that could be commissioned in the respondent countries by 2005-2010

  14. Construction and demolition waste generation rates for high-rise buildings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Chooi Mei; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Ho, Chin Siong

    2016-12-01

    Construction and demolition waste continues to sharply increase in step with the economic growth of less developed countries. Though the construction industry is large, it is composed of small firms with individual waste management practices, often leading to the deleterious environmental outcomes. Quantifying construction and demolition waste generation allows policy makers and stakeholders to understand the true internal and external costs of construction, providing a necessary foundation for waste management planning that may overcome deleterious environmental outcomes and may be both economically and environmentally optimal. This study offers a theoretical method for estimating the construction and demolition project waste generation rate by utilising available data, including waste disposal truck size and number, and waste volume and composition. This method is proposed as a less burdensome and more broadly applicable alternative, in contrast to waste estimation by on-site hand sorting and weighing. The developed method is applied to 11 projects across Malaysia as the case study. This study quantifies waste generation rate and illustrates the construction method in influencing the waste generation rate, estimating that the conventional construction method has a waste generation rate of 9.88 t 100 m -2 , the mixed-construction method has a waste generation rate of 3.29 t 100 m -2 , and demolition projects have a waste generation rate of 104.28 t 100 m -2 . © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  16. Estimation of restaurant solid waste generation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, H.H.; Major, I.

    2002-01-01

    Most solid waste utilities try to create a billing schedule that is proportional to solid waste generation rates. This research was trying to determine if the current billing rate structure was appropriate or if a different rate structure should be implemented. A multiple regression model with forward stepwise addition was developed which accurately predicts weekly solid waste generation rates for restaurants. The model was based on a study of daily solid waste generation at twenty-one different businesses. The weight and volume of solid waste generated was measure daily for two weeks during the winter and two weeks during the summer. Researchers followed the collection truck and measured the volume and weight of the container contents. Data was collected on the following independent variables describing each establishment; weight of waste per collection, volume per collection, container utilization factor, building area, contract haulers bill, yearly property tax, yearly solid waste tax, average number of collections per week, type of restaurant, modal number of collections per week, storage container size, waste density, number of employees, number of hours open per week, and weekly collection capacity (collections per week times storage container size). Independent variables were added to the regression equation based on their partial correlation coefficient and confidence level. The regression equations developed had correlation coefficients of 0.87 to 1.00, which was much better than the correlation coefficient (0.84) of an existing model DeGeare and Ongerth (1971) and a correlation coefficient of 0.54 based on the current solid waste disposal tax. (author)

  17. Integrated Data Base: Status and waste projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) is the official US Department of Energy (DOE) data base for spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories and projections. DOE low-level waste (LLW) is just one of the many waste types that are documented with the IDB. Summary-level tables and figures are presented illustrating historical and projected volume changes of DOE LLW. This information is readily available through the annual IDB publication. Other presentation formats are also available to the DOE community through a request to the IDB Program. 4 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Project safety studies - nuclear waste management (PSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The project 'Safety Studies-Nuclear Waste Management' (PSE) is a research project performed by order of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology, the general purpose of which is to deepen and ensure the understanding of the safety aspects of the nuclear waste management and to prepare a risk analysis which will have to be established in the future. Owing to this the project is part of a series of projects which serve the further development of the concept of nuclear waste management and its safety, and which are set up in such a way as to accompany the realization of that concept. This report contains the results of the first stage of the project from 1978 to mid-1981. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies

  20. Prioritization of proposed waste management construction projects for the Waste Management program within the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    A prioritization process is used to evaluate and rank proposed construction projects within the Department of Energy's Waste Management program. The process is used to determine which projects should proceed with conceptual design activities. The proposed construction projects are evaluated against a set of criteria which reflect Waste Management priorities. A management review team ranks and scores the projects thereby generating a prioritized list of projects. Despite decreasing budgets and changing political climates, the process has been a successful decision-aiding tool for selecting construction projects to carry out the Waste Management mission within the Department of Energy

  1. Projected costs of generating electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Previous editions of Projected Costs of Generating Electricity have served as the reference in this field for energy policy makers, electricity system analysts and energy economists. The study is particularly timely in the light of current discussions of energy policy in many countries. The joint IEA/NEA study provides generation cost estimates for over a hundred power plants that use a variety of fuels and technologies. These include coal-fired, gas-fired, nuclear, hydro, solar and wind plants. Cost estimates are also given for combined heat and power plants that use coal, gas and combustible renewables. Data and information for this study were provided by experts from 19 OECD member countries and 3 non-member countries. The power plants examined in the study use technologies available today and considered by participating countries as candidates for commissioning by 2010-2015 or earlier. Investors and other decision makers will also need to take the full range of other factors into account (such as security of supply, risks and carbon emissions) when selecting an electricity generation technology. The study shows that the competitiveness of alternative generation sources and technologies ultimately depends on many parameters: there is no clear-cut ''winner''. Major issues related to generation costs addressed in the report include: descriptions of state-of-the-art generation technologies; the methodologies for incorporating risk in cost assessments; the impact of carbon emission trading; and how to integrate wind power into the electricity grid. An appendix to the report provides country statements on generation technologies and costs. Previous studies in the series were published in 1983, 1986, 1990, 1993 and 1998. (author)

  2. Waste management project technical baseline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project

  3. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This Paper describes a mathematical model design to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  4. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1992-07-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This paper describes a mathematical model designed to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (Author)

  5. Processing the THOREX waste at the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.M.; Schiffhauer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on several options for neutralizing the THOREX and combining it with the PUREX wastes. Neutralization testing with simulated wastes (nonradioactive chemicals) was performed to evaluate the neutralization reactions and the reaction product generation. Various methods for neutralizing the THOREX solution were examined to determine their advantages and disadvantages relative to the overall project objectives and compatibility with the existing process. The primary neutralization process selection criteria were safety and minimizing the potential delays prior to vitrification. The THOREX neutralization method selected was direct addition to the high pH PUREX wastes within Tank 8D-2. Laboratory testing with simulated waste has demonstrated rapid neutralization of the THOREX waste acid. Test results for various direct addition scenarios has established the optimum process operating conditions which provide the largest safety margins

  6. Accuracy of hazardous waste project estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The HAZRATE system has been developed to appraise the current state of definition of hazardous waste remedial projects. This is shown to have a high degree of correlation to the financial risk of such projects. The method employs a weighted checklist indicating the current degree of definition of some 150 significant project elements. It is based on the author's experience with a similar system for establishing the risk characteristics of process plant projects (Hackney, 1965 and 1989; 1985). In this paper definition ratings for 15 hazardous waste remedial projects have been correlated with the excesses of their actual costs over their base estimates, excluding any allowances for contingencies. Equations are presented, based on this study, for computation of the contingency allowance needed and estimate accuracy possible at a given stage of project development

  7. Technical program plan, Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) program as administered by the DOE's Richland Operations Office and Rockwell Hanford Operations is described. The objectives, scope and scientific technologies are discussed. The work breakdown structure of the project includes: project management and support, systems integration, geosciences, hydrology, engineered barriers, test facility design and construction, engineering testing, repository studies, and schedules. The budget of the program including operating and capital cost control is also included

  8. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site's inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons

  9. Projected costs of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of a study on the projected costs of generating electricity. It presents the latest data available on electricity generating costs for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal, gas, nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal. The study reaches 2 key conclusions. First, at a 5% real interest rate, nuclear energy is the most competitive solution for base-load electricity generation followed by coal-fired plants without carbon capture and natural gas-fired combined plants. It should be noted that coal with carbon capture has not reached a commercial phase. Second, at a 10% interest rate, nuclear remains the most competitive in Asia and North America but in Europe, coal without carbon capture equipment, followed by coal with carbon capture equipment, and gas-fired combined cycle turbines are overall more competitive than nuclear energy. The results highlight the paramount importance of interest rates (this dependence is a direct consequence of the nuclear energy's high capital costs) and of the carbon price. For instance if we assume a 10% interest rate and a cost of 50 dollar per tonne of CO 2 , nuclear energy would become competitive against both coal and gas. (A.C.)

  10. Project No. 4 - Waste incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently 12000 m 3 of combustible waste stored at the Ignalina NPP site. It is estimated that by 2005 the volume will have increase to 15000 m 3 (filters, personnel protection, clothing and plastics). As a part of the preparation for the closure of the Ignalina NPP an incineration facility will be required to process combustible wastes to reduce the overall volume of short-lived radioactive wastes stored at the Ignalina NPP site, thus reducing the overall risk to the environment. Project activities includes the design, construction and commissioning of the proposed facility, including all licensing documentation

  11. Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.D.; Halverson, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan is to provide requirements and responsibilities for document control for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project and the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Project

  12. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature

  13. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental ampersand Regulatory Planning ampersand Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria

  14. Methodology of site generation for evaluation of the behaviour of radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Rivas, C.; Eguilior Diez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The present report summarizes the purpose of methodology for the site generation in the evaluation of high-level radioactive waste storage for long-term. This work is developed into the project Safety analysis long-term of high-level radioactive waste. This project is carried on for CIEMAT and ENRESA

  15. Fate of Gases generated from Nuclear Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasulu, M.; Francis, A. J. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Francis, A. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York (United States)

    2013-05-15

    The backfill materials such as cement, bentonite or crushed rock are used as engineered barriers against groundwater infiltration and radionuclide transport. Gas generation from radioactive wastes is attributed to radiolysis, corrosion of metals, and degradation of organic materials. Corrosion of steel drums and biodegradation of organic materials in L/ILW can generate gas which causes pressure build up and has the potential to compromise the integrity of waste containers and release the radionuclides and other contaminants into the environment. Performance assessment therefore requires a detailed understanding of the source and fate of gas generation and transport within the disposal system. Here we review the sources and fate of various type of gases generated from nuclear wastes and repositories. Studies on modeling of the fate and transport of repository gases primarily deal with hydrogen and CO{sub 2}. Although hydrogen and carbon dioxide are the major gases of concern, microbial transformations of these gases in the subterranean environments could be significant. Metabolism of hydrogen along with the carbon dioxide results in the formation of methane, low molecular weight organic compounds and cell biomass and thus could affect the total inventory in a repository environment. Modeling studies should take into consideration of both the gas generation and consumption processes over the long-term.

  16. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The objective of this study was to predict tensile stress levels in thin-walled titanium alloy and thick-walled carbon steel containers designed for the ocean disposal of heat-generating radioactive wastes. Results showed that tensile stresses would be produced in both designs by the expansion of the lead filter, for a temperature rise of 200 0 C. Tensile stress could be reduced if the waste heat output at disposal was reduced. Initial stresses for the titanium-alloy containers could be relieved by heat treatment. (UK)

  17. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  18. Reducing construction waste: A study of urban infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Ruane Fernandes; Danilevicz, Ângela de Moura Ferreira; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2017-09-01

    The construction industry is well-known for producing waste detrimental to the environment, and its impacts have increased with the development process of cities. Although there are several studies focused on the environmental impact of residential and commercial buildings, less knowledge is available regarding decreasing construction waste (CW) generation in urban infrastructure projects. This study presents best practices to reduce waste in the said projects, stressing the role of decision-making in the design stage and the effective management of construction processes in public sector. The best practices were identified from literature review, document analysis in 14 projects of urban infrastructure, and both qualitative and quantitative survey with 18 experts (architects and engineers) playing different roles on those projects. The contributions of these research are: (i) the identification of the main building techniques related to the urban design typologies analyzed; (ii) the identification of cause-effect relationships between the design choices and the CW generation diagnosis; (iii) the proposal of a checklist to support the decision-making process, that can be used as a control and evaluation instrument when developing urban infrastructure designs, focused on the construction waste minimization (CWM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Generation IV reactors: international projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Fiorini, G.L.; Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.; Hittner, D.

    2003-01-01

    Generation IV international forum (GIF) was initiated in 2000 by DOE (American department of energy) in order to promote nuclear energy in a long term view (2030). GIF has selected 6 concepts of reactors: 1) VHTR (very high temperature reactor system, 2) GHR (gas-cooled fast reactor system), 3) SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor system, 4) SCWR (super-critical water-cooled reactor system), 5) LFR (lead-cooled fast reactor system), and 6) MFR (molten-salt reactor system). All these 6 reactor systems have been selected on criteria based on: - a better contribution to sustainable development (through their aptitude to produce hydrogen or other clean fuels, or to have a high energy conversion ratio...) - economic profitability, - safety and reliability, and - proliferation resistance. The 6 concepts of reactors are examined in the first article, the second article presents an overview of the results of the international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO) within IAEA. The project finished its first phase, called phase-IA. It has produced an outlook into the future role of nuclear energy and defined the need for innovation. The third article is dedicated to 2 international cooperations: MICANET and HTR-TN. The purpose of MICANET is to propose to the European Commission a research and development strategy in order to develop the assets of nuclear energy for the future. Future reactors are expected to be more multiple-purposes, more adaptable, safer than today, all these developments require funded and coordinated research programs. The aim of HTR-TN cooperation is to promote high temperature reactor systems, to develop them in a long term perspective and to define their limits in terms of burn-up and operating temperature. (A.C.)

  20. Site identification presentation: Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The final step in the site identification process for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project is described. The candidate sites are identified. The site identification methodology is presented. The general objectives which must be met in selecting the final site are listed. Considerations used in the screening process are also listed. Summary tables of the guidelines used are included

  1. The SGHWR decommissioning project-waste strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, G.; Napper, M.

    1999-01-01

    Every facility must reach a stage in the decommissioning process where low-level waste (LLW) becomes the major factor in the decommissioning costs, therefore a cost-effective strategy for dealing with the waste must be sought. This paper describes the waste management strategy process that was carried out at the steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR) at Winfrith in Dorset. Obviously, each facility will have its own specific radiological problems, with its own unique fingerprint, which will have to be addressed, and, therefore, the optimum waste management strategy will differ for each facility. However, from the work done at SGHWR, it can be seen that it is possible to formulate a structured approach for dealing with LLW which meets the requirements of all stake holders, is safe, technically acceptable, cost-effective, and, furthermore, is equally applicable to other plants. (author)

  2. Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project, Centennial Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Clay; Mandon, Jim; DeGiulio, Thomas; Baker, Ryan

    2014-04-29

    The Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park has allowed methane from the closed Centennial landfill to export excess power into the the local utility’s electric grid for resale. This project is part of a greater brownfield reclamation project to the benefit of the residents of Munster and the general public. Installation of a gas-to-electric generator and waste-heat conversion unit take methane byproduct and convert it into electricity at the rate of about 103,500 Mwh/year for resale to the local utility. The sale of the electricity will be used to reduce operating budgets by covering the expenses for streetlights and utility bills. The benefits of such a project are not simply financial. Munster’s Waste-to Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park will reduce the community’s carbon footprint in an amount equivalent to removing 1,100 cars from our roads, conserving enough electricity to power 720 homes, planting 1,200 acres of trees, or recycling 2,000 tons of waste instead of sending it to a landfill.

  3. Generation of electronic waste in India: Current scenario, dilemmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to quantify the amount of E-waste generated in India with the related stakeholder involvement. Electronic waste (E-waste) or waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE), which is relatively a recent addition to the hazardous waste stream, is drawing rapid attention across the globe as the quantity ...

  4. Minimizing generator liability while disposing hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, L.W.; Lahlou, M.; Pendurthi, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Potential liabilities associated with hazardous waste disposal are related to waste properties, disposal practices and the potential threat to people and the environment in case of a pollutant release. Based on various regulations, these liabilities are enforceable and longstanding. A methodology which can help hazardous waste generators select a commercial disposal facility with a relatively low risk of potential liability is described in this paper. The methodology has two parts. The first part has 8 categories encompassing 30 factors common to all facilities, and the second part includes one category dealing with 5 factors on specific wastes and treatment/disposal technologies. This two-part evaluation feature enables the user to adapt the methodology to any type of waste disposal. In determining the scores for the factors used in the evaluation. an unranked paired comparison technique with slight modifications was used to weight the relative importance of the individual factors. In the methodology it is possible for the user to redefine the factors and change the scoring system. To make the methodology more efficient, a user-friendly computer program has been developed; the computer program is written so that desired changes in the methodology can be readily implemented

  5. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  6. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  7. Methodology for quantification of waste generated in Spanish railway construction works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán Báez, Ana de; Villoria Sáez, Paola; Río Merino, Mercedes del; García Navarro, Justo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two equations for C and D waste estimation in railway construction works are developed. ► Mixed C and D waste is the most generated category during railway construction works. ► Tunnel construction is essential to quantify the waste generated during the works. ► There is a relationship between C and D waste generated and railway functional units. ► The methodology proposed can be used to obtain new constants for other areas. - Abstract: In the last years, the European Union (EU) has been focused on the reduction of construction and demolition (C and D) waste. Specifically, in 2006, Spain generated roughly 47 million tons of C and D waste, of which only 13.6% was recycled. This situation has lead to the drawing up of many regulations on C and D waste during the past years forcing EU countries to include new measures for waste prevention and recycling. Among these measures, the mandatory obligation to quantify the C and D waste expected to be originated during a construction project is mandated. However, limited data is available on civil engineering projects. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to improve C and D waste management in railway projects, by developing a model for C and D waste quantification. For this purpose, we develop two equations which estimate in advance the amount, both in weight and volume, of the C and D waste likely to be generated in railway construction projects, including the category of C and D waste generated for the entire project.

  8. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP)

  9. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators will be shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented

  10. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators are shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented

  11. Just-in-time characterization and certification of DOE-generated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Primozic, F.J.; Robinson, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Transportation and disposal of wastes generated by Department of Energy (DOE) activities, including weapons production and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities, require that wastes be certified as complying with various regulations and requirements. These certification requirements are typically summarized by disposal sites in their specific waste acceptance criteria. Although a large volume of DOE wastes have been generated by past activities and are presently in storage awaiting disposal, a significant volume of DOE wastes, particularly from D ampersand D projects. have not yet been generated. To prepare DOE-generated wastes for disposal in an efficient manner. it is suggested that a program of just-in-time characterization and certification be adopted. The goal of just-in-time characterization and certification, which is based on the just-in-time manufacturing process, is to streamline the certification process by eliminating redundant layers of oversight and establishing pro-active waste management controls. Just-in-time characterization and certification would rely on a waste management system in which wastes are characterized at the point of generation, precertified as they are generated (i.e., without iterative inspections and tests subsequent to generation and storage), and certified at the point of shipment, ideally the loading dock of the building from which the wastes are generated. Waste storage would be limited to accumulating containers for cost-efficient transportation

  12. Just-in-time characterization and certification of DOE-generated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Primozic, F.J. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Transportation and disposal of wastes generated by Department of Energy (DOE) activities, including weapons production and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities, require that wastes be certified as complying with various regulations and requirements. These certification requirements are typically summarized by disposal sites in their specific waste acceptance criteria. Although a large volume of DOE wastes have been generated by past activities and are presently in storage awaiting disposal, a significant volume of DOE wastes, particularly from D&D projects. have not yet been generated. To prepare DOE-generated wastes for disposal in an efficient manner. it is suggested that a program of just-in-time characterization and certification be adopted. The goal of just-in-time characterization and certification, which is based on the just-in-time manufacturing process, is to streamline the certification process by eliminating redundant layers of oversight and establishing pro-active waste management controls. Just-in-time characterization and certification would rely on a waste management system in which wastes are characterized at the point of generation, precertified as they are generated (i.e., without iterative inspections and tests subsequent to generation and storage), and certified at the point of shipment, ideally the loading dock of the building from which the wastes are generated. Waste storage would be limited to accumulating containers for cost-efficient transportation.

  13. Project on effects of gas in underground storage facilities for radioactive waste (Pegasus project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.; McMenamin, T.

    1993-01-01

    Whereas the subject of gas generation and gas release from radioactive waste repositories has gained in interest on the international scene, the Commission of the European Communities has increased its research efforts on this issue. In particular, in the fourth five-year R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (1990-94), a framework has been set up in which research efforts on the subject of gas generation and migration, supported by the CEC, are brought together and coordinated. In this project, called Pegasus, about 20 organizations and research institutes are involved. The project covers theoretical and experimental studies of the processes of gas formation and possible gas release from the different waste types, LLW, ILW and HLW, under typical repository conditions in suitable geological formations such as clay, salt and granite. In this report the present status of the various research activities are described and 13 papers have been selected

  14. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This fourth Annual Report presents and analyzes 1995 DOE complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 40 reporting sites in 25 States, and trends DOE waste generation from 1991 through 1995. DOE has established a 50% reduction goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, due by December 31, 1999. Routine operations waste generation decreased 37% from 1994 to 1995, and 43% overall from 1993--1995

  15. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across generations. An International Project of the NEA/RWMC. Foundations and guiding principles for the preservation of records, knowledge and memory across generations: A focus on the post-closure phase of geological repositories. A Collective Statement of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across generations is needed to support lengthy and complex decision-making processes across long operational and post-operational lifetimes of radioactive waste repositories. It is a recognised management task that spans unprecedented time-horizons in which technical, scientific, societal and cultural information is interwoven. Experience indicates that RK and M need to be actively managed from the start of the waste management programmes. Several radioactive waste disposal programmes are now approaching implementation. The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) has created an international project addressing the preservation of RK and M across generations. This collective statement summarises the current understanding of the relevant needs and challenges to be faced. It underscores the willingness of the RWMC member organisations to work together and support national programmes to move forward in this area. Research and development underway on the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in engineered facilities or repositories located in deep geological formations has confirmed this form of disposal as the ultimate solution for the long-term protection of human beings and the environment, eliminating the need for human intervention and maintenance. While the intention is not to abandon repositories for geological disposal of radioactive waste, either before or after closure, as with many long-term projects, it is a question of minimising the risks of losing records, knowledge and memory (RK and M). The international community of radioactive waste professionals is leading advanced work in this important area. At the end of its first phase of RK and M work, the RWMC observed that the context has changed considerably since the 1980's, when RK and M preservation was thought to serve the sole function of deterring intrusion into a repository. The goal today is to preserve information for future

  16. FY-1981 project status for the Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, R.L.; Tait, T.D.

    1981-11-01

    The primary objective of the Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) Project is to provide a facility to process low-level transuranic waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This report provides brief summary descriptions of the project objectives and background, project status through FY-1981, planned activities for FY-1982, and the EG and G TWTF Project office position on processing INEL transuranic waste

  17. Hanford Waste Vitrification Project overview and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, L.D.; Smets, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) is being constructed at the US DOE's Hanford Site in Richland, WA. Engineering and design are being accomplished by Fluor Daniel Inc. in Irvine, CA. Technical input is furnished by Westinghouse Hanford Co. and construction management services by UE ampersand C-Catalytic Inc. The HWVP will immobilize high level nuclear waste in a glass matrix for eventual disposal in the federal repository. The HWVP consists of several structures, the major ones being the Vitrification Building, the Canister Storage Building, fan house, sand filter, waste hold tank, pump house, and administration and construction facilities. Construction started in April 1992 with the clearing and grubbing activities that prepared the site for fencing and construction preparation. Several design packages have been released for procurement activities. The most significant package release is for the Canister Storage Building, which will be the first major structure to be constructed

  18. ANALYZING CERTAIN CHRACTERISTICS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN THE PROCES S OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábriel Györgyi T #336;ZSÉR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the regulations of Act XLIII/2000 on Waste Management to implement the strategic objectives and targets in the Act for the prevalence of the basic waste management principles a National Waste Management Plan II will be worked out and then accepted by the Parliament as part of the National Environmental Protection Programme. On the basis of the national plan the administrative bodies of environmental protection in accordance with the regional settlement and d evelopment programmes make a regional waste management project with the inclusion of the regional, local authorities, and other authorities concerned as well as the non governmental organisations for environmental protection. In our research we analyze the correlation between municipal solid waste per capita and urbanisation level. We have conducted similar calculations in the filed of population density and income. The study was carried out on a micro region level. Our analysis can help determine the framework conditions and factors that influence waste generation, and therefore should be taken into consideration when designing waste policies .

  19. Ocean disposal of heat generating waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat generating waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the engineering and operational aspects of the Penetrator Option for ocean disposal to enable technical comparisons with other options to be made. In the Penetrator Option concept, waste would be loaded into carefully designed containers which would be launched at a suitable deep ocean site where they would fall freely through the water and would embed themselves completely within the seabed sediments. Radiological protection would be provided by a multi-barrier system including the vitrified waste form, the penetrator containment, the covering sediment and the ocean. Calculations and demonstration have shown that penetrators could easily achieve embedment depths in excess of 30m and preliminary radiological assessments indicate that 30m of intact sediment would be an effective barrier for radionuclide isolation. The study concludes that a 75mm thickness of low carbon steel appears to be sufficient to provide a containment life of 500 to 1000 years during which time the waste heat output would have decayed to an insignificant level. Disposal costs have been assessed. (author)

  20. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System

  1. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  2. Subsidy project in fiscal 1999 to accelerate forming an environment harmonizing energy community. Report on the survey on energy supply investigation project by using a wastes electric power generation system in wide city and village area in the Joso area; Joso chiho koiki shichosonken ni okeru haikibutsu hatsuden ni yoru energy kyokyu chosa jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Discussions were given on the feasibility of a project to be performed jointly by the Business Bureau of the Ibaraki Prefectural Government who takes charge of the wastes electric power generation project, and the Joso Area Wide City and Village Area Affair Association who performs refuse disposal project. The basic plan for the system may be summarized as follows: the gasification melting furnace shall have a capacity of 420 tons per day, discharge concentrations of dioxins shall be 0.01 ng-TEQ/m{sup 3} or less, the power generation system shall be the steam high-temperature high-pressure system, the power generation efficiency shall be 25%, and the electric power generation takes priority, with the steam after power generation use utilized for heat supply. The evaluation on the effect of introducing the project can be summarized as follows: in the social aspect, the execution of the joint project is safe and effective for the residents and society; it contributes to activation of the areas and assistance to the regional activities; correspondence will be possible to the tighter enforcement of the laws and regulations in the future; in the environmental aspect, discharge of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and dioxins can be suppressed; and in the economic aspect, the ultimate disposal quantity in refuse treatment will be reduced greatly, serving for saving the treatment expense, and the refuse treatment cost may be reduced by assuring the earning from selling the electric power. (NEDO)

  3. Methodology for quantification of waste generated in Spanish railway construction works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzmán Báez, Ana; Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; García Navarro, Justo

    2012-05-01

    In the last years, the European Union (EU) has been focused on the reduction of construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Specifically, in 2006, Spain generated roughly 47million tons of C&D waste, of which only 13.6% was recycled. This situation has lead to the drawing up of many regulations on C&D waste during the past years forcing EU countries to include new measures for waste prevention and recycling. Among these measures, the mandatory obligation to quantify the C&D waste expected to be originated during a construction project is mandated. However, limited data is available on civil engineering projects. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to improve C&D waste management in railway projects, by developing a model for C&D waste quantification. For this purpose, we develop two equations which estimate in advance the amount, both in weight and volume, of the C&D waste likely to be generated in railway construction projects, including the category of C&D waste generated for the entire project. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This sixth Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 36 reporting sites from 1993 through 1997. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December 31, 1999. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation increased three percent from 1996 to 1997, and decreased 61 percent overall from 1993 to 1997. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1997 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. However, it is important to note that increases in low-level radioactive and low-level mixed waste generation could reverse this achievement. From 1996 to 1997, low-level radioactive waste generation increased 10 percent, and low-level mixed waste generation increased slightly. It is critical that DOE sites continue to reduce routine operations waste generation for all waste types, to ensure that DOE's Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals are achieved by December 31, 1999

  5. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  6. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  7. Projecting future solid waste management requirements on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, S.R.; Stiles, D.L.; Holter, G.M.; Anderson, B.C.

    1990-09-01

    The problem of treating and disposing of hazardous transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, and mixed waste has become a major concern of the public and the government. At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington state, the problem is compounded by the need to characterize, retrieve, and treat the solid waste that was generated and stored for retrieval during the past 20 years. This paper discusses the development and application of a Solid Waste Projection Model that uses forecast volumes and characteristics of existing and future solid waste to address the treatment, storage, and disposal requirements at Hanford. The model uses a data-driven, object-oriented approach to assess the storage and treatment throughout requirements for each operation for each of the distinct waste classes and the accompanying cost of the storage and treatment operations. By defining the elements of each alternative for the total waste management system, the same database can be used for numerous analyses performed at different levels of detail. This approach also helps a variety of users with widely varying information requirements to use the model and helps achieve the high degree of flexibility needed to cope with changing regulations and evolving treatment and disposal technologies. 2 figs

  8. Next Generation Microshutter Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the next generation MicroShutter Array (MSA) as a multi-object field selector for missions anticipated in the next two decades. For many...

  9. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL's research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste

  10. Policy and practices in the United States of America for DOE-generated nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Throughout the history of attempts to utilize atomic power in the USA, health and safety have been primary considerations in programme policy formulation. A brief historical review of the US nuclear waste management policy formulation over the years aids understanding of our current management strategy for government-generated (primarily defence-related) nuclear wastes. Scientists involved in the Manhattan project during World War II were aware of the dangers of radioactive wastes. The first reaction to this concern was the establishment of a health physics programme to monitor radioactive hazards in Manhattan District Laboratories. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which established the Atomic Energy Commission, called for protection of the health and safety of the public as well as atomic workers. That concept has been continued and strengthened, throughout the history of nuclear waste management in the USA. Passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 required consideration of radioactive wastes generated by private industry as well as those produced by the Manhattan projects. Commercial waste management policy was based on the already established policy for management of government-generated wastes and is the subject of a separate paper at this symposium. Current US policy is to maintain separate but complementary programmes for nuclear wastes generated by government activities and those from commercial sources. US policy and practices for management of government-generated radioactive waste are summarized. Key organizational structure relating to waste management responsibility is presented. (author)

  11. Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast

  12. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    A study of container designs for heat generating radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean sediments is presented. The purpose of the container would be to isolate the waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The container designs proposed are based on the use of either corrosion allowance or corrosion resistant metals. Appropriate overpack wall thicknesses are suggested for each design using the results of corrosion studies and experiments but these are necessarily preliminary and data relevant to corrosion in deep ocean sediments remain sparse. It is concluded that the most promising design concept involves a thin titanium alloy overpack in which all internal void spaces are filled with lead or cement grout. In situ temperatures for the sediment adjacent to the emplaced 50 year cooled waste containers are calculated to reach about 260 deg C. The behaviour of the sediments at such a high temperature is not well understood and the possibility of 100 years interim storage is recommended for consideration to allow further cooling. Further corrosion data and sediment thermal studies would be required to fully confirm the engineering feasibility of these designs. (author)

  13. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments.

