WorldWideScience

Sample records for projected cost comparisons

  1. Projected cost comparison of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, P.E.; Hu, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of electricity generation costs has been done in the late years through a large co-operation between several organisations. The studies are aiming to provide reliable comparison of electricity generating costs of nuclear and conventional base load power plants. This paper includes the result of the joint IAEA/OECD study published in 1997. (author)

  2. Cost comparison for REDC pretreatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Homan, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    This analysis has been prepared to support the planned expenditure to provide the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) with the capability to pretreat their liquid low-level waste (LLLW) before discharging it to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) LLLW system. Pretreatment will remove most of the radioactivity, particularly the transuranic isotopes and Cs-137 from the waste to be discharged. This will render the supernates that accumulate in the storage tanks low-activity Class B low-level wastes rather than high-activity Class B or Class C wastes. The sludges will be Class C rather than remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. When REDC wastes are commingled with other ORNL LLLW, the present-worth treatment and transport costs are higher by a factor of 1.3 for the no-pretreatment cases. This result is consistent with data from similar studies conducted at other sites. Based on the information presented in this analysis, the recommendation is to proceed with REDC treatment projects

  3. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  4. Global warming response options in Brazil's forest sector: comparison of project-level costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A project-level assessment of monetary and carbon costs and benefits for five classes of global warming response options in the forest sector is attempted for typical Brazilian conditions. Options considered are: silvicultural plantations (for pulp, charcoal and sawlogs), sustainable timber management and reduction of deforestation. Comparison of pulpwood and sawlog plantations with the vegetation characteristic of deforested areas indicates of modest carbon benefit. Plantations for charcoal can produce a substantial carbon benefit through fossil fuel substitution, but much of this calculated benefit disappears if discount rates greater than zero are applied to carbon. Sustainable timber management, when compared with existing forest, represents a net carbon loss, accumulation of carbon in wood products being insufficient to compensate for biomass reduction over a 100 year time scale. Reduction of deforestation has great potential as a global warming response option, its per-hectare carbon benefits being approximately four times that of silvicultural plantation establishment for pulp and sawlogs over a 100 year period. The costs of reducing deforestation are difficult to assess, however, due to the importance of government policy changes such as removal of land speculation and land tenure establishment as motives for clearing. Although these changes would not cost money and would have tremendous carbon and other benefits, they have not yet occurred. (Author)

  5. Bottom-up comparisons of CO2 storage and costs in forestry and biomass energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    In order to include forestry and biomass energy projects in a possible CO 2 emission reduction regime, and to compare the costs of individual projects or national programs, it is necessary to determine the rate of equivalency between carbon in fossil fuel emissions and carbon stored in different types of forestry, biomass and renewable energy projects. This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO 2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone is sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction

  6. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  7. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuther, J.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described

  8. Underestimation of Project Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  9. Project Cost Estimation for Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    For Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT), there are far too many projects that ultimately cost much more than initially planned. Because project nominations are linked to estimates of future funding and the analysis of system needs, the inaccur...

  10. Social cost in construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çelik, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.celik@emu.edu.tr [Department of Civil Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, T.R. North Cyprus, Via Mersin 10 (Turkey); Kamali, Saeed, E-mail: saeedkamali2002@gmail.com [Civil Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Arayici, Yusuf, E-mail: yusuf.arayici@hku.edu.tr [Department of Civil Engineering, Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Despite the fact that completion of construction projects has a direct positive impact on the growth of national and local economies as well as humans' wellbeing, construction projects, especially in the urban areas, generate serious environmental nuisances for the adjacent residents and have unintentional adverse impacts on their surrounding environment. Construction causative adverse impacts on the neighbouring communities are known as the social costs. This study aims to present a state-of-the-art overview of social costs in construction industry in terms of definition, consideration, classification and quantification. Furthermore, it is aimed to bring the construction social cost phenomenon for the agenda of Environmental Impact Assessors.

  11. Social cost in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelik, Tolga; Kamali, Saeed; Arayici, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that completion of construction projects has a direct positive impact on the growth of national and local economies as well as humans' wellbeing, construction projects, especially in the urban areas, generate serious environmental nuisances for the adjacent residents and have unintentional adverse impacts on their surrounding environment. Construction causative adverse impacts on the neighbouring communities are known as the social costs. This study aims to present a state-of-the-art overview of social costs in construction industry in terms of definition, consideration, classification and quantification. Furthermore, it is aimed to bring the construction social cost phenomenon for the agenda of Environmental Impact Assessors.

  12. Trojan Decommissioning Project Cost Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael B. Lackey

    2000-01-01

    The Trojan nuclear plant (Trojan) was an 1160-MW(electric) four-loop pressurized water reactor located in Rainier, Oregon. The plant was permanently shut down in 1993 after ∼17 yr of commercial operation. The early plant closure was an economic decision. The key factors in the closure analysis were escalation of inspection and repair costs associated with steam generator tube cracking and the projected availability of inexpensive replacement power in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Since the plant closure, Portland General Electric (PGE) has been actively engaged in decommissioning. The Trojan Decommissioning Project currently has a forecast at completion of $429.7 million (all costs are in millions of 1997 dollars, unless otherwise noted). The cost performance of the Trojan Decommissioning Project to date is addressed, as well as the tools that are in place to provide cost control through completion of decommissioning

  13. EPR project construction cost control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflo, D.; Pouget-Abadie, X.; Dufour, A.; Kauffmann, G.

    2001-01-01

    The EPR project is now managed by EDF in cooperation with the German Utilities. The main engineering activities for this period are related to the preparation of construction project management, deepening of some safety issues, definition of the project technical reference. The EPR project concerns the so-called reference unit, that is an isolated first-off unit, with unit electrical power of about 1500 MW. The construction costs evaluated are those of the nuclear island, the conventional island, site facilities, installation work and the administrative buildings. The EPR project construction cost evaluation method applies to all the equipment installed and commissioned. It requires the availability of a preliminary project detailed enough to identify the bill of quantities. To these quantities are then assigned updated unit prices that are based either on cost bases for similar and recent facilities or taken from request for quotation for similar equipment or result from gains due to contractual conditions benefiting from simplifications in the functional and technical specifications. The input and output data are managed in a model that respects the breakdown on which the evaluation method is based. The structural organization of this method reflects a functional breakdown on the one hand (nuclear island, conventional island, common site elements) and on the other hand a breakdown according to equipment or activity (civil engineering, mechanics, electricity, instrumentation and control). This paper discusses the principle and the method of construction cost evaluation carried out, the cost data base and input and output parameters as well as results and oncoming cost analysis tasks. (author)

  14. Mapping water availability, cost and projected consumptive use in the eastern United States with comparisons to the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbie D.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.; Kobos, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The availability of freshwater supplies to meet future demand is a growing concern. Water availability metrics are needed to inform future water development decisions. With the help of water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1300 watersheds throughout the 31 contiguous states in the eastern US complimenting a prior study of the west. The compiled set of water availability data is unique in that it considers multiple sources of water (fresh surface and groundwater, wastewater and brackish groundwater); accommodates institutional controls placed on water use; is accompanied by cost estimates to access, treat and convey each unique source of water; and is compared to projected future growth in consumptive water use to 2030. Although few administrative limits have been set on water availability in the east, water managers have identified 315 fresh surface water and 398 fresh groundwater basins (with 151 overlapping basins) as areas of concern (AOCs) where water supply challenges exist due to drought related concerns, environmental flows, groundwater overdraft, or salt water intrusion. This highlights a difference in management where AOCs are identified in the east which simply require additional permitting, while in the west strict administrative limits are established. Although the east is generally considered ‘water rich’ roughly a quarter of the basins were identified as AOCs; however, this is still in strong contrast to the west where 78% of the surface water basins are operating at or near their administrative limit. Little effort was noted on the part of eastern or western water managers to quantify non-fresh water resources.

  15. 14 CFR 151.41 - Project costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project costs. 151.41 Section 151.41... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Airport Development Projects § 151.41 Project costs. (a) For the purposes of subparts B and C, project costs consist of any costs involved in accomplishing a...

  16. Projected Costs of Generating Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plante, J.

    1998-01-01

    Every 3 to 4 years, the NEA undertakes a study on projected costs of generating electricity in OECD countries. This started in 1983 and the last study (1997) has just be completed. All together 5 studies were performed, the first three dealing with nuclear and coal options, while the 1992 and 1997 included also the gas option. The goal of the study is to compare, country by country, generating costs of nuclear, coal-fired and gas-fired power plants that could be commissioned in the respondent countries by 2005-2010

  17. Projected costs of generating electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Previous editions of Projected Costs of Generating Electricity have served as the reference in this field for energy policy makers, electricity system analysts and energy economists. The study is particularly timely in the light of current discussions of energy policy in many countries. The joint IEA/NEA study provides generation cost estimates for over a hundred power plants that use a variety of fuels and technologies. These include coal-fired, gas-fired, nuclear, hydro, solar and wind plants. Cost estimates are also given for combined heat and power plants that use coal, gas and combustible renewables. Data and information for this study were provided by experts from 19 OECD member countries and 3 non-member countries. The power plants examined in the study use technologies available today and considered by participating countries as candidates for commissioning by 2010-2015 or earlier. Investors and other decision makers will also need to take the full range of other factors into account (such as security of supply, risks and carbon emissions) when selecting an electricity generation technology. The study shows that the competitiveness of alternative generation sources and technologies ultimately depends on many parameters: there is no clear-cut ''winner''. Major issues related to generation costs addressed in the report include: descriptions of state-of-the-art generation technologies; the methodologies for incorporating risk in cost assessments; the impact of carbon emission trading; and how to integrate wind power into the electricity grid. An appendix to the report provides country statements on generation technologies and costs. Previous studies in the series were published in 1983, 1986, 1990, 1993 and 1998. (author)

  18. Comparison of biological stability and metabolism of CCK2 receptor targeting peptides, a collaborative project under COST BM0607

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, Meltem [Innsbruck Medical University, Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Istanbul University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacy Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Helbok, Anna; Rangger, Christine; Decristoforo, Clemens [Innsbruck Medical University, Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Peitl, Petra Kolenc [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department for Nuclear Medicine, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nock, Berthold A. [National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Molecular Radiopharmacy, Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, Athens (Greece); Morelli, Giancarlo [University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' and IBB-CN, Department of Biological Sciences, CIRPeB, Naples (Italy); Eek, Annemarie [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Institute of Cancer, Barts and the London Queen Mary' s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Molecular Oncology and Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Breeman, W.A.P. [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research Institute of Pathology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    Stability of radiolabelled cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2) receptor targeting peptides has been a major limitation in the use of such radiopharmaceuticals especially for targeted radionuclide therapy applications, e.g. for treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro stability of a series of peptides binding to the CCK2 receptor [selected as part of the COST Action on Targeted Radionuclide Therapy (BM0607)] and to identify major cleavage sites. Twelve different 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-minigastrin/CCK conjugates were provided within an European COST Action (BM0607) by different laboratories and radiolabelled with {sup 177}Lu. Their in vitro stabilities were tested in fresh human serum. Radiochemical yields (RCY) and intact radioligands for half-life calculations were determined by radio-HPLC. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites was performed to identify cleavage products using conjugates labelled with excess stable {sup nat}Lu, incubated in serum at 37 C. Urine metabolite analysis after injection in normal mice was performed by radio-HPLC analysis. Variable stability in human serum was found for the different peptides with calculated half-lives between 4.5 {+-} 0.1 h and 198 {+-} 0.1 h (n = 2). In urine of normal mice only metabolised peptide fragments were detected even at short times after injection for all peptides. MALDI-TOF MS revealed a major cleavage site of all minigastrin derivatives between Asp and Phe-NH{sub 2} at the C-terminal end. Development of CCK2 receptor ligands especially for therapeutic purposes in patients with MTC or small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is still ongoing in different laboratories. This comparative study provided valuable insight into the importance of biological stability especially in the context of other results of this comparative

  19. Projected costs of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of a study on the projected costs of generating electricity. It presents the latest data available on electricity generating costs for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal, gas, nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal. The study reaches 2 key conclusions. First, at a 5% real interest rate, nuclear energy is the most competitive solution for base-load electricity generation followed by coal-fired plants without carbon capture and natural gas-fired combined plants. It should be noted that coal with carbon capture has not reached a commercial phase. Second, at a 10% interest rate, nuclear remains the most competitive in Asia and North America but in Europe, coal without carbon capture equipment, followed by coal with carbon capture equipment, and gas-fired combined cycle turbines are overall more competitive than nuclear energy. The results highlight the paramount importance of interest rates (this dependence is a direct consequence of the nuclear energy's high capital costs) and of the carbon price. For instance if we assume a 10% interest rate and a cost of 50 dollar per tonne of CO 2 , nuclear energy would become competitive against both coal and gas. (A.C.)

  20. Cost benchmarking of railway projects in Europe – can it help to reduce costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabo, Inara; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    a certain overview of the range of costs in various budget disciplines. The Copenhagen-Ringsted project is shown to be right in the middle of the range in terms of total costs per kilometre, and its values in the discipline comparisons do not significantly differ from the values of the less expensive...... projects. Deeper analysis of project unit costs is still continuing, but the preliminary results show that the cost values for projects located in the same geographical zone are similar. For example, this can be explained by their use of the same construction companies. However, unit prices in southern...

  1. Results and assessment of participation of VUPEK in coordinated research project of the IAEA ''Comparison of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadlec, J.; Horacek, P.

    1989-01-01

    The results and conclusions are summarized of the research programme ''Comparison of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems'' co-ordinated in 1983 to 1988 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Institutes in 18 member states were involved which performed 33 case studies in the field of risk reduction in various power systems or their parts. A comparison with cost-effectiveness of risk reduction in other fields was made as well. The health risks (occupational, those of population) and the environmental risks were evaluated. The case studies cover various stages of the decision-making process and various decision makers. The solution resulted in 5 methodological studies and 16 models. 11 case studies and 1 methodological study were conducted by the Research Institute of the Fuel and Energy Complex. The experiences obtained, the questions so far unanswered and recommendations for those who will perform similar studies are given. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  2. The environmental cost in the mining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria Rivera Antonio

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate and calculate the mining project, Environmental costs, besides the proper variables concerning the project. It is necessary to incorporate the distinct interrelations among the mining operation with the local and regional biophysics and. socio-economic environments existing in the project's area of influence

  3. Cost benchmarking of railway projects in Europe – dealing with uncertainties in cost estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabo, Inara

    Past experiences in the construction of high-speed railway projects demontrate either positive or negative financial outcomes of the actual project’s budget. Usually some uncertainty value is included into initial budget calculations. Uncertainty is related to the increase of material prices...... per main cost drivers were compared and analyzed. There were observed nine railway projects, comparable to the Copenhagen-Ringsted project. The results of this comparison provided a certain overview on the cost range in different budget disciplines. The Copenhagen-Ringsted project is positioned right...

