WorldWideScience

Sample records for projected market demand

  1. Market Design Project. Demand Response Resources in Sweden - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter

    2006-06-01

    An important discussion in later years has been whether the necessary reserves in the electricity market are to be generated through normal market mechanisms, i.e. with the price as the primary controlling parameter, or if it requires a collectively financed capacity reserve and how regulations in such a case should be shaped. The issue is first and foremost a matter of where the line is drawn between that which 'the market' should handle and that which can be assured through regulation. Autumn 2002 Svenska Kraftnaet (the Swedish TSO) presented an investigation to the government in which it was suggested that the capacity balance should primarily be managed through the use of normal pricing mechanisms, but that the state should strengthen responsibility for the nation's capacity balance in the period up until 2008. When approaching an effect loss situation, spot prices and balancing power prices will skyrocket. Today, most people are in agreement that a condition for maintained delivery safety is that normal pricing mechanisms are in place and that consumption actually is affected by high prices. The main reason for this conclusion is that it is very expensive to keep production facilities in reserve for situations that are expected to occur very seldom - it is cheaper to encourage large customers to reduce their consumption. The other reason is that increased price sensitivity creates conditions for a more stable and more predictable pricing development in strained situations. While being aware that a response to increased demand is needed, we see too little of that on the market today. The aim of this project is to present concrete measures that will awaken this slumbering resource. In order to judge how much demand response that can reasonably be expected and if there is any financial gain for customers, electricity suppliers and grid operators; it has been necessary to cast a few predictions about future price peaks. We estimate price peaks in the 3-10 SEK

  2. A demanding market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    The article relates to the oil and natural gas market, and it gives a survey of proved reserves at the end of 1996 worldwide. The long term trend of increasing world energy demand has seen a major rise during 1996 when global consumption grew by 3%. But worldwide demand, excluding the Former Soviet Union, shows this figure increasing further to 3.7% for the whole of last year according to statistics. 3 figs

  3. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  4. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    position on its markets. It is expected that results of the analysis will be part of superior strategic decisions for the Danish pork sector as regards future Danish pork export markets. The market demands to be identified will therefore be evaluated in relation to resources and competences within the line...... of business. The study takes its starting point in a value chain perspective. The value chain covers the product- and distribution stages a product passes through before reaching the consumers. The value chain perspective presumes that added value is accumulated when a product passes through the stages...

  5. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  6. Market architecture and power demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rious, Vincent; Roques, Fabien

    2014-12-01

    Demand response is a cornerstone problem in electricity markets considering climate change constraint. Most liberalized electricity markets have a poor track record at developing demand response. In Europe, different models are considered for demand response, from a development under a regulated regime to a development under competitive perspectives. In this paper, focusing on demand response for mid-size and small consumers, we investigate which types of market signals should be sent to demand response aggregators to see demand response emerge as a competitive activity. Using data from the French power system over eight years, we compare the possible market design options to allow demand response to develop. Our simulations demonstrate that with the current market rules, demand response is not a profitable activity in the French electricity industry. Introducing a capacity remuneration could bring additional revenues to demand response aggregators if the power system has no over-capacity

  7. Crucial market demands and company competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    More and more, it is acknowledged that a company's success depends on it being capable of complying with the market's demands and wishes. It is, however, not always obvious, how the individual company will be able to meet the market's demands. A recent MAPP study has investigated this topic...... and identified a number of central market demands, which Danish food companies are faced with. Moreover, the study has identified which competencies are required to meet these demands and have also looked at howsuccessful companies structure some of these competencies. The study takes its point of departure...... in a literature review of MAPP's research. Results show that there are 27 central market demands, retail and consumer demands that Danish companies ought to be able to live up to. The study has also identified which competencies food companies must possess to be able to meet market's demands. Results from three...

  8. Restructuring Electricity Markets when Demand is Uncertain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of reorganizing electricity markets on capacity investments, retail prices and welfare when demand is uncertain. We study the following market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly with wholesale...... trade. Assuming that wholesale prices can react to changes in retail prices (but not vice versa), we find that generators install sufficient capacity to serve retail demand in each market configuration, thus avoiding blackouts. Furthermore, aggregate capacity levels and retail prices...

  9. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  10. Modelling of demand response and market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoffersen, B.B.; Donslund, B.; Boerre Eriksen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Demand-side flexibility and demand response to high prices are prerequisites for the proper functioning of the Nordic power market. If the consumers are unwilling to respond to high prices, the market may fail the clearing, and this may result in unwanted forced demand disconnections. Being the TSO of Western Denmark, Eltra is responsible of both security of supply and the design of the power market within its area. On this basis, Eltra has developed a new mathematical model tool for analysing the Nordic wholesale market. The model is named MARS (MARket Simulation). The model is able to handle hydropower and thermal production, nuclear power and wind power. Production, demand and exchanges modelled on an hourly basis are new important features of the model. The model uses the same principles as Nord Pool (The Nordic Power Exchange), including the division of the Nordic countries into price areas. On the demand side, price elasticity is taken into account and described by a Cobb-Douglas function. Apart from simulating perfect competition markets, particular attention has been given to modelling imperfect market conditions, i.e. exercise of market power on the supply side. Market power is simulated by using game theory, including the Nash equilibrium concept. The paper gives a short description of the MARS model. Besides, focus is on the application of the model in order to illustrate the importance of demand response in the Nordic market. Simulations with different values of demand elasticity are compared. Calculations are carried out for perfect competition and for the situation in which market power is exercised by the large power producers in the Nordic countries (oligopoly). (au)

  11. Demand-controlling marketing of electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffee, H; Fritz, W

    1980-01-01

    In situations like the shortage of energy resources the particular autonomy of the users concerning energy demand raises more and more aggravating problems for the electric utilities (EU) and, last not least, for society (i.e. the peak-load problem, threatening bottlenecks in the supply situation). Thus the requirement for a demand-controlling marketing strategy of the EU with the help of which the individual demand should be influenced in the following manner is legitimate. The article discusses the targets, strategies, and instruments of marketing performed by the EU under the aspect of their efficiency concerning demand control. The discussion leads to e.g. the following results: that a marketing strategy for the sensible, responsible, and efficent use of energy, in the long-term, serves both the interests of the users and the interests of the EU; that such a marketing programme can have the required controlling effects especially with the help of strategies like market segmentation and cooperation. The discussion makes also clear that a demand-controlling marketing strategy of the EU can hardly be realized without a considerable change within the organization of the EU on one hand and, on the other, without expanding the marketing programme toward a marketing strategy of balance.

  12. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... to adjust by investments in backup generators. We focus on turning the many private backup generators into a demand response system. The economic simulation focuses on possible distortion introduced by various ways of splitting the generated surplus from the demand response system. An auction run instantly...

  13. A Dynamic Market Mechanism for Markets with Shiftable Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Kiani, Arman

    2014-01-01

    renewables, this mechanism accommodates both consumers with a shiftable Demand Response and an adjustable Demand Response. The overall market mechanism is evaluated in a Day Ahead Market and is shown in a numerical example to result in a reduction of the cost of electricity for the consumer, as well......In this paper, we propose a dynamic market mechanism that converges to the desired market equilibrium. Both locational marginal prices and the schedules for generation and consumption are determined through a negotiation process between the key market players. In addition to incorporating...

  14. Use of demand response in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Demand response (DR) can provide sufficient measure, if implemented successfully, to provide economic, secure and stable supply to the customers even under the variability of the generated output from renewable energy source such as wind and solar. However, there are several issues to be analyzed...... before DR implementation. This paper critically examines the present practices of the DR in the various electricity markets existing in the world including Europe. The prospect of DR in various market levels such as day-ahead (spot) market, hour-ahead market, real time/regulating market and ancillary...... market is analyzed. This paper also addresses the key issues and challenges in the implementation of DR in the electricity markets....

  15. Demand response in Indian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Maere d'Aertrycke, Gauthier de; Smeers, Yves

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology for implementing cost of service regulation in retail market for electricity in India when wholesale market is liberalised and operates through an hourly spot market. As in a developing country context political considerations make tariff levels more important than supply security, satisfying the earmarked level of demand takes a back seat. Retail market regulators are often forced by politicians to keep the retail tariff at suboptimal level. This imposes budget constraint on distribution companies to procure electricity that it requires to meet the earmarked level of demand. This is the way demand response is introduced in the system and has its impact on spot market prices. We model such a situation of not being able to serve the earmarked demand as disutility to the regulator which has to be minimised and we compute associated equilibrium. This results in systematic mechanism for cutting loads. We find that even a small cut in ability of the distribution companies to procure electricity from the spot market has profound impact on the prices in the spot market. - Highlights: ► Modelling the impact of retail tariff in different states on spot prices of electricity in India. ► Retail tariffs are usually fixed below appropriate levels by states due to political reasons. ► Due to revenue constraint distribution utility withdraws demand from spot market in peak hours. ► This adversely affects the scarcity rent of generators and subsequently future investment. ► We show possibility of strategic behaviour among state level regulators in setting retail tariff.

  16. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  17. Demand response in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler

    This thesis addresses the design, deployment and benefits of demand response in a market environment. Demand response is consumption that can be controlled by an external stimulus in the power system. Flexible consumption is a useful tool for absorbing volatile power from renewable sources like...... this simulation, real power system data from the Danish island of Bornholm is introduced and methods to quantify an aggregated load is developed. These methods can be used for real-time operation and to support investment decisions. More specifically, they can be used to forecast the response to electricity...... pricing and to classify different types of customers. The proposed models are then embedded into new fiveminute electricity markets for system balancing and local congestion management. New market tools for exploiting and maintaining a degree of control over demand are developed, and the value of DR using...

  18. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. 2016 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99Mo/99mTc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2016-2021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2016-03-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m ( 99 mTc) account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing 30-40 million examinations Worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and only 6 hours for 99m Tc, and thus must be produced continuously - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Supply reliability has been challenged over the past decade due to unexpected shutdowns and extended refurbishment periods at some of the 99 Mo-producing research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have at times created conditions for extended global supply shortages (e.g. 2009-2010). At the request of its member countries, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo supply situation periodically, to highlight periods of potential reduced supply and to underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a 99 Mo supply and demand forecast up to 2030, identifying periods of potential low supply relative to demand. That 2012 forecast was updated with a report in 2014 that focused on the much shorter 2015-2020 period. That report was updated in 2015 with a report, '2015 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2015-2020' (NEA, 2015), which focused on the same period. This report updates the 2015 report, and focuses on the important 2016-2021 period. At the end of 2015, the OSIRIS reactor

  19. Social marketing in travel demand management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing is an increasingly popular means of Travel Demand Management (TDM) for promoting non-car modes of travel that has proven to be effective, in particular if combined with structural improvements. Successful social marketing is based on a thorough understanding of targeted people......’s needs, wants, and perceived barriers. It uses a combination of means to create an attractive offering tailored to these needs, wants, and perceived barriers. It applies established marketing techniques for catching attention to the offerings. However, there are limits to what social marketing can...... accomplish. In particular, social marketing is limited to cases where only perceived and not real barriers prevent people from using alternative travel modes. A review is given of research on and practical experiences of social marketing in TDM as a basis for evaluating its usefulness....

  20. Nonlinear Pricing in Markets with Interdependent Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel S. Oren; Stephen A. Smith; Robert B. Wilson

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides a mathematical framework for modeling demand and determining optimal price schedules in markets which have demand externalities and can sustain nonlinear pricing. These fundamental economic concepts appear in the marketplace in the form of mutual buyers' benefits and quantity discounts. The theory addressing these aspects is relevant to a wide variety of goods and services. Examples include tariffs for electronic communications services, pricing of franchises, and royalty ...

  1. Demand response in a market environment

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses the design, deployment and benefits of demand response in a market environment. Demand response is consumption that can be controlled by an external stimulus in the power system. Flexible consumption is a useful tool for absorbing volatile power from renewable sources like wind power and photovoltaics, and dealing with decentralised activity like electric vehicle charging. Without flexible consumption or other new technologies like storage, there will be several occasion...

  2. Demand Elasticity on the Transport Market

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor Perić; Nada Štrumberger

    2002-01-01

    The elasticity of demand for traffic se1vices is the adaptationof traffic supply to traffic demand. The elasticity of suchdemand is low which is specific of the transport market, especiallyfrom the aspect of designing traffic demand.The essence of the problem of low elasticity can be noticedin three basic properties:First, in the change of place which determines the traffic demandor traffic relation.Second is the continuity of the need to transport goods andpassengers.Third, the needs for tra...

  3. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. 2015 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99Mo/99mTc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2015-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2015-08-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing 30-40 million examinations Worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and only 6 hours for 99m Tc, and thus must be produced continuously - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has been challenged over the past decade due to unexpected shutdowns and extended refurbishment periods at some of the mostly ageing, 99 Mo-producing research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have at times created conditions for extended global supply shortages (e.g. 2009-2010). At the request of its member countries, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data available from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of potential reduced supply and to underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a M o supply and demand forecast up to 2030, identifying periods of potential low supply relative to demand. That 2012 forecast was updated with a report 'Medical Isotope Supply in the Future: Production Capacity and Demand Forecast for the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Market 2015-2020' (NEA, 2014) in 2014 that focused on the much shorter 2015-2020 period. This report updates the 2014 report, and continues to focus on the potentially critical 2015

  4. Marketing demand management in the commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has a marketing strategy for designing and implementing demand side management (DSM) programs, which marks a turnaround from previous years when marketing efforts were concentrated on selling electricity. Starting in the 1980s, marketing activities consisted, in effect, of coordinating relations between the customer, the market, and the utility. To achieve a better understanding of the needs of customers, the nature of the energy market, and the utilization of energy, the utility conducted research on the decision-making process associated with consumer choices of energy systems. To develop relations with its clientele in the commercial sector, the utility published an information bulletin and prepared an energy guide. Along with this initiative, the number of energy advisers to the commercial sector was increased in Ontario Hydro's regional offices. To improve understanding of each segment of the commercial market, the utility contacted organizations representing each segment as well as broader based organizations with the objective of creating opportunities to address this market, for example at conferences. Because of this philosophy of satisfying and understanding customer needs, Ontario Hydro has been in the process of commercializing demand-side management. Its high-efficiency lighting program is a good example in this regard. From a strategy which focused on a simple reduction in lighting in the 1970s, the utility has turned toward promoting efficient high-quality lighting which better responds to industry needs, to the point where industry itself has begun to promote the program. Such a strategy benefits industry, customers, and Ontario Hydro's demand-side management programs

  5. Demand Elasticity on the Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The elasticity of demand for traffic se1vices is the adaptationof traffic supply to traffic demand. The elasticity of suchdemand is low which is specific of the transport market, especiallyfrom the aspect of designing traffic demand.The essence of the problem of low elasticity can be noticedin three basic properties:First, in the change of place which determines the traffic demandor traffic relation.Second is the continuity of the need to transport goods andpassengers.Third, the needs for transport may vmy according to thechanges in society and economy, and they also change thesources of traffic demand. Therefore, the elasticity of demandfor traffic se1vices is relatively low.

  6. Demand and supply in Russian gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovidov, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    The big volume of gas supplies for current and future energy and natural gas balances in Russia is important to understand the likely future dynamics of demand for gas. The path of future demand in Russia is uncertain and the range of possible scenarios is wide. For creating the new gas consumption structure, more deep diversification and development of the gas distribution systems, large investments and considerable periods of time are necessary. The factors usually studied in detail in the conditions of market economy can not be used here as a basis for strategic planning due to several reasons. (R.P.)

  7. Stock Market Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Brenda D.

    This project is designed to teach students the process of buying stocks and to tracking their investments over the course of a semester. The goals of the course are to teach students about the relationships between conditions in the economy and the stock market; to predict the effect of an economic event on a specific stock or industry; to relate…

  8. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  9. HSAPS market analysis project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeckner, Ronny; Aaberg, Rolf Jarle

    2006-12-15

    The H-SAPS (Hydrogen Stand-Alone Power System) project, an EU project within the ALTENER programme in the period 2002-2004, was initiated to determine the potential for the introduction of environmentally benign hydrogen technology in what is believed to be a near-term market, namely stand-alone power systems (SAPS). The objective of the project was to examine the technological, political, social and economical factors affecting the emergence of hydrogen technology in the stand-alone power system market today and in the future. The scope of the project was limited to small and medium sized stand-alone power systems, up to a few hundred kilowatts (kW) power rating and based on renewable energy as the primary energy source. The work was divided into five phases: (1) Inception, (2) Data collection and analysis, (3) Market analysis and barrier removal, (4) Dissemination, and (5) Final report. Separate reports were written on these topics, and later summarised this final report. The H-SAPS-project identified the following critical technical barriers (in prioritized order): (1) High costs of both electrolyser and fuel cell solutions, (2) Short lifetime warranties and little lifetime experience for PEM electrolysers and PEM fuel cells, (3) Low energy efficiency of the hydrogen energy system (critical for small systems), and (4) The need to develop easy-to-use and energy efficient gas and electricity control systems. One of the main conclusions from the project is that there is a need to focus on interim solutions, based on conventional energy technologies (e.g., internal combustion engines instead of fuel cells), in order for H-SAPS to compete in the near-term SAPS-market (author) (ml)

  10. HSAPS market analysis project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckner, Ronny; Aaberg, Rolf Jarle

    2006-12-01

    The H-SAPS (Hydrogen Stand-Alone Power System) project, an EU project within the ALTENER programme in the period 2002-2004, was initiated to determine the potential for the introduction of environmentally benign hydrogen technology in what is believed to be a near-term market, namely stand-alone power systems (SAPS). The objective of the project was to examine the technological, political, social and economical factors affecting the emergence of hydrogen technology in the stand-alone power system market today and in the future. The scope of the project was limited to small and medium sized stand-alone power systems, up to a few hundred kilowatts (kW) power rating and based on renewable energy as the primary energy source. The work was divided into five phases: (1) Inception, (2) Data collection and analysis, (3) Market analysis and barrier removal, (4) Dissemination, and (5) Final report. Separate reports were written on these topics, and later summarised this final report. The H-SAPS-project identified the following critical technical barriers (in prioritized order): (1) High costs of both electrolyser and fuel cell solutions, (2) Short lifetime warranties and little lifetime experience for PEM electrolysers and PEM fuel cells, (3) Low energy efficiency of the hydrogen energy system (critical for small systems), and (4) The need to develop easy-to-use and energy efficient gas and electricity control systems. One of the main conclusions from the project is that there is a need to focus on interim solutions, based on conventional energy technologies (e.g., internal combustion engines instead of fuel cells), in order for H-SAPS to compete in the near-term SAPS-market (author) (ml)

  11. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introduction of new products, modification of products, promotion, distribution etc. They rarely found it necessary to focus a bit more to different aspects of marketing management, for example: marketing planning and marketing control, marketing organization and leading. This paper deals with aspects of project - matrix marketing organization management. Two-dimensional and more-dimensional models are presented. Among two-dimensional, these models are analyzed: Market management/products management model; Products management/management of product lifecycle phases on market model; Customers management/marketing functions management model; Demand management/marketing functions management model; Market positions management/marketing functions management model. .

  12. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000: Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Potential customer premises service (CPS), telecommunication services, potential CPS user classes, a primary research survey, comparative economics, market demand forcasts, distance distribution of traffic, segmentation of market demand, and a nationwide traffic distribution model are discussed.

  13. Wind Power Project Repowering: History, Economics, and Demand (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation summarizes a related NREL technical report and seeks to capture the current status of wind power project repowering in the U.S. and globally, analyze the economic and financial decision drivers that surround repowering, and to quantify the level and timing of demand for new turbine equipment to supply the repowering market.

  14. Eastern markets : is there enough demand for new supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of the energy market's ability to support pipeline expansion projects was discussed. Pipeline expansion is a natural corollary of deregulation. Since expansion and competition in the natural gas industry go hand in hand, pipeline expansion is inevitable, imperative and in the longer-term is in the best interest of the end use gas consumer. The effect of pipeline expansion on local distribution companies (LDCs) such as Consumers Gas which serves eastern Canadian markets was also described. It was explained that LDCs are being transformed by deregulation which has opened the market to direct purchasing, meaning that end-users (including residential customers) can buy their natural gas through various brokers, marketers and producers. Some of the other factors affecting the demand for natural gas such as convergence, deregulation, the environment, and their impact were also discussed. It was suggested that in the near-term there is a possibility of over-construction of pipeline capacity, resulting in the demise of some of the projects. Even in the longer-term, only the pipelines that are willing to differentiate themselves from other pipelines by providing more customer choice, more service options and better service, will prosper. Market and regulatory advantage can also be gained by quickly reacting to changing market conditions through expansion of existing pipelines in stages via compression and looping. In pipeline construction timing is critical

  15. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-12

    The objective of this project was to develop a “roadmap” to guide the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) demand response (DR) planning and implementation in support of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) 70% clean energy goal by 2030.

  16. Relationships and project marketing success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Lindblom, Jarno

    2002-01-01

    Project operations are a dominating mode of international business. Managing relationships and networks is crucial to project marketing success both at the level of the individual project and at the level of multiple projects. This article first defines key characteristics of project business, id...

  17. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  18. Long-term evaluation of individualized marketing programs for travel demand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This research examines the use of individualized marketing as a transportation demand : management (TDM) strategy, using the City of Portlands SmartTrips program. This research : project has two specific aims: (1) to evaluate whether the benefits ...

  19. Market Design for Rapid Demand Response - The Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Nielsen; Tseganesh Wubale Tamirat

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been...

  20. The development of demand elasticity model for demand response in the retail market environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of liberalized energy market, increase in distributed generation, storage and demand response has expanded the price elasticity of demand, thus causing the addition of uncertainty to the supply-demand chain of power system. In order to cope with the challenges of demand uncertainty

  1. Bayesian Analysis of Demand Elasticity in the Italian Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    D'Errico, Maria; Bollino, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The liberalization of the Italian electricity market is a decade old. Within these last ten years, the supply side has been extensively analyzed, but not the demand side. The aim of this paper is to provide a new method for estimation of the demand elasticity, based on Bayesian methods applied to the Italian electricity market. We used individual demand bids data in the day-ahead market in the Italian Power Exchange (IPEX), for 2011, in order to construct an aggregate demand function at the h...

  2. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-01-01

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium mo...

  3. Application of Demand Analysis in Marketing Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Elzberry, Jr.

    This study investigated the feasibility of applying economic demand analysis (especially elasticity of demand) in marketing George Washington University off-campus degree programs. In the case under study, a supplemental budget request had to be submitted to meet expenses incurred by an unforeseen increase in demand for graduate and undergraduate…

  4. Analysis on the pricing mechanism of public-private partnership project with different market demand level%不同需求状态下公私合作制项目的定价机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波; 徐飞

    2011-01-01

    在政府主导的公私合作制(PPP)项目建设运营中,考虑将PPP项目中私人部门生者剩余的部分比例纳入社会总福利水平的计算,分别从高需求、中等需求和低需求3种不同的市场需求状态出发研究公共品供给市场上的定价机制,通过分析由于政府价格规制区间而导致的公私部门之间定价权配置的差异,公私不同主体追求不同的效益最大化,得到不同市场需求状态下的公共品定价水平及其不同状态下的相关参数的影响,验证了政府对公共品供给的规制价格区间与PPP项目运营成本的相关性,并发现不同需求状态下公共品定价与产品需求弹性之间关系的差异;对我国公共项目建设和运营实践中公共品供给市场上的定价具有一定的指导意义.%This paper analyzed the pricing mechanism in the supply of public goods, based on defining the calculation of social welfare which considered part of producer surplus in the operation of PPP project under the guidance of government, and classifying the public goods market into three states i. e. , the high, middle and low demand needs. By analyzing the different allocations of pricing right between public and private sectors, and then maximizing the different benefits individually by public and private sectors, it derives the pricing mechanism and the different impacts of related parameters on it under three different demand states, examined the relationship between the interval of price regulation by government and the cost in the operation of public-private partnership projects, and also find the different correlations between the pricing and the demand elastics of public goods in different market demand levels, so as to bring forward some suggestions for pricing of public goods in the practice of PPP projects.

  5. Demand Response Within Current Electricity Wholesale Market Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Gutierrez, Ariana Isabel; De Jonghe, Cedric; Six, Daan; Belmans, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of intermittent energy resources calls for the ability to modulate consumption patterns according to electricity availability. This paper provides a brief overview of the main electricity market design characteristics and places demand response within the framework of the existing timeline of market operation. The main differences between electricity markets lie in the price formation mechanisms where some markets pay-as- cleared and some pay- as- bid for the electricity tran...

  6. A Supply and Demand Update of the Molybdenum-99 Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m account for roughly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing over 30 million examinations worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and 6 hours for its daughter isotope, technetium-99m (' 99m Tc), and thus must be produced continually - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing 99 Mo-producing research reactor and processing facilities. These shutdowns have created global supply shortages. In 2011, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), along with its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR), released a report that presents the reasons behind the lack of infrastructure that led to global supply shortages and a policy approach to encourage long-term medical isotope supply security. In that report, The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes: The Path to Reliability, the NEA also provides potential futures of supply and demand out to 2030. Since the release of The Path there have been a number of changes in the market and therefore this document provides an update on the 2011 supply and demand situation. This update is based on information provided to the NEA by members of the HLG-MR and other key stakeholders. This presentation of supply and demand future scenarios for the 99 Mo market revises previous NEA future scenarios based on new data and target conversion commitments from the supply chain. The update, unfortunately, does not present a more optimistic future scenario than previous presentations - the concern around the uneconomic situation of the supply chain continues to dominate the potential for new projects. This results in the potential for long-term shortages within the decade. However, there are a

  7. Market-based demand forecasting promotes informed strategic financial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, A J

    2001-11-01

    Market-based demand forecasting is a method of estimating future demand for a healthcare organization's services by using a broad range of data that describe the nature of demand within the organization's service area. Such data include the primary and secondary service areas, the service-area populations by various demographic groupings, discharge utilization rates, market size, and market share by service line and organizationwide. Based on observable market dynamics, strategic planners can make a variety of explicit assumptions about future trends regarding these data to develop scenarios describing potential future demand. Financial planners then can evaluate each scenario to determine its potential effect on selected financial and operational measures, such as operating margin, days cash on hand, and debt-service coverage, and develop a strategic financial plan that covers a range of contingencies.

  8. A summary of demand response in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albadi, M.H.; El-Saadany, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of demand response (DR) in deregulated electricity markets. The definition and the classification of DR as well as potential benefits and associated cost components are presented. In addition, the most common indices used for DR measurement and evaluation are highlighted, and some utilities' experiences with different demand response programs are discussed. Finally, the effect of demand response in electricity prices is highlighted using a simulated case study. (author)

  9. How do Dutch regional labour markets adjust to demand shocks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Lourens; Dijk, Jouke van

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the response of regional labour markets in The Netherlands to region specific labour demand shocks. Whereas previous studies analyse only average patterns of all regions in a country, this paper provides also a more in debt analysis of within country differences in labour market

  10. Ecosystem service markets 101: supply and demand for nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Jeff Kline; Trista Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Establishing markets for ecosystem services—the benefits that nature provides, such as clean air, water, and wildlife habitat—has gained traction in some circles as a way to finance the conservation of these public goods. Market influences on supply and demand work in tandem to encourage ecosystem protection. Jeff Kline and Trista Patterson, scientists with the...

  11. Empirical studies on the labor market and on consumer demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis covers three topics on the labour market and on consumer demand. Chapters two and three focus on the labour market mobility and wage differentials between the formal sector and the informal sector in urban Mexico. Dynamic random effects panel data models are used in the analysis. Chapters

  12. STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES RELATED TO MARKET DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of any policy is the analysis of the relationship between supply and demand at the level of industries that still call the area of business. It is possible that a product or service is no longer required when it is available, even if the need is there, but wishes have undergone some changes and the image of the product on which a buyer wants is another. A buyer may be satisfied when the ownership of a product but be disappointed in the performance of its actual time of use. That is why we have made a distinction between objective and subjective value. Objective value , addressing the needs , provides a degree of satisfaction dependent on characteristics of age, gender, origin, vocational, family specifically. Subjective value is determined by the degree of satisfaction of desires , and is appreciated by each buyer depending on habits , cultural and social group consumption and education. There are four ways to approach that emphasizes differentiation: new products (differentiation, better products (positioning, faster products sold (focusing and cheaper products (cost leadership.

  13. The Distributed Geothermal Market Demand Model (dGeo): Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-06

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Distributed Geothermal Market Demand Model (dGeo) as a tool to explore the potential role of geothermal distributed energy resources (DERs) in meeting thermal energy demands in the United States. The dGeo model simulates the potential for deployment of geothermal DERs in the residential and commercial sectors of the continental United States for two specific technologies: ground-source heat pumps (GHP) and geothermal direct use (DU) for district heating. To quantify the opportunity space for these technologies, dGeo leverages a highly resolved geospatial database and robust bottom-up, agent-based modeling framework. This design is consistent with others in the family of Distributed Generation Market Demand models (dGen; Sigrin et al. 2016), including the Distributed Solar Market Demand (dSolar) and Distributed Wind Market Demand (dWind) models. dGeo is intended to serve as a long-term scenario-modeling tool. It has the capability to simulate the technical potential, economic potential, market potential, and technology deployment of GHP and DU through the year 2050 under a variety of user-defined input scenarios. Through these capabilities, dGeo can provide substantial analytical value to various stakeholders interested in exploring the effects of various techno-economic, macroeconomic, financial, and policy factors related to the opportunity for GHP and DU in the United States. This report documents the dGeo modeling design, methodology, assumptions, and capabilities.

  14. Bayesian Analysis of Demand Elasticity in the Italian Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara D'Errico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of the Italian electricity market is a decade old. Within these last ten years, the supply side has been extensively analyzed, but not the demand side. The aim of this paper is to provide a new method for estimation of the demand elasticity, based on Bayesian methods applied to the Italian electricity market. We used individual demand bids data in the day-ahead market in the Italian Power Exchange (IPEX, for 2011, in order to construct an aggregate demand function at the hourly level. We took into account the existence of both elastic and inelastic bidders on the demand side. The empirical results show that elasticity varies significantly during the day and across periods of the year. In addition, the elasticity hourly distribution is clearly skewed and more so in the daily hours. The Bayesian method is a useful tool for policy-making, insofar as the regulator can start with a priori historical information on market behavior and estimate actual market outcomes in response to new policy actions.

  15. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-05-01

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium model, we find that price elasticity both increases the retailers revenue risk exposure and decreases the spot price. Since the latter induces the retailer to reduce forward electricity purchases, while the former has the opposite effect, the overall impact of price responsive demand on the relative magnitudes of its risk exposure and end-user price elasticity. Nevertheless, price elasticity decreases cumulative electricity consumption. By extending the analysis to allow for early settlement of demand, we find that forward stage end-user price responsiveness decreases the electricity forward price relative to the case with price-elastic demand only in real time. Moreover, we find that only if forward stage end-user demand is price elastic will the equilibrium electricity forward price be reduced.

  16. Stochastic–multiobjective market equilibrium analysis of a demand response program in energy market under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Lu, Su-Ying; Chen, Yen-Haw

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze the impact of a demand response program under uncertainty. • Stochastic Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated. • Case study of the Taiwanese electric power market is conducted. • Demand response decreases power price, generation, and emissions. • Demand uncertainty increases energy price and supply risk in the results. - Abstract: In the electricity market, demand response programs are designed to shift peak demand and enhance system reliability. A demand response program can reduce peak energy demand, power transmission congestion, or high energy-price conditions by changing consumption patterns. The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of a demand response program in the energy market, under demand uncertainty. A stochastic–multiobjective Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated to simulate demand response in an uncertain energy market. Then, Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions and a linear complementarity problem are derived for the stochastic Nash–Cournot model. Accordingly, the linear complementarity problem is solved and its stochastic market equilibrium solution is determined by using a general algebraic modeling system. Additionally, the case of the Taiwanese electric power market is taken up here, and the results show that a demand response program is capable of reducing peak energy consumption, energy price, and carbon dioxide emissions. The results show that demand response program decreases electricity price by 2–10%, total electricity generation by 0.5–2%, and carbon dioxide emissions by 0.5–2.5% in the Taiwanese power market. In the simulation, demand uncertainty leads to an 2–7% increase in energy price and supply risk in the market. Additionally, tradeoffs between cost and carbon dioxide emissions are presented.

  17. Demand response in experimental electricity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreda-Tarrazona, Iván

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We study consumers’ behavior in an experimental electricity market. Subjects make decisions concerning the quantity of electric energy they want to consume in three different pricing environments. In the baseline framework, they decide under a system of fixed prices, invariant to consumption schedule as well as to network restrictions. The other two environments correspond to dynamic pricing systems combined with incentives that aim at cutting energy consumption in a number of selected situations characterized by high network congestion. In such situations, in the first environment subjects get a bonus if they reduce their peak consumption below a certain level, while in the second one, consumers are sanctioned for consuming in peak times. From a social welfare perspective, our experimental data confirm that a dynamic system for prices is more efficient than a fixed one. Moreover, a dynamic scheme with sanctions, although less preferred by consumers, is more effective than the one with bonuses in order to reduce peak consumption. Dynamic pricing with bonuses reaches a good balance between efficiency and consumer acceptance.

    Estudiamos el comportamiento de los consumidores en un mercado de electricidad diseñado en el laboratorio. Los sujetos experimentales toman decisiones sobre la cantidad de electricidad que desean consumir en tres contextos diferentes. En el tratamiento base, los consumidores deciden bajo un sistema de precios fijos, en el que el precio es invariable tanto a la franja horaria de consumo como a las restricciones de la red. Los otros dos contextos corresponden a sistemas dinámicos de precios combinados con incentivos cuyo objetivo es la reducción del consumo en algunas situaciones seleccionadas caracterizadas por una alta congestión de la red. En estas situaciones, en el primer contexto, se bonifica la reducción del consumo en la hora punta por debajo de cierto nivel, mientras que en el segundo, los consumidores

  18. Embedded generation for industrial demand response in renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanez, Frank J.; Drayton, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty in the electrical energy market is expected to increase with growth in the percentage of generation using renewable resources. Demand response can play a key role in giving stability to system operation. This paper discusses the embedded generation for industrial demand response in renewable energy markets. The methodology of the demand response is explained. It consists of long-term optimization and stochastic optimization. Wind energy, among all the renewable resources, is becoming increasingly popular. Volatility in the wind energy sector is high and this is explained using examples. Uncertainty in the wind market is shown using stochastic optimization. Alternative techniques for generation of wind energy were seen to be needed. Embedded generation techniques include co-generation (CHP) and pump storage among others. These techniques are analyzed and the results are presented. From these results, it is seen that investment in renewables is immediately required and that innovative generation technologies are also required over the long-term.

  19. How do Dutch regional labour markets adjust to demand shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Broersma, Lourens; Dijk, Jouke van

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the response of regional labour markets in The Netherlands to region specific labour demand shocks. Whereas previous studies analyse only average patterns of all regions in a country, this paper provides also a more in debt analysis of within country differences in labour market adjustment processes. Previous studies show remarkable differences in response between regions in European countries and regions in the United States. The analysis in the present paper shows that i...

  20. Characterising Wildlife Trade Market Supply-Demand Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowcliffe, M.; Cowlishaw, G.; Alexander, J. S.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Brenya, A.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The trade in wildlife products can represent an important source of income for poor people, but also threaten wildlife locally, regionally and internationally. Bushmeat provides livelihoods for hunters, traders and sellers, protein to rural and urban consumers, and has depleted the populations of many tropical forest species. Management interventions can be targeted towards the consumers or suppliers of wildlife products. There has been a general assumption in the bushmeat literature that the urban trade is driven by consumer demand with hunters simply fulfilling this demand. Using the urban bushmeat trade in the city of Kumasi, Ghana, as a case study, we use a range of datasets to explore the processes driving the urban bushmeat trade. We characterise the nature of supply and demand by explicitly considering three market attributes: resource condition, hunter behaviour, and consumer behaviour. Our results suggest that bushmeat resources around Kumasi are becoming increasingly depleted and are unable to meet demand, that hunters move in and out of the trade independently of price signals generated by the market, and that, for the Kumasi bushmeat system, consumption levels are driven not by consumer choice but by shortfalls in supply and consequent price responses. Together, these results indicate that supply-side processes dominate the urban bushmeat trade in Kumasi. This suggests that future management interventions should focus on changing hunter behaviour, although complementary interventions targeting consumer demand are also likely to be necessary in the long term. Our approach represents a structured and repeatable method to assessing market dynamics in information-poor systems. The findings serve as a caution against assuming that wildlife markets are demand driven, and highlight the value of characterising market dynamics to inform appropriate management. PMID:27632169

  1. The global uranium market: supply and demand 1992-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document looks at the supply of and demand for uranium on markets worldwide and covers the years 1992 to 2010. Uranium and nuclear fuel markets have become truly global with the inclusion of fuel cycle companies from Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) leading at the same time to additional supplies becoming available and new political constraints on uranium trading. This report includes new data from China, Eastern Europe and the CIS republics. As recycling plays on ever more important role, the global supply and demand balance for uranium and fuel services is altered. Prospects for nuclear power growth and for the uranium market in the next century remain uncertain. (UK)

  2. Marketing Industrial Project-Related Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cova, Bernard; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2002-01-01

    Services are a growing part of projects in the context of the international trend toward solution buying and selling on B2B markets. Services are also often a key source of competitive advantage in project business. Therefore the aim of this paper is to critically scrutinise the intuitive...... hypothesis that the marketing of project-related services lies somewhere at the crossroads between services marketing and project marketing....

  3. Demand response in liberalized electricity markets - the Nordic case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Lund, Arne-Christian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The liberalization of the Nordic electricity markets started with the deregulation of the Norwegian market, and the later inclusion of Sweden, Denmark and Finland in The Nord Pool area has provided a truly international marketplace, where prices are quoted for all the Nordic countries except Iceland. The structure of the Norwegian supply side was a favorable starting point for the liberalization process with many independent (hydropower) producers and, following the Energy Act of 1991, the vertical separation of competitive production on the one hand and regulated transmission / distribution one the other hand (implemented as a requirement of separation of financial accounts). Moreover, since the mid 1990s (unregulated) retail competition has provided market based price-signals to customers, even to individual households. In this paper we will focus on the potential benefits of demand flexibility in order to enhance the performance of the electricity market in attaining optimal operation and development of the electricity system. These benefits will depend on the price elasticity of the demand. However, whether it is possible to act on price changes also depends on the information provided to and from the customers. Especially for short run flexibility, this may require two way communication devises for larger customer groups, which raises questions like who is to pay for the investments needed, and who will benefit from them. Demand response also depends on the marginal signals resulting from the different contracts offered to the customers. Today this includes ''variable'' price, spot price (based on Nord Pool Elspot) and fixed price contracts. Customer flexibility depends on the possibility of substitution for instance to other fuels / alternative energy provisions. Finally, flexibility will differ between customer classes, for instance households, industry, power intensive industry etc. In this paper we investigate demand response and customer flexibility in

  4. A PROBABILISTIC DEMAND APPLICATION IN THE AMERICAN CRACKER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutherford Cd. Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the distribution of consumer buying strategies by producers may permit improved marketing strategies and improved ability to respond to volatile market conditions. In order to investigate potential ways of gaining such knowledge, this study extends the work of Kahneman, Russell, and Thaler through the application of a probabilistic demand framework using Choice Wave theory, based on the Schrödinger Wave Equation in quantum mechanics. Probabilistic variability of response to health information and its potential influence on buying strategies is also investigated, extending the work of Clement, Johnson, Hu, Pagoulatos, and Debertin. In the present study, the domestic cracker market within fourteen U.S. metropolitan areas is segmented, using the Choice Wave Probabilistic Demand approach, into two statistically independent “Consumer Types” of seven metropolitan areas each. The two Consumer Types are shown to have statistically different elasticities than each other and from the combined market as a whole. This approach may provide not only improved marketing strategies through improved awareness of consumer preferences and buying strategies, especially in the volatile agricultural sector, but also may be useful in aiding producers of store brand/private label products in finding desirable markets in which to compete against national brands. The results also suggest that supply/producer-side strategies should take into account the ways in which information, whether under the direct control of the producer or not, may influence and change consumer buying strategies.

  5. The role of price elastic demand in market power in the Nordic electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravn, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the modelling and analysis of market power and price elastic demand in the Nordic electricity spot market, Nordpool. The modelling of market power in the electricity sector must take into account a number of features that are specific to the electricity sector. First, electricity cannot be stored, but must be produced simultaneously with consumption. This aspect is, however, modified by the possibility of using hydro reservoirs as an indirect electricity storage. Second, the electricity transmission network plays an important role by breaking the market into several geographically separate sub-markets with different prices. Moreover, the specific bottlenecks may differ from hour to hour, according to the balance between supply and demand in each sub-market. Third, the demand side is presently characterised by very limited experience with hour to-hour-changes in electricity prices and very limited experience with short time adjustments of electricity consumption in response to changes in the electricity price. In the present paper three basic models for supply side competition on the Nordpool spot market will be presented, viz., perfect competition, Cournot competition and Supply Function Equilibrium. The models represent price and quantity settlement, including determination of price areas (bottle necks), in accordance with the way the Nordpool market functions. The models will incorporate electricity demand which is responsive to the electricity price. The paper describes the role of demand response for the determination of the electricity prices in each of the three supply side competition models. (au)

  6. The power to choose. Demand response in liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Highly volatile electricity prices are becoming a more frequent and unwanted characteristic of modern electricity wholesale markets. But low demand elasticity, mainly the result of a lack of incentives and consumers' inability to control demand, means that consumer behaviour is not reflected in the cost of energy. This study analyses the impact of price-responsive demand and shows how pricing, policy and technology can be used to inform consumer behaviour and choice. Informed choice and market-based valuation of electricity supply will ensure liberalized markets are competitive, efficient, less volatile and able to provide long term security of supply. Significant benefits will occur even if only 5% of customers become responsive to price-incentives and information. And customers will respond to well designed programs, thereby developing a role in ensuring efficient price formulation for electricity. This study analyses the economic, efficiency and security benefits and identifies the changes in electricity tariffs and the network infrastructure needed to achieve greater demand response

  7. Analyses of demand response in Denmark[Electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, F.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Larsen, Helge V.; Meibom, P.; Ravn, H.; Skytte, K.; Togeby, M.

    2006-10-15

    Due to characteristics of the power system, costs of producing electricity vary considerably over short time intervals. Yet, many consumers do not experience corresponding variations in the price they pay for consuming electricity. The topic of this report is: are consumers willing and able to respond to short-term variations in electricity prices, and if so, what is the social benefit of consumers doing so? Taking Denmark and the Nord Pool market as a case, the report focuses on what is known as short-term consumer flexibility or demand response in the electricity market. With focus on market efficiency, efficient allocation of resources and security of supply, the report describes demand response from a micro-economic perspective and provides empirical observations and case studies. The report aims at evaluating benefits from demand response. However, only elements contributing to an overall value are presented. In addition, the analyses are limited to benefits for society, and costs of obtaining demand response are not considered. (au)

  8. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  9. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  10. Supply and demand in physician markets: a panel data analysis of GP services in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Ian; Butler, James R G

    2014-09-01

    To understand the trends in any physician services market it is necessary to understand the nature of both supply and demand, but few studies have jointly examined supply and demand in these markets. This study uses aggregate panel data on general practitioner (GP) services at the Statistical Local Area level in Australia spanning eight years to estimate supply and demand equations for GP services. The structural equations of the model are estimated separately using population-weighted fixed effects panel modelling with the two stage least squares formulation of the generalised method of moments approach (GMM (2SLS)). The estimated price elasticity of demand of [Formula: see text] is comparable with other studies. The direct impact of GP density on demand, while significant, proves almost immaterial in the context of near vertical supply curves. Supply changes are therefore due to shifts in the position of the curves, partly determined by a time trend. The model is validated by comparing post-panel model predictions with actual market outcomes over a period of three years and is found to provide surprisingly accurate projections over a period of significant policy change. The study confirms the need to jointly consider supply and demand in exploring the behaviour of physician services markets.

  11. A literature review of demand studies in world oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, F.; Tayyebi Jazayeri, S.M.