  14. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments

  15. Maritime Fuel Cell Generator Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Fuel costs and emissions in maritime ports are an opportunity for transportation energy efficiency improvement and emissions reduction efforts. Ocean-going vessels, harbor craft, and cargo handling equipment are still major contributors to air pollution in and around ports. Diesel engine costs continually increase as tighter criteria pollutant regulations come into effect and will continue to do so with expected introduction of carbon emission regulations. Diesel fuel costs will also continue to rise as requirements for cleaner fuels are imposed. Both aspects will increase the cost of diesel-based power generation on the vessel and on shore. Although fuel cells have been used in many successful applications, they have not been technically or commercially validated in the port environment. One opportunity to do so was identified in Honolulu Harbor at the Young Brothers Ltd. wharf. At this facility, barges sail regularly to and from neighbor islands and containerized diesel generators provide power for the reefers while on the dock and on the barge during transport, nearly always at part load. Due to inherent efficiency characteristics of fuel cells and diesel generators, switching to a hydrogen fuel cell power generator was found to have potential emissions and cost savings.

  16. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs

  17. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The detailed radiological assessment of any proposed operations for the disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep ocean sediments would require data describing expected embedment depths and spacing of the waste. In this study a theoretical model which predicts penetrator trajectories from launch through to rest in the sediment has been produced and has been used to generate data for environmental models. The trajectory model has been used to study the effects of small imperfections and launch parameters on the motion of a reference penetrator through water and sediment. The model predicts that the horizontal displacements of the penetrators' final resting places in the sediment from their launch positions at the ocean surface could be limited to less than 15m by twisting their tail fins uniformly by just one degree to induce spinning. The reference penetrator is predicted to achieve satisfactory embedment depth for all the cases considered including allowance for the effect of curved penetration paths in the seabed. However, the ability of the model to represent highly non-linear sediment penetration paths is demonstrated. Distribution histograms of seabed impact points relative to specific release points are presented. The area of seabed required is calculated. (author)

  18. Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories and projections as of December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled, based on the most reliable information available from Government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste generation rates and characteristics of these materials to be accumulated over the remainder of this century are also presented, based on a present DOE/EIA projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level wastes, transuranic waste, low-level waste, remedial action waste, active uranium mill tailings, and airborne waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2000. The land usage requirements are given for storage/disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes, and for the present inventories of inactive uranium mill tailings

  19. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) specifically to address Hanford solid waste management issues. This document is one of a set of documents supporting the SWPM system and providing instructions in the use and maintenance of SWPM components. This manual contains instructions for using Version 1.4 of the SWPM database: system requirements and preparation, entering and maintaining data, and performing routine database functions. This document supports only those operations which are specific to SWPM database menus and functions and does not Provide instruction in the use of Paradox, the database management system in which the SWPM database is established

  20. Estimation of construction and demolition waste using waste generation rates in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, V G; Kalidindi, Satyanarayana N

    2017-06-01

    A large amount of construction and demolition waste is being generated owing to rapid urbanisation in Indian cities. A reliable estimate of construction and demolition waste generation is essential to create awareness about this stream of solid waste among the government bodies in India. However, the required data to estimate construction and demolition waste generation in India are unavailable or not explicitly documented. This study proposed an approach to estimate construction and demolition waste generation using waste generation rates and demonstrated it by estimating construction and demolition waste generation in Chennai city. The demolition waste generation rates of primary materials were determined through regression analysis using waste generation data from 45 case studies. Materials, such as wood, electrical wires, doors, windows and reinforcement steel, were found to be salvaged and sold on the secondary market. Concrete and masonry debris were dumped in either landfills or unauthorised places. The total quantity of construction and demolition debris generated in Chennai city in 2013 was estimated to be 1.14 million tonnes. The proportion of masonry debris was found to be 76% of the total quantity of demolition debris. Construction and demolition debris forms about 36% of the total solid waste generated in Chennai city. A gross underestimation of construction and demolition waste generation in some earlier studies in India has also been shown. The methodology proposed could be utilised by government bodies, policymakers and researchers to generate reliable estimates of construction and demolition waste in other developing countries facing similar challenges of limited data availability.

  1. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butez, Marc [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Beguin, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)

    2013-07-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  2. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butez, Marc; Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent; Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo; Beguin, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  3. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals.

  4. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals

  5. Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the Swedish Wasteto-Energy Model. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology in Nigeria is still at the infancy stage ...

  6. Steam generator replacement project in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerjak, J.; Holz, R.; Haus, J.; Gloaguen, C.

    1999-01-01

    NE Krsko has awarded the contract for the Steam Generator Replacement Project, which is one of the modernization projects in Krsko, to the Consortium of Siemens / Framatome in February 1998. This paper deals with the various aspects of the project: scope planning, engineering, preparation of modification packages for licensing, management, major techniques used, etc., showing also the status of the activities for the project which are scheduled to be performed in April through June 2000. The project is being performed on a turnkey basis, that means the Consortium is performing all engineering, preparation of the modification packages and site activities; NE Krsko is dealing with the licensing of the project.(author)

  7. HISPANIC ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTREACH PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian Puente

    1998-07-25

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics.

  8. HISPANIC ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTREACH PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian Puente

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics

  9. Radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation suitable for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1987-01-01

    It is planned to dispose of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation in the Konrad repository. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements are derived taking the results of site-specific safety assessments as a basis. These requirements must be fulfilled by the waste packages on delivery. The waste amounts which are currently stored and those anticipated up to the year 2000 are discussed. The disposability of these waste packages in the Konrad repository was evaluated. This examination reveals that basically almost all radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation can be accepted. (orig.) [de

  10. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: disposal volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The northeastern states, with support of the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG), are developing compact(s) for the disposal and management of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in the eleven northeastern states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont). The Technical Subcommittee has made a projection of future low-level radioactive waste to the year 2000 based on existing waste volume data and anticipated growth in the Northeast states. Aware of the difficulties involved with any long range projection - unforeseen events can drastically change projections based on current assumptions - the Technical Subcommittee believes that waste volume projections should be reviewed annually as updated information becomes available. The Technical Subcommittee made the following findings based upon a conservative projection methodology: volumes of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states individually and collectively are expected to grow continually through the year 2000 with the rate of increase varying by state; by the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 58,000 m 3 of low-level waste annually, about 1.9 times the current average; and based on current estimates, 47% of the total projected waste volume in the year 2000 will be produced by nuclear power plants, compared to the current average of 54%. Non-reactor wastes will equal 53% of the total in the year 2000 compared to the current 46%

  11. Management and disposition of off-site laboratory-generated mixed/low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is the first Department of Energy (DOE) site to take back mixed and low level waste generated at commercial laboratories from chemical analyses and treatability studies on samples taken from the site. This paper discusses the steps addressed and the issues resolved in order to initiate the task of taking back mixed/low level waste. Such issues included regulatory, waste management and contractual issues

  12. Projected transuranic waste loads requiring treatment, storage, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides information on the volume of TRU waste loads requiring treatment, storage, and disposal at DOE facilities for three siting configurations. Input consisted of updated inventory and generation data from. Waste Isolation Pilot plant Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory report. Results indicate that WIPP's design capacity is sufficient for the CH TRU waste found throughout the DOE Complex

  13. Catalytic hydrotreatment of refinery waste: Demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The object of this project and report is to produce liquid hydrocarbons by the catalytic hydroprocessing of solid refinery wastes (hard pitches) in order to improve the profitability of deep conversion processes and reduce the excess production of heavy fuels. The project was mostly carried out on the ASVAHL demonstration platform site, at Solaize, and hard pitches were produced primarily by deasphalting of atmospheric or vacuum distillation residues. The project includes two experimental phases and an economic evaluation study phase. In Phase 1, two granular catalysts were used to transform pitch into standard low sulfur fuel oil: a continuously moving bed, with demetallation and conversion catalyst; a fixed bed, with hydrorefining catalyst. In Phase 2 of the project, it was proven that a hydrotreatment process using a finely dispersed catalyst in the feedstock, can, under realistic operating conditions, transform with good yields hard pitch into distillates that can be refined through standard methods. In Phase 3 of the project, it was shown that the economics of such processes are tightly linked to the price differential between white'' and black'' oil products, which is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the evolution of environmental constraints will impel the use of such methods, thus avoiding the coproduction of polluting solid residues. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOTSON, PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY, ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR, CARL EDWARD

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste quality assurance project plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Transuranic (TRU) Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) serves as the quality management plan for the characterization of transuranic waste in preparation for certification and transportation. The Transuranic Waste Characterization/Certification Program (TWCP) consists of personnel who sample and analyze waste, validate and report data; and provide project management, quality assurance, audit and assessment, and records management support, all in accordance with established requirements for disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. This QAPjP addresses how the TWCP meets the quality requirements of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the technical requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The TWCP characterizes and certifies retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste using the waste selection, testing, sampling, and analytical techniques and data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the QAPP, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Plan (Certification Plan), and the CST Waste Management Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)]. At the present, the TWCP does not address remote-handled (RH) waste

  16. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report is based on an emplacement techniques review prepared for the Department of the Environment in February 1983, which appeared as Chapter III of the Nuclear Energy Agency, Seabed Working Group's Status Report. The original document (DOE/RW/83.032) has been amended to take account of the results of field trials carried out in March 1983 and to better reflect current UK Government policy on ocean disposal of HGW. In particular Figure 7 has been redrawn using more realistic drag factors for the calculation of the terminal velocity in water. This report reviews the work conducted by the SWG member countries into the different techniques of emplacing heat generating radioactive waste into the deep ocean sediments. It covers the waste handling from the port facilities to final emplacement in the seabed and verification of the integrity of the canister isolation system. The two techniques which are currently being considered in detail are drilled emplacement and the free fall penetrator. The feasibility study work in progress for both techniques as well as the mathematical and physical modelling work for embedment depth and hole closure behind the penetrator are reviewed. (author)

  17. Study on reducing the generation of general waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Aoki, Isao; Watahiki, Masatoshi

    2000-04-01

    On August 1999, the Director of Tokai Work proposed an activity regarding recycling and reuse of general waste generated from Tokai Works. The activity was initiated by the Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, and is now being in progress through out the Tokai Works. In the course of this activity, Plutonium Fuel Center had settled the working Group and the issues related to the waste reductive have been examined. This report collects the problems that became obvious through the survey of existing segregation method, treatment process, and the amount of the waste generation, and accounts for the concrete methodology for the recycling and reuse of general waste. In order to reduce waste, it is necessary to aware of the facing issues and adopt the countermeasures proposed in this report whenever possible. The activity will then leads us to reduce waste generation, which in turn will enable us to make 100% waste recycling possible. (author)

  18. Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of wastes from electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.; Smith, G.M.; Linsley, G.; Hossain, S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an outline methodology for assessing and comparing the environmental impact arising from management of the wastes from nuclear and other electricity generation systems. The assessment framework is applicable to wastes from all generation systems, including nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel systems, and can also be applied to the management of mixed hazardous waste. The major energy technologies in terms of waste production can be classified according to three major categories of fuels: fossil, nuclear and renewable. The emphasis in this description is on nuclear utility low-level and mixed wastes and waste streams. The methodology may be used to support the project on Data Bases and Methodologies for Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources for Electricity Generation (DECADES project, (2)) which is being developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with other international agencies. The DECADES project has the overall objective to improve the abilities for comparative assessment of energy chains for electricity generation. The objective of a methodology such as that described here is to ensure that waste management aspects are included effectively in comparative assessments of energy systems. This paper discusses the waste strams arising from nuclear power plants

  19. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The feasibility of safe ocean disposal options for heat-generating radioactive waste relies on the existence of suitable disposal sites. This review considers the status of the development of site selection criteria and the results of the study area investigations carried out under various national and international research programmes. In particular, the usefulness of the results obtained is related to the data needed for environmental and emplacement modelling. Preliminary investigations have identified fifteen potential deep ocean study areas in the North Atlantic. From these Great Meteor East (GME), Southern Nares Abyssal Plan (SNAP) and Kings Trough Flank (KTF) were selected for further investigation. The review includes appraisals of regional geology, geophysical studies, sedimentology, geotechnical studies, geochemical studies and oceanography. (author)

  20. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  1. Waste-isolation projects, FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) activities during FY 1978 in support of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program. Current projects at LLL fall into three categories: (1) field testing, (2) laboratory rock mechanics measurements, and (3) laboratory studies of sorption and leaching. Field test activities conducted in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site included electrical heater tests, preparation for a spent-fuel-storage test, and planning for a series of rock mechanics tests. The heater tests determined the in situ thermal properties of Climax granite and its in situ permeability as a function of rock temperature. The two main laboratory rock mechanics projects involved (1) measurement of the permeability, electrical conductivity, and acoustic velocity of 15-cm-diam cores of granitic rocks over a range of confining pressure, pore (water) pressure, and deviatoric stress, and (2) measurement of rock thermal properties as a function of temperature and confining pressure in the presence of pore fluids to 770 0 K and 200 Mpa. The leaching studies made use of an LLL-designed, single-pass leaching apparatus with three solutions, two leach temperatures, and three flow rates. The material evaluated was Np--Pu-doped simulated waste glass from Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The sorption studies involved standard static measurements of the equilibrium distribution coefficient (K/sub d/) for various radionuclides on a variety of rocks, and flow-through-core studies of dynamic sorption

  2. New developments in Generator Services project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karneyeu, A; Kirsanov, M; Konstantinov, D; Ryabov, A; Zenin, O; Pokorski, W; Ribon, A

    2011-01-01

    The LOG Generator Services project provides validated, LOG compliant Monte Carlo generators code for both the theoretical and experimental communities at the LHC. In this paper we present the recent developments and the future plans of the project. We report on the current status of the generators repository, the new Autotools-based build system, as well as the new installation tools to create mirrors of the repository. We discuss new developments in testing and physics validation procedures in particular the use of HepMC Analysis Tool, as well as the Rivet validation tool. We also present a new activity, enlarging the scope of the Generator Services project, it is the involvement in the tuning of the Monte Carlo generators. This work, being essential for the understanding of the future LHC data, is now starting with the involvement of all the LHC experiments.

  3. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste

  4. Waste management aspects of decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    History shows that waste management concepts have generally been overlooked during the planning stages of most projects and experiments. This is resulting,in the generation of vast amounts of waste during the clean up or D ampersand D of these facilities. Managers are not only being frustrated in their waste minimization efforts (a relatively new concept) but are also facing the prospect of not being able to dispose of the waste materials at all. At the least, managers are having to budget extraordinary amounts of time, money, and effort in defending their positions that the waste materials are not only humanly and environmentally safe, but that the waste materials are in fact what management says they are. The following discussion will attempt to provide some guidance to D ampersand D managers to help them avoid many of the common pitfalls associated with the ultimate disposal of the materials generated during these projects

  5. Future trends in computer waste generation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedy, Maheshwar; Mittal, R K

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the future projection of computer waste in India and to subsequently analyze their flow at the end of their useful phase. For this purpose, the study utilizes the logistic model-based approach proposed by Yang and Williams to forecast future trends in computer waste. The model estimates future projection of computer penetration rate utilizing their first lifespan distribution and historical sales data. A bounding analysis on the future carrying capacity was simulated using the three parameter logistic curve. The observed obsolete generation quantities from the extrapolated penetration rates are then used to model the disposal phase. The results of the bounding analysis indicate that in the year 2020, around 41-152 million units of computers will become obsolete. The obsolete computer generation quantities are then used to estimate the End-of-Life outflows by utilizing a time-series multiple lifespan model. Even a conservative estimate of the future recycling capacity of PCs will reach upwards of 30 million units during 2025. Apparently, more than 150 million units could be potentially recycled in the upper bound case. However, considering significant future investment in the e-waste recycling sector from all stakeholders in India, we propose a logistic growth in the recycling rate and estimate the requirement of recycling capacity between 60 and 400 million units for the lower and upper bound case during 2025. Finally, we compare the future obsolete PC generation amount of the US and India. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping of information and identification of construction waste at project life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Mochamad Agung; Handayani, Naniek Utami; Nurdiana, Asri; Sholeh, Moh Nur; Pamungkas, Gita Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The development of construction project towards green construction is needed in order to improve the efficiency of construction projects. One that needs to be minimized is construction waste. Construction waste is waste generated from construction project activities, both solid waste and non solid waste. More specifically, the waste happens at every phase of the project life cycle. Project life cycle are the stage of idea, design, construction, and operation/maintenance. Each phase is managed by different stakeholders. Therefore it requires special handling from the involved stakeholders. The objective of the study is to map the information and identify the waste at each phase of the project life cycle. The purpose of mapping is to figure out the process of information and product flow and with its timeline. This mapping used Value Stream Mapping (VSM). Identification of waste was done by distributing questionnaire to respondents to know the waste according to owner, consultant planner, contractor, and supervisory consultant. The result of the study is the mapping of information flow and product flow at the phases of idea, design, construction, and operation/ maintenance.

  7. Testing various types of agricultural wastes for the production of generator gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B

    1982-05-08

    The aim of the project was to get an improved basis for the assessment of aretes which was required for use in a Swedish gas generator. It was found that waste which possessed high contents of ashes with a low melting point were unsuitable as a fuel. Four types of waste were tested. The shells of coconuts were applicable as fuel. The design of the generator had to be modified in order to use pellets of straw or compressed sugar-canes.

  8. Agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of ... less than the cost of collection, transportation, and processing for beneficial use. ... Agricultural waste management system (AWMS) was discussed and a typical ...

  9. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Retireval Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.M.; Christensen, D.V.; Stanford, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) project for remediation of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste from Pads 1, 2, and 4. Some of the TRU waste packages retrieved from Pad I are anticipated to be part of LANL's initial inventory to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in April 1998. The TRU Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP) was initiated in February 1993 in response to the New Mexico Environment Department's (NMED's) Consent Agreement for Compliance Order, ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Agreement (NMHWA) 93-03.'' The TWISP involves the recovery of approximately 16,865 TRU and TRU-mixed waste containers currently under earthen cover on Pads 1, 2, and 4 at Technical Area 54, Area G, and placement of that waste into inspectable storage. All waste will be moved into inspectable storage by September 30, 2003. Waste recovery and storage operations emphasize protection of worker safety, public health, and the environment

  10. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weisheng; Yuan Hongping; Li Jingru; Hao, Jane J.L.; Mi Xuming; Ding Zhikun

    2011-01-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C and D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m 2 and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C and D waste management in China.

  11. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weisheng; Yuan, Hongping; Li, Jingru; Hao, Jane J L; Mi, Xuming; Ding, Zhikun

    2011-04-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C&D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m(2) and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C&D waste management in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected...... separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign...... and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated.Food waste generation equated to 23. ±. 5. kg/employee/year, of which 20. ±. 5. kg...

  13. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility

  14. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher

  15. Three Steam Generator Replacement Projects in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, R.; Clavier, G.

    1996-01-01

    Since the companies Siemens AG and Framatome S. A. joined their experience and efforts in the field of steam generator replacements and formed a consortium in 1991, the following projects were performed in 1995: Ringhals 3, Tihange 3 and Asco 1. Further projects will follow in 1996, i. e., Doel 4 and Asco 2. Currently, this European consortium is bidding for the contract to replace the steam generators at the Krsko NPP and hopes to be awarded in 1996. An overview of the way the Consortium Siemens and Framatome approaches SG replacement projects is given based on the projects performed in 1995. Various aspects of project planning, management, licensing, personnel qualification and techniques used on site will be discussed. (author)

  16. Municipal solid waste generation and disposal in Robe town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasu, Duguma; Faye, Tesfaye; Kiros, Amaha; Balew, Abel

    2018-04-20

    The amount of solid waste generated in developing countries is rising from time to time due to economic growth, change in consumer behavior and lifestyles of people. But it is hard to manage and handle the increase of solid waste with existing waste management infrastructure. Thus, the management system of solid waste is very poor and become a serious problem. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the volume of solid waste generated and investigate factors affecting generation and disposal of wastes in the study area. The result of this study indicated that total waste generated from households was about 97.092kg/day.Furthermore, the study reveals that the solid waste generation rate of the town is 0.261kg/person/day.About 57.5% of solid waste is properly disposed of to landfill site whereas the remaining 42.5% is illegally dumped at the roadsides and open fields. Implication Statement Nowadays, in developing countries there is high concentration of people in urban areas and cause for the generation of enormous concentration of municipal waste in urban areas. Therefore this finding will be important for various policy makers and town planners. It may also serve as a benchmark for the municipal authorities of the town for whom the problem is still invisible and negligible and can push environmental protection authorities to reexamine the implementation of their policies and strategies with regard to the broader issues of human and environmental health condition of town dwellers.

  17. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  18. Characterization of waste streams and suspect waste from largest Los Alamos National Laboratory generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukup, J.D.; Erpenbeck, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed waste stream characterization of 4 primary generators of low level waste at LANL was performed to aid in waste minimization efforts. Data was compiled for these four generators from 1988 to the present for analyses. Prior waste minimization efforts have focused on identifying waste stream processes and performing source materials substitutions or reductions where applicable. In this historical survey, the generators surveyed included an accelerator facility, the plutonium facility, a chemistry and metallurgy research facility, and a radiochemistry research facility. Of particular interest in waste minimization efforts was the composition of suspect low level waste in which no radioactivity is detected through initial survey. Ultimately, this waste is disposed of in the LANL low level permitted waste disposal pits (thus filling a scarce and expensive resource with sanitary waste). Detailed analyses of the waste streams from these 4 facilities, have revealed that suspect low level waste comprises approximately 50% of the low level waste by volume and 47% by weight. However, there are significant differences in suspect waste density when one considers the radioactive contamination. For the 2 facilities that deal primarily with beta emitting activation and spallation products (the radiochemistry and accelerator facilities), the suspect waste is much lower density than all low level waste coming from those facilities. For the 2 facilities that perform research on transuranics (the chemistry and metallurgy research and plutonium facilities), suspect waste is higher in density than all the low level waste from those facilities. It is theorized that the low density suspect waste is composed primarily of compactable lab trash, most of which is not contaminated but can be easily surveyed. The high density waste is theorized to be contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides, and in this case, the suspect waste demonstrates fundamental limits in detection

  19. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  20. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  1. Estimation of construction and demolition waste volume generation in new residential buildings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; Porras-Amores, César

    2012-02-01

    The management planning of construction and demolition (C&D) waste uses a single indicator which does not provide enough detailed information. Therefore the determination and implementation of other innovative and precise indicators should be determined. The aim of this research work is to improve existing C&D waste quantification tools in the construction of new residential buildings in Spain. For this purpose, several housing projects were studied to determine an estimation of C&D waste generated during their construction process. This paper determines the values of three indicators to estimate the generation of C&D waste in new residential buildings in Spain, itemizing types of waste and construction stages. The inclusion of two more accurate indicators, in addition to the global one commonly in use, provides a significant improvement in C&D waste quantification tools and management planning.

  2. Management of uranium mining and processing wastes at Turamdih project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.C.; Verma, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Based on environmental impact assessment, comprehensive plan for management of wastes has been drawn up. No solid waste from the mine is being disposed off outside the project area. The quantity of waste generated after processing of ore is large because of low content of uranium in the ore. A big tailings pond has been planned in specially selected suitable valley near the plant. No liquid effluents are to be discharged into general surrounding environment. Mine water is to be fed to the process plant. Effluents from tailings pond will be collected in a storage cum evaporation pond. All water from different zones of the project shall be collected in zonal ponds and then pumped to tailings effluent storage pond. All the ponds will be provided with requisite impervious liners. The effluents of the storage pond will be treated for removal of radium and manganese and discharged into monitoring pond. Large surface areas for various ponds are envisaged to take advantage of evaporation with aim for zero discharge. To reduce impact from gaseous emissions, high efficiency dust suppression and extraction systems shall be provided. High stacks have been incorporated for DG set, boiler plants, sulphuric acid plant and dust extraction systems for crushing and grinding section and the quality of discharges will be very much within the prescribed limits. The paper describes the management plan in detail. (author)

  3. Estimation of construction waste generation and management in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoworola, Oyeshola Femi; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2009-02-01

    This study examines construction waste generation and management in Thailand. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2005, an average of 1.1 million tons of construction waste was generated per year in Thailand. This constitutes about 7.7% of the total amount of waste disposed in both landfills and open dumpsites annually during the same period. Although construction waste constitutes a major source of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling are yet to be effectively practiced in Thailand. Recently, the management of construction waste is being given attention due to its rapidly increasing unregulated dumping in undesignated areas, and recycling is being promoted as a method of managing this waste. If effectively implemented, its potential economic and social benefits are immense. It was estimated that between 70 and 4,000 jobs would have been created between 2002 and 2005, if all construction wastes in Thailand had been recycled. Additionally it would have contributed an average savings of about 3.0 x 10(5) GJ per year in the final energy consumed by the construction sector of the nation within the same period based on the recycling scenario analyzed. The current national integrated waste management plan could enhance the effective recycling of construction and demolition waste in Thailand when enforced. It is recommended that an inventory of all construction waste generated in the country be carried out in order to assess the feasibility of large scale recycling of construction and demolition waste.

  4. Management of the solid waste in perforation projects exploratory hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes de considerations for solid waste management in hydrocarbons exploration projects, as the serious environmental affectation as a function of soil contamination by leachate form the temporary storage of contaminated industrial waste hydrocarbons, altered by the presence of deposits landscaping waste materials, pollution of water and vegetation and the production of odors.

  5. Waste generated in high-rise buildings construction: a quantification model based on statistical multiple regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi Kern, Andrea; Ferreira Dias, Michele; Piva Kulakowski, Marlova; Paulo Gomes, Luciana

    2015-05-01

    Reducing construction waste is becoming a key environmental issue in the construction industry. The quantification of waste generation rates in the construction sector is an invaluable management tool in supporting mitigation actions. However, the quantification of waste can be a difficult process because of the specific characteristics and the wide range of materials used in different construction projects. Large variations are observed in the methods used to predict the amount of waste generated because of the range of variables involved in construction processes and the different contexts in which these methods are employed. This paper proposes a statistical model to determine the amount of waste generated in the construction of high-rise buildings by assessing the influence of design process and production system, often mentioned as the major culprits behind the generation of waste in construction. Multiple regression was used to conduct a case study based on multiple sources of data of eighteen residential buildings. The resulting statistical model produced dependent (i.e. amount of waste generated) and independent variables associated with the design and the production system used. The best regression model obtained from the sample data resulted in an adjusted R(2) value of 0.694, which means that it predicts approximately 69% of the factors involved in the generation of waste in similar constructions. Most independent variables showed a low determination coefficient when assessed in isolation, which emphasizes the importance of assessing their joint influence on the response (dependent) variable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of national waste generation in EU Member States’ efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Petrou, Kleoniki Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Waste generation and management may be considered as either a by-product of economic actions or even used as input to economic activity like energy recovery. Every country produces different amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW) and with different composition. This paper deals with the efficiency of 28 EU Member States for the years 2008, 2010 and 2012 by employing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and by using eight parameters, namely waste generation, employment rate, capital formation, GDP,...