  4. Project schedule and cost estimate report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    All cost tables represent obligation dollars, at both a constant FY 1987 level and an estimated escalation level, and are based on the FY 1989 DOE Congressional Budget submittal of December 1987. The cost tables display the total UMTRA Project estimated costs, which include both Federal and state funding. The Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the UMTRA Project is approximately $992.5 million (in 1987 escalated dollars). Project schedules have been developed that provide for Project completion by September 1994, subject to Congressional approval extending DOE's authorization under Public Law 95-604. The report contains site-specific demographic data, conceptual design assumptions, preliminary cost estimates, and site schedules. A general project overview is also presented, which includes a discussion of the basis for the schedule and cost estimates, contingency assumptions, work breakdown structure, and potential project risks. The schedules and cost estimates will be revised as necessary to reflect appropriate decisions relating to relocation of certain tailings piles, or other special design considerations or circumstances (such as revised EPA groundwater standards), and changes in the Project mission. 27 figs', 97 tabs

  5. Numerical Tokamak Project code comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, R.E.; Cohen, B.I.; Beer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Numerical Tokamak Project undertook a code comparison using a set of TFTR tokamak parameters. Local radial annulus codes of both gyrokinetic and gyrofluid types were compared for both slab and toroidal case limits assuming ion temperature gradient mode turbulence in a pure plasma with adiabatic electrons. The heat diffusivities were found to be in good internal agreement within ± 50% of the group average over five codes

  6. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  7. Underestimating Costs in Public Works Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren L.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of cost escalation in transportation infrastructure projects. Based on a sample of 258 transportation infrastructure projects worth $90 billion (U.S.), it is found with overwhelming statistical significance that the cost...... honest numbers should not trust the cost estimates and cost-benefit analyses produced by project promoters and their analysts. Independent estimates and analyses are needed as are institutional checks and balances to curb deception.......This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of cost escalation in transportation infrastructure projects. Based on a sample of 258 transportation infrastructure projects worth $90 billion (U.S.), it is found with overwhelming statistical significance that the cost...... estimates used to decide whether important infrastructure should be built are highly and systematically misleading. The result is continuous cost escalation of billions of dollars. The sample used in the study is the largest of its kind, allowing for the first time statistically valid conclusions regarding...

  8. Cost Underestimation in Public Works Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren L.

    This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of cost escalation in transportation infrastructure projects. Based on a sample of 258 transportation infrastructure projects worth $90 billion (U.S.), it is found with overwhelming statistical significance that the cost...... honest numbers should not trust the cost estimates and cost-benefit analyses produced by project promoters and their analysts. Independent estimates and analyses are needed as are institutional checks and balances to curb deception.......This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of cost escalation in transportation infrastructure projects. Based on a sample of 258 transportation infrastructure projects worth $90 billion (U.S.), it is found with overwhelming statistical significance that the cost...... estimates used to decide whether important infrastructure should be built are highly and systematically misleading. The result is continuous cost escalation of billions of dollars. The sample used in the study is the largest of its kind, allowing for the first time statistically valid conclusions regarding...

  9. Costs comparison of electric energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, D.; Menegassi, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cost comparison study of various sources of electric energy generation was performed using uniform analysis criteria. The results indicate higher costs for coal, followed by nuclear and hidro. It was verified that presently, large hidro-power plants can only be located far from the load centers, with increasing costs of hidro-power energy in Brazil. These costs become higher than the nuclear plant if the hidro plant is located at distances exceeding 1000 Km. (Author) [pt

  10. Research on the Investment Costs of IT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurong, Chen; Feng, Jingchun

    2018-02-01

    The investment costs of IT project are the basis of IT project management. The meaning and composition of the investment costs of IT project were analyzed in this paper, which involving the engineering cost of IT project, the other costs of IT project, reserve cost and financing interest of the construction period. On this basis, the composition and content of static investment costs and dynamic investment costs of IT project were also studied in the paper.

  11. COST ESTIMATING RELATIONSHIPS IN ONSHORE DRILLING PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Melo e Silva Accioly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimating relationships (CERs are very important tools in the planning phases of an upstream project. CERs are, in general, multiple regression models developed to estimate the cost of a particular item or scope of a project. They are based in historical data that should pass through a normalization process before fitting a model. In the early phases they are the primary tool for cost estimating. In later phases they are usually used as an estimation validation tool and sometimes for benchmarking purposes. As in any other modeling methodology there are number of important steps to build a model. In this paper the process of building a CER to estimate drilling cost of onshore wells will be addressed.

  12. Project feasibility and mine production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longworth, C R

    1987-01-01

    The paper outlines the present investment environment existing in the Australian Coal Industry and places this in the context of the current world seaborne coal trade. Those factors which have the greatest influence on the viability of coal projects today, namely coal prices and quality, exchange rates, cash cost of production, capital and borrowing costs, infrastructure and government charges are dealt with briefly. The paper concludes by giving a schedule of those factors of a local character which can be changed to render projects more competitive and also presents some external factors beyond Australia's control which will, in part, influence the development of the industry in the next decade. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  13. The projected costs of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the outcomes from the joint report between the Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Energy Agency of the OECD on the projected costs of generating electricity. The study contains data on electricity generating costs for almost 200 power plants provided by 17 OECD member countries, 4 non-OECD countries and 4 industrial companies or industry organisations. The paper presents the projected costs of generating electricity calculated according to common methodological rules on the basis of the data provided by participating countries and organisations. Data were received for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal, gas, nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal. Cost estimates were also provided for combined heat and power plants, as well as for coal plants that include carbon capture. As in previous studies of the same series, all costs and benefits were discounted or capitalised to the date of commissioning in order to calculate the state of the electricity costs per MWh, based on plant operating lifetime data. In addition, the paper contains a discussion of a number of factors affecting the cost of capital, the outlook for carbon capture and storage and the working of electricity markets. (Author)

  14. Sharing the cost of risky projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2018-01-01

    Users share the cost of unreliable non-rival projects (items). For instance, industry partners pay today for R&D that may or may not deliver a cure to some viruses, agents pay for the edges of a network that will cover their connectivity needs, but the edges may fail, etc. Each user has a binary...

  15. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.

    1995-04-01

    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  16. International comparison of electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.; Stevens, G.H.; Wigley, K.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the principal findings of successive studies of projected comparative generation costs for base-load electricity production conducted by Nuclear Energy Agency working groups, including a current study jointly sponsored by the International Energy Agency. It concludes that over the six years 1983-1989 nuclear generation costs have remained steady or slightly declined in the majority of OECD countries. This represents an excellent result in view of the difficulties that have arisen in many countries during the period. Nuclear power is projected to maintain a significant advantage in most OECD countries on an assessment basis reflecting utility experience and discount rates employed by the majority of participants. However, nuclear's projected advantage has declined due to a significant fall in projected coal prices which have decreased by 50% since 1983. This decline is only slightly offset by increased capital and operating costs for coal-fired plant. If rates of return sought by utilities were higher or if coal prices prove lower than utilities project then the economic balance between nuclear and coal-fired power would be further reduced and could in some instances be reversed. To improve on its competitiveness nuclear power will have to continue to control capital costs through replication and reduced construction schedules and to improve plant availability to maximise output

  17. A comparison of high velocity systems on rail. Cooperation project. Pt. 2/A. Final report. A method to evaluate operating costs. Vergleich von spurgefuehrten Hochgeschwindigkeitssystemen. Kooperationsprojekt. T. 2/A. Abschlussbericht. Comparaison de systemes de transport guide a grande vitesse. Projet de cooperation. Pt. 2/A. Rapport final. Methode zur Bestimmung der Betriebskosten. Methode de determination des couts d'exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    In this German-French cooperation project a comparison between the high speed Intercity Express (ICE), the high speed train TGV (train a grande vitesse) and the maglev rapid transit system Transrapid is drawn. Investment costs for infrastructure and rail network and operating costs, ie costs for the operational management, maintenance and capital cost are compared. For this a method has been worked out for the calculation of operating cost ratios and a model has been developed for writing operating programmes and for the evaluation of operating costs. (RHM).

  18. 10 CFR 611.102 - Eligible project costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Accounting Principles and these costs may be considered by DOE in determining the Borrower's contribution to... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible project costs. 611.102 Section 611.102 Energy... PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.102 Eligible project costs. (a) Eligible costs are: (1) Those costs that...

  19. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  20. European Wind Farm Project Costs History and Projections 2008 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-10-15

    At the request of Enova (the 'Client'), Garrad Hassan and Partners Limited ('GH') has provided technical advice on capital cost expectations for wind farm developments. In summary, the work provides a survey of the present and future 5-year prognosis for costs and conditions facing developers and suppliers in the European wind power market. The report will be used as a benchmark to support tendering for future Norwegian projects. As such, it will also provide discussion of how project characteristics can influence project cost. Data Used in the Analysis GH has obtained data on the investment costs for 35 projects developed or in development in Europe. The projects represent to the extent possible the characteristics representative of potential Norwegian projects. The data used in this analysis are from actual projects in: France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Northern Ireland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Wales. The turbine capacities represented in the data are typically 2 MW or above, except in one case where a mix of turbines sizes was used at the project. GH highlights that because of high demand for turbines, the main manufacturers have recently been offering to meet delivery schedules for new orders from late 2010. For new tenders it is likely that delivery time frames offered will now be for 2011 deliveries. As a result of the current 'Seller's Market', production capacity typically relates directly to the number of turbines sold in the year; therefore for 2007 the annual production capacity was approximately 22 GW. GH is aware that turbine suppliers across the market are working to increase their production capacity in order to ease the pressure on the market, however, there are bottlenecks through the supply chain at the sub component level. As a result, increases in production capacity will likely remain at a relatively steady state in the short term. Energy Assessment The energy assessment of a project is the area

  1. Comparison of community managed projects and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of community managed projects and conventional approaches in rural water supply of Ethiopia. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... This study aimed to compare Community Managed Projects (CMP) approach with the conventional approaches (Non-CMP) in the case of Ethiopia.

  2. Estimating design costs for first-of-a-kind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Bakul; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    Modern scientific facilities are often outcomes of projects that are first-of-a-kind, that is, minimal historical data are available for project costs and schedules. However, at Fermilab, there was an opportunity to execute two similar projects consecutively. In this paper, a comparative study of the design costs for these two projects is presented using earned value methodology. This study provides some insights into how to estimate the cost of a replicated project

  3. Project cost estimation techniques used by most emerging building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Cost estimation, estimation methods, emerging contractors, tender. Dr Solly Matshonisa .... historical cost data (data from cost accounting records and/ ..... emerging contractors in tendering. Table 13: Use of project risk management versus responsibility: expected. Internal document analysis. Checklist analysis.

  4. Laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy: a cost comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, J; Magnus, A; Mamers, P M; Lawrence, A S; Lolatgis, N; Healy, D L

    1997-02-17

    To compare the cost of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) with that of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) under casemix. Retrospective comparison of the costs, operating time and length of hospital stay. The 16 women undergoing consecutive LAVH and 16 age-matched women undergoing TAH between 1 February 1994 and 31 July 1995; all women were public patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. Monash Medical Centre, a large tertiary teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia, where casemix is used to determine funding and budget allocation. The difference between the costs of the two procedures was not statistically significant (P = 0.5), despite the cost of laparoscopic hysterectomy including that of disposables. The mean operating time for TAH was 86 minutes (95% CI, 65.5-106.5), compared with 120 minutes (95% CI, 100.8-140.5) for LAVH (P < 0.01). The mean length of stay in the TAH group was 5.75 days, compared with 3.25 days in the LAVH group (P < 0.001). In hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease, the laparoscopic procedure costs the same as the total abdominal procedure. Audit such as this is important in patient management and in guiding hospitals in funding and bed allocation.

  5. The INTRACOIN model comparison project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, G.

    1982-01-01

    The International Nuclide Transport Code Intercomparison (INTRACOIN) project is investigating the different models and associated computer codes describing the transport of radionuclides in flowing ground-water following the disposal of solid radioactive wastes in geologic formations. Level I of the project has shown good agreement in the numerical accuracy of most of the codes. In Level II the ability of the codes to model field experiments with radioactive tracers will be compared. Level III will show to what extent the adoption of different models and computer codes for the transport of radionuclides with ground water affects the results of repository assessments. (U.K.)

  6. An investigation into cost overruns for ongoing building projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total amount of cost overruns for any construction project can be fully determined once the project is completed. Estimating the amount of cost overruns at different stages of ongoing construction projects is important for project success. There is, however, a dearth of research for this exercise. This article reports the ...

  7. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  8. Powering Africa - Projected costs and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappis, Ioannis; Taliotis, Constantinos; Howells, Mark; Lindblad, Nicolina

    2017-04-01

    Energy is a fundamental driver of economic growth. Several Sub-Saharan African countries are amongst the least developing economies in the world. A large proportion of the population in the region also lacks access to electricity and other modern energy services, while the individuals who have access are faced with frequent outages. This paper presents scenarios in which universal electricity access across the African continent is achieved by 2030 at a range of electricity consumption levels. A cost-optimization model is used to identify the least-cost generation mix in each country individually so as to meet the projected demand. Several generation options are allowed in each nation, while cross-border electricity trade is enabled at existing and future planned levels, so as to allow exploitation of untapped energy resources in remote regions of the continent. The results indicate that with a higher electricity consumption, CO2 emissions in generation increase considerably. This is due to coal rising as one of the dominant fuels in the supply of centralized electricity, and is of particular importance in climate change negotiations.

  9. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2013-01-01

    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.

  10. Cost Model Comparison: A Study of Internally and Commercially Developed Cost Models in Use by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima

    2011-01-01

    NASA makes use of numerous cost models to accurately estimate the cost of various components of a mission - hardware, software, mission/ground operations - during the different stages of a mission's lifecycle. The purpose of this project was to survey these models and determine in which respects they are similar and in which they are different. The initial survey included a study of the cost drivers for each model, the form of each model (linear/exponential/other CER, range/point output, capable of risk/sensitivity analysis), and for what types of missions and for what phases of a mission lifecycle each model is capable of estimating cost. The models taken into consideration consisted of both those that were developed by NASA and those that were commercially developed: GSECT, NAFCOM, SCAT, QuickCost, PRICE, and SEER. Once the initial survey was completed, the next step in the project was to compare the cost models' capabilities in terms of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements. This final comparison was then portrayed in a visual manner with Venn diagrams. All of the materials produced in the process of this study were then posted on the Ground Segment Team (GST) Wiki.

  11. Influence of the economy crisis on project cost management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simankina, Tatyana; Ćetković, Jasmina; Verstina, Natalia; Evseev, Evgeny

    2017-10-01

    Economy crisis significantly affects primarily the project cost management. The article considers the problems of project management in the field of housing under conditions of economy crisis. Project budgets are reduced, their mutual interference grows and framework of risks changes. Apparently, specific approaches are required to be developed to optimize the expenses and guarantee the project implementation within the approved budget. There is considered domestic and foreign experience in terms of project cost management with involvement of BIM technologies.