    2004-04-01

    The literature on world oil market demands was reviewed, summarized and organized into seven major groupings. The objective was to model economic behaviour before and after price shocks. In particular, the paper demonstrated how the price elasticity of demand in world oil markets is estimated. It also showed how the relationship between energy and oil consumption and income are estimated. The income elasticity of demand was also estimated, and empirical estimates of the elasticity of aggregate output regarding crude oil and energy prices were presented. The paper also referred to the transportation sector and estimates of the changing nature of seasonal factors. The review showed that there is much heterogeneity of econometric results. The literature showed that demand increased considerably in response to the price shocks of the 1970s, but these shocks were reversed in the 1980s when the increase in demand did not correspond with the decrease in price. Some of the literature is driven by the belief that there must be a stable, non-linear model that fits the data both before and after price shocks. The authors question whether this could be true and propose an alternative hypothesis that there is a different model that pertains to economic behaviour after price shocks. 15 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Demand response in U.S. electricity markets: Empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Kathan, David

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in existing wholesale and retail DR programs were capable of providing ∝38,000 MW of potential peak load reductions in the United States. Participants in organized wholesale market DR programs, though, have historically overestimated their likely performance during declared curtailments events, but appear to be getting better as they and their agents gain experience. In places with less developed organized wholesale market DR programs, utilities are learning how to create more flexible DR resources by adapting legacy load management programs to fit into existing wholesale market constructs. Overall, the development of open and organized wholesale markets coupled with direct policy support by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has facilitated new entry by curtailment service providers, which has likely expanded the demand response industry and led to product and service innovation. (author)

  13. Dynamic pricing for demand response considering market price uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali Fotouhi; Soares, Joao; Morais, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Retail energy providers (REPs) can employ different strategies such as offering demand response (DR) programs, participating in bilateral contracts, and employing self-generation distributed generation (DG) units to avoid financial losses in the volatile electricity markets. In this paper......, the problem of setting dynamic retail sales price by a REP is addressed with a robust optimization technique. In the proposed model, the REP offers price-based DR programs while it faces uncertainties in the wholesale market price. The main contribution of this paper is using a robust optimization approach...

  14. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price.

  15. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qian Sun

    Full Text Available Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price.

  16. The demand for refined petroleum products in Iran: Estimation and projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kianian, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The estimation and projection of the demand for refined petroleum products of the OPEC states, are important for the world petroleum market from both the demand and supply sides. In this context, this study forms an econometric model to estimte the demand for the total and four major refined petroleum products (RPPs) in Iran and project their future trends into the year 2000. The fact that Iran has the largest domestic demand for RPPs among all the OPEC members has motivated some research primarily to study the structure of the demand for such products. None, however, has utilized econometric models to estimate or project the demand for RPPs. The first section of this study discusses the structure of the Iranian energy market. Next, the demand functions for gasoline, kerosine, gas oil, fuel oil, and the total RPPs in Iran are estimated. The third section puts together the demand functions to form a model used to project the demand for RPPs up to the year 2000 under an historical scenario. Finally, some condlusions are offered. 7 tabs

  17. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cappers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in ...

  18. Particulars of Demand for Agricultural Products in the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina TIMIRAS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the latest official statistics on food and beverage purchases, overall and by product category, the article captures quantitative and qualitative changes in recent years on the Romanian market for this category of goods. It has been also highlighted the gaps observed in the different categories of households by: living environment, presence and number of children, employment status and age of household head, all from the perspective of the demand for those products.

  19. Survey of Models on Demand, Customer Base-Line and Demand Response and Their Relationships in the Power Market

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of demand-side management as a tool to reliably meet electricity demand at peak time has stimulated interest among researchers, consumers and producer organizations, managers, regulators and policymakers, This research reviews the growing literature on models used to study demand, consumer baseline (CBL) and demand response in the electricity market. After characterizing the general demand models, it reviews consumer baseline based on which further study the demand response...

  20. Market integration of flexible demand and DG-RES supply. A new approach for demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the shortcomings of traditional Demand Response programs in an environment in which a large amount of distributed generation is available. An innovative approach is given in which true Customer Site Integration is obtained in the spirit of the liberalized electricity market, by making use of the load flexibility of underlying processes of production and consumption devices. The approach is based on distributed control mechanisms and incorporates new market models for distribution and aggregation costs, load losses, and network constraints

  1. Basic objects of marketing in project activities

    OpenAIRE

    Онищенко, Світлана Петрівна; Берневек, Тетяна Іванівна

    2013-01-01

    The article identified the main types of a project product from the point of view of a business level that is necessary to determine the specificity of the project marketing. As such objects of marketing - variants of the project product we have singled out: a product, a combination "product-market segment," a commodity group, a strategic business unit, a company. We have analyzed the relation "product life cycle - project-organization" and received a generalized representation of this relati...

  2. The international marketing of professional service projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo

    2003-01-01

    Many types of commercial professional services are commonly sold as projects. Therefore this article draws on the project marketing literature to elucidate the international marketing of professional service projects. After an initial literature review, the project marketing milieu concept......, and representations to another national milieu with similarly well-developed norms, rules, and representations, yet that there also exist global milieux. Managerial implications concerning professional service firms' preparation for entering a foreign milieu as well as subsidiary or office establishment abroad...

  3. Hourly price elasticity pattern of electricity demand in the German day-ahead market

    OpenAIRE

    Knaut, Andreas; Paulus, Simon

    2016-01-01

    System security in electricity markets relies crucially on the interaction between demand and supply over time. However, research on electricity markets has been mainly focusing on the supply side arguing that demand is rather inelastic. Assuming perfectly inelastic demand might lead to delusive statements regarding the price formation in electricity markets. In this article we quantify the short-run price elasticity of electricity demand in the German day-ahead market and show that demand is...

  4. Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen): Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Distributed Generation Market Demand model (dGen) is a geospatially rich, bottom-up, market-penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of distributed energy resources (DERs) for residential, commercial, and industrial entities in the continental United States through 2050. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed dGen to analyze the key factors that will affect future market demand for distributed solar, wind, storage, and other DER technologies in the United States. The new model builds off, extends, and replaces NREL's SolarDS model (Denholm et al. 2009a), which simulates the market penetration of distributed PV only. Unlike the SolarDS model, dGen can model various DER technologies under one platform--it currently can simulate the adoption of distributed solar (the dSolar module) and distributed wind (the dWind module) and link with the ReEDS capacity expansion model (Appendix C). The underlying algorithms and datasets in dGen, which improve the representation of customer decision making as well as the spatial resolution of analyses (Figure ES-1), also are improvements over SolarDS.

  5. Accelerating residential PV expansion: demand analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Richard; Williams, Robert; Payne, Adam

    2005-01-01

    This article quantifies the potential market for grid-connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) electricity integrated into new homes built in the US. It complements an earlier supply-side analysis by the authors that demonstrates the potential to reduce PV module prices below $1.5/W p by scaling up existing thin-film technology in 100 MW p /yr manufacturing facilities. The present article demonstrates that, at that price, PV modules may be cost effective in 125,000 new home installations per year (0.5 GW p /yr). While this market is large enough to support multiple scaled up thin-film PV factories, inefficient energy pricing and demand-side market failures will inhibit prospective PV consumers without strong public policy support. Net metering rules, already implemented in many states to encourage PV market launch, represent a crude but reasonable surrogate for efficient electricity pricing mechanisms that may ultimately emerge to internalize the externality benefits of PV. These public benefits include reduced air pollution damages (estimated costs of damage to human health from fossil fuel power plants are presented in Appendix A), deferral of transmission and distribution capital expenditures, reduced exposure to fossil fuel price risks, and increased electricity system reliability for end users. Thus, net metering for PV ought to be implemented as broadly as possible and sustained until efficient pricing is in place. Complementary PV 'buydowns' (e.g., a renewable portfolio standard with a specific PV requirement) are needed to jumpstart regional PV markets

  6. Effects of Demand Response on Retail and Wholesale Power Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-26

    Demand response has grown to be a part of the repertoire of resources used by utilities to manage the balance between generation and load. In recent years, advances in communications and control technology have enabled utilities to consider continuously controlling demand response to meet generation, rather than the other way around. This paper discusses the economic applications of a general method for load resource analysis that parallels the approach used to analyze generation resources and uses the method to examine the results of the US Department of Energy’s Olympic Peninsula Demonstration Testbed. A market-based closed-loop system of controllable assets is discussed with necessary and sufficient conditions on system controllability, observability and stability derived.

  7. The impact of project marketing on the projects finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana SAVCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we assist at the level of the Republic of Moldova and also at international level at a trend to offer financial support with a special focus on project-based funding. Once with the appearance and development of the project concept, other related concepts are being developed such as project management or newly, we can also speak about the projects marketing. Until recently, the product marketing was intensely discussed; concepts such as services marketing appeared afterwards, but also the specific marketing for various branches, such as agromarketing, political marketing, etc. Given that fact that the projects are a product / service itself, at the moment, more and more often projects marketing is discussed.

  8. A Generalized Formulation of Demand Response under Market Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Y.; Nguyen, Duc M.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a generalized formulation of Demand Response (DR) under deregulated electricity markets. The problem is scheduling and controls the consumption of electrical loads according to the market price to minimize the energy cost over a day. Taking into account the modeling of customers' comfort (i.e., preference), the formulation can be applied to various types of loads including what was traditionally classified as critical loads (e.g., air conditioning, lights). The proposed DR scheme is based on Dynamic Programming (DP) framework and solved by DP backward algorithm in which the stochastic optimization is used to treat the uncertainty, if any occurred in the problem. The proposed formulation is examined with the DR problem of different loads, including Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Electric Vehicles (EVs) and a newly DR on the water supply systems of commercial buildings. The result of simulation shows significant saving can be achieved in comparison with their traditional (On/Off) scheme.

  9. Demands on thermal power plants in the liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, D.; Kwanka, K.; Fischer, T.

    2005-01-01

    In the liberalised energy market, a diversified set (''mix'') of power plants will be needed. By investigating present and anticipated future criteria in detail, available technologies and outlines of further development are identified and discussed. Among them, concepts for efficiency-optimised base load plants as well as units with an improved cycling operation capability are both attributed to a specific valued benefit. Following the demand for a significant reduction of the overall greenhouse gas emissions, centralised power plants fed by fossil fuels and modified for retention of CO 2 are needed to guarantee a supply of energy at moderate costs in the 21st century. (author)

  10. World uranium supply and demand: The changing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.H.; Mueller Kahle, E.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of uranium supply and demand under the current conditions of this developing global market. While an analysis is possible, it should be borne in mind that available information is not always complete under conditions of major reorganization, and consequently some speculative assessment is required. Therefore, although this article is based on the latest information available, it should be considered as background material for further analysis rather than as an accurate forecast for the future. The level of uncertainty is particularly high regarding the future availability of nuclear materials produced in newly independent States emerging from the former Soviet Union

  11. Projections of Demand for Cardiovascular Surgery and Supply of Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jeung; Park, Nam Hee; Lee, Kun Sei; Chee, Hyun Keun; Sim, Sung Bo; Kim, Myo Jeong; Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Myunghwa; Park, Choon Seon

    2016-12-01

    While demand for cardiovascular surgery is expected to increase gradually along with the rapid increase in cardiovascular diseases with respect to the aging population, the supply of thoracic and cardiovascular surgeons has been continuously decreasing over the past 10 years. Consequently, this study aims to achieve guidance in establishing health care policy by analyzing the supply and demand for cardiovascular surgeries in the medical service area of Korea. After investigating the actual number of cardiovascular surgeries performed using the National Health Insurance claim data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, as well as drawing from national statistics concerning the elderly population aged 65 and over, this study estimated the number of future cardiovascular surgeries by using a cell-based model. To be able to analyze the supply and demand of surgeons, the recent status of new surgeons specializing in thoracic and cardiovascular surgeries and the ratio of their subspecialties in cardiovascular surgeries were investigated. Then, while taking three different scenarios into account, the number of cardiovascular surgeons expected be working in 5-year periods was projected. The number of cardiovascular surgeries, which was recorded at 10,581 cases in 2014, is predicted to increase consistently to reach a demand of 15,501 cases in 2040-an increase of 46.5%. There was a total of 245 cardiovascular surgeons at work in 2014. Looking at 5 year spans in the future, the number of surgeons expected to be supplied in 2040 is 184, to retire is 249, and expected to be working is 309-an increase of -24.9%, 1.6%, and 26.1%, respectively compared to those in 2014. This forecasts a demand-supply imbalance in every scenario. Cardiovascular surgeons are the most central resource in the medical service of highly specialized cardiovascular surgeries, and fostering the surgeons requires much time, effort, and resources; therefore, by analyzing the various factors

  12. Projections of Demand for Cardiovascular Surgery and Supply of Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jeung Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: While demand for cardiovascular surgery is expected to increase gradually along with the rapid increase in cardiovascular diseases with respect to the aging population, the supply of thoracic and cardiovascular surgeons has been continuously decreasing over the past 10 years. Consequently, this study aims to achieve guidance in establishing health care policy by analyzing the supply and demand for cardiovascular surgeries in the medical service area of Korea. Methods: After investigating the actual number of cardiovascular surgeries performed using the National Health Insurance claim data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, as well as drawing from national statistics concerning the elderly population aged 65 and over, this study estimated the number of future cardiovascular surgeries by using a cell-based model. To be able to analyze the supply and demand of surgeons, the recent status of new surgeons specializing in thoracic and cardiovascular surgeries and the ratio of their subspecialties in cardiovascular surgeries were investigated. Then, while taking three different scenarios into account, the number of cardiovascular surgeons expected be working in 5-year periods was projected. Results: The number of cardiovascular surgeries, which was recorded at 10,581 cases in 2014, is predicted to increase consistently to reach a demand of 15,501 cases in 2040—an increase of 46.5%. There was a total of 245 cardiovascular surgeons at work in 2014. Looking at 5 year spans in the future, the number of surgeons expected to be supplied in 2040 is 184, to retire is 249, and expected to be working is 309—an increase of -24.9%, 1.6%, and 26.1%, respectively compared to those in 2014. This forecasts a demand-supply imbalance in every scenario. Conclusion: Cardiovascular surgeons are the most central resource in the medical service of highly specialized cardiovascular surgeries, and fostering the surgeons requires much time

  13. CRISP. Market-oriented online supply-demand matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamphuis, I.G.; Kester, J.C.P.; Carlsson, P; Akkermans, H.

    2004-04-01

    Current power distribution systems are operated in a top-down manner. Power production control and price formation take place on a central level on the basis of relatively static data from a data collection and dispatching network with a limited scope and granularity. When incorporating a more considerable fraction of small-scale producers on the basis of, for instance, renewable energy, operation of the distribution grid requires more data to be collected from a more extensive information and data communication network. Furthermore, increased local flows, in the form of two-way communication with distributed computation techniques, enable a more dynamic adaptation in power supply and demand patterns paving the way to a flexible way of embedding of ill-predictable supply of some types of renewable energy sources. DSM-programs have been in use in the utility sector for years now. In this document, first, current Demand Side Management (DSM) and Demand Response Resource (DRR) techniques are discussed; then, supply side management especially in a DG (Distributed Generation) context is treated. A framework of novel concepts and possible technology directions is presented subsequently and some preliminary scenarios are shown to illustrate these concepts. An overview of more flexible supply and demand matching schemes is given essentially based on four distinct types of SDM clusters. It appears, that it is possible to fulfil requirements for these distributed environments in terms of needed information and communication technology, ICT, if these are paralleled with the expected future penetration of ever-smaller scale data-exchange networks at power customer sites. Agent technology using algorithms from micro-economic market theory offers a promising possibility for managing the complexity of price formation and supply demand matching in these fine-grained bottom-up control distribution networks. Implication of these technical developments in terms of market and business

  14. Demand Response Application forReliability Enhancement in Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Romera Pérez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The term reliability is related with the adequacy and security during operation of theelectric power system, supplying the electricity demand over time and saving thepossible contingencies because every inhabitant needs to be supplied with electricity intheir day to day. Operating the system in this way entails spending money. The first partof the project is going to be an analysis of the reliability and the economic impact of it.During the last decade, electric utilities and companies had be...

  15. Market researches on demand for dietary and prophylactic nutrition in the Saratov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitinа T. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In competitive and constantly changing market conditions special attention has been paid to market researches. The results of these studies become the basis for formation of sales estimates, and projected levels of revenues and profits from sales. Market researches are the essential condition to make offered goods successful at the market. It is market researches that help companies to realize the control of consumers' needs changing. The market researches on demand for dietary and prophylactic nutrition in the Saratov Region have been the research objective. In accordance with the given objective the following goals have been formed: 1 finding out the most spread diseases among the population; 2 determination of the average age of people suffering from one or another disease; 3 studying demand of products with food fiber additives; 4 analysis of respondent's preference regarding the addition of natural vegetable additives to foodstuff; 5 demand for dietary and prophylactic foodstuff among the population. Since the survey has been carried out among people suffering from various diseases, particular attention during the market research has been turned to the medical and prophylactic properties of food fibers to find out the attitude of the respondents to functional foodstuff. The dynamics of noninfectious diseases, the population health status depending on age, and increase of overweight people during 2012–2014 have been shown. As a result of questionnaire data processing it has been ascertained that the population is of low awareness regarding the necessity to consume foodstuff with radioprotective and chelator properties. The researches have demonstrated that dietary and prophylactic foodstuff is in demand and consequently the development of such products is reasonable.

  16. Assessing demand for physical objects among marketing agencies : market research for Alphaform RPI Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Oxana

    2012-01-01

    The market for 3D printing services is projected to grow significantly. A service provider of 3D printing and rapid prototyping services, Alphaform RPI Oy recognizes that there are numerous growth opportunities that can be exploited. A market research was initiated by the case company to look for any emerging trends to use physical objects. The study was focused on exploring marketing agencies and their vision on 3D printing and rapid prototyping services. Theoretical framework was built ...

  17. From demonstration projects to volume market : Market development for advanced housing renovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Prendergast, E.; Rodsjo, A.; Haavik, T.; Parker, P.

    2010-01-01

    How do we get from demonstration projects to a volume market for very low energy demand in advanced housing renovation? The contributors to this report have been working with this issue for many years. Some worked in both IEA SHC Task 28 Sustainable Housing (2000-2005) and in SHC Task 37 Advanced

  18. Electricity demand response in China: Status, feasible market schemes and pilots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weilin; Xu, Peng; Lu, Xing; Wang, Huilong; Pang, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Demand Response (DR) has been extensively developed and implemented in the US and Europe. However, DR hardly exists in many developing countries for similar problems such as rigid power market and state monopoly. With the increasing imbalance between supply and demand in China's power industry, the government has issued new policies on DR and approved the first batch of pilot cities. China is setting a good example of how to encourage DR under monopolistic electric market and open up the market to aggregators and DR suppliers. This paper summarizes the current DR status, feasible DR market schemes and DR pilot projects in China. First, electric power system reform, renewable energy policies and power industry development are reviewed, highlighting the problems associated with the current dispatch mechanisms of DR policies and markets. New DR programs and DR-related policies are also introduced. On this basis, the driving forces and challenges associated with DR in China are analyzed. The major challenge is the lack of a suitable market mechanism for the current Chinese power industry. Hence, this paper presents six feasible strategies that fully utilize the existing policies. Additionally, the latest DR applications in different pilot cities are summarized and analyzed. - Highlights: • Summarize the status, feasible market schemes and pilot projects of DR in China. • Highlight the problems of the current dispatch mechanisms of DR policies and market. • Analyze the driving forces and challenges associated with DR in China. • Present six feasible strategies that fully utilize the existing policies. • Summarize and analyze the latest DR applications in different pilot cities.

  19. Demand participation in the restructured Electric Reliability Council of Texas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnikau, Jay W.

    2010-01-01

    Does an electricity market which has been restructured to foster competition provide greater opportunities for demand response than a traditional regulated utility industry? The experiences of the restructured Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market over the past eight years provide some hope that it is possible to design a competitive market which will properly value and accommodate demand response. While the overall level of demand response in ERCOT is below the levels enjoyed prior to restructuring, there have nonetheless been some promising advances, including the integration of demand-side resources into competitive markets for ancillary services. ERCOT's experiences demonstrate that the degree of demand participation in a restructured market is highly sensitive to the market design. But even in a market which has been deregulated to a large degree, regulatory intervention and special demand-side programs may be needed in order to bolster demand response. (author)

  20. The global nuclear fuel market - supply and demand 1995-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keese, H.; Kidd, S.

    1996-01-01

    The findings and main conclusions of the 1996 supply and demand report of the Uranium Institute are summarised. The previous report was published in June 1994. In 1994 and 1995, world uranium production remained at a relatively depressed level, accounting for just over half reactor requirements only. Since mid 1995, however, some increase in production has occurred alongside rises in uranium spot market prices. This may indicate that supply is becoming tighter and indicate the end of the perception that supply availability is unlimited. Answers are attempted to the questions about the future which arise from this development. Nuclear power is first set in the context of the market for energy and for electricity in particular. The report then identifies key issues for the longer term future for nuclear power and considers various aspects of nuclear fuel supply and demand over the next 20 years. Three demand scenarios are explored. Even in the lower requirements case, the overall conclusion is that supply will only meet demand from 2002 onwards when all the projected new mine capacity is in place. Adequate supply is heavily dependent on other supply sources in the higher case scenarios. The market will need the entry of blended down high enriched uranium from dismantled weapons and an increased contribution from the reprocessing of spent fuel. Additional primary production is only likely if financial incentives are available and the regulatory framework permits. Finally, there is the possibility of re-enriching depleted uranium. (9 figures). (UK)

  1. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of market demand for domestic civilian telecommunications services for the years 1980 to 2000 are provided. Overall demand, demand or satellite services, demand for satellite delivered Customer Premises Service (CPS), and demand for 30/20 GHz Customer Premises Services are covered. Emphasis is placed on the CPS market and demand is segmented by market, by service, by user class and by geographic region. Prices for competing services are discussed and the distribution of traffic with respect to distance is estimated. A nationwide traffic distribution model for CPS in terms of demand for CPS traffic and earth stations for each of the major SMSAs in the United States are provided.

  2. Projection of regional demand for labour force under the terms of industry modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Aleksandrovich Bayev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the results of research devoted to the problem of demand for labour force projection. The two main priorities of Russian economic development — modernization and innovation — are declared as the factors influencing labour market in a rather intrinsic and specific way. The research of dependence between GDP growth rate per occupied in the most developed countries is conducted and shows the positive influence the innovation process imposes on the demand for labour force. The particular problem is proved to be semi-structured. The selforganisation approach to this problem is proposed and helps to detect that the main shaping process of labour market dynamics is industry modernization. The trend of modernization influence on demand for labour force is revealed and taken under consideration while developing the mathematical model, enabling to predict the demand for labour force with not more than 2% mean absolute percentage error.

  3. Massachusetts Study of Teacher Supply and Demand: Trends and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Berg-Jacobson, Alex; Atchison, Drew; Lee, Katelyn; Vontsolos, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In April 2015, the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE) commissioned American Institutes for Research (AIR) to develop a comprehensive set of 10-year projections of teacher supply and demand in order to inform planning for future workforce needs. This included state-level projections both in the aggregate, as well…

  4. Regional demand and supply projections for outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B. K. English; Carter J. Betz; J. Mark Young; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops regional recreation supply and demand projections, by combining coefficients from the national 1989 RPA Assessment models with regional regressor values. Regional recreation opportunity estimates also are developed, based on regional travel behavior. Results show important regional variations in projections of recreation opportunities, trip supply,...

  5. Modeling and prioritizing demand response programs in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of power market regulator is setting rules for selecting and prioritizing demand response (DR) programs. There are many different alternatives of DR programs for improving load profile characteristics and achieving customers' satisfaction. Regulator should find the optimal solution which reflects the perspectives of each DR stakeholder. Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) is a proper method for handling such optimization problems. In this paper, an extended responsive load economic model is developed. The model is based on price elasticity and customer benefit function. Prioritizing of DR programs can be realized by means of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. Considerations of ISO/utility/customer regarding the weighting of attributes are encountered by entropy method. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for selecting the most effective DR program. Numerical studies are conducted on the load curve of the Iranian power grid in 2007. (author)

  6. Taxing the difference: World oil market projections 1994-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Considine, J.I.; MacKay, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    The likely impacts of key uncertainties affecting the oil market were assessed, and reference price path to aid industry and governments in their investment and policy decisions, was provided. The reference market outlook corresponded to an annual growth of around 1.5% and a price of $ 18.00 per barrel. The greatest weakness of the market projections were found to be the expected performance of petroleum product demand growth. There was strong evidence that governments of major oil consuming countries had taken action to weaken the response of petroleum product demand to declines in the crude price, by driving an ever increasing fiscal wedge between the crude price and the corresponding product prices.The outcome is an asymmetry in demand response to crude price movements. Incorporation of this asymmetry into the world oil market model could have some disturbing results: under the reference case market assumptions, continuation of this tax and pricing policy would not only eliminate the price gains projected, but move the oil price below current levels on a sustained basis. The study concluded that OPEC members and the governments of the major industrialized oil consuming countries should strive to reach an agreement to avoid catastrophic price instability. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  8. Area price and demand response in a market with 25% wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.

    2011-01-01

    Denmark, east and west of the Great Belt are bidding areas with separate hourly area prices for the Nord Pool power exchange, covering four Nordic countries and parts of Germany. The share of wind power has now increased to 25% on an annual basis in western Denmark. This has a significant impact...... not only on the electricity wholesale prices, but also on the development of the market. Hourly market data are available from the website of Danish TSO from 1999. In this paper these data are analysed for the period 2004–2010. Electricity generators and customers may respond to hourly price variations......, which can improve market efficiency, and a welfare gain is obtained. An important limitation for demand response is events of several consecutive hours with extreme values. The analysis in this paper is a summary and update of some of the issues covered by the EU RESPOND project. It shows that extreme...

  9. USING ALMOST IDEAL DEMAND SYSTEM TO ANALYZE DEMAND FOR SHRIMP IN US FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia “Vivian” Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the demand for shrimp along with beef, pork, and chicken in the US food market, which contributes much to predicting supply strategies, consumer preferences and policy making. It focuses on the own and cross elasticity relationship between the expenditure share, price, and expenditure changes. An Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDs model and two alternative specifications (both nonlinear AIDs and LA-AIDs are used to estimate a system of expenditure share equations for ocean shrimp, penaeid shrimp, beef, pork, and chicken. Empirical results from nonlinear AIDs model is compared with those from LA-AIDs model. There are quite a few inconsistency between nonlinear and LA results. Results from nonlinear are more expected and more complied with microeconomic theory than those from LA. Also, results indicated that some insignificant slope coefficients and inappropriate signs of them did not comply with microeconomic theory. This could be caused by heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, a limitation in the data used, or shrimp is a quite different commodity.

  10. Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Heffner, Grayson; Sedano, Richard

    2008-05-27

    The Organization of Midwest ISO States (OMS) launched the Midwest Demand Resource Initiative (MWDRI) in 2007 to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) region and develop policies to overcome them. The MWDRI stakeholders decided that a useful initial activity would be to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This additional detail could then be used to assess any"seams issues" affecting coordination and integration of retail DR resources with MISO's wholesale markets. Working with state regulatory agencies, we conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs, dynamic pricing tariffs, and their features in MISO states. Utilities were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g., seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. This report describes the results of this comprehensive survey and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into organized wholesale markets. Survey responses from 37 MISO members and 4 non-members provided information on 141 DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs with a peak load reduction potential of 4,727 MW of retail DR resource. Major findings of this study area:- About 72percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;18percent. Almost 90percent of the DR resources included in this survey are provided by investor-owned utilities. - Approximately, 90percent of the DR resources are available with less than

  11. Market trends in the projection display industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sweta

    2000-04-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection television segment. But rear LCD (liquid crystal display) and rear reflective (DLP, or Digital Light ProcessingTM) televisions are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are still popular in the high-end home theater market. Front LCD technology and front DLP technology dominate the business market. Traditional light valve technology was the only solution for applications requiring high light outputs, but new three-chip DLP projectors meet the higher light output requirements at a lower price. In the last few years the strongest growth has been in the business market for multimedia presentation applications. This growth was due to the continued increase in display pixel formats, the continued reduction in projector weight, and the improved price/performance ratio. The projection display market will grow at a significant rate during the next five years, driven by the growth in ultraportable (market to digital and HDTV products.

  12. Demand Intensity, Market Parameters and Policy Responses towards Demand and Supply of Private Supplementary Tutoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Percy Lai Yin

    2010-01-01

    Based on some longitudinal studies of private tutoring in twelve cities, towns, municipalities and provinces of China, the paper endeavours to depict demand intensity, articulate market parameters and reflect on policy responses towards the demand-supply mechanism of the vast shadowy educational phenomena at primary and secondary levels. Such…

  13. Law project relative to the energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the law project relative to the energy markets. It aims to open the french gas market to the competition and defines the gas utilities obligations. The first part presents the main topics of the law: the natural gas distribution access, the natural gas sector regulation, the gas utilities, the natural gas transport and distribution, the underground storage, the control and penalties. The second part details the commission works concerning this law project. (A.L.B.)

  14. Projection of future transport energy demand of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limanond, Thirayoot; Jomnonkwao, Sajjakaj; Srikaew, Artit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to project transport energy consumption in Thailand for the next 20 years. The study develops log-linear regression models and feed-forward neural network models, using the as independent variables national gross domestic product, population and the numbers of registered vehicles. The models are based on 20-year historical data between years 1989 and 2008, and are used to project the trends in future transport energy consumption for years 2010-2030. The final log-linear models include only gross domestic product, since all independent variables are highly correlated. It was found that the projection results of this study were in the range of 54.84-59.05 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2.5 times the 2008 consumption. The projected demand is only 61-65% of that predicted in a previous study, which used the LEAP model. This major discrepancy in transport energy demand projections suggests that projects related to this key indicator should take into account alternative projections, because these numbers greatly affect plans, policies and budget allocation for national energy management. - Research highlights: → Thailand transport energy consumption would increase to 54.4-59.1 MTOE in Year 2030. → The log-linear models yield a slightly higher projection than the ANN models. → The elasticity of transport energy demand with respect to GDP is 0.995.

  15. Projection of future transport energy demand of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limanond, Thirayoot, E-mail: tlimanond@yahoo.co [School of Transportation Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Jomnonkwao, Sajjakaj [School of Transportation Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Srikaew, Artit [School of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study is to project transport energy consumption in Thailand for the next 20 years. The study develops log-linear regression models and feed-forward neural network models, using the as independent variables national gross domestic product, population and the numbers of registered vehicles. The models are based on 20-year historical data between years 1989 and 2008, and are used to project the trends in future transport energy consumption for years 2010-2030. The final log-linear models include only gross domestic product, since all independent variables are highly correlated. It was found that the projection results of this study were in the range of 54.84-59.05 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2.5 times the 2008 consumption. The projected demand is only 61-65% of that predicted in a previous study, which used the LEAP model. This major discrepancy in transport energy demand projections suggests that projects related to this key indicator should take into account alternative projections, because these numbers greatly affect plans, policies and budget allocation for national energy management. - Research highlights: {yields} Thailand transport energy consumption would increase to 54.4-59.1 MTOE in Year 2030. {yields} The log-linear models yield a slightly higher projection than the ANN models. {yields} The elasticity of transport energy demand with respect to GDP is 0.995.

  16. Mackenzie Valley Pipeline market demand, supply, and infrastructure analysis : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Co-Venturers is a consortium of petroleum companies proposing to construct a 1,400 km long, large-diameter, high-pressure natural gas transmission pipeline from the northwestern edge of the Northwest Territories to the Alberta-Northwest Territories border. The Mackenzie Valley Pipeline will bring natural gas from the Mackenzie Delta region to markets in Alberta, central and eastern Canada and the United States. Navigant Consulting Ltd. prepared this assessment of the long-term market need for natural gas produced from the Mackenzie Delta. It presents an analysis of gas demand, supply and infrastructure. Three sensitivity cases were examined, incorporating different assumptions about the initial capacity of the pipeline, potential expansion of its capacity and different levels of gas demand in Canada and the United States. The report indicates that gas markets in North America support construction of the proposed 34 million cubic metre per day pipeline in the 2009 timeframe, with possible expansion in 2015 and 2020. It also indicates that there will be enough capacity on the intra-Alberta gas transmission system to accommodate the projected deliveries of Mackenzie Delta gas. The increase in gas demand is due to an increase in residential and commercial gas consumption, electric power generation and the energy intensive bitumen extraction and processing activities in the Alberta oil sands industry. 36 tabs., 56 figs

  17. Demand for natural gas: residential and commercial markets in Ontario and British Columbia. [Econometric-model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, E R [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver; Watkins, G C

    1977-02-01

    An econometric model is used to project natural gas demand in the residential and commercial market sectors. The model specification is a generalization of one developed by Balestra and Nerlove (Econometrica, 34: 585-612(1966)). Demand that is potentially variable because it is not committed to past investments (flexibe demand) is distinguished from demand that is inflexible because it is tied to existing equipment stocks (captive demand). Attention is focused on the effect of temperature variations on gas demand. The nonlinear equation system is estimated by a maximum-likelihood method, using annual data for British Columbia and Ontario during the period of 1959 to 1974. Results show that only in the long run does price have a significant impact on demand. The model is applicable for medium-term policy simulation, but is limited to natural gas fuel. 15 references.

  18. Area price and demand response in a market with 25% wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Andersen, Frits Møller; Larsen, Helge V.

    2011-01-01

    Denmark, east and west of the Great Belt are bidding areas with separate hourly area prices for the Nord Pool power exchange, covering four Nordic countries and parts of Germany. The share of wind power has now increased to 25% on an annual basis in western Denmark. This has a significant impact not only on the electricity wholesale prices, but also on the development of the market. Hourly market data are available from the website of Danish TSO from 1999. In this paper these data are analysed for the period 2004–2010. Electricity generators and customers may respond to hourly price variations, which can improve market efficiency, and a welfare gain is obtained. An important limitation for demand response is events of several consecutive hours with extreme values. The analysis in this paper is a summary and update of some of the issues covered by the EU RESPOND project. It shows that extreme events were few, and the current infrastructure and market organisation have been able to handle the amount of wind power installed so far. This recommends that geographical bidding area for the wholesale electricity market reflects external transmission constraints caused by wind power. - Highlights: ► More than 10 years of hourly electricity market data are available for western Denmark. ► Current infrastructure and market organisation could handle 25% wind power. ► Demand response to hourly electricity prices leads to limited welfare gain. ► Consecutive hours with high or low price, or high or low wind are relatively few.

  19. Challenges of executing heavy oil projects in today's market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunka, G.

    2001-01-01

    Alberta's industrial project scene from 1981 to 2000 was presented in this power point presentation with particular focus on proposed bitumen recovery projects and heavy oil project challenges. A graph depicting GTG world orders by region (Americas, Asia and Europe) showed that U.S. market continues to drive global growth. Major industrial projects in Alberta were highlighted and employment requirements by sector were outlined. In addition, mitigation measures that are needed to successfully deal with the unique challenges of today's market were described. It was noted that in recent years lower capital expenditure by the industry in general has resulted in corporate downsizing or mergers which in turn have resulted in lower technical and operational knowledge. Some of the current challenges facing the industry are new demands for water treatment expertise and an aging workforce. It was concluded that effective mitigation will require a disciplined approach within a flexible framework.1 tab., 7 figs

  20. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  1. Battery Energy Storage Market: Commercial Scale, Lithium-ion Projects in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce; Gagnon, Pieter; Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Fu, Ran; Remo, Tim

    2016-10-01

    This slide deck presents current market data on the commercial scale li-ion battery storage projects in the U.S. It includes existing project locations, cost data and project cost breakdown, a map of demand charges across the U.S. and information about how the ITC and MACRS apply to energy storage projects that are paired with solar PV technology.

  2. Methodology of demand forecast by market analysis of electric power and load curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, C.J.; Atmann, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology for demand forecast of consumer classes and their aggregation is presented. An analysis of the actual attended market can be done by appropriate measures and load curves studies. The suppositions for the future market behaviour by consumer classes (industrial, residential, commercial, others) are shown, and the actions for optimise this market are foreseen, obtained by load curves modulations. The process of future demand determination is obtained by the appropriate aggregation of this segmented demands. (C.G.C.)

  3. Which electricity market design to encourage the development of demand response?

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Rious, Fabien Roques and Yannick Perez

    2012-01-01

    Demand response is a cornerstone problem in electricity markets under climate change constraint. Most liberalized electricity markets have a poor track record at encouraging the deployment of smart meters and the development of demand response. In Europe, different models are considered for demand response, from a development under a regulated regime to a development under competitive perspectives. In this paper, focusing on demand response and smart metering for mid-size and small consumers,...

  4. Which electricity market design to encourage the development of demand response?

    OpenAIRE

    Rious , Vincent; Perez , Yannick; Roques , Fabien

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Demand response is a cornerstone problem in electricity markets under climate change constraints. Most liberalized electricity markets have a poor track record at encouraging the deployment of smart meters and the development of demand response. In Europe, different models are considered for demand response, from a development under a regulated regime to a development under competitive perspectives. In this paper focusing on demand response and smart metering for mid-­...

  5. Supply and demand elasticities in the U.S. ethanol fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchansky, Matthew S.; Monks, James

    2009-01-01

    The market for ethanol has grown from approximately 1.2 billion gallons in 1997 to almost 5 billion gallons in 2006. With the huge increase in ethanol demand in recent years, the growth in derived demand for corn has driven up many food prices. This paper uses monthly data from 1997-2006 to estimate the market supply and demand for ethanol at the national level. The simultaneous determination of the supply and demand curves using two-stage least squares allows for the calculation of supply and demand-side elasticities, which are important results in light of the tremendous growth in this market and recent legislation concerning ethanol. (author)

  6. Supply and demand elasticities in the U.S. ethanol fuel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchansky, Matthew S. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign49 Roger Adams Lab, 81-5600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Monks, James [Robins School of Business, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The market for ethanol has grown from approximately 1.2 billion gallons in 1997 to almost 5 billion gallons in 2006. With the huge increase in ethanol demand in recent years, the growth in derived demand for corn has driven up many food prices. This paper uses monthly data from 1997-2006 to estimate the market supply and demand for ethanol at the national level. The simultaneous determination of the supply and demand curves using two-stage least squares allows for the calculation of supply and demand-side elasticities, which are important results in light of the tremendous growth in this market and recent legislation concerning ethanol. (author)

  7. Financing power projects in emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, G.T.

    1996-01-01

    Financing for power generation projects in the developing countries of the world has been provided by the United States Export-Import Bank. The loans provided by its new Project Finance Division, totalling $8.3 billion are described. The future of project financing for the power generation industry should, it is argued, rest not with government financing agencies, but with private sector financial markets. (UK)

  8. Demand of natural gas; methodology for their projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    1999-01-01

    The objective of integrated energetic planning process, is to propose political that assure the full supply of energy in the country, at competitive costs and with a rational use of the resources. Of there that it requires the periodic analysis of the information on the sectors of energy supplies and demand and on their interrelation with the economic, social and environmental environment. Among the variables that should stay upgraded during the planning process, it stands out the energy demand. The fact of to evaluate and to project demands goes to predict the consumer's of energy low uncertain conditions future behavior that it can affect the prospective results, so much in the short term as in the long term. One of the alternatives to face the uncertainty has more than enough future events it consists on building scenarios in those that values different from the variables that are considered with more incidences in the projected results participate. In the case of the energy, the variables that, generally, they are considered determinant, are the economic growth, the prices variation, the technological developments, the substitution among energy, the change of patterns of the population's consumption and the rational use of the energy. The application of the methodology of scenarios allows to settle down, for this case, bands of projection of the energy demand, in global form or for each energy type, specify in each sector and for each use. Once it is had the projection band, it is possible to determine the half growth of long term. The energy planning should respond in immediate form to the scenario changes, through the revision of the state projections. A frequent error, typical of the old sub-sector planning, consists on maintaining, in an irrational way, established growth percentages, when they intend new scenarios of economic growth

  9. Market power, inelastic income elasticity of demand, and terms of trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kujal, Praveen; Michelitsch, Roland

    1996-01-01

    The "Theory of Unequal Exchange" predicts that terms of trade for the producer of primary commodities worsen over time given the low income elasticity of demand for primary product exports and the market power of the industrialized countries. We set up a laboratory economy to test the influence of market power and low income elasticity of demand on trade. An experimental

  10. Commercial Opportunities and Market Demand for Nanotechnologies in Agribusiness Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Sabourin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agribusiness is projected to be a $ 2.9 trillion USD industry in global investment by 2030 (World Bank 2013. Nanotechnology is poised to impact dramatically on all sectors of agribusiness industry in the next 10 years. Nanotechnology could be used to enhance the possibilities of developing conventional and stranded agribusiness resources. Nanotechnology can make the industry considerably greener and competitive, with its current growth rate of 25% (US$ 1.08billion annually. The opportunity for application of nanotechnology in agricul¬ture is prodigious. Nanotechnology, focusing on special properties of materials emerging from nanometric size has the potential to revolutionize the agricultural and food sectors, biomedicine, environmental engineering, safety and security, water resources, energy conversion, and numerous other areas. It is well recognized that adoption of new technology is crucial in accu-mulation of global wealth and market value which now stand at US$ 1.09 trillion in estimated value. Nanotechnology has emerged as a technological advancement that could develop and transform the entire agri-food sector, with the potential to increase agricultural productivity, food security and economic growth for industries by atleast 30% (Aver. US$0.9 trillion. This review set out to address the implications of nanotechnology for the agri-food industry by examining the potential benefits, risks and opportunities.

  11. Formative Evaluation of a Nutritional Marketing Project in City-Center Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Andree; Renaud, Lise

    1992-01-01

    Formative evaluation of a community health project providing and promoting low-fat foods in five restaurants in Montreal (Canada) shows that restaurateurs are willing to collaborate in project implementation but not in training waiters and that the project did not cause an increase in market demand for low-fat menu offerings. (SLD)

  12. Price responsive load programs: U.S. experience in creating markets for peak demand reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Miriam L.; Michelman, Thomas; Rosenberg, Mitchell

    2003-01-01

    Demand response programs use a variety of pricing mechanisms to induce end-use customers to reduce demand at specified periods. U.S. distribution utilities, regional market operators, and their regulators have implemented demand response programs with the objectives of improving electric system reliability, avoiding price spikes, and relieving local transmission congestion. This paper reviews the design and performance of market-linked demand response programs operated in 2001 and 2002, focusing on the relationship between program design and customer participation and the development of accurate and feasible methods to measure demand response at the facility level

  13. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  14. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2012: Market Trends and Projections to 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Supply shortfalls – from the Libyan civil war in 2011 and international sanctions on Iran in 2012 to a swathe of unplanned non-OPEC output stoppages – have buffeted the oil market, sending prices near 2008 highs and rekindling debate on the role of speculation in fuelling volatility. There have also been success stories. Growth in North American light, tight oil and non-conventional supply has reached game-changing levels. Iraqi production has scaled new heights, the Libyan production recovery in 2012 defied expectations and Saudi output surged to 30-year highs. On the demand front, the economic recovery has lost momentum. Market share continues to shift from mature to newly industrialised economies, but amid persistent concerns about the health of the former; China, the leading engine of oil demand growth of the last 15 years, is giving signs of slowdown. Those developments have challenged earlier assumptions and significantly changed the oil market outlook for the next five years. The IEA Medium-Term Oil Market Report (MTOMR) – companion to the monthly OMR – draws their implications for the future. It provides detailed projections for oil supply at field level, crude quality trends, demand by product, refined product output and oil investments through 2017. It examines oil price formation, regulatory changes, OPEC dynamics and the future of spare capacity – while also reviewing the contribution of new supplies from deepwater, light tight oil, biofuel and natural gas liquids. It explores how market changes are reshaping the refining industry – and what that means for trade flows. At a time of heightened economic and geopolitical risk, MTOMR is essential reading for anyone interested in oil market dynamics and in understanding the oil market context in which these risks are playing out.

  15. Proceedings of the Chinese-American symposium on energy markets and the future of energy demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S. (ed.)

    1988-11-01

    The Symposium was organized by the Energy Research Institute of the State Economic Commission of China, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University from the United States. It was held at the Johns Hopkins University Nanjing Center in late June 1988. It was attended by about 15 Chinese and an equal number of US experts on various topics related to energy demand and supply. Each presenter is one of the best observers of the energy situation in their field. A Chinese and US speaker presented papers on each topic. In all, about 30 papers were presented over a period of two and one half days. Each paper was translated into English and Chinese. The Chinese papers provide an excellent overview of the emerging energy demand and supply situation in China and the obstacles the Chinese planners face in managing the expected increase in demand for energy. These are matched by papers that discuss the energy situation in the US and worldwide, and the implications of the changes in the world energy situation on both countries. The papers in Part 1 provide historical background and discuss future directions. The papers in Part 2 focus on the historical development of energy planning and policy in each country and the methodologies and tools used for projecting energy demand and supply. The papers in Part 3 examine the pattern of energy demand, the forces driving demand, and opportunities for energy conservation in each of the major sectors in China and the US. The papers in Part 4 deal with the outlook for global and Pacific region energy markets and the development of the oil and natural gas sector in China.