  8. 1993 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkendall, J.R.; Engel, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    More important than waste generation numbers, the pollution prevention and waste minimization successes achieved at Hanford in 1993 have reduced waste and improved operations at the Site. Just a few of these projects are: A small research nuclear reactor, unused and destined for disposal as low level radioactive waste, was provided to a Texas University for their nuclear research program, avoiding 25 cubic meters of waste and saving $116,000. By changing the slope on a asphalt lot in front of a waste storage pad, run-off rainwater was prevented from becoming mixed low level waste water, preventing 40 cubic meters of waste and saving $750,000. Through more efficient electrostatic paint spraying equipment and a solvent recovery system, a paint shop reduced hazardous waste by 3,500 kilograms, saving $90,800. During the demolition of a large decommissioned building, more than 90% of the building's material was recycled by crushing the concrete for use on-Site and selling the steel to an off-Site recycler, avoiding a total of 12,600 metric tons of waste and saving $450,000. Additionally, several site-wide programs have avoided large quantities of waste, including the following: Through expansion of the paper and office waste recycling program which includes paper, cardboard, newspaper, and phone books, 516 metric tons of sanitary waste was reduced, saving $68,000. With the continued success of the excess chemicals program, which finds on-Site and off-Site customers for excess chemical materials, hazardous waste was reduced by 765,000 liters of liquid chemicals and 50 metric tons of solid chemicals, saving over $700,000 in disposal costs

  9. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project to promote and support the formation of the environmentally friendly energy community. Feasibility study on the waste utilization high efficiency power generation project; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin jigyo chosa hokokusho. Haikibutsu riyo kokoritsu hatsuden jigyo ni kakawaru FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted on energy recovery (power generation) in disposal of industrial waste. The capacity of power generation facilities in incineration processing of industrial waste reached approximately 200,000kW (50 facilities) in the total nationwide. The incineration-processed waste is mainly chips of wood, waste tire and bagasse. Almost all the electric power is for non-utility use, and there are no examples of selling it outside. In the metropolitan area, there is only one example of the industrial waste incineration power generation in Tochigi prefecture. This is because there are extremely very few enterprises which are sources producing the waste as target. However, if the industrial waste market is targeted, there is a future. The industrial waste has a lot of disadvantages as power generation use fuel because of its diversification, but the use of it as fuel is technically easier than the use of the general waste as RDF. Accordingly, it can be used for power generation with no need of special technology or facilities. When picking up facilities with a potentiality of high efficiency power generation from the existing incinerators in operation of persons in charge of industrial waste processing, approximately 125,000 kW can be obtained only from remodeling of the existing facilities. (NEDO)

  10. Los Alamos National Laboratory TRU waste sampling projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeamans, D.; Rogers, P.; Mroz, E.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has begun characterizing transuranic (TRU) waste in order to comply with New Mexico regulations, and to prepare the waste for shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Sampling consists of removing some head space gas from each drum, removing a core from a few drums of each homogeneous waste stream, and visually characterizing a few drums from each heterogeneous waste stream. The gases are analyzed by GC/MS, and the cores are analyzed for VOC's and SVOC's by GC/MS and for metals by AA or AE spectroscopy. The sampling and examination projects are conducted in accordance with the ''DOE TRU Waste Quality Assurance Program Plan'' (QAPP) and the ''LANL TRU Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan,'' (QAPjP), guaranteeing that the data meet the needs of both the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) of DOE and the ''WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria, Rev. 5,'' (WAC)

  11. Regional waste treatment facilities with underground monolith disposal for all low-heat-generating nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative system for treatment and disposal of all ''low-heat-generating'' nuclear wastes from all sources is proposed. The system, Regional Waste Treatment Facilities with Underground Monolith Disposal (RWTF/UMD), integrates waste treatment and disposal operations into single facilities at regional sites. Untreated and/or pretreated wastes are transported from generation sites such as reactors, hospitals, and industries to regional facilities in bulk containers. Liquid wastes are also transported in bulk after being gelled for transport. The untreated and pretreated wastes are processed by incineration, crushing, and other processes at the RWTF. The processed wastes are mixed with cement. The wet concrete mixture is poured into large low-cost, manmade caverns or deep trenches. Monolith dimensions are from 15 to 25 m wide, and 20 to 60 m high and as long as required. This alternative waste system may provide higher safety margins in waste disposal at lower costs

  12. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified heat generating radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible. (author)

  13. Guidelines for developing certification programs for newly generated TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Ostenak, C.A.; Pillay, K.K.S.; Geoffrion, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    These guidelines were prepared with direction from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Management Program in support of the DOE effort to certify that newly generated TRU wastes meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. The guidelines provide instructions for generic Certification Program preparation for TRU-waste generators preparing site-specific Certification Programs in response to WIPP requirements. The guidelines address all major aspects of a Certification Program that are necessary to satisfy the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria and their associated Compliance Requirements and Certification Quality Assurance Requirements. The details of the major element of a Certification Program, namely, the Certification Plan, are described. The Certification Plan relies on supporting data and control documentation to provide a traceable, auditable account of certification activities. Examples of specific parts of the Certification Plan illustrate the recommended degree of detail. Also, a brief description of generic waste processes related to certification activities is included

  14. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form

  15. Medical and Biohazardous Waste Generator's Guide (Revision 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste Management Group

    2006-01-01

    These guidelines describe procedures to comply with all Federal and State laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) policy applicable to State-regulated medical and unregulated, but biohazardous, waste (medical/biohazardous waste). These guidelines apply to all LBNL personnel who: (1) generate and/or store medical/biohazardous waste, (2) supervise personnel who generate medical/biohazardous waste, or (3) manage a medical/biohazardous waste pickup location. Personnel generating biohazardous waste at the Joint Genome Institute/Production Genomics Facility (JGI/PGF) are referred to the guidelines contained in Section 9. Section 9 is the only part of these guidelines that apply to JGI/PGF. Medical/biohazardous waste referred to in this Web site includes biohazardous, sharps, pathological and liquid waste. Procedures for proper storage and disposal are summarized in the Solid Medical/Biohazardous Waste Disposal Procedures Chart. Contact the Waste Management Group at 486-7663 if you have any questions regarding medical/biohazardous waste management

  16. Generation and management of waste electric vehicle batteries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, ChengJian; Zhang, Wenxuan; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Zhu, Haochen

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing adoption of EVs (electric vehicles), a large number of waste EV LIBs (electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries) were generated in China. Statistics showed generation of waste EV LIBs in 2016 reached approximately 10,000 tons, and the amount of them would be growing rapidly in the future. In view of the deleterious effects of waste EV LIBs on the environment and the valuable energy storage capacity or materials that can be reused in them, China has started emphasizing the management, reuse, and recycling of them. This paper presented the generation trend of waste EV LIBs and focused on interrelated management development and experience in China. Based on the situation of waste EV LIBs management in China, existing problems were analyzed and summarized. Some recommendations were made for decision-making organs to use as valuable references to improve the management of waste EV LIBs and promote the sustainable development of EVs.

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  18. Gas generation phenomena in radioactive waste transportation packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of radiation from radioactive materials with the waste matrix can lead to the deterioration of the waste form resulting in the possible of gaseous species. Depending on the type and characteristics of the radiation source, the generation of hydrogen may predominate. Since the interaction of alpha particles with the waste form results in significant energy transfer, other gases such as carbon oxides, methane, nitrogen oxides, oxygen, water, and helium are possible. The type of gases produced from the waste forms is determined by the mechanisms involved in the waste degradation. For transuranic wastes, the identified degradation mechanisms are reported to be caused by radiolysis, thermal decomposition or dewatering, chemical corrosion, and bacterial action. While all these mechanisms may be responsible for the building of gases during the storage of wastes, radiolysis and thermal decomposition appear to be main contributors during waste transport operations. (authors)

  19. Gas generation from transuranic waste degradation: an interim assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1979-10-01

    A review of all available, applicable data pertaining to gas generation from the degradation of transuranic waste matrix material and packaging is presented. Waste forms are representative of existing defense-related TRU wastes and include cellulosics, plastics, rubbers, concrete, process sludges, and mild steel. Degradation mechanisms studied were radiolysis, thermal, bacterial, and chemical corrosion. Gas generation rates are presented in terms of moles of gas produced per year per drum, and in G(gas) values for radiolytic degradation. Comparison of generation rates is made, as is a discussion of potential short- and long-term concerns. Techniques for reducing gas generation rates are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables

  20. Evaluating experience with electricity generating GHG mitigation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2003-07-01

    Several programmes have been initiated to encourage the development of projects that mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases. Recent programmes have been undertaken at the national level, such as the Dutch five-track approach, including contracts with multilateral institutions, regional development banks, private banks, bilateral contracts with countries, participation in carbon funds and the ERUPT and CERUPT tenders, Japanese Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) feasibility studies, and the more recent Finnish, Austrian and Italian JI/CDM programmes. International programmes, such as the World Bank's Prototype Carbon Fund (and other WB carbon funds), have also been initiated. Individual projects not belonging to particular programmes have also been initiated under the pilot phase of 'activities implemented jointly' (AIJ) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or developed as CDM or Joint Implementation (JI) projects. Some CDM project activities have been formally submitted to the CDM's Executive Board (EB), who approved the first set of baseline and monitoring methodologies for CDM project activities in July 2003. There is a large variety in the type of projects that have been put forward. These include energy, industry, forestry and waste projects. This paper will focus on CDM-type projects that generate grid-connected electricity for several reasons: demand for electricity is growing rapidly in many potential host countries; many projects in the electricity sector have been developed as potential CDM and JI projects; assessing additionality and baselines is arguably more difficult for projects in the electricity sector (where a range of project types may occur as part of business-as-usual activities) than for end-of-pipe projects such as landfill gas capture and flaring or decomposition of F-gases; much work has been done on assessing appropriate methods to determine baselines in the electricity sector, at the

  1. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities

  2. Underground Test Area Project Waste Management Plan (Rev. No. 2, April 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) initiated the UGTA Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The UGTA Project investigation sites have been grouped into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) in accordance with the most recent version of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The primary UGTA objective is to gather data to characterize the groundwater aquifers beneath the NTS and adjacent lands. The investigations proposed under the UGTA program may involve the drilling and sampling of new wells; recompletion, monitoring, and sampling of existing wells; well development and hydrologic/ aquifer testing; geophysical surveys; and subsidence crater recharge evaluation. Those wastes generated as a result of these activities will be managed in accordance with existing federal and state regulations, DOE Orders, and NNSA/NV waste minimization and pollution prevention objectives. This Waste Management Plan provides a general framework for all Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project participants to follow for the characterization, storage/accumulation, treatment, and disposal of wastes generated by UGTA Project activities. The objective of this waste management plan is to provide guidelines to minimize waste generation and to properly manage wastes that are produced. Attachment 1 to this plan is the Fluid Management Plan and details specific strategies for management of fluids produced under UGTA operations

  3. Exergetic life cycle assessment of cement production process with waste heat power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Xiuwen; Zhang, Yun; Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Shushen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergetic life cycle assessment was performed for the cement production process. • Each system’s efficiency before and after waste heat power generation was analyzed. • The waste heat power generation improved the efficiency of each production system. • It provided technical support for the implementation of energy-saving schemes. - Abstract: The cement industry is an industry that consumes a considerable quantity of resources and energy and has a very large influence on the efficient use of global resources and energy. In this study, exergetic life cycle assessment is performed for the cement production process, and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of each system before and after waste heat power generation is investigated. The study indicates that, before carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies of the raw material preparation system, pulverized coal preparation system and rotary kiln system are 39.4%, 10.8% and 50.2%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 4.5%, 1.4% and 33.7%, respectively; after carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies are 45.8%, 15.5% and 55.1%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 7.8%, 2.8% and 38.1%, respectively. The waste heat power generation project can recover 3.7% of the total input exergy of a rotary kiln system and improve the objective exergy efficiencies of the above three systems. The study can identify degree of resource and energy utilization and the energy-saving effect of a waste heat power generation project on each system, and provide technical support for managers in the implementation of energy-saving schemes

  4. ERM 593 Applied Project_Guidance for Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System_Final_05-05-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elicio, Andy U. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-05

    My ERM 593 applied project will provide guidance for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Stream Profile reviewer (i.e. RCRA reviewer) in regards to Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System. The Waste Compliance and Tracking system is called WCATS. WCATS is a web-based application that “supports the generation, characterization, processing and shipment of LANL radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste.” The LANL generator must characterize their waste via electronically by filling out a waste stream profile (WSP) in WCATS. Once this process is completed, the designated waste management coordinator (WMC) will perform a review of the waste stream profile to ensure the generator has completed their waste stream characterization in accordance with applicable state, federal and LANL directives particularly P930-1, “LANL Waste Acceptance Criteria,” and the “Waste Compliance and Tracking System User's Manual, MAN-5004, R2,” as applicable. My guidance/applied project will describe the purpose, scope, acronyms, definitions, responsibilities, assumptions and guidance for the WSP reviewer as it pertains to each panel and subpanel of a waste stream profile.

  5. Seasonal analysis of the generation and composition of solid waste: potential use--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Virgen, Quetzalli; Taboada-González, Paul; Ojeda-Benítez, Sara

    2013-06-01

    Ensenada health officials lack pertinent information on the sustainable management of solid waste, as do health officials from other developing countries. The aims of this research are: (a) to quantify and analyze the household solid wastes generated in the city of Ensenada, Mexico, and (b) to project biogas production and estimate generation of electrical energy. The characterization study was conducted by socioeconomic stratification in two seasonal periods, and the biogas and electrical energy projections were performed using the version 2.0 Mexico Biogas Model. Per capita solid waste generation was 0.779 ± 0.019 kg per person per day within a 98 % confidence interval. Waste composition is composed mainly of food scraps at 36.25 %, followed by paper and cardboard at 21.85 %, plastic at 12.30 %, disposable diapers at 6.26 %, and textiles at 6.28 %. The maximum capacity for power generation is projected to be 1.90 MW in 2019. Waste generated could be used as an intermediate in different processes such as recycling (41.04 %) and energy recovery (46.63 %). The electrical energy that could be obtained using the biogas generated at the Ensenada sanitary landfill would provide roughly 60 % of the energy needed for street lighting.

  6. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Charging for waste motivates generators to optimize waste control at the source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need for waste management that incorporates improved waste-handling techniques and more stringent regulatory requirements to prevent future liabilities such as Superfund sites. DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) has recognized that an effective waste management program focuses on control at the source and that the burden for responsible waste management can be placed on generators by charging for waste management costs. The principle of including the waste management costs in the total cost of the product, even when the product is research and development, is being implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Charging waste management costs to generators creates an incentive to optimize processes so that less waste is produced, and it provides a basis for determining the cost effectiveness of capital improvements so that the mature phase of waste management can be attained. Improving waste management practices requires a long-range commitment and consistent administration. Making this commitment and providing adequate funding for proper waste disposal are most cost-effective measures than the alternative of paying for remedial actions after improper disposal. This paper summarizes a plan to charge waste generators, the administrative structure of the plan, a comparison between the rate structure and changes in waste disposal operations, and issues that have surfaced as the plan is implemented

  9. Certification document for newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Setaro, J.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has requested that all national laboratories handling defense waste develop and augment a program whereby all newly generated contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste be contained, stored, and then shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in WIPP-DOE-114. The program described in this report delineates how Oak Ridge National Laboratory intends to comply with these requirements and lists the procedures used by each generator to ensure that their TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP

  10. Systematic evaluation of options to avoid generation of noncertifiable transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, J.M.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Triay, I.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.

    1998-03-01

    At present, >35% of the volume of newly generated transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory is not certifiable for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Noncertifiable waste would constitute 900--1,000 m 3 of the 2,600 m 3 of waste projected during the period of the Environmental Management (EM) Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006 plan (DOE, 1997). Volume expansion of this waste to meet thermal limits would increase the shipped volume to ∼5,400 m 3 . This paper presents the results of efforts to define which TRU waste streams are noncertifiable at Los Alamos, and to prioritize site-specific options to reduce the volume of certifiable waste over the period of the EM Accelerated Cleanup Plan. A team of Los Alamos TRU waste generators and waste managers reviewed historic generation rates and thermal loads and current practices to estimate the projected volume and thermal load of TRU waste streams for Fiscal Years 1999--2006. These data defined four major problem TRU waste streams. Estimates were also made of the volume expansion that would be required to meet the permissible wattages for all waste. The four waste streams defined were: (1) 238 Pu-contaminated combustible waste from production of Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) with 238 Pu activity which exceeds allowable shipping limits by 10--100X. (2) 241 Am-contaminated cement waste from plutonium recovery processes (nitric and hydrochloric acid recovery) are estimated to exceed thermal limits by ∼3X. (3) 239 Pu-contaminated combustible waste, mainly organic waste materials contaminated with 239 Pu and 241 Am, is estimated to exceed thermal load requirements by a factor of ∼2X. (4) Oversized metal waste objects, (especially gloveboxes), cannot be shipped as is to WIPP because they will not fit in a standard waste box or drum

  11. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses.

  13. Solid waste generation and characterization in the University of Lagos for a sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, A E; Nubi, A T; Adelopo, A O

    2017-09-01

    Waste characterization is the first step to any successful waste management policy. In this paper, the characterization and the trend of solid waste generated in University of Lagos, Nigeria was carried out using ASTM D5231-92 and Resource Conservation Reservation Authority RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance methods. The recyclable potential of the waste is very high constituting about 75% of the total waste generated. The estimated average daily solid waste generation in Unilag Akoka campus was estimated to be 32.2tons. The solid waste characterization was found to be: polythene bags 24% (7.73tons/day), paper 15% (4.83tons/day), organic matters 15%, (4.83tons/day), plastic 9% (2.90tons/day), inert materials 8% (2.58tons/day), sanitary 7% (2.25tons/day), textile 7% (2.25tons/day), others 6% (1.93tons/day), leather 4% (1.29tons/day) metals 3% (0.97tons/day), glass 2% (0.64tons/day) and e-waste 0% (0.0tons/day). The volume and distribution of polythene bags generated on campus had a positive significant statistical correlation with the distribution of commercial and academic structures on campus. Waste management options to optimize reuse, recycling and reduce waste generation were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Generation project development opportunities in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation addresses the pitfalls and benefits of developing power generation projects in Latin America. The topics of the presentation include the countries where there is opportunity for development, the opportunities that exist in these countries, the influence of geographic proximity, and competition from the Far East and the European Community

  15. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr.; Easterly, J.; Vence, T.

    1993-12-01

    In this report, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) intends to help utility companies evaluate biomass and wastes for power generation. These fuels may be alternatives or supplements to fossil fuels in three applications: (1) utility boiler coining; (2) dedicated combustion/energy recovery plants; and 3) dedicated gasification/combined cycle plants. The report summarizes data on biomass and waste properties, and evaluates the cost and performance of fuel preparation and power generation technologies. The primary biomass and waste resources evaluated are: (1) wood wastes (from forests, mills, construction/demolition, and orchards) and short rotation woody crops; (2) agricultural wastes (from fields, animals, and processing) and herbaceous energy crops; and (3) consumer or industrial wastes (e.g., municipal solid waste, scrap tires, sewage sludge, auto shredder waste). The major fuel types studied in detail are wood, municipal solid waste, and scrap tires. The key products of the project include the BIOPOWER model of biomass/waste-fired power plant performance and cost. Key conclusions of the evaluation are: (1) significant biomass and waste fuel resources are available; (2) biomass power technology cannot currently compete with natural gas-fired combined cycle technology; (3) coining biomass and waste fuels with coal in utility and industrial boilers is the most efficient, lowest cost, and lowest risk method of energy recovery from residual materials; (4) better biomass and waste fuel production and conversion technology must be developed, with the help of coordinated government energy and environmental policies and incentives; and (5) community partnerships can enhance the chances for success of a project

  16. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  17. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-01-01

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  18. Waste management, energy generation, material recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The concept of process pyrolysis according to the system of low-temperature pyrolysis (up to 450 Cel) for the purpose of waste processing is described. This system not only uses the material value (raw materials) but also the processing value (energetic utilization of organic components). Three product groups are mentioned where process pyrolysis can be applied: 1. rubber-metall connecting, coated and non-coated components, 2. Compound materials like pc boards, used electronic devices, films, used cables and batteries, 3. organic waste and residues like foils, insulating material, lubricating, oil and grease, flooring. Importance of waste management is emphasized, economic aspects are illustrated.

  19. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements - Konrad repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.; Warnecke, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the planned Konrad repository is proposed for the disposal of all types of radioactive wastes whose thermal influence upon the host rock is negligible. The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements (as of April 1990) for this facility. The respective requirements were developed on the basis of the results of site-specific safety assessments. They include general requirements on the waste packages to be disposed of as well as more specific requirements on the waste forms, the packaging and the radionuclide inventory per waste package. In addition, the delivery of waste packages was regulated. An outline of the structure and the elements of the Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements of April 1990 is given including comments on their legal status. (Author)

  20. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  1. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  2. Medical and biohazardous waste generator`s guide: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Guide describes the procedures required to comply with all federal and state laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) policy applicable to medical and biohazardous waste. The members of the LBL Biological Safety Subcommittee participated in writing these policies and procedures. The procedures and policies in this Guide apply to LBL personnel who work with infectious agents or potentially infectious agents, publicly perceived infectious items or materials (e.g., medical gloves, culture dishes), and sharps (e.g., needles, syringes, razor blades). If medical or biohazardous waste is contaminated or mixed with a hazardous chemical or material, with a radioactive material, or with both, the waste will be handled in accordance with the applicable federal and State of California laws and regulations for hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste.

  3. Quantifying and analysing food waste generated by Indonesian undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandasari, P.

    2018-03-01

    Despite the fact that environmental consequences derived from food waste have been widely known, studies on the amount of food waste and its influencing factors have relatively been paid little attention. Addressing this shortage, this paper aimed to quantify monthly avoidable food waste generated by Indonesian undergraduate students and analyse factors influencing the occurrence of avoidable food waste. Based on data from 106 undergraduate students, descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied in this study. The results indicated that 4,987.5 g of food waste was generated in a month (equal to 59,850 g yearly); or 47.05 g per person monthly (equal to 564.62 g per person per a year). Meanwhile, eating out frequency and gender were found to be significant predictors of food waste occurrence.

  4. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  5. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE's first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992

  6. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

  7. Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny Anderson

    2014-07-01

    As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INL’s contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE

  8. Audits of hazardous waste TSDFs let generators sleep easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F.H.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the increasingly strict enforcement of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), generators of hazardous waste are compelled to investigate the hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) they use. This investigation must include an environmental and a financial audit. Simple audits may be performed by the hazardous waste generator, while more thorough ones such as those performed for groups of generators are more likely to be conducted by environmental consultants familiar with treatment, storage, and disposal techniques and the regulatory framework that guides them

  9. Waste management for Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Extended summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullee, G.R.; Schulmeister, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Shippingport Station (SSDP) is demonstrating that the techniques and methodologies of waste management, which are currently employed by the nuclear industry, provide adequate management and control of waste activities for the decommissioning of a large scale nuclear plant. The SSDP has some unique aspects in that as part of the objective to promote technology transfer, multiple subcontractors are being utilized in the project. The interfaces resulting from multiple subcontractors require additional controls. Effective control has been accomplished by the use of a process control and inventory system, coupled with personnel training in waste management activities. This report summarizes the waste management plan and provides a status of waste management activities for SSDP

  10. Factors determining waste generation in Spanish towns and cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prades, Miriam; Gallardo, Antonio; Ibàñez, Maria Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the generation and composition of municipal solid waste in Spanish towns and cities with more than 5000 inhabitants, which altogether account for 87% of the Spanish population. To do so, the total composition and generation of municipal solid waste fractions were obtained from 135 towns and cities. Homogeneity tests revealed heterogeneity in the proportions of municipal solid waste fractions from one city to another. Statistical analyses identified significant differences in the generation of glass in cities of different sizes and in the generation of all fractions depending on the hydrographic area. Finally, linear regression models and residuals analysis were applied to analyze the effect of different demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic variables on the generation of waste fractions. The conclusions show that more densely populated towns, a hydrographic area, and cities with over 50,000 inhabitants have higher waste generation rates, while certain socioeconomic variables (people/car) decrease that generation. Other socioeconomic variables (foreigners and unemployment) show a positive and null influence on that waste generation, respectively.

  11. From waste to traffic fuel -projects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasi, S; Lehtonen, E; Aro-Heinilae, E [and others

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the project was to promote biogas production and its use as traffic fuel. The aims in the four Finnish and two Estonian case regions were to reduce the amount and improve the sustainable use of waste and sludge, to promote biogas production, to start biogas use as traffic fuel and to provide tools for implementing the aims. The results of this study show that achieving the food waste prevention target will decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 415 000 CO{sub 2}-eq tons and result in monetary savings for the waste generators amounting to almost 300 euro/ capita on average in all case regions in 2020. The results show that waste prevention should be the first priority in waste management and the use of waste materials as feedstock for energy production the second priority. In total 3 TWh energy could be produced from available biomass in the studied case regions. This corresponds to the fuel consumption of about 300 000 passenger cars. When a Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to identify suitable biogas plant site locations with particular respect to the spatial distribution of available biomass, it was found that a total of 50 biogas plants with capacity varying from 2.1 to 14.5 MW could be built in the case regions. This corresponds to 2.2 TWh energy and covers from 5 to 40% of the passenger car fuel consumption in these regions. Using all produced biogas (2.2 TWh energy) for vehicle fuel GHG emissions would lead to a 450 000 t CO{sub 2}-eq reduction. The same effect on emissions would be gained if more than 100 000 passenger cars were to be taken off the roads. On average, the energy consumed by biogas plants represents approximately 20% of the produced energy. The results also show that biomethane production from waste materials is profitable. In some cases the biomethane production costs can be covered with the gained gate fees. The cost of biomethane production from agricultural materials is less than 96 euro/MWh{sub th

  12. An innovative simulation tool for waste to energy generation opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Abderezzak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new world energy policies encourage the use of renewable energy sources with clean technologies, and abandon progressively the fossil fuel dependence. Another energy generation trend called commonly the “Waste-to-Energy” solution, uses organic waste as a response for two major problems: energy generation and waste management. Thanks to the anaerobic digestion, the organic waste can provide a biogas composed essentially from Carbone dioxide (CO2 and Methane (CH4. This work aims essentially to help students, researchers and even decision makers to consider the importance of biogas generation. The proposed tool is the last version of our previous tool which is enhanced and completed. It presents the potential to produce biogas of any shortlisted kind of waste, including also some energy valorization ways. A technical economical data are introduced for eventual feasibility studies.

  13. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)

  14. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  15. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, Nancy V.

    2016-01-01

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  16. Hanford tank waste operation simulator operational waste volume projection verification and validation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator is tested to determine if it can replace the FORTRAN-based Operational Waste Volume Projection computer simulation that has traditionally served to project double-shell tank utilization. Three Test Cases are used to compare the results of the two simulators; one incorporates the cleanup schedule of the Tri Party Agreement

  17. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using CSD and other wastes; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (CSD nado haikibutsu riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the feasibility of enterprise on power generation by thermal recycle and selling power together with volume reduction, de-harming (de-toxification) and stabilization of the shredder dust. Contents of the study include the investigation of generation amount of car shredder dust (CSD) and its properties, trial design of high efficiency power generation facilities, selection of boiler tube materials, incineration test with a melting kiln test plant, disposal and effective use of melted slag and fly ash, and environmental impact assessment. The capacity of waste disposal in the trial design contains 1,140 ton/day of shredder dust, 60 ton/day of waste plastics, sludge and waste paper, and 130 ton/day of waste oil. Melting kiln with secondary combustion chamber was adopted as the incineration type. The high temperature and high pressure waste heat boiler with an extraction condensing turbine was adopted as the waste heat recovery and power generation type. Stable combustion was confirmed from the results using a test plant. According to the consideration of cost and unit cost results for wholesale power supply, if it is postulated that income for waste disposal is 12,000 yen/ton, power generation costs in excess power selling and wholesales are 6.4 yen/kWh and 9.1 yen/kWh, respectively. 67 figs., 48 tabs.

  18. Major Components of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, D.C.; Bennington, B.; Sharif, F.

    2002-01-01

    The National Transuranic (TRU) Program (NTP) is being optimized to allow for disposing of the legacy TRU waste at least 10 years earlier than originally planned. This acceleration will save the nation an estimated $713. The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) has initiated the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project to propose, and upon approvaI, implement activities that produce significant cost saving by improving efficiency, thereby accelerating the rate of TRU waste disposal without compromising safety. In its role as NTP agent of change, the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (the Project) (1) interacts closely with all NTP activities. Three of the major components of the Project are the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the Central Confirmation Facility (CCF), and the MobiIe/Modular Deployment Program.

  19. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...

  20. The 2016-2018 National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes - Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzo, Alexis; Robert, Jean-Gabriel; Abraham, Christophe; Benaze, Manon de

    2015-01-01

    A first document contains the project of the National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes (PNGMDR) for the period 2016-2018: principles and objectives (presentation of radioactive materials and wastes, principles to be taken into account to define pathways of management of radioactive wastes, legal and institutional framework, information transparency), the management of radioactive materials (context and challenges, management pathways, works on fast breeder reactors of fourth generation), assessment and perspectives of existing pathways of management of radioactive wastes (management of historical situations, management of residues of mining and sterile processing, management of waste with a high natural radioactivity, management of very short life waste, of very low activity wastes, and low and medium activity wastes), needs and perspectives regarding management processes to be implemented for the different types of radioactive wastes. Appendices to this document contain a recall of the content of previous PNGMDR since 2007, a synthesis of realisations and researches performed abroad, research orientations for the concerned period, and international agreement on spent fuel and radioactive waste management. A second document, released by the ASN, proposes an environmental and strategic assessment of the plan. A third one and a fourth one contain the opinion of the Environmental Authority, respectively on the plan preliminary focus, and on the plan itself. An answer to this last one is then proposed, followed by a synthesis of the plan project and the text of the corresponding decree

  1. Characterization Of Solid Wastes Generated By A Community In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on and organic fertilizers from household wastes could be transferred to the community to create jobs and gener-ate income. Landfills and relocation of refuse dumps far from the community were suggested as alternative disposal methods to ...

  2. Adverse Effects of Waste Generation in Calabar Urban, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adverse Effects of Waste Generation in Calabar Urban, Nigeria. ... degradation, blocking of drainage and emission of greenhouse gases. We found a number of health hazards, ranging from pollution to diseases on both human and animals.

  3. analysis of the measured medical waste generation at amana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kagonji

    2011-08-16

    Aug 16, 2011 ... In this study the medical waste generation rates at Amana and Ligula hospitals ...... making the situation difficult to administrators to plan and budget. ..... Management Meeting, Peacock Hotel, Dar es Salaam, 9th-11th June,.

  4. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report.

  5. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report

  6. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Vega, Leticia; Cox, Marlon R.; Aitchison, Lindsay T.; Lange, Kevin E.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, W. Andrew; hide

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of over twenty technology development projects sponsored by NASA's Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project develops selected life support technologies needed for humans to live and work productively in space, with focus on technologies for future use in spacecraft cabin and space suit applications. Over the last three years, NGLS had five main project elements: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, High Performance (HP) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove, Alternative Water Processor (AWP) and Series-Bosch Carbon Dioxide Reduction. The RCA swing bed, VOR and HP EVA Glove tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and pressure garment for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Focus is on prototyping and integrated testing in cooperation with the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced EVA Project. The HP EVA Glove Element, new this fiscal year, includes the generation of requirements and standards to guide development and evaluation of new glove designs. The AWP and Bosch efforts focus on regenerative technologies to further close spacecraft cabin atmosphere revitalization and water recovery loops and to meet technology maturation milestones defined in NASA's Space Technology Roadmaps. These activities are aimed at increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self-sufficiency while decreasing mass and mission cost, supporting a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low-Earth orbit, along a human path toward Mars. This paper provides a status of current technology development activities with a brief overview of future plans.

  7. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T.

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ''National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.'' The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities

  8. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  9. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  10. Radiolytic gas generation from cement-based waste hosts for DOE low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, L.R.; Friedman, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using cement-based immobilization binders with simulated radioactive waste containing sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and fluoride anions, the gamma- and alpha-radiolytic gas generation factors (G/sub t/, molecules/100 eV) and gas compositions were measured on specimens of cured grouts. These tests studied the effects of; (1) waste composition; (2) the sample surface-to-volume ratio; (3) the waste slurry particle size; and (4) the water content of the waste host formula. The radiolysis test vessels were designed to minimize the ''dead'' volume and to simulate the configuration of waste packages

  11. Conceptual project of waste treatment plant of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, J.L.; Astolfi, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual project of the waste treatment plant of CDTN. Several areas, such as: process area, material entrance and exit area are studied. The treatment processes are: evaporation, filtration, cementation, cutting and processing of solid wastes. (C.M.)