  12. Predicting Software Projects Cost Estimation Based on Mining Historical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Najadat, Hassan; Alsmadi, Izzat; Shboul, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    In this research, a hybrid cost estimation model is proposed to produce a realistic prediction model that takes into consideration software project, product, process, and environmental elements. A cost estimation dataset is built from a large number of open source projects. Those projects are divided into three domains: communication, finance, and game projects. Several data mining techniques are used to classify software projects in terms of their development complexity. Data mining techniqu...

  13. Simple steps help minimize costs, risks in project contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camps, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Contrary to prevailing opinion, risks and project financing costs can be higher for lump sum (LS) project contracts than under reimbursable-type contracts. An element-by-element analysis of the risks and costs associated with a project enables investors to develop variations of reimbursable contracts. Project managers can use this three-step procedure, along with other recommendations, to measure the hidden project costs and risks associated with LS contracts. The author bases his conclusions on case studies of recent projects in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. The findings, however, are general enough to be applicable in other industrial sectors

  14. Understanding the costs and schedule of hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrow, E.W.; Schroeder, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is based on a study conducted for the World Bank which evaluated the feasibility of developing an empirically based ex ante project analysis system for hydroelectric projects. The system would be used to assess: the reasonableness of engineering-based cost and schedule estimates used for project appraisal and preliminary estimates used to select projects for appraisal; and the potential for cost growth and schedule slip. The system would help identify projects early in the project appraisal process that harbor significantly higher than normal risks of overrunning cost and schedule estimates

  15. Assessing the costs attributed to project delay during project pre-construction stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This project for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) developed a simple but sound : methodology for estimating the cost of delaying most types of highway projects. Researchers considered the : cost of delays during the pre-construction pha...

  16. Cost diviation in road construction projects: The case of Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the statistical relationship between actual and estimated cost of road construction projects using data from road construction projects awarded in the West Bank in Palestine over the years 2004–2008. The study is based on a sample of 169 road construction projects. Based on this data, regression models are developed. The findings reveal that 100% of projects suffer from cost diverge, it is found that 76% of projects have cost under estimation while 24% have cost over estimation. The discrepancy between estimated and actual cost has an average of 14.6%, ranging from -39% to 98%. The relation between the project size (length and width and the cost diverge is discussed.

  17. Cost estimation tools in Germany and the UK. Comparison of cost estimates and actual costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, W.; Gordelier, S.; Drake, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Accurate cost estimation for future decommissioning projects is a matter of considerable importance, especially for ensuring that sufficient funds will be available at the time of project implementation. This paper looks at the experience of cost estimation and real implementation outcomes from two countries, Germany and the UK, and draws lessons for the future. In Germany, cost estimates for the decommissioning of power reactors are updated every two years. For this purpose, the STILLKO program of the NIS Company is used. So far, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has successfully decommissioned two prototype reactor facilities. Re-cultivation of the premises has already been completed. At the moment, the activated components of the multi-purpose research reactor (MZFR), the first pressurized water reactor in Germany that was moderated and cooled with heavy water, and of the prototype fast breeder reactor (KNK) are being dismantled remotely. Consequently, vast experience exists in particular for the updating of total costs on the basis of actually incurred expenses. The further the dismantling work proceeds, the more reliable is the total cost estimate. Here, the development of the estimated MZFR decommissioning costs shall be presented and compared with the estimates obtained for a German reference PWR-type power reactor of 1200 MW. In this way: - common features of the prototype reactor and power reactor shall be emphasized, - several parameters leading to an increase in the estimated costs shall be highlighted, - cost risks shall be outlined with the remote dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel serving as an example, - calculation parameters shall be presented, and - recommendations shall be made for a consistent estimation of costs. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has a major programme for the environmental remediation of its former research and development sites at Dounreay, Windscale, Harwell and Winfrith together with the need to

  18. Cost estimating for large nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, A.; Hunt, M.

    2004-01-01

    In today's market, the generation of electricity is a very competitive business, which is constantly under the watchful eye of the media and public. Nuclear power faces a lot of competition from other sources such as hydro, coal and gas. Controlling costs, monitoring costs, feedback, industry knowledge and up to date cost estimating tools are essential for a nuclear company to compete on a long term basis. This paper reviews the terminology and estimating principles used for the construction of new nuclear plants, lifetime operating costs, and the costs associated with refurbishment work. (author)

  19. Highway project cost estimating and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    "This report provides detailed information about the project objectives, deliverables, and findings. The project team : thoroughly reviewed the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) structure, operations, and current procedures as : related to M...

  20. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  1. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, John C.; Allouche, Erez N.; Sterling, Raymond L.

    2015-01-01

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors

  2. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, John C., E-mail: matthewsj@battelle.org [Battelle, 7231 Palmetto Dr, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Louisiana Tech University (United States); Sterling, Raymond L., E-mail: sterling@latech.edu [Louisiana Tech University (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors.

  3. What Causes Cost Overrun in Transport Infrastructure Projects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren L.

    cost escalation for three types of project ownership - private, state-owned enterprise and other public ownership - it is shown that the oft-seen claim that public ownership is problematic and private ownership effective in curbing cost escalation is an oversimplification. Type of accountability......This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of causes of cost escalation in transport infrastructure projects. The study is based on a sample of 258 rail, bridge, tunnel and roads projects worth US$90 billion. The focus is on the dependence of cost escalation on (1......) length of project implementation phase, (2) size of project and (3) type of project ownership. First, it is found with very high statistical significance that cost escalation is strongly dependent on length of implementation phase. The policy implications are clear: Decision makers and planners should...

  4. Categorization of potential project cost overrun factors in construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, P.; Abdullah, A. H.; Nagapan, S.; Sohu, S.; Kasvar, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    Cost overrun has been severely hit down the economy and reputations for many construction industry around the world. Many project management tools developed to control the budget of a project. However, the cost management is still considered poor as there are many cost overrun issues occurred in the construction industry. Thus, this paper aims to identify and cluster the potential construction project cost overrun factors according to their originating groups using the thematic approach. Basically, through literature review, all the potential factors that may cause cost overrun were screened thoroughly before they were clustered into seven (7) groups of the originating factors, namely project, contract, client, contractor, consultant, labour and external. Each potential factor was explained clearly with some examples based on the Malaysian case studies to illustrate the cost overrun scenario. These findings may aid in the future to highlight on how to mitigate the critical potential factors of cost overrun to reduce or overcome its impact on all the stakeholders involved.

  5. Factors influencing cost over-run in Indian construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindrela Devi A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction cost is the most important criteria of project success and hence the construction project performance is generally expressed in terms of cost and its variance from the budget. In spite of having extant literature, cost estimation methods, cost indices etc., construction projects rarely meet the budgeted cost. This research study focuses on the construction cost overrun and to identify the various factors that affects the construction cost performance. Based on an extensive literature review and input from industry experts, sixty eight factors that causes cost overrun were identified for investigation. Further, a structured questionnaire survey was conducted among the industry experts and the collected data has been analysed statistically. It is concluded that the factors namely scope creep, construction delays, rework and practise of awarding the contract to the lowest bidder are most significant factors for construction cost overrun in non-infrastructural Indian projects. The relative importance of the listed factors used to guide the project team in addressing the cost related risks involved in the projects. The findings are expected to bridge the gap in the current construction cost management practices.

  6. 10 CFR 609.12 - Project Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to meet market requirements, reasonably required reserve funds and other carrying costs during... corporation or affiliated entity assessments, including organizational expenses; (3) Goodwill, franchise...

  7. Selecting and Ranking Cost Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Model (STACM) Enhancements Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) Libraries BM/C 3 GEP Engineering and Cost BM/C 3 EP Engineering and Cost...50K NOM VHI 0.02635481 STACM ENHANCEMENTS NOM អK NOM VHI 0.02468682 ACEIT LIBRARIES VHI 50-IOOK HI VHI 0.06357704 GEP ENGRG. & COST VHI 100-150K VHl...0.02505922 SCATS LOW អK NOM VIII 0.02468682 PICES SUPPORT NOM 50-100K NOM VlIl 0.02455186 ACEIT SUPPORT VIII 50-100K VHI VHI 0.08208244 GUARDIAN

  8. Error Cost Escalation Through the Project Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.; Dabney, Jim; Dick, Brandon; Haskins, Bill; Lovell, Randy; Moroney, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the costs to fix errors increase as the project matures, but how fast do those costs build? A study was performed to determine the relative cost of fixing errors discovered during various phases of a project life cycle. This study used three approaches to determine the relative costs: the bottom-up cost method, the total cost breakdown method, and the top-down hypothetical project method. The approaches and results described in this paper presume development of a hardware/software system having project characteristics similar to those used in the development of a large, complex spacecraft, a military aircraft, or a small communications satellite. The results show the degree to which costs escalate, as errors are discovered and fixed at later and later phases in the project life cycle. If the cost of fixing a requirements error discovered during the requirements phase is defined to be 1 unit, the cost to fix that error if found during the design phase increases to 3 - 8 units; at the manufacturing/build phase, the cost to fix the error is 7 - 16 units; at the integration and test phase, the cost to fix the error becomes 21 - 78 units; and at the operations phase, the cost to fix the requirements error ranged from 29 units to more than 1500 units

  9. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff

    2002-11-01

    equipment. The BR3 work packages described in this report add up to something like 83,000 labour hours plus about MSEK 13 of investments and consumables costs. At Swedish average team labour rates 83,000 hours would equate to about MSEK 52. Adding the investment cost of MSEK 13 gives a total of about MSEK 65. This of course is quite close to the Aagesta figure but it would be wrong to draw immediate, firm conclusions based on these data. Such a comparison should take into account, inter alia: The number and relative sizes of the equipment decontaminated and dismantled at Aagesta and BR3. The assumed productivity in the Aagesta estimate compared to the actual BR3 figures. The physical scale of the Aagesta reactor is somewhat larger than the BR3 reactor, so all other things being equal, one might expect the Aagesta decommissioning cost estimate to be higher than for BR3. Aagesta has better access overall, which should help to constrain costs. The productivity ratio for workers at BR3 on average was high - generally 80 per cent or more, so this is unlikely to be exceeded at Aagesta and might not be equalled, which would tend to push the Aagesta cost up relative to the BR3 situation. There is an additional question of the possible extra work performed at BR3 due to the R and D nature of the project. The BR3 data analysed has tried to strip away any such 'extra' work but nevertheless there may be some residual effect on the final numbers. Analysis and comparison of individual work packages has raised several conclusions, as follows: The constructed cost for Aagesta using BR3 benchmark data is encouragingly close to the Aagesta estimate value but it is not clear that the way of deriving the Aagesta estimate for decontamination was entirely rigorous. The reliability of the Aagesta estimate on these grounds therefore might reasonably be questioned. A significant discrepancy between the BR3 and Aagesta cases appears to exist in respect of the volumes of waste arising from the

  10. Comparison of high-speed transportation systems in special consideration of investment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schach

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a substantial comparison of different high-speed transportation systems and an approach to stochastic cost estimations are provided. Starting from the developments in Europe, the high-speed traffic technical characteristics of high-speed railways and Maglev systems are compared. But for a comprehensive comparison more criterions must be included and led to a wider consideration and the development of a multi-criteria comparison of high-speed transportation systems. In the second part a stochastic approach to cost estimations of infrastructure projects is encouraged. Its advantages in comparison with the traditional proceeding are presented and exemplify the practical implementation.

  11. Identifying factors causing cost overrun of the construction projects ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swapnil P Wanjari

    Cost overrun in India; ANOVA; factor analysis; construction projects. 1. Introduction ... gramme Implementation in India [2], projects of public .... case if a respondent never came across of such factor. ..... The co-relation matrix for variables of cost overruns was ..... There are various problems observed due to communication.

  12. An investigation into cost overruns for ongoing building projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Engineering, the Built. Environment, and .... works; identification of causes of cost overruns, as well as the control measures for .... project; poor project schedules and management; increases in the prices of .... conclusion, the magnitude of the cost overrun was reduced after ..... Research in Business, 3(11), pp. 775-780.

  13. A cost benefit review of applying quality assurance principles to project management of environmental cleanup programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper shows the cost/benefit mechanism used for applying the theory and practical aspects of QA principles as a management tool to project management of environmental cleanup projects. This includes reviewing and guidelines and requirements to determine the practical aspects of applying these requirements to environmental project management. Thus, there is a feedback loop for comparison of the cost/benefits of application of each stage of the project. The project's major stages include planning, environmental sampling, analysis of data samples, data/information management to include reporting, and follow- up, post-cleanup sampling with continued data management. A comparison is also made of the theory with the practical aspects of each of these stages

  14. The EU CONCERTO project Class 1 - Demonstrating cost-effective low-energy buildings - Recent results with special focus on comparison of calculated and measured energy performance of Danish buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Ove; Thomsen, K.E.; Rose, J.

    2012-01-01

    -chip heating plant has been added. The project demonstrates the benefits of ultra-low-energy buildings integrated with biomass- and solar heating energy supply. The CLASS1 project involves 4 other countries: Estonia, France, Italy and Romania. These countries develop training activities based on the results......In 2007 the Class1 project commenced. Originally, 442 dwellings were to be designed and constructed as "low-energy class 1" houses according to requirements set by the Municipality of Egedal/Denmark. This means that the energy consumption is 50% below the existing energy regulations. 65 dwellings...... and experiences gained from the Danish housing projects. This paper describes the comparisons between measured and calculated energy consumption in a social housing settlement and in a detached single-family house. Results show relatively large discrepancies between measured and calculated results...