  16. Demand Constraints and New Demands: Regulations, Markets and Institutions Efficiency (A Case Study for Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Reynolds Pacheco de Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic efficiency is a key issue in economic research and for policy design, and certainly for food security challenges. In the food system dynamics the understanding of changes and trends is crucial to improve our capacity to deal with the objectives of sustainable development and quality of life. Food system efficiency evaluation is necessary with regard to production and consumption efficiencies as well as market and governance dilemmas. Regulations and institutional efficiency are crucial aspects that are frequently forgotten, and efforts should be made to improve the capacity to deal with those methodological needs. In many situations, in the real world, data and measurements are difficult or even impossible to get in numeric or quantitative terms. Frequently, a qualitative evaluation is the only way to proceed, but measurements and numeric references are still important, mainly when changes over time are central to the research. The actual paper follows a structural food system model (WFSE – World Food Security Equation and a general equilibrium approach (ICI model – induced changes and innovation model to show in a country case study (Cape Verde the important role of markets and institutions as compared to regulation practices directed to improve economic efficiency subject to demand behavior. Cape Verde is a very challenging country with regard to the food security status (where natural resources are very poor for agricultural production but with great success in global and macro terms in the last 10 years. The main problems nowadays are clearly at local level. The present research tries to highlight the global achievements and explore local assessment efforts on food consumption conditions. A specific region is studied, in the island of Santo Antão, one of the most important production regions. Three different production systems were compared mainly with regard to their respective influence on consumption habits, incomes and

  17. European oil demand and 1993 Common Market potential effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Unification of the energy european market will heavily enhance external energy dependence and inter-energy competition. In order to respond to these new challenges, petroleum industry will have to change, probably in the direction of an increased integration concentration. Petroleum market share, moreover, will depend largely from environmental trends in EEC politics and regulations

  18. Understanding errors in EIA projections of energy demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Herrnstadt, Evan; Morgenstern, Richard [Resources for the Future, 1616 P St. NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This paper investigates the potential for systematic errors in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) widely used Annual Energy Outlook, focusing on the near- to mid-term projections of energy demand. Based on analysis of the EIA's 22-year projection record, we find a fairly modest but persistent tendency to underestimate total energy demand by an average of 2 percent per year after controlling for projection errors in gross domestic product, oil prices, and heating/cooling degree days. For 14 individual fuels/consuming sectors routinely reported by the EIA, we observe a great deal of directional consistency in the errors over time, ranging up to 7 percent per year. Electric utility renewables, electric utility natural gas, transportation distillate, and residential electricity show significant biases on average. Projections for certain other sectors have significant unexplained errors for selected time horizons. Such independent evaluation can be useful for validating analytic efforts and for prioritizing future model revisions. (author)

  19. Projection display industry market and technology trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.

    1995-04-01

    The projection display industry is diverse, embracing a variety of technologies and applications. In recent years, there has been a high level of interest in projection displays, particularly those using LCD panels or light valves because of the difficulty in making large screen, direct view displays. Many developers feel that projection displays will be the wave of the future for large screen HDTV (high-definition television), penetrating the huge existing market for direct view CRT-based televisions. Projection displays can have the images projected onto a screen either from the rear or the front; the main characteristic is their ability to be viewed by more than one person. In addition to large screen home television receivers, there are numerous other uses for projection displays including conference room presentations, video conferences, closed circuit programming, computer-aided design, and military command/control. For any given application, the user can usually choose from several alternative technologies. These include CRT front or rear projectors, LCD front or rear projectors, LCD overhead projector plate monitors, various liquid or solid-state light valve projectors, or laser-addressed systems. The overall worldwide market for projection information displays of all types and for all applications, including home television, will top DOL4.6 billion in 1995 and DOL6.45 billion in 2001.

  20. Natural gas consumption trends and demand projections for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uqaili, M.A.; Harijan, K.; Memon, H.U.R.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficient country and heavily depends on imported energy. Natural gas is a dominating source of commercial energy in the country. This paper presents the natural gas consumption trends and future demand projections for Pakistan. The paper also investigates the potential utilization options of natural gas in the country. The study indicates that the natural gas consumption in the country increased rapidly at an average growth rate of about 6.8% per annum during the last three decades. Currently, natural gas contributes about 44.2% of the primary commercial energy supply in the country. Power, Fertilizer, General industry and Domestic sectors are the major consumers of gas in the country. The paper concludes the natural gas demand in the country is projected to increase to about 34-64 MTOE (Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent) by the year 2018. Enhancement in the indigenous exploration and modulation of gas and import of gas from central Asian Sates is essential for meeting the growing gas demand, protecting the environment and increasing the economic independence in the country. (author)

  1. The Role of Social and Cultural Capital in the Project Marketing "Milieu"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    1999-01-01

    The selling of projects is unique in relation to other areas of industrial marketing in three respects: (1) the demand for projects is discontinuous, (2) each individual project is unique e.g. technically and financially as well as (3) complex in terms of the number of actors involved and their m......The selling of projects is unique in relation to other areas of industrial marketing in three respects: (1) the demand for projects is discontinuous, (2) each individual project is unique e.g. technically and financially as well as (3) complex in terms of the number of actors involved...... and their modes of cooperation (Tikkanen, 1998:264). On the basis of these characteristics, the role of social and cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1989) in the marketing of projects is discussed....

  2. Evaluating demand side measures in simulation models for the power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfgang, Ove; Doorman, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy efficiency is one of the pillars for reducing CO 2 emissions. However, in models for the electricity market like unit commitment and dispatch models, increased efficiency of demand results in a paradoxical apparent reduction of the total economic surplus. The reason is that these are partial models for the electricity market, which do not take into account the effect of the changes in other markets. This paper shows how the calculation of the consumer surplus in the electricity market should be corrected to take into account the effect in other markets. In different cases we study shifts in the demand curve that are caused by increased energy efficiency, reduced cost for substitutes to electricity and real-time monitoring of demand, and we derive the necessary correction. The correction can easily be included in existing simulation models, and makes it possible to assess the effect of changes in demand on economic surplus. (author)

  3. Supply and Demand Model for the Malaysian Cocoa Market

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hameed, Amna Awad; Hasanov, Akram; Idris, Nurjihan; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Mohamed Arshad, Fatimah; Shamsudin, Mad Nasir

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates a system of supply, demand, and price equations for Malaysian cocoa using annual data over the period 1975-2008. Theoretically, in supply and demand models, the price variable is treated as endogenous. However, Hausman specification test result indicates that there is no simultaneity problem in the model. Thus, we estimate the system of equations utilizing the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) estimation technique which might be considered a more effi...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AS A REFLECTION OF MARKET DEMANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Yun Santoso

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the concept of corporate social responsibilities (CSR, particularly its implementation on environmental issues. The main question aimed to be answered is on how can environmental performance be adequately signaled to the market? It assumes by performing proper environmental performance, companies could benefit from financial incentive for future improvement and reputation benefit for the companies’ image, which eventually influence the bargaining position of companies in the market.

  5. Astrium suborbital spaceplane project: Demand analysis of suborbital space tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Thierry; Moreau, Antoine

    2013-12-01

    ASTRIUM is preparing the development of a safe and passenger friendly Suborbital Spaceplane, taking off and landing from a standard runway, powered by turbofans and using a rocket engine of proven design to reach 100 km altitude. This vehicle will be able to carry paying passengers to the edge of space and return them safely to their starting point. As a very new potentially adjacent B2C market, Astrium had decided at the beginning of this project to first conduct a full market analysis with the support of a worldwide survey based Research Company (IPSOS) in order to assess reality and credibility of this market. Two campaigns have been done, the first one in 2007 and the second one in 2010 after the international financial crisis. Last one has been also the opportunity to optimize quality of models by focusing in Asia region. This article describes the methodology used for this survey and unveils some results in term of size of this market and typology of the customers.

  6. Toward a methodology for substate projections of registered nurse supply and demand in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra; Martiniano, Robert; Moore, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Even as concerns about nursing shortages continue nationwide and for individual states in the United States, there is little information on the impact of nursing shortages at substate levels, such as counties or groups of small counties. National and state level assessments can mask wide geographic variation in the distribution of registered nurses (RNs). The Center for Health Workforce Studies at the School of Public Health, University at Albany, developed a practical approach to projecting RN supply and demand at substate levels. The experimental model used in this research was adapted from a methodology utilized for the RN National Supply Model and National Demand Model developed by the Health Resources and Services Administration in the department of Health and Human Services to make RN supply and demand projections at the broader national and state levels. The Center's research highlighted the value of substate analyses in the identification of RN supply and demand gaps and found that supply and demand gaps vary greatly by region and within regions. This study also provided an in-depth understanding of the dynamics that drive substate labor markets for RNs as well as the need for substate analyses to help policymakers better allocate scarce resources to address nursing shortages.

  7. Demand for electric power in major markets worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, A [ABB Asea Brown Boveri Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1990-01-01

    One third of primary energy consumption is today being used to generate electrical power. The author discusses with the aid of statistics and diagrams, the various uses of energy, and the per capita energy consumption throughout the world. He considers that future demand for power depends to a large extent on GNP but also on fuel prices and reserves, energy policies and environmental concerns. On balance, these will lead to the introduction of clean coal technologies and a renaissance of nuclear power stations in the near future but until then gas-fired power plant will continue to play a dominant role in meeting power demands. 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Electronic Markets Selection in Supply Chain with Uncertain Demand and Uncertain Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more companies start online operation. Electronic market becomes a key component of some companies’ strategy. Supply chain management is another key component of the strategy as being adopted by an increasing number of companies. There are many interactions between electronic market and supply chain. One of the key questions is to select one type of electronic market from the view of supply chain. This paper develops some models to explore the issue of selection between public electronic market and private electronic market in three scenarios where electronic market is used for buying, for selling, and for both selling and buying, respectively. In a public electronic market, neither the supplier nor the retailer is the owner of the electronic market. However, in a private electronic market, there is an owner that is either the supplier or the retailer. Besides demand uncertainty, we take into account the price uncertainty in electronic market. We explore the conditions under which the agent of supply chain selects one certain type of electronic market by comparing expected profits of supply chain members in different scenarios. Some sensitivity analyses are conducted to explore the impact of the customer demand, electronic market retail price, and e-market use fee on the selection of electronic market. Finally, some interesting managerial and academic insights are obtained.

  9. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  10. Empirical Analysis Of Labour Market Demand In Nigeria | Olusoji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of economic reforms on poverty and unemployment situation in the country. The formal labour market was considered by using advertised vacancies. The result shows that the advertised vacancies are skewed towards high skill and that computer and analytical skill are highly required.

  11. Differences in decision-making criteria towards the return on marketing investment: A project business perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, H.; Lecoeuvre, L.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the value of marketing to a business remains a thorny issue in theory and practice. Decision-making at the finance–marketing interface is under-researched, particularly for project businesses. Confronted by demands of accountability concerning the allocation of resources to meet competitive pressures, the paper examines the quality and extent of dialogue in investment decision-making. The return on investment (ROI) and marketing-specific investment (ROMI) are important factors at th...

  12. Power demand operation - environment and potential. Proposals for main project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wathne, M.

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses proposals for a main project on environmental and other problems arising when hydroelectric power stations supply energy at gigawatt levels. The project aims in particular to identify environmental problems where too little is known today for proper planning of this type of operation. The proposals emphasize the consequences which cannot be adequately analysed in terms of current techniques. These techniques presuppose steady state conditions. One proposal concerns market terms for power sales. Other proposals deal with hydrological data and uncertainty, capacity of watercourses, ice and temperature, aquatic eco-systems, erosion, supersaturation of water with air, flooding and dam breaks, impact on climate, inflow of fresh water in fjords and impact on algae. 33 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Income inequality and price elasticity of market demand: the case of crossing Lorenz curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov, M; Ibragimov, R; Kattuman, Paul Antony; Ma, J

    2017-01-01

    This paper extends Ibragimov and Ibragimov (Econ Theory 32:579–587, 2007) in which the effect of changes income inequality on the price elasticity of market demand is characterized for the class of income distribution changes occurring through non-intersecting Lorenz curve shifts. We derive sufficient conditions for increase/decrease in price elasticity of market demand, under general changes in income distribution, allowing Lorenz curves to intersect as they shift. We conclude by drawing out...

  14. Marketing analysis of the demand for housing under construction in Chelyabinsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofimenko Elena Jur'evna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the urgency of studying the demand for housing under construction in Chelyabinsk, studied Rosreestra data on quantity of completed contracts for the purchase of property, assess the current state of the real estate market in Chelyabinsk; consumer demand in the property market in Chelyabinsk (size, structure; socio-demographic characteristics of consumers of residential property; consumer preferences when buying a residential property.

  15. Solar Market Research and Analysis Projects | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market Research and Analysis Projects Solar Market Research and Analysis Projects Solar market research and analysis efforts at NREL seek to further solar technologies' role in supporting a more . Midscale Commercial Market Solar Analysis NREL experts are providing analysis to expand the midscale solar

  16. Identifying Potential Markets for Behind-the-Meter Battery Energy Storage: A Survey of U.S. Demand Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullendore, Seth [Clean Energy Group, Montpelier, Vermont

    2017-08-07

    This paper presents the first publicly available comprehensive survey of the magnitude of demand charges for commercial customers across the United States -- a key predictor of the financial performance of behind-the-meter battery storage systems. Notably, the analysis estimates that there are nearly 5 million commercial customers in the United States who can subscribe to retail electricity tariffs that have demand charges in excess of $15 per kilowatt (kW), over a quarter of the 18 million commercial customers in total in the United States. While the economic viability of installing battery energy storage must be determined on a case-by-case basis, high demand charges are often cited as a critical factor in battery project economics. Increasing use of demand charges in utility tariffs and anticipated future declines in storage costs will only serve to unlock additional markets and strengthen existing ones.

  17. An assessment of the influence of demand response on demand elasticity in electricity retail market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonteijn, R.; Babar, M.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    A transition towards a sustainable society is currently ongoing. In the electrical power system, this is reflected by the increasing share of renewable energy sources (RES). The weather dependence of some RES results in intermittent and volatile behaviour, thus matching supply and demand has become

  18. THE CONTENT OF AN ECONOMIC CATEGORY AND THE MEASUREMENT OF THE MARKET DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the economic and statistical categories and levels of consumer demand. There is no uniformity in the interpretation of the content of an economic category and demand level in the literature on the economic theory and applied research of the market. We want to conduct the verification of the demand category, a consolidation of the wording of measuring the level of demand, the classification of demand. Theoretical basis of the conducted research is the methodology of the economic theory and the general theory of statistics.

  19. Stochastic optimization of energy hub operation with consideration of thermal energy market and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahid-Pakdel, M.J.; Nojavan, Sayyad; Mohammadi-ivatloo, B.; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying heating market impact on energy hub operation considering price uncertainty. • Investigating impact of implementation of heat demand response on hub operation. • Presenting stochastic method to consider wind generation and prices uncertainties. - Abstract: Multi carrier energy systems or energy hubs has provided more flexibility for energy management systems. On the other hand, due to mutual impact of different energy carriers in energy hubs, energy management studies become more challengeable. The initial patterns of energy demands from grids point of view can be modified by optimal scheduling of energy hubs. In this work, optimal operation of multi carrier energy system has been studied in the presence of wind farm, electrical and thermal storage systems, electrical and thermal demand response programs, electricity market and thermal energy market. Stochastic programming is implemented for modeling the system uncertainties such as demands, market prices and wind speed. It is shown that adding new source of heat energy for providing demand of consumers with market mechanism changes the optimal operation point of multi carrier energy system. Presented mixed integer linear formulation for the problem has been solved by executing CPLEX solver of GAMS optimization software. Simulation results shows that hub’s operation cost reduces up to 4.8% by enabling the option of using thermal energy market for meeting heat demand.

  20. Entanglement Between Demand and Supply in Markets with Bandwagon Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mirta B.; Nadal, Jean-Pierre; Phan, Denis; Semeshenko, Viktoriya

    2013-05-01

    Whenever customers' choices (e.g. to buy or not a given good) depend on others choices (cases coined `positive externalities' or `bandwagon effect' in the economic literature), the demand may be multiply valued: for a same posted price, there is either a small number of buyers, or a large one—in which case one says that the customers coordinate. This leads to a dilemma for the seller: should he sell at a high price, targeting a small number of buyers, or at low price targeting a large number of buyers? In this paper we show that the interaction between demand and supply is even more complex than expected, leading to what we call the curse of coordination: the pricing strategy for the seller which aimed at maximizing his profit corresponds to posting a price which, not only assumes that the customers will coordinate, but also lies very near the critical price value at which such high demand no more exists. This is obtained by the detailed mathematical analysis of a particular model formally related to the Random Field Ising Model and to a model introduced in social sciences by T.C. Schelling in the 70's.

  1. Fuel switching? Demand destruction? Gas market responses to price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation defined fuel switching and addressed the issue regarding which consumers have the capability to switch fuels. In response to short term price aberrations, consumers with fuel switching capabilities reduce their use of one fuel and increase consumption of an alternative fuel. For example, natural gas consumption by some consumers declines in response to price spikes relative to prices of alternative fuels. This presentation also addressed the issue of differentiating between fuel switching and demand destruction. It also demonstrated how to compare gas prices versus alternative fuel prices and how to determine when consumers will likely switch fuels. Price spikes have implications for long term trends in natural gas demand, supply/demand balances and prices. The power generating sector represents a particular class of gas consumers that reduce operating rates of gas fired plants and increase operating rates of other plants. Some gas consumers even shut down plants until gas prices declines and relative economies improve. Some practical considerations for fuel switching include storage tank capacity, domestic refinery production, winter heating season, and decline in working gas storage. tabs., figs

  2. Research on electricity market operation mechanism and its benefit of demand side participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuai; Yan, Xu; Qin, Li-juan; Lin, Xi-qiao; Zeng, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Demand response plays an important role in maintaining the economic stability of the system, and has the characteristics of high efficiency, low cost, fast response, good environmental benefits and so on. Demand side resource is an important part of electricity market. The research of demand side resources in our country is still in the initial stage, but the opening of the electricity sales side provides a broad prospect for the development of electricity market. This paper summarizes the main types of demand side resources in our country, analyzes the economic principle of demand response from the micro perspective, puts forward some suggestions on the operation mechanism of China’s demand side resources participating in the electricity market under the condition of electricity sales side opening, analyzes the current situation of pricing in the electricity wholesale market and sets up the pricing strategy of the centralized wholesale market with the demand side power supply participating in quotation, which makes the social and economic benefits reach the maximum.

  3. International project marketing: an introduction to the INPM approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki

    2003-01-01

    marketing takes place. First, we discuss various definitions of projects and project marketing. Second, we consider the implications of three specific features of project business--discontinuity, uniqueness, and complexity--over multiple projects. Third, we assess three overlapping types of postures......Projects are often sold and procured. Therefore this paper reviews recent contributions of the International Network for Project Marketing and Systems Selling (INPM), emphasising the connection between the business relationships of individual projects and the wider environment in which project...... that project-selling firms can adopt in relation to their marketing activities. Finally, we make some suggestions for practitioners responsible for marketing projects and discuss avenues for future academic work in project marketing....

  4. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитрий Георгиевич БЕЗУГЛЫЙ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to marketing in project management, as the scope of activities aimed at improving the quality characteristics of the project for its further effective market promotion in an increasingly competitive environment. Particular attention is paid to marketing strategies during the development and subsequent sale of the project to the investor. The problem of effective combination of marketing strategies and project management process is being solved.

  5. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  6. The value of online information for demand response in Walrasian electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N. Claessen (Felix); B.J. Liefers (Bart); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSmart energy systems integrate renewables and demand response. Most European electricity markets coordinate the resulting time-varying flexibility in demand and supply by organising day-ahead trade with Walrasian mechanisms, using simultaneous call auctions and sealed bids. These

  7. Linking promotion strategies for RES-E and for demand-side conservation in a dynamic European electricity market: Lessons from the EU projects OPTRES, FORRES and GREEN-X. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, Thomas; Resch, Gustav; Haas, Reinhard; Huber, Claus; Ragwitz, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the derivation of least-cost strategies for an significant increase of electricity generation from renewables (RES-E) with minimal costs for European citizens and to investigate the role of accompanying demand-side conservation (DSC) activities. The analyses are conducted by using the model GREEN-X funded by the EC. It allows analyses for both, the EU as a whole as well as for every single member state. Within the model the most important RES-E (e.g. biomass, wind-onshore and off-shore, geothermal, PV, solar thermal ...) technologies are described for every EU-15 country by means of dynamic cost-resource curves. Demand-side conservation measures are considered by aggregated cost-resource curves. To analyse various scenarios different policy schemes can be selected, (e.g. feed-in tariffs, tendering systems, investment subsidies, tax incentives, quotas, tradable certificates) and modelled in a dynamic framework. The corresponding costs and benefits for companies and consumers are an output.The major result is that DSC plays an important role for increasing the share of RES-E. E.g. the same deployment of RES in a conservation scenario leads to 28 % of RES-E by 2020 while in the BAU-scenario this share is only 20 %. Moreover, a certain quota of RES - e.g. 20 % - can be reached much cheaper if a certain share of money is invested in DSC. The core conclusion of this analysis is: On EU level it is of superior importance to introduce integrated policies - policies focusing on the promotion of RES and on energy conservation simultaneously - to reap the utmost benefits from public money invested

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF MILK CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING ANALYSIS OF ITS DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Habánová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of most households is to eliminate the negative effects of economic changes related mainly to the economic crisis by mobilizing available resources and reducing costs, but which cloud lead to a decrease in food consumption and changes in consumption patterns. Pensions and prices are factors that shape the demand for food and other estates. Both of these factors guarantee the economic viability of nutrition. Paper analyzes the development of the of milk consumption and level of its substitution by milk products. There was quantified the elasticity of demand and  estimated own price elasticity and income elasticity. For the past 17 years, consumption of milk, except cheese, cottage cheese, sour milk products and butter, decreased. Expressed by linear regression model in recent years (since 1995 in Slovakia occurred overall reduction in the consumption of milk and dairy products by an average of 0.988 kg per capita per year. This development was mainly conditioned by the annual descent of demand for milk, as its consumption with little variation in average decreased annually by up to 1.88 kg per capita. This development is largely due to the increase of milk prices and especially the increasing supply of a wide range of quality and flavored sour milk and cheese products. Acidified milk product consumption in recent observed years increased and is expressed by the average growth factor of 0.6748 kg per capita per year. Prognosis with a five percent risk of error of estimate could increase their consumption up to 13.936 kg per capita in 2014. Consumption of cheese and curd should the increase the current trend by an average of 0.0476 kg per person and would be able to achieve the level of consumption of 11.03 kg per capita in 2014.doi:10.5219/236

  9. Formal and Informal Credit Markets and Rural Credit Demand in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Sai; Guan, Zhengfei; Jin, Songqing

    2010-01-01

    Credit markets are an essential economic institution. In developing countries, particularly in countries undergoing rapid social and economic transition, it is important to identify emerging credit demand and institute credit supply in a timely manner to facilitate economic transformation. This research focuses on the evolving rural credit market in China, where borrowing from the social network has been common but the recent economic transition has made this informal credit market inadequate...

  10. Capacity market design and renewable energy: Performance incentives, qualifying capacity, and demand curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, Audun; Levin, Todd; Byers, Conleigh

    2018-01-01

    A review of capacity markets in the United States in the context of increasing levels of variable renewable energy finds substantial differences with respect to incentives for operational performance, methods to calculate qualifying capacity for variable renewable energy and energy storage, and demand curves for capacity. The review also reveals large differences in historical capacity market clearing prices. The authors conclude that electricity market design must continue to evolve to achieve cost-effective policies for resource adequacy.

  11. Bio-Manufacturing to market pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressen, Tiffaney [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-25

    The Bio-Manufacturing to Market pilot project was a part of the AMJIAC, the Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge grant. This internship program set out to further define and enhance the talent pipeline from the University and local Community Colleges to startup culture in East Bay Area, provide undergraduate STEM students with opportunities outside academia, and provide startup companies with much needed talent. Over the 4 year period of performance, the Bio-Manufacturing to Market internship program sponsored 75 undergraduate STEM students who were able to spend anywhere from one to six semesters working with local Bay Area startup companies and DOE sponsored facilities/programs in the biotech, bio-manufacturing, and biomedical device fields.

  12. Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-01-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.

  13. Demand for Canadian gas in the U.S. market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Canadian natural gas exports to the United States commenced in 1957 and have now reached 1.3 Tcf per year. Natural gas consumption in the united States is currently 25% of the total energy consumption, which is expected t grow considerably by the year 2000. National security and environmental concerns will make natural gas an increasingly desirable fuel, and U.S. domestic gas reserves will be insufficient to supply the demand growth. Consequently, there is a growing opportunity for increased sales of Canadian natural gas to the united States provided economic, regulatory and political situations do not deprive U.S. consumers of the opportunity to utilize this source of the world's cleanest fuel

  14. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    OpenAIRE

    Gutić Dragutin; Rudelj Siniša

    2009-01-01

    Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introdu...

  15. Commercial Opportunities and Market Demand for Nanotechnologies in Agribusiness Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Sabourin; Alpha Ayande

    2015-01-01

    Agribusiness is projected to be a $ 2.9 trillion USD industry in global investment by 2030 (World Bank 2013). Nanotechnology is poised to impact dramatically on all sectors of agribusiness industry in the next 10 years. Nanotechnology could be used to enhance the possibilities of developing conventional and stranded agribusiness resources. Nanotechnology can make the industry considerably greener and competitive, with its current growth rate of 25% (US$ 1.08billion) annually. The opportunity ...

  16. Analyzing Capacity Withholding in Oligopoly Electricity Markets Considering Forward Contracts and Demand Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salarkheili

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper capacity withholding in an oligopolistic electricity market that all Generation Companies (GenCos bid in a Cournot model is analyzed and the capacity withheld index, the capacity distortion index and the price distortion index are obtained and formulated. Then a new index, Distortion-Withheld Index (DWI, is proposed in order to measure the potential ability of market for capacity withholding. In these indices the impact of demand elasticity on capacity withholding is considered and it is shown that demand elasticity plays an important role for capacity withholding and market power mitigation. Due to the significant role of forward contracts for market power mitigation and risk hedging in power markets, the impacts of these contracts on capacity withholding are considered. The effects of GenCos’ strategic forward contracts on capacity withholding are also discussed. Moreover, the relationship between capacity withholding of GenCos and market price distortion is acquired. A two-settlement market including a forward market and a spot market is used to describe GenCos’ strategic forward contracting and spot market competition.

  17. Using Labeled Choice Experiments to Analyze Demand Structure and Market Position among Seafood Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Understanding market competition and consumer preferences are important first steps in developing a business. In a competitive market, effectiveness of the various elements of a firm’s marketing mix depends not only on the absolute value of each element but also on the relative values......-employed consumers are the most sensitive to price. Four segments are identified and described in terms of both consumer characteristics and preferences. Our results are meaningful for producers and retailers to develop marketing strategies and production plan....... of the elements with respect to the firm’s position in the market. In this paper we analyze the demand structure and market positions for a variety of seafood products in the French retail market. We use a labeled choice experiment (LCE) to analyze twelve seafood species. The choice options are labeled...

  18. Description of the global petroleum supply and demand outlook updated for the 1993 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1992-12-01

    Strategic planning of the research and development program carried out by Gas Research Institute (GRI) is supported by an annual GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand. Because petroleum products compete in a wide variety of energy uses, oil prices serve as a market clearing force for the entire energy system. A significant portion of the U.S. petroleum supply is imported, and the price of crude oil to U.S. refiners is determined by the international oil trade. Any projection of the U.S. energy situation, therefore, requires the evaluation of the global oil market and the impact of oil price changes on the supply/demand balances of market participants. The 1992 edition of the projection completed in August 1991 assumed that in the aftermath of the war in the Middle East the fundamentals of oil trade would reassert their influence. This did indeed occur and with astonishing speed. In the face of this outlook, GRI has revised its 1993 oil price track downward

  19. Modeling of demand response in electricity markets : effects of price elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banda, E.C.; Tuan, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A design mechanism for the optimal participation of customer load in electricity markets was presented. In particular, this paper presented a modified market model for the optimal procurement of interruptible loads participating in day-ahead electricity markets. The proposed model considers the effect of price elasticity and demand-response functions. The objective was to determine the role that price elasticity plays in electricity markets. The simulation model can help the Independent System Operator (ISO) identify customers offering the lowest price of interruptible loads and load flow patterns that avoid problems associated with transmission congestion and transmission losses. Various issues associated with procurement of demand-response offerings such as advance notification, locational aspect of load, and power factor of the loads, were considered. It was shown that demand response can mitigate price volatility by allowing the ISO to maintain operating reserves during peak load periods. It was noted that the potential benefits of the demand response program would be reduced when price elasticity of demand is taken into account. This would most likely occur in actual developed open electricity markets, such as Nordpool. This study was based on the CIGRE 32-bus system, which represents the Swedish high voltage power system. It was modified for this study to include a broad range of customer characteristics. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs

  20. Integration scenarios of Demand Response into electricity markets: Load shifting, financial savings and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerriegel, Stefan; Neumann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Demand Response allows for the management of demand side resources in real-time; i.e. shifting electricity demand according to fluctuating supply. When integrated into electricity markets, Demand Response can be used for load shifting and as a replacement for both control reserve and balancing energy. These three usage scenarios are compared based on historic German data from 2011 to determine that load shifting provides the highest benefit: its annual financial savings accumulate to €3.110 M for both households and the service sector. This equals to relative savings of 2.83% compared to a scenario without load shifting. To improve Demand Response integration, the proposed model suggests policy implications: reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and the time-lag between market transactions and delivery dates in electricity markets. - Highlights: •Comparison of 3 scenarios to integrate Demand Response into electricity markets. •These are: optimize procurement, offer as control reserve, avoid balancing energy. •Ex post simulation to quantify financial impact and policy implications. •Highest savings from load shifting with a cost reduction of 3%. •Model suggests reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and time lags as policy issues.

  1. Supply/Demand in Radiology: A Historical Perspective and Comparison to other Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafinski, Mark E; Nussbaum, David; Jha, Saurabh

    2016-02-01

    There has been attention on the job market recently and on radiology's supply/demand calculus. Supply is influenced by the number of trained radiologists, while demand is driven by demographics and technological innovation. We analyze the supply of radiologists historically and compare to other labor markets-medical and non-medical, domestic and foreign. We review National Resident Matching Program data in radiology and several other specialties from 1991 to 2015. We also review surveys, physician recruitment data, and peer-reviewed commentaries on medical specialty job markets. Trends are compared across specialties. The regulation of American medical training is compared to that in the United Kingdom and to a nonmedical labor market, unionized theatrical stage employees. Radiology residency positions have increased since 1998 despite a downturn in the job market. This expansion coincides with a decreasing percentage of positions filled by domestic graduates. A similar trend has been seen in pathology, a notoriously oversupplied specialty. Conversely, other specialties have maintained their proportion of domestic graduates by way of limited supply or implicit demand. The radiology job market is currently oversupplied, primarily a result of increasing residency positions despite indicators of decreasing demand. The percentage of residency positions filled by domestic graduates has decreased during the same period, suggesting that medical student interest is responsive to the market. Other specialties, particularly pathology, demonstrate the dangers of chronic oversupply. We advocate a reduction of radiology residency positions such that supply closely approximates demand without exceeding it. Additional measures may be taken, if necessary, to restore market equilibrium in the event of a mild undersupply. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Battle for market share: World oil market projections, 1995-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considine, J.I.; Reinsch, A.E.

    1995-09-01

    A world-wide market assessment and scenario analyses were described. They were said to suggest a more bearish outlook for crude oil prices relative to last years projections. The price of WTI was projected to weaken over the 1996-1998 period due to rising non-OPEC production, gradual reintegration of Iraqi exports, a lack of unified accommodation by the rest of OPEC for incremental Iraqi volumes, and demand growth insufficient to absorb the additional production at current prices. Crude prices could be expected to lie in the $15.50-$17.50 (US) per barrel range from 1996 to 1998, and in the $14.50-$20.50 per barrel range during the first decade of the 21. century. Long-term price risk was expected to be weighted to the down side. The reasoning behind these predictions was explained in detail. 24 figs., 83 tabs., 70 refs

  3. Simulation of demand side participation in Spanish short term electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Salazar, I.; Alvarez, C.; Escriva-Escriva, G.; Alcazar-Ortega, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Benefits from customer active participation can be obtained with a proper generation of bids and offers. → Simulation of Spanish customers' participation is shown in daily, intra-daily and balancing markets. → Market efficiency and economics profits arise in balancing markets by using customer load reductions. → Real market prices and real customers' consumptions profiles are used in the simulations. -- Abstract: Demand response resources management is one of the most investigated solutions oriented to improve the efficiency in electricity markets. In this paper, the capability of customers to participate in short term markets is analyzed. An available methodology to analyze the daily and monthly energy consumptions of large customers is used to create energy offers and bids. This allows customers to participate in energy markets in order to buy, as first step, the usual electricity consumption and, additionally, to offer demand reductions in the short term electricity markets. Additionally, this paper shows the customer potential to participate in the Spanish electricity markets.

  4. Linking meters and markets: Roles and incentives to support a flexible demand side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    wholesale market participants to the demand side is mostly infeasible, resulting in flexibility tasks being aggregated and delegated to balancing responsible wholesale traders. This analysis focuses on whether current incentives and roles are appropriate and where the design could be improved to establish......Present trends in the development of electricity systems are expected to generate a growing need for flexibility in decentralised resources, including demand response. In order to enable decentralised actors to create value, the organisation of markets and incentives should incorporate these new...... a flexible demand side with a particular focus on the Danish case. Design-related barriers are identified that affect expected value, associated risks, and the distribution of responsibilities. This serves as a basis to define policy options in the context of Nordic electricity markets. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd...

  5. Analysis and Strategies of the Unbalance of the Supply and Demand in the Higher Education Market of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The popularization of higher education largely impacts the balance of the supply and demand of the China higher education market. Starting from the basic concepts of the supply and demand of higher education, the actuality and influencing factors of the supply and demand in China higher education market are analyzed in this article, and…

  6. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology demonstration and evaluation for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in Seattle City Light's (SCL) service territory. This report summarizes the process and results of deploying open automated demand response (OpenADR) in Seattle area with winter morning peaking commercial buildings. The field tests were designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying fully automated demand response (DR) in four to six sites in the winter and the savings from various building systems. The project started in November of 2008 and lasted 6 months. The methodology for the study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment and enhancements, and evaluation of sites participation in DR test events. LBNL subcontracted McKinstry and Akuacom for this project. McKinstry assisted with recruitment, site survey collection, strategy development and overall participant and control vendor management. Akuacom established a new server and enhanced its operations to allow for scheduling winter morning day-of and day-ahead events. Each site signed a Memorandum of Agreement with SCL. SCL offered each site $3,000 for agreeing to participate in the study and an additional $1,000 for each event they participated. Each facility and their control vendor worked with LBNL and McKinstry to select and implement control strategies for DR and developed their automation based on the existing Internet connectivity and building control system. Once the DR strategies were programmed, McKinstry commissioned them before actual test events. McKinstry worked with LBNL to identify control points that can be archived at each facility. For each site LBNL collected meter data and trend logs from the energy management and control system. The communication system allowed the sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of DR test event signals. Measurement of DR was

  7. Ventilation on demand (VOD) projects : Vale Inco Ltd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C.L. [Vale Inco Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a dynamic ventilation on Demand (VOD) system that is in the developmental stages at Vale Inco. The VOD addresses the need to minimize ventilation costs associated with mining at depth. The physical components of the system are in the process of being tested at Vale Inco's mine sites in Sudbury, Ontario, where the company operates 6 base metal mines that vary in depth from 1200 metres to 2400 metres. Two pilot projects are simultaneously testing the physical components of the VOD system at Coleman and Creighton mines. A Scope of Work is also being finalized in which the architecture of the system is being optimized for testing a prototype dynamic VOD installation. The primary ventilation systems at the mines were described along with future ventilation requirements and air flow regulations with reference to both conventional and automated regulators. The development of the VOD system involved software development, computer networking, electrical planning, PLC programming and accurate ventilation modeling. The common objective was to reduce ventilation cost and increase production in the mine by maximizing the efficiency of the ventilation system. This will be accomplished through communication training and following safety standards and protocols. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. SUPPLY AND DEMAND ON THE RUSSIAN STOCK MARKET: A SOCIOECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podgornyy Boris Borisovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stock market in advanced economies allows people to participate in the economic development by investing their savings in equities of leading and emerging industries. It solves a number of economic and social problems. There is less than 1% of the population takes part in investing in shares and other securities In Russia. The structure of Russian commercial organizations, the supply and demand of the Russian stock market are analyzes in the paper. Also the results of original sociological research explains the meaning of the factors wich are limiting the population to investing in the stock market instruments. And there are some measures proposed for the further development of the Russian stock market. The results of the research have both theoretical and practical significance. That can be used in the development of national and regional activities aimed at the development of the Stock Market and attracting the Russian population to invest the Stock Market instruments.

  9. Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Bilharz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of renewable energy in Germany from 1973 to 2003. It investigates the relative importance of energy policy and green power marketing in shaping the renewable energy market. More than a decade of consistent policy support for renewables under the feed-in law (StrEG) and its successor (EEG) has been an important driver for increasing renewable electricity generation to date, putting the country in a better position than most of its peers when it comes to achieving European Union targets for renewable energy. Green power marketing driven by customer demand, on the other hand, is growing, but has had limited measurable impact so far. We discuss potential intangible benefits of green power marketing and scenarios for future market development. The paper concludes with lessons that can be learned from the German case for policy design and market development in other countries

  10. Anticipating market demand: tracking enrollee satisfaction and health over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, H

    1998-12-01

    To assess guidelines, set by the National Committee for Quality Assurance, for the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) 1999 CAHPS 2.0H Survey (formerly the HEDIS 1999 Consumer Survey) in the light of user's needs to monitor health plan performance over time, monitor sick enrollees, and prioritize determinants (drivers) of enrollee experience. A two-wave, cross-sectional/longitudinal panel design, consisting of national surveys mailed to employees of three major USA corporations in 1993 and 1995. Samples included employees selected to represent 23 major managed care and indemnity plans in five regions of the USA. In 1993, 14 587 employees responded and in 1995 9018 employees responded (response rates: 51 and 52%). The longitudinal panel sample included 5729 employees who completed both surveys and stayed in the same plan for both years. STUDY MEASURES: The main 1993 and 1995 surveys consisted of 154 and 116 items, respectively. Panel survey content assessed care delivery, plan administration, functional status, well being, and chronic disease. CAHPS 2.0H's point-in-time, cross-sectional design was unable to detect selection bias and led to an inaccurate view of change in performance. CAHPS 2.0H's use of aggregate samples masked key differences between healthy and sick enrollees; e.g. the sick became less satisfied over time. The association-based, statistical techniques that many survey users will employ to prioritize the 'drivers' of enrollee experience in the absence of CAHPS 2.0H guidelines yielded a less efficient account of change than the multi-method/multi-trait approach developed for this project. Consumer experience of plan performance is best understood when the separate contributions of longitudinal membership and movement in and out of plans are clarified, changes in health are identified, changes for sick and healthy enrollees are compared, and plan performance on satisfaction criteria is probed to give confirmation and detail. Changes

  11. Understanding Money Demand in the Transition from a Centrally Planned to a Market Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Delatte, Anne-Laure; Fouquau, Julien; Holz, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental changes in institutions during the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy present a formidable challenge to monetary policy decision makers. For the case of China, we examine the institutional changes in the monetary system during the process of transition and develop money demand functions that reflect these institutional changes. We consider seasonal unit roots and estimate long run, equilibrium money demand functions, explicitly taking into consideration the ch...

  12. Assessing long-term effects of demand response policies in wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Saguan, Marcelo

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term issues in electricity markets in the presence of demand response development. Different policies have been implemented around the world aiming to develop demand response potential. Externalities, in particular the CO_2 externality, have been one of the key elements in the debate on the effectiveness of different policies regarding demand response development. Policy makers have several options to deal with this externality. The most direct one is to correct the externality by setting a CO_2 price at a level that corresponds to the cost to society of the corresponding CO_2 emissions. One alternative solution could be to subsidize carbon-free technologies as demand response. In this paper we examine potential long-term impacts of these two policies. We rely on a long-term market simulation model that characterizes expansion decisions in a competitive regime. We test for each policy two different scenarios regarding the possibility of internalization of the CO_2 externality. The results show that differences in development policies affect both investments and social costs in the wholesale electricity market and confirm previous findings that a market-driven development of demand response with the internalization of the CO_2 externality is the most efficient approach. (authors)

  13. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

  14. The effects of demand uncertainty on strategic gaming in the merit-order electricity pool market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frem, Bassam

    In a merit-order electricity pool market, generating companies (Gencos) game with their offered incremental cost to meet the electricity demand and earn bigger market shares and higher profits. However when the demand is treated as a random variable instead of as a known constant, these Genco gaming strategies become more complex. After a brief introduction of electricity markets and gaming, the effects of demand uncertainty on strategic gaming are studied in two parts: (1) Demand modelled as a discrete random variable (2) Demand modelled as a continuous random variable. In the first part, we proposed an algorithm, the discrete stochastic strategy (DSS) algorithm that generates a strategic set of offers from the perspective of the Gencos' profits. The DSS offers were tested and compared to the deterministic Nash equilibrium (NE) offers based on the predicted demand. This comparison, based on the expected Genco profits, showed the DSS to be a better strategy in a probabilistic sense than the deterministic NE. In the second part, we presented three gaming strategies: (1) Deterministic NE (2) No-Risk (3) Risk-Taking. The strategies were then tested and their profit performances were compared using two assessment tools: (a) Expected value and standard deviation (b) Inverse cumulative distribution. We concluded that despite yielding higher profit performance under the right conjectures, Risk-Taking strategies are very sensitive to incorrect conjectures on the competitors' gaming decisions. As such, despite its lower profit performance, the No-Risk strategy was deemed preferable.

  15. Coal transport demand in Western Europe and Japan: Impacts of energy market liberalisation and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Maestad, Ottar

    2005-12-01

    Western Europe and Japan are among the main importers of coal. Climate policies following the Kyoto agreement are creating pressure to substitute away from coal and turn to less emission intensive energy sources. At the same time, liberalizations of energy markets in Europe and Japan are likely to cause reduced electricity prices, which will boost the overall demand for electricity. This paper analyses the combined effect of electricity market liberalization and climate policies on the international coal trade. Using the numerical equilibrium model LIBEMOD, we find that while liberalization of electricity markets will imply a large increase in aggregate coal transport demand, the negative impact of climate policies may be even larger, in particular if Russia and Ukraine utilise their market power in the market for emission permits. If this market power is exploited, the total effect of liberalisation and climate policy - when including the impact of general economic growth - is a 20% reduction in aggregate coal transport between 2000 and 2010. Further, impacts differ markedly between Western Europe and Japan. A main difference is that liberalisation has a much more positive - and climate policies have a much stronger negative - impact on steam coal demand in Western Europe than in Japan

  16. Housing projects in Trabzon: Marketting discourses and physical environmental features

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN TÜRK, Yelda; KARADENİZ, Beyza

    2018-01-01

    Thehousing projects, that have turned into concept projects promoted as acommodity since last decade in Turkey. These projects, are marketed withdiscourses such as “the long-awaited life”, “ideal home” and are constructed onthe urban fringes. In this study, the housing projects that developed inTrabzon in recent years have been examined in this context. Marketing discourseand physical environmental characteristics of the projects have been analyzed.Thus, the study finds out to what extent the...

  17. Enabling demand response by extending the European electricity markets with a real-time market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyeng, P.; Kok, K.; Pineda, S.; Grande, O.; Sprooten, J.; Hebb, B.; Nieuwenhout, F.

    2013-01-01

    The EcoGrid concept proposes to extend the current wholesale electricity market to allow participation of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and domestic end-consumers in system balancing. Taking advantage of the smart grid technology, the EcoGrid market publishes the real-time prices that entail

  18. New Real-Time Market Facilitating Demand-Side Resources for System Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Nyeng, Preben; Xie, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Many demand side resources have the potential to provide fast and low cost balancing services. Switching these devices on and off can be executed in seconds and have limited consequences for the customers if the duration is not long. With carefully designed market rules, tens of thousands...... the participation of demand-side resources. In light of the future environment of increasing intermittent renewable power and distributed energy/storage resources, stochastic time-series and Monte-Carlo simulation are used to analyze the relationship between balancing requirement and generation/demand uncertainties...