  12. 'Swapping wastes' planned by nuclear power plant operators in order to exert an influence on the government's radwaste repository project Konrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, K.; Stroetmann, C.

    1992-01-01

    An 'exchange of waste', which would involve taking back high-level radioactive, heat-generating waste in place of low-level radioactive waste from reprocessing, whereby the amount of high-level radioactive waste would be smaller, corresponding in the degree of radioactivity to that of the low-level radioactive waste, is not provided for in the reprocessing contracts with BNFL and is also not approved by the federal government. There is still an urgent need for waste disposal facilities for radioactive waste with negligible generation of heat. Thus the waste disposal project Konrad is not superfluous, but rather should be accelerated quickly. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Utilization of Aluminum Waste with Hydrogen and Heat Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakovskaya, O. A.; Meshkov, E. A.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnokov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-10-01

    A concept of energy generation via hydrogen and heat production from aluminum containing wastes is proposed. The hydrogen obtained by oxidation reaction between aluminum waste and aqueous solutions can be supplied to fuel cells and/or infrared heaters for electricity or heat generation in the region of waste recycling. The heat released during the reaction also can be effectively used. The proposed method of aluminum waste recycling may represent a promising and cost-effective solution in cases when waste transportation to recycling plants involves significant financial losses (e.g. remote areas). Experiments with mechanically dispersed aluminum cans demonstrated that the reaction rate in alkaline solution is high enough for practical use of the oxidation process. In theexperiments aluminum oxidation proceeds without any additional aluminum activation.

  14. Environmental impact statements: Nuclear generation, radioactive waste disposal, and isotope-separation projects. June 1973-September 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for June 1973-September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning draft and final impact statements for environmental radiation hazards. Prepared by the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and others, these reports provide environmental input into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) decisions on proposed construction and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, radioactive-waste-disposal facilities and sites, and isotope-separation projects. Minor emphasis is placed upon community awareness and public concern where it applies to Federal guidelines and atomic facility location. (Contains 175 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  15. Management of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1990-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany only one company is responsible for the management of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generations. This is the Company for Nuclear Service (GNS mbH). It was the intention of the competent authorities of the FRG to intensify state control during conditioning, intermediate storage and transport of low- and medium level radioactive waste. A guideline provides that the responsibility of the waste producers and of those concerned with conditioning, storage and transport of radioactive waste is assigned in the individual case and that the qualitative and quantitative registration of all waste streams will be ensured. An overview of the radioactive waste management within the last two years in the FRG is presented. (orig./DG)

  16. Tunnel Boring Machine for nuclear waste repository research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzon, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    A description is presented of a Tunnel Boring Machine and its intended use on a research project underway in Sweden for demonstrating and testing methods for rock investigation at a suitable depth for a deep repository for nuclear waste

  17. Waste generation and pollution prevention progress fact sheet: Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site is responsible for maintaining nuclear testing capability, supporting science-based Stockpile Stewardship experiments, maintaining nuclear agency response capability, applying environmental restoration techniques to areas affected by nuclear testing, managing low-level and mixed radioactive waste, investigating demilitarization technologies, investigating counter- proliferation technologies, supporting work-for-others programs and special Department of Defense activities, operating a hazardous materials spill test center, and providing for the commercial development of the site. This fact sheet provides information on routine waste generation and projected reduction by waste type. Also, materials recycled by the Nevada Test Site in 1994 are listed

  18. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using animal waste; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (chikusan haikibutsu riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To introduce the power generation system fueled by animal waste (excrements), one of the so-called industrial waste, its feasibility has been studied in Koyu and surrounding area located in Miyazaki Prefecture. This report includes the technical feasibility of available quantity of animal waste, chemical analysis of the waste, and basic design of the power generation system containing the furnace model and also its economical feasibility. The available quantity of animal waste in Koyu area is about 169,000 tons a year, which can generate 10.5 MW of electric power. That including the surrounding area is about 219,000 tons a year, which can generate 15.0 MW. The heating values of animal excrements in average and as received are 970 kcal/kg for pigs and 1,230 to 2,700 kcal/kg for broilers. In the case of combustion of mixed broiler and pig excrements, both of the stoker and fluidized-bed model furnaces become refractory furnace construction and provide with heat recovery boiler due to their high moisture content. In addition, the stoker furnace model requires an excrement dryer system as pre-treatment of fuel. For the fluidized-bed furnace of 15 MW grade power plant using the mixed fuel of 50% broiler excrements and 50% pig excrements, the power generation efficiency of 23% can be expected at generator end. The generating cost is around 10 yen/kWh. 27 refs., 61 tabs.

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Preliminary Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis J. Harrell

    2006-01-01

    This draft preliminary project management plan presents the conceptual framework for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, consistent with the authorization in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. In developing this plan, the Idaho National Laboratory has considered three fundamental project planning options that are summarized in the following section. Each of these planning options is literally compliant with the Energy Policy Act of 2005, but each emphasizes different approaches to technology development risks, design, licensing and construction risks, and to the extent of commercialization support provided to the industry. The primary focus of this draft preliminary project management plan is to identify those activities important to Critical Decision-1, at which point a decision on proceeding with the NGNP Project can be made. The conceptual project framework described herein is necessary to establish the scope and priorities for the technology development activities. The framework includes: A reference NGNP prototype concept based on what is judged to be the lowest risk technology development that would achieve the needed commercial functional requirements to provide an economically competitive nuclear heat source and hydrogen production capability. A high-level schedule logic for design, construction, licensing, and acceptance testing. This schedule logic also includes an operational shakedown period that provides proof-of-principle to establish the basis for commercialization decisions by end-users. An assessment of current technology development plans to support Critical Decision-1 and overall project progress. The most important technical and programmatic uncertainties (risks) are evaluated, and potential mitigation strategies are identified so that the technology development plans may be modified as required to support ongoing project development. A rough-order-of-magnitude cost evaluation that provides an initial basis for budget planning. This

  20. Management of low level waste generated from ISER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushina, Tomoyuki

    1987-01-01

    Low level wastes are generated during nuclear power plant operation. In the case of ISER, low level wastes from the reactor are basically the same as of existing light water reactors. Various low level wastes, including solid, liquid and gaseous, are listed and discussed. In normal operation, high-activity wastes are not subjected to any treatment. For contaminated equipment or reactor parts, it may be desirable to transfer most of the activity to liquid phase through an appropriate decontamination procedure. Highly active solid wastes are usually fixed in a solid form through incorporation into either concrete or asphalt as containment material. Decantation and filtration treatments are usually sufficient before dilution and release of liquid wastes into the environment. Except for ordinary gas filtration, there in normally no other treatment. Under certain circumstances, however, it may be important to apply the decay storage before release to the atmosphere. In accidental circumstances, specific filtration is recommended or even sometimes needed. There are some alternatives for storage and-or disposal of low level wastes. In many cases, shallow land burial is chosen as a realistic method for storage and-or disposal of solid waste. In chosing a disposal method, the radiation dose rate from solid wastes or the specific activity should be taken into account. Boric acid is a retarder for cement setting. This effect of boric acid is inhibited by adding a complexing agent before mixing the waste with cement. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  2. Data analytics approach to create waste generation profiles for waste management and collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niska, Harri; Serkkola, Ari

    2018-04-30

    Extensive monitoring data on waste generation is increasingly collected in order to implement cost-efficient and sustainable waste management operations. In addition, geospatial data from different registries of the society are opening for free usage. Novel data analytics approaches can be built on the top of the data to produce more detailed, and in-time waste generation information for the basis of waste management and collection. In this paper, a data-based approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) and the k-means algorithm is developed for creating a set of waste generation type profiles. The approach is demonstrated using the extensive container-level waste weighting data collected in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, Finland. The results obtained highlight the potential of advanced data analytic approaches in producing more detailed waste generation information e.g. for the basis of tailored feedback services for waste producers and the planning and optimization of waste collection and recycling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Critical management practices influencing on-site waste minimization in construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Saheed O; Oyedele, Lukumon O; Bilal, Muhammad; Akinade, Olugbenga O; Alaka, Hafiz A; Owolabi, Hakeem A

    2017-01-01

    As a result of increasing recognition of effective site management as the strategic approach for achieving the required performance in construction projects, this study seeks to identify the key site management practices that are requisite for construction waste minimization. A mixed methods approach, involving field study and survey research were used as means of data collection. After confirmation of construct validity and reliability of scale, data analysis was carried out through a combination of Kruskal-Wallis test, descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. The study suggests that site management functions could significantly reduce waste generation through strict adherence to project drawings, and by ensuring fewer or no design changes during construction process. Provision of waste skips for specific materials and maximisation of on-site reuse of materials are also found to be among the key factors for engendering waste minimization. The result of factor analysis suggests four factors underlying on-site waste management practices with 96.093% of total variance. These measures include contractual provisions for waste minimization, waste segregation, maximisation of materials reuse and effective logistic management. Strategies through which each of the underlying measures could be achieved are further discussed in the paper. Findings of this study would assist construction site managers and other site operatives in reducing waste generated by construction activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Waste Management Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain upon completion of remediation activities. This effort will be conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for LEFPC as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) action. The Waste Management Plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the remedial action for the LEFPC Project Most of the solid wastes will be considered to be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y-12 facilities for those types of waste. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, and the possibility of low- level or mixed waste exists (greater than 35 pCi/g), although these are not expected. Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary in nature and which will be capable of being disposed 0214 of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant.

  5. Waste Management Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain upon completion of remediation activities. This effort will be conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for LEFPC as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) action. The Waste Management Plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the remedial action for the LEFPC Project Most of the solid wastes will be considered to be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y-12 facilities for those types of waste. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, and the possibility of low- level or mixed waste exists (greater than 35 pCi/g), although these are not expected. Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary in nature and which will be capable of being disposed 0214 of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant

  6. A life-cycle model approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies, decontamination and decommissioning, and surveillance and maintenance site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. The ER Program waste generation rates are projected to steadily increase through the year 2005 for all waste categories. Standard production units utilized to measure waste minimization apply to production/manufacturing facilities. Since ER inherited contaminated waste from previous production processes, no historical production data can be applied. Therefore, a more accurate measure for pollution prevention was identified as a need for the ER Program. The Energy Systems ER Program adopted a life-cycle model approach and implemented the concept of numerically scoring their waste generators to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention/waste minimization programs and elected to develop a numerical scoring system (NSS) to accomplish these measurements. The prototype NSS, a computerized, user-friendly information management database system, was designed to be utilized in each phase of the ER Program. The NSS was designed to measure a generator's success in incorporating pollution prevention in their work plans and reducing investigation-derived waste (IDW) during RIs. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed NSS and actually scoring the generators of IDW at six ER Program sites. Once RI waste generators are scored utilizing the NSS, the numerical scores are distributed into six performance categories: training, self-assessment, field implementation, documentation, technology transfer, and planning

  7. Optimized application of systems engineering to nuclear waste repository projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Shepard, M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe a fully optimized application of systems engineering methods and philosophy to the management of a large nuclear waste repository project. Knowledge gained from actual experience with the use of the systems approach on two repository projects is incorporated in the material presented. The projects are currently evaluating the isolation performance of different geologic settings and are in different phases of maturity. Systems engineering methods were applied by the principal author at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the form of a functional analysis. At the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), the authors assisted the intergrating contractor with the development and application of systems engineering methods. Based on this experience and that acquired from other waste management projects, an optimized plan for applying systems engineering techniques was developed. The plan encompasses the following aspects: project organization, developing and defining requirements, assigning work responsibilities, evaluating system performance, quality assurance, controlling changes, enhancing licensability, optimizing project performance, and addressing regulatory issues. This information is presented in the form of a roadmap for the practical application of system engineering principles to a nuclear waste repository project

  8. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  9. Integrated Data Base for 1989: Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1988. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning waste, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous, highly radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 45 figs., 119 tabs

  10. Integrated data base for 1990: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1989. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 22 refs., 48 figs., 109 tabs

  11. Integrated Data Base for 1991: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1990. These data are based on the most reliable information available form government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated generally through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 160 refs., 61 figs., 142 tabs

  12. Economic analysis of radioactive waste storage and disposal projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinen, P.J.; Starnes, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive waste storage and disposal efforts present challenging issues for cost and economic analyses. In particular, legal requirements for states and compact areas to develop radioactive waste disposal sites, combined with closure of some sites, have placed urgency on planning, locating, and constructing storage and disposal sites. Cost analyses of potential projects are important to the decision processes. Principal objectives for cost analyses for projects are to identify all activities, covering the entire project life cycle, and to develop costs for those activities using methods that allow direct comparisons between competing project alternatives. For radioactive waste projects, long project lives ranging from tens of years to 100 or more years must be considered. Alternative, and competing, technologies, designs, and operating plans must be evaluated. Thorough base cost estimates must be made for all project phases: planning, development, licensing/permitting, construction, operations, and maintenance, closure, and post-closure/institutional care. Economic analysis procedures need to accommodate the specific features of each project alternative and facilitate cost comparisons between differing alternatives. Economic analysis assumptions must be developed to address the unusually long project lives involved in radioactive waste projects

  13. Steam Generator Group Project. Annual report, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.A.; Lewis, M.

    1984-02-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project (SGGP) is an NRC program joined by additional sponsors. The SGGP utilizes a steam generator removed from service at a nuclear plant (Surry 2) as a vehicle for research on a variety of safety and reliability issues. This report is an annual summary of progress of the program for 1982. Information is presented on the Steam Generator Examination Facility (SGEF), especially designed and constructed for this research. Loading of the generator into the SGEF is then discussed. The report then presents radiological field mapping results and personnel exposure monitoring. This is followed by information on field reduction achieved by channel head decontaminations. The report then presents results of a secondary side examination through shell penetrations placed prior to transport, confirming no change in generator condition due to transport. Decontamination of the channel head is discussed followed by plans for eddy current testing and removal of the plugs placed during service. Results of a preliminary profilometry examination are then provided

  14. The projected costs of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the outcomes from the joint report between the Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Energy Agency of the OECD on the projected costs of generating electricity. The study contains data on electricity generating costs for almost 200 power plants provided by 17 OECD member countries, 4 non-OECD countries and 4 industrial companies or industry organisations. The paper presents the projected costs of generating electricity calculated according to common methodological rules on the basis of the data provided by participating countries and organisations. Data were received for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal, gas, nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal. Cost estimates were also provided for combined heat and power plants, as well as for coal plants that include carbon capture. As in previous studies of the same series, all costs and benefits were discounted or capitalised to the date of commissioning in order to calculate the state of the electricity costs per MWh, based on plant operating lifetime data. In addition, the paper contains a discussion of a number of factors affecting the cost of capital, the outlook for carbon capture and storage and the working of electricity markets. (Author)

  15. The IAEA project on nuclear and non-nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive and chemotoxic agents are common in electricity generation waste. Data and assessments illustrate that nuclear and non-nuclear fuel chains result in waste posing potential long-term hazards. Efforts are focussed on filling data gaps and approaches for comparing impacts of radioactive and chemotoxic agents

  16. Waste hydrogen utilization project receives $12 M in federal support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    This article announced that $12.2 million dollars in federal funding support, over a 3 year period, will be made available to Sacre-Davey Innovations to support the development and demonstration of the Integrated Waste Hydrogen Utilization Project (IWHUP). The IWHUP is a clean energy project that will develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using hydrogen generated as a byproduct of a sodium chlorate manufacturing plant in North Vancouver. Greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuels will be reduced by using purified hydrogen to fuel vehicles. The full hydrogen value chain will also be demonstrated by the IWHUP. This includes the supply, storage, distribution and use of hydrogen. Eight light-duty trucks running on hydrogen will be included in the demonstration, along with 4 public transit buses converted to run on a combination of compressed natural gas and hydrogen, and a fuel cell system operating on hydrogen while providing electrical power to a car wash. The newsletter article discussed the funding leveraged from various sources as well as the names of project participants. The article also mentioned that the IWHUP fuel station in North Vancouver will play a key role in sustainable transportation demonstrations during the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Vancouver.

  17. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Pickering, Karen D.; Cox, Marlon; Towsend, Neil; Campbell, Colin; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by NASA s Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project is developing life support technologies (including water recovery and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processor (AWP). The RCA swing bed and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit, with focus on test article development and integrated testing in an Advanced PLSS in cooperation with the Advanced Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Project. An RCA swing-bed provides integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The VOR technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current space suit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings whereas the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The AWP effort, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based secondary treatment, will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water. This paper will provide a status of technology development activities and future plans.

  18. Sustainable waste management in Africa through CDM projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couth, R; Trois, C

    2012-11-01

    Only few Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects (traditionally focussed on landfill gas combustion) have been registered in Africa if compared to similar developing countries. The waste hierarchy adopted by many African countries clearly shows that waste recycling and composting projects are generally the most sustainable. This paper undertakes a sustainability assessment for practical waste treatment and disposal scenarios for Africa and makes recommendations for consideration. The appraisal in this paper demonstrates that mechanical biological treatment of waste becomes more financially attractive if established through the CDM process. Waste will continue to be dumped in Africa with increasing greenhouse gas emissions produced, unless industrialised countries (Annex 1) fund carbon emission reduction schemes through a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol. Such a replacement should calculate all of the direct and indirect carbon emission savings and seek to promote public-private partnerships through a concerted support of the informal sector. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant - the project and process systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, L.D.; Miller, W.C.; Smith, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project is scheduled to start construction on the Hanford reservation in southeastern Washington State in 1991. The project will immobilize the liquid high-level defense waste stored there. The HWVP represents the third phase of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities that are focused on the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste, building on the experience of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River site, South Carolina, and of the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP), New York. This sequential approach to disposal of the country's commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste allows HWVP to make extensive use of lessons learned from the experience of its predecessors, using mature designs from the earlier facilities to achieve economies in design and construction costs while enhancing operational effectiveness

  20. Projection of Big Cities Waste Management and Cost Based on Economic and Demographic Factors in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajati, Gita; Padmi, Tri; Benno Rahardyan, dan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, solid waste management continues to be a major challenge in urban areas, especially in developing country. It is triggered by population growth, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization. Indonesia itselfs categorized into developing country. Indonesia's government has many program in order to increase the economic growth. One of them is MP3EI (Masterplan Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia. This program should be suppported by right waste management system. If Indonesia's waste management system can't afford the economic growth, it will trigger health and environmental problems. This study's purpose is to develop the socio-economic-environment model that can be used as a basis planning for the facility and cost of waste management systems. In this paper we used the development of Khajuria model test method. This method used six variables, which are GDP, population, population density, illiteracy, school's period and economic growth. The result showed that development of Khajuria test could explained the influence of economic and demographic factors to waste generation, 65.6%. The projection of waste generation shows that Pangkalpinang, Pekanbaru and Serang are the cities with the highest waste generation for the next five years. The number of dump truck and TPS in DKI Jakarata is the highest within another city, which is 39.37%. For the next five years, the waste management system in our study areas cost maximum 0.8% from GDP (Gross Domestic Products).

  1. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  3. Radioprotection considerations on the expansion project of an interim storage facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Suzuki, Fabio F.; Dellamano, Jose C.

    2009-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management (GRR) of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) receives, treats, packs, characterizes and stores institutional radioactive wastes generated at IPEN-CNEN/SP and also those received from several radiological facilities in the country. The current storage areas have been used to store the treated radioactive waste since the early 1980's and their occupation is close to their full capacity, so a storage area expansion is needed. The expansion project includes the rebuilding of two sheds and the enlargement of the third one in the area currently occupied by the GRR and in a small adjacent area. The civil works will be in controlled area, where the waste management operations will be maintained, so all the steps of this project should be planned and optimized, from the radioprotection point of view. The civil construction will be made in steps. During the project implementation there will be transfer operations of radioactive waste packages to the rebuilt area. After these transfer operations, the civil works will proceed in the vacant areas. This project implies on radiological monitoring, dose control of the involved workers, decontamination and clearance of areas and it is also envisaged the need for repacking of some radioactive waste. The objective this paper is to describe the radioprotection study developed to this expansion project, taking into account the national radioprotection and civil construction regulations. (author)

  4. Waste management CDM projects barriers NVivo 10® qualitative dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufoni, André Luiz; de Sousa Ferreira, Aracéli Cristina; Oliveira, Luciano Basto

    2017-12-01

    This article contains one NVivo 10® file with the complete 432 projects design documents (PDD) of seven waste management sector industries registered as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Kyoto Protocol Initiative from 2004 to 2014. All data analyses and sample statistics made during the research remain in the file. We coded PDDs in 890 fragments of text, classified in five categories of barriers (nodes): technological, financial, human resources, regulatory, socio-political. The data supports the findings of author thesis [1] and other two indexed publication in Waste Management Journal: "The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism" and "The declared barriers of the large developing countries waste management projects: The STAR model" [2], [3]. The data allows any computer assisted qualitative content analysis (CAQCA) on the sector and it is available at Mendeley [4].

  5. Use of a Knowledge Management System in Waste Management Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruendler, D.; Boetsch, W.U.; Holzhauer, U.; Nies, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    In Germany the knowledge management system 'WasteInfo' about waste management and disposal issues has been developed and implemented. Beneficiaries of 'WasteInfo' are official decision makers having access to a large information pool. The information pool is fed by experts, so called authors This means compiling of information, evaluation and assigning of appropriate properties (metadata) to this information. The knowledge management system 'WasteInfo' has been introduced at the WM04, the operation of 'WasteInfo' at the WM05. The recent contribution describes the additional advantage of the KMS being used as a tool for the dealing with waste management projects. This specific aspect will be demonstrated using a project concerning a comparative analysis of the implementation of repositories in six countries using nuclear power as examples: The information of 'WasteInfo' is assigned to categories and structured according to its origin and type of publication. To use 'WasteInfo' as a tool for the processing the projects, a suitable set of categories has to be developed for each project. Apart from technical and scientific aspects, the selected project deals with repository strategies and policies in various countries, with the roles of applicants and authorities in licensing procedures, with safety philosophy and with socio-economic concerns. This new point of view has to be modelled in the categories. Similar to this, new sources of information such as local and regional dailies or particular web-sites have to be taken into consideration. In this way 'WasteInfo' represents an open document which reflects the current status of the respective repository policy in several countries. Information with particular meaning for the German repository planning is marked and by this may influence the German strategy. (authors)

  6. Can we always ignore ship-generated food waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polglaze, John

    2003-01-01

    Considerable quantities of food waste can be generated at a rapid rate in ships, particularly those with large numbers of people onboard. By virtue of the amounts involved and its nature, food waste is potentially the most difficult to manage component of a ship's garbage stream, however, in most sea areas it may be dealt with by the simple expedient of direct discharge to sea. As a consequence, only minimal attention is paid to food waste management by many ship and port operators and advisory bodies, and there is a paucity of information in the available literature. The determination that management of ships' food waste is inconsequential is, however, incorrect in many circumstances. Disposal to sea is not always possible due to restrictions imposed by MARPOL 73/78 and other marine pollution control instruments. Effective management of food waste can be critical for ships that operate in areas where disposal is restricted or totally prohibited

  7. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  8. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Financing Waste to Wealth Project-Malaysian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nasir Adnan

    2010-01-01

    In Malaysia, waste were coming from industrial waste, residential waste and others. So, all of these wastes were dumped into landfill and some was treated back for several purposes. All these efforts will need more money to make sure it proceeds. So, this presentation focused on how we can generate back our money from these waste. According to statistics, more than 95 % waste will go to landfills and only 5 % was recycled. 47 % were organic waste, 15 % paper, 14 % plastics, 4 % metal and only 3 % were glass or ceramics with 291 open dumpsites all over the country. So, with the establishment of RRC/ RDF-WTE, all of these wastes were managed systematically. The establishment of waste RDF plants to generate electricity also can give opportunities to government as alternative ways from depending on fossil fuel plants. Although there are several challenges such as market failure, absence of legal framework, lack of institutional measures and others, these will not break the spirit to make sure that someday all of these efforts will meet their targets.

  10. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Simpson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is processed. Salt waste estimates range from 8 to 20 MT/year from considering numerous scenarios. It appears that some benefit may be derived from advanced processes for separating fission products from molten salt waste, but the degree of improvement is limited. Waste form production is also considered but appears to be economically unfavorable. Direct disposal of salt into a salt basin type repository is found to be the most promising with respect to minimizing the impact of waste generation on the economic feasibility and sustainability of pyroprocessing.

  11. Remedial Action and Waste Disposal Project Manager's Implementing Instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronen, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    These Project Manager's Implementing Instructions provide the performance standards required of all Environmental Restoration Contractor personnel in their work during operation and administration of the Remedial Action and Waste Disposal Project. The instructions emphasize technical competency, workplace discipline, and personal accountability to ensure a high level of safety and performance during operations activities

  12. Evaluation and development of a policy for waste generation control - electric and electronic waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Although a policy to reduce waste amount and promote recycling for large electric appliances was introduced, it is still in the initial stage operated in a form of recommendation and the general management system of electric and electronic waste has not established yet. In this study, the generation and disposal of electric and electronic waste were examined and the effectiveness of present policy was evaluated. Based on the analysis, a policy for the more appropriate electric and electronic waste management was presented. 34 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  13. Waste management for the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullee, G.R.; Schulmeister, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) with the objectives of placing the station in a radiologically safe condition, demonstrating safe and cost effective dismantlement and providing useful data for future decommissioning projects. This paper describes the development of the Waste Management Plan which is being used for the accomplishment of the SSDP. Significant aspects of the Plan are described, such as the use of a process control and inventory system. The current status of waste management activities is reported. It is concluded that SSDP has some unique aspects which will provide useful information for future decommissioning projects

  14. The Stripa project in a Swedish waste management perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurstroem, S.

    1994-01-01

    This publication deals with the Swedish nuclear waste management program till the 60s; it also consists of a presentation of the Stripa Project, that played a important role in the research development work in Sweden. This project was carried out in collaboration with the United States, and an international participation was organized. The primary goals of this project were to develop scientific techniques to characterize a granite rock. The issues of such studies were of common concern to many countries that had research and development programs on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. (TEC)

  15. Generation and management of medical waste in Serbia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šerović Radmila M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents generation, quantities and medical waste (MW management in Serbia. It represents assessment methods and total annual MW generation by categories. It was concluded that pharmaceutical (64% and infectious (32% MW production is the largest. According to available data, MW management in Serbia is currently at low level, except when it comes to infectious waste. Research proposed simpler treatment methods in existing autoclaves and complex methods (incineration and plasma-pyrolysis, as well as short-term and long-term solutions. Predicted MW growing amount requires existing capacity increase for processing and new solutions application. Installed autoclaves capacity could be increased by increasing working time, in order to avoid additional investment. However, treatment in autoclave is only suitable for infectious MW. For other medical waste, which main fractions are pharmaceutical and chemical waste, there is no infrastructure. As temporary solution, pharmaceutical waste is treated abroad which in longer period is not financially feasible. Considering that MW treatment in Serbia currently is based on health facilities network equipped with autoclaves, as central (CTF and local (LTF treatments facilities for infectious waste treatment, it is recommended additional capacity implementation for treatment of non-infectious waste to this network, with simultaneous management level optimization of whole MW.

  16. Extreme E-waste generated from successful Operations Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Zhilyaev, Dmitry; Parajuly, Keshav

    This paper identifies how research in the field of Operations Management (OM) has been extremely successful in reducing costs for the manufacturing of electrical and electronic equipment by focusing on design for assembly and manufacturing. The downside is the generation of extreme amounts of e......-waste. Based on a literature survey, 2251 kg of e-waste and on case study, this research identifies the need to extend product lifetimes to drive down e-waste. The study concludes that more research is needed on designs for disassembly, repair, refurbishment, and remanufacturing to meet future requirements...

  17. Salt Repository Project waste emplacement mode decision paper: Revison 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This paper provides a recommendation as to the mode of waste emplacement to be used as the current basis for site characterization activity for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, high level nuclear waste repository site. It also presents a plan for implementing the recommendation so as to provide a high level of confidence in the project's success. Since evaluations of high-level waste disposal in geologic repositories began in the 1950s, most studies emplacement in salt formations employed the vertical orientation for emplacing waste packages in boreholes in the floor of the underground facility. This orientation was used in trials at Project Salt Vault in the 1960s. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has recently settled on a combination of vertical and horizontal modes for various waste types. This paper analyzes the information available and develops a project position upon which to base current site characterization activities. The position recommended is that the SRP should continue to use the vertical waste emplacement mode as the reference design and to carry the horizontal mode as a ''passive'' alternative. This position was developed based upon the conclusions of a decision analysis, risk assessment, and cost/schedule impact assessment. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.; Cillan, T.

    1993-09-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.4 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement. Those interested in using the SWPM database should refer to the SWPM Database User's Guide. This document is available from the PNL Task M Project Manager (D. L. Stiles, 509-372-4358), the PNL Task L Project Manager (L. L. Armacost, 509-372-4304), the WHC Restoration Projects Section Manager (509-372-1443), or the WHC Waste Characterization Manager (509-372-1193)

  19. Overview of the waste/barrier/rock interactions program of the basalt waste isolation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, P.F.; Burnell, J.R.; Lane, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The waste package waste/barrier/rock interactions testing program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project is designed to assess the interactions between nuclear waste forms, other waste package components, and the environment in order to evaluate long-term waste package isolation (radionuclide release) behavior. The program involves reacting fully radioactive waste forms with combinations of steel or copper container material and basalt/bentonite packing material in site-specific ground water under anticipated repository conditions to obtain the steady state radionuclide concentrations required to predictively model waste package radionuclide concentrations required to predictively model waste package radionuclide releases. Both static and flow-through autoclaves are being used in the test program to determine radionuclide concentrations as a function of time and groundwater flow rate, and to evaluate the solid phase and water chemistry changes that control those concentrations. This test program, when combined with project hydrologic and geochemical testing and modeling efforts, and natural analog studies, provides the information required to evaluate long-term radionuclide mobility within a waste package emplaced in a basalt repository

  20. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  1. Thermoelectric as recovery and harvesting of waste heat from portable generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, S. N.; Kamarrudin, N. S.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Bakar, S. A.; Razlan, Z. M.; Harun, A.; Ibrahim, I.; Faizi, M. K.; Saad, M. A. M.; Zunaidi, I.; Wan, W. K.; Desa, H.