  15. Cost/CYP: a bottom line that helps keep CSM projects cost-efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In contraceptive social marketing (CSM), the objective is social good, but project managers also need to run a tight ship, trimming costs, allocating scarce funds, and monitoring their program's progress. 1 way CSM managers remain cost-conscious is through the concept of couple-years-of-protection (CYP). Devised 2 decades ago as an administrative tool to compare the effects of different contraceptive methods, CYP's uses have multiplied to include assessing program output and cost effectiveness. Some of the factors affecting cost/CYP are a project's age, sales volume, management efficiency, and product prices and line. These factors are interconnected. The cost/CYP figures given here do not include outlays for commodities. While the Agency for International Development's commodity costs alter slightly with each new purchase contrast, the agency reports that a condom costs about 4 cents (US), an oral contraceptive (OC) cycle about 12 cents, and a spermicidal tablet about 7 cents. CSM projects have relatively high start-up costs. Within a project's first 2 years, expenses must cover such marketing activities as research, packaging, warehousing, and heavy promotion. As a project ages, sales should grow, producing revenues that gradually amortize these initial costs. The Nepal CSM project provides an example of how cost/CYP can improve as a program ages. In 1978, the year sales began, the project's cost/CYP was about $84. For some time the project struggled to get its products to its target market and gradually overcome several major hurdles. The acquisition of jeeps eased distribution and, by adding another condom brand, sales were increased still more, bringing the cost/CYP down to $8.30 in 1981. With further sales increases and resulting revenues, the cost/CYP dropped to just over $7 in 1983. When the sales volume becomes large enough, CSM projects can achieve economies of scale, which greatly improves cost-efficiency. Fixed costs shrink as a proportion of total

  16. Least cost analysis of renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Cabraal, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology for evaluating dispersed and centralized rural energy options on a least cost basis. In defining the load to be served, each supply alternative must provide equivalent levels of service. The village to be served is defined by the number of loads, load density, distance from the nearest power distribution line, and load growth. Appropriate rural energy alternatives are identified and sized to satisfy the defined load. Lastly, a net present value analysis (including capital, installation, O and M, fuel, and replacement costs, etc.) is performed to identify the least cost option. A spreadsheet-based analytical tool developed by the World Bank's Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) incorporates this approach and has been applied to compare photovoltaic solar home systems with other rural energy supply options in Indonesia. Load size and load density are found to be the critical factors in choosing between a grid and off-grid solution

  17. Projected costs of generating electricity - 2010 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This joint report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the seventh in a series of studies on electricity generating costs. It presents the latest data available for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal and gas (with and without carbon capture), nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal as well as combined heat and power (CHP). It provides levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) per MWh for almost 200 plants, based on data covering 21 countries (including four major non-OECD countries), and several industrial companies and organisations. For the first time, the report contains an extensive sensitivity analysis of the impact of variations in key parameters such as discount rates, fuel prices and carbon costs on LCOE. Additional issues affecting power generation choices are also examined. The study shows that the cost competitiveness of electricity generating technologies depends on a number of factors which may vary nationally and regionally. Readers will find full details and analyses, supported by over 130 figures and tables, in this report which is expected to constitute a valuable tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies and climate change

  18. Projected costs of generating electricity - 2005 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The joint IEA/NEA study provides generation cost estimates for over a hundred power plants that use a variety of fuels and technologies. These include coal-fired, gas-fired, nuclear, hydro, solar and wind plants. Cost estimates are also given for combined heat and power plants that use coal, gas and combustible renewables. Data and information for this study were provided by experts from 19 OECD member countries and 3 non-member countries. The power plants examined in the study use technologies available today. The study shows that the competitiveness of alternative generation sources and technologies ultimately depends on many parameters: there is no clear-cut 'winner'. Major issues related to generation costs addressed in the report include: descriptions of state-of-the-art generation technologies; the methodologies for incorporating risk in cost assessments; the impact of carbon emission trading; and how to integrate wind power into the electricity grid. 24 figs., 38 tabs., 11 apps.

  19. Costing Future Complex and Novel Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) is reported. The work involves pioneering data collection, analysis, and tool development to support... philosophy of the work and future prospects for its wider application. Summary The United Kingdom National Audit Office Major Projects Report 2014 states...the work will be in tackling variety in the data collected, one of the “3 Vs ” of Big Data. The outline programme is shown in Figure 2. Programme

  20. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff [NAC International, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    25 is equipment. The BR3 work packages described in this report add up to something like 83,000 labour hours plus about MSEK 13 of investments and consumables costs. At Swedish average team labour rates 83,000 hours would equate to about MSEK 52. Adding the investment cost of MSEK 13 gives a total of about MSEK 65. This of course is quite close to the Aagesta figure but it would be wrong to draw immediate, firm conclusions based on these data. Such a comparison should take into account, inter alia: The number and relative sizes of the equipment decontaminated and dismantled at Aagesta and BR3. The assumed productivity in the Aagesta estimate compared to the actual BR3 figures. The physical scale of the Aagesta reactor is somewhat larger than the BR3 reactor, so all other things being equal, one might expect the Aagesta decommissioning cost estimate to be higher than for BR3. Aagesta has better access overall, which should help to constrain costs. The productivity ratio for workers at BR3 on average was high - generally 80 per cent or more, so this is unlikely to be exceeded at Aagesta and might not be equalled, which would tend to push the Aagesta cost up relative to the BR3 situation. There is an additional question of the possible extra work performed at BR3 due to the R and D nature of the project. The BR3 data analysed has tried to strip away any such 'extra' work but nevertheless there may be some residual effect on the final numbers. Analysis and comparison of individual work packages has raised several conclusions, as follows: The constructed cost for Aagesta using BR3 benchmark data is encouragingly close to the Aagesta estimate value but it is not clear that the way of deriving the Aagesta estimate for decontamination was entirely rigorous. The reliability of the Aagesta estimate on these grounds therefore might reasonably be questioned. A significant discrepancy between the BR3 and Aagesta cases appears to exist in respect of the volumes of waste

  1. Factors causing cost variation for constructing wastewater projects in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost is one of the major considerations throughout the project management life cycle and can be regarded as one of the most important parameters of a project and the driving force of project success. Despite its proven importance, it is common to see a construction project failing to achieve its objectives within the specific cost. Cost variation is a very frequent phenomenon and is almost associated with nearly constructing all wastewater projects. Maintaining steady cost projection on wastewater projects had been recently an issue of serious concern, both to the client and project contractors. Cost deviation from initial cost plan had been prevalent on construction sites. However, little or no effort has been made to curtail the phenomenon, this research work attempts to identify, investigate and rank factors perceived to affect cost variation in the Egyptian wastewater projects with respect to their relative importance so as to proffer possible ways of coping with this phenomenon. To achieve this objective, author invited practitioners and experts, comprising a statistically representative sample, to participate in a structured questionnaire survey. Brain storming was taken into consideration, through which a number of cost variation factors were identified for constructing wastewater projects. Totally 52 factors were short-listed to be made part of the questionnaire survey and the survey was conducted with experts and representatives from private, public and local general construction firms. The data were analyzed using Relative Importance Index, ranking and simple percentages. It was analytically discovered that factors such as: (1 Lowest bidding procurement method; (2 Additional work; (3 Bureaucracy in bidding/tendering method; (4 Wrong method of cost estimation; and (5 Funding problems were critical for causing cost variation, while (1 Inaccurate cost estimation; (2 Mode of financing and payment for completed work; (3 Unexpected ground

  2. Procedures and models for estimating preconstruction costs of highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study presents data driven and component based PE cost prediction models by utilizing critical factors retrieved from ten years of historical project data obtained from ODOT roadway division. The study used factor analysis of covariance and corr...

  3. Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...

  4. Identifying Contractors’ Planned Quality Costs in Indonesian Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti F. Marzuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a very competitive construction industry, quality costs have to be measured to be able to identify potential quality problem areas and to focus attention on work output improvement opportunities. The awareness of contractors on the importance of quality costs could be reflected in the extent of their quality costs planning. This paper presents an identification of planned quality costs in three construction projects executed by two large Indonesian contractors, a state-owned company and a private company in Jakarta. The objective is to enable the contractors to elaborate their quality costs planning and thereby improve their work output based on the findi ngs. Quality costs are first grouped into three categories: prevention, appraisal, and failure costs. Based on the works of previous researchers, a list of quality management activities that should be covered in each quality costs category is then created. The contractors’ planned quality costs data for each category are identified and collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys that refer to the list. Quality costs are expressed as a percentage of contract value. It is revealed that although large contractors already have certain knowledge on quality costs in construction projects, these costs are not planned in a structured way through an analysis of systematic quality costs records. Through cost categorization it is also shown that higher prevention and appraisal costs lead to lower failure costs. It is then concluded that a lot of work is still to be done by the contractors to set up a quality costs recording system which can serve as a basis for their quality improvement planning.

  5. BIM cost analysis of transport infrastructure projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Andrey; Chelyshkov, Pavel; Grossman, Y.; Khromenkova, A.

    2017-10-01

    The article describes the method of analysis of the energy costs of transport infrastructure objects using BIM software. The paper consideres several options of orientation of a building using SketchUp and IES VE software programs. These options allow to choose the best direction of the building facades. Particular attention is given to a distribution of a temperature field in a cross-section of the wall according to the calculation made in the ELCUT software. The issues related to calculation of solar radiation penetration into a building and selection of translucent structures are considered in the paper. The article presents data on building codes relating to the transport sector, on the basis of which the calculations were made. The author emphasizes that BIM-programs should be implemented and used in order to optimize a thermal behavior of a building and increase its energy efficiency using climatic data.

  6. Examining engineering costs for development of highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) commissioned a research team at Texas State University-San Marcos Department of Accounting to analyze the cost of projects by determining the cost of a preliminary engineering hour necessary to develop h...

  7. Projected Lifetime Healthcare Costs Associated with HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Miners, Alec; Smith, Colette J

    2015-01-01

    computer simulation model to project the distribution of lifetime outcomes and costs of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) infected with HIV in 2013 aged 30, over 10,000 simulations. We assumed a resource-rich setting with no loss to follow-up, and that standards and costs of healthcare management remain...

  8. Probabilistic cost estimating of nuclear power plant construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.C.; Perry, L.W.; Postula, F.D.

    1978-01-01

    This paper shows how to identify and isolate cost accounts by developing probability trees down to component levels as justified by value and cost uncertainty. Examples are given of the procedure for assessing uncertainty in all areas contributing to cost: design, factory equipment pricing, and field labor and materials. The method of combining these individual uncertainties is presented so that the cost risk can be developed for components, systems and the total plant construction project. Formats which enable management to use the probabilistic cost estimate information for business planning and risk control are illustrated. Topics considered include code estimate performance, cost allocation, uncertainty encoding, probabilistic cost distributions, and interpretation. Effective cost control of nuclear power plant construction projects requires insight into areas of greatest cost uncertainty and a knowledge of the factors which can cause costs to vary from the single value estimates. It is concluded that probabilistic cost estimating can provide the necessary assessment of uncertainties both as to the cause and the consequences

  9. Cost Estimation for Cross-organizational ERP Projects: Research Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Bieman, J.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    There are many methods for estimating size, effort, schedule and other cost aspects of IS projects, but only one specifically developed for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) [67] and none for simultaneous, interdependent ERP projects in a cross-organizational context. The objective of this paper is

  10. Cost Comparison Of Expendable, Hybrid and Reusable Launch Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gstattenbauer, Greg J

    2006-01-01

    .... This comparison was accomplished using top level mass and cost estimating relations (MERs, CERs). Mass estimating relationships were correlated to existing launch system data and ongoing launch system studies...

  11. Why Don't They Just Give Us Money? Project Cost Estimating and Cost Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Douglas A.; Van Wychen, Kristin; Zimmerman, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Successful projects require an integrated approach to managing cost, schedule, and risk. This is especially true for complex, multi-year projects involving multiple organizations. To explore solutions and leverage valuable lessons learned, NASA's Virtual Project Management Challenge will kick off a three-part series examining some of the challenges faced by project and program managers when it comes to managing these important elements. In this first session of the series, we will look at cost management, with an emphasis on the critical roles of cost estimating and cost reporting. By taking a proactive approach to both of these activities, project managers can better control life cycle costs, maintain stakeholder confidence, and protect other current and future projects in the organization's portfolio. Speakers will be Doug Comstock, Director of NASA's Cost Analysis Division, Kristin Van Wychen, Senior Analyst in the GAO Acquisition and Sourcing Management Team, and Mary Beth Zimmerman, Branch Chief for NASA's Portfolio Analysis Branch, Strategic Investments Division. Moderator Ramien Pierre is from NASA's Academy for Program/Project and Engineering Leadership (APPEL).

  12. Regional comparison of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, H.I.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear's main disadvantages are its high capital investment cost and uncertainty in schedule compared with alternatives. Nuclear plant costs continue to rise whereas coal plant investment costs are staying relative steady. Based on average experience, nuclear capital investment costs are nearly double those of coal-fired generation plants. The capital investment cost disadvantage of nuclear is balanced by its fuel cost advantages. New base load nuclear power plants were projected to be competitive with coal-fired plants in most regions of the country. Nuclear power costs wre projected to be significantly less (10% or more) than coal-fired power costs in the South Atlantic region. Coal-fired plants were projected to have a significant economic advantage over nuclear plants in the Central and North Central regions. In the remaining seven regions, the levelized cost of power from either option was projected to be within 10%. Uncertainties in future costs of materials, services, and financing affect the relative economics of the nuclear and coal options significantly. 10 figures

  13. Direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic versus open ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N; Mohammadi, A; Jufas, N

    2018-02-01

    Totally endoscopic ear surgery is a relatively new method for managing chronic ear disease. This study aimed to test the null hypothesis that open and endoscopic approaches have similar direct costs for the management of attic cholesteatoma, from an Australian private hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic ear surgery and traditional canal wall up mastoidectomy for the management of attic cholesteatoma in a private tertiary setting was undertaken. Indirect and future costs were excluded. A direct cost comparison of anaesthetic setup and resources, operative setup and resources, and surgical time was performed between the two techniques. Totally endoscopic ear surgery has a mean direct cost reduction of AUD$2978.89 per operation from the hospital perspective, when compared to canal wall up mastoidectomy. Totally endoscopic ear surgery is more cost-effective, from an Australian private hospital perspective, than canal wall up mastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma.

  14. Tubing vs. buckets: a cost comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil K. Huyler

    1975-01-01

    Equipment investment for tubing-vacuum systems was significantly less than that for bucket systems. Tubing-vacuum systems required about 22 percent less labor input, the major labor input being completed before sap-flow periods. Annual cost of operation was less for tubing-vacuum than the bucket system. Small tubing-vacuum operations showed more profit potential than...

  15. Towards canine rabies elimination: Economic comparisons of three project sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, J L; Hatch, B G; Taylor, L H; Nel, L H; Shwiff, S A

    2018-02-01

    An appreciation of the costs of implementing canine rabies control in different settings is important for those planning new or expanded interventions. Here we compare the costs of three canine rabies control projects in South Africa, the Philippines and Tanzania to identify factors that influence the overall costs of rabies control efforts. There was considerable variation in the cost of vaccinating each dog, but across the sites these were lower where population density was higher, and later in the projects when dog vaccination coverage was increased. Transportation costs comprised a much higher proportion of total costs in rural areas and where house-to-house vaccination campaigns were necessary. The association between the cost of providing PEP and human population density was less clear. The presence of a pre-existing national rabies management programme had a marked effect on keeping infrastructure and equipment costs for the project low. Finally, the proportion of the total costs of the project provided by the external donor was found to be low for the projects in the Philippines and South Africa, but likely covered close to the complete costs of the project in Tanzania. The detailed economic evaluation of three recent large-scale rabies control pilot projects provides the opportunity to examine economic costs across these different settings and to identify factors influencing rabies control costs that could be applied to future projects. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. How much does it cost? The LIFE Project - Costing Models for Digital Curation and Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Davies

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital preservation is concerned with the long-term safekeeping of electronic resources. How can we be confident of their permanence, if we do not know the cost of preservation? The LIFE (Lifecycle Information for E-Literature Project has made a major step forward in understanding the long-term costs in this complex area. The LIFE Project has developed a methodology to model the digital lifecycle and to calculate the costs of preserving digital information for the next 5, 10 or 100 years. National and higher education (HE libraries can now apply this process and plan effectively for the preservation of their digital collections. Based on previous work undertaken on the lifecycles of paper-based materials, the LIFE Project created a lifecycle model and applied it to real-life digital collections across a diverse subject range. Three case studies examined the everyday operations, processes and costs involved in their respective activities. The results were then used to calculate the direct costs for each element of the digital lifecycle. The Project has made major advances in costing preservation activities, as well as making detailed costs of real digital preservation activities available. The second phase of LIFE (LIFE2, which recently started, aims to refine the lifecycle methodology and to add a greater range and breadth to the project with additional exemplar case studies.