  19. Projected Demand and Potential Impacts to the National Airspace System of Autonomous, Electric, On-Demand Small Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.; Kwa, Teck-Seng; Moore, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Electric propulsion and autonomy are technology frontiers that offer tremendous potential to achieve low operating costs for small-aircraft. Such technologies enable simple and safe to operate vehicles that could dramatically improve regional transportation accessibility and speed through point-to-point operations. This analysis develops an understanding of the potential traffic volume and National Airspace System (NAS) capacity for small on-demand aircraft operations. Future demand projections use the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), a tool suite developed by NASA and the Transportation Laboratory of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Demand projections from TSAM contain the mode of travel, number of trips and geographic distribution of trips. For this study, the mode of travel can be commercial aircraft, automobile and on-demand aircraft. NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) is used to assess NAS impact. This simulation takes a schedule that includes all flights: commercial passenger and cargo; conventional General Aviation and on-demand small aircraft, and operates them in the simulated NAS. The results of this analysis projects very large trip numbers for an on-demand air transportation system competitive with automobiles in cost per passenger mile. The significance is this type of air transportation can enhance mobility for communities that currently lack access to commercial air transportation. Another significant finding is that the large numbers of operations can have an impact on the current NAS infrastructure used by commercial airlines and cargo operators, even if on-demand traffic does not use the 28 airports in the Continental U.S. designated as large hubs by the FAA. Some smaller airports will experience greater demand than their current capacity allows and will require upgrading. In addition, in future years as demand grows and vehicle performance improves other non-conventional facilities such as short runways incorporated into

  20. Long-term market prospects/demand for seawater desalination for municipal supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, D.H.; Zimerman, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of the seawater desalination market was reviewed, and the expected evolution of installed capacities up to the year 2015 was projected in five year intervals by: Individual countries; unit size; desalination process used. 2 refs, 2 figs

  1. What is demand response? Contributing to secure security-of-supply at the electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, Stine; Skytte, Klaus; Togeby, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    There is a common understanding that demand response can reduce the total costs of electricity reliability. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where high spot prices in peak periods and blackouts have recently been seen. It is not easy from the existing literature to find a common definition of demands response. Often the term demand response is used broadly without looking at the time dimension. However, it does not make sense to talk about demand response without talking about when, for how long the energy is used or saved, and at which costs. This paper surveys these subjects and set up a systematic grouping of the different characteristics of demand response. It especially looks at the time dimension. (au)

  2. A multi-scale energy demand model suggests sharing market risks with intelligent energy cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for

  3. Assessing the Demand for Annuities in an Undeveloped Market: Evidence from Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K-L. Chou (Kee-Lee); J. Inkmann (Joachim); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans); W.S. Chan (Wai)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHow to design an attractive annuity for an undeveloped market and how to assess the potential demand for such a product? We first conduct a discrete choice experiment among participants of a large-scale occupational defined contribution pension scheme in Hong Kong to identify desired

  4. Imitation analysis : Early prediction of the market demand for major innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, D.J.; Pals, N.; Ortt, J.R.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of estimating the likelihood that a person with particular characteristics will imitate a particular new behaviour (i.e. the use of an innovation). This estimation can be used to provide a new form of forecast for the likely market demand

  5. Timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Paul E. Sendak; William H. McWilliams; Neil Huyler; Thomas Malecek; Worthen Muzzey; Toni Jones

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area using USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis data, production information provided by forest industry, and a stump-to-mill logging cost-prediction model. Nonavailable timberland that includes reserve and steep-terrain lands is...

  6. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  7. Estimating the Market Demand and Elasticity for Enrollment at an Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Darin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an applied research framework that can be helpful in tuition and net price policy discussions. It is the classic microeconomic concept of market demand applied to enrollment management in higher education. The policy relevance includes measuring a response to price. For example, the results of this model will allow the…

  8. Controlling market power and price spikes in electricity networks: Demand-side bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassenti, Stephen J; Smith, Vernon L; Wilson, Bart J

    2003-03-04

    In this article we report an experiment that examines how demand-side bidding can discipline generators in a market for electric power. First we develop a treatment without demand-side bidding; two large firms are allocated baseload and intermediate cost generators such that either firm might unilaterally withhold the capacity of its intermediate cost generators from the market to benefit from the supracompetitive prices that would result from only selling its baseload units. In a converse treatment, ownership of some of the intermediate cost generators is transferred from each of these firms to two other firms such that no one firm could unilaterally restrict output to spawn supracompetitive prices. Having established a well controlled data set with price spikes paralleling those observed in the naturally occurring economy, we also extend the design to include demand-side bidding. We find that demand-side bidding completely neutralizes the exercise of market power and eliminates price spikes even in the presence of structural market power.

  9. Projection of electrical demand in Argentina for the period from 1993 through 2010 mark of economic reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, Margarita R.; Gonzalez, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    A projection of electrical demand for two different scenarios has been presented . The period 1993-2010 is analysed and 1993 has been taken as base year. In this study MAED program was used as well as all available information from INDEC (National Statistical Body), CAMMESA (Electrical Market Company) and Ministry of Economy. The results in the base year achieved an accuracy higher than 98%. The scenarios described different rates of growth and electrical energy uses

  10. Sustainability Analysis and Market Demand Estimation in the Retail Industry through a Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyao Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese retail industry is expected to grow dramatically over the next few years, owing to the rapid increase in purchasing power of Chinese consumers. Retail managers should analyze the market demands and avoid dull sales to promote the sustainable development of the retail industry. Economic sustainability in the retail industry, which refers to a suitable return of investment, requires the implementation of precise product allocation strategies in different regions. This study proposed a hybrid model to evaluate economic sustainability in the preparation of goods of retail shops on the basis of market demand evaluation. Through a grid-based convolutional neural network, a regression model was first established to model the relationship between consumer distribution and the potential market demand. Then, another model was proposed to evaluate the sustainability among regions based on their supply-demand analysis. An experiment was conducted based on the actual sales data of retail shops in Guiyang, China. Results showed an immense diversity of sustainability in the entire city and three classes of regions were distinguished, namely, high, moderate, and limited. Our model was proven to be effective in the sustainability evaluation of supply and demand in the retail industry after validation showed that its accuracy reached 92.8%.

  11. Research on green supply chain coordination strategy for uncertain market demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Chen, Yangyang; Lu, Bo; Tong, Chenlu; Zhou, Gengui

    2015-03-01

    Based on the status that the green market began to develop (e.g. pharmaceutical industry) in Mainland China, the paper mainly discusses how members of the green supply chain (GSC) cooperate effectively in the process of the supply chain operations. For the uncertainties existing in the market demand of the green products, the GSC coordination strategy is put forward based on the Stackelberg game that the manufacturer is the leader and distributors are the followers. The relationship between the proposed coordination strategy and several factors including the distributor's amount, the distributor's risk aversion and the uncertainties of market demand are analyzed. It indicates that, when there are uncertainties existing in the market demand of the green product, the revenue of each enterprise, the overall revenue and the customer's welfare all decrease; while the increase in the number of distributors and low risk aversion of them are beneficial to the entire GSC and the customer. The conclusions have good guidance for the operational decisions of the green supply chain when the green market is in its initial formation.

  12. The Ukrainian Dental Market: Characteristics of Demand for Services in the Segment of Dental Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slipchenko Tetiana O.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the market for dental services in Ukraine in the implantology segment, studying the demand factors for these services and developing a system of measures to manage the demand for dental implantation services. It has been proven that the market for dental services according to a complex of its attributes is more in line with the type of market of monopolistic competition. One of the promising ways of developing the dental market is to transform producers of dental services into the vertically integrated holdings. As one of the specific features of the dental services market is allocated the asymmetry of information, which leads to a conflict between the medical and economic interests of dentists. The price and non-price factors of demand for dental implantation services were determined, the prime cost structure of a dental service was analyzed. The characteristic attributes of a medical service have been defined as consistently defined actions or a complex of actions by medical personnel aimed at prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, which have a self-contained complete meaning and a certain price.

  13. Behavioral aspects of regulation: A discussion on switching and demand response in Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, Selahattin Murat; Gonul, Mustafa Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Electricity sector has been transformed from state-owned monopolistic utilities to competitive markets with an aim to promote incentives for improving efficiency, reducing costs and increasing service quality to customers. One of the cardinal assumptions of the liberalized and competitive electricity markets is the rational actor, and decision-makers are assumed to make the best decisions that maximize their utility. However, a vast literature on behavioral economics has shown the weakness of economic theory in explaining and predicting individuals’ decision-making behavior. This issue is quite important for competition in electricity markets in which consumers’ preferences have a significant role. Despite its importance, this issue has almost been neglected in Turkey, which has taken major steps in electricity sector restructuring. Therefore, this paper aims to examine switching and demand response behavior in Turkish electricity market by using multiple correspondence and panel data analysis, and findings are discussed in light of the neoclassical and behavioral economics literature. Analyses’ results show that consumers’ switching and demand response behavior is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent; however, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions. Furthermore, there are systemic problems that hinder effective functioning of the electricity market and restrict competition. - Highlights: • Behavioral economics can provide insights for consumer’ decisions. • Switching and demand response behavior is examined by econometric methods. • Results is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent • However, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions.

  14. MARKETING RESEARCHES OF THE POPULATIONS HEALTH STATE AS A FACTOR OF DEMAND FORMATION IN THE MARKET OF PAID MEDICAL SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Hrechanyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of health of the population is one of the most important indicators of the well-being of the nation. Important directions of health care reform are optimization of management, rational distribution of limited financial resources, efficient use of material resources, introduction of health insurance, restructuring of treatment and preventive care to the people. Marketing of medical services market is one of the most complex types of marketing. Because it is medical services that are connected with the protection and maintenance of the most important values ​​of a person - life and health. The market for medical services is a combination of socio-economic relations in the healthcare sector. The most important components of the analysis of any market, including the market of medical services, are marketing research, which is a systematic collection, processing, analysis of data and information in order to formulate proposals for effective activities on it. In the field of public health, marketing can be defined as a complex process of planning, economic substantiation and management of the process of provision of medical services, the formation of a pricing policy of the medical-preventive process, ensuring effective communication with patients. The purpose of the study is to identify the health of the population and determine the demand factors for paid health services and their demand. The main task set before market research on the health of the population is the formation and provision of benefits to consumers that meet their needs for qualified medical care and quality of life. The research methods used in the work are based on probabilistic, stratified, quota, representative samples for the entire population of Ivano-Frankivsk and Ivano-Frankivsk region. The obtained results allow us to give a realistic assessment of the main trends and allow us to assess the potential of socio-economic adaptation of the population in the

  15. Characterizing U.S. Heat Demand Market for Potential Application of Geothermal Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; Young, Katherine R.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we assess the U.S. demand for low-temperature thermal energy at the county resolution for four major end-use sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities, and agricultural facilities. Existing, publicly available data on the U.S. thermal demand market are characterized by coarse spatial resolution, with assessments typically at the state-level or larger. For many uses, these data are sufficient; however, our research was motivated by an interest in assessing the potential demand for direct use (DU) of low-temperature (30 degrees to 150 degrees C) geothermal heat. The availability and quality of geothermal resources for DU applications are highly spatially heterogeneous; therefore, to assess the potential market for these resources, it is necessary to understand the spatial variation in demand for low-temperature resources at a local resolution. This paper presents the datasets and methods we used to develop county-level estimates of the thermal demand for the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. Although this analysis was motivated by an interest in geothermal energy deployment, the results are likely to have broader applications throughout the energy industry. The county-resolution thermal demand data developed in this study for four major U.S. sectors may have far-reaching implications for building technologies, industrial processes, and various distributed renewable energy thermal resources (e.g. biomass, solar).

  16. Empirical analysis of the spot market implications of price-responsive demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Although electricity is theoretically an inelastic good in the short term, the steep slope of the supply stack implies that even modest response by demand could translate into reduced capacity requirements and significant price decreases. This article examined the effect of price-responsive demand strategies in an actual deregulated electricity industry. Auction data from the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) day-ahead electricity market were used to form supply stacks for various zones. A simple linear demand function was used to determine the effect of price responsiveness on equilibrium spot market price and consumption. The aim was to quantify the benefits from the pricing protocol and to determine whether modest levels of price elasticity can significantly lower prices and consumption. Market-clearing prices and quantities were estimated using various supply curves in order to quantify the responsiveness necessary to achieve given price reductions. Price response was induced in the demand curve by varying its slope. Estimates were then used to estimate the average level of slope needed to reduce the average market-clearing price during the year by a certain percentage. Results showed that an average slope of -50.04 was necessary for prices to be reduced by 25 per cent. Results also showed that necessary price responses can be ascertained for any desired reduction in the market-clearing price or quantity. Although price responsiveness unambiguously reduces the spot market price and quantity, its effect on the forward price is not yet clear. It was concluded that a separate analysis of peak hours may reveal the effectiveness of enhanced price response. 8 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  17. Market Power with Interdependent Demand. Sale of Emission Permits and Natural Gas from Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, C.; Kallbekken, S.; Westskog, H.; Maestad, O.

    2006-01-01

    With implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, Russia will most likely be able to exert market power in the emission permit market. But, as Russia is also a big exporter of fossil fuels, the incentives to boost the permit price may be weak. However, a significant share of Russia's fossil fuel exports is natural gas. If a high permit price boosts the demand for natural gas through substitution from more polluting fuels and thus increase gas profits, this may increase the incentives to exert monopoly power in the permit market. Moreover, a large fossil fuel exporter may use its market position to influence the effective demand for permits. Hence, the relationship between permit income and fossil fuels exports runs in both directions. In this article, we explore the interdependence between the revenues from permit and fossil fuel exports both theoretically and numerically. A computable general equilibrium model suggests the fact that Russia as a big gas exporter has small effect on the incentives to exert monopoly power in the permit market. Moreover, Russia's monopoly power in the permit market has a small, but non-negligible impact on the optimal level of Russian gas exports. (author)

  18. Market-pull report. Measures on the demand side accelerate development and market introduction of energy-saving technologies. Swiss examples in the international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, C.; Aebischer, B.

    1995-09-01

    International Energy Agency (IEA) experts met in Zurich in order to further develop international projects for the coordinated procurement of energy-saving technologies. On the occasion of this meeting, Swiss specialists from business and administrative circles presented examples of how the market can be purposefully influenced by implementing measures on the demand side. In order to ensure success, it is vital that all parties concerned - from the manufacturers to the consumers - are taken into account, and that tools are applied that have been adapted to each individual market. An international coordination of activities that are aimed at bringing about a change in procurement behaviour contributes considerably to an acceleration of the various processes. For the manufacturers, most of whom are active on an international level, it becomes simpler and more worthwhile to react. This applies in particular when instruments such as quality seals (labels) and target values are applied. (author) figs., tabs

  19. How to attribute market leakage to CDM projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vöhringer, F.; Kuosmanen, T.K.; Dellink, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Economic studies suggest that market leakage rates of greenhouse gas abatement can reach the two-digit percentage range. Although the Marrakesh Accords require Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects to account for leakage, most projects neglect market leakage. Insufficient leakage accounting is

  20. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  1. GRI baseline projection of U.S. Energy supply and demand to 2010. 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; McCabe, N.C.

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the 1991 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand and presents a series of summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends. Appendixes include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1991 projection, a brief discussion of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration, a description of the independent power producer (IPP) methodology and projection, a comparison of the 1991 edition with previous projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  2. Developments on the European energy market. Part 1. Natural gas supply. Extra import covers growing natural gas demand in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This first part of a series on developments in the European gas market features the growth in gas supply. 35% of the gas demand must be covered from sources outside Europe. For the future additional imports are required from countries such as the Russian Federation, Algeria and Nigeria. Over the next few years the artificial link between ga and oil prices will disappear, bringing the gas price to a structurally lower level. It will be of crucial importance that gas suppliers will not be able to form cartels to keep prices high. All competing projects will curb price increases on the European market, but will definitely result in more freedom of choice for European natural gas consumers

  3. Understanding Air Transportation Market Dynamics Using a Search Algorithm for Calibrating Travel Demand and Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.

  4. Demand Side Management in an Integrated Electricity Market: What are the Impacts on Generation and Environmental Concerns?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergaentzle, Claire; Clastres, Cedric

    2013-05-01

    Smart Grid technology appears necessary to succeed in activating the demand through demand side management (DSM) programs. This would in turn improve energy efficiency and achieve environmental targets through controlled consumption. The many pilot projects led worldwide involving smart grids technology, brought quantitative evaluations of DSM measures on electricity load. Efficient DSM instruments must be fine-tuned to respond to very specific issues arising from the generation mix, the integration of intermittent energies or the level of outage risks faced during peak period. Efficient DSM strategies are illustrated through a model involving five countries that carry these different features and under the assumptions of isolated and fully interconnected markets. This paper aims at bringing recommendations regarding the instruments that should be implemented to maximize the benefits of smart grids technology and demand response. Finally, it tends to emphasis the issue of homogenized energy efficiency policies, critical in the building of internal energy markets such as the one the European Union is envisioning. (authors)

  5. Evolution and current status of demand response (DR) in electricity markets: Insights from PJM and NYISO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walawalkar, Rahul; Fernands, Stephen; Thakur, Netra; Chevva, Konda Reddy

    2010-01-01

    In electricity markets, traditional demand side management programs are slowly getting replaced with demand response (DR) programs. These programs have evolved since the early pilot programs launched in late 1990s. With the changes in market rules the opportunities have generally increased for DR for participating in emergency, economic and ancillary service programs. In recent times, various regulators have suggested that DR can also be used as a solution to meet supply - demand fluctuations in scenarios with significant penetration of variable renewable sources in grid. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of the DR programs in PJM and NYISO markets as well as analyzes current opportunities. Although DR participation has grown, most of the current participation is in the reliability programs, which are designed to provide load curtailment during peak days. This suggests that there is a significant gap between perception of ability of DR to mitigate variability of renewables and reality of current participation. DR in future can be scaled to play a more dynamic role in electricity markets, but that would require changes both on technology as well as policy front. Advances in building technologies and energy storage combined with appropriate price signals can lead to enhanced DR participation. (author)

  6. Current supply/demand outlook and its impact on gas marketing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffitt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The current supply/demand outlook for natural gas in Canada is discussed, starting with a review of natural gas supply trends since the deregulation of the market in 1985/86. Market demand trends and expansion of export pipeline capacity are summarized to demonstrate how radically the North American gas marketing industry has changed in the last decade. As of January 1st 1993, Canada ranked eleventh in the world with respect to remaining natural gas reserves (96 Tft 3 ), which represents only 2% of global gas reserves. Canada ranks third in gas production (5 Tft 3 /y), behind the USA and former Soviet Union (19 and 29 Tft 3 /y, respectively). In western Canada, gas production rates have increased 75% since deregulation. Canadian domestic demand has grown 24% since 1985 to the 1993 level of 2.1 Tft 3 /y, while exports to the USA have grown 144% to 2.2 Tft 3 /y. The present environment requires a 'just in time' attitude towards developing new gas reserves and arranging transportation and storage. Long term gas marketing transacations are increasingly deliverability-based, firm delivery commitments which include harsh penalties for nonperformance. 7 figs

  7. Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-09-10

    This scoping study focuses on the policy issues inherent in the claims made by some Smart Grid proponents that the demand response potential of mass market customers which is enabled by widespread implementation of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) through the Smart Grid could be the “silver bullet” for mitigating variable generation integration issues. In terms of approach, we will: identify key issues associated with integrating large amounts of variable generation into the bulk power system; identify demand response opportunities made more readily available to mass market customers through widespread deployment of AMI systems and how they can affect the bulk power system; assess the extent to which these mass market Demand Response (DR) opportunities can mitigate Variable Generation (VG) integration issues in the near-term and what electricity market structures and regulatory practices could be changed to further expand the ability for DR to mitigate VG integration issues over the long term; and provide a qualitative comparison of DR and other approaches to mitigate VG integration issues.

  8. Analysis of demand curves in the stock and financial markets of monopolistic competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Geras’kin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify patterns of monopolistic competition as applied to markets of household appliances consumer loans and insurance products in Russia. Methods econometric modeling trending regression analysis analysis of statistical significance. Results the statistical analysis of trends in the market of household appliances insurance and credit markets has been carried out the statistical significance and adequacy of the models has been assessed adequate and accurate regression models of price trends of household appliances and electronics have been developed as well as of the interest rates of consumer loans and insurance rates for loan debts. Scientific novelty the actual patterns of decreasing demand curves for household appliances consumer loans and insurance products were found for the relevant markets in the Russian Federation in 2009ndash2014. Practical significance the model can be used for solving problems of optimal planning strategies of retailers insurers and banks. nbsp

  9. Review of Real-time Electricity Markets for Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of both Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR) in modern power systems requires a sequence of advanced strategies and technologies for maintaining system reliability and flexibility. Real-time electricity markets (RTM) are the nondiscriminatory transaction...... platforms for providing necessary balancing services, where the market clearing (nodal or zonal prices depending on markets) is very close to real time operations of power systems. One of the primary functions of RTMs in modern power systems is establishing an efficient and effective mechanism for small DER...... and DR to participate in balancing market transactions, while handling their meteorological or intermittent characteristics, facilitating asset utilization, and stimulating their active responses. Consequently, RTMs are dedicated to maintaining the flexibility and reliability of power systems. This paper...

  10. A Methodology for Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response MarketPotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers,Peter

    2007-08-01

    Demand response (DR) is increasingly recognized as an essential ingredient to well-functioning electricity markets. DR market potential studies can answer questions about the amount of DR available in a given area and from which market segments. Several recent DR market potential studies have been conducted, most adapting techniques used to estimate energy-efficiency (EE) potential. In this scoping study, we: reviewed and categorized seven recent DR market potential studies; recommended a methodology for estimating DR market potential for large, non-residential utility customers that uses price elasticities to account for behavior and prices; compiled participation rates and elasticity values from six DR options offered to large customers in recent years, and demonstrated our recommended methodology with large customer market potential scenarios at an illustrative Northeastern utility. We observe that EE and DR have several important differences that argue for an elasticity approach for large-customer DR options that rely on customer-initiated response to prices, rather than the engineering approaches typical of EE potential studies. Base-case estimates suggest that offering DR options to large, non-residential customers results in 1-3% reductions in their class peak demand in response to prices or incentive payments of $500/MWh. Participation rates (i.e., enrollment in voluntary DR programs or acceptance of default hourly pricing) have the greatest influence on DR impacts of all factors studied, yet are the least well understood. Elasticity refinements to reflect the impact of enabling technologies and response at high prices provide more accurate market potential estimates, particularly when arc elasticities (rather than substitution elasticities) are estimated.

  11. 2009 reference case scenario : Canadian energy demand and supply to 2020 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Board regulates the construction and operation of interprovincial and international oil and gas pipelines and power lines as well as the tolls and tariffs for the pipelines under its jurisdictions. The import and export of natural gas is also regulated by the NEB. The NEB examined the possible energy futures that might unfold for Canadians up to the year 2020. The factors that affect the supply of crude oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, electricity and coal in the short term were examined to determine the outlook for deliverability through 2020. The growing demand for energy was reviewed along with the adequacy of future energy supplies, and related issues of emerging technologies, energy infrastructure and energy exports. This assessment provided separate production outlooks for hydrocarbons, electricity and coal and outlined the key uncertainties to the supply outlook. The likely impact of recent economic, energy and policy trends on energy demand and supply were considered. It was concluded that energy markets in Canada will continue to function well. Energy prices will provide appropriate market signals for the development of energy resources to meet Canadian and export demand. A significant portion of Canadian demand for energy will be met by fossil fuels. However, the demand to move towards greener energy fuels should result in fewer greenhouse gas emissions. 1 tab., 27 figs.

  12. Forward projections of energy market competitiveness rankings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    By July 2007, the provisions of the second Internal Market Directives for Electricity and Gas had been implemented in the majority of EU Member States. These fundamental changes in market opening, ownership structures and network access conditions, together with the increasing maturity of liberalised trading and retail markets, can be expected to affect the behaviour of existing and potential market participants, consequently affecting the energy market competitiveness of alternative countries. While the UK was the most competitive of the EU and G7 energy markets in 2006, the dynamic effect of the liberalisation programme across Continental Europe may challenge that position in the future. This report assesses how competitiveness rankings may evolve in the future, identifying changes that could take place in the UK and the rest of the EU from 2007 to 201 1. It goes on to explore the potential risk that the competitiveness of the UK's energy markets will decline relative to those of other countries in the EU and G7, to the extent that the PSA target will not be met. A detailed analysis of the potential changes in the UK markets is undertaken, including the development of upside and downside scenarios showing the positive and negative effects of changes in market structure and behaviour on the UK's competitiveness score. Changes in market structures required for energy markets in both the 2006 comparator group and the rest of the EU to become as competitive as the UK are then assessed, along with the plausibility of these changes given the current and future market, legislative and regulatory environments

  13. The elasticity of drugs demand in Colombia’s pharmaceutical market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Vásquez Velásquez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a dynamic specification of the AIDS model arisen from cointegration techniques, this research estimated the elasticity of the intra-molecular, brand and generic demand for three tracer conditions: essential hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia both in the non-profit and private Colombian market. The estimate of the intra-molecular demand elasticity allows us to conclude that both brand-name and generic drugs are inelastic to price changes, they are luxury goods according to expenditure elasticity and intra-molecular replacement seems to exist due to the elasticity of substitution.

  14. An assessment of market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Goldman, Charles; Ma, Ookie

    2013-01-01

    An impact of increased variable renewable generation is the need for balancing authorities to procure more ancillary services. While demand response resources are technically capable of providing these services, current experience across the U.S. illustrates they are relatively minor players in most regions. Accessing demand response resources for ancillary services may require a number of changes to policies and common practices at multiple levels. Regional reliability councils must first define ancillary services such that demand response resources may provide them. Once the opportunity exists, balancing authorities define and promulgate rules that set the infrastructure investments and performance attributes of a resource wishing to provide such services. These rules also dictate expected revenue streams which reveal the cost effectiveness of these resources. The regulatory compact between utility and state regulators, along with other statutes and decisions by state policymakers, may impact the interest of demand response program providers to pursue these resources as ancillary service providers. This paper identifies within these broad categories specific market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in different wholesale and retail environments, with emphasis on smaller customers who must be aggregated through a program provider to meet minimum size requirements for wholesale transactions. - Highlights: • We identify barriers keeping demand response from providing ancillary services. • Institutional, financial and program provider business model barriers exist. • Product definitions and rules do not always accommodate demand response well. • Expected revenues are uncertain and may not exceed required investments costs. • Regulatory compact and state statutes limit opportunities for program providers

  15. Long term energy demand projections for croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puksec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    Transport sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with a share of almost one third of final energy demand. That is why improving energy efficiency and implementing different mechanisms that would lead to energy savings in this sector would be relevant. Through th...

  16. Oklahoma Study of Educator Supply and Demand: Trends and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Jacobson, Alex; Levin, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, the Oklahoma State Regents of Higher Education (OSRHE) commissioned American Institutes for Research (AIR) to conduct a study to better understand both historical and future predicted trends of educator supply and demand across Oklahoma. OSRHE commissioned the study in partnership with the Oklahoma Commission for Teacher Preparation…

  17. Increased demand-side flexibility: market effects and impacts on variable renewable energy integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Grytli Tveten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of increased demand-side flexibility (DSF on integration and market value of variable renewable energy sources (VRE. Using assumed potentials, system-optimal within-day shifts in demand are investigated for the Northern European power markets in 2030, applying a comprehensive partial equilibrium model with high temporal and spatial resolution. Increased DSF is found to cause only a minor (less than 3% reduction in consumers’ cost of electricity. VRE revenues are found to increase (up to 5% and 2% for wind and solar power, respectively, and total VRE curtailment decreases by up to 7.2 TWh. Increased DSF causes only limited reductions in GHG emissions. The emission reduction is, however, sensitive to underlying assumptions. We conclude that increased DSF is a promising measure for improving VRE integration. However, low consumers’ savings imply that policies stimulating DFS will be needed to fully use the potential benefits of DSF for VRE integration

  18. Global sugar market – the analysis of factors influencing supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Rumánková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an analysis of the world sugar market, and specifically focuses on the supply and demand of refined sugar and their main determinants. The article first identifies the main determinants of the world supply of and demand for sugar, and further, their effect on such variables is quantified. Further, the component correlations on the selected market are analyzed. This consists of the identification of the factors affecting the production of refined sugar, as one of the main elements of the supply of sugar, as well as an analysis of the world price of sugar, as one of the significant factors affecting the world sugar market. The said correlations are quantified with the utilization of regression analysis on the basis of time series of the individual variables within the years 1980–2010. On the basis of the conducted analysis, the main determinants of the sugar supply on the world market within the analyzed period, for which an effect has been established both from an economic viewpoint, as well as from a statistical viewpoint, can be considered to be sugar reserves, its price and the acreage of sugarcane. The main determinant of the demand for sugar is, according to the conducted analysis, the global GDP on a new value level, as well as converted to one inhabitant. Further, the analysis also established the effect of the price of sugar and its reserves on the world production of refined sugar, and, last but not least, also the long-term tendency in the development of the world price of sugar. The analysis has proven significant influence of refined sugar supply, reserves of refined sugar, its price and area of sugar cane on sugar supply. Then, the analysis detected GDP as the main determinant of the sugar demand and the long memory in sugar prices. Finally, the influence of delayed price, reserves and delayed reserves on production has been proven.

  19. Unintended de-marketing manages visitor demand in Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Kotler and Levy (1971, p.76) introduced the term ‘de-marketing’, defined as ‘that aspect of marketing that deals with discouraging customers in general or a certain class of customers in particular on either a temporary or permanent basis’. Subsequently, Groff (1998) interpreted the concept in the context of parks and recreation administration. Recently, Armstrong and Kern (2011) used the concept to underpin their investigation of visitor demand management within the Greater Blue Mountains Wo...

  20. Aggregation of demand side flexibility in a smart grid: A review for European market design

    OpenAIRE

    Eid , Cherrelle; Codani , Paul; Chen , Yurong; Perez , Yannick; Hakvoort , Rudi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The increased share of renewable generation and the integration of Distributed Generation (DG) require more electricity system flexibility. One way to increase this flexibility is to use the potentials of demand response (DR). In order to activate the full range of customers in DR, a new market intermediary actor is needed to aggregate the resources in an adequate technical and economical format. These actors, so called " aggregators " , can act as flexibility provider...

  1. Strategic and Tactical Design of Competing Decentralized Supply Chain Networks with Risk-Averse Participants for Markets with Uncertain Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar

    2011-01-01

    An integrated equilibrium model for tactical decisions in network design is developed. We consider a decentralized supply chain network operating in markets under uncertain demands when there is a rival decentralized chain. The primary assumption is that two chains provide partial substitutable products to the markets, and markets' demands are affected by tactical decisions such as price, service level, and advertising expenditure. Each chain consists of one risk-averse manufacturer and a set...

  2. Marketing strategy of the project My Better Myself

    OpenAIRE

    Radimský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor thesis was to create a marketing strategy of a non-profit educational project aimed on Czech highschool students. The strategy is based on the concept of the project My Better Myself. As the main methods to achieve the goals were used the marketing strategy analysis tools such as market research, marketing mix or SWOT analysis, whose use in practice ultimately leads to achieving competitive advantage that is based on the uniqueness and simplicity of the idea of the p...

  3. MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES TO EMERGING MARKETS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF TURNKEY PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bistra Vassileva; Miroslav Nikolov

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed concep...

  4. Assessing the benefits of residential demand response in a real time distribution energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Sarno, Debora

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new probabilistic methodology, integrating DR in a distribution energy market is proposed. • The method can alleviate distribution network congestions. • This method based on D-LMPs allows cost savings for end-user customers. • Innovative thermal and shiftable loads Real Time control algorithms are also presented. - Abstract: In the field of electricity distribution networks and with the advent of smart grids and microgrids, the use of Distribution Locational Marginal Price (D-LMPs) in a Real Time (RT) distribution market managed by a Distribution System Operator (DSO) is discussed in presence of empowered residential end-users that are able to bid for energy by a demand aggregator while following Demand Response (DR) initiatives. Each customer is provided by a transactive controller, which reads the locational market signals and answers with a bid taking into account the user preferences about some appliances involved in DR activities and controlled by smart plugs-in. In particular, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) appliances and shiftable loads are controlled so that their consumption profile can be modified according to the price of energy. In order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of energy and cost saving, an innovative probabilistic methodology for evaluating the impact of residential DR choices considering uncertainties related to load demand, user preferences, environmental conditions, house thermal behavior and wholesale market trends has been proposed. The uncertainties related to the stochastic variations of the variables involved are modeled by using the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. The combination of MCS and RT distribution market simulation based on D-LMPs are used to assess the operation and impact of the DR method over one month. Simulations results on an 84-buses distribution network confirmed that the proposed method allows saving costs for residential end-users and making

  5. AÇAÍ PULP DEMAND IN THE RETAIL MARKET OF BELÉM, STATE OF PARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO CORDEIRO DE SANTANA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to estimate the parameters associated to the demand for açaí pulp in the retail market of Belém. Multiple regression analysis was applied to identify the key variables that impact on product consumption and to estimate the price and income elasticities and cross demand. The econometric estimation method applied was the least squares to correct heteroscedastic variance problems. Results have shown that the demand for açaí pulp is price and income inelastic. Fish and cassava flour were confirmed as complementary products of strong influence on the decisions of consumers. Product quality, with regard to its association to Chagas disease, also revealed a strong influence on product choice for household consumption. Finally, the socio-economic benefit of açaí pulp was R$ 762.78 million per year.

  6. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysiak, Frank C.; Weigt, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years, these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large-scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand-side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand-side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  7. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysiak, Frank C., E-mail: frank.krysiak@unibas.ch; Weigt, Hannes [Department of Business and Economics, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-05-19

    Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years, these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large-scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand-side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand-side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  8. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eKrysiak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  9. Research on Simulation Requirements and Business Architecture of Automated Demand Response in Power Sales Side Market Liberalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Zhou, Pengcheng; Zeng, Ming; Chen, Songsong

    2018-01-01

    With the gradual reform of the electricity market, the power sale side liberalization has become the focus of attention as the key task of reform. The open power market provides a good environment for DR (Demand Response). It is of great significance to research the simulation requirements and business architecture of ADR (Automatic Demand Response) in power sale side market liberalization. Firstly, this paper analyzes the simulation requirements of ADR. Secondly, it analyzes the influence factors that the business development of ADR from five aspects after power sale side market liberalization. Finally, Based on ADR technology support system, the business architecture of ADR after power sale side market liberalization is constructed.

  10. Demand response modeling considering Interruptible/Curtailable loads and capacity market programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a massive focus has been made on demand response (DR) programs, aimed to electricity price reduction, transmission lines congestion resolving, security enhancement and improvement of market liquidity. Basically, demand response programs are divided into two main categories namely, incentive-based programs and time-based programs. The focus of this paper is on Interruptible/Curtailable service (I/C) and capacity market programs (CAP), which are incentive-based demand response programs including penalties for customers in case of no responding to load reduction. First, by using the concept of price elasticity of demand and customer benefit function, economic model of above mentioned programs is developed. The proposed model helps the independent system operator (ISO) to identify and employ relevant DR program which both improves the characteristics of the load curve and also be welcome by customers. To evaluate the performance of the model, simulation study has been conducted using the load curve of the peak day of the Iranian power system grid in 2007. In the numerical study section, the impact of these programs on load shape and load level, and benefit of customers as well as reduction of energy consumption are shown. In addition, by using strategy success indices the results of simulation studies for different scenarios are analyzed and investigated for determination of the scenarios priority. (author)

  11. Renewable generation versus demand-side management. A comparison for the Spanish market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldán Fernández, Juan Manuel; Burgos Payán, Manuel; Riquelme Santos, Jesús Manuel; Trigo García, Ángel Luis

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally the required instantaneous balance generation-load is achieved by adjusting production to fit variable consumer demand. Nowadays, a significant and increasing segment of generation is renewable. But renewable production cannot be scheduled on request since its generation is dependent on nature (wind, sun, …). In this context, demand-side management (DSM) would help since it would be advisable for part of the flexibility to be provided by the demand. The integration of renewable production and demand-side management (DSM), are compared in this work for Spain throughout 2008–2014. First a qualitative model, based on the linearization of the wholesale market, is employed to explore some hypotheses. A set of scenarios are then examined to quantify the main effects on the market. The results show that DSM exhibits the best performance in terms of economic efficiency and environmental sustainability, as well as for the reduction of load peaks and losses in the system, what suggests the convenience of promoting plans for the replacement of equipment with other more efficient as well as the implementation of real-time tariffs. - Highlights: •The impact of the integration of renewable production versus DSM has been compared. •Merit-order effect related to energy efficiency and to load-shifting is identified. •Large industries achieve energy efficiency with less CAPEX than renewable generation. •Load-shifting cycle yields a reduction of the traded energy and the economic volume.

  12. Projecting meat and cereals demand for China based on a meta-analysis of income elasticities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, De; Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David; Chen, Danhong

    2014-01-01

    There are many projections for China’s food demand, and the projection results differ significantly from each other. Different values for income elasticities could be a major reason. This study projects meat and cereals demand for China based on a meta-analysis of the income elasticity estimates using a collection of 143 and 240 income elasticity estimates for cereals and meat products, respectively, from 36 primary studies. We find that income elasticities for most cereals (general cereals, ...

  13. SUPPLY AND DEMAND ON THE RUSSIAN STOCK MARKET: A SOCIOECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Борис Борисович Подгорный

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The stock market in advanced economies allows people to participate in the economic development by investing their savings in equities of leading and emerging industries. It solves a number of economic and social problems. There is less than 1% of the population takes part in investing in shares and other securities In Russia.The structure of Russian commercial organizations, the supply and demand of the Russian stock market are analyzes in the paper. Also the results of original sociological research explains the meaning of  the factors wich are limiting the population to investing in the stock market instruments. And there are some measures proposed for the further development of the Russian stock market.The results of the research have both theoretical and practical significance. That can be used in the development of national and regional activities aimed at the development of the Stock Market and attracting the Russian population to invest the Stock Market instruments.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-23

  14. An economic welfare analysis of demand response in the PJM electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walawalkar, Rahul; Blumsack, Seth; Apt, Jay; Fernands, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the economic properties of the economic demand-response (DR) program in the PJM electricity market in the United States using DR market data. PJM's program provided subsidies to customers who reduced load in response to price signals. The program incorporated a 'trigger point', at a locational marginal price of $75/MWh, at or beyond which payments for load reduction included a subsidy payment. Particularly during peak hours, such a program saves money for the system, but the subsidies involved introduce distortions into the market. We simulate demand-side bidding into the PJM market, and compare the social welfare gains with the subsidies paid to price-responsive load using load and price data for year 2006. The largest economic effect is wealth transfers from generators to non price-responsive loads. Based on the incentive payment structure that was in effect through the end of 2007, we estimate that the social welfare gains exceed the distortions introduced by the subsidies. Lowering the trigger point increases the transfer from generators to consumers, but may result in the subsidy outweighing the social welfare gains due to load curtailment. We estimate that the socially optimal range for the incentive trigger point would be $66-77/MWh

  15. Economic demand response model in liberalised electricity markets with respect to flexibility of consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Before restructuring in the electricity industry, the primary decision-makers of the electricity market were deemed to be power generation and transmission companies, market regulation boards, and power industry regulators. In this traditional structure, consumers were interested in receiving...... electricity at flat rates while paying no attention to the problems of this industry. This attitude was the source of many problems, sometimes leading to collapse of power systems and widespread blackouts. Restructuring of the electricity industry however provided a multitude of solutions to these problems....... The most important solution can be demand response (DR) programs. This paper proposes an economic DR model for residential consumers in liberalized electricity markets to change their consumption pattern from times of high energy prices to other times to maximize their utility functions. This economic...

  16. Policy implications of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the 1993 edition of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, and presents the implications of the projection that are important for GRI research and development planning and the gas industry. The survey of supply and demand considerations is followed by a breakdown of energy demand by type of fuel, by consumption sector, and by service application. Gas supply and prices are analyzed in terms of two scenarios: a constrained energy demand scenario, and an optimistic scenario. Tables and charts accompany the summary

  17. The integration of Price Responsive Demand into Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) wholesale power markets and system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centolella, Paul

    2010-01-01

    A number of states and utilities are pursuing demand response based on dynamic and time-differentiated retail prices and utility investments in Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), often as part of Smart Grid initiatives. These developments could produce large amounts of Price Responsive Demand, demand that predictably responds to changes in wholesale prices. Price Responsive Demand could provide significant reliability and economic benefits. However, existing RTO tariffs present potential barriers to the development of Price Responsive Demand. Effectively integrating Price Responsive Demand into RTO markets and operations will require changes in demand forecasting, scarcity pricing reform, synchronization of scarcity pricing with capacity markets, tracking voluntary hedging by price responsive loads, and a non-discriminatory approach in curtailments in capacity emergencies. The article describes changes in RTO policies and systems needed incorporate Price Responsive Demand. (author)

  18. Permanent demand excess as business strategy: an analysis of the Brazilian higher-education market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Menon Simões Moita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs establish tuition below the equilibrium price to generate permanent demand excess. This paper first adapts Becker’s (1991 theory to understand why the HEIs price in this way. The fact that students are both consumers and inputs on the education production process gives rise to a market equilibrium where some firms have excess demand and charge high prices, and others charge low prices and have empty seats.Second, the paper analyzes this equilibrium empirically. We estimated the demand for undergraduate courses in Business Administration in the State of São Paulo. The results show that tuition, quality of incoming students and percentage of lecturers holding doctorates degrees are the determining factors of students’ choice. Since the student quality determines the demand for a HEI, it is calculated what the value is for a HEI to get better students; that is the total revenue that each HEI gives up to guarantee excess demand. Regarding the “investment” in selectivity, 39 HEIs in São Paulo give up a combined R$ 5 million (or US$ 3.14 million in revenue per year per freshman class, which means 7.6% of the revenue coming from a freshman class.

  19. [Study on supply and demand relation based on two stages division of market of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Nuo; Zeng, Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    The complex production processes and long industrial chain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) market result in difficulty in Chinese market microstructure research. Based on the defining the logical relationships among different concepts. This paper divides TCM market into two stages as Chinese materia medica resource market and traditional Chinese Patent Medicines market. Under this foundation, we investigated the supply capacity, approaching rules and motivation system of suppliers in TCM market, analyzed the demand situation in the perspective of demand side, and evaluated the purchasing power in terms of population profile, income, and insurance. Furthermore we also analyzed the price formation mechanism in two stages of TCM market. We hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on TCM market related research.

  20. Marketing plan : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    North Central Texas is a unique region in terms of its combination of recent, current and projected size, growth rate, ethnic diversity, and transportation profile specifically in relation to congestion. This document summarizes a plan to market ...

  1. Student Perceptions on Live-Case Projects: Undergraduate Marketing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Raghava Rao; Singh, Mandeep; Baldwin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an investigation into undergraduate students' perceptions on use of live projects as a teaching pedagogy in marketing research courses. Students in undergraduate marketing research courses from fall 2009 to spring 2013 completed an online questionnaire consisting of 17 items. The results suggested that student understanding of…

  2. How are investment decisions in the steam coal market affected by demand uncertainty and buyer-side market power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade, China has evolved into the largest consumer by far and one of the largest importers of coal. The main driver for the increase in coal demand in China has been economic growth. Future Chinese growth rates, and therefore coal consumption and coal imports, are highly uncertain, which may affect profitability of new investments of international mining companies. Furthermore, China has actively employed an array of instruments to control coal trade flows in the last years. In this paper, we analyse the potential impact of increased Chinese coal import volatility and of potential exertion of Chinese market power on global mining investment decisions. For this purpose, we develop a multi-stage stochastic equilibrium model which is able to simulate investments under uncertainty and a monopolistic player in addition to a competitive fringe. We find that accounting for Chinese demand uncertainty yields significant costs for investors and also leads to a delay in investments. Additionally, the exertion of Chinese market power further reduces overall investment activity.

  3. How are investment decisions in the steam coal market affected by demand uncertainty and buyer-side market power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, China has evolved into the largest consumer by far and one of the largest importers of coal. The main driver for the increase in coal demand in China has been economic growth. Future Chinese growth rates, and therefore coal consumption and coal imports, are highly uncertain, which may affect profitability of new investments of international mining companies. Furthermore, China has actively employed an array of instruments to control coal trade flows in the last years. In this paper, we analyse the potential impact of increased Chinese coal import volatility and of potential exertion of Chinese market power on global mining investment decisions. For this purpose, we develop a multi-stage stochastic equilibrium model which is able to simulate investments under uncertainty and a monopolistic player in addition to a competitive fringe. We find that accounting for Chinese demand uncertainty yields significant costs for investors and also leads to a delay in investments. Additionally, the exertion of Chinese market power further reduces overall investment activity.

  4. Management and marketing of sporting events: Nike Premier Cup Project

    OpenAIRE

    Nedbal, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Title: Management and marketing ofsporting events: Nike Premier Cup project Points of thesis: Publish the Nike Premier Cup promotion campaign project and point out improvement possibilities for upcoming years based on analysis ofpast and present state. Methods: Data will be obtained by interview, observation, description analysis and SWOT analysis Results: Promotion campaign, improvement possibilities, final day schedule Keywords: SWOT analysis, promotion, management, marketing, Nike Premier ...