    2017-10-01

    Generation of waste heat was ineluctable especially during energy producing process. Waste heat falls into low temperature grade make it complicated to utilize. Thermoelectric generator (TEG) offers opportunity to harvest any temperature grade heat into useful electricity. This project is covered about recovery and utilizing waste heat from portable electric generator by using a TEG which placed at exhaust surface. Temperature difference at both surfaces of TEG was enhanced with supplying cold air from a wind blower. It is found that, even at low air speed, the TEG was successfully produced electricity with aid from DC-DC booster. Results shows possibility to harvest low temperature grade heat and still exist areas for continual improvement.

  2. Mobile/Modular Deployment Project-Enhancing Efficiencies within the National Transuranic Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Basabilvazo, G.B.; Countiss, S.; Moody, D.C.; Behrens, R.G.; Lott, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, the National Transuranic (TRU) Waste Program (NTP) achieved two significant milestones. First, the Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP) opened in March for the permanent disposal of TRU waste generated by, and temporarily stored at, various sites supporting the nation's defense programs. Second, the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, issued by the New Mexico Environment Department, for WIPP became effective in November. While the opening of WIPP brought to closure a number of scientific, engineering, regulatory, and political challenges, achieving this major milestone led to a new set of challenges-how to achieve the Department of Energy's (DOE's) NTP end-state vision: All TRU waste from DOE sites scheduled for closure is removed All legacy TRU waste from DOE sites with an ongoing nuclear mission is disposed 0 All newly generated TRU waste is disposed as it is generated The goal is to operate the national TRU waste program safely, cost effectively, in compliance with applicable regulations and agreements, and at full capacity in a fully integrated mode. The existing schedule for TRU waste disposition would achieve the NTP vision in 2034 at an estimated life-cycle cost of $16B. The DOE's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) seeks to achieve this vision early-by at least 10 years- while saving the nation an estimated $48 to $6B. CBFO's approach is to optimize, or to make as functional as possible, TRU waste disposition. That is, to remove barriers that impede waste disposition, and increase the rate and cost efficiency of waste disposal at WIPP, while maintaining safety. The Mobile/Modular Deployment Project (MMDP) is the principal vehicle for implementing DOE's new commercial model of using best business practices of national authorization basis, standardization, and economies of scale to accelerate the completion of WIPP's mission. The MMDP is one of the cornerstones of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (1). The objective of the MMDP is to increase TRU

  3. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated data base for 1988: Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1987. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reportd for miscellaneous, highly radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 89 refs., 46 figs., 104 tabs

  5. Integrated data base for 1986: spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive wastes through December 31, 1985, based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional activities and the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth. The materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions

  6. Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant

  7. Radioactive waste generated from JAERI partitioning-transmutation cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinichi, Nakayama; Yasuji, Morita; Kenji, Nishihara [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as {sup 14}C and {sup 59}Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (author)

  8. Radioactive Wastes Generated From JAERI Partitioning-Transmutation Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Morita, Yasuji; Nishihara, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI's processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as 14 C and 59 Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (authors)

  9. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietsche, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE's Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP's charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program

  10. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  11. Electrical and Electronical Waste Generation in Turkey: Bursa Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güray SALİHOĞLU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and electronical equipment that gradually take more place in our daily life, spend their service life in short times and become an e-waste problem to be solved.  Because of the hazardous components they contain, e-waste can cause environmental and human health threats if they are not properly managed. If they are managed properly, they can be a valuable raw material source, since they contain valuable metals such as copper, silver, gold, palladium and recyclable components such as plastics and metals. According to a research conducted in 2014, the global e-waste amount accounts to a source worth 52 billion $; however, only 16% of this source has been properly recycled. It is important to know the potential e-waste amount and the behaviors of people in the production of e-waste to realize a proper e-waste management in our country. The amount and property of electrical and electronic equipment and e-waste generation potential per person in Bursa was investigated in this study. A questionnaire was prepared and applied to a group of people including 31 families (100 person. The questions were to investigate the behaviors in the use, replacement, and management of electrical and electronical equipment. The findings showed that usage of lamps (fluorescent and others were higher than the other equipment, and usage of mobile phones were found to be highest in terms of devices. It was also found that when the mobiles become e-waste since the owners do not want to use them, they are not just thrown away and kept at homes instead. E-waste generation potential of a person from the families investigated was estimated to be 8.14 kg/year.

  12. A West Valley Demonstration Project Milestone - Achieving Certification to Ship Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J. P.; Pastor, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) has successfully pretreated and vitrified nearly all of the 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste that was generated at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. Low-level waste (LLW) generated during the course of the cleanup effort now requires disposal. Currently the WVDP only ships Class A LLW for off-site disposal. It has been shipping Class A wastes to Envirocare of Utah, Inc. since 1997. However, the WVDP may also have a future need to ship Class B and Class C waste, which Envirocare is not currently authorized to accept. The Nevada Test Site (NTS), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, can accept all three waste classifications. The WVDP set a goal to receive certification to begin shipping Class A wastes to NTS by 2001. Formal certification/approval was granted by the DOE Nevada Operations Office on July 12, 2001. This paper discusses how the WVDP contractor, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), completed the activities required to achieve NTS certification in 2001 to ship waste to its facility. The information and lessons learned provided are significant because the WVDP is the only new generator receiving certification based on an NTS audit in January 2001 that resulted in no findings and only two observations--a rating that is unparalleled in the DOE Complex

  13. Current Status of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Budhiarta, Iwan; Siwar, Chamhuri; Basri, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Recent investigations in 2010 resulted information that population of Kuala Lumpur City Area has reached 1.66 million people (JPM, 2009). With the population growth rate of 6.1 percent, then the population in the year 2010 can be estimated at least to 1.69 million people. The number of municipal solid waste generated from Kuala Lumpur State Territory and delivered to TBTS was recorded of 2,000 tonnes per day. Accordingly, the solid waste generation average for any person is 1.2 kilograms a da...

  14. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

    1981-01-01

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  15. Projected legislation on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Should be regulatory proposals contained in the draft of a law to change the legal regulations concerning nuclear power (as of September 1, 1992) be put into effect, this would mean an essential conceptual change concerning radioactive waste management. The contribution examines the essential changes and comes to the following conclusion: 1. At present there is a need for concretization of regulations concerning reactor decommissioning by means of amendments of laws, legal regulations and administrative regulations. The set of rules concerning nuclear technology must be adapted to the specific situation in which reactor decommissioning, reactor dismantling and confinement are involved. 2. No convincing reacons for privatizing the construction and operation of radwaste repositories exist. The advantages of such a change in course are not apparent. 3. Direct radwaste disposal should be legally defined in clear terms as an independent and cumulative process of waste disposal (in addition to and apart from radwaste repositing and re-processing). Hereby the utilization of radioactive waste products should continue to be given priority. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Salt Repository Project Waste Package Program Plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.; Cunnane, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Under the direction of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) created within the DOE by direction of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the mission of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) is to provide for the development of a candidate salt repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent reactor fuel in a manner that fully protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In consideration of the program needs and requirements discussed above, the SRP has decided to develop and issue this SRP Waste Package Program Plan. This document is intended to outline how the SRP plans to develop the waste package design and to show, with reasonable assurance, that the developed design will satisfy applicable requirements/performance objectives. 44 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs

  17. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Waste Package Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison-Giesler, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-02-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) waste package program is to develop, confirm the effectiveness of, and document a design for a waste package and associated engineered barrier system (EBS) for spent nuclear fuel and solidified high-level nuclear waste (HLW) that meets the applicable regulatory requirements for a geologic repository. The Waste Package Plan describes the waste package program and establishes the technical approach against which overall progress can be measured. It provides guidance for execution and describes the essential elements of the program, including the objectives, technical plan, and management approach. The plan covers the time period up to the submission of a repository license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 1 fig

  18. LLNL/YMP Waste Container Fabrication and Closure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a suitable site for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing and developing the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. This report is a summary of the technical activities for the LLNL/YMP Nuclear Waste Disposal Container Fabrication and Closure Development Project. Candidate welding closure processes were identified in the Phase 1 report. This report discusses Phase 2. Phase 2 of this effort involved laboratory studies to determine the optimum fabrication and closure processes. Because of budget limitations, LLNL narrowed the materials for evaluation in Phase 2 from the original six to four: Alloy 825, CDA 715, CDA 102 (or CDA 122) and CDA 952. Phase 2 studies focused on evaluation of candidate material in conjunction with fabrication and closure processes

  19. Waste-to-energy technologies and project implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Rogoff, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    This book covers in detail programs and technologies for converting traditionally landfilled solid wastes into energy through waste-to-energy projects. Modern Waste-to-Energy plants are being built around the world to reduce the levels of solid waste going into landfill sites and contribute to renewable energy and carbon reduction targets. The latest technologies have also reduced the pollution levels seen from early waste incineration plants by over 99 per cent. With case studies from around the world, Rogoff and Screve provide an insight into the different approaches taken to the planning and implementation of WTE. The second edition includes coverage of the latest technologies and practical engineering challenges as well as an exploration of the economic and regulatory context for the development of WTE.

  20. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Solid waste data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizior, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989 Amoco and the US Environmental Protection Agency initiated a joint project to review pollution prevention alternatives at Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown, Virginia, Refinery as a case study site. The report summarizes the solid waste emissions inventory, solids source identification, and the solid waste sampling program that was conducted at the Amoco Yorktown Refinery on September 25-27, 1990, in support of the Pollution Prevention Project. Major findings showed that the majority of solid waste generation occurs as end-of-pipe solids resulting from the treatment of wastewaters from the refinery sewer. Based on a regression analysis of the composition data for samples collected during this project, major upstream contributors to these solids appear to be soils. Solids from process units are also significant contributors

  1. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report

  2. A model for quantifying construction waste in projects according to the European waste list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llatas, C

    2011-06-01

    The new EU challenge is to recover 70% by weight of C&D waste in 2020. Literature reveals that one major barrier is the lack of data. Therefore, this paper presents a model which allows technicians to estimate C&D waste during the design stage in order to promote prevention and recovery. The types and quantities of CW are estimated and managed according to EU guidelines, by building elements and specifically for each project. The model would allow detection of the source of the waste and to adopt other alternative procedures which delete hazardous waste and reduce CW. Likewise, it develops a systematic structure of the construction process, a waste classification system and some analytical expressions which are based on factors. These factors depend on technology and represent a standard on site. It would allow to develop a database of waste anywhere. A Spanish case study is covered. Factors were obtained by studying over 20 dwellings. The source and types of packaging waste, remains, soil and hazardous waste were estimated in detail and were compared with other studies. Results reveal that the model can be implemented in projects and the chances of reducing and recovery C&D waste could be increased, well above the EU challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accelerator Production of Tritium project process waste assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    DOE has made a commitment to compliance with all applicable environmental regulatory requirements. In this respect, it is important to consider and design all tritium supply alternatives so that they can comply with these requirements. The management of waste is an integral part of this activity and it is therefore necessary to estimate the quantities and specific wastes that will be generated by all tritium supply alternatives. A thorough assessment of waste streams includes waste characterization, quantification, and the identification of treatment and disposal options. The waste assessment for APT has been covered in two reports. The first report was a process waste assessment (PWA) that identified and quantified waste streams associated with both target designs and fulfilled the requirements of APT Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Item 5.5.2.1. This second report is an expanded version of the first that includes all of the data of the first report, plus an assessment of treatment and disposal options for each waste stream identified in the initial report. The latter information was initially planned to be issued as a separate Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Assessment Report (WBS Item 5.5.2.2)

  4. Accelerator Production of Tritium project process waste assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    DOE has made a commitment to compliance with all applicable environmental regulatory requirements. In this respect, it is important to consider and design all tritium supply alternatives so that they can comply with these requirements. The management of waste is an integral part of this activity and it is therefore necessary to estimate the quantities and specific wastes that will be generated by all tritium supply alternatives. A thorough assessment of waste streams includes waste characterization, quantification, and the identification of treatment and disposal options. The waste assessment for APT has been covered in two reports. The first report was a process waste assessment (PWA) that identified and quantified waste streams associated with both target designs and fulfilled the requirements of APT Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Item 5.5.2.1. This second report is an expanded version of the first that includes all of the data of the first report, plus an assessment of treatment and disposal options for each waste stream identified in the initial report. The latter information was initially planned to be issued as a separate Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Assessment Report (WBS Item 5.5.2.2).

  5. The international STRIPA project. Experimental research on the underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The International Stripa Project is a joint undertaking by a number of countries, carried out under the sponsorship of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. It concerns research into the feasibility and safety of disposal of highly radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation, deep underground in crystalline rock. The Project is managed by the Division KBS of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Company (SKBF), under the direction of representatives from each participating country. This report summarizes the objectives and preliminary results of experimental work performed within the framework of the Stripa Project and that undertaken prior to the establishment of the Project at the Stripa Mine in Sweden. It also describes the part played by the Project in the development of national policies for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes

  6. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) integrated project management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olona, D.; Sala, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development project of the Department of Energy (DOE), tasked with the mission of demonstrating the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes. This unique project was authorized by Congress in 1979 in response to the national need for long-term, safe methods for disposing of radioactive by-products from our national defense programs. The WIPP was originally established in December of 1979, by Public Law 96-164, DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980. Since the inception of the WIPP Project, work has continued to prepare the facility to receive TRU wastes. Studies continue to be conducted to demonstrate the safety of the WIPP facility in accordance with federal and state laws, state agreements, environmental regulations, and DOE Orders. The objectives of implementing an integrated project management system are to assure compliance with all regulatory and federal regulations, identify areas of concern, provide justification for funding, provide a management tool for control of program workscope, and establish a project baseline from which accountability and performance will be assessed. Program management and project controls are essential for the success of the WIPP Project. The WIPP has developed an integrated project management system to establish the process for the control of the program which has an expected total dollar value of $2B over the ten-year period from 1990-2000. The implementation of this project management system was motivated by the regulatory requirements of the project, the highly public environment in which the project takes place, limited funding and resources, and the dynamic nature of the project. Specific areas to be addressed in this paper include strategic planning, project organization, planning and scheduling, fiscal planning, and project monitoring and reporting

  7. Swiss projects for the final disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.

    1987-01-01

    At present, the major part of the discussion does not focus on technical assessment methodology and data, but rather on interpretation of the available geologic data for high-level waste disposal planning. Meanwhile, plans for the implementation of repositories have to be developed. Accordingly, the longer-term studies on high-level waste disposal are proceeding at a pace appropriate for their relatively far-future timescales, and intensified efforts are being put into projects for design, siting, safety assessment and construction of the more urgently required repository for low and intermediate level waste. (orig./PW) [de

  8. Defense waste processing facility project at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, R.G.; Maher, R.; Mellen, J.B.; Shafranek, L.F.; Stevens, W.R. III.

    1984-01-01

    The Du Pont Company is building for the Department of Energy a facility to vitrify high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactive wastes produced by defense activities at the site. At the present time engineering and design are 45% complete, the site has been cleared, and startup is expected in 1989. This paper will describe project status as well as features of the design. 9 figures

  9. Sustainable waste management in Africa through CDM projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couth, R. [CRECHE, Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE, Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a compendium on GHG reductions via improved waste strategies in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note provides a strategic framework for Local Authorities in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assists LAs to select Zero Waste scenarios and achieve sustained GHG reduction. - Abstract: Only few Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects (traditionally focussed on landfill gas combustion) have been registered in Africa if compared to similar developing countries. The waste hierarchy adopted by many African countries clearly shows that waste recycling and composting projects are generally the most sustainable. This paper undertakes a sustainability assessment for practical waste treatment and disposal scenarios for Africa and makes recommendations for consideration. The appraisal in this paper demonstrates that mechanical biological treatment of waste becomes more financially attractive if established through the CDM process. Waste will continue to be dumped in Africa with increasing greenhouse gas emissions produced, unless industrialised countries (Annex 1) fund carbon emission reduction schemes through a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol. Such a replacement should calculate all of the direct and indirect carbon emission savings and seek to promote public-private partnerships through a concerted support of the informal sector.

  10. The upper Rhine waste heat project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikarski, W.

    1977-03-01

    The tasks and targets of the project are: 1) Determination of the parameters relevant for an assessment of consequences, e.g.: General influences on weather and climate, anthropogenic influences on weather and climate, effects, affected systems, boundary conditions, anthropogenic changes in boundary conditions. 2) Developing a method of evaluation. 3) Establishing a sensitivity model and carrying out analyses. 4) Determining interface parameters which relate this project to other projects. 5) Summary of the findings and preparation of the main study. The cooperating institutions are: UBA, GfK, KFA, Deutscher Wetterdienst, University Bonn (Inst. f. Meteorology), Bonnenberg + Drescher GmbH, ISI (FhG Karlsruhe). (orig./HP) [de

  11. Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S.; Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also

  12. Radioactive waste assessment using 'minimum waste generation' scenario - summary report March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.A.; Goodill, D.R.; Tymons, B.J.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes an assessment of radioactive waste management arisings from a defined nuclear power generation - Scheme 1. Scheme 1 assumes a minimum waste generation scenario with raw waste arisings from 3 main groups; (i) existing and committed commercial reactors; (ii) fuel reprocessing plants, (iii) research, industry and medicine. No decommissioning wastes are considered except for arisings from the final fuel cores from decommissioned reactors. The study uses the SIMULATION2 code which models waste material flows through the system. With a knowledge of the accumulations and average production rates of the raw wastes and their isotopic compositions (or total activities), the rates at which conditioned wastes become available for transportation and disposal are calculated, with specific activity levels. The data bases for the inventory calculations and the assumptions concerning future operation of nuclear facilities were those current in 1983. Both the inventory data and plans for the future of existing nuclear installations have been updated since these calculations were completed. Therefore the results from this assessment do not represent the most up-to-date information available. The report does, however, illustrate the methodology of assessment and indicates the type of information that can be generated. (author)

  13. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. FY 1979 project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This document presents the management and cost for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (disposal of high-level wastes at Nevada Test Site) and provides a complete description of the overall project, management structure, technical approach, and work breakdown structure. The document is organized into five major sections. Section I summarizes the history of the project and indicates a potential future course of action. FY 1979 project work is briefly described in Section II. Section III outlines the delegated responsibilities of all project management functions. A list of critical questions that guide the technical approach of the project are presented in Section IV. Section V contains subtask work plans which outline the work in detail for this fiscal year

  14. A comparative study on per capita waste generation according to a waste collecting system in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Hwan; Lee, Eui-Jong; Oh, Jeong Ik; Kim, Jong-Oh; Jang, Am

    2016-04-01

    As cities are becoming increasingly aware of problems related to conventional mobile collection systems, automated pipeline-based vacuum collection (AVAC) systems have been introduced in some densely populated urban areas. The reasons are that in addition to cost savings, AVAC systems can be efficient, hygienic, and environmentally friendly. Despite difficulties in making direct comparisons of municipal waste between a conventional mobile collection system and an AVAC system, it is meaningful to measure the quantities in each of these collection methods either in total or on a per capita generation of waste (PCGW, g/(day*capita)) basis. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the difference in per capita generation of household waste according to the different waste collection methods in Korea. Observations on household waste show that there were considerable differences according to waste collection methods. The value of per capita generation of food waste (PCGF) indicates that a person in a city using AVAC produces 60 % of PCGF (109.58 g/(day*capita)), on average, compared with that of a truck system (173.10 g/(day*capita)) as well as 23 %p less moisture component than that with trucks. The value of per capita generation of general waste (PCGG) in a city with an AVAC system showed 147.73 g/(day*capita), which is 20 % less than that with trucks delivered (185 g/(day*capita)). However, general waste sampled from AVAC showed a 35 %p increased moisture content versus truck delivery.

  15. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm.

  16. Project Strategy For The Remediation And Disposition Of Legacy Transuranic Waste At The Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the Savannah River Site Accelerated Transuranic (TRU) Waste Project that was initiated in April of 2009 to accelerate the disposition of remaining legacy transuranic waste at the site. An overview of the project execution strategy that was implemented is discussed along with the lessons learned, challenges and improvements to date associated with waste characterization, facility modifications, startup planning, and remediation activities. The legacy waste was generated from approximately 1970 through 1990 and originated both on site as well as at multiple US Department of Energy sites. Approximately two thirds of the waste was previously dispositioned from 2006 to 2008, with the remaining one third being the more hazardous waste due to its activity (curie content) and the plutonium isotope Pu-238 quantities in the waste. The project strategy is a phased approach beginning with the lower activity waste in existing facilities while upgrades are made to support remediation of the higher activity waste. Five waste remediation process lines will be used to support the full remediation efforts which involve receipt of the legacy waste container, removal of prohibited items, venting of containers, and resizing of contents to fit into current approved waste shipping containers. Modifications have been minimized to the extent possible to meet the accelerated goals and involve limited upgrades to address life safety requirements, radiological containment needs, and handling equipment for the larger waste containers. Upgrades are also in progress for implementation of the TRUPACT III for the shipment of Standard Large Boxes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the US TRU waste repository. The use of this larger shipping container is necessary for approximately 20% of the waste by volume due to limited size reduction capability. To date, approximately 25% of the waste has been dispositioned, and several improvements have been made to the overall processing

  17. Inter-generational Decision Making for Radioactive Waste Disposal, Policy and Science: Regulatory Protection Forever?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, E.P.; Wallo, A.

    2006-01-01

    Assumptions about this generation's duty to future generations underlie decisions on regulatory requirements for disposal of radioactive waste. Regulatory provisions related to time of compliance, dose criteria, and institutional controls, for example, continue to be topics of discussion as regulations are revised or compared. Subjective and difficult ethical issues are either explicit or implicit in these discussions. The information and criteria used must be relevant and help make good decisions that, ideally, increase the overall welfare of future generations. To what extent can or should science usefully inform such decision-making? Both the National Academies of Science and the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) have reported on this topic, albeit from different viewpoints. This paper explains and expands upon the rationale used for setting compliance time periods such as the Department of Energy's requirement for a 1,000 year time of compliance with dose limits for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It evaluates radioactive waste disposal against principles of equity recommended by NAPA. Radioactive waste disposal standards require evaluation of impacts much farther into the future than has been common for other endeavors with very long term effects. While performance assessment analyses provide much useful information, their inherent uncertainties over long time periods preclude the projection of reality. Thus, the usefulness of extremely long projections in supporting good decisions that promote the welfare of future generations is limited. Such decisions are fundamentally a question of resource allocation, equity, and fairness. (authors)

  18. 327 Building liquid waste handling options modification project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste (RLW) generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 327 Building. The overall objective of the 327 Facility Stabilization Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of the 327 Facility. The issue of handling of RLW from the 327 Facility (assuming the 34O Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been conceptually examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart l997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 327 Facility RLWS handling systems to provide a truck load-out station, either within the confines of the facility or exterior to the facility. The alternatives also maximized the use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes. An issue discussed in each study involved the anticipated volume of the RLW stream. Estimates ranged between 113,550 and 387,500 liters in the earlier studies. During the development of the 324/327 Building Stabilization/Deactivation Project Management Plan, the lower estimate of approximately 113,550 liters was confirmed and has been adopted as the baseline for the 327 Facility RLW stream. The goal of this engineering study is to reevaluate the existing preferred alternative and select a new preferred alternative, if appropriate. Based on the new or confirmed preferred alternative, this study will also provide a conceptual design and cost estimate for required modifications to the 327 Facility to allow removal of RLWS and treatment of the RLW generated during deactivation

  19. Radioactive Waste Generation in Pyro-SFR Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Fanxing; Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2011-01-01

    Which nuclear fuel cycle option to deploy is of great importance in the sustainability of nuclear power. SFR fuel cycle employing pyroprocessing (named as Pyro- SFR Cycle) is one promising fuel cycle option in the near future. Radioactive waste generation is a key criterion in nuclear fuel cycle system analysis, which considerably affects the future development of nuclear power. High population with small territory is one special characteristic of ROK, which makes the waste management pretty important. In this study, particularly the amount of waste generation with regard to the promising advanced fuel cycle option was evaluated, because the difficulty of deploying an underground repository for HLW disposal requires a longer time especially in ROK

  20. Nuclear Waste Facing the Test of Time: The Case of the French Deep Geological Repository Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot-Delpech, Sophie; Raineau, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to consider the socio-anthropological issues raised by the deep geological repository project for high-level, long-lived nuclear waste. It is based on fieldwork at a candidate site for a deep storage project in eastern France, where an underground laboratory has been studying the feasibility of the project since 1999. A project of this nature, based on the possibility of very long containment (hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer), involves a singular form of time. By linking project performance to geology's very long timescale, the project attempts "jump" in time, focusing on a far distant future, without understanding it in terms of generations. But these future generations remain measurements of time on the surface, where the issue of remembering or forgetting the repository comes to the fore. The nuclear waste geological storage project raises questions that neither politicians nor scientists, nor civil society, have ever confronted before. This project attempts to address a problem that exists on a very long timescale, which involves our responsibility toward generations in the far future.

  1. NEXT GENERATION MELTER(S) FOR VITRIFICATION OF HANFORD WASTE: STATUS AND DIRECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, W.G.; Gray, M.F.; Calmus, R.B.; Edge, J.A.; Garrett, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Vitrification technology has been selected to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site, the West Valley Demonstration Project and the Savannah River Site (SRS), and low activity waste (LAW) at Hanford. In addition, it may potentially be applied to other defense waste streams such as sodium bearing tank waste or calcine. Joule-heated melters (already in service at SRS) will initially be used at the Hanford Site's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to vitrify tank waste fractions. The glass waste content and melt/production rates at WTP are limited by the current melter technology. Significant reductions in glass volumes and mission life are only possible with advancements in melter technology coupled with new glass formulations. The Next Generation Melter (NGM) program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Environmental Management Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) to develop melters with greater production capacity (absolute glass throughput rate) and the ability to process melts with higher waste fractions. Advanced systems based on Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (JHCM) and Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technologies will be evaluated for HLW and LAW processing. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), DOE's tank waste contractor, is developing and evaluating these systems in cooperation with EM-31, national and university laboratories, and corporate partners. A primary NGM program goal is to develop the systems (and associated flowsheets) to Technology Readiness Level 6 by 2016. Design and testing are being performed to optimize waste glass process envelopes with melter and balance of plant requirements. A structured decision analysis program will be utilized to assess the performance of the competing melter technologies. Criteria selected for the decision analysis program will include physical process operations, melter performance, system compatibility and other parameters.

  2. Determinants of sustainability in solid waste management – The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurbrügg, Christian; Gfrerer, Margareth; Ashadi, Henki; Brenner, Werner; Küper, David

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Our assessment tool helps evaluate success factors in solid waste projects. ► Success of the composting plant in Indonesia is linked to its community integration. ► Appropriate technology is not a main determining success factor for sustainability. ► Structured assessment of “best practices” can enhance replication in other cities. - Abstract: According to most experts, integrated and sustainable solid waste management should not only be given top priority, but must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success of any solid waste project. Aside from project sustainable impacts, the overall enabling environment is the key feature determining performance and success of an integrated and affordable solid waste system. This paper describes a project-specific approach to assess typical success or failure factors. A questionnaire-based assessment method covers issues of: (i) social mobilisation and acceptance (social element), (ii) stakeholder, legal and institutional arrangements comprising roles, responsibilities and management functions (institutional element); (iii) financial and operational requirements, as well as cost recovery mechanisms (economic element). The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Bali, Indonesia was analysed using this integrated assessment method. The results clearly identified chief characteristics, key factors to consider when planning country wide replication but also major barriers and obstacles which must be overcome to ensure project sustainability. The Gianyar project consists of a composting unit processing 60 tons of municipal waste per day from 500,000 inhabitants, including manual waste segregation and subsequent composting of the biodegradable organic fraction.

  3. Determinants of sustainability in solid waste management - The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurbruegg, Christian, E-mail: zurbrugg@eawag.ch [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Gfrerer, Margareth, E-mail: margareth.gfrerer@gmx.net [Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok Campus, 16424 Jakarta (Indonesia); Ashadi, Henki, E-mail: henki@eng.ui.ac.id [Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok Campus, 16424 Jakarta (Indonesia); Brenner, Werner, E-mail: werner.brenner@gmx.at [Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok Campus, 16424 Jakarta (Indonesia); Kueper, David, E-mail: dkuper@indo.net.id [Yayasan Pemilahan Sampah Temesi, Temsi-Gianyar, Bali (Indonesia)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our assessment tool helps evaluate success factors in solid waste projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success of the composting plant in Indonesia is linked to its community integration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appropriate technology is not a main determining success factor for sustainability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structured assessment of 'best practices' can enhance replication in other cities. - Abstract: According to most experts, integrated and sustainable solid waste management should not only be given top priority, but must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success of any solid waste project. Aside from project sustainable impacts, the overall enabling environment is the key feature determining performance and success of an integrated and affordable solid waste system. This paper describes a project-specific approach to assess typical success or failure factors. A questionnaire-based assessment method covers issues of: (i) social mobilisation and acceptance (social element), (ii) stakeholder, legal and institutional arrangements comprising roles, responsibilities and management functions (institutional element); (iii) financial and operational requirements, as well as cost recovery mechanisms (economic element). The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Bali, Indonesia was analysed using this integrated assessment method. The results clearly identified chief characteristics, key factors to consider when planning country wide replication but also major barriers and obstacles which must be overcome to ensure project sustainability. The Gianyar project consists of a composting unit processing 60 tons of municipal waste per day from 500,000 inhabitants, including manual waste segregation and subsequent composting of the biodegradable organic fraction.

  4. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that...