  17. Regional projections of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1983-12-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 1995. A complete data set is supplied which specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results. When the comparison is based on reference cost parameters, nuclear- and coal-fired generation costs are found to be very close in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is favored in the South Atlantic region where coal must be transported over long distances, while coal-fired generation is favored in the Central and North Central regions where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. The reference data set reflects recent electric utility construction experience. Significantly lower nuclear capital investment costs would result if regulatory reform and improved construction practices were instituted. The electric power generation costs for base load oil- and natural gas-fired plants were also estimated. These plants were found to be noncompetitive in all regions for those scenarios most likely to develop. Generation cost sensitivity to changes in various parameters was examined at a reference location. The sensitivity parameters included capital investment costs, lead times, capacity factors, costs of money, and coal and uranium prices. In addition to the levelized lifetime costs, year-by-year cash flows and revenue requirements are presented. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic merits of recycling spent fuel in light-water reactors

  18. Pipeline cost reduction through effective project management and applied technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A. [TransCanada Pipeline Ltd., Alberta (Canada); Babuk, T. [Empress International Inc., Westwood, NJ (United States); Mohitpour, M. [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Murray, M.A. [National Energy Board of Canada (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Pipelines are regarded by many as passive structures with the technology involved in their construction and operation being viewed as relatively simple and stable. If such is the case how can there be much room for cost improvement? In reality, there have been many technological and regulatory innovations required within the pipeline industry to meet the challenges posed by ever increasing consumer demand for hydrocarbons, the effects of aging infrastructure and a need to control operating and maintenance expenditures. The importance of technology management, as a subset of overall project management, is a key element of life cycle cost control. Assurance of public safety and the integrity of the system are other key elements in ensuring a successful pipeline project. The essentials of best practise project management from an owner/ operator's perspective are set out in the paper. Particular attention is paid to the appropriate introduction of new technology, strategic procurement practice and material selection, indicating that capital cost savings of up to 15% are achievable without harming life cycle cost. The value of partnering leading to technical innovation, cost savings and improved profitability for all the participants is described. Partnering also helps avoid duplicated effort through the use of common tools for design, planning schedule tracking and reporting. Investing in appropriate technology development has been a major source of cost reduction in recent years and the impact of a number of these recently introduced technologies in the areas of materials, construction processes and operation and maintenance are discussed in the paper. (author)

  19. A Project Management Approach to Using Simulation for Cost Estimation on Large, Complex Software Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizell, Carolyn; Malone, Linda

    2007-01-01

    It is very difficult for project managers to develop accurate cost and schedule estimates for large, complex software development projects. None of the approaches or tools available today can estimate the true cost of software with any high degree of accuracy early in a project. This paper provides an approach that utilizes a software development process simulation model that considers and conveys the level of uncertainty that exists when developing an initial estimate. A NASA project will be analyzed using simulation and data from the Software Engineering Laboratory to show the benefits of such an approach.

  20. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level

  1. Comparisons of hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C Daniel; Sikirica, Mirko; Seneviratne, Viran; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Akhras, Kasem S

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and compares the individual cost components of hospital and ambulatory services that manage the care of hypertensive patients in eight countries: the US, the UK, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Canada and Australia. Hypertension-related costs are classified according to four major cardiovascular events: (i) acute myocardial infarction; (ii) congestive heart failure; (iii) stroke; and (iv) renal failure, which was subdivided into renal failure treated by dialysis and renal failure treated by kidney transplantation. To make cross-country costs comparisons, we used the DRG codes used in the US and DRG-like codes from each country. US cost information was obtained from hypertension data available from the literature and health economics researchers. For costs in other countries, we consulted with national health economics experts in each country, used analyses by the Research Triangle Institute, and performed Medline and international literature searches. When available, we obtained information from the countries' public and private nationally representative data sources. For cross-country currency adjustments, all currencies were converted using the Purchasing Power Parities from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and then converted into inflation-adjusted year 2000 US dollars. There exists considerable variation in hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies. This study documents that costs are generally higher in the US than in other countries; however, this is not always true. In particular, costs of treating heart failure in France and the costs of renal failure without transplantation in Germany and the UK are relatively high. While analysing multinational hypertensive cost data, this study also addresses the impact of cross-country cost variations on cost analyses. During the last decade, drug-development researchers have drawn extensively upon multinational trials to resolve enrollment problems and

  2. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG)

  3. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG) 36 refs.

  4. Project cost estimation techniques used by most emerging building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consisted of five distinct types of contractors, general builders, civil engineers, electricians ... Mmboswobeni Watson Ladzani, Department of Business Management, University of South .... final cost of a proposed project for a given work scope. Thus, by .... Since the test statistic does not exceed the critical region, the null.

  5. The Problem with the Delta Cost Project Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquette, Ozan; Parra, Edna

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS) collects data on Title IV institutions. The Delta Cost Project (DCP) integrated data from multiple IPEDS survey components into a public-use longitudinal dataset. The DCP Database was the basis for dozens of journal articles and a series of influential policy reports. Unfortunately, a flaw in…

  6. Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-05-01

    Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

  7. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  8. Bidding cost evaluation with fuzzy methods on building project in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susetyo, Budi; Utami, Tin Budi

    2017-11-01

    National construction companies today demanded to become more competitive to face increasingly competition. Every construction company especially the contractor must work better than ever. Ability to prepare cost of the work that represents the efficiency and effectiveness of the implementation of the work necessary to produce cost - competitive. The project is considered successful if the target meets the quality, cost and time. From the aspect of cost, the project has been designed in accordance with certain technical criteria to be taken into account based on standard costs. To ensure the cost efficiency of the bidding process carried out meet the rules of a fairly and competitive. The research objective is to formulate the proper way to compare several deals with the standard cost of the work. The fuzzy technique is used as a evaluation methods to decision making. The evaluation not merely based on the lowest prices. The methods is looking for the most valuable and reasonable prices. The comparison is conducted to determine the most cost-competitive and reasonable as the winner of the bidding.

  9. Dynamic Cost-Contingency Management: A Method for Reducing Project Costs While Increasing the Probability of Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    In the real world, "Money Allocated is Money Spent" (MAIMS). As a consequence, cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns, while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost...

  10. Analysis of Cost of Rework on Time and Cost Performance of Building Construction Projects in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chidiebere Eze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rework is a menace that leads to undesired and unnecessary loss of efforts, it degrades project cost and schedule performance of construction projects, both at design and construction phases. This study therefore, analyzed the impact of cost of rework on time and cost performance of building construction projects in Nigerian, using selected commercial building project within the country’s capital. A pro forma was adopted for gathering data on rework cost, project cost and time of selected building projects, while structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the likely measures for reducing rework incidences from construction professionals that were involved in the delivery of the identified projects. Regression analysis, relative importance index and Kruskal-Walis test were employed for data analysis. The study revealed a significant relationship between the cost of rework and initial and final project cost of delivering commercial buildings, as an average of 3.53% impact on the initial project cost, 46.60% contribution to cost overrun, and p-value of 0.000 was observed on all assessed projects. For the project delivery time, a significant relationship between the cost of rework and initial and final project duration, as an average of 7.35% impact on the initial delivery time, extra 19 days and p-value of 0.000 was observed on all assessed projects. Team building and education, management commitment, employee involvement, were some of the best possible measures to minimized rework problems.

  11. Fuel-cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data are presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed

  12. A cost comparison of traditional drainage and SUDS in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, A; Jefferies, C; Waddell, G; Shanks, G; Blackwood, D; Watkins, A

    2008-01-01

    The Dunfermline Eastern Expansion (DEX) is a 350 ha mixed development which commenced in 1996. Downstream water quality and flooding issues necessitated a holistic approach to drainage planning and the site has become a European showcase for the application of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). However, there is minimal data available regarding the real costs of operating and maintaining SUDS to ensure they continue to perform as per their design function. This remains one of the primary barriers to the uptake and adoption of SUDS. This paper reports on what is understood to be the only study in the UK where actual costs of constructing and maintaining SUDS have been compared to an equivalent traditional drainage solution. To compare SUDS costs with traditional drainage, capital and maintenance costs of underground storage chambers of analogous storage volumes were estimated. A whole life costing methodology was then applied to data gathered. The main objective was to produce a reliable and robust cost comparison between SUDS and traditional drainage. The cost analysis is supportive of SUDS and indicates that well designed and maintained SUDS are more cost effective to construct, and cost less to maintain than traditional drainage solutions which are unable to meet the environmental requirements of current legislation. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  13. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-15

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are

  14. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-01

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The

  15. Alcoholism treatment and medical care costs from Project MATCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, H D; Cisler, R A; Longabaugh, R; Stout, R L; Treno, A J; Zweben, A

    2000-07-01

    This paper examines the costs of medical care prior to and following initiation of alcoholism treatment as part of a study of patient matching to treatment modality. Longitudinal study with pre- and post-treatment initiation. The total medical care costs for inpatient and outpatient treatment for patients participating over a span of 3 years post-treatment. Three treatment sites at two of the nine Project MATCH locations (Milwaukee, WI and Providence, RI). Two hundred and seventy-nine patients. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment modalities: a 12-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a four-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or a 12-session Twelve-Step facilitation (TSF) treatment over 12 weeks. Total medical care costs declined from pre- to post-treatment overall and for each modality. Matching effects independent of clinical prognosis showed that MET has potential for medical-care cost-savings. However, patients with poor prognostic characteristics (alcohol dependence, psychiatric severity and/or social network support for drinking) have better cost-savings potential with CBT and/or TSF. Matching variables have significant importance in increasing the potential for medical-care cost-reductions following alcoholism treatment.

  16. Cost control and risk mitigation of major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caddy, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper and presentation, the four major types of estimates will be discussed, i.e., capacity factored, equipment factored, semi-detailed and detailed. Key relationships between particular portions of estimates will be discussed such as the relationship between direct field labor and indirect field costs. Having set the basis for developing a project's cost through estimating, the paper will then list and discuss the fifteen key steps which must be followed to control the costs of a project. Next, the subject of allowances and contingency will be discussed and defined and the differences between the two will be highlighted. Having established exactly what contingency is, the subject of risk analysis through RANGE estimating will be discussed. The methods used to establish a precise contingency and probability of an over/under run will be discussed. Finally, the paper will discuss the methods by which a project manager, owner or contractor can mitigate risks; that is to eliminate, transfer or minimize their effect

  17. Methods for cost estimation in software project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, C. V.; Filip, I.; Indries, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    The speed in which the processes used in software development field have changed makes it very difficult the task of forecasting the overall costs for a software project. By many researchers, this task has been considered unachievable, but there is a group of scientist for which this task can be solved using the already known mathematical methods (e.g. multiple linear regressions) and the new techniques as genetic programming and neural networks. The paper presents a solution for building a model for the cost estimation models in the software project management using genetic algorithms starting from the PROMISE datasets related COCOMO 81 model. In the first part of the paper, a summary of the major achievements in the research area of finding a model for estimating the overall project costs is presented together with the description of the existing software development process models. In the last part, a basic proposal of a mathematical model of a genetic programming is proposed including here the description of the chosen fitness function and chromosome representation. The perspective of model described it linked with the current reality of the software development considering as basis the software product life cycle and the current challenges and innovations in the software development area. Based on the author's experiences and the analysis of the existing models and product lifecycle it was concluded that estimation models should be adapted with the new technologies and emerging systems and they depend largely by the chosen software development method.

  18. Challenges in Delivering Green Building Projects: Unearthing the Transaction Costs (TCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queena K. Qian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Delivering green building (GB projects involve some activities that are atypical in comparison with conventional buildings. Such new activities are characterized by uncertainty, and they incur hidden costs that have not been expected nor are they readily appreciated among the stakeholders. This paper develops a typology and chronology to examine the new activities that are associated with transaction costs (TCs in the real estate development process (REDP of green building. Through in-depth interviews with representatives from the major developers in Hong Kong who have experiences in GB practice, this study aims to unearth TCs involved at the critical stages of the REDP. Apart from reconfirming the early project planning stage as the most critical in the consideration of TCs, the study results also identified “extra legal liability risk of the GB product” as the major concern for any GB developer in Hong Kong. The key additional activities that bring significant TCs in developing GB are identified and compared to their traditional counterparts. In turn, project managers not only have to pursue overall cost management whilst winning more business, but they also have to pay particular attention to sustainability in order to minimize hidden societal costs. The study also provides a reference for governments and professionals that will aid in forming policy as well as advance the practice of the GB market by optimizing the societal costs.

  19. A mathematical model for crashing projects by considering time, cost, quality and risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mahmoudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employers are looking for reducing execution time and maintaining the quality of the projects that are the main objective of the projects. In this article, we focus on crashing projects by con-sidering different factors such as cost, time, quality and risk. For the proposed integer linear model, cost of conformance and cost of non-conformance are considered as parts of the costs of quality of deliverables in projects. The cost of conformance consists of the costs of training the project team, inspection and test of deliverables. The cost of non-conformance also includes costs of rework and scrap. Project risk management is one of the important aspects of the pro-jects. The present study also considers the impact of risks, which is highly applicable in projects with a high level of uncertainty. Results are presented using integer programming approach with the aim of minimizing the costs of the project.

  20. Minimizing Project Cost by Integrating Subcontractor Selection Decisions with Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, Sławomir; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Czarnigowska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    Subcontracting has been a worldwide practice in the construction industry. It enables the construction enterprises to focus on their core competences and, at the same time, it makes complex project possible to be delivered. Since general contractors bear full responsibility for the works carried out by their subcontractors, it is their task and their risk to select a right subcontractor for a particular work. Although subcontractor management has been admitted to significantly affect the construction project’s performance, current practices and past research deal with subcontractor management and scheduling separately. The proposed model aims to support subcontracting decisions by integrating subcontractor selection with scheduling to enable the general contractor to select the optimal combination of subcontractors and own crews for all work packages of the project. The model allows for the interactions between the subcontractors and their impacts on the overall project performance in terms of cost and, indirectly, time and quality. The model is intended to be used at the general contractor’s bid preparation stage. The authors claim that the subcontracting decisions should be taken in a two-stage process. The first stage is a prequalification - provision of a short list of capable and reliable subcontractors; this stage is not the focus of the paper. The resulting pool of available resources is divided into two subsets: subcontractors, and general contractor’s in-house crews. Once it has been defined, the next stage is to assign them to the work packages that, bound by fixed precedence constraints, form the project’s network diagram. Each package is possible to be delivered by the general contractor’s crew or some of the potential subcontractors, at a specific time and cost. Particular crews and subcontractors can be contracted more than one package, but not at the same time. Other constraints include the predefined project completion date (the project is

  1. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  2. 40 CFR 35.925-18 - Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation upon project costs incurred...-Clean Water Act § 35.925-18 Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award. That project... project costs in the following cases: (1) Step 1 work begun after the date of approval by the Regional...