  5. Green marketing, renewables, and free riders: increasing customer demand for a public good

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-09-01

    Retail electricity competition will allow customers to select their own power suppliers and some customers will make purchase decisions based, in part, on their concern for the environment. Green power marketing targets these customers under the assumption that they will pay a premium for ``green`` energy products such as renewable power generation. But renewable energy is not a traditional product because it supplies public goods; for example, a customer supporting renewable energy is unable to capture the environmental benefits that their investment provides to non-participating customers. As with all public goods, there is a risk that few customers will purchase ``green`` power and that many will instead ``free ride`` on others` participation. By free riding, an individual is able to enjoy the benefits of the public good while avoiding payment. This report reviews current green power marketing activities in the electric industry, introduces the extensive academic literature on public goods, free riders, and collective action problems, and explores in detail the implications of this literature for the green marketing of renewable energy. Specifically, the authors highlight the implications of the public goods literature for green power product design and marketing communications strategies. They emphasize four mechanisms that marketers can use to increase customer demand for renewable energy. Though the public goods literature can also contribute insights into the potential rationale for renewable energy policies, they leave most of these implications for future work (see Appendix A for a possible research agenda).

  6. MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES TO EMERGING MARKETS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF TURNKEY PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra Vassileva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed conceptual model for global market entry decisions.

  7. Exploring the capital markets and securitisation for renewable energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, M.E.; Thompson, M.A.; Colonna, S.

    2000-07-01

    This study looks at the opportunities for renewable energy projects to access the bond market to finance projects or refinance existing projects, and what, if anything, is required to facilitate this. In addition, the study looks at the possible use of securitisation to group projects together as a means of dealing with some of the challenges faced by renewables, such as small size relative to most bond issues and the transaction costs. (author)

  8. Exploring the capital markets and securitisation for renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggard, M.E.; Thompson, M.A.; Colonna, S.

    2000-01-01

    This study looks at the opportunities for renewable energy projects to access the bond market to finance projects or refinance existing projects, and what, if anything, is required to facilitate this. In addition, the study looks at the possible use of securitisation to group projects together as a means of dealing with some of the challenges faced by renewables, such as small size relative to most bond issues and the transaction costs. (author)

  9. The energy markets to 1995 - sector demand forecasts and summary. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, J

    1983-01-01

    Energy demand forecasts are often based on assumptions which are uncertain and dependent upon both political and economic factors. However, there is a need for long-term energy forecasting for the benefit of industry and commerce. CIRS (Cambridge Information and Research Services Limited) have tried to fulfill this need, based on forecasts of useful heat demand sector by sector which are then converted to heat energy supply and primary requirements. The first such forecast was produced in 1975. This 1983 updated projection examines coal, oil and gas supplies in the UK to the year 1995.

  10. Tiered co-payments, pricing, and demand in reference price markets for pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Annika; Suppliet, Moritz

    2017-12-01

    Health insurance companies curb price-insensitive behavior and the moral hazard of insureds by means of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing in drug markets. This paper evaluates the effect of price limits - below which drugs are exempt from co-payments - on prices and on demand. First, using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy, we find that the new policy decreases prices by 5 percent for generics and increases prices by 4 percent for brand-name drugs in the German reference price market. Second, estimating a nested-logit demand model, we show that consumers appreciate co-payment exempt drugs and calculate lower price elasticities for brand-name drugs than for generics. This explains the different price responses of brand-name and generic drugs and shows that price-related co-payment tiers are an effective tool to steer demand to low-priced drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Including Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policies in Electricity Demand Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find more information on how state and local air agencies can identify on-the-books EE/RE policies, develop a methodology for projecting a jurisdiction's energy demand, and estimate the change in power sector emissions.

  12. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO2 emissions through 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    During this study a methodology was developed to project growth trends of the motor vehicle population and associated oil demand and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China through 2050. In particular, the numbers of highway vehicles, motorcycles, an...

  13. Demand and availability of chemical data for 'Project 90'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.

    1987-01-01

    The safety analysis performed within 'Project 90' includes transport modeling for the near zone and geosphere by a probabilistic model as well as by the NAMSOL model. In a later stage a detailed geochemical modeling may also be performed within the project. For all these models, data are required. In this report the need for and availability of data of chemical nature is reviewed. For a non site-specific, probabilistic model, the necessary chemical data seem to be available. The main problem is to choose appropriate distributions of distribution coefficients (K d -values). For a site-specific modeling the choice of site will determine the data available. A large amount of data for the sites studied by SKB are available. However site specific data on the complex forming agents in groundwater are unavailable for some sites. Data for groundwater constituents and fission and activation products are available for a detailed geochemical model, except for complex forming constants for humic material in the groundwater. Thermodynamic data for actinides are available, although the amount and quality vary. For some engineering materials (cement, bentonite) available data do not allow a detailed geochemical modeling. The solubilities of the rock and minerals present are not as well known, although data do exist. If kinetic effects are to be considered the data are poorly known. The influence of colloid formation of the actinides has to be considered in some way in connection with the modeling. There is not enough data available on this topic. (author)

  14. Post-project market review as a tool for stimulating commercialisation of knowledge creation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bout, L.Y.; Lombaers, J.H.M.; Constantinides, E.; Weerd-Nederhof, P.C. de

    2009-01-01

    Post-Project Reviews are mainly used as a tool to improve organisational learning (Busby, 1999; von Zedtwitz, 2002). However, the concept of post-project review can also be used as a tool to identify new market potential and to hand over technical knowledge from technical to marketing personnel (von

  15. Post-Project Market Review as a Tool for Stimulating Commercialisation of Knowledge Creation Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bout, Y.; Lombaers, Jaap H.M.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Fisscher, O.A.M.; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.; Oakey, R.; Groen, A.; Cook, G.; van der Sijde, P.

    2009-01-01

    Post-Project Reviews are mainly used as a tool to improve organisational learning (Busby, 1999; von Zedtwitz, 2002). However, post-project reviews can also be used as a tool to identify new market potential and to hand over technical knowledge from technical to marketing personnel (von Zedtwitz,

  16. Why commercial customers are SIC of DSM [demand-side management] marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that the success of demand management programs, which have demonstrated economic benefits, depends on the level of customer participation. In order to have a better understanding of the decisionmaking process of commercial customers with respect to demand management programs, a study was undertaken to determine the preferences and the behavior of this class of clientele. This clientele, whose power consumption has been increasing at a faster rate than that of other sectors, represents a vast range of enterprises producing and supplying all kinds of products. Many of them operate from numerous geographic points on local, regional, national, and even world scales and are generally hierarchically organized. Because of these characteristics, their decisionmaking processes and their needs are equally complex, more so than in the residential sector. A multidimensional approach has been adopted to ensure that their needs are determined according to a quantitative and qualitative research method. The conclusions of the quantitative research have demonstrated that the frameworks representing different organizations respond differently to questions on their needs. It is also noted that certain commercial enterprises are of a cohesive nature (i.e. there is a consistency in understanding of corporate strategic and operational requirements at all hierarchical levels), while others are more diffuse. Those responsible for marketing demand management programs therefore must improve their understanding of the strategic and operational needs of their commercial customers in order to make their demand management programs productive in the view of the appropriate personnel at the hierarchical level applicable to the company concerned

  17. A Didactic Approach to Curriculum Renewal on the Basis of Market Demands: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nasrollahi Shahri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide sufficient information on the issues of the current approaches, materials, and curricula employed in the field of Translation Studies. To do so, the researcher investigated the demands of the market and the vocational realities so as to come to an understanding of the curriculum drawbacks. Furthermore, this study provides a review on the current trends used by academic institutions and private sector inIran. As a phase of the adopted model, several semi-structured interviews were held with authorities in the market of translation, and then the gathered data. Having analyzed the data, a number of themes emerged, the most important of which were the skills pertinent to technology and computer assisted translation. Finally, a number of recommendations were made to improve the official curriculum of Translation Studies. To the future researchers, this study provides baseline information on the recent status of translator teaching trends.

  18. Modeling Demand Response in Electricity Retail Markets as a Stackelberg Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price-sequence, w......We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price...... with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC) and cast as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be solved using off-the-shelf optimization software. In an illustrative example, we consider a retailer associated with both flexible demand and wind power production. Such an example shows the efficiency of dynamic...

  19. The shift in US oil demand and its impact on OPEC's market share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabir, I.

    2001-01-01

    Tremendous political pressure is being exerted on the US government by different political parties to diversify its sources of foreign oil supplies by switching from the reliance on OPEC's oil to that originating from non-OPEC nations. Without a doubt, such a shift would adversely impact the market share of some OPEC members, particularly Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Nigeria. These countries should therefore consider seriously the negative impact of this scenario and consequently formulate individual or joint production policies aiming at protecting their oil market share. To help OPEC achieve this objective, there is a need to estimate the demand function of US oil imports. This paper proffers an estimate of such a function, taking into account, among other variables, the impact of US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR)

  20. SURVEY OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY BALANCE IN LOAN MARKETS: CENTRAL BANK'S EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naumenkova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the existing Bank Lending Survey (BLS approaches to the assessment of the non-price lending conditions' impact on the credit market balance. BLS responses provided domestic central banks an early and reliable signal about the deterioration of financing conditions and the financial access. The monitoring pattern stipulate by using the core indicators: net percentage, diffusion index, Bank Lending Tightness (BLT. The priority tasks for National Bank of Ukraine for Bank Lending Survey were put forward by author. Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey (SLOOS on Bank Lending Practices address changes in the supply of, and demand for, bank loans to businesses and households over the past months.

  1. The future of energy markets: tensions between the conflicting demands of competition and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    2000-01-01

    It clearly shows that the whole energy sector is on the move, pulled this way and that by the conflicting demands of competition and politics. The utilities face enormous pressure on costs, while customers enjoy an unprecedented measure of freedom. No one can avoid the pressure of the market, not even politicians. The latter should recognize that there is no point in hobbling an industry that has to face up to the European competition, and that fair conditions of competition are essential. If the political conditions are right, the current tensions may ultimately turn out to be fruitful and release new energies from which all will profit. (orig.) [de

  2. Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prüggler, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic potential of demand response (DR) on household level at Central European market conditions. Thereby, required economic benefits for consumers' participation, the realistic load shifting potential at household level and the estimation of essential intelligent infrastructure costs are discussed. The core of this paper builds a case-study applying spot market-oriented load shifting from the supplier's point of view by using Austrian electricity market data, household load profiles as well as a heat pump and e-car charging load profile. It is demonstrated which cost savings for suppliers can be derived from such load shifting procedure at household level. Furthermore, upper cost limits for intelligent infrastructure in order to break-even are derived. Results suggest to take a critical look at European discussions on DR implementation on household level, showing that at Central European market conditions the potential for DR at household level is restricted to significant loads and hence, the applied load shifting strategy is only beneficial with application to heat pumps. In contrast, the frequently discussed shifting of conventional household devices' loads (such as washing machines) economically does not add up. - Highlights: • Calculation of economic potential of domestic DR at Central European market conditions. • Model and case-study of spot market-oriented load shifting from supplier's perspective. • Derivation of supplier's cost savings and upper cost limits for ICT infrastructure. • Results show economic potential of domestic DR to be restricted to significant loads. • Shifting of washing machines economically does not pay off in contrast to heat pumps

  3. A Study on stabilization of energy supply and demand using foreign futures market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Won Chul; Lee, Sung Keun [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    This study seeks to minimize financial cost related to the price stabilization and the supply and demand stabilization. In order to accomplish this, it derives a theoretical model of supply hedging to minimize fluctuation risk of price and financial cost intended for crude oil and LNG. Through the positive analysis based on this, it analyzes quantitatively the economic effect of utilizing foreign futures market. It shows the decline of average and divergence of supply cost. Despite the economic effect of utilizing a futures market, the degree of utilizing energy futures market of related firms in Korea appeared to be insufficient. To raise the utilization of trading in futures, the followings were suggested. Firstly, cost reduction and sharing relating information can be designed through the joint participation among allied enterprises. Secondly, energy futures transaction center in Korea can be established or trading linkage based on the existing international trading system can be built. Thirdly, it is possible to subsidize related cost by making a loan from trading in futures. Lastly, the participating directly in a futures market at government level can be considered. (author). 61 refs., 57 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Electric power market liberalization and demand-side management (DSM); Denryoku shijo jiyuka to DSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper explains effects of market liberalization which will lead to introducing competition in electric power business on demand-side management (DSM), by quoting examples mainly in the United States. The paper also describes the future outlook thereon. The DSM program in the United States has expanded for the period between 1989 through 1994. However, during the last few years, the movements of electric power market liberalization have come to force electric power business entities to change their management strategies and reduction in expense. This situation has resulted in reduction in the DSM budget. Future DSM programs are thought to diversify into the following types: a program such as load management which has effect of reducing expenses and investments in investment time periods of 5 to 10 years, a program effective for users such as high-efficiency motors which have effects of reducing expenses and improving efficiency in investment time periods of 3 to 5 years, a program which will be effective enough if market barriers are removed after the market conversions, but requires subsidies and purchase guarantees, and a social program intended for environmental effects and low-income users. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Implementing the "Marketing You" Project in Large Sections of Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    There is mounting pressure on business education to increase experiential learning at the same time that budget constraints are forcing universities to increase class size. This article explains the design and implementation of the "Marketing You" project in two large sections of Principles of Marketing to bring experiential learning into the…

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. Marketing mix - project of a textbook for business academies

    OpenAIRE

    Zatloukalová, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with project of a textbook for business academies. The theme of the chapter of the textbook is marketing mix. The project is made in such a way the students get total information on these problems. The extant of the theme is intended for students of higher classes. The project consists of theoretical part (textbook, exercise book) and practical part (teaching at business academy).

  9. The pricing behavior comparison of Canada and Australia exporter in wheat international market using Pricing to Market (PTM) and Residual Demand Elasticity (RDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, R. P.; Sumono; Iddrisu, Y.; Darus, M.; Sihombing, L. P.; Jufri

    2018-02-01

    This paper try to identify and examined the degree of market power on wheat international market by 2 major exporting countries comprising Canada and Australia by using the Pricing to Market (PTM) method and Residual Demand Elasticity (RDE) method. The PTM method found that Canada impose noncompetitive strategy by applying price discrimination and apply market power to their importing. Different results come from Australian exporter as they are not using their market power to the importing. Conflicting result arise from estimation using RDE and PTM method suggest that the need to extend the theoretical model of both model by expand its economic and econometric model to have consistent expected result theoretically and empirically.

  10. A complex bid model and strategy for dispatchable loads in real-time market-based demand response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Cuk, V.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    The power system is moving into the new era of Smart Grid with the help of advance ICT and other developed technologies. These advancements made the demand response as an integral part of power and energy systems. Nowadays, the concept of Energy bidding is emerging in the Market-based Demand

  11. Deregulation of Electricity Market and Drivers of Demand for Electrical Energy in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojnec Štefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates deregulation of electricity market focusing on electricity prices and drivers of demand for electrical energy in industry in Slovenia. The patterns in evolution of real electricity price developments and the three main components of the electricity price are calculated: liberalized market share for purchased electricity price, regulated infrastructure share for use of electricity network grids and mandatory state charges in the sale of electricity (duty, excise duty and value-added tax. To calculate the real value of electricity prices, producer price index of industrial commodities for electricity prices in industry is used as deflator and implicit deflator of gross domestic product for the size of the economy. In the empirical econometric part is used regression analysis for the amount electricity consumption in the industry depending on the real gross domestic product, direct and cross-price elasticity for natural gas prices in the industry. The results confirmed volatility in real electricity price developments with their increasing tendency and the increasing share of different taxes and state charges in the electricity prices for industry. Demand for electrical energy in industry is positively associated with gross domestic product and price of natural gas as substitute for electrical energy in industry use, and negatively associated with prices of electrical energy for industry.

  12. Project-Based Market Competition and Policy Implications for Sustainable Developments in Building and Construction Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements of sustainability. However, the nature in which public work is undertaken is in an environment of project-based market competition, whereby contractors routinely bid for contracts under specific project awarding systems, and variations are accompanied with the unique scope of individual projects before the final goods or services are delivered. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and contractors’ behavior in systems could help to identify the leverage points of policies. This paper proposes a system dynamics model, with quantitative analysis and simulations, to demonstrate the problems of a system with different project awarding systems and ineffective market performance. The framework of market efficiency and performance measures has been proposed to evaluate the project-based competition mechanism. Managerial policy implications for market efficiency and sustainable developments can thus be systematically discussed and compared through iterative computer simulations and scenario analysis.

  13. Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhechong

    This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating

  14. Demand Side Management in a competitive European market: Who should be responsible for its implementation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didden, Marcel H.; D'Haeseleer, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Demand side management (DSM), more specifically energy efficiency, is standing in the spotlight due to the Kyoto commitments. An additional factor, the liberalization of the electricity markets, causes every country to review its own DSM activities. Especially in Europe, where the directive for opening the electricity market has a direct impact on the current DSM frameworks, governments will have to consider a change in this framework. In order to achieve this, much research has been done in the past years on how to change the DSM framework in a way that the requirements of both liberalization and the Kyoto Protocol will be met. In this paper, we review the current DSM activities and ongoing research from the starting point 'who should be responsible for implementing DSM'. We conclude that countries have to make explicit choices on how to arrange their DSM activities for the different customers groups. They have to be aware of the fact that some combinations of DSM activities will lead to counter-productive results and therefore inefficiency. This paper also investigates which of these DSM activities fits best in the open market; a critical review of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) is used as a starting point. We agree with various proponents of IRP that planning towards minimal societal costs is theoretically appropriate, looking from a societal point of view. We also indicate in this paper that the planning process IRP is partly applicable in the open market. But looking at the practical application of IRP in the past, we must conclude that there are better alternatives for achieving energy efficient goals in a liberalized market

  15. Higher demand and production in 2004, but growth wavers in 2005 : markets for paper, paperboard and woodpulp, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Eduard Akim; Bernard Lombard; Tomas Parik

    2005-01-01

    Global pulp, paper and paperboard markets improved in 2004 and 2005, as indicated by generally higher prices for most pulp, paper and paperboard products in comparison with 2003. While growth in demand was quite robust in 2004, by the end of the first half of 2005, markets appeared more hesitant and prices appeared to waver or reach a plateau. Within the UNECE region,...

  16. The OMEGA Project: Open Market Energy Generation Allocation in deregulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, J.; Conejo, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The OMEGA project is part of the 5th Framework Programme for R and D that the European Union has started in the year 2000. It is a highly complex and interdisciplinary project, with five countries and several companies involved. The project aims at developing a decision support system for electricity producers to support energy management and energy trading groups within these companies in the commercial activities on open and competitive electricity markets using an e-commerce framework. This paper presents the OMEGA project, describes the objectives pursued, evaluates the project workplan, shows the complex project management structure, highlights the management problems, and presents relevant conclusions. (author)

  17. The OMEGA Project: Open Market Energy Generation Allocation in deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, J. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, (Spain). Project Management Group, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales; Conejo, A.J. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, (Spain). Power Engineering Group, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales

    2002-08-01

    The OMEGA project is part of the 5th Framework Programme for R and D that the European Union has started in the year 2000. It is a highly complex and interdisciplinary project, with five countries and several companies involved. The project aims at developing a decision support system for electricity producers to support energy management and energy trading groups within these companies in the commercial activities on open and competitive electricity markets using an e-commerce framework. This paper presents the OMEGA project, describes the objectives pursued, evaluates the project workplan, shows the complex project management structure, highlights the management problems, and presents relevant conclusions. (author)

  18. Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-12-01

    The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined

  19. Uranium in the new world market: a statistical update of supply and demand 1991-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Uranium Institute first issued a statistical update to its biennial report on the uranium market in 1990. It was felt then that certain parameters in the supply-demand equation had changed significantly and that therefore the main data should be reviewed. Since publication of the 1991 report, Uranium in the New World Market, the changes have not been as far-reaching, nevertheless some trends have been confirmed, while others have been reversed. More information has also come to light from Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and China. Unforeseen developments since the 1991 report include the major revision of Ontario Hydro's plans which resulted in the deferral of additional power plants, the decision to complete the Philippine's mothballed reactor, the announcement of North Korea's nuclear programme and most recently the decision to suspend construction of Cuba's nuclear power plant and to put its nuclear programme on hold indefinitely. In order to evaluate the potential impact of these and other events on the uranium market, key statistical data have been reviewed. The data were collected in early 1992. The main changes since the 1991 report are summarized. The revisions have resulted in changes in the forecasts; the forecast nuclear generating capacity has been revised downwards, the forecast reactor requirements for western countries in 2000 have increased slightly whereas for 2000 there is almost no change. (Author)

  20. Maternity Leave Policies: Trade-Offs Between Labour Market Demands and Health Benefits for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society.

  1. GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010. 1992 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1992-04-01

    The annual GRI baseline projection is the result of a complex modeling effort that seeks to achieve an internally consistent energy supply and demand outlook across all energy sources and end-use demand sectors. The year's projection includes the adoption of a new petroleum refinery methodology, the incorporation of a new approach to determining electric utility generating capacity heat rates, the extensive update of both the residential and commercial databases and methodologies, and the continued update of the GRI Hydrocarbon Model. The report presents a series of summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1992 edition of the projection, an analysis of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration, a description of the independent power producer projection, a comparison of the 1992 edition of the projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  2. Incentive-based demand response programs designed by asset-light retail electricity providers for the day-ahead market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Faria, Pedro; Ramos, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    how a REP with light physical assets, such as DG (distributed generation) units and ESS (energy storage systems), can survive in a competitive retail market. The paper discusses the effective risk management strategies for the REPs to deal with the uncertainties of the DAM (day-ahead market) and how...... to hedge the financial losses in the market. A two-stage stochastic programming problem is formulated. It aims to establish the financial incentive-based DR programs and the optimal dispatch of the DG units and ESSs. The uncertainty of the forecasted day-ahead load demand and electricity price is also...... taken into account with a scenario-based approach. The principal advantage of this model for REPs is reducing the risk of financial losses in DAMs, and the main benefit for the whole system is market power mitigation by virtually increasing the price elasticity of demand and reducing the peak demand....

  3. Study on the complexity pricing game and coordination of the duopoly air conditioner market with disturbance demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Xie, Lei

    2016-03-01

    The paper focuses on the dynamic pricing game of the duopoly air conditioner market with disturbance in demand and analyzes the influence of disturbance on the dynamic game system. Considering the demand for products, such as air conditioner, varies with different seasons, we assume three cases based on the condition of disturbance, including growth market (Case 1), declining market (Case 2) and completely random market (Case 3). By analyzing these three cases and making comparison among them, the paper shows that the growth market is more sensitive to the changing parameters such as the adjustment variable and the competitive factor than the declining market. It is more difficult to keep the system stable in a growth market. Although the demand is completely random, the dynamic system can reach a stable state, on condition that the adjustment variable is small enough. The results also indicate that the bullwhip effect between the order quantity and the actual demand is weakened gradually along with the price adjustment.

  4. THE BITCOIN PROJECT AND THE FREE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Iavorschi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human innovation in the field of monetary freedom takes shape in the virtual communities. Developed and implemented through a decentralized algorithm, the bitcoin project has so far proved itself a success in the field of virtual currency. Beyond the technical part of operation, in this paper we will analyse the theoretical principles underlying the bitcoin. This study shows that the bitcoin largely meets the role of natural money of gold and silver, in compliance to the free market’s behaviour. This allows us to observe the fact that people are aware of the negative implications the state’s intervention has in the monetary filed, thus deciding to create and use their own currency in online transactions.

  5. The future of the photovoltaic market (demand side/supply side)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    1998-01-01

    At present the main PV application market sectors are communications, leisure, boating, solar home systems, and water pumping. It is predicted that in the future, the largest photovoltaic market segments will be solar home photovoltaic systems, grid-connected small-scale photovoltaic systems, grid-connected medium-to-large scale photovoltaic systems, the communications sector and in the electrification of remote and isolated areas. The main factors favoring photovoltaic technology in remote and isolated areas result from: the high costs of conventional energy sources in remote locations; the loss of a scale-economy effect, which means specific costs of small photovoltaic systems are not much higher than those of larger photovoltaic systems; price of fuel, fuel transportation and spare part supplies. The major factors inhibiting the photovoltaic technology include high initial costs, lack of skilled man power, lack of good quality data and social acceptance. A roof top mounted photovoltaic system is one type of PV system which has attracted lots of interest among the people of north America and Europe. The generation of electricity by this system is attractive because: generation is on-site. This results in reduction of transmission costs and transmission losses; the cost of roofing tiles can be eliminated by using mounted PV systems instead; there is no need for additional land for power generation; visual impacts are limited. The objective of this paper is to review the development of the photovoltaic market in the recent 10 year period and discuss the future markets for this technology with respect to supply and demand

  6. Incentive-based demand response programs designed by asset-light retail electricity providers for the day-ahead market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Faria, Pedro; Ramos, Sergio; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Following the deregulation experience of retail electricity markets in most countries, the majority of the new entrants of the liberalized retail market were pure REP (retail electricity providers). These entities were subject to financial risks because of the unexpected price variations, price spikes, volatile loads and the potential for market power exertion by GENCO (generation companies). A REP can manage the market risks by employing the DR (demand response) programs and using its' generation and storage assets at the distribution network to serve the customers. The proposed model suggests how a REP with light physical assets, such as DG (distributed generation) units and ESS (energy storage systems), can survive in a competitive retail market. The paper discusses the effective risk management strategies for the REPs to deal with the uncertainties of the DAM (day-ahead market) and how to hedge the financial losses in the market. A two-stage stochastic programming problem is formulated. It aims to establish the financial incentive-based DR programs and the optimal dispatch of the DG units and ESSs. The uncertainty of the forecasted day-ahead load demand and electricity price is also taken into account with a scenario-based approach. The principal advantage of this model for REPs is reducing the risk of financial losses in DAMs, and the main benefit for the whole system is market power mitigation by virtually increasing the price elasticity of demand and reducing the peak demand. - Highlights: • Asset-light electricity retail providers subject to financial risks. • Incentive-based demand response program to manage the financial risks. • Maximizing the payoff of electricity retail providers in day-ahead market. • Mixed integer nonlinear programming to manage the risks

  7. MODELING OF THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF INDIVIDUAL MARKETING DEMAND: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND GENERALIZATION OF THE PRECEDING CORRESPONDING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the modeling of series-STI formation of individual market demand. The analysis, and then sum-of three well-known inmarketing models, which exhaust the currentlyknown approaches is revised. The article shows that all three models have a signifi cant difference in the number of stages and terminology. The obtained results are the basis for the developmentof the author’s model of gradual development of demand - «need - desire - requirement -demand» or abbreviated as «model NDRD» and can be considered as a contribution to the methodology of study a demand.

  8. The carbon market: major operational carbon funds and financed projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.; Nobili, V.

    2008-01-01

    The flexible mechanisms envisaged by the Kyoto Protocol have led gradually to a global carbon market that has become very appetizing for companies operating in the sector. Financial instruments such as carbon funds, and investments in greenhouse-gas-reduction projects, now operate at the international level, counting on the development of new technologies and energy efficiency, and contributing to sustainable development in the countries that host the projects [it

  9. Power System Transient Stability Improvement Using Demand Side Management in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Wang, Chunqi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift some of their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to an electricity price...... for demand side management generates different load profiles and may provide an opportunity to improve the transient stability of power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the idea of the power system transient stability improvement by using optimal load response to the electricity...... price is proposed. A 102-bus power system which represents a simplified model of the western Danish power system is chosen as the study case. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to electricity prices is an effective measure to improve the power system transient stability with high...

  10. Forecasting the Electricity Demand and Market Shares in Retail Electricity Market Based on System Dynamics and Markov Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyou Yan; Chao Qin; Mingjian Nie; Le Yang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the deregulation of retail electricity market, consumers can choose retail electric suppliers freely, and market entities are facing fierce competition because of the increasing number of new entrants. Under these circumstances, forecasting the changes in all market entities, when market share stabilized, is important for suppliers making marketing decisions. In this paper, a market share forecasting model was established based on Markov chain, and a system dynamics model was construct...

  11. Uranium supply and demand projections in the pacific basin Australia's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    By the year 2000 O.E.C.D. estimates indicate that somewhere between 22% to 33% of the world's base load electrical energy will originate from nuclear power plants. In all major pacific basin countries, Australia has the world's largest known uranium reserves and is currently supplying around 12% of world uranium production. She should be preparing to compete on the world markets for uranium sales and should anticipate increased uranium fuel demands despite the possibility the Canada and China might further penerate this market. (Liu Wencai)

  12. A Study of Demand Response Effect of Thermal Storage Air-Conditioning Systems in Consideration of Electricity Market Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omagari, Yuko; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    This paper evaluates the economic impact of the introduction of customer-owned Thermal Storage Air-conditioning (TSA) systems, in an electricity market, from the viewpoint of the load service entity. We perform simulations on the condition that several thousand customers install TSA systems and shift peak demand in an electricity market by one percent. Our numerical results indicate that the purchase cost of the LSE was reduced through load management of customers with TSA systems. The introduction of TSA systems also reduced the volatility of market clearing price and reduced the whole-trade cost in an electricity market.

  13. Bill project for a new organisation of the electricity market (NOME): impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document reports a study of the impact of the implementation of regulated access to electricity, of a capacity obligation, and of the evolution of regulated selling prices. It outlines that the progressive opening to concurrence of electricity in European markets did not reach in France the expected objectives: to let consumers get the benefit of investment in nuclear energy, incentives for innovation and demand reduction, promotion of investments within the frame of the electricity European market, etc. The authors describe the electricity market new organisation which is defined in the bill project, and the expected impacts on the different actors, macro-economical impacts, impacts on public finance and employment, environmental impacts, social impacts, and legal impacts

  14. Meeting rural demand: a case for combining community-based distribution and social marketing of injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can tailor interventions to match family

  15. Market modeling for assessment of demand side programs using the marginal cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastamatiou, Panagiotis; Psarras, John

    2000-01-01

    Demand side management is nowadays considered as a functional step in the energy planning process. The criteria proposed for the assessment of the demand side programs (DSPs) are usually based on the balance between the marginal supply cost and the mean DSP cost. These criteria could not support the allotting of the invested capital to incentives for the consumers and advertising. This paper presents a methodology to support the utility planning at this point with more reliability. It proposes the expansion of the assessment criteria with the use of the marginal cost of the DSP. For the calculation of the DSP marginal cost, a dynamic model is developed and it is used for the simulation of the penetration of a DS Program. Using the 'least-cost' criterion as the decision rule for the simulation, the planner has a distribution of the available investment capital throughout the whole planning period. The use of the 'most-value' criterion supports the separation of the invested capital between incentives for the consumers and supportive expenses, e.g. advertising, marketing cost, etc. (Author)

  16. Coordinating two-period ordering and advertising policies in a dynamic market with stochastic demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junping; Wang, Shengdong; Min, Jie

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we study the optimal two-stage advertising and ordering policies and the channel coordination issues in a supply chain composed of one manufacturer and one retailer. The manufacturer sells a short-life-cycle product through the retailer facing stochastic demand in dynamic markets characterised by price declines and product obsolescence. Following a two-period newsvendor framework, we develop two members' optimal ordering and advertising models under both the centralised and decentralised settings, and present the closed-form solutions to the developed models as well. Moreover, we design a two-period revenue-sharing contract, and develop sufficient conditions such that the channel coordination can be achieved and a win-win outcome can be guaranteed. Our analysis suggests that the centralised decision creates an incentive for the retailer to increase the advertising investments in two periods and put the purchase forward, but the decentralised decision mechanism forces the retailer to decrease the advertising investments in two periods and postpone/reduce its purchase in the first period. This phenomenon becomes more evident when demand variability is high.

  17. Why do successful restaurants not raise their prices? : Market forces of demand and the all-or-nothing demand curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Henk; Leen, Auke

    Becker (J Political Econ 99:1109-1116, 1991) addresses the problem of persistent queues at popular restaurants. He poses the question why such restaurants do not raise their prices, thus reducing the queues while expanding profits. He presents a solution based on the assumption that demand by a

  18. Development of hydrogen market: the outlook for demand, wing energy production, mass storage and distribution to vehicles in the regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duigou, A.; Quemere, M.M.; Marion, P.; Decarre, S.; Sinegre, L.; Nadau, L.; Pierre, H.; Menanteau, Ph.; Rastetter, A.; Cuni, A.; Barbier, F.; Mulard, Ph.; Alleau, Th.; Antoine, L.

    2011-01-01

    The HyFrance3 project has provided a national framework for reflection, debate and strategic exchange between major public and industrial research players, namely for their hydrogen technology arms in France (Air Liquide, Total Refining and Marketing, EDF R and D, GDF SUEZ, CNRS-LEPII Energies Nouvelles, AFH2, ALPHEA, ADEME (co-financing and partner) and the CEA (coordinator). This project focuses on studying the landscape, trends and economic competitiveness of some links in the hydrogen chain, for industrial and energy applications, over a period referred to as 'short term' (2020-2030). Four study subjects were tackled: the prospective demand for hydrogen in industry (analysis of the current situation and outlook for 2030, in particular for refining based on two scenarios on mobility), production of hydrogen for transport uses from wind-produced electricity, mass storage that would have to be set up in the Rhone Alpes and PACA regions, to balance supply that is subject to deliberate (maintenance) or involuntary interruptions, and the distribution of hydrogen in the region, for automobile use (gas station network in the Rhone Alpes and PACA regions) by 2050 (with end period all-in costs between 0.4 eur/kg and 0.6 eur/kg, as a function of the price of energy and the distance from the storage site). (authors)

  19. Supply and demand determine the market value of food providers in wild vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruteau, Cécile; Voelkl, Bernhard; van Damme, Eric; Noë, Ronald

    2009-07-21

    Animals neither negotiate verbally nor conclude binding contracts, but nevertheless regularly exchange goods and services without overt coercion and manage to arrive at agreements over exchange rates. Biological market theory predicts that such exchange rates fluctuate according to the law of supply and demand. Previous studies showed that primates pay more when commodities become scarcer: subordinates groomed dominants longer before being tolerated at food sites in periods of shortage; females groomed mothers longer before obtaining permission to handle their infants when there were fewer newborns and males groomed fertile females longer before obtaining their compliance when fewer such females were present. We further substantiated these results by conducting a 2-step experiment in 2 groups of free-ranging vervet monkeys in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa. We first allowed a single low-ranking female to repeatedly provide food to her entire group by triggering the opening of a container and measured grooming bouts involving this female in the hour after she made the reward available. We then measured the shifts in grooming patterns after we added a second food container that could be opened by another low-ranking female, the second provider. All 4 providers received more grooming, relative to the amount of grooming they provided themselves. As biological market theory predicts, the initial gain of first providers was partially lost again after the introduction of a second provider in both groups. We conclude that grooming was fine-tuned to changes in the value of these females as social partners.

  20. Supply and Demand for Radiation Oncology in the United States: Updated Projections for 2015 to 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Falit, Benjamin P.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Prior studies have forecasted demand for radiation therapy to grow 10 times faster than the supply between 2010 and 2020. We updated these projections for 2015 to 2025 to determine whether this imbalance persists and to assess the accuracy of prior projections. Methods and Materials: The demand for radiation therapy between 2015 and 2025 was estimated by combining current radiation utilization rates determined by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data with population projections provided by the US Census Bureau. The supply of radiation oncologists was forecast by using workforce demographics and full-time equivalent (FTE) status provided by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), current resident class sizes, and expected survival per life tables from the US Centers for Disease Control. Results: Between 2015 and 2025, the annual total number of patients receiving radiation therapy during their initial treatment course is expected to increase by 19%, from 490,000 to 580,000. Assuming a graduating resident class size of 200, the number of FTE physicians is expected to increase by 27%, from 3903 to 4965. In comparison with prior projections, the new projected demand for radiation therapy in 2020 dropped by 24,000 cases (a 4% relative decline). This decrease is attributable to an overall reduction in the use of radiation to treat cancer, from 28% of all newly diagnosed cancers in the prior projections down to 26% for the new projections. By contrast, the new projected supply of radiation oncologists in 2020 increased by 275 FTEs in comparison with the prior projection for 2020 (a 7% relative increase), attributable to rising residency class sizes. Conclusion: The supply of radiation oncologists is expected to grow more quickly than the demand for radiation therapy from 2015 to 2025. Further research is needed to determine whether this is an appropriate correction or will result in excess capacity.

  1. Supply and Demand for Radiation Oncology in the United States: Updated Projections for 2015 to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hubert Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School – University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Falit, Benjamin P. [Radiation Oncology Associates, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: bsmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Prior studies have forecasted demand for radiation therapy to grow 10 times faster than the supply between 2010 and 2020. We updated these projections for 2015 to 2025 to determine whether this imbalance persists and to assess the accuracy of prior projections. Methods and Materials: The demand for radiation therapy between 2015 and 2025 was estimated by combining current radiation utilization rates determined by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data with population projections provided by the US Census Bureau. The supply of radiation oncologists was forecast by using workforce demographics and full-time equivalent (FTE) status provided by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), current resident class sizes, and expected survival per life tables from the US Centers for Disease Control. Results: Between 2015 and 2025, the annual total number of patients receiving radiation therapy during their initial treatment course is expected to increase by 19%, from 490,000 to 580,000. Assuming a graduating resident class size of 200, the number of FTE physicians is expected to increase by 27%, from 3903 to 4965. In comparison with prior projections, the new projected demand for radiation therapy in 2020 dropped by 24,000 cases (a 4% relative decline). This decrease is attributable to an overall reduction in the use of radiation to treat cancer, from 28% of all newly diagnosed cancers in the prior projections down to 26% for the new projections. By contrast, the new projected supply of radiation oncologists in 2020 increased by 275 FTEs in comparison with the prior projection for 2020 (a 7% relative increase), attributable to rising residency class sizes. Conclusion: The supply of radiation oncologists is expected to grow more quickly than the demand for radiation therapy from 2015 to 2025. Further research is needed to determine whether this is an appropriate correction or will result in excess capacity.

  2. Entity’s Irregular Demand Scheduling of the Wholesale Electricity Market based on the Forecast of Hourly Price Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Russkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a hot issue to forecast electric power demand amounts and prices for the entities of wholesale electricity market (WEM, which are in capacity of a large user with production technology requirements prevailing over hourly energy planning ones. An electric power demand of such entities is on irregular schedule. The article analyses mathematical models, currently applied to forecast demand amounts and prices. It describes limits of time-series models and fundamental ones in case of hourly forecasting an irregular demand schedule of the electricity market entity. The features of electricity trading at WEM are carefully analysed. Factors that influence on irregularity of demand schedule of the metallurgical plant are shown. The article proposes method for the qualitative forecast of market price ratios as a tool to reduce a dependence on the accuracy of forecasting an irregular schedule of demand. It describes the differences between the offered method and the similar ones considered in research studies and scholarly works. The correlation between price ratios and relaxation in the requirements for the forecast accuracy of the electric power consumption is analysed. The efficiency function of forecast method is derived. The article puts an increased focus on description of the mathematical model based on the method of qualitative forecast. It shows main model parameters and restrictions the electricity market imposes on them. The model prototype is described as a programme module. Methods to assess an effectiveness of the proposed forecast model are examined. The positive test results of the model using JSC «Volzhsky Pipe Plant» data are given. A conclusion is drawn concerning the possibility to decrease dependence on the forecast accuracy of irregular schedule of entity’s demand at WEM. The effective trading tool has been found for the entities of irregular demand schedule at WEM. The tool application allows minimizing cost

  3. MARKETING STRATEGIES AND TACTICS OF ADVERTISING PROJECTS FOR TOURISM COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Tolmachev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic. The relevance of the article is that today tourism is a massive social and economic phenomenon of global scale, as is known, any vacation begins with advertising. Therefore, for the progressive development of tourism companies need to develop an eff ective strategy and tactics of advertising projects. Potential consumers have become more discerning and prudent, so a consultant position with the fl ood of information does not work. Works expert position, when the product is as if created for the client, that is, the product exists only in synchronism with the buyer. In view of this increased competition between operators of tourist services, and certain segments of the market saturation of a significant amount of travel products with a similar orientation, a unique role for the positioning on the basis of marketing strategy as a process for creating a unique tourism product in the market.The purpose / goal. The aim of the article is to study the features of the marketing strategies of advertising processes in the market of travel agencies and find directions of their improvement in current economic conditions.Article Objectives: To investigate the nature and content of the concept of "marketing strategy of advertising processes"; systematize criteria for the classification of the Company's strategy in the market of tourist services; analyze the features of advertising projects and identify promising directions for improving the marketing strategies.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are comparative analysis methods.Results. The essence and content of the concept of "marketing strategy of advertising processes." The features of the market of tourist services, allocated target audiences, identifies key factors and trends in the development of this market.The new system is a product of values, square S. Kovalev, who identified four existing mentality of the person. When advertising article or video include

  4. Uranium supply/demand projections to 2030 in the OECD/NEA-IAEA ''Red Book''. Nuclear growth projections, global uranium exploration, uranium resources, uranium production and production capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert

    2009-01-01

    World demand for electricity is expected to continue to grow rapidly over the next several decades to meet the needs of an increasing population and economic growth. The recognition by many governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, base load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, combined with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supplies, has increased the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity. Since the mid-1960s, with the co-operation of their member countries and states, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have jointly prepared periodic updates (currently every 2 years) on world uranium resources, production and demand. These updates have been published by the OECD/NEA in what is commonly known as the ''Red Book''. The 2007 edition replaces the 2005 edition and reflects information current as of 1 st January 2007. Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand presents, in addition to updated resource figures, the results of a recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry. It contains official data provided by 40 countries (and one Country Report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat) on uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements to 2030 as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues are also presented. (orig.)

  5. The clinical endocrinology workforce: current status and future projections of supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigersky, Robert A; Fish, Lisa; Hogan, Paul; Stewart, Andrew; Kutler, Stephanie; Ladenson, Paul W; McDermott, Michael; Hupart, Kenneth H

    2014-09-01

    Many changes in health care delivery, health legislation, and the physician workforce that affect the supply and demand for endocrinology services have occurred since the first published workforce study of adult endocrinologists in 2003. The objective of the study was to assess the current adult endocrinology workforce data and provide the first analysis of the pediatric endocrinology workforce and to project the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025. A workforce model was developed from an analysis of proprietary and publicly available databases, consultation with a technical expert panel, and the results of an online survey of board-certified endocrinologists. The Endocrine Society commissioned The Lewin Group to estimate current supply and to project gaps between supply and demand for endocrinologists. A technical expert panel of senior endocrinologists provided context, clinical information, and direction. The following were measured: 1) the current adult and pediatric endocrinology workforce and the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025 and 2) the number of additional entrants into the endocrinology work pool that would be required to close the gap between supply and demand. Currently there is a shortage of approximately 1500 adult and 100 pediatric full-time equivalent endocrinologists. The gap for adult endocrinologists will expand to 2700 without an increase in the number of fellows trained. An increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus further expands the demand for adult endocrinologists. The gap can be closed in 5 and 10 years by increasing the number of fellowship positions by 14.4% and 5.5% per year, respectively. The gap between supply and demand for pediatric endocrinologists will close by 2016, and thereafter an excess supply over demand will develop at the current rate of new entrants into the work force. There are insufficient adult endocrinologists to satisfy current and future demand. A number of proactive

  6. Pricing decision research for TPL considering different logistics service level influencing the market demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With the rapid development of economy and the support of government policy, the development of the logistics industry has become a new economic growth engine. As we all know, the reasonable price of logistics service is the most critical factor for logistics enterprises to win market share and make profit. At the same time, the service level is one of the most important factors which will influence the size of the market share. Therefore, this paper constructs a pricing model considering a situation that the logistics service level affects the market demand. This model helps the enterprises to make scientific decisions.Methodology: To achieve this objective, this paper constructs the TPL service and the pricing decision models based on the game theory.Findings: The conclusion shows that under the situation of independent decision-making, the enterprise which has strong ability of logistics service does not necessarily have a competitive advantage, while pricing equilibrium under the situation of joint decision-making, not only make both sides get more income, but also be conducive to improve the level of service.Research limitations: In this research, there are some assumptions that might affect the accuracy the model such as there are only two TPL enterprises to participate in, and considerations are taken under the condition of complete information environment. These assumptions can be relaxed in the future work.Originality: In this research, logistics service level is taken account into the areas of logistics service pricing, which makes the models more practical and more perfect. And this paper constructs game models based on game theory to make up the limitations of traditional pricing theories in logistics service pricing.