  5. Steam generation by combustion of processed waste fats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudel, F.; Lengenfeld, P. [OEHMI Forschung und Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    The use of specially processed waste fats as a fuel oil substitute offers, at attractive costs, an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional disposal like refuse incineration or deposition. For that purpose the processed fat is mixed with EL fuel oil and burned in a standard steam generation plant equipped with special accessories. The measured emission values of the combustion processes are very low.

  6. Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case of health ... of an environmental risk to health care workers, the public and the environment at large. ... Only four out of ten health centers used local type of incinerators, while ...

  7. Assessment of healthcare waste generation rate and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of healthcare waste generation rate and its management system in health centers of Bench Maji Zone. ... Background: It is known that the basic role of healthcare system is to preserve the health of patients and protect the public from diseases. However, in the process of performing these activities, health ...

  8. Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

  9. A successful waste stream analysis on a large construction project in a radiologically controlled area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicott, M.; Richardson, D.; Starke, T.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility, constructed in 1952, is currently under going a major, multi-year demolition and construction project. Many of the operations required under this project (i.e., design, demolition, decontamination, construction, and waste management) mimic the processes required of a large scale decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) job and are identical to the requirements of any of several upgrades projects anticipated for the laboratory and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. For these reasons the CMR upgrades Project is seen as an ideal model facility--to test the application and measure the success of waste minimization techniques which could be implemented for any similar projects. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the successful completion of a waste stream analysis. The analyses performed was to measure the potential impact of waste generation, in terms of volume and costs, for a reconfiguration option being considered to change the approach and execution of the original project

  10. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  11. Tank Waste Remediation System Characterization Project Programmatic Risk Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baide, D.G.; Webster, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The TWRS Characterization Project has developed a process and plan in order to identify, manage and control the risks associated with tank waste characterization activities. The result of implementing this process is a defined list of programmatic risks (i.e. a risk management list) that are used by the Project as management tool. This concept of risk management process is a commonly used systems engineering approach which is being applied to all TWRS program and project elements. The Characterization Project risk management plan and list are subset of the overall TWRS risk management plan and list

  12. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segall, P.

    1998-01-01

    Hanford's missions are to safely clean up and manage the site's legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford's environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford's science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford's original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation's defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford's operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues

  13. Volume reduction of radioactive concrete waste generated from KRR-2 and UCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Choi, W. K.; Park, J. W.; Lee, K. W.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of a technical development for the volume reduction and stabilization of contaminated concrete wastes generated by dismantling a research reactor and uranium conversion plant, we have developed the volume reduction technology and immobilization of fine powder applicable to an activated heavy weight concrete generated by dismantling KRR-2 and a uranium contaminated light weight concrete produced from a UCP decommissioning. During a decommissioning of nuclear plants and facilities, large quantities of contaminated concrete wastes are generated. The decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and a uranium conversion plant has been under way. In Korea, two decommissioning projects such as the decommissioning of the retired research reactors (KRR-1 and 2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been carried out. By dismantling KRR-2, more than 260 tons of radioactive concrete wastes are generated among the total 2,000 tons of concrete wastes and more than 60 tons of concrete wastes contaminated with uranium compounds are generated in UCP decommissioning up to now. The volume reduction and recycling of the wastes is essential to reduce the waste management cost with expecting that an approximate disposal cost for low level radioactive waste will be more than 5,000 US dollars per 200 liter waste drum in Korea. It is well known that most of the radioactivity exist in cement mortar and paste composed of concrete. In this context, the volume reduction of concrete waste is based on the separation of radioactive concrete into a clean recyclable aggregates and a radioactive fine cement powder, which can be readily performed by heating to weaken the adherence force between the cement matrix and the aggregates followed by mechanical crushing and milling processes. In this study, we have investigated the characteristics of separation of aggregates and the distribution of radioactivity into

  14. Role of quality assurance vs project manager's responsibility for waste projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solecki, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper takes a project manager's perspective and discusses the role of the quality assurance organization in the development, implementation and interface related to the QA program for waste projects. The author describes the role which the QA program plays in allowing project management to assure that the project manager knows what is placed in the repository and the characteristics of the surrounding environment meet closure requirements

  15. State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office narrative report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) is the State of Nevada agency designated by State law to monitor and oversee US Department of Energy (DOE) activities relative to the possible siting, construction, operation and closure of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain and to carry out the State of Nevada's responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During the reporting period the NWPO continued to work toward the five objectives designed to implement the Agency's oversight responsibilities: (1) Assure that the health and safety of Nevada's citizens are adequately protected with regard to any federal high-level radioactive waste program within the State; (2) Take the responsibilities and perform the duties of the State of Nevada as described in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987; (3) Advise the Governor, the State Commission on Nuclear Projects and the Nevada State Legislature on matters concerning the potential disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the State; (4) Work closely and consult with affected local governments and State agencies; (5) Monitor and evaluate federal planning and activities regarding high-level radioactive waste disposal. Plan and conduct independent State studies regarding the proposed repository

  16. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  17. Overview of hydrothermal testing of waste-package barrier materials at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The current Waste Package Department (WPD) hydrothermal testing program for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has followed a systematic approach for the testing of waste-barrier-basalt interactions based on sequential penetration of barriers by intruding groundwaters. Present test activities in the WPD program have focused on determining radionuclide solubility limits (or steady-state conditions) of simulated waste forms and the long-term stability of waste package barriers under site-specific hydrothermal conditions. The resulting data on solution compositions and solid alteration products have been used to evaluate waste form degradation under conditions specific to a nuclear waste repository located in basalt (NWRB). Isothermal, time-invariant compositional data on sampled solutions have been coupled with realistic hydrologic flow data for near-field and far-field modeling for the calculation of meaningful radionuclide release rates. Radionuclides that are not strongly sorbed or precipitated from solution and that, therefore, may require special attention to ensure their isolation within the waste package have been identified. Taken together, these hydrothermal test data have been used to establish design requirements for waste packages located in basalt

  18. Automated methodology for estimating waste streams generated from decommissioning contaminated facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, J.J.; King, D.A.; Humphreys, K.K.; Haffner, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), a viable way to determine aggregate waste volumes, cost, and direct labor hours for decommissioning and decontaminating facilities is required. In this paper, a methodology is provided for determining waste streams, cost and direct labor hours from remediation of contaminated facilities. The method is developed utilizing U.S. facility remediation data and information from several decommissioning programs, including reactor decommissioning projects. The method provides for rapid, consistent analysis for many facility types. Three remediation scenarios are considered for facility D ampersand D: unrestricted land use, semi-restricted land use, and restricted land use. Unrestricted land use involves removing radioactive components, decontaminating the building surfaces, and demolishing the remaining structure. Semi-restricted land use involves removing transuranic contamination and immobilizing the contamination on-site. Restricted land use involves removing the transuranic contamination and leaving the building standing. In both semi-restricted and restricted land use scenarios, verification of containment with environmental monitoring is required. To use the methodology, facilities are placed in a building category depending upon the level of contamination, construction design, and function of the building. Unit volume and unit area waste generation factors are used to calculate waste volumes and estimate the amount of waste generated in each of the following classifications: low-level, transuranic, and hazardous waste. Unit factors for cost and labor hours are also applied to the result to estimate D ampersand D cost and labor hours

  19. INEL Waste and Environmental Information Integration Project approach and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.

    1994-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information

  20. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  1. Next generation of high-efficient waste incinerators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jappe Frandsen, F.

    2010-11-15

    Modern society produces increasing amounts of combustible waste which may be utilized for heat and power production, at a lower emission of CO{sub 2}, e.g. by substituting a certain fraction of energy from fossil fuel-fired power stations. In 2007, 20.4 % of the district heating and 4.5 % of the power produced in Denmark came from thermal conversion of waste, and waste is a very important part of a future sustainable, and independent, Danish energy supply [Frandsen et al., 2009; Groen Energi, 2010]. In Denmark, approx 3.3 Mtons of waste was produced in 2005, an amount predicted to increase to 4.4 Mtons by the year 2030. According to Affald Danmark, 25 % of the current WtE plant capacity in Denmark is older than 20 years, which is usually considered as the technical and economical lifetime of WtE plants. Thus, there is a need for installation of a significant fraction of new waste incineration capacity, preferentially with an increased electrical efficiency, within the next few years. Compared to fossil fuels, waste is difficult to handle in terms of pre-treatment, combustion, and generation of reusable solid residues. In particular, the content of inorganic species (S, Cl, K, Na, etc.) is problematic, due to enhanced deposition and corrosion - especially at higher temperatures. This puts severe constraints on the electrical efficiency of grate-fired units utilizing waste, which seldom exceeds 26-27%, campared to 46-48 % for coal combustion in suspension. The key parameters when targeting higher electrical efficiency are the pressure and temperature in the steam cycle, which are limited by high-temperature corrosion, boiler- and combustion-technology. This report reviews some of the means that can be applied in order to increase the electrical efficiency in plants firing waste on a grate. (Author)

  2. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using general RDF; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (ippainado RDF riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The refuse-derived fuel (RDF) has been holding public attention not only as the energy resource of stable high calorific value for local energy development, but also as the effective method for waste treatment. As one of the effective utilization methods for waste treatment, this investigation was conducted to industrialize and establish the RDF power generation system, in which power generation and ash treatment are integrated in Tochigi Prefecture which is located inland. The base supply type was adopted as a way of operation from the menu of the electricity wholesale project of Tokyo Electric Power Co. and its rate of operation is 80 percent a year. Then, the fluidized bed combustion method, a dry exhaust gas treatment method, and continuous electric melting furnaces were decided as the RDF power generation system. According to this system, it is possible to obtain 26 percent gross thermal efficiency by conventional generation facilities. It was estimated that the expenses reduction for 15 years will be 17.6 billion yen compared with the ordinary combustion system. Also, the following effects can be expected; the reduction of CO2 emission, improvement of energy efficiency, and the extension of life of landfills capacity. 36 figs., 51 tabs.

  3. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  4. Gas generation and migration analysis for TRU waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kenichi; Noda, Masaru; Yamamoto, Mikihiko; Mihara, Morihiro

    2005-09-01

    In TRU waste disposal system, significant quantities of gases may be generated due to metal corrosion, radiolysis effect and microorganism activities. It is therefore recommended that the potential impact of gas generation and migration on TRU waste repository should be evaluated. In this study, gas generation rates were calculated in the repository and gas migration analysis in the disposal system were carried out using two phase flow model with results of gas generation rates. First, the time dependencies of gas generation rate in each TRU waste repositories were evaluated based on amounts of metal, organic matter and radioactivity. Next, the accumulation pressure of gases and expelled pore water volume nuclides in the repository were calculated by TOUGH2 code. After that, the results showed that the increase of gas pressure was the range of 1.3 to 1.4 MPa. In the repository with and without buffer, the rate of expelled pore water was 0.006 - 0.009 m 3 /y and 0.018 - 0.24m 3 /y, respectively. In addition, the radioactive gas migration through the repository and geosphere are evaluated. And re-saturation analysis is also performed to evaluate the initial condition of the system. (author)

  5. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  6. Environmental impact statement on management of commercially generated radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Kreiter, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the generic environmental impact statement on the management of generated high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes. The contents of the statement are summarized. The alternatives considered include: geologic disposal; chemical resynthesis; very deep hole disposal; rock melting concept; island disposal; subseabed disposal; icesheet disposal; reverse well disposal; transmutation treatment; and space disposal concepts. The types and quantities of wastes considered are from 3 different fuel cycles for the LWR reactor: once through; uranium-only recycle; and uranium and platinum recycle

  7. CONRRAD Project: how CNEA is managing radioactive waste knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetere, Claudia L.; Gomiz, Pablo R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce CONRRAD Project, which is an initiative of the Knowledge Management Group (GesCon) belonged to the Nuclear Safety and Environment Area, for knowledge preservation of Radioactive Waste Management. It discusses the methodology and the results that have been achieved at present. (author)

  8. Steam-Generator Integrity Program/Steam-Generator Group Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Steam Generator Integrity Program (SGIP) is a comprehensive effort addressing issues of nondestructive test (NDT) reliability, inservice inspection (ISI) requirements, and tube plugging criteria for PWR steam generators. In addition, the program has interactive research tasks relating primary side decontamination, secondary side cleaning, and proposed repair techniques to nondestructive inspectability and primary system integrity. The program has acquired a service degraded PWR steam generator for research purposes. This past year a research facility, the Steam Generator Examination Facility (SGEF), specifically designed for nondestructive and destructive examination tasks of the SGIP was completed. The Surry generator previously transported to the Hanford Reservation was then inserted into the SGEF. Nondestructive characterization of the generator from both primary and secondary sides has been initiated. Decontamination of the channelhead cold leg side was conducted. Radioactive field maps were established in the steam generator, at the generator surface and in the SGEF

  9. Preliminary corrosion models for BWIP [Basalt Waste Isolation Project] canister materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, R.L.; Anantatmula, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Waste package development for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) requires the generation of materials degradation data under repository relevant conditions. These data are used to develop predictive models for the behavior of each component of waste package. The component models are exercised in performance analyses to optimize the waste package design. This document presents all repository relevant canister materials corrosion data that the BWIP and others have developed to date, describes the methodology used to develop preliminary corrosion models and provides the mathematical description of the models for both low carbon steel and Fe9Cr1Mo steel. Example environment/temperature history and model application calculations are presented to aid in understanding the models. The models are preliminary in nature and will be updated as additional corrosion data become available. 6 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, David

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  11. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmore, G. [Hazelwood Power Corporation, VIC (Australia); Pacific Power (International) Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled `SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy`. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs.

  12. Continuous organic waste digester and methane gas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araneta, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    A patent on the construction of a utility model of an industrial product of a continuous organic-waste digester and methane-gas generator is described. It comprises an airtight chamber to receive slurry of organic waste; a gas-water scrubber to purge carbon dioxide, odor-omitting gases and froth or scrum from newly formed methane gas evolving from said slurry of organic wastes; and two dually functioning slurry-feed and -discharge pipes connected to a reversible pump. It has one pipe with an opening at the base of an airtight chamber and the other pipe with up-ended openings below the fluid level of the slurry to be accumulated in the airtight chamber.

  13. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, G.

    1995-01-01

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled 'SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy'. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs

  14. Waste Management Project fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan, WBS 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Management Project manages and integrates (non-TWRS) waste management activities at the site. Activities include management of Hanford wastes as well as waste transferred to Hanford from other DOE, Department of Defense, or other facilities. This work includes handling, treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive, nonradioactive, hazardous, and mixed solid and liquid wastes. Major Waste Management Projects are the Solid Waste Project, Liquid Effluents Project, and Analytical Services. Existing facilities (e.g., grout vaults and canyons) shall be evaluated for reuse for these purposes to the maximum extent possible

  15. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  16. Radioactive Waste Management System: Draft Project Decision Schedule. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-425) requires that the Secretary of Energy prepare, in cooperation with affected Federal agencies, a Project Decision Schedule that portrays the optimum way to attain the operation of geologic repositories. The Draft Project Decision Schedule portrays the major milestones of the Radioactive Waste Management System. It also depicts the set of activities for which Federal agencies have responsibility and the deadlines for taking the required action that are associated with the activities. The NWPA also requires that Federal agencies having determined that they: (1) cannot comply with a deadline for taking a required action; or (2) fail to comply with a deadline contained in the Project Decision Schedule; submit a comprehensive report to the Secretary of Energy and Congress to explain their failure or expected failure. The Secretary, in turn, is required to submit to Congress a response to the agency's report. 7 figs., 13 tabs

  17. TWRS privatization support project waste characterization database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory requested support from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company in assembling radionuclide and chemical analyte sample data and inventory estimates for fourteen Hanford underground storage tanks: 241-AN-102, -104, -105, -106, and -107, 241-AP-102, -104, and -105, 241-AW-101, -103, and -105, 241 AZ-101 and -102; and 241-C-109. Sample data were assembled for sixteen radionuclides and thirty-five chemical analytes. The characterization data were provided to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the Tank Waste Remediation Services Privatization Support Project. The purpose of this report is to present the results and document the methodology used in preparing the waste characterization information data set to support the Tank Waste Remediation Services Privatization Support Project. This report describes the methodology used in assembling the waste characterization information and how that information was validated by a panel of independent technical reviewers. Also, contained in this report are the various data sets created: the master data set, a subset, and an unreviewed data set. The master data set contains waste composition information for Tanks 241-AN-102 and -107, 241-AP-102 and -105, 241-AW-101; and 241-AZ-101 and -102. The subset contains only the validated analytical sample data from the master data set. The unreviewed data set contains all collected but unreviewed sample data for Tanks 241-AN-104, -105, and -106; 241-AP-104; 241-AW-103 and-105; and 241-C-109. The methodology used to review the waste characterization information was found to be an accurate, useful way to separate the invalid or questionable data from the more reliable data. In the future, this methodology should be considered when validating waste characterization information

  18. Entropy Generation of Desalination Powered by Variable Temperature Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Warsinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Powering desalination by waste heat is often proposed to mitigate energy consumption and environmental impact; however, thorough technology comparisons are lacking in the literature. This work numerically models the efficiency of six representative desalination technologies powered by waste heat at 50, 70, 90, and 120 °C, where applicable. Entropy generation and Second Law efficiency analysis are applied for the systems and their components. The technologies considered are thermal desalination by multistage flash (MSF, multiple effect distillation (MED, multistage vacuum membrane distillation (MSVMD, humidification-dehumidification (HDH, and organic Rankine cycles (ORCs paired with mechanical technologies of reverse osmosis (RO and mechanical vapor compression (MVC. The most efficient technology was RO, followed by MED. Performances among MSF, MSVMD, and MVC were similar but the relative performance varied with waste heat temperature or system size. Entropy generation in thermal technologies increases at lower waste heat temperatures largely in the feed or brine portions of the various heat exchangers used. This occurs largely because lower temperatures reduce recovery, increasing the relative flow rates of feed and brine. However, HDH (without extractions had the reverse trend, only being competitive at lower temperatures. For the mechanical technologies, the energy efficiency only varies with temperature because of the significant losses from the ORC.

  19. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    OpenAIRE

    Batool Hasani; Younos Vakilalroaia

    2013-01-01

    One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC m...

  20. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement

  1. ''Project Crystal'' for ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    NAGRA (The National Association for storage of radioactive waste) in Baden has launched in North Switzerland an extensive geological research program. The current research program, under the title of ''Project Crystal'', aims at providing the scientific knowledge which is required for the assessment of the suitability of the crystalline sub-soil of North Switzerland for the ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste. Safety and feasibility of such ultimate storage are in the forefront of preoccupations. Scientific institutes of France, Germany, USA and Canada are cooperating more particularly on boring research and laboratory analyses. Technical data are given on the USA and German installations used. (P.F.K.)

  2. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  3. Reducing waste generation and radiation exposure by analytical method modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of an analytical support laboratory has traditionally been to provide accurate data in a timely and cost effective fashion. Added to this goal is now the need to provide the same high quality data while generating as little waste as possible. At the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), we have modified and reengineered several methods to decrease generated waste and hence reduce radiation exposure. These method changes involved improving detection limits (which decreased the amount of sample required for analysis), decreasing reaction and analysis time, decreasing the size of experimental set-ups, recycling spent solvent and reagents, and replacing some methods. These changes had the additional benefits of reducing employee radiation exposure and exposure to hazardous chemicals. In all cases, the precision, accuracy, and detection limits were equal to or better than the replaced method. Most of the changes required little or no expenditure of funds. This paper describes these changes and discusses some of their applications

  4. Engineering/design of a co-generation waste-to-energy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, K.S.; Virgilio, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Five hundred fifteen thousand tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is being generated every day in America. At present 68% of this trash is dumped into landfill operations. As the amount of garbage is increasing daily, the amount of land reserved for landfills is diminishing rapidly. With the sentiment of the public that you produce it, you keep it, the import-export of waste between the counties and states for the landfills, no longer appears to be feasible, especially when combined with expensive disposal costs. One method of reducing the quantity of waste sent to landfills is through the use of waste-to-energy facilities - the technology of resource recovery - the technology of today INCINERATION. All cogeneration projects are not alike. This paper examines several aspects of the electrical system of a particular municipal solid waste-to-energy project at Charleston, S.C. which includes plant auxiliary loads as well as a utility interconnection through a step-up transformer

  5. National Conversion Pilot Project Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, G.G.; Simmons, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy facilities are in the process of downsizing. Most plans for downsizing focus on the decontamination and decommissioning of excess production facilities. A different approach for downsizing is taken at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), which has four production buildings. These buildings were used for the production of weapons components from uranium and beryllium and contain unique and valuable equipment, such as rolling mills, furnaces, and high-capacity presses, which could be utilized for stage-III metal recycling. The mission of this National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) open-quotes is to explore and demonstrate, at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the feasibility of economic conversion at Department of Energy facilities.close quotes The NCPP has been divided into three stages: 1. Stage I-planning and feasibility determination 2. Stage II-facility cleanup for reuse and operational assessment 3. Stage III-metals recycling. The NCPP has recently been approved to begin stage II. The objective of the NCPP stage II is to prepare the four NCPP buildings for stage III, to remove unwanted equipment, and to decontaminate buildings and essential equipment to levels consistent with those that commercial industrial operations must meet pursuant to applicable Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and state workplace regulations

  6. Self-disposal option for heat-generating waste - 59182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, Michael I.; Poluektov, Pavel P.; Kascheev, Vladimir A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-descending heat generating capsules can be used for disposal of dangerous radioactive wastes in extremely deep layers of the Earth preventing any release of radionuclides into the biosphere. Self-disposal option for heat-generating radioactive waste such as spent fuel, high level reprocessing waste or spent sealed radioactive sources, known also as rock melting concept, was considered in the 70's as a viable alternative disposal option by both Department of Energy in the USA and Atomic Industry Ministry in the USSR. Self-disposal is currently reconsidered as a potential alternative route to existing options for solving the nuclear waste problem and is associated with the renaissance of nuclear industry. Self- disposal option utilises the heat generated by decaying radionuclides of radioactive waste inside a heavy and durable capsule to melt the rock on its way down. As the heat from radionuclides within the capsule partly melts the enclosing rock, the relatively low viscosity and density of the silicate melt allow the capsule to be displaced upwards past the heavier capsule as it sinks. Eventually the melt cools and solidifies (e.g. vitrifies or crystallizes), sealing the route along which the capsule passed. Descending or self-disposal continues until enough heat is generated by radionuclides to provide partial melting of surrounding rock. Estimates show that extreme depths of several tens and up to hundred km can be reached by capsules which could never be achieved by other techniques. Self- disposal does not require complex and expensive disposal facilities and provides a minimal footprint used only at operational stage. It has also an extremely high non- proliferation character and degree of safety. Utilisation of heat generated by relatively short-lived radionuclides diminishes the environmental uncertainties of self-disposal and increases the safety of this concept. Self-sinking heat-generating capsules could be launched from the bottom of the sea as

  7. Steam generators lay-up optimization and derived wastes reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabeau, A.M.; Viricel, L.; Foct, F.; Lemaire, P.; Moreaux, D.

    2002-01-01

    Today, EDF plants face a new release permit after a steam generators (SGs) wet lay-up, so that the legal authorizations for wastes release to the environment, renewed or being renewed by the safety authorities, allow smallest quantities of wastes than earlier. In this context, EDF studies the optimization of SGs lay-up conditions, and especially of the hydrazine concentration, in order to reduce the liquid wastes releases to the environment, while keeping low corrosion conditions. At the same time, EDF examines a treatment for hydrazine elimination in liquid wastes before their releases. An experimental study has been conducted in order to evaluate the efficiency of hydrazine to control materials corrosion and of nitrogen gas phase to deaerate water. The consequences of lay-up conditions on carbon steel corrosion has also been studied. In the absence of an efficient alternative reagent, hydrazine remains necessary but implies a great care due to its carcinogenic risks and to its toxicity for aquatic organisms. This choice implies studying a method for hydrazine elimination before its release to the environment. The hydrazine elimination from SGs lay-up wastes could be achieved within about one day, by adding about 700 to 800 liters of 30% hydrogen peroxide solution to eliminate 100 kg hydrazine. Copper sulfate would have to be added if copper is not present in the wastes; the copper content in the wastes should be around 100 to 200 μg/kg for the reaction to be fast enough, which is consistent with the legal authorization for copper release to the environment. The nuclear power plants would have to adjust the quantity of hydrogen peroxide to add to the wastes to be treated, based on the quantity of hydrazine to eliminate, in order to avoid any excess of hydrogen peroxide in the wastes at the end of the treatment, since this species is not allowed to be released to the environment. Moreover, the hydrogen peroxide treatment should not have any significant impact on

  8. Project Swiftsure final report: Destruction of chemical agent waste at Defence Research Establishment Suffield. Special publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Project Swiftsure describes a three-year project at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield to safely destroy stockpiles of mustard lewisite, nerve agents and decontaminate scrap material which was stored on the DRES Experimental Proving Ground. Using both in-house and contracted resources, the agent waste was destroyed by chemical neutralization or incineration. With the exception of the arsenic byproducts from the lewisite neutralization process, all secondary waste generated by chemical neutralization was incinerated. Mustard in different forms was thermally destroyed using a transportable incinerator of commercial design. Extensive environmental monitoring and public consultation programs were conducted during the project. Results of the monitoring programs verified that the chemical warfare agents were destroyed in a safe, environmentally-responsible manner. jg p.329.

  9. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels cannot compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions which favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the final results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, direct combustion in dedicated mass burn, stoker and fluidized bed boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle-power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this approach is economically feasible only when the fuel is delivered at a deep discount relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. (author)

  10. Project B-589, 300 Area transuranic waste interim storage project engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to look at various alternatives of taking newly generated, remote-handled transuranic waste (caisson waste) in the 300 Area, performing necessary transloading operations and preparing the waste for storage. The prepared waste would then be retrieved when the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant becomes operational and transshipped to the repository in New Mexico with a minimum of inspection and packaging. The scope of this study consisted of evaluating options for the transloading of the TRU wastes for shipment to a 200 Area storage site. Preconceptual design information furnished as part of the engineering study is listed below: produce a design for a clean, sealed waste canister; hot cell loadout system for the waste; in-cell loading or handling equipment; determine transshipment cask options; determine assay system requirements (optional); design or specify transport equipment required; provide a SARP cost estimate; determine operator training requirements; determine waste compaction equipment needs if desirable; develop a cost estimate and approximate schedule for a workable system option; and update the results presented in WHC Document TC-2025

  11. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Gas Generation Testing Program at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Program are to evaluate compliance with the limits on total gas generation rates, establish the concentrations of hydrogen and methane in the total gas flow, determine the headspace concentration of VOCs in each drum prior to the start of the test, and obtain estimates of the concentrations of several compounds for mass balance purposes. Criteria for the selection of waste containers at the INEL and the parameters that must be characterized prior to and during the tests are described. Collection of gaseous samples from 55-gallon drums of contact-handled transuranic waste for the gas generation testing is discussed. Analytical methods and calibrations are summarized. Administrative quality control measures described in this QAPjP include the generation, review, and approval of project documentation; control and retention of records; measures to ensure that personnel, subcontractors or vendors, and equipment meet the specifications necessary to achieve the required data quality for the project

  12. Alpha waste incineration prototype incinerator and industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Meyere, A.

    1988-01-01

    To meet our requirements with respect to the processing of solid alpha wastes, a pilot cold incinerator has been used for R and D. This unit has a capacity of 5 kg/hr. The main objectives assigned to this incineration process are: a good reduction factor, controlled combustion, ash composition compatible with plutonium recovery, limited secondary solid and fluid wastes, releases within the nuclear and chemical standards, and in strict observance of the confinement and criticality safety rules. After describing the process we will discuss the major results of the incineration test campaigns with representative solid wastes (50 % PVC). We will then give a description of an industrial project with a capacity of 7 kg/hr, followed by a cost estimate

  13. Environmental Management Integration Project/Mixed Waste Focus Area Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.; Kristofferson, K.; Cole, L.