  3. Fuel cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J E; Freese, K E [RERTR Program, Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    1983-09-01

    This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. The status of the development and demonstration of the oxide and silicide fuels are presented in several papers in these proceedings. Routine utilization of these fuels with the uranium densities considered here requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed. Thermal-hydraulic safety margins, shutdown margins, mixed cores, and transient analyses are not addressed here, but analyses of these safety issues are in progress for a limited number of the most promising design options. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data is presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed. All safety criteria for the reactor with these fuel element designs need to be satisfied as well. With LEU oxide fuel, 31 g U/cm{sup 3} 1 and 0.76 mm--thick fuel meat, elements with 18-22 plates 320-391 g {sup 235}U) result in the same or lower total costs than with the HEU element 23 plates, 280 g {sup 235}U). Higher LEU loadings (more plates per element) are needed for larger excess reactivity requirements. However, there is little cost advantage to using more than 20 of these plates per element. Increasing the fuel meat thickness from 0.76 mm to 1.0 mm with 3.1 g U/cm{sup 3} in the design with 20 plates per element could result in significant cost reductions if the

  4. 78 FR 61227 - Public Assistance Cost Estimating Format for Large Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... equipment. The base cost (construction costs) plus nonconstruction costs equal the total eligible cost... included the estimated base cost plus the estimated nonconstruction costs. Under the traditional method... total cost of completing the project. This ``forward- pricing'' methodology provides an estimate of the...

  5. Comparison of the binding and internalization properties of 12 DOTA-coupled and {sup 111}In-labelled CCK2/gastrin receptor binding peptides: a collaborative project under COST Action BM0607

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloj, Luigi; Aurilio, Michela; Rinaldi, Valentina; D' Ambrosio, Laura [Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , AF Medicina Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Tesauro, Diego [Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , CIRPeB, Naples (Italy); Peitl, Petra Kolenc [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Maina, Theodosia [National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Molecular Radiopharmacy, Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, Athens (Greece); Mansi, Rosalba [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Guggenberg, Elisabeth von [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Joosten, Lieke [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Institute of Cancer, Barts and the London Queen Mary' s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Molecular Oncology and Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Breeman, W.A.P.; Blois, Erik de; Koelewijn, Stuart; Melis, Marleen; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Waser, Beatrice; Beetschen, Karin; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    Specific overexpression of cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2)/gastrin receptors has been demonstrated in several tumours of neuroendocrine origin. In some of these cancer types, such as medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), a sensitive diagnostic modality is still unavailable and therapeutic options for inoperable lesions are needed. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) may be a viable therapeutic strategy in the management of these patients. Several CCK2R-targeted radiopharmaceuticals have been described in recent years. As part of the European Union COST Action BM0607 we studied the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of 12 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated CCK2R binding peptides. In the present study, we analysed binding and internalization characteristics. Stability, biodistribution and imaging studies have been performed in parallel by other centres involved in the project. Determination of IC{sub 50} values was performed using autoradiography, with DOTA-peptides displacing {sup 125}I-CCK from receptors on tissue sections from human tumours. Saturation binding and internalization experiments were performed using {sup 111}In-labelled peptides. The rat AR42J cell line and the human A431-CCK2R transfected cell line were utilized for in vitro experiments; dissociation constants (K{sub d}) and apparent number of binding sites (B{sub max}) were determined. Internalization was determined in receptor-expressing cells by incubating with tracer amounts of peptide at 37 and 4 C for different times up to 120 min. Surface-bound peptide was then stripped either by acid wash or subsequent incubation with 1 {mu}M unlabelled peptide at 4 C. All peptides showed high receptor affinity with IC{sub 50} values ranging from 0.2 to 3.4 nM. Saturation experiments also showed high affinity with K{sub d} values in the 10{sup -9}-10{sup -8} M range. B{sub max} values estimated in A431-CCK2R cells ranged from 0.6 to 2.2 x 10{sup 6} per cell. All peptides

  6. Lifetime cost effectiveness of a through-school nutrition and physical programme: Project Energize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine; Obolonkin, Victor; McLennan, Stephanie; Graham, David; Harris, James D; Mernagh, Paul; Weston, Adéle R

    2014-01-01

    Project Energize, a multicomponent through-school physical activity and nutrition programme, is delivered to all primary school children in the Waikato region. The programme aim is to improve the overall health and reduce the rate of weight gain of all Waikato primary school children. An existing economic model was used to extrapolate the programme effects, initial costs, lifetime health treatment cost structures, quality-adjusted-life-years gained and increased life expectancy to the general and Māori child population of New Zealand. In March 2011, a sample of 2474 younger (7.58 ± 0.57 years, mean ± SD) and 2330 older (10.30 ± 0.51 years) children (36% Māori) attending Energize schools had body mass index measured and compared using mixed effect modelling with unEnergized comparison children from 2004 and 2006 from the same region. In 2011 the median body mass index reduction compared with the comparison younger children was -0.504 (90% CI -0.435 to -0.663) kg/m(2) and in the older children -0.551 (-0.456 to -0.789) kg/m(2). In 2010 there were 42,067 children attending Energize schools and in the same year NZ$1,891,175 was spent to deliver the programme; a cost of $44.96/child/year. Compared to the comparison children the increment in cost/quality-adjusted-life-year gained was $30,438 for the younger and $24,690 for the older children, and lower for Māori (younger $28,241, older $22,151) and for the middle socioeconomic status schools ($23,211, $17,891). Project Energize would improve quality and length of life and when compared with other obesity prevention programmes previously assessed with this model, it would be relatively cost-effective from the health treatment payer's perspective.

  7. Comparison of Cloud backup performance and costs in Oracle database

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaž Zrnec; Dejan Lavbič

    2011-01-01

    Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Oracle database u...

  8. A comparison of hospital administrative costs in eight nations: US costs exceed all others by far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, David U; Jun, Miraya; Busse, Reinhard; Chevreul, Karine; Geissler, Alexander; Jeurissen, Patrick; Thomson, Sarah; Vinet, Marie-Amelie; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2014-09-01

    A few studies have noted the outsize administrative costs of US hospitals, but no research has compared these costs across multiple nations with various types of health care systems. We assembled a team of international health policy experts to conduct just such a challenging analysis of hospital administrative costs across eight nations: Canada, England, Scotland, Wales, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States. We found that administrative costs accounted for 25.3 percent of total US hospital expenditures--a percentage that is increasing. Next highest were the Netherlands (19.8 percent) and England (15.5 percent), both of which are transitioning to market-oriented payment systems. Scotland and Canada, whose single-payer systems pay hospitals global operating budgets, with separate grants for capital, had the lowest administrative costs. Costs were intermediate in France and Germany (which bill per patient but pay separately for capital projects) and in Wales. Reducing US per capita spending for hospital administration to Scottish or Canadian levels would have saved more than $150 billion in 2011. This study suggests that the reduction of US administrative costs would best be accomplished through the use of a simpler and less market-oriented payment scheme. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Fast Conceptual Cost Estimating of Aerospace Projects Using Historical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates can be created in less than a minute by applying powerful techniques and algorithms to create an Excel-based parametric cost model. In five easy steps you will learn how to normalize your company 's historical cost data to the new project parameters. This paper provides a complete, easy-to-understand, step by step how-to guide. Such a guide does not seem to currently exist. Over 2,000 hours of research, data collection, and trial and error, and thousands of lines of Excel Visual Basic Application (VBA) code were invested in developing these methods. While VBA is not required to use this information, it increases the power and aesthetics of the model. Implementing all of the steps described, while not required, will increase the accuracy of the results.

  10. A comparison of electric vehicle integration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Kempton, Willett

    2012-01-01

    .g. utilization of electric vehicles for ancillary services. To arrive at standardized solutions, it is helpful to analyze the market integration and utilization concepts, architectures and technologies used in a set of state-of-the art electric vehicle demonstration projects. The goal of this paper......It is widely agreed that an intelligent integration of electric vehicles can yield benefits for electric vehicle owner, power grid, and the society as a whole. Numerous electric vehicle utilization concepts have been investigated ranging from the simple e.g. delayed charging to the more advanced e...... is to highlight different approaches to electric vehicle integration in three such projects and describe the underlying technical components which should be harmonized to support interoperability and a broad set of utilization concepts. The projects investigated are the American University of Delaware's V2G...

  11. Project JADE. Comparison of repository systems. Executive summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstedt, H.; Pers, K.; Birgersson, Lars; Ageskog, L.; Munier, R.

    2001-12-01

    KBS-3 has since 1984 been the reference method for disposal of spent fuel in Sweden. Several other methods like WP-Cave, Very Deep Holes and Very Long Holes have been evaluated and compared with KBS-3. Though the methods have been judged to have a high safety potential, KBS-3 has been shown to provide advantages in the combined judgement of 'long-term performance and safety', 'technology' and 'costs'. In the present study, different variants of the KBS-3 method have been analysed and compared with the reference concept KBS-3 V (V for vertical). The variants are: KBS-3 H (H for horizontal) and MLH (medium long holes) - with canisters in a horizontal position, single or in a row respectively. The comparison has been carried out separately for the interim items 'technology', 'long-term performance and safety' and 'costs' respectively. The outcome in each of these comparisons have finally been combined in a ranking. This ranking placed KBS-3 V in the top followed by MLH and KBS-3 H. Vertical deposition of a single canister in one deposition hole, KBS-3 V, is robust as gravity is used for lowering the canister and the bentonite into the deposition hole and since each canister has its own barrier in the near field, which reduces the risk for interference between canisters. The drawback for MLH is the uncertainty about the emplacement technique as well as the impact of weak rock and water leakage into a long deposition hole for several canisters. The advantage is that a smaller volume of rock has to be excavated. This is positive regarding the long-term performance and safety, environmental impact and costs. KBS-3 H does not have the same positive potential. The conclusion of the JADE study is that KBS-3 V should remain as reference concept, and that MLH should be studied further with the aim of clarifying the technical feasibility of emplacement and the means of handling water inflow. It is recommended that KBS-3 H with deposition of a single canister in each hole should

  12. Comparison of community managed projects and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ejiro O. Taghwo

    This study aimed to compare Community Managed Projects (CMP) approach with the ... Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution ... attention to repair and upgrade failed systems in ... In addition to low success in improving coverage, non-.

  13. Examination of oil sands projects : gasification, CO{sub 2} emissions and supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, K. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Non-conventional resources such as Alberta's oil sands are experiencing increased global interest because of the decline in global conventional oil and natural gas reserves. Bitumen extraction and upgrading is an energy intensive process. This paper provided a general discussion of Alberta's oil sands reserves, production and energy requirements. The paper discussed the application of different technologies to the oil sands, and in particular, the use of gasification as a method to produce bitumen-derived synthesis gas. Two oil sands projects currently under construction and implementing gasification technology were briefly described. The paper also provided a comparison of emission intensities from projects that employ gasification leading to a forecast of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from the oil sands. The impact of Alberta's legislation and the federal framework on greenhouse gas emissions were also examined. Last, the paper discussed a supply cost methodology to compare an integrated extraction and upgrading project using gasification versus a similar project using a conventional steam methane reforming process (SMR). It was concluded that after comparing carbon dioxide emission intensities across different types of projects, the type of project that would be most heavily impacted by greenhouse gas emissions penalties was an in-situ extraction with an upgrading project that employed gasification technology. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  14. Methodology for cost estimate in projects for nuclear power plants decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salij, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The conceptual approaches to cost estimating of nuclear power plants units decommissioning projects were determined. The international experience and national legislative and regulatory basis were analyzed. The possible decommissioning project cost classification was given. It was shown the role of project costs of nuclear power plant units decommissioning as the most important criterion for the main project decisions. The technical and economic estimation of deductions to common-branch fund of decommissioning projects financing was substantiated

  15. Comparison study on models for calculation of NPP’s levelized unit electricity cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuryanti; Mochamad Nasrullah; Suparman

    2014-01-01

    Economic analysis that is generally done through the calculation of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC) is crucial to be done prior to any investment decision on the nuclear power plant (NPP) project. There are several models that can be used to calculate LUEC, which are: R&D PT. PLN (Persero) Model, Mini G4ECONS model and Levelized Cost model. This study aimed to perform a comparison between the three models. Comparison technique was done by tracking the similarity used for each model and then given a case of LUEC calculation for SMR NPP 2 x 100 MW using these models. The result showed that the R&D PT. PLN (Persero) Model have a common principle with Mini G4ECONS model, which use Capital Recovery Factor (CRF) to discount the investment cost which eventually become annuity value along the life of plant. LUEC on both models is calculated by dividing the sum of the annual investment cost and the cost for operating NPP with an annual electricity production.While Levelized Cost model based on the annual cash flow. Total of annual costs and annual electricity production were discounted to the first year of construction in order to obtain the total discounted annual cost and the total discounted energy generation. LUEC was obtained by dividing both of the discounted values. LUEC calculations on the three models produce LUEC value, which are: 14.5942 cents US$/kWh for R&D PT. PLN (Persero) Model, 15.056 cents US$/kWh for Mini G4ECONs model and 14.240 cents US$/kWh for Levelized Cost model. (author)

  16. A simulation of 'schedule-cost' progress monitoring system in nuclear power project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haitao; Huang Zhongping; Zhang Zemin; Wang Zikai

    2010-01-01

    The objective of project management is to find the optimal balance between progress and cost according to the project requirements. Traditional method always manages progress and cost separately. However, domestic and international experience indicated that the interactions between these two factors are crucial in the project implementation. Modern project managers have to manage and maintain a 'Progress - Cost' joint control framework. Such a model is applied into a sub-project of a nuclear power project using Simulink in this paper. It helps to identify and correct the deviations of the project. Earned Value Management is used by the project manager to quantify the cost of the project and progress of implementation. The budget plan value, actual value, earned value are three important parameters to measure cost and progress of the project. The experimental results illustrated that the method gives a more comprehensive performance evaluation of the project. (authors)

  17. Project Icarus: Nuclear Fusion Propulsion Concept Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, M.

    Project Icarus will use nuclear fusion as the primary propulsion, since achieving breakeven is imminent within the next decade. Therefore, fusion technology provides confidence in further development and fairly high technological maturity by the time the Icarus mission would be plausible. Currently there are numerous (over 2 dozen) different fusion approaches that are simultaneously being developed around the World and it is difficult to predict which of the concepts is going to be the most successful one. This study tried to estimate current technological maturity and possible technological extrapolation of fusion approaches for which appropriate data could be found. Figures of merit that were assessed include: current technological state, mass and volume estimates, possible gain values, main advantages and disadvantages of the concept and an attempt to extrapolate current technological state for the next decade or two. Analysis suggests that Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) concepts are not likely to deliver sufficient performance due to size, mass, gain and large technological barriers of the concept. However, ICF and PJMIF did show potential for delivering necessary performance, assuming appropriate techno- logical advances. This paper is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  18. Quality of Security Service Costing Demonstration for the MSHN Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spyropoulou, Evdoxia

    2000-01-01

    .... Each service has two costs: an initialization cost and a run-time cost. The demonstration illustrates the costs incurred as network modes and security levels are changed. High level and detailed specifications are provided.