  7. A bilevel model for electricity retailers' participation in a demand response market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Demand response programmes are seen as one of the contributing solutions to the challenges posed to power systems by the large-scale integration of renewable power sources, mostly due to their intermittent and stochastic nature. Among demand response programmes, real-time pricing schemes for small consumers are believed to have significant potential for peak-shaving and load-shifting, thus relieving the power system while reducing costs and risk for energy retailers. This paper proposes a game theoretical model accounting for the Stackelberg relationship between retailers (leaders) and consumers (followers) in a dynamic price environment. Both players in the game solve an economic optimisation problem subject to stochasticity in prices, weather-related variables and must-serve load. The model allows the determination of the dynamic price-signal delivering maximum retailer profit, and the optimal load pattern for consumers under this pricing. The bilevel programme is reformulated as a single-level MILP, which can be solved using commercial off-the-shelf optimisation software. In an illustrative example, we simulate and compare the dynamic pricing scheme with fixed and time-of-use pricing. We find that the dynamic pricing scheme is the most effective in achieving load-shifting, thus reducing retailer costs for energy procurement and regulation in the wholesale market. Additionally, the redistribution of the saved costs between retailers and consumers is investigated, showing that real-time pricing is less convenient than fixed and time-of-use price for consumers. This implies that careful design of the retail market is needed. Finally, we carry out a sensitivity analysis to analyse the effect of different levels of consumer flexibility. - Highlights: ► We model the game between electricity retailers and consumers under dynamic pricing. ► The retailer cuts procurement costs by shifting demand in time via price-incentive. ► Imbalance costs for the retailer taper

  8. Social and cultural capital in project marketing service firms: Danish architectural firms on the German market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo

    2002-01-01

    This article analyses the marketing activities of three Danish architectural firms in Germany during the 1990s from a perspective that is new to project marketing, in that the Bourdivan concepts of social and cultural capital are applied to the offerings and activities of firms. In architecture...... provide support for our claim that the accumulation of social and cultural capital is crucial to acquiring architectural projects, while also indicating that cultural and social capital are internationally transferable to a limited extent only. This in turn suggests that national construction industries...

  9. Strategic and Tactical Design of Competing Decentralized Supply Chain Networks with Risk-Averse Participants for Markets with Uncertain Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Hafezalkotob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated equilibrium model for tactical decisions in network design is developed. We consider a decentralized supply chain network operating in markets under uncertain demands when there is a rival decentralized chain. The primary assumption is that two chains provide partial substitutable products to the markets, and markets' demands are affected by tactical decisions such as price, service level, and advertising expenditure. Each chain consists of one risk-averse manufacturer and a set of risk-averse retailers. The strategic decisions are frequently taking precedence over tactical ones. Therefore, we first find equilibrium of tactical decisions for each possible scenario of supply chain network. Afterwards, we find optimal distribution network of the new supply chain by the scenario evaluation method. Numerical example, including sensitivity analysis will illustrate how the conservative behaviors of chains' members affect expected demand, profit, and utility of each distribution scenario.

  10. Demand-side management project for Tenaga Nasional Berhad. Progress report No. 4. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This study, conducted by the California Energy Commission, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. Progress Report No. 4 is divided into the following contents: April 6, 1994 Training Mission Delegation Itinerary; April 6, 1994 Training Mission Workshop Information Package; Letter to Chairman of Tenaga Nasional Berhad Requesting Demonstration Project Funding; Design/Build Construction Bid Proposal for Energy Efficient Electric Technology Demontration Project; Final Draft of Demand-Side Management Plan for Tenaga Nasional Berhad; Attachments.

  11. Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2013: Market Trends and Projections to 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Global growth in natural gas use slowed measurably in 2012, although it still exceeded that of oil and total energy use. Among the headwinds facing gas are continuing weak demand in Europe, resilience of coal in North America as well as persistent bottlenecks and disruptions in the LNG value chain that in 2012 caused an exceptional global decline of LNG supply. At the same time, Asian demand for gas remains red-hot, and gas is beginning to gain traction as a transport fuel. The IEA new Medium-Term Gas Market Report provides a detailed analysis of demand, upstream investment and trade developments through 2018 that will shape the gas industry and the role of gas in the global energy system. Its special sections investigate the economic viability of gas-fired power generation in Europe, the prospects for an LNG trading hub in Asia as well as the potentially transformational role of natural gas in transport. Amid a continuous regional divergence between North American abundance, European weakness and Asian thirst for LNG, the 2013 Medium Term Gas Market Report will investigate the key questions that the gas industry faces. These include the prospect of the United States becoming a major gas exporter, the challenges of securing enough gas to meet China’s growth, and the ability of Russian gas – spurred both by weak EU demand and resurgent domestic production – to find its manifest destiny in Asia.

  12. Current status and future projections of LNG demand and supplies: A global prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Satish; Kwon, Hyouk-Tae; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Hyun Cho, Jae; Lim, Wonsub; Moon, Il

    2011-01-01

    An unceasing growth of gas consumption in domestic households, industry, and power plants has gradually turned natural gas into a major source of energy. Main drivers in this development are the technical and economic advantages of natural gas. It is a clean, versatile, and easily controllable fuel. On this basis, natural gas is often considered the form of energy that will be the 'bridging fuel' to a sustainable energy system, sometime after 2050. Unlike other main sources of energy, such as oil and coal, gas is not traded on an actual world market. This paper provides an overview on demand and supplies of natural gas (LNG) in the past as a function of gas prices, gas technology (gas sweetening, liquefaction, shipping and re-gasification), and gas market and how they have changed recently. It also discusses the likely developments in global LNG demand for the period to the year 2030. - Highlights: → This study provides an overview on demand and supplies of LNG in the past and future. → Outlook for LNG demand in Asia pacific region is very robust. → In past decade the shale gas production in USA has increased fivefold. → The future of European gas supply depends largely on the geopolitical environments. → Within the gas sector LNG is playing an ever increasing role in gas transportation.

  13. Projections of demand of natural gas in Mexico; Proyecciones de demanda de gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia, UNAM (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The projections of demand of energy for Mexico, in the global and regional scope, for period 1992-2020 are presented. The projections are based on the use of a simulation model built in the University Program of Energy of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), which allows to project the demand in the short and medium term of the primary and final energy. Projections of the demands of energy or for fuels by sectors and subsectors are obtained in accordance with different scenarios of growth. Particularly the demand of natural gas is analyzed, both, as energy and as raw material for the petrochemical industry, and as fuel oil, under different scenarios of economic growth and policies of environmental character. [Spanish] Se presentan las proyecciones de demanda de energia para Mexico, en el ambito global y regional, para el periodo 1992-2020. Las proyecciones estan basadas en el uso de un modelo de simulacion construido en el Programa Universitario de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), el cual permite proyectar la demanda de energia primaria y final en el corto y mediano plazos. Se obtienen proyecciones de las demandas de energia por sectores y subsectores o por combustibles de acuerdo con diferentes escenarios de crecimiento. En particular se analiza la demanda de gas natural, tanto como energetico como materia prima para la petroquimica, y combustoleo bajo diferentes escenarios de crecimiento economico y politicas de caracter ambiental.

  14. Leadership in project-based organizations: Dealing with complex and paradoxical demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming amount of attention given by scientists and practitioners to leadership, most theories of leadership have been developed to explain the role of leadership in traditional line organizations, not to explain how leaders deal with complex and paradoxical demands in project-based

  15. Moving towards Optimising Demand-Led Learning: The 2005-2007 ECUANET Leonardo Da Vinci Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealtry, Richard; Howard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the key project learning points and outcomes as a guideline for the future quality management of demand-led learning and development. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology was based upon a corporate university blueprint architecture and browser toolkit developed by a member of the…

  16. Suppressed Demand and the Carbon Markets: Does development have to become dirty before it qualifies to become clean?

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaldão, Marina; Battye, William; Grapeloup, Mathieu; François, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Suppressed Demand refers to a situation where Minimum Services Levels (MSL) necessary for human development are unavailable to people or only available to an inadequate level. Numerous barriers, such as low income levels or lack of infrastructure and skills prevent access to MSLs, such as potable water, cooking energy, lighting and electrification. We investigate the concept of suppressed demand as it applies to Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and market based incentives for GHG emission re...

  17. Energy demand projection of China using a path-coefficient analysis and PSO–GA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shiwei; Zhu Kejun; Zhang Xian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect mechanism of China’s energy demand is investigated detailedly. ► A hybrid algorithm PSO–GA optimal energy demands estimating model for China. ► China’s energy demand will reach 4.48 billion tce in 2015. ► The proposed method forecast shows its superiority compared with others. - Abstract: Energy demand projection is fundamental to rational energy planning formulation. The present study investigates the direct and indirect effects of five factors, namely GDP, population, proportion of industrial, proportion of urban population and coal percentage of total energy consumption on China’s energy demand, implementing a path-coefficient analysis. On this basis, a hybrid algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm optimal Energy Demand Estimating (PSO–GA EDE) model, is proposed for China. The coefficients of the three forms of the model (linear, exponential and quadratic model) are optimized by proposed PSO–GA. To obtain a combinational prediction of three forms, a departure coefficient method is applied to get the combinational weights. The results show that the China’s energy demand will be 4.48 billion tce in 2015. Furthermore; the proposed method forecast shows its superiority compared with other single optimization method such as GA, PSO or ACO and multiple linear regressions.

  18. HWY 55 Burger, fries & shakes: Project management & marketing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, David; Nelbom, Mathies

    2015-01-01

    Hwy 55 is an American fast-dining restaurant that aims to expand into the Danish market. Their ambition is to open 30-35 restaurant across the country over the next ten years. Jens-Christian Due, responsible for Hwy 55 expansion into the Danish market, proclaims that there has been lacking a restaurant located between McDonalds and Jensen’s Boefhus and that Hwy 55 is the golden mean. A statement this project seeks to identify and elaborate by providing a clear overview of the company through ...

  19. Improving Supply Chain in North -American Liner Board market through Demand Chain managment : Case of Metsä Board

    OpenAIRE

    Sakko, Auli

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis research is to explore the US customer demand and seek better customer and market understanding, and consequently, facilitate implementing the optimal stock levels in the market. Additionally, this thesis investigates which improvements are necessary for utilizing the common stock supply model in the US, and how the maximal availability is achieved for the US customers. The research method in this thesis is qualitative. The theoretical framework was created th...

  20. Present supply and demand on the world uranium market and decision of the nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luqing

    1994-01-01

    The present supply and demand relationship on the world uranium market due to the change of international situation in the last years is described and the falling price on the world uranium market is estimated. It is pointed out that the falling price would continue for a long time. Based on it the three different policy decisions on the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE E-GOVERNMENT MARKET IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SUPPLY VERSUS DEMAND SIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veghes Calin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available E-government represents one of the most palpable results of the dynamic development of the information and communication technology. Defined mostly as an intensive use of information technologies to provide public services, e-government has been approached in the literature rather from a technological perspective, with a significant importance given to the supply and a lower attention paid to the demand side. The increasing interest in taking into consideration the demand side in the development of the e-government initiatives and projects has created the foundation for a shift in the way the conceptual framework for e-government planning and implementation is defined, from the technology infrastructure and costs to the customer-centric character of all the efforts done. The European Union put e-government on its agenda aiming to improve access to the public information and services, increase transparency of public administration, exploit effectively the information technology within public administration, and establishing e-procurement. The development of the e-government services in the Member States, as it is expressed by the data regarding the supply and demand side, has been conducted in a more or less different manner that led, at the Unions level, to a relatively high availability but a rather low usage of the specific services. The paper explores the relationship between the e-government supply and demand based on the secondary data referring to the public services available to the citizens (as these are defined by the Eurostat methodology and the usage of these services by the individuals, integrating them through an analytical matrix inspired by the BCG model. Probably the most important conclusion of this analysis states that development of the e-government services has not been accompanied by measures meant to stimulate their usage in the most of the European Union Member States. The analytical matrix allowed also the identification

  2. The marketing function in exploratory product innovation : contrasting different project types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.A.J.; Dankbaar, B.; Vissers, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing function in product innovation projects in established b-t-b firms. The marketing function in an innovation project is a term to denote both the project members that connect the project to customers or, more broadly, the market, and their activities in innovation

  3. Financing wind power projects : perspectives from the US market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation outlined the recent assignments, core competencies and scope of services provided by Alyra Renewable Energy Finance Advisors. Renewable energy developers seek Alyra's assistance in developing strategies to achieve the most competitive solutions in finance and strategy. Alyra has broad finance expertise in renewable energy projects, a deep knowledge of markets and a significant wind industry network. Alyra identifies emerging issues, completes financing solutions and helps with contract negotiations. This presentation outlined the notable features of wind financing, wind assessment, offtake arrangements, equity considerations, US wind debt markets, long term bank financing, and combined bank and private placement financing. It also included recent debt market activity for seven large wind farms in the United States. tabs., figs

  4. Effect of policy-based bioenergy demand on southern timber markets: A case study of North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, Robert C.; Abt, Karen L.; Cubbage, Frederick W.; Henderson, Jesse D.

    2010-01-01

    Key factors driving renewable energy demand are state and federal policies requiring the use of renewable feedstocks to produce energy (renewable portfolio standards) and liquid fuels (renewable fuel standards). However, over the next decade, the infrastructure for renewable energy supplies is unlikely to develop as fast as both policy- and market-motivated renewable energy demands. This will favor the use of existing wood as a feedstock in the first wave of bioenergy production. The ability to supply wood over the next decade is a function of the residual utilization, age class structure, and competition from traditional wood users. Using the North Carolina Renewable Portfolio Standard as a case study, combined with assumptions regarding energy efficiency, logging residual utilization, and traditional wood demands over time, we simulate the impacts of increased woody biomass demand on timber markets. We focus on the dynamics resulting from the interaction of short-run demand changes and long-term supply responses. We conclude that logging residuals alone may be unable to meet bioenergy demands from North Carolina's Renewable Portfolio Standard. Thus, small roundwood (pulpwood) may be used to meet remaining bioenergy demands, resulting in increased timber prices and removals; displacement of traditional products; higher forest landowner incomes; and changes in the structure of the forest resource. (author)

  5. Marketing-Stimulated Word-of-Mouth: A Channel for Growing Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Martin, Becky; Britt, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Marketing-stimulated word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing has been poorly understood in health care, leading to it being underappreciated and underutilized by marketers. A study of new patients to a new runner's clinic was conducted to understand how they chose the program. The importance of marketing-stimulated WOM, both individual and organizational, is documented. Marketing-stimulated WOM is an often overlooked and rarely measured channel for increasing the impact of marketing programs.

  6. Intelligent marketing of electricity from decentral power sources. Project results of the research project ''Massig''; Intelligente Vermarktung von Strom aus dezentralen Energiequellen. Projektergebnisse des Forschungsvorhabens ''Massig''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erge, Thomas; Sauer, Christian [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Barnsteiner, Martin; Preiser, Klaus [Badenova Waermeplus GmbH und Co.KG, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the European research project 'Market Access for Smaller Size Intelligent Electricity Generation (Massig)' scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) examined together with project partners the demand-oriented supply and commercialization of electricity from decentral power generators at the liberalized electricity market. The project team selected target countries and evaluated innovative solutions of marketing especially for specific applications of practice. Such a model project is that of Badenova Waermeplus GmbH (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany).

  7. Natural gas supply and demand projections for the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of rapid economic growth in the Asia Pacific has inevitably led the countries of this region to expand and diversify their energy sources in order to satisfy their burgeoning energy demands. Natural gas has become an increasingly marketable energy source in this region benefitting from vast reserves and its advantages as an environmentally clean fuel. As a result of the impact of the two oil shocks of the 1970's on the Asia Pacific economy, the governments in the region set about the development of energy strategies which would make their national economies more resilient to the instabilities of world energy price and supply. The Japanese Gas Industry has estimated that the overall rise in demand for energy in Asia, set at an average rate of 3.7% per annum, will see a corresponding growth in demand for natural gas at 5%. Experts from a number of major oil companies, such as Exxon, expect an annual growth in the Asian natural gas market of 6.0 to 6.3%. These figures are over shadowed by the worldwide demand for natural gas which is expected to gain an 8% increase within the next two decades. Approximately 8.75% of the world's proven natural gas reserves are held in Asia-Pacific region (Table I). Most of the region's natural gas production will provide over 100 years of supply. A review of natural gas supply/demand in the Asia-Pacific region is presented in sub-regions, namely ASIAN, Northeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Oceania

  8. Definitions and Basic Concepts of Supply and Demand Analysis Used to Determine Market Equilibrium. Principles of Economics II (Microeconomics), Lesson Plan No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu-Irion, Vicky

    Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…

  9. Market-based Demand Response via Residential Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Rassaei, Farshad; Soh, Wee-Seng; Chua, Kee-Chaing

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in power demand, diverse usage patterns and storage capability of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) grow the elasticity of residential electricity demand remarkably. This elasticity can be utilized to form the daily aggregated demand profile and/or alter instantaneous demand of a system wherein a large number of residential PEVs share one electricity retailer or an aggregator. In this paper, we propose a demand response (DR) technique to manage vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled PEVs' e...

  10. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  11. Marketing of butter in the European Community, demand functions and policy alternatives with a restriction to four member countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Oskam; B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn this article optimum instrument values for two different objectives of an EC marketing policy for butter are considered. In the first part of the study the demand equations of four EC countries, le., West Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Denmark, are estimated and

  12. What Do College Students, Young Families, and Empty Nesters Want in a Car? A Market Segmentation and Marketing Mix Project for Introduction to Marketing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Dennis; Gulati, Rajesh; Schneider, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the details of a student project used in introduction to marketing courses. The project is designed to involve students in the application of survey research to generate data used to make a series of marketing management decisions. Students collect data from three different segments of the car buying market and make product,…

  13. PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND RELATIONSHIP MARKETING: INTERSECTIONS FOR STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT IN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronielton Rezende Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Projects development is essential for organizations. Among the factors originated in projects that influence performance is quality. This variable must be managed to meet the expectations of the stakeholders and this can only be achieved through effective monitoring and control. It can be seen that relationship marketing is relevant to the competitive reality of contemporary organizations. With the purpose of contributing to organizational studies, this theoretical essay proposes to approach project management in relationship marketing. In the context of integrated management, it is discussed how management action can be applied to engage and involve stakeholders in projects, in order to create value and achieve the expectations sustained by the execution of the projects. Based on the reflection, the quality of relationship management is pointed out as a construct of higher order, composed of at least two dimensions: trust and satisfaction.

  14. Creating demand for foreign brands in a 'home run' market: tobacco company tactics in South Korea following market liberalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To analyse the tactics transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) used to increase market share in South Korea after market liberalisation in 1988, and the subsequent impact of TTCs' activities on the domestic industry and ultimately public health. Internal tobacco industry documents were searched iteratively and analysed by keyword related to strategies for increasing market share in Korea since liberalisation. Following market liberalisation, TTCs faced entrenched cultural and institutional barriers in Korea which hindered increased sales of cigarette imports. TTCs identified population groups more favourably inclined towards imported brands, developed new distribution channels and used promotional activities targeting these groups. The growth in market share by TTCs suggests that these activities were successful at challenging the Korea Tobacco & Ginseng Corporation (KTGC) monopoly. In response, KTGC shifted to a proactive marketing approach and adopted strategies similar to TTCs. This, in turn, made the Korean market highly competitive. Findings show that, after market liberalisation, there was an upward trend in cigarette consumption and smoking prevalence among the targeted population groups, notably youth and young women. Governments engaging in trade negotiations that may lead to the opening of domestic tobacco markets need a fuller understanding of previous industry activities for expanding into emerging markets as well as how the domestic industry can change accordingly. To protect public health, the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control measures, guided by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed as part of such negotiations.

  15. Strategy-making for a proactive distribution company in the real-time market with demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to optimize the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) in the real-time market by mobilizing the demand response. Each distribution-level demand is considered as an elastic one. To capture the interrelation between the PDISCO and the real......-time market, a bi-level model is presented for the PDISCO to render continuous offers and bids strategically. The upper level problem expresses the PDISCO's profit maximization, while the lower-level problem minimizes the operation cost of the transmission-level real-time market. To solve the proposed model......, a primal-dual approach is used to translate this bi-level model into a single-level mathematical program with equilibrium constraints. Results of case studies are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed model. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Generation of predictive price and trading volume patterns in a model of dynamically evolving free market supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Wang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I present a model of stock market price fluctuations incorporating effects of share supply as a history-dependent function of previous purchases and share demand as a function of price deviation from moving averages. Price charts generated show intervals of oscillations switching amplitude and frequency suddenly in time, forming price and trading volume patterns well-known in market technical analysis. Ultimate price trends agree with traditional predictions for specific patterns. The consideration of dynamically evolving supply and demand in this model resolves the apparent contradiction with the Efficient Market Hypothesis: perceptions of imprecise equity values by a world of investors evolve over non-negligible periods of time, with dependence on price history.

  17. GREEN MARKETING TO MEET CONSUMER DEMANDS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT-CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    M. D. Pradeep; Akhilesh Suresh A Kuckian

    2016-01-01

    Green Marketing has evolved special implications in the modern market. Green indicates purity by means of quality, fairprice and worthy in dealings. Green marketing focus to market eco-friendly products to satisfy the needs and wants of customers. It adopts innovative techniques of product modification, dynamic product processes, maintaining sustainability and diversified ways of advertising etc. The vision of Green marketing is doing business along with protecting ecological environment. Pre...

  18. A novel approach using flexible scheduling and aggregation to optimize demand response in the developing interactive grid market architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reihani, Ehsan; Motalleb, Mahdi; Thornton, Matsu; Ghorbani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Designing a DR market to increase renewable resources and decrease air pollution. • Explaining two economic models for DR market for selling available DR quantities. • Optimal allocating DR quantity to houses under each DR aggregator control. • Proposing a discomfort cost function for residential DR resources. • Performing a sensitivity analysis on discomfort cost function coefficients. - Abstract: With the increasing presence of intermittent renewable energy generation sources, variable control over loads and energy storage devices on the grid become even more important to maintain this balance. Increasing renewable energy penetration depends on both technical and economic factors. Distribution system consumers can contribute to grid stability by controlling residential electrical device power consumed by water heaters and battery storage systems. Coupled with dynamic supply pricing strategies, a comprehensive system for demand response (DR) exist. Proper DR management will allow greater integration of renewable energy sources partially replacing energy demand currently met by the combustion of fossil-fuels. An enticing economic framework providing increased value to consumers compensates them for reduced control of devices placed under a DR aggregator. Much work has already been done to develop more effective ways to implement DR control systems. Utilizing an integrated approach that combines consumer requirements into aggregate pools, and provides a dynamic response to market and grid conditions, we have developed a mathematical model that can quantify control parameters for optimum demand response and decide which resources to switch and when. In this model, optimization is achieved as a function of cost savings vs. customer comfort using mathematical market analysis. Two market modeling approaches—the Cournot and SFE—are presented and compared. A quadratic function is used for presenting the cost function of each DRA (Demand

  19. Projection of energy demand for the period 2004-2035 in Argentina using the model 'MAED'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen Mariani, Santiago N.; Cañadas, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    The tool used in CNEA to study projection of energy demand in Argentina, is the Model for Energy Demand Analysis 'MAED', supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), launched by the project 'Strengthening capacity to develop sustainable energy systems' RLA/0/029, organized by that agency and OLADE. This is resumed by the Prospective and Energy Planning Division, as a comprehensive analysis of the energy chain in the country, conducted over many years in the CNEA and that was reduced at just supply analysis in recent years. For the modeling of the national energy demand, there were found a series of assumptions about population growth, changes in the economy and other variables, in order to determine the final energy demand for the study period 2004 -2035; in a total of three scenarios will be detailed in the relevant sections. As shown, the results reveal the high dependence on fossil fuels, even in a scenario with efficient energy use, and as in this context, an increasing involvement of nuclear energy in the energy matrix could offset this dependence by diversifying and strengthening the supply of electricity. (author)

  20. Accounting for the inaccuracies in demand forecasts and construction cost estimations in transport project evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2014-01-01

    For decades researchers have claimedthat particularly demand forecasts and construction cost estimations are assigned with/affected by a large degree of uncertainty. Massively, articles,research documents and reports agree that there exists a tendencytowards underestimating the costs...... in demand and cost estimations and hence the evaluation of transport infrastructure projects. Currently, research within this area is scarce and scattered with no commonagreement on how to embed and operationalise the huge amount of empiricaldata that exist within the frame of Optimism Bias. Therefore...... convertingdeterministic benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) into stochasticinterval results. A new data collection (2009–2013) forms the empirical basis for any risk simulation embeddedwithin the so-calledUP database (UNITE project database),revealing the inaccuracy of both construction costs and demandforecasts. Accordingly...

  1. New Zealand's neurologist workforce: a pragmatic analysis of demand, supply and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Annemarei Anna; Tiwari, Priyesh; Mottershead, John; Abernethy, David; Simpson, Mark; Brickell, Kiri; Lynch, Christopher; Walker, Elizabeth; Frith, Richard

    2015-08-07

    To estimate current and future specialist neurologist demand and supply to assist with health sector planning. Current demand for the neurology workforce in New Zealand was assessed using neuroepidemiological data. To assess current supply, all New Zealand neurology departments were surveyed to determine current workforce and estimate average neurologist productivity. Projections were made based on current neurologists anticipated retirement rates and addition of new neurologists based on current training positions. We explored several models to address the supply-demand gap. The current supply of neurologists in New Zealand is 36 full-time equivalents (FTE), insufficient to meet current demand of 74 FTE. Demand will grow over time and if status quo is maintained the gap will widen. Pressures on healthcare dollars are ever increasing and we cannot expect to address the identified service gap by immediately doubling the number of neurologists. Instead we propose a 12-year strategic approach with investments to enhance service productivity, strengthen collaborative efforts between specialists and general service providers, moderately increase the number of neurologists and neurology training positions, and develop highly skilled non-specialists including trained.

  2. Energy efficient ventilation based on demand humidity control. Demonstration project with 49 apartments in Soenderborg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The aim of the project is to demonstrate how the overall energy consumption in apartment buildings can be reduced through a combination of: 1) Energy efficient ventilation based on demand humidity control; 2) Energy efficient design of the building shell including passive solar and seasonally flexible sunspaces; 3) Use of low temperature heating system. The 3 blocks in the project, each with 16 apartments, are furnished with 3 different ventilation systems: 1) Standard exhaust system according to building codes; 2) Ventilation system with humidity control. Each room is furnished with an air inlet valve controlled by a processor, which monitors the humidity; 3) Standard ventilation system with heat recovery. (au)

  3. An inventory control project in a major Danish company using compound renewal demand models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Seiding, Claus Hoe; Teller, Christian

    operation is highly automated. However, the procedures for estimating demands and the policies for the inventory control system that were in use at the beginning of the project did not fully match the sophisticated technological standard of the physical system. During the initial phase of the project...... We describe the development of a framework to compute the optimal inventory policy for a large spare-parts' distribution centre operation in the RA division of the Danfoss Group in Denmark. The RA division distributes spare parts worldwide for cooling and A/C systems. The warehouse logistics...

  4. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 [Docket No. RM10-17-000] Demand Response... for determining when to compensate demand response providers and the allocation of costs associated with demand response. DATES: The technical conference will be held at the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  5. Introducing ICSMP, The International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project (ICSMP) began operations in October 1980 to act as a central technical assistance and funding resource for contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. CSM is an interrelationship of the public and private sectors working to improve contraceptive availability by applying commercial advertising sales and management techniques. At present Bangladesh, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and Sri Lanka have active programs. ICSMP provides the following services: 1) skilled CSM consultants to assist with studies, planning, product line expansion, management training, and marketing problems; and 2) grants and contracts to initiate or expand programs. ICSMP also sponsors regional and international conferences to provide practitioners a chance to share experiences. Its newsletter, "Update" is written to keep CSM directors in touch with developments. To communicate with "Update," write to Update, c/o CEFPA, Suite 202, 1717 Massachusetts avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20036, USA. For more information about ICSMP write: Betty Butler Howell, Project Director, ICSMP, The Futures Group, 1029 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20005, USA.

  6. The Wiluna Uranium Project, Western Australia: Bringing a new project to the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary - Wiluna: One of the few projects able to provide new production from 2016 to take advantage of the predicted U market upswing. The 3Ps: • Process – Sound science is fundamental; – There are no short-cuts (but can be lots of delays)! • Persistence: – Tell your story over and over again; – Every roadblock can be overcome; • Patience: – Start early; – Expect all stakeholders to take longer to accept the project

  7. An Economic Evalution of Demand-side Energy Storage Systems by using a Multi-agent based Electricity Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Opened wholesale electric power market in April 2005, deregulation of electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (: IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (: PPS), Load Service Entity (: LSE) and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (: MCP) is largely changed by amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers to face a risk of revenue and cost. DSM is attracted as a means of load leveling, and has effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (: ES) is one of DSM in order to change demand profile at customer-side. In case that customers decrease their own demand at jumped MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed their strategy. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP.

  8. Methodology for the identification, evaluation and prioritization of market handicaps which prevent the implementation of Demand Response: Application to European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcázar-Ortega, Manuel; Calpe, Carmen; Theisen, Thomas; Carbonell-Carretero, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the identification, analysis and comparative assessment of the handicaps which nowadays prevent the higher implementation of Demand Response (DR) in the electricity market. Its application provides a hierarchical organization of handicaps from the most critical to the less critical and then, from the easiest to the most difficult to overcome. This makes possible to determine which barriers would be a priority, which may indicate the direction of regulatory changes to properly address these handicaps and so, stimulating a higher participation of the demand side in electricity markets. After applying the methodology to three European countries, 34 handicaps have been identified, analyzing which of these handicaps affect such stakeholders as grid operators, retailers and customers and how these stakeholders are affected. For each handicap, the criticality and difficulty to overcome the different handicaps have been studied, based on detailed information coming from personal interviews to experts representing the different stakeholders in the electricity trading chain. Regulatory barriers have been identified as the most critical and difficult to overcome. Together with regulatory changes, the promotion of aggregators and the training of customers on DR applications are some of the most significant initiatives. - Highlights: • Market handicaps prevent the application of Demand Response in electricity markets. • A methodology to identify and organize such market handicaps has been developed. • The evaluation and quantification of criticality and difficulty to overcome is done. • A hierarchical list prioritizing handicaps to be addressed is obtained. • Market handicaps of three European countries were evaluated through this methodology.

  9. The future market for biogas from waste - Sub-Project 3; Framtida marknaden foer biogas fraan avfall - Delprojekt 3 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstroem, David; Bisaillon, Mattias; Eriksson, Ola; Hellstroem, Hanna; Nilsson, Karolina

    2013-09-01

    The overall aim of the project was to study the conditions, opportunities and constraints for the development of the market for biogas from waste in Sweden. Seven areas of importance to the development have been identified in previous projects. The areas are: market and competition, supply and demand for waste, environmental benefits of biogas utilization, technology development, economic value of biogas, political instruments and the handling of digestate. The ambition has been to create a fact and market report for these areas for stake holders such as operators, representatives of authorities and decision makers. The project is a sub-project of 'Perspectives on future waste treatment'. The goal achievement of the project is expected to be good. During the project, there has also been considerable interest in the results, which is already used by a number of operators, both within and outside the project. Thereby, the results have a good spread, even before the project is completed.

  10. Developing power markets - Development of market place for meeting the demand - Case India, in transition from regulated to competitive structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pranay; Sarkar, Prabhajit Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Power Market players of developing countries with supply deficit are exposed to a unique combination of price risk and quantity risk which is not the case with developed nations that have taken path of liberalization to open up their power markets. India has one of the largest generation capacities in the world, yet till recently the Indian Power sector was highly regulated. However, the last decade has witnessed many initiatives so as to make the sector market oriented. This paper provides opportunity for developing countries to learn from Indian experience of introducing competition in the power sector.

  11. Marketing research on potential demands of photovoltaic systems. Taiyoko hatsuden system no senzai shijo chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    Applicable uses and the market size for photovoltaic (PV) systems were investigated taking into consideration the features and economics of such systems. As a result of computing representative usage examples together with the extent of potential demand for PV, 238 GW for the power source in private homes, 76 GW for green houses, 126 GW for sewage water treatment plants, 4 GW for schools and universities and others were estimated. For the greater number of PV systems already in actual use, non-cost factors acted as major determining factors when deciding on implementation. Promising uses (applicable ideas) seen from the standpoint of non-cost factors were studied in order to develop the PV system market and gain breakthrough for lowering future costs and increasing proliferation for such systems. When it comes to simultaneously decreasing costs and increasing demand for solar batteries in the coming days, it will be impossible to make an immediate transition from the present state of demand for public use and for special use to the final goal of demand as a power source in the home. There is a need for an intermediate demand that can bridge this gap. (13 figs, 9 tabs)

  12. Integration of Methodologies for the Evaluation of Offer Curves in Energy and Capacity Markets through Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gabaldón

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of improving the efficiency, and integration, of renewable sources by 2030–2050 are complex in practice and should be linked to an increase of demand-side flexibility. The main challenges to achieving this flexibility are the lack of incentives and an adequate framework. For instance, customers’ revenue is usually low, the volatility of prices is high and there is not any practical feedback to customers from smart meters. The possibility of increasing customer revenue could reduce the uncertainty with respect to economic concerns, improving investments in efficiency, enabling technology and thus, engaging more customers in these policies. This objective could be achieved by the participation of customers in several markets. Moreover, Demand Response and Energy Efficiency can share ICT technologies but this participation needs to perform an aggregation of demand. The idea of this paper is to present some methodologies for facilitating the definition and evaluation of energy versus cost curves; and subsequently to estimate potential revenues due to Demand Response. This can be accomplished by models that estimate: demand and energy aggregation; economic opportunities and benefits; impacts on customer convenience; customer feedback and price analysis. By doing so, we would have comprehensive information that can help customers and aggregators to define energy packages and their monetary value with the objective of fostering their market participation.

  13. Challenging OPEC: World oil market projections, 1992-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Considine, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A number of alternatives to the scenario of continued OPEC cooperation and adherence to a low price/ high volume market strategy favoured by Saudi Arabia, were examined. The strategy of continued solidarity in support of a stable price path was considered to be ultimately most favorable to all OPEC members, however, there were two uncertainties to contend with: (1) the speed and timing of recovery of both production and product demand within the former Soviet Union, and (2) the outcome of the energy-economy-environment debate in which the international community was engaged. The study showed that OPEC could find itself caught in the vise of rising product prices and weak or declining crude prices, a situation from which it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to extricate itself. figs., tabs., refs

  14. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2013: Market Trends and Projections to 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The global oil market will undergo sweeping changes over the next five years. The 2013 Medium-Term Oil Market Report evaluates the impact of these changes on the global oil system by 2018 based on all that we know today – current expectations of economic growth, existing or announced policies and regulations, commercially proven technologies, field decline rates, investment programmes (upstream, midstream and downstream), etc. The five-year forecast period corresponds to the length of the typical investment cycle and as such is critical to policymakers and market participants. This Report shows, in detailed but concise terms, why the ongoing North American hydrocarbon revolution is a ''game changer''. The region’s expected contribution to supply growth, however impressive, is only part of the story: Crude quality, infrastructure requirements, current regulations, and the potential for replication elsewhere are bound to spark a chain reaction that will leave few links in the global oil supply chain unaffected. While North America is expected to lead medium-term supply growth, the East-of- Suez region is in the lead on the demand side. Non-OECD oil demand, led by Asia and the Middle East, looks set to overtake the OECD for the first time as early as 2Q13 and will widen its lead afterwards. Non-OECD economies are already home to over half global refining capacity. With that share only expected to grow by 2018, the non-OECD region will be firmly entrenched as the world’s largest crude importer. These and other changes are carefully laid out in this Report, which also examines recent and future changes in global oil storage, shifts in OPEC production capacity and crude and product trade, and the consequences of the ongoing refinery construction boom in emerging markets and developing economies. It is required reading for anyone engaged in policy or investment decision-making in the energy sphere, and those more broadly interested in the oil

  15. Setting Ambitious yet Achievable Targets Using Probabilistic Projections: Meeting Demand for Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorová, Vladimíra; New, Jin Rou; Biddlecom, Ann; Alkema, Leontine

    2017-09-01

    In 2015, governments adopted 17 internationally agreed goals to ensure progress and well-being in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. These new goals present a challenge for countries to set empirical targets that are ambitious yet achievable and that can account for different starting points and rates of progress. We used probabilistic projections of family planning indicators, based on a global data set and Bayesian hierarchical modeling, to generate illustrative targets at the country level. Targets were defined as the percentage of demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods where a country has at least a 10 percent chance of reaching the target by 2030. National targets for 2030 ranged from below 50 percent of demand satisfied with modern contraceptives (for three countries in Africa) to above 90 percent (for 41 countries from all major areas of the world). The probabilistic approach also identified countries for which a global fixed target value of 75 percent demand satisfied was either unambitious or has little chance of achievement. We present the web-based Family Planning Estimation Tool (FPET) enabling national decision makers to compute and assess targets for meeting family planning demand. © 2017 The Population Council, Inc.

  16. Solar photovoltaic projects in the mainstream power market

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Develop large-scale solar photovoltaic projects with this book, to feed power into a grid. Contains case studies of the Waldpolenz Energy Park, Germany, Lopburi Solar Plant in Thailand and what will be the world's largest PV plant, the Topaz Solar Farm in California. Also included are interviews from leading figures in the PV industry.Contents cover:planning and structuring projectssiting, planning and connection issuesbuilding and operating projectstechnology basicseconomies of PVhistory and business of PVfinancing and regulationtechnical aspects of system design.Supported by figures and photographs, this is for anyone wanting to master the commercial, professional, financial, engineering or political aspects of developing mega-watt solar PV projects in a mainstream power market.

  17. Bill project on a new organisation of the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A first text discusses the motivations of this bill project: to guarantee French supply security, to contribute to France economical competitiveness, to protect the environment, to give everybody access to energy, and to comply with the European energy market. It also comments the bill project content, the objectives aimed at through the different bill articles. These articles settle a regulated access to electricity and a regulatory frame for pricing, define provider responsibilities, deal with installation dismantling expenses. This presentation is followed by the bill text and by the report of an impact study of the implementation of a regulated access to electricity, of a capacity obligation, and of the evolution of regulated selling prices

  18. Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013: Market trends and projections to 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Renewable electricity generation increased strongly worldwide in 2012, and deployment is occurring in a greater number of markets. However, the story of renewable energy development is becoming more complex. Short-term indicators in some regions of the globe have pointed to increased challenges. Despite remaining high, global new investment in renewable energy fell in 2012. Policy uncertainties, economic challenges, incentive reductions and competition from other energy sources clouded the investment outlook for some markets. Some countries and regions have faced difficulties in integrating variable renewables in their power grids. The renewable manufacturing industry, particularly solar and wind, entered a deeper period of restructuring and consolidation. Nevertheless, despite economic, policy and industry turbulence, the underlying fundamentals for renewable deployment remain robust. Even with challenges in some countries, more positive developments elsewhere continue to drive global growth. Competitive opportunities for renewables are emerging across traditional and new markets. While OECD countries remain a driver of renewable power development, non-OECD countries are increasingly accounting for overall growth. The roles of biofuels for transport and renewable heat are also increasing, though at somewhat slower rates than renewable electricity. The Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013 assesses market trends for the renewable electricity, biofuels for transport and renewable heat sectors, identifying drivers and challenges to deployment, and making projections through 2018. The analysis features in-depth renewable electricity market analysis and forecasts for a slate of countries in the OECD and non-OECD. The report also presents an outlook for renewable electricity technologies, global biofuels supply, final energy use of renewables for heat and prospects for renewable investment.

  19. Exploring Community-Oriented Approaches in Demand Side Management Projects in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mengolini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate if the theoretical and political trends towards a more collective dimension of energy use are reflected in the design and development of demand side management (DSM pilot projects in Europe. Specifically, the paper analyses DSM projects in the database of the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission to capture signs of a new attention towards the wider context in which consumers live and towards the social dimension associated with energy consumption. To this end, the paper investigates the projects’ scope (in terms of project’s partners, end-use sectors and targeted services as well as the consumer engagement strategies that projects use. These elements reflect the projects’ consideration for the socio-economic dimension of the community where the pilots take place and their inclination to build on community dynamics. The analysis shows that DSM projects in the EU are increasingly being designed and developed with a collegial approach to energy consumption in mind, although an integrated approach is still missing. In addition, research is still needed to link the use of this innovative approach to project results. A closer look at the developments and results of these projects can help to identify what works and what doesn’t in real life experiences, thus supporting effective policy making at the EU and national level.

  20. Worldwide transportation/energy demand, 1975-2000. Revised Variflex model projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, R.U.; Ayres, L.W.

    1980-03-01

    The salient features of the transportation-energy relationships that characterize the world of 1975 are reviewed, and worldwide (34 countries) long-range transportation demand by mode to the year 2000 is reviewed. A worldwide model is used to estimate future energy demand for transportation. Projections made by the forecasting model indicate that in the year 2000, every region will be more dependent on petroleum for the transportation sector than it was in 1975. This report is intended to highlight certain trends and to suggest areas for further investigation. Forecast methodology and model output are described in detail in the appendices. The report is one of a series addressing transportation energy consumption; it supplants and replaces an earlier version published in October 1978 (ORNL/Sub-78/13536/1).

  1. The 2007-2009 Financial Crisis: Changing Market Dynamics and the Impact of Credit Supply and Aggregate Demand Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Theoharry Grammatikos; Robert Vermeulen

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the impact of credit supply and aggregate demand sensitivity on 91 US industries' stock performance during the 2007-2009 financial crisis. We account explicitly for changes in the market model and investigate, next to stock returns, the changes in systematic risk and idiosyncratic return induced by the financial crisis. The results show that leverage has a significantly positive effect on systematic risk changes during the financial crisis. After accounting for the chang...

  2. Social Welfare implications of demand response programs in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Neenan, Bernard F.

    2003-08-01

    The price volatility exhibited by wholesale electricity markets has stymied the movement to restructure the industry, and may derail it altogether. Market designers argue that prices are superior to regulation for directing long-term investments to the proper location and function, and that price volatility is a natural manifestation of a robustly competitive market. However, episodes of prices that soar to previously unimaginable heights try customers' patience and cause policy makers to reconsider if the prize is worth the consequences.

  3. Differentiated Products Demand Systems from a Combination of Micro and Macro Data: The New Car Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Steven; Levinsohn, James; Pakes, Ariel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider how rich sources of information on consumer choice can help to identify demand parameters in a widely used class of differentiated products demand models. Most important, we show how to use "second-choice" data on automotive purchases to obtain good estimates of substitution patterns in the automobile industry. We use…

  4. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  5. Predictive Control of Demand Side Units Participating in the Primary Frequency Reserve Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    We consider an aggregator controlling a mixed portfolio of conventional power generators and demand side units. The generators are controllable within certain power and ramp limitations while the demand side units are characterized by flexible consumptions and therefore can be treated as energy...

  6. Benchmarking HEI impact on students' soft skills development with labour market demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning P.; Roth, Eva

    Report on an international comprison of students' and companies attitudes regarding soft skills aiming at securing correspondence between students perception of own skills and companies demands.......Report on an international comprison of students' and companies attitudes regarding soft skills aiming at securing correspondence between students perception of own skills and companies demands....

  7. Industrial demand-side management in Canada. In the market for competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    1995-01-01

    The requirement for demand-side management brought on by increased competitiveness, a consequence of the deregulation of Canadian electric utilities, was discussed. Options for demand-side management were presented. The effect of deregulation on making demand-side management and energy efficiency high priorities in industry was discussed. Coordinated efforts of Power Smart Inc. and utilities in promoting energy efficiency were claimed to be the key to the success of demand-side management in the electric power industry in Canada. Demand-side management programs were expected to enhance productivity of industry by maximizing the value of plant energy use, and by providing industrial customers with a higher level of customer service

  8. Will the supply meet the demand? The future of the natural gas liquids market in the WCSB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauft, T.