    1999-01-01

    On January 16, 1998, the Assistant Secretary for the Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Department of Energy, issued DOE-Idaho the Program Integration and Systems Engineering Guidance for Fiscal Year 1998, herein called Guidance, which directed that program integration tasks be performed for all EM program areas. This guidance directed the EM Integration team, as part of the Task 1, to develop baseline waste and material disposition maps which are owned by the site Project Baseline Summary (PBS) manager. With these baselines in place Task 2 gave direction to link Science and Technology activities to the waste and material stream supported by that technology. This linkage of EM Program needs with the OST activities supports the DOE goal of maximizing cleanup at DOE sites by 2006 and provides a defensible science and technology program. Additionally, this linkage is a valuable tool in the integration of the waste and material disposition efforts for the DOE complex

  14. The CANDU-PHW generating system waste arisings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.

    1979-03-01

    In this report, the volume of material and level of contained radioactive nuclides are tabulated for wastes arising from four fuel cycles which might be operated in CANDU-PHW (CANada Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water) reactors. The data presented, based on Canadian experience and/or studies, cover the range of conditioned waste volumes which could be expected from steady-state (no growth), CANDU-PHW-powered electrical generating systems. The wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of facilities in each phase of each fuel cycle are estimated. Each fuel cycle is considered to operate in isolation with the data given in terms of quantities per gigawatt-year of electricity produced. Three of the fuel cycles for which data are presented, the natural uranium once-through cycle, the plutonium-enriched uranium cycle (plutonium recycle) and the low-burnup uranium-enriched thorium cycle (thorium and uranium recycle), were studied by INFCE WG.7 (the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation, Working Group 7) as fuel cycles 4, 5 and 6. The high-burnup uranium-enriched thorium cycle is included for comparison. INFCE WG.7 selected many common reference parameters which are applied uniformly to all seven INFCE WG.7 reference fuel cycles in determining waste arisings. Where these parameters differ from the data of Canadian origin given in the body of this report, the INFCE WG.7 data are given in an appendix. The waste management costs associated with operation of each INFCE WG.7 reference fuel cycle were calculated and compared by the working group. An arbitrary set of costing parameters and disposal technologies was selected by the working group for application to each of the reference fuel cycles. The waste management and disposal costs for the PHW reactor fuel cycles based on these arbitrary cost parameters are given in an appendix. (author)

  15. Gas Generation in Radioactive Wastes - MAGGAS Predictive Life Cycle Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streatfield, R.E.; Hebditch, D.J.; Swift, B.T.; Hoch, A.R.; Constable, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gases may form from radioactive waste in quantities posing different potential hazards throughout the waste package life cycle. The latter includes surface storage, transport, placing in an operating repository, storage in the repository prior to backfill, closure and the post-closure stage. Potentially hazardous situations involving gas include fire, flood, dropped packages, blocked package vents and disruption to a sealed repository. The MAGGAS (Magnox Gas generation) model was developed to assess gas formation for safety assessments during all stages of the waste package life cycle. This is a requirement of the U.K. regulatory authorities and Nirex and progress in this context is discussed. The processes represented in the model include: Corrosion, microbial degradation, radiolysis, solid-state diffusion, chemico-physical degradation and pressurisation. The calculation was split into three time periods. First the 'aerobic phase' is used to model the periods of surface storage, transport and repository operations including storage in the repository prior to backfill. The second and third periods were designated 'anaerobic phase 1' and 'anaerobic phase 2' and used to model the waste packages in the post-closure phase of the repository. The various significant gas production processes are modeled in each phase. MAGGAS (currently Version 8) is mounted on an Excel spreadsheet for ease of use and speed, has 22 worksheets and is operated routinely for assessing waste packages (e.g. for ventilation of stores and pressurisation of containers). Ten operational and decommissioning generic nuclear power station waste streams were defined as initial inputs, which included ion exchange materials, sludges and concentrates, fuel element debris, graphite debris, activated components, contaminated items, desiccants and catalysts. (authors)

  16. A Survey of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in 22 Regions of Tehran With Solid Waste Reduction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Abduli

    2015-07-01

    Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional one conducted from 2010 to 2014. Relevant officials of the waste recovery in 22 regions of Tehran were approached in order to collect data about municipal solid waste generation through interviewing, filling out questionnaires, conducting field visits from Aradkooh Disposal and Processing Complex and collecting information on disposal and destiny of wastes. Then the data were compiled and analyzed. Results: Total solid waste generation in Tehran from 2010 to 2014 amounted to respectively 3389662, 3399344, 3449338 and 3245157 Metric Tons, categorized into three groups of municipal, companies and townships and hospital wastes. Most of the generated waste produced in Tehran was that of households and commercial (known as municipal waste from 22 Regions of Tehran. Based on the surveys conducted, per capita solid waste generation of 11 regions of Tehran ranged from 550 to 1000 grams and in other 11 ones from 1000 to 1521 grams per capita per day. The lowest and highest waste generation rate belonged respectively to region 13 with 556 grams and region 12 with 1521 grams per capita per day in 2011. Conclusion: Comparing per capita generation of municipal solid waste in different municipal regions in Tehran with maximum acceptable capacity of waste generation indicates the deviation of waste generation of all Tehran regions from the standard acceptable amount. Therefore, not only is it necessary to plan and take strategic measures to reduce Tehran waste generation but also these programs and measures should be specific to each region considering its specifications and solid waste quality and quantity.

  17. Advanced power generation using biomass wastes from palm oil mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Kurniawan, Tedi; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the energy-efficient utilization of both solid and liquid wastes from palm oil mills, particularly their use for power generation. It includes the integration of a power generation system using empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). The proposed system mainly consists of three modules: EFB gasification, POME digestion, and additional organic Rankine cycle (ORC). EFBs are dried and converted into a syngas fuel with high calorific value through integrated drying and gasification processes. In addition, POME is converted into a biogas fuel for power generation. Biogas engine-based cogenerators are used for generating both electricity and heat. The remaining unused heat is recovered by ORC module to generate electricity. The influences of three EFB gasification temperatures (800, 900 and 1000 °C) in EFB gasification module; and working fluids and pressure in ORC module are evaluated. Higher EFB gasification leads to higher generated electricity and remaining heat for ORC module. Power generation efficiency increases from 11.2 to 24.6% in case of gasification temperature is increased from 800 to 1000 °C. In addition, cyclohexane shows highest energy efficiency compared to toluene and n-heptane in ORC module. Higher pressure in ORC module also leads to higher energy efficiency. Finally, the highest total generated power and power generation efficiency obtained by the system are 8.3 MW and 30.4%, respectively.

  18. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC method helps reduce some of the unnecessary overhead cost items and increase on some other cost components. This helps increase the relative efficiency of the system by reducing total cost of project.

  19. New developments and improvements in processing of 'problematic' radioactive waste. Results of a coordinated research project 2003-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This report addresses a category of wastes termed 'problematic wastes', wastes for which safe, efficient and cost effective methods for processing are not readily available. Processing options for many of these are identified and addressed. Results presented, illustrate the strategy for breaking 'problematic' waste streams down into a sequence of 'standard' issues which are amenable to solution. Decision makers and facility managers faced with problematic waste streams should be able to use this information to identify and pursue solutions to meet their needs. In this report, processing options for a total of 27 problematic waste streams that were identified and addressed by the individual laboratories participating in the Coordinated Research Project are discussed. These waste streams covered an extremely broad spectrum, ranging from simple, one component aqueous solutions originating from a research laboratory to very complex aqueous concentrates of waste resulting from reprocessing activities or reactor operation. These challenging wastes included: waste contaminated by tritium, wastes containing transuranic elements, and solid health care waste. The range of aqueous wastes included those contaminated by organic complexing agents and surfactants to pure organic waste such as contaminated oil. Correspondingly, the scale of approaches and technologies used to address these wastes is very broad. Use of this report is likely to be most effective as an initial screening tool to identify technologies best able to meet specific waste management objectives in terms of the waste generated, the technical complexity, the available economic resources, the environmental impact considerations, and the desired end product (output) of the technology. The report should assist the user to compare technologies and to reach an informed decision based on safety, technological maturity, economics, and other local needs

  20. River Protection Project (RPP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POHTO, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    This supporting document contains the training plan for dangerous waste management at River Protection Project TSD Units. This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by River Protection Project (RPP) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units managed by RPP are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System, 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility, Grout, and the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The program is designed in compliance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.16 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program and the Hanford Facility Permit. Training requirements were determined by an assessment of employee duties and responsibilities. The RPP training program is designed to prepare employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms in a safe, effective, efficient, and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should abnormal or emergency conditions occur. Emergency response training is consistent with emergency responses outlined in the following Building Emergency Plans: HNF-IP-0263-TF and HNF-=IP-0263-209E

  1. River Protection Project (RPP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POHTO, R.E.

    2000-03-09

    This supporting document contains the training plan for dangerous waste management at River Protection Project TSD Units. This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by River Protection Project (RPP) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units managed by RPP are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System, 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility, Grout, and the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The program is designed in compliance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.16 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program and the Hanford Facility Permit. Training requirements were determined by an assessment of employee duties and responsibilities. The RPP training program is designed to prepare employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms in a safe, effective, efficient, and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should abnormal or emergency conditions occur. Emergency response training is consistent with emergency responses outlined in the following Building Emergency Plans: HNF-IP-0263-TF and HNF-=IP-0263-209E.

  2. TWRS privatization support project waste characterization database development. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1995-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory requested support from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company in assembling radionuclide and chemical analyte sample data and inventory estimates for fourteen Hanford under-ground storage tanks: 241-AN-102, -104, -105, -106, and -107, 241-AP-102, -104, and -105; 241-AW-101, -103, and -105, 241-AZ-101 and-102; and 241-C-109. Sample data were assembled for sixteen radio nuclides and thirty five chemical analytes. The characterization data were provided to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the Tank Waste Remediation Services Privatization Support Project. The purpose of this report is to present the results and document the methodology used in preparing the waste characterization information data set to support the Tank Waste Remediation Services Privatization Support Project. This report describes the methodology used in assembling the waste characterization information and how that information was validated by a panel of independent technical reviewers. Also, contained in this report are the various data sets created., the master data set, a subset, and an unreviewed data set

  3. Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    During this fiscal year the information available in the fields of geology and hydrology of the Columbia Plateau was consolidated and two reports were issued summarizing this information. In addition, the information on engineered barriers was consolidated and a report summarizing the research to date on waste package development and design of borehole seals was prepared. The waste package studies, when combined with the hydrologic integration, revealed that even under extreme disruptive conditions, a repository in basalt with appropriately designed waste packages can serve as an excellent barrier for containment of radionuclides for the long periods of time required for waste isolation. On July 1, 1980, the first two heater tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility were started and have been successfully operated to this date. The papers on the Near-Surface Test Facility section of this report present the results of the equipment installed and the preliminary results of the testing. In October 1979, the US Department of Energy selected the joint venture of Kaiser Engineers/Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., to be the architect-engineer to produce a conceptual design of a repository in basalt. During the year, this design has progressed and concept selection has now been completed. This annual report presents a summary of the highlights of the work completed during fiscal year 1980. It is intended to supplement and summarize the nearly 200 papers and reports that have been distributed to date as a part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project studies

  4. Specifications of the International Atomic Energy Agency's international project on safety assessment driven radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghannadi, M.; Asgharizadeh, F.; Assadi, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste is produced in the generation of nuclear power and the production and use of radioactive materials in the industry, research, and medicine. The nuclear waste management facilities need to perform a safety assessment in order to ensure the safety of a facility. Nuclear safety assessment is a structured and systematic way of examining a proposed facility, process, operation and activity. In nuclear waste management point of view, safety assessment is a process which is used to evaluate the safety of radioactive waste management and disposal facilities. In this regard the International Atomic Energy Agency is planed to implement an international project with cooperation of some member states. The Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions Project is an international programme of work to examine international approaches to safety assessment in aspects of p redisposal r adioactive waste management, including waste conditioning and storage. This study is described the rationale, common aspects, scope, objectives, work plan and anticipated outcomes of the project with refer to International Atomic Energy Agency's documents, such as International Atomic Energy Agency's Safety Standards, as well as the Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions project reports

  5. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radioactive waste management. International projects on biosphere modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboneras, P.; Cancio, D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a general overview and discussion on the state of art concerning the biospheric transfer and accumulation of contaminants. A special emphasis is given to the progress achieved in the field of radioactive contaminants and particularly to those implied in radioactive waste disposal. The objectives and advances of the international projects BIOMOVS and VAMP on validation of model predictions are also described. (Author)

  7. A modern solid waste management strategy--the generation of new by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Kulbat, Eliza; Luczkiewicz, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    To benefit the environment and society, EU legislation has introduced a 'zero waste' strategy, in which waste material should be converted to resources. Such legislation is supported by the solid waste hierarchy concept, which is a set of priorities in waste management. Under this concept, municipal solid waste plants (MSWPs) should be equipped with sorting and recycling facilities, composting/incineration units and landfill prisms for residual bulk disposal. However, each of the aforementioned facilities generates by-products that must be treated. This project focuses on the leachates from landfill prisms, including modern prism (MP) that meet EU requirements and previous prism (PP) that provide for the storage of permitted biodegradable waste as well as technological wastewaters from sorting unit (SU) and composting unit (CU), which are usually overlooked. The physico-chemical parameters of the liquid by-products collected over 38 months were supported by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) amplifications of functional genes transcripts and a metagenomic approach that describes the archaeal and bacterial community in the MP. The obtained data show that SU and especially CU generate wastewater that is rich in nutrients, organic matter and heavy metals. Through their on-site pre-treatment and recirculation via landfill prisms, the landfill waste decomposition process may be accelerated because of the introduction of organic matter and greenhouse gas emissions may be increased. These results have been confirmed by the progressive abundance of both archaeal community and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene. The resulting multivariate data set, supported by a principal component analysis, provides useful information for the design, operation and risk assessment of modern MSWPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design a Solid Waste Management Course for Primary School focus on Reduce-Reuse-Recycle : Project: WastED – Export of Education, Waste Management - Target market: Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Linh

    2014-01-01

    This product-oriented Bachelor’s thesis looks at waste-management education in primary schools. The primary objective of the study was to design a basic wastemanagement course, concisely packed in a booklet, ready-to-use for teachers and trainers. The outcome of the thesis, the booklet (content of the course) is expected to be used as one of the materials for the WastED project – Export of Education in Waste Management. The study is made up of theory sections and a product design se...

  9. Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site: Final reclamation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs

  10. Report on a project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey on an environmentally friendly community business by means of high-efficiency wastes power generation system in the Toyota-Kamo wide area; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo chosa hokokusho. Toyota Kamo koikiken kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden kankyo chowagata energy community jigyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Taking the Toyota-Kamo wide area as the object, wastes power generation is positioned over the society system as worked on by administrations and operators integrally to incinerate mixedly those incineratable materials such as plastics among general and industrial combustible wastes for high-efficiency generation of power, which is supplied to electric utility operators as surplus power. Discussions were given on the business feasibility and the effectiveness as a society system. In this area, the mixed model B plan (dealing with general wastes plus industrial wastes) was evaluated as an effective plan as the society system. This is because the plan has effect to incinerate, melt and generate power from industrial wastes which have been used for land-fill, effect of improving the power generation efficiency, and effectiveness of mixed treatment with general wastes. The plan A in which general wastes are made into RDF, then incinerated mixedly with industrial wastes for power generation was evaluated to have high reliability potential of power supply and to be an effective plan as a society system, if effect can be expected to reduce transportation energy as a result of making the system large enough and turning wastes into RDF. (NEDO)

  11. Radiolytic gas generation in plutonium contaminated waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanjian, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Many plutonium contaminated waste materials decompose into gaseous products because of exposure to alpha radiation. The gases generated (usually hydrogen) over long-storage periods may create hazardous conditions. To determine the extent of such hazards, knowing the gas generation yields is necessary. These yields were measured by contacting some common Rocky Flats Plant waste materials with plutonium and monitoring the enclosed atmospheres for extensive periods of time. The materials were Plexiglas, polyvinyl chloride, glove-box gloves, machining oil, carbon tetrachloride, chlorothene VG solvent, Kimwipes (dry and wet), polyethylene, Dowex-1 resin, and surgeon's gloves. Both 239 Pu oxide and 238 Pu oxide were used as radiation sources. The gas analyses were made by mass spectrometry and the results obtained were the total gas generation, the hydrogen generation, the oxygen consumption rate, and the gas composition over the entire storage period. Hydrogen was the major gas produced in most of the materials. The total gas yields varied from 0.71 to 16 cm 3 (standard temperature pressure) per day per curie of plutonium. The oxygen consumption rates varied from 0.0088 to 0.070 millimoles per day per gram of plutonium oxide-239 and from 0.0014 to 0.0051 millimoles per day per milligram 238 Pu

  12. Disposal and handling of nuclear steam generator chemical cleaning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrick, A.P.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1978-01-01

    A large number of pressurized water nuclear reactor electrical generating plants have experienced a corrosion-related problem with their steam generators known as denting. Denting is a mechanical deformation of the steam generator tubes that occurs at the tube support plates. Corrosion of the tube support plates occurs within the annuli through which the tubes pass and the resulting corrosion oxides, which are larger in volume than the original metal, compress and deform the tubes. In some cases, the induced stresses have been severe enough to cause tube and/or support cracking. The problem was so severe at the Turkey Point and Surrey plants that the tubing is being replaced. For less severe cases, chemical cleaning of the oxides, and other materials which deposit in the annuli from the water, is being considered. A Department of Energy-sponsored program was conducted by Consolidated Edison Co. of New York which identified several suitable cleaning solvents and led to in-plant chemical cleaning pilot demonstrations in the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators. Current programs to improve the technology are being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute, and the three PWR NSSS vendors with the assistance of numerous consultants, vendors, and laboratories. These programs are expected to result in more effective, less corrosive solvents. However, after a chemical cleaning is conducted, a large problem still remains- that of disposing of the spent wastes. The paper summarizes some of the methods currently available for handling and disposal of the wastes

  13. Steam generator in the SNR-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Westenbrugge, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    The design philosophy of steam generators for 1300 MWe LMFBR's is presented. The basis for this philosophy is the present experience with the licensing of the SNR-300. This experience is reported. The approach for the steam generators for the 1300 MWe LMFBR is elaborated on, both for accident prevention and damage limitation, for the component itself as well as for the system design. Both Design Base Accident and Hypothetical Accidents are discussed. 8 refs

  14. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    On February 17,1989, the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments and the US Department of Energy entered into a cooperative agreement authorizing the initiation of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project. The transportation project continued to receive funding from DOE through amendments to the original cooperative agreement, with December 31, 1993, marking the end of the initial 5-year period. This progress report reflects the work completed by the Midwestern Office from February 17,1989, through December 31,1993. In accordance with the scopes of work governing the period covered by this report, the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments has worked closely with the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee. Project staff have facilitated all eight of the committee's meetings and have represented the committee at meetings of DOE's Transportation Coordination Group (TCG) and Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC/WG). Staff have also prepared and submitted comments on DOE activities on behalf of the committee. In addition to working with the committee, project staff have prepared and distributed 20 reports, including some revised reports (see Attachment 1). Staff have also developed a library of reference materials for the benefit of committee members, state officials, and other interested parties. To publicize the library, and to make it more accessible to potential users, project staff have prepared and distributed regular notices of resource availability

  15. Prediction of combustible waste generation and estimate of potential energy by applying waste to energy technologies in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Cho, Sung-Jin; Jung, Hae-Young; Lee, Ki-Bae; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 total waste generation rate in Korea was 318,670 ton,day. In general waste generation rate shows rising trend since 2000. Wastes are composed of municipal waste 14.9 % industrial waste 34.1 % and construction waste 51.0 %. Treatment of wastes by recycling was 81.1 % landfill 11.1 % incineration 5.3 % and ocean dumping 2.4 %. National waste energy policies have been influenced by various factors such as environmental problem economy technology level (could be made energy), and so on. Korea has the worlds third dense population density environmental pollution load per unit land area is the highest in OECD countries caused due to the fast development in economy, industrialization and urbanization in recent. Also, land area per person is just 2,072 m 2 . Landfill capacity reaches the upper limit, industrial waste generation is increasing. Searching new-renewable energy is vital to substitute fossil fuel considering its increasing price. Korea is the world's 10th biggest energy consuming country and 97% of energy depends on importing. Korea aims to increases supply of new-renewable energy by 5% until the 2011. In this study, we computed the amount of combustible waste from municipality generated by the multiple regression analysis. The existing technologies for converting waste to energy were surveyed and the technologies under development or utilizing in future were also investigated. Based on the technology utilization, the amount of energy using waste to energy technology could be estimated in future. (author)

  16. ''Cold crucible'' vitrification projects for low and high active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.; Jouan, A.

    1998-01-01

    In continuity of the CEA HLW vitrification process experienced for more than 20 years in industrial operations in Cogema reprocessing plants (Marcoule and La Hague), CEA has developed an advanced extended performance cold crucible glass melter to address a wider range of waste like LLW, ILW and in particular waste with very corrosive species or requiring glass with higher elaboration temperature. In the cold crucible melter the bath of molten glass is directly heated by induction while the walls are cooled in order to freeze a protective glass layer. This technology subsequently allows high glass throughput while keeping the flexibility, the maintainability and low secondary waste generation related to a small metallic melter. Its recent use in the glass industry and the thousands of hours of pilot tests performed on inactive surrogates have demonstrated the maturity of this technology and its flexibility of use for processing most of the waste generated at nuclear facilities. SGN has therefore proposed this technology in Italy and Korea and in USA in the frame of the Hanford Privatization phase 1 A feasibility study. Main features of this study but also tests results with Hanford surrogates and active samples are discussed. (author)

  17. Reduction of waste solution volume generated on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, for the reduction of volume of metal oxides generated in cathode chamber, the optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. Also, the required time to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal was estimated through experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out. The optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber for the reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Also, when the initial uranium concentration of the soils were 7-20 Bq/g, the required times to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal were 25-40 days. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out.

  18. Radioactive wastes: a problem of morality between generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, D.

    1984-01-01

    Nowhere are the intergenerational moral issues posed more explicitly that in debates over nuclear power and the disposal of radioactive wastes. A survey of some of the ethical issues covers energy supply and risk and the problem of determining a cost-benefit of resources use and conservation that maximizes supply and minimizes risk. The author identifies three arguments against energy policy based on cost-benefit analysis: 1 reliability, 2 fairness, and 3 the lack of subjective value. All three suggest the need to determine not only what our obligations to future generations are, but also the underlying basis of these obligations in our system of values. The radioactive waste issue has an urgency, for options are opening and closing. 13 references

  19. Solid low-level radioactive waste volume projections at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, K.; Minton-Hughes, J.; Peper, C.

    1995-01-01

    In response to regulatory requirements, the current economic environment, and diminishing on-site low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal capacity, LANL needed to develop a system to collect data on future LLW generation that would comply with DOE Order 5820. 2A and be an effective facility planning tool. The LANL Volume Projections Project (VPP) was created to meet these needs. This paper describes objectives, scope, and components of the VPP that will provide information essential to future facility planning and development

  20. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-04-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  1. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-03-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  2. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-06-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  3. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Phase 1, Project planning and concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, T.L.; Brouns, T.M.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implemeting these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic in that they meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids, such as HF/--/HNO/sub 3/ etch solutions contianing Zr as a major metal impurity and HNO/sub 3/ strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity, are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ which contains U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup /minus// to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in downstream precipitation step. These waste minimization processes were developed to meet Hanford's fuel fabrication process needs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Phase 1, Project planning and concept development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.L.; Brouns, T.M.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implemeting these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic in that they meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids, such as HF/--/HNO 3 etch solutions contianing Zr as a major metal impurity and HNO 3 strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity, are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 which contains U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO 3 /sup /minus// to be displaced by SO 4 /sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO 3 is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in downstream precipitation step. These waste minimization processes were developed to meet Hanford's fuel fabrication process needs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Ukraine biosolids incineration project generates electricity while solving disposal problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosanke, J. [Quality Recycling Ltd., Henderson, NC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    This article described an innovative Waste-to-Energy (WtE) system that is currently being installed in the city of Odessa in the Ukraine. The city has a population of 1 million and is a major seaport on the Black Sea. Sewage sludge will be used as a biomass fuel to power an electrical generation plant. The system includes a clean-burning rotary cascading bed combustor (RCBC) linked to a boiler and an electricity-generating steam turbine. The RCBC spins in order to keep fuel cascading for maximum combustion, and is expected to burn over 50,000 tons of dewatered sewage sludge per year while generating 33,507,000 kWh of electricity per individual location. Eleven systems will be installed at major sewage processing modules in the Ukraine. A pilot program is also being conducted to test and monitor the system under United States emissions and operational standards. The RCBC is also being used to combust fuels derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a site in Kansas. Other fuels that can be cleanly burned using the RCBC system included high sulfur bituminous coal; anthracite coal waste; carpet and carpet scrap, and tires and rubber wastes. Studies have demonstrated that some toxic wastes can be removed using the RCBC system. It was concluded that burning negative value fuels can allow some power plants to earn revenues from disposal fees. 3 figs.

  6. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  7. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  8. Projected costs of generating electricity - 2005 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The joint IEA/NEA study provides generation cost estimates for over a hundred power plants that use a variety of fuels and technologies. These include coal-fired, gas-fired, nuclear, hydro, solar and wind plants. Cost estimates are also given for combined heat and power plants that use coal, gas and combustible renewables. Data and information for this study were provided by experts from 19 OECD member countries and 3 non-member countries. The power plants examined in the study use technologies available today. The study shows that the competitiveness of alternative generation sources and technologies ultimately depends on many parameters: there is no clear-cut 'winner'. Major issues related to generation costs addressed in the report include: descriptions of state-of-the-art generation technologies; the methodologies for incorporating risk in cost assessments; the impact of carbon emission trading; and how to integrate wind power into the electricity grid. 24 figs., 38 tabs., 11 apps.

  9. Project characteristics monitoring report: BWIP (Basalt Waste Isolation Program) repository project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedli, E.A.; Herborn, D.I.; Taylor, C.D.; Tomlinson, K.M.

    1988-03-01

    This monitoring report has been prepared to show compliance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) and to provide local and state government agencies with information concerning the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP). This report contains data for the time period May 26, 1986 to February 1988. The data include employment figures, salaries, project purchases, taxes and fees paid, worker survey results, and project closedown personal interview summaries. This information has become particularly important since the decision in December 1987 to stop all BWIP activities except those for site reclamation. The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 requires nonreclamation work at the Hanford Site to stop as of March 22, 1988. 7 refs., 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  10. Project characteristics monitoring report: BWIP [Basalt Waste Isolation Program] repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedli, E.A.; Herborn, D.I.; Taylor, C.D.; Tomlinson, K.M.

    1988-03-01

    This monitoring report has been prepared to show compliance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) and to provide local and state government agencies with information concerning the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP). This report contains data for the time period May 26, 1986 to February 1988. The data include employment figures, salaries, project purchases, taxes and fees paid, worker survey results, and project closedown personal interview summaries. This information has become particularly important since the decision in December 1987 to stop all BWIP activities except those for site reclamation. The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 requires nonreclamation work at the Hanford Site to stop as of March 22, 1988. 7 refs., 6 figs., 28 tabs

  11. Project management plan, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, Project W-026

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, J.G.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Project (WRAP 1) has been established to support the retrieval and final disposal of approximately 400K grams of plutonium and quantities of hazardous components currently stored in drums at the Hanford Site.

  12. Project management plan, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, Project W-026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkey, J.G.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Project (WRAP 1) has been established to support the retrieval and final disposal of approximately 400K grams of plutonium and quantities of hazardous components currently stored in drums at the Hanford Site

  13. Mixed waste treatment options for wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has generated mixed wastes (MWs) during its daily operations. MWs contain both radioactive and hazardous components, as defined by the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency. Treatment and disposal of stored MWs, as well as future generated MWs, are required to meet all regulations specified by the regulating agencies. This report reviews proven and emerging technologies that can treat MWs. It also provides a method for selection of the appropriate technology for treatment of a particular waste stream. The report selects for further consideration various treatments that can be used to treat MWs that fall under Land Disposal Restrictions. The selection methodology was used to arrive at these treatments. 63 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  14. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  15. Effect of liquid waste discharges from steam generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, H.E. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    This report contains a summary of the effects of liquid waste discharges from steam electric generating facilities on the environment. Also included is a simplified model for use in approximately determining the effects of these discharges. Four basic fuels are used in steam electric power plants: three fossil fuels--coal, natural gas, and oil; and uranium--presently the basic fuel of nuclear power. Coal and uranium are expected to be the major fuels in future years. The following power plant effluents are considered: heat, chlorine, copper, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, pH, oil and grease, iron, zinc, chrome, phosphorus, and trace radionuclides.