  19. RE-COST: Cost and Business Comparisons of Renewable vs. Non-renewable Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostajo Veiga, Mercedes; Farina Alvarez, Pablo; Fernandez-Montes Moraleda, Manuel; Kleinsorge, Anne

    2012-07-15

    Based on real plant data, the RE-COST project concludes that in many OECD energy markets, new renewable energy technologies (RET) are close to be competitive with non-RET electricity plants. RET costs are decreasing rapidly, while conventional power plants are affected by lower utilisation rates, volatile coal and gas prices, CO2 pricing, and lower electricity demand than expected. If energy prices would account for air pollution and climate change, renewables would already be the most beneficial for society and business.

  20. Comparison of Cloud backup performance and costs in Oracle database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž Zrnec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SL X-NONE X-NONE Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Oracle database using Amazon S3 and EC2 cloud services. The costs estimation was performed on the basis of the prices published on Amazon S3 and Amazon EC2 sites.

  1. Cost comparison of 4x500 MW coal-fuelled and 4x850 MW CANDU nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.

    1981-01-01

    The lifetime costs for a 4x850 MW CANDU generating station are compared to those for 4x500 MW bituminous coal-fuelled generating stations. Two types of coal-fuelled stations are considered; one burning U.S. coal which includes flue gas desulfurization and one burning Western Canadian coal. Current estimates for the capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, fuel costs, decommissioning costs and irradiated fuel management costs are shown. The results show: (1) The accumulated discounted costs of nuclear generation, although initially higher, are lower than coal-fuelled generation after two or three years. (2) Fuel costs provide the major contribution to the total lifetime costs for coal-fuelled stations whereas capital costs are the major item for the nuclear station. (3) The break even lifetime capacity factor between nuclear and U.S. coal-fuelled generation is projected to be 5%; that for nuclear and Canadian coal-fuelled generation is projected to be 9%. (4) Large variations in the costs are required before the cost advantage of nuclear generation is lost. (5) Comparison with previous results shows that the nuclear alternative has a greater cost advantage in the current assessment. (6) The total unit energy cost remains approximately constant throughout the station life for nuclear generation while that for coal-fuelled generation increases significantly due to escalating fuel costs. The 1978 and 1979 actual total unit energy cost to the consumer for several Ontario Hydro stations are detailed, and projected total unit energy costs for several Ontario Hydro stations are shown in terms of escalated dollars and in 1980 constant dollars

  2. Review of PV Inverter Technology Cost and Performance Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2006-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a major responsibility in the implementation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has a major role in supporting inverter development, characterization, standards, certifications, and verifications. The Solar Energy Technologies Program recently published a Multiyear Technical Plan, which establishes a goal of reducing the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) for photovoltaic (PV) systems to $0.06/kWh by 2020. The Multiyear Technical Plan estimates that, in order to meet the PV system goal, PV inverter prices will need to decline to $0.25-0.30 Wp by 2020. DOE determined the need to conduct a rigorous review of the PV Program's technical and economic targets, including the target set for PV inverters. NREL requested that Navigant Consulting Inc.(NCI) conduct a review of historical and projected cost and performance improvements for PV inverters, including identification of critical barriers identified and the approaches government might use to address them.

  3. Identifying an Australian ‘Shadow’ Benefit / Cost Ratio for Public Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Craig

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the social opportunity cost of a hypothetical public project in Australia and compares these values with the cost of the project as measured by factor prices. Since 2001, the Australian taxation system has included an ad valorem tax, the Goods and Services Tax, however relatively little analysis of the impact of this tax on public project evaluation methods has been undertaken. This tax creates divergences between social opportunity cost and conventional cost measures. The...

  4. Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming; Wu, Guangdong

    2014-01-01

    Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illus...

  5. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; McNelis, D.; Yim, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC

  6. UMTRA Project-Level Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program (CR/PIP) is to contribute to the UMTRA Project's environmental restoration mission by providing the means to achieve and recognize continuous improvements and cost savings. This manual includes program definition, description of UMTRA project organizational responsibilities and interfaces with existing project functions, guidance to contractors, and definition of project-level functions

  7. Using fuzzy logic to improve the project time and cost estimation based on Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Habibi

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Among different factors, correct scheduling is one of the vital elements for project management success. There are several ways to schedule projects including the Critical Path Method (CPM and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. Due to problems in estimating dura-tions of activities, these methods cannot accurately and completely model actual projects. The use of fuzzy theory is a basic way to improve scheduling and deal with such problems. Fuzzy theory approximates project scheduling models to reality by taking into account uncertainties in decision parameters and expert experience and mental models. This paper provides a step-by-step approach for accurate estimation of time and cost of projects using the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT and expert views as fuzzy numbers. The proposed method included several steps. In the first step, the necessary information for project time and cost is estimated using the Critical Path Method (CPM and the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. The second step considers the duration and cost of the project activities as the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, and then, the time and cost of the project are recalculated. The duration and cost of activities are estimated using the questionnaires as well as weighing the expert opinions, averaging and defuzzification based on a step-by-step algorithm. The calculating procedures for evaluating these methods are applied in a real project; and the obtained results are explained.

  8. 41 CFR 301-74.4 - What should cost comparisons include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... comparisons include? 301-74.4 Section 301-74.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.4 What should cost comparisons include? Cost comparisons should include...

  9. 78 FR 8389 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Director of the Office of Energy Projects. The cost limits for calendar year 2013, as published in Table I.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the authority delegated by 18 CFR 375.308(x)(1), the Director of the Office of Energy Projects (OEP) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for...

  10. EoC Study Update to Examine the Cost, Schedule and Technical Changes to NASA Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitten, Bob; Emmons, Debra; Shinn, Stephen; Scolese, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The original National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Explanation of Change (EoC) study was conducted in 2010 to understand the underlying causes of cost and schedule growth. The first study consisted of 25 missions launched from 2000 to 2010 and looked at the events that led to growth. These events were categorized into different bins that were rolled up to quantify whether the growth was due to internal planning, or internal execution, or from external forces and found that the growth was evenly distributed among those three categories. The result of the study presented nine considerations focused at reducing growth due to project external events and internal planning events. Although no one 'magic bullet' consideration was discovered in the previous work, the nine considerations taken as a whole were postulated to help reduce cost and schedule change in future NASA missions. A recent update was conducted that included investigating 8 missions developed since the previous study to determine if the results were different. Cost, schedule, and mass increases were analyzed from the start of Phase B through Preliminary Design Review and Critical Design Review to Launch. As shown in this paper, the results are better with overall cost and schedule growth being reduced. The paper will show a comparison of the previous results to the updated results to show specific reductions and provide an explanation of which recommendations were followed.

  11. Contracting and project strategy to reduce the costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moum, I.O.; Mosbergvik, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Norwegian oil industry has developed and grown to a significant size from the 1970's through the 80's, and numerous large fields were developed under a business environment with high oil prices. The technological challenges were significant, but the expectation of high volumes of produced oil and increasing oil prices, secured the funding for development of these large fields. Today this situation is dramatically changed, and the low oil price alone would make it uneconomic to develop the new fields. In addition to low oil prices, people are now also facing smaller reservoirs, deeper water and more sever environmental conditions. The general competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental Shelf is challenged. Many initiatives have been launched in Norway to support the necessary improvements in business performance. The Norwegian oil and gas industry together with the authorities have through 1994 worked together in the NORSOK initiative to identify means to save 40--50% in cost and time for development of new fields. The industry has developed new technology. The authorities have been addressing the fiscal conditions and general framework for the oil companies, and several areas of improvement have been identified and to some degree implemented by the operators. The most important improvements are probably those that are directly implemented in actual development projects, and Statoil/Kvaerner have together some joint experiences that can illustrate how such ideas successfully can be implemented

  12. Improvement of the cost-benefit analysis algorithm for high-rise construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafurov Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific nature of high-rise investment projects entailing long-term construction, high risks, etc. implies a need to improve the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis. An improved algorithm is described in the article. For development of the improved algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects, the following methods were used: weighted average cost of capital, dynamic cost-benefit analysis of investment projects, risk mapping, scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis of critical ratios, etc. This comprehensive approach helped to adapt the original algorithm to feasibility objectives in high-rise construction. The authors put together the algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects on the basis of risk mapping and sensitivity analysis of critical ratios. The suggested project risk management algorithms greatly expand the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis in investment projects, namely: the “Project analysis scenario” flowchart, improving quality and reliability of forecasting reports in investment projects; the main stages of cash flow adjustment based on risk mapping for better cost-benefit project analysis provided the broad range of risks in high-rise construction; analysis of dynamic cost-benefit values considering project sensitivity to crucial variables, improving flexibility in implementation of high-rise projects.

  13. Improvement of the cost-benefit analysis algorithm for high-rise construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Andrey; Skotarenko, Oksana; Plotnikov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    The specific nature of high-rise investment projects entailing long-term construction, high risks, etc. implies a need to improve the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis. An improved algorithm is described in the article. For development of the improved algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects, the following methods were used: weighted average cost of capital, dynamic cost-benefit analysis of investment projects, risk mapping, scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis of critical ratios, etc. This comprehensive approach helped to adapt the original algorithm to feasibility objectives in high-rise construction. The authors put together the algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects on the basis of risk mapping and sensitivity analysis of critical ratios. The suggested project risk management algorithms greatly expand the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis in investment projects, namely: the "Project analysis scenario" flowchart, improving quality and reliability of forecasting reports in investment projects; the main stages of cash flow adjustment based on risk mapping for better cost-benefit project analysis provided the broad range of risks in high-rise construction; analysis of dynamic cost-benefit values considering project sensitivity to crucial variables, improving flexibility in implementation of high-rise projects.

  14. Transportation Infrastructure: Managing the Costs of Large-Dollar Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) was requested to assess the effectiveness of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) oversight of the costs of large-dollar highway and bridge projects (those with a total estimated cost of over $100 million)...

  15. Alternate bidding strategies for asphalt and concrete pavement projects utilizing life cycle cost analysis (LCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent changes in pavement materials costs have impacted the competitive environment relative to the : determination of the most cost effective pavement structure for a specific highway project. In response, State : highway agencies have renewed thei...

  16. A project management quality cost information system for the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Love, PED; Irani, Z

    2003-01-01

    A prototype Project Management Quality Cost System (PROMQACS) was developed to determine quality costs in construction projects. The structure and information requirements that are needed to provide a classification system of quality costs were identified and discussed. The developed system was tested and implemented in two case study construction projects to determine the information and management issues needed to develop PROMQACS into a software program. In addition, the system was used to...

  17. Changes in Federal Water Project Repayment Policies Can Reduce Federal Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-07

    a reimburs - able purpose, the users should share in cost recovery. RECOMMENDATIONS To provide for equitable cost reimbursement on underutilized...Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation that do not ensure fair and timely recovery of water projects’ reimbursable costs. We made this...such costs for reimbursable project purposes and considering them in future water price determinations, agencies often reas- signed them to

  18. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113: Project cost estimate. Preliminary design report. Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains Volume IV of the Preliminary Design Report for the Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113 which is the Project Cost Estimate and construction schedule. The estimate was developed based upon Title 1 material take-offs, budgetary equipment quotes and Raytheon historical in-house data. The W-113 project cost estimate and project construction schedule were integrated together to provide a resource loaded project network

  19. Seaplane Economics: A Quantitative Cost Comparison of Seaplanes and Land Planes for Sea Base Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denz, Thomas; Smith, Stephanie; Shrestha, Rajeev

    2007-01-01

    .... This study examined whether there is an economic justification for using seaplanes, the method being a quantitative cost comparison between existing conventional fixed-wing aircraft (land planes...

  20. Analysis of the production and transaction costs of forest carbon offset projects in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Christopher S; Cooley, David M; Baker, Justin S

    2012-12-15

    Forest carbon offset project implementation costs, comprised of both production and transaction costs, could present an important barrier to private landowner participation in carbon offset markets. These costs likewise represent a largely undocumented component of forest carbon offset potential. Using a custom spreadsheet model and accounting tool, this study examines the implementation costs of different forest offset project types operating in different forest types under different accounting and sampling methodologies. Sensitivity results are summarized concisely through response surface regression analysis to illustrate the relative effect of project-specific variables on total implementation costs. Results suggest that transaction costs may represent a relatively small percentage of total project implementation costs - generally less than 25% of the total. Results also show that carbon accounting methods, specifically the method used to establish project baseline, may be among the most important factors in driving implementation costs on a per-ton-of-carbon-sequestered basis, dramatically increasing variability in both transaction and production costs. This suggests that accounting could be a large driver in the financial viability of forest offset projects, with transaction costs likely being of largest concern to those projects at the margin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. WEC3: Wave Energy Converter Code Comparison Project: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combourieu, Adrien; Lawson, Michael; Babarit, Aurelien; Ruehl, Kelley; Roy, Andre; Costello, Ronan; Laporte Weywada, Pauline; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the recently launched Wave Energy Converter Code Comparison (WEC3) project and present preliminary results from this effort. The objectives of WEC3 are to verify and validate numerical modelling tools that have been developed specifically to simulate wave energy conversion devices and to inform the upcoming IEA OES Annex VI Ocean Energy Modelling Verification and Validation project. WEC3 is divided into two phases. Phase 1 consists of a code-to-code verification and Phase II entails code-to-experiment validation. WEC3 focuses on mid-fidelity codes that simulate WECs using time-domain multibody dynamics methods to model device motions and hydrodynamic coefficients to model hydrodynamic forces. Consequently, high-fidelity numerical modelling tools, such as Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics simulation, and simple frequency domain modelling tools were not included in the WEC3 project.

  2. Causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh province of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohu, S.; Halid, A.; Nagapan, S.; Fattah, A.; Latif, I.; Ullah, K.

    2017-11-01

    Cost overrun is an increase of cost of project from approved budget which was signed by parties at the time of tender. Cost overrun in construction of highway projects is a common problem worldwide and construction industry of Pakistan is also facing this crucial problem of cost overrun in highway projects of Pakistan. The main objective of this research is to identify the causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh province of Pakistan. A well designed questionnaire was developed based on 64 common factors of cost overrun from literature review. Developed questionnaire was distributed among selected 30 experts from owner/client, designer/consultant and contractor who have experience more than 20 years’ experience in highway projects. The collected data was statistical analyzed. After analysis results showed that delay process in payment by client, inadequate planning, client interference, poor contract management, delay of decision making, change of scope of project and financial problems faced by client were most causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects. This research will provide alertness to stakeholders of highway projects of Sindh province to avoid cost overrun in projects.

  3. Project financing knits parts of costly LNG supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minyard, R.J.; Strode, M.O.