    2004-01-01

    Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) price influences were reviewed in this presentation, as well as issues concerning North American propane demand and waterborne imports. A review of U.S. propane stocks was provided as well as regional temperature outlooks for 2004-2005. A cracking feedstock parity forecast was presented, as well as United States gross gas plant margins and propane prices to July 2005. Canadian propane inventories and prices were reviewed. A propane supply and demand forecast to 2020 was presented. Alberta's natural gas supply and intra-Alberta oil sand gas demand growth were discussed. Various market uncertainties include higher levels of activity; the potential of petroleum prices falling due to a reduction of geopolitical risk; the possibility of a U.S. recession; and the growth of Alberta's oil sands industry, with resulting demand for natural gas. It was concluded that the NGL market in North America will continue to be balanced, with waterborne imports becoming more critical. It was suggested that inventories are adequate for the expected winter season. It was also suggested that Canadian NGL supplies are expected to decline, and that prices are expected to soften in the spring of 2005, with falling natural gas and crude oil prices. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Prospects of natural gas demand and pipeline projects in the East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the natural gas industry in East Asia was discussed. It was predicted that by 2010, the demand for natural gas could potentially reach 80 billion cubic feet per day. This represents an 8 per cent per year growth rate from a 1995 baseline. Similarly, it was predicted that by 2010, the region's natural gas supply could potentially reach 65 billion cubic feet per day which would represent 2.5 times the supply of natural gas in 1995. The additional demand will most likely be supplied from the Middle East in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), from Eastern Russia through pipelines of LNG, or from North America in the form of LNG. Some gas may also be supplied from Central Asia through pipelines. The price and cost of natural gas are major uncertainties in the future of the East Asian gas demand. Pipeline projects from Russia to China were discussed. Japan and Korea are also interested in collaborating on the feasibility study with Russia and China on a 3,400 km pipeline of 60 inch diameter from the Koviktinskoye gas field through Mongolia to Beijing, Tianjin and Korea, transporting 20 to 30 billion cubic metres of gas annually. A natural gas pipeline project transporting gas from the southern edge of the Sakhalin Island to the Tokyo area was also discussed. The project would involve construction of a 2,200 km 40-48 inch pipeline, much of it undersea, transporting 6 to 12 million tonnes of liquid natural gas, annually

  10. Demand Response in Europe's Electricity Sector: Market barriers and outstanding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, Cherrelle

    2015-01-01

    In October 2014, Europe's drive for sustainability has been further continued with the set objectives for 2030, aiming for 40% emission reduction compared to 1990 levels and at least a 27% share of renewable energy sources. For the longer term, the European Commission (EC) targets a zero CO_2 emitting electricity sector in 2050. Those objectives for the electricity sector have a large impact on the expected development of electricity generation, but also on the evolution of demand. To meet those objectives, a larger share of electricity supply will come from intermittent sources like wind turbines and solar panels. In an electric system that is largely based on renewable electricity sources, it is desired to have higher electricity consumption in moments when more renewable electricity is being produced, and a lower consumption in times of lower renewable production. Demand response is related to the adaptability of the electricity demand to the availability of supply. The development of demand response is rooted in the need for carbon emission reductions and for efficient use of installed generation capacities with the growth of power consumption. In addition to providing flexibility to the electric system, demand response could be a direct source of revenue to households and businesses. In 2013, in the United States, businesses and homeowners earned over $2.2 billion in revenues from demand response together with other avoided investment in grid infrastructure and power plants. This source of direct revenue could also be made available in Europe and would release financial benefits to local economies (SEDC, 2014). The reliability improvements as well as the economic and sustainability potential coming from a more responsive electricity demand are fully acknowledged. However, demand response is still immaturely developed in Europe. If Europe wants to make a step forward to a more sustainable electricity sector, the development of demand response is an inevitable

  11. Simulation of ridesourcing using agent-based demand and supply regional models : potential market demand for first-mile transit travel and reduction in vehicle miles traveled in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use existing modeling tools and data from the San Francisco Bay Area : (California) to understand the potential market demand for a first mile transit access service : and possible reductions in vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (a...

  12. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  13. Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehdonvirta, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selling virtual goods for real money is an increasingly popular revenue model for massively-multiplayer online games (MMOs, social networking sites (SNSs and other online hangouts. In this paper, we argue that the marketing of virtual goods currently falls short of what it could be. Game developers have long created compelling game designs, but having to market virtual goods to players is a relatively new situation to them. Professional marketers, on the other hand, tend to overlook the internal design of games and hangouts and focus on marketing the services as a whole. To begin bridging the gap, we propose that the design patterns and game mechanics commonly used in games and online hangouts should be viewed as a set of marketing techniques designed to sell virtual goods. Based on a review of a number of MMOs, we describe some of the most common patterns and game mechanics and show how their effects can be explained in terms of analogous techniques from marketing science. The results provide a new perspective to game design with interesting implications to developers. Moreover, they also suggest a radically new perspective to marketers of ordinary goods and services: viewing marketing as a form of game design.

  14. Purposing Division Strategy for Pharmaceutical Producer Dexa Medica in the Demanding Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Cut Irna; Wahyono, Agatha Christy

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to purpose the division strategy for a pharmaceutical producer in Kalimantan area, named Dexa Medica Samarinda. Currently, this firm is facing a competitive market condition and evolving a decline position in the market. This research uses qualitative research method by organising intensive interview to important informants so…

  15. Estimating deficit probabilities with price-responsive demand in contract-based electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that estimate deficit probabilities in hydrothermal systems have generally ignored the response of demand to changing prices, in the belief that such response is largely irrelevant. We show that ignoring the response of demand to prices can lead to substantial over or under estimation of the probability of an energy deficit. To make our point we present an estimation of deficit probabilities in Chile's Central Interconnected System between 2006 and 2010. This period is characterized by tight supply, fast consumption growth and rising electricity prices. When the response of demand to rising prices is acknowledged, forecasted deficit probabilities and marginal costs are shown to be substantially lower

  16. Actual and potential development of consumer demand on the organic food market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty; Denver, Sigrid; Zanolic, R.

    2011-01-01

    analysis undertaken by experts. Considerable differences between households underlay patterns of increasing aggregate demand at national levels, and fluctuations over time were identified at the household level. Interest in purchasing organic products on a regular basis and actual changes in shopping...... practices did not proceed apace. Limited availability has constituted a major barrier to increasing demand among ‘regular’ users. Demand on the part of ‘occasional’ users reflected a wider range of barriers, including lack of interest in and knowledge about production and processing and lack of trust...

  17. Projecting demand and supply of forest biomass for heating in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromborg, Erik; Havskjold, Monica; Lislebo, Ole; Rorstad, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the increase in demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. By then there is a political aim to double the national production of bioenergy from the level in 2008. The competitiveness of woody biomass in central and district heating is analyzed in a model selecting the least-cost heating technology and scale in municipalities given a set of constraints and under different fuels price scenarios. The supply of forest biomass from roundwood is estimated based on data of forest inventories combined with elasticities regarding price and standing volumes. The supply of biomass from harvesting residues is estimated in an engineering approach based on data from the national forest inventories and roundwood harvest. The results show how the production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes for bioenergy. One conclusion from the analyses is that the government target of 14 TWh more bioenergy by 2020 is not likely to be met by current technologies and policy incentives. The contribution of the analysis is the detailed presentation of the heat market potentials and technology choices combined with supply functions for both roundwood and harvesting residues. - Highlights: → This paper accesses the demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. → Market share for wood in central and new district heating is analyzed in a cost-minimizing model. → The supply of forest biomass includes wood chips from import, roundwood and harvesting residues. → The production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes. → The government target for bioenergy is not met by current technologies and policy incentives.

  18. 78 FR 79444 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... extends the current marketing plan, with amendments to key marketing plan principles. Western's proposed..., 1986) and provided the marketing plan principles used to market LAP firm hydropower resources. The FES.... The meetings provided customers the opportunity to review current marketing plan principles and...

  19. Feasibility and potential of thermal demand side management in residential buildings considering different developments in the German energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolisz, Henryk; Punkenburg, Carl; Streblow, Rita; Müller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A scenario analysis for the German energy market in the year 2030 is performed. • Growing demand for flexible electric capacities is identified in all scenarios. • Significant potential for domestic demand side management is identified. • A distinct potential for dynamic operation of domestic supply systems is found. • The necessity for a quick introduction of smart metering and control is found. - Abstract: A transition in the electricity market is required to manage the volatility of increasing renewable energy generation. These fluctuations can be faced with flexible consumption through Demand Side Management (DSM), establishment of further centralized storage capacities and provisioning of dynamic back up generation capacities. At least the latter two options can impose large establishment and operation costs upon the electricity market. Therefore, the feasibility and the resulting potential of coupling the electricity grid with the thermal supply of residential buildings is analysed in this paper. Thereby, inexpensive and widespread thermal storage capacities could be used to improve the integration of dynamic renewable electricity generation. In this paper the technical and economical key impact factors for such thermal DSM approach are elaborated. Based on a literature review, the identified key factors are aggregated to form consistent scenarios of the German “Energiewende” (turnaround in energy policy). The practicability and possible magnitude of the intended DSM is then analysed based on the identified scenarios. All resulting scenarios highlight the growing demand for a flexible electricity market. Especially in scenarios with strong growth of renewable electricity generation, up to 45 GW of flexible electric capacities would be required in Germany by the year 2030. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that independently of the energy market development, it is very likely that electricity coupled supply systems will

  20. An Economic Customer-Oriented Demand Response Model in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Consumer choice theory is a branch of microeconomics. This theory relates to adjusting consumption expenditures and consumer demand curve. Consumer choice science is trying to realize the buyer's decision-making process. This science studies customer characteristics, such as behavioral criteria......, to understand the consumer’s need. The concept of price elasticity of demand (PED) has also been derived from this theory. In fact, the PED is the percentage of changes in the amount of demand relative to the price changes. In consumer choice theory, for each consumer according to behavioral criteria, a unique...... demand response (DR) models have been developed based on this concept, this will also be deemed as a disadvantage for them. In this paper, we propose an economic DR model based on economic theories and mathematical methods. In addition to abate the defects of price-elasticity based DR models...

  1. the structure of labour market and demand for hired labour for oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    Descriptive statistics and the ordinary least square regres- sion techniques have been ... Keywords: structure of labour, hired labour, oil palm production, demand elasticities ...... Migration and Envi- ... to the International Labour Organization,.

  2. Two African woodfuel markets: urban demand, resource depletion, and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.; Milukas, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines charcoal markets in two African cities: Mogadishu, Somalia and Kigali, Rwanda. Economic theory dictates that if woodfuel resources become scarce, their real price will increase commensurately with the interest rate. Although Rwanda and Somalia represent drastically different physical environments, both are considered to be wood-scarce. But neither market has demonstrated straightforward depletion effects. In Mogadishu, the price first rose and then fell in reaction to shifts in the structure of the charcoal market, relaxed regulations, and economic contraction. In Rwanda, the price began rising only after the closing of the Bugasera Region to charcoal producers. Charcoal must be increasingly produced from private farmland. These two case studies highlight the importance of agricultural land clearance, conflicting government regulations, and shifts in market structure in determining whether or not charcoal prices will demonstrate depletion effects, and whether or not charcoal production will lead to local environmental degradation. (author)

  3. Discussions and projections about the future demand for nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de, E-mail: fabio@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Nuclear and Engineering Center; Imakuma, Kengo, E-mail: kimakuma@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Information Technology Development Dept.

    2011-07-01

    This paper aims mainly to discuss the current scenarios of power consumption, nuclear power and conventional and uranium resources and, based on that, present projections about the future demand for power generated through atomic fissions in Brazil, showing that there may be differences in estimates of future projections, depending on the indexes considered: global or domestic. The time horizon for the analysis was studied up to the maximum for the national population, for some of the world and Brazil's governmental data in terms of population growth, energy consumption and energy consumption per capita. To introduce the importance of the methodology adopted, data and some problems presented about the current world energy and Brazilian scenarios are discussed. Calculations show that the power consumption projections for Brazil, when using global indexes, are very high. According to our methodology, power consumption in Brazil is nearly 4.5 times below the estimates presented by the global indexes. The conclusion is that applying global indexes and their extension to domestic scenarios lead to errors of orders of magnitudes, due to the specific particularities of each country, and must be avoided if accurate projections about energy and nuclear scenarios must be considered. (author)

  4. Discussions and projections about the future demand for nuclear power in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de; Imakuma, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims mainly to discuss the current scenarios of power consumption, nuclear power and conventional and uranium resources and, based on that, present projections about the future demand for power generated through atomic fissions in Brazil, showing that there may be differences in estimates of future projections, depending on the indexes considered: global or domestic. The time horizon for the analysis was studied up to the maximum for the national population, for some of the world and Brazil's governmental data in terms of population growth, energy consumption and energy consumption per capita. To introduce the importance of the methodology adopted, data and some problems presented about the current world energy and Brazilian scenarios are discussed. Calculations show that the power consumption projections for Brazil, when using global indexes, are very high. According to our methodology, power consumption in Brazil is nearly 4.5 times below the estimates presented by the global indexes. The conclusion is that applying global indexes and their extension to domestic scenarios lead to errors of orders of magnitudes, due to the specific particularities of each country, and must be avoided if accurate projections about energy and nuclear scenarios must be considered. (author)

  5. Regulatory supply and market demand of risk management: Match or clash?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Van der Elst

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises questions as to whether the new risk governance requirements will be able to match the prerequisites for more balanced risk governance as part of the decision making process while fostering business entrepreneurship. Further, to comfort the market it will be necessary to report in accordance with market expectations adequate information about the financial and non-financial risks internal and external risks the companies is coping. Both questions will be addressed in this paper.

  6. 基于消费不足的中国效率市场结构分析%Analysis of structure of efficient market of China based on demand deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永忠; 熊祖辕

    2003-01-01

    This article thinks efficient market has abundant content, and not merely confine to the efficiency market of the stock. According to level of study, efficient market can divides into micro efficient market, regional efficiency market and macro efficient market. Micro efficient is market of Pareto efficiency, and foundation of efficiency market system. But micro market has space failures and economy, society failures. As to micro market faihures, regional efficiency market is shown as the integration of urban and rural areas market, and macro efficiency market is show as national big market of realization of Analyses of efficient markets is meaningful to China''s deficiency of demand.

  7. Academic Researchers on the Project Market in the Ethos of Knowledge Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunila, Kristiina; Hannukainen, Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    How knowledge capitalism retools the scope of academic research and researchers is an issue which this article ties to the project market in the ethos of knowledge capitalism. In Finland, academic research has been forced to apply for funding in project-based activities reflecting European Union policies. The project market, which in this article…

  8. The ACTwatch project: methods to describe anti-malarial markets in seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchuk, Tanya; O'Connell, Kathryn A; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Chapman, Steven; Chavasse, Desmond

    2011-10-31

    Policy makers, governments and donors are faced with an information gap when considering ways to improve access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and malaria diagnostics including rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). To help address some of these gaps, a five-year multi-country research project called ACTwatch was launched. The project is designed to provide a comprehensive picture of the anti-malarial market to inform national and international anti-malarial drug policy decision-making. The project is being conducted in seven malaria-endemic countries: Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia from 2008 to 2012.ACTwatch measures which anti-malarials are available, where they are available and at what price and who they are used by. These indicators are measured over time and across countries through three study components: outlet surveys, supply chain studies and household surveys. Nationally representative outlet surveys examine the market share of different anti-malarials passing through public facilities and private retail outlets. Supply chain research provides a picture of the supply chain serving drug outlets, and measures mark-ups at each supply chain level. On the demand side, nationally representative household surveys capture treatment seeking patterns and use of anti-malarial drugs, as well as respondent knowledge of anti-malarials. The research project provides findings on both the demand and supply side determinants of anti-malarial access. There are four key features of ACTwatch. First is the overlap of the three study components where nationally representative data are collected over similar periods, using a common sampling approach. A second feature is the number and diversity of countries that are studied which allows for cross-country comparisons. Another distinguishing feature is its ability to measure trends over time. Finally, the project aims to disseminate findings widely for decision

  9. The ACTwatch project: methods to describe anti-malarial markets in seven countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Steven

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, governments and donors are faced with an information gap when considering ways to improve access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and malaria diagnostics including rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. To help address some of these gaps, a five-year multi-country research project called ACTwatch was launched. The project is designed to provide a comprehensive picture of the anti-malarial market to inform national and international anti-malarial drug policy decision-making. Methods The project is being conducted in seven malaria-endemic countries: Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia from 2008 to 2012. ACTwatch measures which anti-malarials are available, where they are available and at what price and who they are used by. These indicators are measured over time and across countries through three study components: outlet surveys, supply chain studies and household surveys. Nationally representative outlet surveys examine the market share of different anti-malarials passing through public facilities and private retail outlets. Supply chain research provides a picture of the supply chain serving drug outlets, and measures mark-ups at each supply chain level. On the demand side, nationally representative household surveys capture treatment seeking patterns and use of anti-malarial drugs, as well as respondent knowledge of anti-malarials. Discussion The research project provides findings on both the demand and supply side determinants of anti-malarial access. There are four key features of ACTwatch. First is the overlap of the three study components where nationally representative data are collected over similar periods, using a common sampling approach. A second feature is the number and diversity of countries that are studied which allows for cross-country comparisons. Another distinguishing feature is its ability to measure trends over time. Finally, the

  10. The ACTwatch project: methods to describe anti-malarial markets in seven countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Policy makers, governments and donors are faced with an information gap when considering ways to improve access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and malaria diagnostics including rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). To help address some of these gaps, a five-year multi-country research project called ACTwatch was launched. The project is designed to provide a comprehensive picture of the anti-malarial market to inform national and international anti-malarial drug policy decision-making. Methods The project is being conducted in seven malaria-endemic countries: Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia from 2008 to 2012. ACTwatch measures which anti-malarials are available, where they are available and at what price and who they are used by. These indicators are measured over time and across countries through three study components: outlet surveys, supply chain studies and household surveys. Nationally representative outlet surveys examine the market share of different anti-malarials passing through public facilities and private retail outlets. Supply chain research provides a picture of the supply chain serving drug outlets, and measures mark-ups at each supply chain level. On the demand side, nationally representative household surveys capture treatment seeking patterns and use of anti-malarial drugs, as well as respondent knowledge of anti-malarials. Discussion The research project provides findings on both the demand and supply side determinants of anti-malarial access. There are four key features of ACTwatch. First is the overlap of the three study components where nationally representative data are collected over similar periods, using a common sampling approach. A second feature is the number and diversity of countries that are studied which allows for cross-country comparisons. Another distinguishing feature is its ability to measure trends over time. Finally, the project aims to disseminate

  11. Study on Triopoly Dynamic Game Model Based on Different Demand Forecast Methods in the Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of inaccurate demand beliefs on dynamics of a Triopoly game is studied. We suppose that all the players make their own estimations on possible demand with errors. A dynamic Triopoly game with such demand belief is set up. Based on this model, existence and local stable region of the equilibriums are investigated by 3D stable regions of Nash equilibrium point. The complex dynamics, such as bifurcation scenarios and route to chaos, are displayed in 2D bifurcation diagrams, in which e1 and α are negatively related to each other. Basins of attraction are investigated and we found that the attraction domain becomes smaller with the increase in price modification speed, which indicates that all the players’ output must be kept within a certain range so as to keep the system stable. Feedback control method is used to keep the system at an equilibrium state.

  12. Demand management: another marketing tool or a way to quality care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, M J; Harris, J M

    1998-05-01

    Demand management tools are population-based strategies used to control costs and improve utilization of services by assisting health consumers in maintaining their health and seeking appropriate health care. These tools are increasingly used by health care delivery systems and, in the US, by fiscal intermediaries, such as insurance companies. If these tools are not properly applied, there is a clear possibility that their use may lead a reduction of health care services with no improvement in clinical, humanistic, or economic outcomes. Demand management effectiveness has not been rigorously examined by the medical industry or academia. Before adopting or purchasing demand management technologies, health care systems should examine them carefully to determine how the tools were developed and who they were intended to serve. Once implemented, careful tracking of population outcomes is as necessary with these technologies as with any other technologies that can affect health care.

  13. Marketing Industrial Project-Related Services: A Literature Review and Theoretical Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Cova, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Services are a growing part of projects in the context of the international trend towards solution buying and selling on business-to-business markets. Furthermore services are often a key source of competitive advantage in project business. However companies selling project-related services often...... that specifically deal with project-related services are listed as the result of a study of the English-, French-, German, Italian-, and 'Nordic'-language academic literature. They are then assessed in relation to services versus project marketing theory. The analysis shows that the project marketing concepts...

  14. Marketing Promotion and Distribution of Project within Private and Public Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Rastislav Kerul

    2008-01-01

    The topic of marketing implementation within project management is out of interest of many authors. There are a few literature sources related to the theme. Our science interest is to analyze and outline the main possibilities of marketing conception implementation within project realization in order to make their distribution and promotion effective to reach the target groups and publics. We try to describe main basis of marketing perspective in managing projects in relation to target groups...

  15. The Spanish Gas Market: Demand Trends Post Recession and Consequences for the Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In parallel with a flourishing economy, the natural gas industry in Spain was characterised by rapid consumption growth in the late 1990s and 2000s. Infrastructure and supplies were designed to meet the needs of a gas market growing at double digit rates each year. This high growth rate – for a European gas market – was expected to continue until at least the mid-2010s. By 2011, this outlook was replaced by a more pessimistic one. Firstly, the country’s economy was hit hard by the global rece...

  16. A deterministic model for deteriorating items with displayed inventory level dependent demand rate incorporating marketing decisions with transportation cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bhunia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an inventory model, which considers the impact of marketing strategies such as pricing and advertising as well as the displayed inventory level on the demand rate of the system. In addition, the demand rate during the stock-out period differs from that during the stock-in period by a function varied on the waiting time up to the beginning of the next cycle. Shortage are allowed and partially backlogged. Here, the deterioration rate is assumed to follow the Weibull distribution. Considering all these factors with others, different scenarios of the system are investigated. To obtain the solutions of these cases and to illustrate the model, an example is considered. Finally, to study the effects of changes of different parameters of the system, sensitivity analyses have been carried out with respect to the different parameters of the system.

  17. 75 FR 15362 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    .... We propose that Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) \\3... resource means a resource capable of providing demand response. 18 CFR 35.28(b)(5). \\3\\ The following RTOs... and RTOs administer for reliability or emergency conditions, such as, for instance, Midwest ISO's...

  18. Effect of Bioenergy Demands and Supply Response on Markets, Carbon, and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Abt; Robert C. Abt; Christopher Galik

    2012-01-01

    An increase in the demand for wood for energy, including liquid fuels, bioelectricity, and pellets, has the potential to affect traditional wood users, forestland uses, management intensities, and, ultimately, carbon sequestration. Recent studies have shown that increases in bioenergy harvests could lead to displacement of traditional wood-using industries in the short...

  19. MARKET SUPPLY RESPONSE AND DEMAND FOR LOCAL RICE IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SELF-SUFFICIENCY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAHJI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the supply response and demand for local rice in Nigeria between 1960 and 2004. A system of equations using secondary data was estimated by OLS and 2SLS techniques. Area planted with local rice is mainly affected by expected price of output, agriculture wage rate and by the partial adjustment coefficient. The short-run response elasticity is 0.077. The implied long-run response elasticity is 1.578. The partial adjustment measure is 0.049. This, points to the difficulty of supply response to changing economic conditions. The price elasticity of demand obtained is 0.841. The demand for local rice is thus price inelastic. Rice income elasticity is 0.3378. It is also inelastic. The ban on rice importation in Nigeria could be said to be a step in the right direction. This policy should be continued and policed. However, price, output and non-price incentives that can exert significant influence on rice supply response and demand are required if the self-sufficiency goal is to be achieved.

  20. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... 13, 2010 Comments at 11; Viridity June 18, 2010 Comments at 5. [Demand response] is in all essential...; Potomac Economics; PG&E; Ohio Commission; Robert L. Borlick; Roy Shanker; and RRI Energy. \\58\\ See... at 6; PSEG at 5; and Potomac Economics at 6-8. \\60\\ Attachment to Answer of EPSA, Providing...

  1. the structure of labour market and demand for hired labour for oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    Keywords: structure of labour, hired labour, oil palm production, demand ... age and sex of labour or employment status (i.e. ..... Work which by its nature or circumstances in which it is carried out is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of.

  2. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  3. Sensor Management for Applied Research Technologies (SMART)-On Demand Modeling (ODM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.; Blakeslee, R.; Hood, R.; Jedlovec, G.; Botts, M.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    NASA requires timely on-demand data and analysis capabilities to enable practical benefits of Earth science observations. However, a significant challenge exists in accessing and integrating data from multiple sensors or platforms to address Earth science problems because of the large data volumes, varying sensor scan characteristics, unique orbital coverage, and the steep learning curve associated with each sensor and data type. The development of sensor web capabilities to autonomously process these data streams (whether real-time or archived) provides an opportunity to overcome these obstacles and facilitate the integration and synthesis of Earth science data and weather model output. A three year project, entitled Sensor Management for Applied Research Technologies (SMART) - On Demand Modeling (ODM), will develop and demonstrate the readiness of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) capabilities that integrate both Earth observations and forecast model output into new data acquisition and assimilation strategies. The advancement of SWE-enabled systems (i.e., use of SensorML, sensor planning services - SPS, sensor observation services - SOS, sensor alert services - SAS and common observation model protocols) will have practical and efficient uses in the Earth science community for enhanced data set generation, real-time data assimilation with operational applications, and for autonomous sensor tasking for unique data collection.

  4. Responsiveness of Higher Education to Changing Job Market Demand in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bipasha; Islam, Kazi Maruful

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh economy has been transforming towards a market-based economy from a state-dominated centrally planned economy since the early 1980s, the pace of transformation has been slow though. The aim of this article is to see how the higher education system responds to the changes in the structure of the economy. The article argues that the…

  5. Reducing domestic heating demand: Managing the impact of behavior-changing feedback devices via marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thorben; Chappin, Émile J L

    2017-07-15

    Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices. We did this by adapting an agent-based model to simulate the roll-out of a novel feedback technology and heating behavior within households in a virtual city. The most promising marketing strategies were simulated and their impacts were analyzed. We found it particularly effective to lend out feedback devices to consumers, followed by leveraging the social influence of well-connected individuals, and giving away the first few feedback devices for free. Making households aware of the possibility of purchasing feedback devices was found to be least effective. However, making households aware proved to be most cost-efficient. This study shows that actively managing the roll-out of feedback devices can increase their impacts on energy-conservation both effectively and cost-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Supply and demand determine the market value of food providers in wild vervet monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruteau, C.; Voelkl, B.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Noe, R.

    2009-01-01

    Animals neither negotiate verbally nor conclude binding contracts, but nevertheless regularly exchange goods and services without overt coercion and manage to arrive at agreements over exchange rates. Biological market theory predicts that such exchange rates fluctuate according to the law of supply

  7. Tiered co-payments, pricing, and demand in reference price markets for pharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, Annika; Suppliet, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Health insurance companies curb price-insensitive behavior and the moral hazard of insureds by means of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing in drug markets. This paper evaluates the effect of price limits –below which drugs are exempt from co-payments– on prices and on

  8. Dynamic peak demand pricing under uncertainty in an agent-based retail energy market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ansarin (Mohammad); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFor a transition to a sustainable energy future, smart grids must adapt to the mass introduction of renewable energy sources and their inherent unpredictability. The Power TAC competition is a simulation of distribution grid market dynamics with autonomous retail broker agents. It seeks

  9. Generating demand for pharmacist-provided medication therapy management: identifying patient-preferred marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gladys M; Snyder, Margie E; McGrath, Stephanie Harriman; Smith, Randall B; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2009-01-01

    To identify effective strategies for marketing pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services to patients in a self-insured employer setting. Qualitative study. University of Pittsburgh during March through May 2008. 26 university employees taking at least one chronic medication. Three focus group sessions were conducted using a semistructured topic guide to facilitate the discussion. Employees' perceived medication-related needs, perceived benefits of pharmacist-provided MTM, potential barriers for employee participation in MTM, and effective strategies for marketing MTM. Participants reported concerns with timing of doses, medication costs, access, and ensuring adherence. Participants generally felt positively toward pharmacists; however, the level of reported patient contact with pharmacists varied among participants. Some participants questioned pharmacists' education and qualifications for this enhanced role in patient care. Perceived benefits of MTM noted by participants included the opportunity to obtain personalized information about their medications and the potential for improved communication among their health providers. Barriers to patient participation were out-of-pocket costs and lack of time for MTM visits. Participants suggested use of alternative words to describe MTM and marketing approaches that involve personal contact. Pharmacists should emphasize parts of MTM that patients feel are most beneficial (i.e., provision of a personal medication record) and use patient-friendly language to describe MTM when marketing their practice. Patients will need greater exposure to the concept of MTM and the pharmacists' role in order to correctly describe and assign value to this type of pharmacist patient care practice.

  10. Analysis of the Syrian long-term energy and electricity demand projection using the end-use methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Seif-Eldin, M.K.; Almoustafa, S.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the possible future long-term development of Syrian energy and electricity demand covering the period 1999-2030 is presented. The analysis was conducted using the IAEA's model MAED, which relies upon the end-use approach. This model has been validated during the last two decades through the successful application in many developing countries, even those having partial market economy and energy subsidy. Starting from the base year, final energy consumption distributed by energy forms and consumption sectors, the future energy and electricity demand has been projected according to three different scenarios reflecting the possible future demographic, socio-economic and technological development of the country. These scenarios are constructed to cover a plausible range, in which future evolution factors affecting energy demand are expected to lie. The first is a high economy scenario (HS) representing the reference case, which is characterized by high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate (average annual about 6%) and moderate improved technologies in the various consumption sectors. The second is an energy efficiency scenario (ES), which is identical to HS in all main parameters except these relating to the efficiency improvement and conservation measures. Here, high technology improvement and more effective conservation measures in all consumption sectors are proposed and the role of solar to substitute fossil energy for heating purposes is considered effectively. The third is a low economy scenario (LS) with low GDP growth rate (average annual about 3.5%) and less technology improvement in the consumption sectors. As a consequence, the improvement in the energy efficiency is low and the influence of conservation measures is less effective. Starting from about 10.5mtoe final energy in the base year, the analysis shows that the projected energy demand will grow annually at average rates of 5%, 4.5% and 3% for the HS, ES and LS

  11. DISCUSSANT'S COMMENTS FOR AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING, SELECTED PAPERS SESSION SP-2BB: "FOOD DEMAND, FOOD POLICY, AND FOOD MARKET ISSUES"

    OpenAIRE

    Jonk, Yvonne

    1998-01-01

    These papers investigate issues in food demand, food processing, and food markets. Policy issues are examined, both in the context of the food stamp program in the domestic market and the industrial policy options in the food sector in emerging Central European economies. The Effect of an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) System on Food Expenditure of Food Stamp Recipients: Evidence from the Maryland Statewide Implementation, J. William Levedahl. Incorporating Nutrients in Food Demand Analysi...

  12. Integration project of regional markets in Europe (European directive)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Fernandez-Castaneda, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the current situation of the Day-Ahead electricity markets in the different countries and Regions along West Europe. It describes the different possibilities applied to congestion management in the borders between countries and price areas, and the options employed to couple Day-ahead markets to form regional markets in Europe. Finally, it presents the initiative to Price couple Regional markets (PCR) that is being developed by Nord pool spot, EPEX Spot and OMEL with the objective to advance towards the integration of the markets that they operate in the internal Electricity Market. (Author)

  13. Workforce Projections 2010-2020: Annual Supply and Demand Forecasting Models for Physical Therapists Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michel D; Hack, Laurita M; Coulson, Elizabeth; Freburger, Janet; Johnson, Michael P; Katz, Richard; Kerwin, Joanne; Smith, Megan H; Wessman, Henry C Bud; Venskus, Diana G; Sinnott, Patricia L; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Health human resources continue to emerge as a critical health policy issue across the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy for modeling future workforce projections to serve as a basis for analyzing annual supply of and demand for physical therapists across the United States into 2020. A traditional stock-and-flow methodology or model was developed and populated with publicly available data to produce estimates of supply and demand for physical therapists by 2020. Supply was determined by adding the estimated number of physical therapists and the approximation of new graduates to the number of physical therapists who immigrated, minus US graduates who never passed the licensure examination, and an estimated attrition rate in any given year. Demand was determined by using projected US population with health care insurance multiplied by a demand ratio in any given year. The difference between projected supply and demand represented a shortage or surplus of physical therapists. Three separate projection models were developed based on best available data in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. Based on these projections, demand for physical therapists in the United States outstrips supply under most assumptions. Workforce projection methodology research is based on assumptions using imperfect data; therefore, the results must be interpreted in terms of overall trends rather than as precise actuarial data-generated absolute numbers from specified forecasting. Outcomes of this projection study provide a foundation for discussion and debate regarding the most effective and efficient ways to influence supply-side variables so as to position physical therapists to meet current and future population demand. Attrition rates or permanent exits out of the profession can have important supply-side effects and appear to have an effect on predicting future shortage or surplus of physical therapists. © 2016 American Physical Therapy

  14. Exploring Zen Marketing: A Strategic Experiment in Leveraging End User Intellectual Capital to Stimulate Primary Market Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Raymond

    2003-10-01

    Recently the Telecom Industry experienced an economic boom & bust cycle that hampered new service development & deployment. Consequently, there are significant problems in capturing key requirements for new network-based services and in educating CIO-IT leaders so they can promote investment proposals with their enterprise business leadership. This paper outlines a multi-functional initiative that Lucent Technologies established to engage and exchange with key Enterprises & their Telecom Suppliers views of future network technologies. This experiment is unique because it is facilitated by the corporate CIO-IT leadership & is focused on the latest 3G wireless technologies. CIO-IT provides externally facing resources that collaborate directly with Enterprises, and Service Providers while facilitating internal interactions with Bell Labs, Business Units and Sales teams. This program embodies a Zen Marketing approach since it seeks to create flashes of enlightenment with IT & business leaders by exercising all the knowledge, culture & behaviors available to an IT end user. The paper summarizes several organizational challenges & benefits uncovered by a program that is focused on transforming Mobility Provider relationships with their customers and expanding the overall awareness of the latest 3G wireless technologies.

  15. Gas elephants: Arctic projects revived by expanding markets and pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-01

    The revival of interest in Arctic natural gas and the developing competition to extend the pipeline grid to Alaska and the Yukon and the Northwest territories are the subject of this report. Substantial agreement between competing interest groups is reported with respect to the need for Arctic gas and the willingness of the market to pay for bringing it south to consumers. The discussion centers on the construction of the Alliance Pipeline Project that will reportedly bring two billion cubic feet per day of excess capacity to transport natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to Chicago, and the 2,400 km long Foothills Pipelines System that carries about one-third of Canadian gas exports to middle-western states and California. Plans are to extend the line to 5,240 km by laying pipe in a giant Y pattern between Prudhoe Bay and the Mackenzie delta in the north, and the start of the Foothills System at Caroline in central Alberta. The estimated cost of the line is about $US 6 billion, using a 36-inch diameter line at increased pressures in place of the 56-inch diameter pipe used in the 1970s. Construction plans are similar for the rest of the big Y, the Dempster Lateral beside the Dempster Highway between Whitehorse and Inuvik. A competing project, the Northern Gas Pipeline Project is also discussed. This line would run east of Prudhoe Bay under the Beaufort Sea to the Mackenzie Delta; then south along the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. Cost of this line is also estimated at $US 6 billion, however, it would have a capacity of four billion cubic feet per day, including 2.5 billion cubic feet from Alaska and 1.5 billion cubic feet from Canada. Strong revival of interest is also reported from the supply side, with BP Amoco, ARCO, Chevron Canada Resources, Ranger 0il Ltd., Paramount Resources, Berkley Petroleum Corporation, Canadian Forest Oil, Alberta Energy Company, Petro-Canada, Anderson Resources, and Poco Petroleum Ltd., all showing interest to mount new

  16. An Agent-Based Labor Market Simulation with Endogenous Skill-Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemkow, S.

    This paper considers an agent-based labor market simulation to examine the influence of skills on wages and unemployment rates. Therefore less and highly skilled workers as well as less and highly productive vacancies are implemented. The skill distribution is exogenous whereas the distribution of the less and highly productive vacancies is endogenous. The different opportunities of the skill groups on the labor market are established by skill requirements. This means that a highly productive vacancy can only be filled by a highly skilled unemployed. Different skill distributions, which can also be interpreted as skill-biased technological change, are simulated by incrementing the skill level of highly skilled persons exogenously. This simulation also provides a microeconomic foundation of the matching function often used in theoretical approaches.

  17. The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Demand: The Case of Carbonated Soft Drink Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2013-01-01

    This article estimates the impact of social media exposure on consumer valuation of product characteristics. We apply the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) model of market equilibrium to sales data for 18 carbonated soft drink brands sold in 12 cities over 17 months (June 2011 to October 2012) and social media conversations on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Empirical results show that social media exposure is a significant driver of consumer behavior through altering evaluation of product cha...

  18. Demand side of international students tourism market : Case of Umeå - Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Students are very important part of tourism sector. Especially international ones are distinctive group whose travel behaviours may differ from others. The study emphasise why understanding students behaviour is important and how it can influence travel market in area. Using Internet based survey collection and an interview, study examines and analyses students travel behaviours, the constraints that students are facing (connected to travel), reasons to choose the destination and changes in t...

  19. Real Options Effect of Uncertainty and Labor Demand Shocks on the Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gabriel; Nguyen Thanh, Binh; Strobel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that uncertainty affects the housing market in two significant ways. First, uncertainty shocks adversely affect housing prices but not the quantities that are traded. Controlling for a broad set of variables in fixed-effects regressions, we find that uncertainty shocks reduce housing prices and median sales prices in the amount of 1.4% and 1.8%, respectively, but the effect is not statistically significant for the percentage changes of all homes sold. Second, when...

  20. Evaluating The Financial Consequences of Different Financing Structure for Nuclear Power Project under Malaysian Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Faisal Izwan Abdul Rashid; Siti Syarina Mat Sali; Fairuz Suzana Mohd Chachuli; Mohd Azmi Sidid Omar

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In 2010, Malaysia through the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) has initiated an effort to explore nuclear energy as an option for electricity generation post-2020 in order to meet country's growing energy demand and diversify its energy mix. To date, Malaysia is focusing its efforts on the preparatory activities, pending to make decision to embark on nuclear power project. The development of nuclear power plants is a major undertaking for any country which that requires huge financial implications and commitments. On this note, this paper aims at evaluating the financial consequences of different financing structure for nuclear power project under Malaysian market condition, based on two key financial indicators, namely, Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The computer model FINPLAN developed by the IAEA was used to perform this study. The result shows that different financing structure significantly affect the sensitivity of NPV and IRR, that may be of interest to the investors in exploring viable financing structure for nuclear power project development. (author)

  1. How to Align the University Curricula with the Market Demands by Developing Employability Skills in the Civil Engineering Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Anastasiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to discover which employability skills may be developed by students from technical universities in order to meet market demands. Since graduates from technical universities face unemployment or over qualification for vacant jobs, we presumed that there is a misalignment between employers’ expectations concerning graduates’ skills and what they really get from school. Therefore, we conceived a questionnaire to see the demands of the business environment regarding graduates’ technical and professional skills. After analyzing the data, we proposed an interdisciplinary module system, where the mentors coming from the companies involved in the study teach voluntary or optional courses and applications in the domains where they have expertise. We used the employability skills model to find that mix of competencies that may help graduates find jobs in their field of knowledge. This innovative method serves universities, students and companies as well: the prestige of a university is quantified by the experts delivered into the labor market; companies will have well prepared employees in their specific area, with less costs; students will find jobs which will match their expectations, giving them motivation to perform. The limitation of the present research is that the study refers only to the Civil Engineering specialization of the Technical University Cluj-Napoca Romania.

  2. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research and marketing research and....45 Production research and marketing research and development projects. (a) The following activities... Secretary, establish or provide for the establishment of production research, and marketing research and...

  3. Creating International Community Service Learning Experiences in a Capstone Marketing-Projects Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Lynn E.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a project-based capstone marketing course, specifically designed to provide marketing students with an international community service learning experience. It differs significantly from previous studies, which focus on integrating service learning into existing marketing courses and on helping local…

  4. Money demand elasticity, effective money supply and money market disequilibrium: ¡°China¡¯s Puzzle¡± and long-term excessive liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    LI Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    Chinese excessive liquidity problems are more serious than other main countries. The upgrading industrial structure and the increasing opening degree lead to the excessive money demand and higher money demand elasticity. Bad credits weaken money supply effectiveness and lead to illusive increasing money. We set up the money market disequilibrium model under the condition of the excessive liquidity. The imbalance between money demand and money supply is the key of Chinese excessive liquidity p...

  5. Baseline Projection Data Book: GRI baseline projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010. 1992 Edition. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; Koklauner, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Baseline Projection Data Book provides backup data in tabular form for the 1992 GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010. Summary tables and data for the residential, commercial, industrial, electric utility, and transportation sectors are presented in the volume

  6. Demand Analysis of Logistics Information Matching Platform: A Survey from Highway Freight Market in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daqiang; Shen, Xiahong; Tong, Bing; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Feng, Tao

    With the increasing competition in logistics industry and promotion of lower logistics costs requirements, the construction of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation plays an important role, and the accuracy of platform design is the key to successful operation or not. Based on survey results of logistics service providers, customers and regulation authorities to access to information and in-depth information demand analysis of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation in Zhejiang province, a survey analysis for framework of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation is provided.

  7. A Case Study of Teaching Marketing Research Using Client-Sponsored Projects: Method, Challenges, and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Liliana L.; Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    This case study outlines the use of client-sponsored research projects in a quantitative postgraduate marketing research subject conducted in a 12-week semester in a research-intensive Australian university. The case study attempts to address the dearth of recent literature on client-sponsored research projects in the discipline of marketing.…

  8. Neuroeconomic Conditioning of the Influence of a Market Demand of Consumers on an Innovative Character of Polish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gardocka-Jałowiec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is an identification of key sources of an innovative character and their conditioning in contemporary Polish economy. In the discussion, it is stated that consumers – the smallest, but the most numerous economic unit – through their expectations of the way / form of meeting their own needs, create a direction and dynamics of innovative business and confirm or undermine the legitimacy of accepted directions of actions of the supply side and greatly determine their economic force. In addition, the discussion concerning market decisions (their sources of consumers and businessmen is based on the results of neuroanatomical brain research. Analyses, that were carried out, allow for stating that: 1 consumers in a market play take on the following roles: creators of an innovative activity based on the reported potential demand; evaluating results of actions taken by innovative businessmen through effective demand; 2 in Poland, there has been a gradual redefinition of key factors of innovative character; 3 businessmen (over 90% consider coming closer to consumers, meeting their needs through the use of the Internet, interactive and social media as the most important initiatives; 4 an action of businessmen within the scope of improving operative efficiency, aiming at accelerating reactions to market consumers expectations increase; 5 brain activity accounts for nearly ¾ decisions made – each choice constitutes a completely real process engaging a particular neuron number (including von Economo neurons, which influences particular behaviour; 6 a network of neural connections in the brain changes as one gains knowledge and experience – in effect, brain structures become more flexible.

  9. Demand side management in a day-ahead wholesale market: A comparison of industrial & social welfare approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Bo; Farid, Amro M.; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare two demand side management in a day-ahead electricity wholesale market. • We develop and reconcile social welfare & industrial DSM mathematical models. • We show the industrial netload has an additional forecast quantity of baseline. • We analytically and numerically show the model equivalence with accurate baseline. • We numerically demonstrate the baseline errors lead to higher and costlier dispatch. - Abstract: The intermittent nature of renewable energy has been discussed in the context of the operational challenges that it brings to electrical grid reliability. Demand side management (DSM) with its ability to allow customers to adjust electricity consumption in response to market signals has often been recognized as an efficient way to mitigate the variable effects of renewable energy as well as to increase system efficiency and reduce system costs. However, the academic & industrial literature have taken divergent approaches to DSM implementation. While the popular approach among academia adopts a social welfare maximization formulation, the industrial practice compensates customers according to their load reduction from a predefined electricity consumption baseline that would have occurred without DSM. This paper rigorously compares these two different approaches in a day-ahead wholesale market context analytically and in a test case using the same system configuration and mathematical formalism. The comparison of the two models showed that a proper reconciliation of the two models might make them mitigate the stochastic netload in fundamentally the same way, but only under very specific conditions which are rarely met in practice. While the social welfare model uses a stochastic net load composed of two terms, the industrial DSM model uses a stochastic net load composed of three terms including the additional baseline term. DSM participants are likely to manipulate the baseline in order to receive greater financial

  10. Meeting the near-term demand for hydrogen using nuclear energy in competitive power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen is becoming the reference fuel for future transportation and the timetable for its adoption is shortening. However, to deploy its full potential, hydrogen production either directly or indirectly needs to satisfy three criteria: no associated emissions, including CO 2 ; wide availability; and affordability. This creates a window of great opportunity within the next 15 years for nuclear energy to provide the backbone of hydrogen-based energy systems. But nuclear must establish its hydrogen generating role long before the widespread deployment of Gen IV high-temperature reactors, with their possibility of producing hydrogen directly by heat rather than electricity. For Gen IV the major factors will be efficiency and economic cost, particularly if centralized storage is needed and/or credits for avoided emissions and/or oxygen sales. In the interim, despite its apparently lower overall efficiency, water electrolysis is the only available technology today able to meet the first and second criteria. The third criterion includes costs of electrolysis and electricity. The primary requirements for affordable electrolysis are low capital cost and high utilisation. Consequently, the electricity supply must enable high utilisation as well as being itself low-cost and emissions-free. Evolved Gen III+ nuclear technologies can produce electricity on large scales and at rates competitive with today's CO 2 -emitting, fossil-fuelled technologies. As an example of electrolytic hydrogen's potential, we show competitive deployment in a typical competitive power market. Among the attractions of this approach are reactors supplying a base-loaded market - though permitting occasional, opportunistic diversion of electricity during price spikes on the power grid - and easy delivery of hydrogen to widely distributed users. Gen IV systems with multiple product streams and higher efficiency (e.g., the SCWR) can also be envisaged which can use competitive energy markets to advantage

  11. Breaking the bottleneck : how best can we bring oil sands products to demanding markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, D.