  16. Effect of liquid waste discharges from steam generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, H.E. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    This report contains a summary of the effects of liquid waste discharges from steam electric generating facilities on the environment. Also included is a simplified model for use in approximately determining the effects of these discharges. Four basic fuels are used in steam electric power plants: three fossil fuels--coal, natural gas, and oil; and uranium--presently the basic fuel of nuclear power. Coal and uranium are expected to be the major fuels in future years. The following power plant effluents are considered: heat, chlorine, copper, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, pH, oil and grease, iron, zinc, chrome, phosphorus, and trace radionuclides

  17. Radiolytic generation of chloro-organic compounds in transuranic and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Armstrong, S.C.; Krause, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    The radiolytic degradation of chloro-plastics is being investigated to evaluate the formation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in radioactive waste. These chlorinated VOCs, when their subsequent migration in the geosphere is considered, are potential sources of ground-water contamination. This contamination is an important consideration for transuranic waste repositories being proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project and the several additional low-level radioactive waste sites being considered throughout the United States. The production of chlorinated volatile organic compounds due to the interaction of ionizing radiation with chloro-plastic materials has been well-established in both this work and past studies. This occurs as a result of gamma, beta, and alpha particle interactions with the plastic material. The assemblage of organic compounds generated depends on the type of plastic material, the type of ionizing radiation, the gaseous environment present and the irradiation temperature. In the authors' experiments, gas generation data were obtained by mounting representative plastics near (3 mm) an alpha particle source (Am-241 foil). This assembly was placed in an irradiation vessel which contained air, nitrogen, or a hydrogen/carbon dioxide mixture, at near-atmospheric pressures, to simulate the range of atmospheres likely to be encountered in the subsurface. The gas phase in the vessels are periodically sampled for net gas production. The gas phase concentrations are monitored over time to determine trends and calculate the radiolytic yield for the various gaseous products

  18. Steam generator development in France for the Super Phenix project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    'Steam Generator Development for Super Phenix Project'. The development program of steam generators studied by Fives-Cail Babcock and Stein Industrie Companies, jointly with CEA end EDF, for the Super Phenix 1200 MWe Fast Breeder Power Plant, is presented. The main characteristics of both sodium heated steam generators are emphasized and experimental studies related to their key features are reported. (author)

  19. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  20. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  1. Underground engineering at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A special task group was organized by the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council to address issues relating to the geotechnical site characterization program for an underground facility to house high-level radioactive waste of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Intended to provide an overview of the geotechnical program, the study was carried out by a task group consisting of ten members with expertise in the many disciplines required to successfully complete such a project. The task group recognized from the outset that the short time frame of this study would limit its ability to address all geotechnical issues in detail. Geotechnical issues were considered to range from specific technical aspects such as in-situ testing for rock mass permeability; rock hardness testing in the laboratory; or geologic characterizations and quantification of joints, to broader aspects of design philosophy, data collection, and treatment of uncertainty. The task group chose to focus on the broader aspects of underground design and construction, recognizing that the BWIP program utilizes a peer review group on a regular basis which reviews the specific technical questions related to geotechnical engineering. In this way, it was hoped that the review provided by the task group would complement those prepared by the BWIP peer review group

  2. The Plasma Hearth Process demonstration project for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.; Dwight, C.; McClellan, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing to date has yielded encouraging results in displaying potential applications for the PHP technology. Early tests have shown that a wide range of waste materials can be readily processed in the PHP and converted to a vitreous product. Waste materials can be treated in their original container as received at the treatment facility, without pretreatment. The vitreous product, when cooled, exhibits excellent performance in leach resistance, consistently exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. Performance of the Demonstration System during test operations has been shown to meet emission requirements. An accelerated development phase, being conducted at both bench- and pilot-scale on both nonradioactive and radioactive materials, will confirm the viability of the process. It is anticipated that, as a result of this accelerated technology development and demonstration phase, the PHP will be ready for a final field-level demonstration within three years

  3. Projected costs of generating electricity - 2010 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This joint report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the seventh in a series of studies on electricity generating costs. It presents the latest data available for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal and gas (with and without carbon capture), nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal as well as combined heat and power (CHP). It provides levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) per MWh for almost 200 plants, based on data covering 21 countries (including four major non-OECD countries), and several industrial companies and organisations. For the first time, the report contains an extensive sensitivity analysis of the impact of variations in key parameters such as discount rates, fuel prices and carbon costs on LCOE. Additional issues affecting power generation choices are also examined. The study shows that the cost competitiveness of electricity generating technologies depends on a number of factors which may vary nationally and regionally. Readers will find full details and analyses, supported by over 130 figures and tables, in this report which is expected to constitute a valuable tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies and climate change

  4. Spent fuel and radioactive waste: an integrated data base of inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Forsberg, C.W.; Mastal, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program provides official US Department of Energy (DOE) data on spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. This information is provided through the cooperative efforts of the IDB Program and DOE lead offices, lead sites, major programs, and generator sites. The program is entering its fifth year, and major accomplishments are summarized in three broad areas: (1) the annual inventory report, including ORIGEN2 applications and a Quality Assurance (QA) plan; (2) the summary data file and direct user access; and (3) data processing methodology and support to other programs. Plans for future work in these areas are outlined briefly, including increased utilization of personal computers. Some examples of spent fuel data are given in terms of projected quantities for two growth scenarios, burnup and age profile of the existing inventory, and the approximate specific thermal power relative to high-level waste (HLW) from various sources. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Implementation of stage 3 decommissioning and optimization of radioactive waste generation, Triton facility, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The CEA centre of Fontenay-aux-Roses was created in 1946, when the French nuclear energy programme started. Two generations of facilities have been built and operated. The first generation remained operational for 15 years and was dismantled in the late 1950s. It was replaced by a new generation of facilities, as part of the French electronuclear programme, and these included the Triton and Nereide research reactors (hereafter called the Triton facility). In accordance with the CEA strategy and taking into account its urban location, in 1998 the CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses centre decided to launch an extensive cleanup programme to be implemented from 2010 onwards. This included the Stage 3 decommissioning of the Triton facility. In the frame of this decommissioning project, a decommissioning strategy was developed making it possible to optimize the volume of radioactive waste generated

  6. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project to promote and support the formation of the environmentally friendly energy community. Study of the industrialization of the gasification power generation business by the pressurized two-stage gasification process using organic waste such as waste plastic as raw materials; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kaatsu nidan gas ka process ni yoru hai plastic nado yuki haikibutsu wo genryo to suru gas ka hatsuden jigyo no jigyoka kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Viability was studied of the power generation business using plastic waste as fuel and the methanol production business. In the project, the container packing waste plastic which was sorted/collected is supplied by tender, and the organic waste such as shredder dust is mixed. And the electric power is supplied to the gasification power generation facilities by the pressurized two-stage gasification process, neighboring plants, etc. As an alternative, the methanol production was also studied. As a result of the study, if the total amount of the waste plastic needed at the supply price assumed at present can be supplied, the business can be viable economically even without subsidy, but if the supply risk in supposing tender is considered, a subsidy of approximately 10% of the equipment/plant investment is needed. As to the methanol production as an alternative, it was indicated that the economical efficiency is almost the same, but the profitability gets fast worse due to the waste plastic supply cost since there is not much income and expenses are high despite of the smaller investment size than that in the case of the power generation. (NEDO)

  7. TRU [transuranic] waste certification compliance requirements for acceptance of newly generated contact-handled wastes to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Compliance requirements are presented for certifying that unclassified, newly generated (NG), contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) solid wastes from defense programs meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Where appropriate, transportation and interim storage requirements are incorporated; however, interim storage sites may have additional requirements consistent with these requirements. All applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders must continue to be met. The compliance requirements for stored or buried waste are not addressed in this document. The compliance requirements are divided into four sections, primarily determined by the general feature that the requirements address. These sections are General Requirements, Waste Container Requirements, Waste Form Requirements, and Waste Package Requirements. The waste package is the combination of waste container and waste. 10 refs., 1 fig

  8. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  9. Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Reinhard

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federal states to the conditions in the Slovak republic. For this, a comparison of both country´s topographical, technical, legal and economical conditions proved necessary.

  10. Waste Package Project quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladkany, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    The following tasks are reported: overview and progress of nuclear waste package project and container design; nuclear waste container design considerations; structural investigation of multi purpose nuclear waste package canister; and design requirements of rock tunnel drift for long-term storage of high-level waste (faulted tunnel model study by photoelasticity/finite element analysis)

  11. Functional design criteria radioactive liquid waste line replacement, Project W-087. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the functional design criteria for the 222-S Laboratory radioactive waste drain piping and transfer pipeline replacement. The project will replace the radioactive waste drain piping from the hot cells in 222-S to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility and provide a new waste transfer route from 219-S to the 244-S Catch Station in Tank Farms

  12. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels can not compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies, and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions that favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the interim results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. In order to increase future use of biomass and waste fuels, a joint initiative, involving government, industry, and fuel suppliers, transporters, and users, is needed to develop low-cost and efficient energy crop production and power technology

  13. The final disposal of radioactive wastes as social, political and scientific project - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear power production that was productive for two generations produces radioactive wastes that will be a hazardous and financial burden for many future generations. Science, politics, industry and the society are responsible to find a successful solution for the project of final disposal of radioactive wastes. With the fast development of renewable energies with the perspectives of sustainability and other advantages nuclear power will not have a remarkable future. The search for a final repository site is a tremendous governmental, economic and public challenge but can also be seen as a social chance. Democracy could be enforced by this process, public commitment, transparency, co-determination, confidence in political processes are indispensible premises.

  14. Waste Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Birn, M.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Silvers, K.L.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report compiles information collected during the Fiscal Year 1995 pertaining to the waste tank vapor characterization project. Information covers the following topics: project management; organic sampling and analysis; inorganic sampling and analysis; waste tank vapor data reports; and the waste tanks vapor database

  15. Radioactive waste management: a series of bibliographies. Radioactive waste inventories and projections. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography contains information on radioactive waste inventories and projections included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from October 1982 through December 1984. The arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 31 abstracts

  16. Recycling of concrete waste generated from nuclear power plant dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hideo; Nagase, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nawa, Toyoharu

    2012-01-01

    Non-radioactive concrete waste generated from dismantling of a standard large nuclear power plant is estimated to be about 500,000 tons in weight. Using such waste as recycled aggregate within the enclosure of the plant requires a new manufacturing technology that generates a minimal amount of by-product powder. Recycled aggregate has brittle parts with defects such as cracks, pores, and voids in residual paste from original concrete. This study presents a method of selectively removing the defective parts during manufacture to improve the quality of the recycled fine aggregate. With this selective removal method used, the amount of by-product powder can be reduced by half as compared to that by a conventional method. The influences of the characteristics of the recycled fine aggregate on the flowability and strength of the mortar using recycled fine aggregate were evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis. The results clearly showed that the flowability was primarily affected by the filling fraction of recycled fine aggregate, while the compressive strength of mortar was primarily affected by the fraction of defects in the aggregate. It was also found that grains produced by a granulator have more irregularities in the surfaces than those produced by a ball mill, providing an increased mortar strength. Using these findings from this study, efforts are also being made to develop a mechanical technology that enables simultaneous processing of decontamination and recycling. The granulator under consideration is capable of grinding the surfaces of irregularly shaped particles and may be used successfully, under optimal conditions, for the surface decontamination of concrete waste contaminated with radioactive materials. (author)

  17. Development of low grade waste heat thermoelectric power generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvit Punnachaiya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a 50 watt thermoelectric power generator using low grade waste heat as a heat source,in order to recover and utilize the excess heat in cooling systems of industrial processes and high activity radioisotope sources. Electricity generation was based on the reverse operation of a thermoelectric cooling (TEC device. The TEC devices weremodified and assembled into a set of thermal cell modules operating at a temperature less than 100°C. The developed powergenerator consisted of 4 modules, each generating 15 watts. Two cascade modules were connected in parallel. Each modulecomprised of 96 TEC devices, which were connected in series. The hot side of each module was mounted on an aluminumheat transfer pipe with dimensions 12.212.250 cm. Heat sinks were installed on the cold side with cooling fans to provideforced air cooling.To test electricity generation in the experiment, water steam was used as a heat source instead of low grade waste heat.The open-circuit direct current (DC of 250 V and the short-circuit current of 1.2 A was achieved with the following operatingconditions: a hot side temperature of 96°C and a temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of 25°C. The DC poweroutput was inverted to an AC power source of 220 V with 50 Hz frequency, which can continuously supply more than 50 wattsof power to a resistive load as long as the heat source was applied to the system. The system achieved an electrical conversionefficiency of about 0.47 percent with the capital cost of 70 US$/W.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of waste heat power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jiangfeng; Xu, Mingtian; Cheng, Lin

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, a waste heat power generation system is analyzed based on the criteria with and without considering the heat/exergy loss to the environment. For the criteria without considering the heat/exergy loss to the environment, the first- and second-law efficiencies display different tendencies with the variations of some system parameters. When the heat/exergy loss to the environment is taken into consideration, the first and second law efficiencies display the same tendency. Thus, choosing the appropriate expressions for the performance criteria is crucial for the optimization design of the waste heat power generation system. It is found that there are two approaches to improving the system performance: one is to improve the heat/exergy input; the other is to enhance the heat-work conversion ability of the system. The former would deteriorate the environment if the heat-work conversion ability of the system remains unchanged; the latter could reduce the environmental impact but it's restricted by the heat/exergy input. Therefore, the optimal operation condition should be achieved at the trade-off between the heat/exergy input and the heat-work conversion ability of the system.

  19. Mine subsidence control projects associated with solid waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Pennsylvania environmental regulations require applicant's for solid waste disposal permits to provide information regarding the extent of deep mining under the proposed site, evaluations of the maximum subsidence potential, and designs of measures to mitigate potential subsidence impact on the facility. This paper presents three case histories of deep mine subsidence control projects at solid waste disposal facilities. Each case history presents site specific mine grouting project data summaries which include evaluations of the subsurface conditions from drilling, mine void volume calculations, grout mix designs, grouting procedures and techniques, as well as grout coverage and extent of mine void filling evaluations. The case studies described utilized basic gravity grouting techniques to fill the mine voids and fractured strata over the collapsed portions of the deep mines. Grout mixtures were designed to achieve compressive strengths suitable for preventing future mine subsidence while maintaining high flow characteristics to penetrate fractured strata. Verification drilling and coring was performed in the grouted areas to determine the extent of grout coverage and obtain samples of the in-place grout for compression testing. The case histories presented in this report demonstrate an efficient and cost effective technique for mine subsidence control projects

  20. Developing models for the prediction of hospital healthcare waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfahun, Esubalew; Kumie, Abera; Beyene, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of health institutions, along with frequent use of disposable medical products, has contributed to the increase of healthcare waste generation rate. For proper handling of healthcare waste, it is crucial to predict the amount of waste generation beforehand. Predictive models can help to optimise healthcare waste management systems, set guidelines and evaluate the prevailing strategies for healthcare waste handling and disposal. However, there is no mathematical model developed for Ethiopian hospitals to predict healthcare waste generation rate. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop models for the prediction of a healthcare waste generation rate. A longitudinal study design was used to generate long-term data on solid healthcare waste composition, generation rate and develop predictive models. The results revealed that the healthcare waste generation rate has a strong linear correlation with the number of inpatients (R(2) = 0.965), and a weak one with the number of outpatients (R(2) = 0.424). Statistical analysis was carried out to develop models for the prediction of the quantity of waste generated at each hospital (public, teaching and private). In these models, the number of inpatients and outpatients were revealed to be significant factors on the quantity of waste generated. The influence of the number of inpatients and outpatients treated varies at different hospitals. Therefore, different models were developed based on the types of hospitals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using prognostic tools and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinea, Cristina; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Comăniţă, Elena-Diana; Gavrilescu, Marius; Câmpean, Teofil; Curteanu, Silvia; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-11-01

    For an adequate planning of waste management systems the accurate forecast of waste generation is an essential step, since various factors can affect waste trends. The application of predictive and prognosis models are useful tools, as reliable support for decision making processes. In this paper some indicators such as: number of residents, population age, urban life expectancy, total municipal solid waste were used as input variables in prognostic models in order to predict the amount of solid waste fractions. We applied Waste Prognostic Tool, regression analysis and time series analysis to forecast municipal solid waste generation and composition by considering the Iasi Romania case study. Regression equations were determined for six solid waste fractions (paper, plastic, metal, glass, biodegradable and other waste). Accuracy Measures were calculated and the results showed that S-curve trend model is the most suitable for municipal solid waste (MSW) prediction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trans generational ethics: protecting future generations against nuclear waste hazards. Some ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the activities launched at SCK x CEN, intended to explore ethical and other non-technical aspects when dealing with the time scales considered in the high-level waste disposal program. Especially the issues of retrievability and precaution will be focused on which will be philosophically contextualised. Many questions will be raised in order to sensitize all stakeholders for the trans-disciplinary character of the trans-generational problem at hand. (author)

  3. 2nd Generation QUATARA Flight Computer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.

  4. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.M.; Sheehan, J.S.

    1992-07-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) currently manages an interim storage site for Westinghouse Hanford and non-Westinghouse Hanford-generated transuranic (TRU) waste and operates TRU waste generating facilities within the Hanford Site in Washington State. Approval has been received from the Waste Acceptance Criteria Certification Committee (WACCC) and Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generating facilities to certify newly generated contact-handled TRU (CH-TRU) solid waste to meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This document describes the plan for certifying newly generated CH-TRU solid waste to meet the WAC requirements for storage at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Attached to this document are facility-specific certification plans for the Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generators that have received WACCC approval. The certification plans describe operations that generate CH-TRU solid waste and the specific procedures by which these wastes will be certified and segregated from uncertified wastes at the generating facilities. All newly generated CH-TRU solid waste is being transferred to the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) and/or a controlled storage facility. These facilities will store the waste until the certified TRU waste can be sent to the WIPP site and the non-certified TRU waste can be sent to the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility. All non-certifiable TRU waste will be segregated and clearly identified

  5. THE USE OF PROJECTS IN GENERATING CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vacar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article above is part of a research conducted in order to evidence the role of leaders in generating change in organizations and to observe the methods and techniques used, knowing that projects and their management are tools for implementing change in organizations. Leaders, by their influence and not by force, can determine their team to initiate new projects, considered by specialists and practitioners also, real practices of generating change in organizations.

  6. SG (steam generators) reliability project builds on Owners Group successes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, S.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987, a five-year Steam Generator Reliability Project was established at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to deal with outstanding issues, following on from work initiated by the previous utility industry groupings (Steam Generator Owners Groups I and II). The work done by these groups is discussed and a listing of the major objectives of the new project is provided. (U.K.)

  7. RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER GENERATED BY CAR WASHES AND TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-12-01

    big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.

  8. Managing California's low-level waste: state policy and waste generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.; Cramer, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1982, public and private organizations in California that use radioactive materials and generate low-level radioactive waste have worked together through the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (CRMMF) to assure the continued safe disposal of low-level waste (LLW). The forum's corporate and institutional members include electric utilities, universities, hospitals, industries, professional societies, and firms engaged in biological research and the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, over 200 individuals are members. The objectives of CRMMF are: (a) establishing a disposal facility for LLW in California and (b) maintaining access to the existing disposal sites in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina until a California site is licensed and operating. This paper describes the forum's programs in the areas of legislation, litigation, and public information that contribute to the achievement of these objectives

  9. Radioactive waste management in Spain: co-ordination and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The sixth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ENRESA, the Spanish agency responsible for the management of radioactive waste and the dismantling of nuclear power plants, and the Council of Nuclear Safety (CSN), with the support of the Association of Spanish Municipalities in Areas Surrounding Nuclear Power Plants (AMAC). The workshop took place at L'Hospitalet de l'Infant, Catalonia, Spain, on 21-23 November 2005. At this workshop, Spanish stakeholders and delegates from 14 countries discussed current co-ordination of radioactive waste management decision making in Spain. Findings were shared from Cowam-Spain, a co-operative research project on the involvement of local stakeholders, the relationship between national and local levels of decision making, and the long-term sustainability of decisions regarding the siting of a centralized interim storage facility for high-level waste. These proceedings include the workshop presentations and discussions, as well as the rapporteurs' reflections on what was learned about policy making and participative decision making. (author)

  10. The waste isolation pilot plant project: a changing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, L.E.; McFadden, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) repository that has been developed to demonstrate the safe and permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a deep geologic site. It is located in 650 m below the surface in a bedded salt formation, and is designed to hold approximately 175,500 cubic meters of waste. Compliance with the regulations has become the principal focus for the Project. The scientific baseline is an important and integral part of the CCA, as it provides the foundation for conducting total system performance assessment calculations for comparison with applicable standards. The activities required to support the scientific baseline are being pursued in parallel to minimize the time required to collect, analyze, interpret and fully incorporate the results into the CCA. The DOE has shifted its approach to demonstrating compliance with the applicable regulations from a paradigm of a series of broad investigations to a new paradigm of highly focused activities conducted in parallel. The success of this approach will be assessed by the EPA when the application is critically reviewed

  11. Municipal Solid Waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2010-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  12. The Exercise: An Exercise Generator Tool for the SOURCe Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoyianni-Doa, Fryni; Tziafa, Eleni; Naskos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    The Exercise, an Exercise generator in the SOURCe project, is a tool that complements the properties and functionalities of the SOURCe project, which includes the search engine for the Searchable Online French-Greek parallel corpus for the UniveRsity of Cyprus (SOURCe) (Kakoyianni-Doa & Tziafa, 2013), the PENCIL (an alignment tool)…

  13. Combustion of Waste Wood. Second phase of the collaboration project on waste wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Annika; Andersson, Christer; Eriksson, Jan; Hemstroem, Bengt; Jungstedt, Jenny; Kling, Aasa; Bahr, Bo von; Ekvall, Annika; Eskilsson, David; Tullin, Claes; Harnevie, Henrik; Sieurin, Jan; Keihaes, Juha; Mueller, Christian; Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin

    2003-08-01

    Combustion of waste wood has during the last decade increased dramatically and this has resulted in a number of Swedish plants using this fuel, e.g. Handeloe P11 (Norrkoeping) and ldbaecken P3 (Nykoeping), and yet other plants that are under construction (e.g. Nynaeshamn). The experience from these plants are that waste wood combustion results in a number of operational problems. To some extent these problems are different compared with the problems related to combustion of other biofuels but the situation is not directly comparable to waste incinerators. The problems are mainly related to slagging and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces and accelerated corrosion at relatively low temperature compared to the situation for ordinary biofuels. In some cases an increase in the emissions of specific substances can also result in difficulties to fulfil the EC-directive on waste combustion. Within previous projects the main problems related to combustion of waste wood have been identified and to some extent the cause of these problems has been clarified. One result of this reported investigation is a deeper understanding of the actual causes of these problems. However, the most important result is a number of recommendations for different measures on how to achieve disturbance-free combustion of waste wood. These recommendations actually summarises the most important possible solutions on how to achieve a disturbance-free operation and a lower maintenance cost for boilers combusting waste wood and can thereby be regarded as a short summery of the whole project: 1) Improving fuel quality by Improved sorting at the source and Sieving of the fuel -> Reducing the amount of metals and chlorine and Separation of fines and thereby reducing the amount of metals. 2) Combustion modifications by Avoiding reducing conditions at the heat exchanger surfaces -> Minimising slagging, fouling and corrosion. 3) Additives or co-combustion by Addition of sulphur with the fuel; Injection of

  14. Selection of efficient options for processing and storage of radioactive waste in countries with small amounts of waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The report is intended to assist decision makers in countries using nuclear energy for non-power applications to organize their waste management practices. It describes methodologies, criteria and options for the selection of appropriate technologies for processing and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. The report reviews both technical and non-technical factors important for decision making and planning, and for implementation of waste management activities at the country and facility levels. It makes practical recommendations for the selection of particular technologies for different scales of waste generation. These wastes may arise from production of radionuclides and their application in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research. The report also considers waste generated at research reactors, research centers and research laboratories using radioisotopes, as well as waste from decommissioning of research reactors and small nuclear facilities such as hot cells, laboratories and irradiation facilities. Management of uranium mining and milling waste and management of spent fuel from research reactors are not considered in this report. Discussed in detail are: the basic legal, regulatory, administrative and technical requirements set up in a national waste management system and review of the factors and components affecting the selection of an appropriate national waste management system. the origins and characteristics of radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. the technical factors that might affect the selection of waste processing and storage technologies, the main waste management steps, information on available technologies, the basis for planning of waste processing and storage and the selection of a particular option for radioactive waste processing and storage in countries with a different scale of nuclear applications

  15. Selection of efficient options for processing and storage of radioactive waste in countries with small amounts of waste generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The report is intended to assist decision makers in countries using nuclear energy for non-power applications to organize their waste management practices. It describes methodologies, criteria and options for the selection of appropriate technologies for processing and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. The report reviews both technical and non-technical factors important for decision making and planning, and for implementation of waste management activities at the country and facility levels. It makes practical recommendations for the selection of particular technologies for different scales of waste generation. These wastes may arise from production of radionuclides and their application in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research. The report also considers waste generated at research reactors, research centers and research laboratories using radioisotopes, as well as waste from decommissioning of research reactors and small nuclear facilities such as hot cells, laboratories and irradiation facilities. Management of uranium mining and milling waste and management of spent fuel from research reactors are not considered in this report. Discussed in detail are: the basic legal, regulatory, administrative and technical requirements set up in a national waste management system and review of the factors and components affecting the selection of an appropriate national waste management system. the origins and characteristics of radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. the technical factors that might affect the selection of waste processing and storage technologies, the main waste management steps, information on available technologies, the basis for planning of waste processing and storage and the selection of a particular option for radioactive waste processing and storage in countries with a different scale of nuclear applications.

  16. Waste generated by the future decommissioning of the Magurele VVR-S Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C.N.; Dragolici, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Research Reactor WWR-S from the National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei', Bucharest-Magurele, was commissioned in July 1957 and it was shut down in December 1997. At the moment the reactor is in conservation state. During its operation this reactor worked at an average power of 2MW, almost 3216 h/year, producing a total thermal power of 230 x 10 3 MWh. No major modifications or improvements were made during the 40 years of operation to the essential parts of the reactor, respective to the primary cooling system, reactor vessel, active core and electronic devices. So, all components of the measure, control and protection systems are old, generally at the technical level of the 1950s, therefore a reason why in December 1997 the operation was ceased. At present, the reactor can be considered, by IAEA definition in the first stage (reactor shut down, but the vital functions are maintained and monitored). The survey is related to the second stage - restrictive use of the area. To develop a real decommissioning project, it was first necessary to evaluate the volume and the characteristics of the radioactive waste which will be generated. Radioactive waste generated during the decommissioning of Magurele WR-S research reactor may be classified as: Activated wastes (internal structures, horizontal channels and thermal column, biological shield); Contaminated wastes (primary circuit non-activated components, hot cells, some technological rooms as main hall, pumps room, radioactive material transfer areas, ventilation building and stack); Possibly contaminated materials from any area of reactor building and ventilation building. After 40 years of nuclear research activities, all such areas are suspected of contamination. The volume of wastes that will result from WWR-S Research Reactor decommissioning is summarized

  17. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix I: Impact of concentration averaging low-level radioactive waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; O'Kelley, M.; Ely, P.

    1991-08-01

    This study provides a quantitative framework for bounding unpackaged greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste types as a function of concentration averaging. The study defines the three concentration averaging scenarios that lead to base, high, and low volumetric projections; identifies those waste types that could be greater-than-Class C under the high volume, or worst case, concentration averaging scenario; and quantifies the impact of these scenarios on identified waste types relative to the base case scenario. The base volume scenario was assumed to reflect current requirements at the disposal sites as well as the regulatory views. The high volume scenario was assumed to reflect the most conservative criteria as incorporated in some compact host state requirements. The low volume scenario was assumed to reflect the 10 CFR Part 61 criteria as applicable to both shallow land burial facilities and to practices that could be employed to reduce the generation of Class C waste types

  18. Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) was formally established by Executive Policy in 1983 following passage of the federal Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Act). That Act provides for the systematic siting, construction, operation, and closure of high-level radioactive defense and research by-products and other forms of high-level radioactive waste from around the country which will be stored at such repositories. In 1985 the Nevada legislature formally established the NWPO as a distinct and statutorily authorized agency to provide support to the Governor and State Legislature on matters concerning the high-level nuclear waste programs. The NWPO utilized a small, central staff supplemented by contractual services for needed technical and specialized expertise in order to provide high quality oversight and monitoring of federal activities, to conduct necessary independent studies, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. This report summarizes the results of this ongoing program to ensure that risks to the environment and to human safety are minimized. It includes findings in the areas of hydrogeology, geology, quality assurance activities, repository engineering, legislature participation, socioeconomic affects, risk assessments, monitoring programs, public information dissemination, and transportation activities. The bulk of the reporting deals with the Yucca Mountain facility

  19. Characteristics of radioactive waste streams generated in HTGR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a study concerned with identification and characterization of radioactive waste streams from an HTGR fuel reprocessing plant. Approximate quantities of individual waste streams as well as pertinent characteristics of selected streams have been estimated. Most of the waste streams are unique to HTGR fuel reprocessing. However, waste streams from the solvent extraction system and from the plant facilities do not differ greatly from the corresponding LWR fuel reprocessing wastes

  20. Estimation of centerline temperature of the waste form for the rare earth waste generated from pyrochemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Hoon, E-mail: mrchoijh@kaeri.re.kr; Eun, Hee-Chul; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Lee, Ki-Rak; Han, Seung-Youb; Jeon, Min-Ku; Park, Hwan-Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee

    2017-01-15

    Estimation of centerline temperature of nuclear glass waste form for each waste stream is very essential in the period of storage because the centerline temperature being over its glass transition temperature results in the increase of leaching rate of radioactive nuclides due to the devitrification of glass waste form. Here, to verify the effects of waste form diameter and transuranic element content in the rare earth waste on the centerline temperature of the waste form, the surrogate rare earth glass waste generated from pyrochemical process was immobilized with SiO{sub 2}−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}−B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass frit system, and thermal properties of the rare earth glass waste form were determined by thermomechanical analysis and thermal conductivity analysis. The estimation of centerline temperature was carried out using the experimental thermal data and steady-state conduction equation in a long and solid cylinder type waste form. It was revealed that thermal stability of waste form in case of 0.3 m diameter was not affected by the TRU content even in the case of 80% TRU recovery ratio in the electrowinning process, meaning that the waste form of 0.3 m diameter is thermally stable due to the low centerline temperature relative to its glass transition temperature of the rare earth glass waste form.

  1. The new Wallula CO2 project may revive the old Columbia River Basalt (western USA) nuclear-waste repository project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2018-02-01

    A novel CO2 sequestration project at Wallula, Washington, USA, makes ample use of the geoscientific data collection of the old nuclear waste repository project at the Hanford Site nearby. Both projects target the Columbia River Basalt (CRB). The new publicity for the old project comes at a time when the approach to high-level nuclear waste disposal has undergone fundamental changes. The emphasis now is on a technical barrier that is chemically compatible with the host rock. In the ideal case, the waste container is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the host-rock groundwater regime. The CRB groundwater has what it takes to represent the ideal case.

  2. Savannah River Certification Plan for newly generated, contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbicki, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    This Certification Plan document describes the necessary processes and methods for certifying unclassified, newly generated, contact-handled solid transuranic (TRU) waste at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory (SRP, SRL) to comply with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). Section 2 contains the organizational structure as related to waste certification including a summary of functional responsibilities, levels of authority, and lines of communication of the various organizations involved in certification activities. Section 3 describes general plant operations and TRU waste generation. Included is a description of the TRU Waste classification system. Section 4 contains the SR site TRU Waste Quality Assurance Program Plan. Section 5 describes waste container procurement, inspection, and certification prior to being loaded with TRU waste. Certification of waste packages, after package closure in the waste generating areas, is described in Section 6. The packaging and certification of individual waste forms is described in Attachments 1-5. Included in each attachment is a description of controls used to ensure that waste packages meet all applicable waste form compliance requirements for shipment to the WIPP. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF CURRENTLY GENERATED TRANUSRANIC WASTE AT THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY'S PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, Robert L.; Montoya, Andy M.

    2003-01-01

    By the time the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) completes its Disposal Phase in FY 2034, the Department of Energy (DOE) will have disposed of approximately 109,378 cubic meters (m3) of Transuranic (TRU) waste in WIPP (1). If DOE adheres to its 2005 Pollution Prevention Goal of generating less than 141m3/yr of TRU waste, approximately 5000 m3 (4%) of that TRU waste will be newly generated (2). Because of the overwhelming majority (96%) of TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP is legacy waste, the characterization and certification requirements were developed to resolve those issues related to legacy waste. Like many other DOE facilities Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has a large volume (9,010m3) of legacy Transuranic Waste in storage (3). Unlike most DOE facilities LANL will generate approximately 140m3 of newly generated TRU waste each year3. LANL's certification program was established to meet the WIPP requirements for legacy waste and does not take advantage of the fundamental differences in waste knowledge between newly generated and legacy TRU waste

  4. Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, S.A.; Pullen, G.M.; Brewer, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL`s Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI`s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?`` and ``How are you approaching similar challenges?`` will be questions for a dialog with the audience.

  5. Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.A.; Pullen, G.M.; Brewer, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL's Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI's Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?'' and ''How are you approaching similar challenges?'' will be questions for a dialog with the audience

  6. Large scale waste combustion projects. A study of financial structures and sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.