    2006-01-01

    Alberta-based Altex Energy Ltd. is pursuing the development of an innovative heavy oil/bitumen pipeline from Alberta to the United States Gulf Coast (USGC). This energy infrastructure development company is led by a proven management team that developed and constructed the 3,700 km long Alliance Pipeline system. This presentation included a map of the $3.7 billion dollar Alliance Pipeline that identified the mainline compressor stations, lateral compressor stations, area offices and head offices. It was noted that oilsands will represent the most significant resource plays for many years. A graph indicating bitumen supply forecasts from 2005 to 2020 suggests that bitumen production will have exponential growth over the foreseeable future. Labor, materials and infrastructure limitations will create barriers to oilsands growth, as will uncertain market access. For that reason, assured pipeline capacity is needed along with an infrastructure to refineries and a favourable competitive balance for Canadian producers. The presentation addressed issues regarding marketing choices and the challenges of upgrading in Alberta. The economics of diluting heavy oil was also discussed along with industry response to the diluent challenge. Altex's proposed solution of a new direct greenfield pipeline from Alberta to the USGC would reach the largest refinery market in North America as well as the largest heavy oil/bitumen consuming regions. The Altex solution would be complementary to heavy oil/bitumen in Alberta. The proprietary pipeline technology permits alternative diluents, eliminating much of the diluent penalty. It mitigates the risks of upgrading in Alberta and competes on a cost basis with other expansion alternatives. The Altex pipeline system eliminates the need for costly condensate diluent, but accepts all current diluents. It transports up to 90 per cent more bitumen than clean diluted bitumen in a conventional pipeline. It can also transport as much as 175 per cent

  12. A bilevel model for electricity retailers' participation in a demand response market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    (followers) in a dynamic price environment. Both players in the game solve an economic optimisation problem subject to stochasticity in prices, weather-related variables and must-serve load. The model allows the determination of the dynamic price-signal delivering maximum retailer profit, and the optimal......-time pricing is less convenient than fixed and time-of-use price for consumers. This implies that careful design of the retail market is needed. Finally, we carry out a sensitivity analysis to analyse the effect of different levels of consumer flexibility....

  13. A new market risk model for cogeneration project financing---combined heat and power development without a power purchase agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Timothy A.

    Federal legislative changes in 2006 no longer entitle cogeneration project financings by law to receive the benefit of a power purchase agreement underwritten by an investment-grade investor-owned utility. Consequently, this research explored the need for a new market-risk model for future cogeneration and combined heat and power (CHP) project financing. CHP project investment represents a potentially enormous energy efficiency benefit through its application by reducing fossil fuel use up to 55% when compared to traditional energy generation, and concurrently eliminates constituent air emissions up to 50%, including global warming gases. As a supplemental approach to a comprehensive technical analysis, a quantitative multivariate modeling was also used to test the statistical validity and reliability of host facility energy demand and CHP supply ratios in predicting the economic performance of CHP project financing. The resulting analytical models, although not statistically reliable at this time, suggest a radically simplified CHP design method for future profitable CHP investments using four easily attainable energy ratios. This design method shows that financially successful CHP adoption occurs when the average system heat-to-power-ratio supply is less than or equal to the average host-convertible-energy-ratio, and when the average nominally-rated capacity is less than average host facility-load-factor demands. New CHP investments can play a role in solving the world-wide problem of accommodating growing energy demand while preserving our precious and irreplaceable air quality for future generations.

  14. The outlook for natural gas markets in the GRI baseline projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Research Institute is an independent, not-for-profit organization that plans, manages, and develops financing for a cooperative research and development program for the mutual benefit of the natural gas industry and its customers. The research program consists of over 500 active research projects in natural gas supply and end use, and in gas industry operations, as well as related basic research. This paper summarizes the U.S. natural gas demand and supply outlook projected in a preliminary version of the 191 edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand. The projection used for this paper is from an early run of the GRI modeling structure. As such, it is subject to substantial revision before the Baseline Projection is finalized. The paper presents a projection of natural gas demand in the major end-use sectors and the slate of supply sources expected to meet that demand over the period from 1989 to 2010

  15. Monitoring the size and protagonists of the drug market: combining supply and demand data sources and estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The size of the illicit drug market is an important indicator to assess the impact on society of an important part of the illegal economy and to evaluate drug policy and law enforcement interventions. The extent of illicit drug use and of the drug market can essentially only be estimated by indirect methods based on indirect measures and on data from various sources, as administrative data sets and surveys. The combined use of several methodologies and data sets allows to reduce biases and inaccuracies of estimates obtained on the basis of each of them separately. This approach has been applied to Italian data. The estimation methods applied are capture-recapture methods with latent heterogeneity and multiplier methods. Several data sets have been used, both administrative and survey data sets. First, the retail dealer prevalence has been estimated on the basis of administrative data, then the user prevalence by multiplier methods. Using information about behaviour of dealers and consumers from survey data, the average amount of a substance used or sold and the average unit cost have been estimated and allow estimating the size of the drug market. The estimates have been obtained using a supply-side approach and a demand-side approach and have been compared. These results are in turn used for estimating the interception rate for the different substances in term of the value of the substance seized with respect to the total value of the substance to be sold at retail prices.

  16. Application of conjoint analysis in studying demand for mp3 players on the B-H market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Kurtović

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates practical aspects of conjoint analysis in studying evaluation and preference criteria when buying hardware MP3 players among the youth, as the most significant segment of such product buyers. Methodology: The methodology consisted of several surveys of young consumers in the Sarajevo region. In the first step, we used unstructured focus group interviews combined with a series of multiple-choice and open-ended questions for identifying product attributes and attribute levels that are relevant to consumers’ preferences. After the main attributes and the levels of attributes had been selected, they were combined to form different hypothetical product profiles. Obtained data were analyzed with the help of the conjoint analysis software. Findings: The results show that MP3 player manufacturers and sellers should focus their marketing strategies on the brand when targeting young people, as the most significant market segment for such products. The findings of the demand and price sensitivity analysis imply that the buyers of this product category are generally price-sensitive and therefore willing to switch brands. Limitations: While the study covered the most important attributes regarding MP3 players, it might be desirable to include design as an additional attribute as well as more brands. Also, a sample size could be increased to allow market segmentation based on the obtained part-worths.

  17. Russian Youth on Labour Market: ‘Portfolioability’ as New Desire and Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Goncharova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the debate about portfolio and organizational careers and presents the results of qualitative research of Russian young employees. During perestroika, Soviet career structures were almost completely destroyed. This led to the fact that working population of post-Soviet Russia had to adapt to new structures and/or create new conditions to be able to work and to ensure security. Such local uncertainty and instability coincided with intensive globalisation of the national economy and society, which had an even stronger effect: local instability combined with global instability.The analysis of biographical interviews demonstrated that a lot of young Russians on contemporary labour market can be characterised by portfolioability—a property that unites young professionals with different type of employment. We mean by this term a kind of attitude towards work typical for Russian youth, which reflects inner flexibility, experience, transferable skills and multiple employment practices. Moreover, it is portfolioability that in some cases becomes a resource to improve security/confidence concerning the labour market, as well as to develop agency. Besides, the lack of portfolioability results in a more vulnerable position and dependence on conditions.

  18. The Independence Pipeline project : ANR's supply link - Independence Pipeline, Transco's market link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persells, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the Independence Pipeline project was presented. The project offers access from Chicago to the U.S. Midwest market, as well as to Ontario via MichCon, Consumers Power, Great Lakes and Panhandle. The project has three components: ANR's Supply Link, the Independence Pipeline and Transco's MarketLink. The three components are budgeted at $ 1.332 billion dollars and projected for completion between Nov 1999 and Nov 2000. Each component (services, access advantages, market links, rates, storage services, etc ) are described separately. figs

  19. Market transformation lessons learned from an automated demand response test in the Summer and Fall of 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockman, Christine; Piette, Mary Ann; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    A recent pilot test to enable an Automatic Demand Response system in California has revealed several lessons that are important to consider for a wider application of a regional or statewide Demand Response Program. The six facilities involved in the site testing were from diverse areas of our economy. The test subjects included a major retail food marketer and one of their retail grocery stores, financial services buildings for a major bank, a postal services facility, a federal government office building, a state university site, and ancillary buildings to a pharmaceutical research company. Although these organizations are all serving diverse purposes and customers, they share some underlying common characteristics that make their simultaneous study worthwhile from a market transformation perspective. These are large organizations. Energy efficiency is neither their core business nor are the decision makers who will enable this technology powerful players in their organizations. The management of buildings is perceived to be a small issue for top management and unless something goes wrong, little attention is paid to the building manager's problems. All of these organizations contract out a major part of their technical building operating systems. Control systems and energy management systems are proprietary. Their systems do not easily interact with one another. Management is, with the exception of one site, not electronically or computer literate enough to understand the full dimensions of the technology they have purchased. Despite the research team's development of a simple, straightforward method of informing them about the features of the demand response program, they had significant difficulty enabling their systems to meet the needs of the research. The research team had to step in and work directly with their vendors and contractors at all but one location. All of the participants have volunteered to participate in the study for altruistic

  20. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    As the vehicle population in China increases, oil consumption and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions associated with on-road transportation are rising dramatically. During this study, we developed a methodology to project trends in the growth of the vehicle population, oil demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with on-road transportation in China. By using this methodology, we projected--separately--the number of highway vehicles, motorcycles, and rural vehicles in China through 2050. We used three scenarios of highway vehicle growth (high-, mid-, and low-growth) to reflect patterns of motor vehicle growth that have occurred in different parts of the world (i.e., Europe and Asia). All are essentially business-as-usual scenarios in that almost none of the countries we examined has made concerted efforts to manage vehicle growth or to offer serious alternative transportation means to satisfy people's mobility needs. With this caveat, our projections showed that by 2030, China could have more highway vehicles than the United States has today, and by 2035, it could have the largest number of highway vehicles in the world. By 2050, China could have 486-662 million highway vehicles, 44 million motorcycles, and 28 million rural vehicles. These numbers, which assume essentially unmanaged vehicle growth, would result in potentially disastrous effects on the urban infrastructure, resources, and other social and ecological aspects of life in China. We designed three fuel economy scenarios, from conservative to aggressive, on the basis of current policy efforts and expectations of near-future policies in China and in developed countries. It should be noted that these current and near-future policies have not taken into consideration the significant potential for further fuel economy improvements offered by advanced technologies such as electric drive technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles). By using vehicle growth projections and

  1. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Utility load management programs, including direct load control and interruptible load programs, constitute a large installed base of controllable loads that are employed by utilities as system reliability resources. In response to energy supply shortfalls expected during the summer of 2001, the California Public Utilities Commission in spring 2001 authorized new utility load management programs as well as revisions to existing programs. This report provides an independent review of the designs of these new programs for a large utility (Southern California Edison) and suggests possible improvements to enhance the price responsiveness of the customer actions influenced by these programs. The report also proposes a new program to elicit a mass-market demand response to utility price signals.

  2. Demand response and energy efficiency in the capacity resource procurement: Case studies of forward capacity markets in ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingqi

    2017-01-01

    Demand-side resources like demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) can contribute to the capacity adequacy underpinning power system reliability. Forward capacity markets are established in many liberalised markets to procure capacity, with a strong interest in procuring DR and EE. With case studies of ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain, this paper examines the process and trends of procuring DR and EE in forward capacity markets, and the design for integration mechanisms. It finds that the contribution of DR and EE varies wildly across these three capacity markets, due to a set of factors regarding mechanism design, market conditions and regulatory provisions, and the offering of EE is more heavily influenced by regulatory utility EE obligation. DR and EE are complementary in targeting end-uses and customers for capacity resources, thus highlighting the value of procuring them both. System needs and resources’ market potential need to be considered in defining capacity products. Over the long-term, it is important to ensure the removal of barriers for these demand-side resources and the capability of providers in addressing risks of unstable funding and forward planning. For the EDR Pilot in the UK, better coordination with forward capacity auction needs to be achieved. - Highlights: • Trends of demand response and energy efficiency in capacity markets are analysed. • Integration mechanisms, market conditions and regulatory provisions are key factors. • Participation of energy efficiency is influenced by regulatory utility obligations. • Procuring both demand response and energy efficiency in capacity market is valuable. • Critical analysis of the design of capacity products and integration mechanisms.

  3. Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Annunzio, Julie [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Slezak, Lee [U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Conley, John Jason [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2014-03-26

    This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

  4. Market for small waste gasification projects - preliminary scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a market analysis for small waste gasification/pyrolysis plant in the UK. The overall objectives of the study are to assess the potential merits in establishing a demonstration plant in the UK, and to identify the size, profile and characteristics of the potential market based on municipal solid waste (MSW) feedstock. (author)

  5. E-COMMERCE NATIONAL MARKET - STUDY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MANIFESTED DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce market in Romania recorded the lowest level of development compared to other EU countries, in terms of the intensity of online purchase habit of the population of Romania. Thus, in 2014, only 16.7% of those who used the computer in the range of 16-74 years and 10% of the total population of the same age had made online purchases, compared with 63.3% and 50% respectively - the same indicators at EU level. Still, in Romania there was a rapid increase in the share of those who make online purchases, so in 8 years (2007-2014 this indicator increased by 3 times. Regarding the categories of the population by various characteristics, greater orientation towards online purchases is recorded among individuals with high formal education, youth (under 35, with above-average incomes. In terms of product categories purchased online, the most favorite categories are: clothes, sports goods. This analysis is based mostly on official statistics provided by Eurostat.

  6. Analysis of Products Demand on E.U. Markets Based on Commerce Activity of Large Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ghita

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Retail in large store-chains extended in well-developed countries. 465 millions inhabitants express their supply on their markets; between 2000 and 2005 sales values were increasing; the increase-sources were the promotional prices, as well as the European buyers' availability to respond to the supply's diversity. After the political events that happened after 1989, in Romania appeared large hypermarket-chains and supermarket-chains, most of them being transnational companies that developed their own business in our country. Due to these commercial-units, the retail-value in Romania grew in a spectacular way, with more than 85% during 2000-2005 period, although from the retail-value per inhabitant point of view, we are far behind other European countries' level. The number of retail-commercial units, as well as the sales-purchasing value in these units characterizes the commercial sector situation in a country. For a comparative analysis at territorial level, for different European Union's countries, we will realize a multicriterial hierarchy, based on the two statistical indicators previously mentioned, and on other two general macroeconomic indicators: Gross Domestic Product (GDP per inhabitant and unemployment-rate. The main European Union's countries hierarchy based on the four criteria was realized by two statistical methods: the ranks' method and the relative-distance method from the maximum performance unit.

  7. Consonance in Information System Projects: A Relationship Marketing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Different stakeholders in the information system project usually have different perceptions and expectations of the projects. There is seldom consistency in the stakeholders' evaluations of the project outcome. Thus the outcomes of information system projects are usually disappointing to one or more stakeholders. Consonance is a process that can…

  8. Meeting the near-term demand for hydrogen using nuclear energy in competitive power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Alistair I.; Duffey, Romney B.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen is becoming the reference fuel for future transportation and, in the USA in particular, a vision for its production from advanced nuclear reactors has been formulated. Fulfillment of this vision depend on its economics in 2020 or later. Prior to 2020, hydrogen needs to gain a substantial foothold without incurring excessive costs for the establishment of the distribution network for the new fuel. Water electrolysis and steam-methane reforming (SMR) are the existing hydrogen-production technologies, used for small-scale and large-scale production, respectively. Provided electricity is produced at costs expected for nuclear reactors of near-term design, electrolysis appears to offer superior economics when the SMR-related costs of distribution and sequestration (or an equivalent emission levy) are included. This is shown to hold at least until several percentage points of road transport have been converted to hydrogen. Electrolysis has large advantages over SMRs in being almost scale-independent and allowing local production. The key requirements for affordable electrolysis are low capital cost and relatively high utilization, although the paper shows that it should be advantageous to avoid the peaks of electricity demand and cost. The electricity source must enable high utilization as well as being itself low-cost and emissions-free. By using off-peak electricity, no extra costs for enhanced electricity distribution should occur. The longer-term supply of hydrogen may ultimately evolve away from low-temperature water electrolysis but it appears to be an excellent technology for early deployment and capable of supplying hydrogen at prices not dissimilar from today's costs for gasoline and diesel provided the vehicle's power unit is a fuel cell. (author)

  9. Evolution of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a “top-down” approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a “bottom-up” analysis of a database of -3,265 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of an economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7% per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues are relatively small compared to total U.S. energy expenditures (about $4.1 billion in 2008), but ESCOs anticipated accelerated growth through 2011 (25% per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated -$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20% of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated -$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. We found that nearly 85% of all public and institutional projects met or exceeded the guaranteed level of savings. We estimated that a typical ESCO project generated $1.5 dollars of direct benefits for every dollar of customer

  10. GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010. An occasional publication of Gas Research Institute on topics of current interest. December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; McCabe, N.C.

    1989-12-01

    The report summarizes the 1989 GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which was adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of GRI's 1991 R and D program. Summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends are presented. Appendixes include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1989 projection, and analysis of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration energy supply and demand, a comparison of the 1989 projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  11. Decision support for choice optimal power generation projects: Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model based on the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Zhihong; Yang Kun; Sun Yaowei; Yuan Jiahai; Zhang Hongwei; Zhang Zhizheng

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, China began to inspire restructuring of the electric power sector to improve its performance. Especially, with the rapid increase of electricity demand in China, there is a need for non-utility generation investment that cannot be met by government finance alone. However, a first prerequisite is that regulators and decision-makers (DMs) should carefully consider how to balance the need to attract private investment against the policy objectives of minimizing monopoly power and fostering competitive markets. So in the interim term of electricity market, a decentralized decision-making process should eventually replace the centralized generation capacity expansion planning. In this paper, firstly, on the basis of the current situation, a model for evaluating generation projects by comprehensive utilization of fuzzy appraisal and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is developed. Secondly, a case study of generation project evaluation in China is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in selecting optimal generation projects and attracting private investors. In the case study, with considerations of attracting adequate private investment and promoting energy conservation in China, five most promising policy instruments selected as evaluation factors include project duration, project costs, predicted on-grid price level, environmental protection, enterprise credit grading and performance. Finally, a comprehensive framework that enables the DM to have better concentration and to make more sound decisions by combining the model proposed with modern computer science is designed

  12. A Supply and Demand Management Perspective on the Accelerated Global Introductions of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in a Constrained Supply Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ian; Ottosen, Ann; Rubin, Jennifer; Blanc, Diana Chang; Zipursky, Simona; Wootton, Emily

    2017-07-01

    A total of 105 countries have introduced IPV as of September 2016 of which 85 have procured the vaccine through UNICEF. The Global Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 called for the rapid introduction of at least one dose of IPV into routine immunization schedules in 126 all OPV-using countries by the end of 2015. At the time of initiating the procurement process, demand was estimated based on global modeling rather than individual country indications. In its capacity as procurement agency for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, UNICEF set out to secure access to IPV supply for around 100 countries. Based on offers received, sufficient supply was awarded to two manufacturers to meet projected routine requirements. However, due to technical issues scaling up vaccine production and an unforecasted demand for IPV use in campaigns to interrupt wild polio virus and to control type 2 vaccine derived polio virus outbreaks, IPV supplies are severely constrained. Activities to stretch supplies and to suppress demand have been ongoing since 2014, including delaying IPV introduction in countries where risks of type 2 reintroduction are lower, implementing the multi-dose vial policy, and encouraging the use of fractional dose delivered intradermally. Despite these efforts, there is still insufficient IPV supply to meet demand. The impact of the supply situation on IPV introduction timelines in countries are the focus of this article, and based on lessons learned with the IPV introductions, it is recommended for future health programs with accelerated scale up of programs, to take a cautious approach on supply commitments, putting in place clear allocation criteria in case of shortages or delays and establishing a communication strategy vis a vis beneficiaries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. A Supply and Demand Management Perspective on the Accelerated Global Introductions of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in a Constrained Supply Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosen, Ann; Rubin, Jennifer; Blanc, Diana Chang; Zipursky, Simona; Wootton, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A total of 105 countries have introduced IPV as of September 2016 of which 85 have procured the vaccine through UNICEF. The Global Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 called for the rapid introduction of at least one dose of IPV into routine immunization schedules in 126 all OPV-using countries by the end of 2015. At the time of initiating the procurement process, demand was estimated based on global modeling rather than individual country indications. In its capacity as procurement agency for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, UNICEF set out to secure access to IPV supply for around 100 countries. Based on offers received, sufficient supply was awarded to two manufacturers to meet projected routine requirements. However, due to technical issues scaling up vaccine production and an unforecasted demand for IPV use in campaigns to interrupt wild polio virus and to control type 2 vaccine derived polio virus outbreaks, IPV supplies are severely constrained. Activities to stretch supplies and to suppress demand have been ongoing since 2014, including delaying IPV introduction in countries where risks of type 2 reintroduction are lower, implementing the multi-dose vial policy, and encouraging the use of fractional dose delivered intradermally. Despite these efforts, there is still insufficient IPV supply to meet demand. The impact of the supply situation on IPV introduction timelines in countries are the focus of this article, and based on lessons learned with the IPV introductions, it is recommended for future health programs with accelerated scale up of programs, to take a cautious approach on supply commitments, putting in place clear allocation criteria in case of shortages or delays and establishing a communication strategy vis a vis beneficiaries. PMID:28838159

  14. Projected developments in the US and European LWR fabrication market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.K.; Varley, G.

    1996-01-01

    There are several important factors influencing change in the fuel fabrication supply industry in Western Europe today. The most important is the changing supply relationships resulting from lower costs in the USA. With US fabrication prices substantially lower than in Western Europe, a situation which is sustainable based on production costs, a major force for change prevails which will have significant implications for the commercial development of both markets over the next decade. The extent to which supply from the USA will drive the Western Europe market will depend, to some extent, on three other factors: the new US-Euratom agreement on nuclear trade; electricity market deregulation in the European Union (EU); near term MOX fuel fabrication capacity. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the current situation in the USA and Europe, and the manner in which this will lead to changing fuel fabrication supply dynamics in both markets. (author)

  15. The Organizing and Market Development of a Subcontracting Project to Vietnam : a Developing Export Market for Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thien

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the fastest developing countries in the world. Finland and Finnish companies have been doing more and more business in Vietnam in recent years. Understanding the environment and the business culture of the country of the utmost importance before entering the market. The goal of this project was to find a suitable subcontracting partner for the client company and thus to find information about the Vietnamese business culture. This project was carried out for Finpro which ...

  16. A survey of financing possibilities of projects in energetics with emphasis to the market with natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Al-Zabidi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available With the present expansion of globalization within economic competition of individual countries are stability and economicdevelopment inevitably bound with the term of energy, therefore also the natural gas. Presently, energy is still the most important factorof economic and social development.The critical tempo of energy consumption, entering of new players on the energetic market, quick industrialization of Asiancountries and accordingly growing difference between supply and demand, worries of depletion of the existing sources and worseningof our living environment are all worldwide global problems.The subject of the presented paper is a survey of market with natural gas in Slovakia, possibilities of diversification of sourcesof natural gas, its transport and distribution with the emphasis to the possibilities of financing of projects in energetics.

  17. European airlines enter the biofuels market. Business Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E.

    2011-06-15

    Biofuels might offer opportunities for achieving improved balance of power to the European airlines in their market environment. The aviation sector in Europe is a high competitive market. It faces high rivalry and increasing fuel costs due to rising oil prices. Moreover, from 2012 the sector will be subject to stringent rules with respect to maximum allowed carbon emissions. Investigating the competitive forces in the aviation sector and executing a strategic group analysis maps the competitors and the major players in the supply chain and the options they have for using alternative fuels for low carbon performance. Both the market and non-market strategies of several European airlines have been studied. It appears that airlines are aiming at first mover advantage by moving upstream in the biofuel value chain. They search for collaboration with other stakeholders to change government regulation to their benefit and influence public opinion and research agendas. Airlines are late entrants in the biofuels market. This research has shown that biofuels can improve the market power balance for European airlines. Biofuels are key to improve the carbon performance of airlines. However, this implies that airlines take position at the resource side of the value chain for biojetfuels. This has the advantage of controlling the security of supply and managing biofuels production complying to ruling sustainability criteria.

  18. The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project: a study of vocal demands and vocal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Molly L

    2012-09-01

    The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project seeks to identify the musical and performance characteristics of traditional/acoustic musicians and determine the vocal demands they face with the goals of (1) providing information and outreach to this important group of singers and (2) providing information to physicians, speech-language pathologists, and singing teachers who will enable them to provide appropriate services. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data have been collected through administration of a 53-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to artists performing at local venues in Knoxville, Tennessee and also to musicians attending the 2008 Folk Alliance Festival in Memphis, Tennessee. Approximately 41% of the respondents have had no vocal training, whereas approximately 34% of the respondents have had some form of formal vocal training (private lessons or group instruction). About 41% of the participants had experienced a tired voice, whereas about 30% of the participants had experienced either a loss of the top range of the voice or a total loss of voice at least once in their careers. Approximately 31% of the respondents had no health insurance. Approximately 69% of the respondents reported that they get their information about healthy singing practices solely from fellow musicians or that they do not get any information at all. Traditional/acoustic musicians are a poorly studied population at risk for the development of voice disorders. Continued research is necessary with the goal of a large sample that can be analyzed for associations, identification of subpopulations, and formulation of specific hypotheses that lend themselves to experimental research. Appropriate models of information and service delivery tailored for the singer-instrumentalist are needed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy demand futures by global models : Projections of a complex system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O.Y.

    2018-01-01

    The energy demand sectors industry, transport and buildings are together directly responsible for around 51 % of the global energy-related CO2 emissions and indirectly drive the emissions in the energy supply sectors. The demand sectors are characterized by many subsectors, technologies,

  20. Focal relationships and the environment of project marketing. A literature review with suggestions for practitioners and future research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki

    2000-01-01

    of the review is upon the connection between focal relationships and the wider environment in which project marketing and systems selling takes place. First, several common definitions of projects and project marketing are presented and discussed. Second, the implications of three specific features of project......Project marketing is an important mode of business-to-business marketing today. This paper assesses recent project marketing contributions, including predominantly those of members of the (mainly European) International Network for Project Marketing and Systems Selling (INPM). The emphasis...... business - discontinuity, uniqueness, and complexity - for the focal relationship and the broader marketing environment are considered at the level of multiple projects. Third, three overlapping types of postures that project-selling firms can adopt in relation to their focal relationships...

  1. 2015 American College of Rheumatology Workforce Study: Supply and Demand Projections of Adult Rheumatology Workforce, 2015-2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battafarano, Daniel F; Ditmyer, Marcia; Bolster, Marcy B; Fitzgerald, John D; Deal, Chad; Bass, Ann R; Molina, Rodolfo; Erickson, Alan R; Hausmann, Jonathan S; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Imundo, Lisa F; Smith, Benjamin J; Jones, Karla; Greene, Kamilah; Monrad, Seetha U

    2018-04-01

    To describe the character and composition of the 2015 US adult rheumatology workforce, evaluate workforce trends, and project supply and demand for clinical rheumatology care for 2015-2030. The 2015 Workforce Study of Rheumatology Specialists in the US used primary and secondary data sources to estimate the baseline adult rheumatology workforce and determine demographic and geographic factors relevant to workforce modeling. Supply and demand was projected through 2030, utilizing data-driven estimations regarding the proportion and clinical full-time equivalent (FTE) of academic versus nonacademic practitioners. The 2015 adult workforce (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) was estimated to be 6,013 providers (5,415 clinical FTE). At baseline, the estimated demand exceeded the supply of clinical FTE by 700 (12.9%). By 2030, the supply of rheumatology clinical providers is projected to fall to 4,882 providers, or 4,051 clinical FTE (a 25.2% decrease in supply from 2015 baseline levels). Demand in 2030 is projected to exceed supply by 4,133 clinical FTE (102%). The adult rheumatology workforce projections reflect a major demographic and geographic shift that will significantly impact the supply of the future workforce by 2030. These shifts include baby-boomer retirements, a millennial predominance, and an increase of female and part-time providers, in parallel with an increased demand for adult rheumatology care due to the growing and aging US population. Regional and innovative strategies will be necessary to manage access to care and reduce barriers to care for rheumatology patients. © 2018, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Projections of highway vehicle population, energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions in India through 2040.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S.; Vyas, A.; Johnson, L.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-22

    This paper presents projections of motor vehicles, oil demand, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions for India through the year 2040. The populations of highway vehicles and two-wheelers are projected under three different scenarios on the basis of economic growth and average household size in India. The results show that by 2040, the number of highway vehicles in India would be 206-309 million. The oil demand projections for the Indian transportation sector are based on a set of nine scenarios arising out of three vehicle-growth and three fuel-economy scenarios. The combined effects of vehicle-growth and fuel-economy scenarios, together with the change in annual vehicle usage, result in a projected demand in 2040 by the transportation sector in India of 404-719 million metric tons (8.5-15.1 million barrels per day). The corresponding annual CO{sub 2} emissions are projected to be 1.2-2.2 billion metric tons.

  3. An assessment of the role mass market demand response could play in contributing to the management of variable generation integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    The penetration of wind and solar generating resources is expected to dramatically increase in the United States over the coming years. It is widely understood that large scale deployment of these types of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind, solar) that have variable and less predictable production characteristics than traditional thermal resources poses integration challenges for bulk power system operators. At present, bulk power system operators primarily utilize strategies that rely on existing thermal generation resources and improved wind and solar energy production forecasts to manage this uncertainty; a host of additional options are also envisioned for the near future including demand response (DR). There are well-established bodies of research that examine variable generation integration issues as well as demand response potential; but, the existing literature that provides a comparative assessment of the two neither treats this topic comprehensively nor in a highly integrated fashion. Thus, this paper seeks to address these missing pieces by considering the full range of opportunities and challenges for mass market DR rates and programs to support integration of variable renewable generation. - Highlights: ► Mass market demand response can help manage the integration of renewable resources. ► To be more effective, retail electricity rates must apply contemporaneous prices. ► Demand response programs will require shorter duration and more frequent events. ► Mass market customers will likely need to accept control technology. ► Market rules and regulatory policies must change to expand demand response's role.

  4. The potential demand for bioenergy in residential heating applications (bio-heat) in the UK based on a market segment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, S.; Pantaleo, A.; Bauen, A.; Pearson, P.; Panoutsou, C.; Slade, R.

    2008-01-01

    How large is the potential demand for bio-heat in the UK? Whilst most research has focused on the supply of biomass for energy production, an understanding of the potential demand is crucial to the uptake of heat from bioenergy. We have designed a systematic framework utilising market segmentation techniques to assess the potential demand for biomass heat in the UK. First, the heat market is divided into relevant segments, characterised in terms of their final energy consumption, technological and fuel supply options. Second, the key technical, economic and organisational factors that affect the uptake of bioenergy in each heat segment are identified, classified and then analysed to reveal which could be strong barriers, which could be surmounted easily, and for which bioenergy heat represents an improvement compared to alternatives. The defined framework is applied to the UK residential sector. We identify provisionally the most promising market segments for bioenergy heat, and their current levels of energy demand. We find that, depending on the assumptions, the present potential demand for bio-heat in the UK residential sector ranges between 3% (conservative estimate) and 31% (optimistic estimate) of the total energy consumed in the heat market. (author)

  5. A Tri-Country Marketing Project--Preparing Students for the Realities of a Global Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ina; Knight, Peter; Butt, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    With rapidly increasing globalization, business students are required to understand complex global markets and adapt to the rapid changes in the global landscape. This paper discusses a project where students from International Marketing courses in Pakistan, the United States, and France used an interactive platform as a base to jointly explore…

  6. The 1993 timber assessment market model: structure, projections, and policy simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius M. Adams; Richard W. Haynes

    1996-01-01

    The 1993 timber assessment market model (TAMM) is a spatial model of the solidwood and timber inventory elements of the U.S. forest products sector. The TAMM model provides annual projections of volumes and prices in the solidwood products and sawtimber stumpage markets and estimates of total timber harvest and inventory by geographic region for periods of up to 50...

  7. Human resource management for a new generation: The professional orientation of young people in the Czech Republic does not match the current labor market Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Švarcová, Jena; Dohnalová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    The Czech economy is traditionally focused on technical fields such as engineering, electronics, and automotive industries. Research among students in secondary schools and universities in the Czech Republic however, shows that future generations would choose another profession, according to the classification by Roe, than required by the job market. The demand of the labour market faces a lack of employees, especially in the group of occupations number 4, technologies, which is still the mos...

  8. Electricity Demand Projection Using a Path-Coefficient Analysis and BAG-SA Approach: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunli Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Path-coefficient analysis is utilized to investigate the direct and indirect effects of economic growth, population growth, urbanization rate, industrialization level, and carbon intensity on electricity demand of China. To improve the projection accuracy of electricity demand, this study proposes a hybrid bat algorithm, Gaussian perturbations, and simulated annealing (BAG-SA optimization method. The proposed BAG-SA algorithm not only inherits the simplicity and efficiency of the standard BA with a capability of searching for global optimality but also enhances local search ability and speeds up the global convergence rate. The BAG-SA algorithm is employed to optimize the coefficients of the multiple linear and quadratic forms of electricity demand estimation model. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm has higher precision and reliability than the coefficients optimized by other single-optimization methods, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, or bat algorithm. And the quadratic form of BAG-SA electricity demand estimation model has better fitting ability compared with the multiple linear form of the model. Therefore, the quadratic form of the model is applied to estimate electricity demand of China from 2016 to 2030. The findings of this study demonstrate that China’s electricity demand will reach 14925200 million KWh in 2030.

  9. Design considerations of the World Bank-assisted $55 million photovoltaic market development project in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabraal, A.; Bradley, J.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank's first loan for photovoltaic (PV) power systems was approved on December 17, 1992. The $55-million project will offer concessional financing through the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) for the purchase of PV systems. The objective of the PV Market Development Project is to encourage the establishment of sustainable product supply, delivery, after-sales service, and financing mechanisms to support marketing PV products on a commercial basis. This paper outlines the issues and steps involved in the project design including: (1) technical viability, (2) financial and economic viability, (3) infrastructure issues, and (4) the economic and financial viability of the project as a whole

  10. Law project relative to the energy markets; Projet de loi relatif aux marches energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-25

    This document presents the law project relative to the energy markets. It aims to open the french gas market to the competition and defines the gas utilities obligations. The first part presents the main topics of the law: the natural gas distribution access, the natural gas sector regulation, the gas utilities, the natural gas transport and distribution, the underground storage, the control and penalties. The second part details the commission works concerning this law project. (A.L.B.)

  11. US EPA's photovoltaic demand-side management project. Report for September 1992-July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, E.C.; Spiegel, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses an investigation of how photovoltaics (PV) may be used as both a pollution-mitigating energy replacement for fossil fuels and a demand-side management (DSM) option to reduce peak electrical demands of commercial and residential buildings. Eleven electric utilities are partners in this first nationwide demonstration of PV DSM. The approach is to install and monitor standardized PV systems in diverse geographic areas with varying solar energy resource and electric power demand, production, and cost conditions. The systems are being monitored for a year to record direct and diffuse irradiance, ambient air temperature, PV power generation, and building loads. Utilities are providing the electric system operations data needed to determine the pollution mitigation and peak demand reduction that can result from the PV electrical power generation

  12. Chlorine demand and residual chlorine decay kinetics of Kali river water at Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Bhat, D.; Prakash, T.R.; Thimme Gowda, B.; Sherigara, B.S.; Khader, A.M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power plant at Kaiga would use Kali river water for condenser cooling. This necessitated studies on the chemistry of chlorination such as chlorine demand, kinetics of chlorination and other water characteristics aimed at obtaining base line data. The study revealed significant seasonal variation of chlorine demand ranging from 0.5 ppm to 1.7 ppm (3.0 ppm dose, 30 min contact time) and total consumption of 5.0 ppm (10.0 ppm dose, 48 hours contact time). The reaction follows first order kinetics in chlorine. High correlation of chlorine demand with chlorophyll a, suspended matter, turbidity, silica, nitrite, phosphate and sulphate indicated that chlorine demand is greatly influenced by water quality. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  13. Marketing as well as cultural aspects of logistic projects' realization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... product (in this case, the logistical) can reach the right person, at the lowest .... The necessity of determining the parameters of customers' service, which on the one .... strategy shaping as well as their final usage in order to ensure internal and ... The logistics and marketing concepts come together, thus.

  14. A Case Study in Competitive Technical and Market Intelligence Support and Lessons Learned for the uChemLab LDRD Grand Challenge Project; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOUTHWELL, EDWIN T.; GARCIA, MARIE L.; MEYERS, CHARLES E.

    2001-01-01

    The(mu)ChemLab(trademark) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Grand Challenge project began in October 1996 and ended in September 2000. The technical managers of the(mu)ChemLab(trademark) project and the LDRD office, with the support of a consultant, conducted a competitive technical and market demand intelligence analysis of the(mu)ChemLab(trademark). The managers used this knowledge to make project decisions and course adjustments. CTI/MDI positively impacted the project's technology development, uncovered potential technology partnerships, and supported eventual industry partner contacts. CTI/MDI analysis is now seen as due diligence and the(mu)ChemLab(trademark) project is now the model for other Sandia LDRD Grand Challenge undertakings. This document describes the CTI/MDI analysis and captures the more important ''lessons learned'' of this Grand Challenge project, as reported by the project's management team

  15. Consequences of EU enlargement for supply and demand in the electricity market with special emphasis on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, G.

    2004-01-01

    After the enlargement of the European Union, Europe has acquired a new dimension which is reflected also on the electricity market. The aggregate European electricity requirement of 3 000 TWh in Europe constitutes approximately one quarter of the world electricity generation. Nuclear power contributes a major share of 966 TWh. In electricity generation from nuclear power, EU-25 is No. 1 in the world. The rising demand for electricity cannot be met by the existing power plant park in the next few decades. Insufficient possibilities of exchange among countries and, especially, the enormous requirement to replace more than 200,000 MW of electricity generating capacity in Europe by 2020, plus another 100,000 MW arising from growing demand, make a comprehensive renewal of the European power plant park indispensable. After the EU enlargement, the standards of the ''old'' European Union are the yardstick for the entire ''new'' Union. This gives rise to enormous efforts, especially in the accession countries, to curb emissions and increase safety. The need for modern power plant technology is becoming particularly apparent in these cases. The example of the ten new member countries clearly shows the options realistically available for electricity generation in the future and indispensable for a favorable infrastructure. The conventional energy resources, i. e. coal, gas, and nuclear power, will be the main sources of electricity generation in Europe over the next few decades. This finding does not meet the expectations of many members of the public who feel that renewables would make the largest contribution to power supply in twenty years' time. This makes it imperative to regain popular acceptance in order to ensure electricity generation at favorable conditions and at a high level of environmental protection in the whole of Europe, with enough leeway to further advance the expansion of renewables and support a positive economic development of Europe. (orig.)

  16. Uncertain socioeconomic projections used in travel demand and emissions models: could plausible errors result in air quality nonconformity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, C.J.; Johnston, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of plausible errors in population, employment, fuel price, and income projections is conducted using the travel demand and emissions models of the Sacramento, CA, USA, region for their transportation plan. The results of the analyses indicate that plausible error ranges for household income and fuel prices are not a significant source of uncertainty with respect to the region's travel demand and emissions projections. However, plausible errors in population and employment projections (within approximately one standard deviation) may result in the region's transportation plan not meeting the conformity test for nitrogens of oxides (NO x ) in the year 2005 (i.e., an approximately 16% probability). This outcome is also possible in the year 2015 but less likely (within approximately two standard deviations or a 2.5% probability). Errors in socioeconomic projections are only one of many sources of error in travel demand and emissions models. These results have several policy implications. First, regions like Sacramento that meet their conformity tests by a very small margin should rethink new highway investment and consider contingency transportation plans that incorporate more aggressive emissions reduction policies. Second, regional transportation planning agencies should conduct sensitivity analyses as part of their conformity analysis to make explicit significant uncertainties in the methods and to identify the probability of their transportation plan not conforming. Third, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should clarify the interpretation of ''demonstrate'' conformity of transportation plans; that is, specify the level of certainty that it considers a sufficient demonstration of conformity. (author)

  17. The making of a market. Supply- and demand-side perspectives on institutional innovation in Sweden's wood fuel use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis documents and analyses the rapidly increasing wood fuel use in Sweden in five separate studies of prominent actors in the making of the wood fuel market. These studies report government policy, forest owners' incentives, and district heating companies' experiences. The development of wood fuel use is examined as a story of technological and institutional change initially prompted by government policy. The change has involved dedicated action among all of the actors, with the Swedish government initiating new policies, legislation, and information activities, with district heating companies investing in new technology and trading, and with forest owners making new decisions on forest management practices. Institutional change in the wood fuel sector, in other words, is the result of innovation on the part of the actors involved. The papers included in the study identify and analyse concerns of the actors involved in making the wood fuel market. Within the district heating sector, transaction costs, as measured by problems to trade perceived by managements, have decreased with learning. Transformation costs, due to technical problems, are not perceived to have followed this trend. Technical investments in heat production have a long technical life time and demand large investment costs. This in turn means long planning and decision periods. Investments are made for a number of company-specific reasons, perhaps most importantly simply to increase heat and/or electricity generation capacity. Policy instruments may tip a decision in favor of wood fuels, but they could not be the single parameter determining company investments. Two kinds of forest owners selling wood fuels were identified, a forest manager type who acts more on his/her own initiative, and another kind, who relies more on the advice of the traditional timber buyer. Forest owners selling wood fuels contemplating whether to sell wood fuels or not are strongly influenced by soil fertility

  18. Renewable energy sources project appraisal under uncertainty: the case of wind energy exploitation within a changing energy market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venetsanos, K.; Angelopoulou, P.; Tsoutsos, T.

    2002-01-01

    There are four elements, which contribute to the oncoming increase of electricity demand: climate changes, the expected growth rates of EU Member State economies, changes in the consumption patterns and the introduction of new technologies. The new deregulated Electricity Market is expected to respond to this challenge and the energy supply will be adequate and cost effective within this new environment which offers promising opportunities for power producers both existing and newcomers. In this paper a framework for the appraisal of power projects under uncertainty within a competitive market environment is identified, focusing on the electricity from Renewable Energy Sources. To this end the wind energy-to-electricity, production in Greece will serve as a case study. The subject matter is centred on the following areas: the uncertainties within the new deregulated energy market; the evaluation methods including an analysis of the introduced uncertainties after deregulation and a new approach to project evaluation using the real options, as well as comparison of the valuation methodologies within the new environment drawing from the case for Greece. (author)

  19. Numeric model to predict the location of market demand and economic order quantity for retailers of supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradinata, Edy; Marli Kesuma, Zurnila

    2018-05-01

    Polynomials and Spline regression are the numeric model where they used to obtain the performance of methods, distance relationship models for cement retailers in Banda Aceh, predicts the market area for retailers and the economic order quantity (EOQ). These numeric models have their difference accuracy for measuring the mean square error (MSE). The distance relationships between retailers are to identify the density of retailers in the town. The dataset is collected from the sales of cement retailer with a global positioning system (GPS). The sales dataset is plotted of its characteristic to obtain the goodness of fitted quadratic, cubic, and fourth polynomial methods. On the real sales dataset, polynomials are used the behavior relationship x-abscissa and y-ordinate to obtain the models. This research obtains some advantages such as; the four models from the methods are useful for predicting the market area for the retailer in the competitiveness, the comparison of the performance of the methods, the distance of the relationship between retailers, and at last the inventory policy based on economic order quantity. The results, the high-density retail relationship areas indicate that the growing population with the construction project. The spline is better than quadratic, cubic, and four polynomials in predicting the points indicating of small MSE. The inventory policy usages the periodic review policy type.

  20. Description of the global petroleum supply and demand outlook. Updated for the 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1991-11-01

    The global oil trade is still in surplus production with downward pressure on prices just as in early 1990. The current oil price situation includes three major new factors which need to be taken into account: the outlook for the restoration of production capacity lost from the war; the impact of events in the Soviet Union and former Eastern block; and, the effect changed financial circumstances of the major Middle Eastern producers will have on pricing in the future. The net effect appears to be adequate or excess production capability for the next several years, volatile prices in the near term, with general downward pressures resulting in relative lower average prices. In the longer term there will be an increasing demand requirement for aggressive investment in new capacity resulting in relatively steep escalation in prices. The oil price track used for this projection is essentially the same as in the last two GRI Baseline Projections. The U.S. refiners acquisition cost (RAC) of crude oil is expected to increase at an overall real average rate of 2.3 percent, reaching $36.84 per barrel in 1991 dollars and $83.30 in nominal dollars in the year 2010