    1997-01-01

    The supply and distribution infrastructure of an LNG project requires project sponsors and LNG buyers to make large, interdependent capital investments. For a grassroots project, substantial investments may be necessary for each link in the supply chain: field development; liquefaction plant and storage; ports and utilities; ships; receiving terminal and related facilities; and end-user facilities such as power stations or a gas distribution network. The huge sums required for these projects make their finance ability critical to implementation. Lenders have become increasingly comfortable with LNG as a business and now have achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with it. Raising debt financing for many future LNG projects, however, will present new and increasingly difficult challenges. The challenge of financing these projects will be formidable: political instability, economic uncertainty, and local currency volatility will have to be recognized and mitigated. Described here is the evolution of financing LNG projects, including the Rasgas LNG project financing which broke new ground in this area. The challenges that lie ahead for sponsors seeking to finance future projects selling LNG to emerging markets are also discussed. And the views of leading experts from the field of project finance, specifically solicited for this article, address major issues that must be resolved for successful financing of these projects

  4. R2/R0-WTR decommissioning cost. Comparison and benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris

    2001-10-01

    SKI charged NAC International with the task of determining whether or not the decommissioning cost estimates of R2/R0 (hereafter simply referred to as R2) and Aagesta research reactors are reasonable. The associated work was performed in two phases. The objective in Phase I was to make global comparisons of the R2 and Aagesta decommissioning estimates with the estimates/actual costs for the decommissioning of similar research reactors in other countries. This report presents the results of the Phase II investigations. Phase II focused on selected discrete work packages within the decommissioning program of the WTR reactor. To the extent possible a comparison of those tasks with estimates for the R2 reactor has been made, as a basis for providing an opinion on the reasonableness of the R2 estimate. The specific WTR packages include: reactor vessel and internals dismantling; biological shield dismantling; primary coolant piping dismantling; electrical equipment removal; waste packaging; transportation and disposal of radioactive concrete and reactor components; project management, licensing and engineering; and removal of ancillary facilities. The specific tasks were characterised and analysed in terms of fundamental parameters including: task definition; labour hours expended; labour cost; labour productivity; length of work week; working efficiency; working environment and impact on job execution; external costs (contract labour, materials and equipment); total cost; waste volumes; and waste packaging and transport costs. Based on such detailed raw data, normalised unit resources have been derived for selected parts of the decommissioning program, as a first step towards developing benchmarking data for D and D activities at research reactors. Several general conclusions emerged from the WTR decommissioning project. Site characterisation can confirm or negate major assumptions, quantify waste volumes, delineate obstacles to completing work, provide an understanding

  5. A quantitative analysis of the cost-effectiveness of project types in the CDM pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Gavin A.

    2008-09-15

    The flexibility of the CDM is intended to reduce the cost of compliance for Annex 1 countries and contribute to cost-effective reductions. This paper provides a framework for defining cost-effective payments for CDM carbon reductions. The projects in the CDM pipeline are categorised into project types. The data provided in the Project Design Documents is quantitatively assessed to calculate the median cost and range of costs for producing a CER from the project categories. These are measured against the range of prices in the market in order to estimate the level of cost-effectiveness. Global warming potential and size of the project were shown to be key factors in the cost of producing a CER. The results show that although prices for CERs are difficult to define in the primary CER market, many of the project categories generated CERs at a cost well below the lowest market price. The difference in these two values is defined as a loss in cost-effectiveness. The CDM is shown to be successful at developing the 'lowest hanging fruit' but the mechanism could be improved to fulfil the goal of cost-effectiveness by linking the price per CER to the cost of generating a CER. (au)

  6. Study to establish cost projections for production of Redox chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, J. F.; Greco, C. C.; Rusinko, R. N.; Wadsworth, A. L., III

    1982-01-01

    A cost study of four proposed manufacturing processes for redox chemicals for the NASA REDOX Energy Storage System yielded favorable selling prices in the range $0.99 to $1.91/kg of chromic chloride, anhydrous basis, including ferrous chloride. The prices corresponded to specific energy storage costs from under $9 to $17/kWh. A refined and expanded cost analysis of the most favored process yielded a price estimate corresponding to a storage cost of $11/kWh. The findings supported the potential economic viability of the NASA REDOX system.

  7. Probabilistic comparison of alternative characterization technologies at the Fernald Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.; Kaplan, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of four alternative characterization technologies proposed for use in characterization of surficial uranium contamination in soil at the Incinerator and Drum Baling Areas at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in southwestern Ohio has been evaluated using a probabilistic, risk-based decision-analysis methodology. The basis of comparison is to minimize a computed total cost for environmental cleanup. This total-cost-based approach provides a framework for evaluating the trade-offs among remedial investigation, the remedial design, and the risk of regulatory penalties. The approach explicitly recognizes the value of information provided by remedial investigation; additional measurements are only valuable to the extent that the information they provide reduces total cost

  8. Overview of NREL Distribution Grid Integration Cost Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ding, Fei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    This presentation was given at the 2017 NREL Workshop 'Benchmarking Distribution Grid Integration Costs Under High Distributed PV Penetrations.' It provides a brief overview of recent and ongoing NREL work on distribution system grid integration costs, as well as challenges and needs from the community.

  9. Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

  10. Using the Student Research Project to Integrate Macroeconomics and Statistics in an Advanced Cost Accounting Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahamood M.; Schwartz, Bill N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a student research project that is part of an advanced cost accounting class. The project emphasizes active learning, integrates cost accounting with macroeconomics and statistics by "learning by doing" using real world data. Students analyze sales data for a publicly listed company by focusing on the company's…

  11. Management information system for cost-schedule integration control for nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Wang Yongqing; Tian Li

    2001-01-01

    Based on the project management experience abroad and at home, a cost-schedule integration control model was developed to improve nuclear power project management. The model integrates cost data with the scheduling data by unity coding to efficiently implement cost-schedule integration control on line. The software system architecture and database is designed and implemented. The system functions include estimating and forecasting dynamically cash flow, scheduling and evaluating deviation from the cost-schedule plan, etc. The research and development of the system should improve the architecture of computer integrated management information systems for nuclear power projects in China

  12. Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illustrate the robust model, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II is modified to solve the project example. The results show that, by means of adjusting the time and cost robust coefficients, the robust Pareto sets for time-cost tradeoff can be obtained according to different acceptable risk level, from which the decision maker could choose the preferred construction alternative.

  13. A case-based reasoning approach for estimating the costs of pump station projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective estimation of costs is crucial to the success of construction projects. Cost estimates are used to evaluate, approve and/or fund projects. Organizations use some form of classification system to identify the various types of estimates that may be prepared during the lifecycle of a project. This research presents a parametric-cost model for pump station projects. Fourteen factors have been identified as important to the influence of the cost of pump station projects. A data set that consists of forty-four pump station projects (fifteen water and twenty-nine waste water are collected to build a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR library and to test its performance. The results obtained from the CBR tool are processed and adopted to improve the accuracy of the results. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the development of the effectiveness of the tool.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF TIMES AND COSTS OF PROJECT OF HORIZONTAL LAMINATOR PRODUCTION USING PERT/CPM TECHNICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Lermen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The PERT/CPM is a technique widely used in both the scheduling and in the project feasibility in terms of cost control and time.  In order to optimize time and costs involved in production, the work presented here aims to apply the PERT/CPM technique in the production project of the Horizontal Laminator, a machine used to cut polyurethane foam blocks in the mattresses industries. For the application of PERT/CPM technique in the project of Horizontal Laminator production were identified the activities that compose the project, the dependence between them, the normal and accelerated durations and the normal and accelerated costs. In this study, deterministic estimates for the duration of the activities were considered. The results show that the project can be completed in 520 hours at a total cost of R$7,042.50, when all activities are performed in their normal durations.  When all the activities that compose the critical path are accelerated, the project can be completed in 333.3 hours at a total cost of R$9,263.01. If the activities slacks have been exploited, it can obtain a final total cost of R$6,157.8, without changing the new duration of the project. It is noteworthy that the final total cost of the project if the slacks are used, will be lower than the initial cost. Regarding the initial cost of the project, after the application of the PERT/CPM technique, it presents a decrease of 12.56% of the total project cost.

  15. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) - National Inpatient Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) is part of a family of databases and software tools developed for the Healthcare Cost and Utilization...

  16. Risk Consideration and Cost Estimation in Construction Projects Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius A. Peleskei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects usually involve high investments. It is, therefore, a risky adventure for companies as actual costs of construction projects nearly always exceed the planed scenario. This is due to the various risks and the large uncertainty existing within this industry. Determination and quantification of risks and their impact on project costs within the construction industry is described to be one of the most difficult areas. This paper analyses how the cost of construction projects can be estimated using Monte Carlo Simulation. It investigates if the different cost elements in a construction project follow a specific probability distribution. The research examines the effect of correlation between different project costs on the result of the Monte Carlo Simulation. The paper finds out that Monte Carlo Simulation can be a helpful tool for risk managers and can be used for cost estimation of construction projects. The research has shown that cost distributions are positively skewed and cost elements seem to have some interdependent relationships.

  17. Transaction costs of unilateral CDM projects in India-results from an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Recently, transaction costs in the context of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) gained considerable attention as they were generally perceived to be significantly higher than for the other Kyoto Mechanisms. However, empirical evidence on the amount of transaction costs of CDM projects is very scarce. This paper presents the results from an empirical survey designed to quantify transaction costs of potential non-sink CDM projects in India. The definition of transaction costs of CDM projects was derived from recent literature and observations made in the current market for Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). During the survey, parts of transaction costs of 15 projects were quantified. An assessment of the results showed that specific transaction costs depend, to a large extent, on economies of scale in terms of total amount of CERs generated over the crediting period. Total transaction costs were quantified for seven projects. The costs range from 0.07 to 0.47 dollar/t CO 2 . As the projects have an emission reduction between 0.24 Mt CO 2 and 5.00 Mt CO 2 over the crediting period, the results support the assumption of Michaelowa et al. (Climate Policy 3 (2003) 273) that projects with emission reductions smaller than 0.20 Mt CO 2 are not economically viable at current CER prices

  18. Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - 2015 Edition. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This joint report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the eighth in a series of studies on electricity generating costs. As policy makers work to ensure that the power supply is reliable, secure and affordable, while making it increasingly clean and sustainable in the context of the debate on climate change, it is becoming more crucial that they understand what determines the relative cost of electricity generation using fossil fuel, nuclear or renewable sources of energy. A wide range of fuels and technologies are presented in the report, including natural gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, solar, onshore and offshore wind, biomass and biogas, geothermal, and combined heat and power, drawing on a database from surveys of investment and operating costs that include a larger number of countries than previous editions. The analysis of more than 180 plants, based on data covering 22 countries, reveals several key trends, pointing, for example, to a significant decline in recent years in the cost of renewable generation. The report also reveals that nuclear energy costs remain in line with the cost of other base-load technologies, particularly in markets that value de-carbonisation. Overall, cost drivers of the different generating technologies remain both market-specific and technology-specific. Readers will find a wealth of details and analysis, supported by over 200 figures and tables, underlining this report's value as a tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies, climate change and the evolution of power sectors around the world. (authors)

  19. Low-cost rural surface alternatives : demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The goals of this project were to implement several stabilization methods for preventing or mitigating freeze-thaw damage to : granular surfaced roads and identify the most effective and economical methods for the soil and climate conditions of Iowa....

  20. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  1. Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1987-06-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive

  2. 13 CFR 120.882 - Eligible Project costs for 504 loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financing including points, fees and interest. (e) If the project involves expansion of a small business... expansion of a small business concern” includes any project that involves the acquisition, construction or... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible Project costs for 504...

  3. The environmental cost in the mining projects; El costo ambiental en los proyectos mineros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Gaviria Rivera

    1992-07-01

    To evaluate and calculate the mining project, Environmental costs, besides the proper variables concerning the project. It is necessary to incorporate the distinct interrelations among the mining operation with the local and regional biophysics and. socio-economic environments existing in the project's area of influence.

  4. Stochastic project networks temporal analysis, scheduling and cost minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Project planning, scheduling, and control are regularly used in business and the service sector of an economy to accomplish outcomes with limited resources under critical time constraints. To aid in solving these problems, network-based planning methods have been developed that now exist in a wide variety of forms, cf. Elmaghraby (1977) and Moder et al. (1983). The so-called "classical" project networks, which are used in the network techniques CPM and PERT and which represent acyclic weighted directed graphs, are able to describe only projects whose evolution in time is uniquely specified in advance. Here every event of the project is realized exactly once during a single project execution and it is not possible to return to activities previously carried out (that is, no feedback is permitted). Many practical projects, however, do not meet those conditions. Consider, for example, a production process where some parts produced by a machine may be poorly manufactured. If an inspection shows that a part does no...

  5. Cost estimation in software engineering projects with web components development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen multitud de modelos propuestos para la predicción de co stes en proyectos de software, al gunos orientados específicamen te para proyectos Web. Este trabajo analiza si los modelos específicos para proyectos Web están justifi cados, examinando el comportami ento diferencial de los costes entre proyectos de desarrollo softwar e Web y no Web. Se analizan dos aspectos del cálculo de costes: las deseconomías de escala, y el im pacto de algunas características de estos proyectos que son utilizadas como cost drivers. Se en uncian dos hipótesis: (a en estos proyect os las deseconomías de escala so n mayores y (b el incremento de coste que provocan los cost dr ivers es menor para los proyectos Web. Se contrastaron estas hipótesis a nalizando un conjunto de proyectos reales. Los resultados sugie ren que ambas hipótesis se cumplen. Por lo tanto, la principal contribu ción a la literatura de esta inv estigación es que el desarrollo de modelos específicos para los proyectos Web está justificado.

  6. Costing the EPR Project Using the Real Options Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epaulard, Anne; Gallon, Stephane

    2001-01-01

    Real options theory makes it possible to cost investments which offer flexibility but whose returns are uncertain, such as the construction in 2000 of an EPR prototype; this prototype will enable the European pressurised-water reactor (EPR) to be used to renew EDF's nuclear power stations in 2020 (flexibility) but its economic worth will then depend on the cost of the competing gas-fired power plants (uncertain return). Options theory shows that investing in EPR technology in 2000 provides sufficient flexibility in 2020 to be considered cost-effective, even though use of EPRs is unlikely by that date. The investment made in 2000 to develop EPR technology therefore actually plays the part of an option or, in other words, insurance (against the risk of high gas prices)

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Investment Decisions: Chapter 16 (Cost-Benefit Analysis of Transportation Projects)

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo; Arnold C. Harberger

    2011-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the problems of evaluating transportation projects in the context of the less-developed countries. Emphasis will be placed on highway projects, because these account for the bulk of transport investments in the developing parts of the world. If a project passes a straight financial test, based on the present value of its cash inflows and outflows, projects would only come if this financial NPV were outweighed by the present value of the project’s various externali...

  8. Impact of Research and Development, Analysis, and Standardization on PV Project Financing Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones-Albertus, Rebecca [U.S. Department of Energy

    2018-04-02

    The technical report discusses how R and D efforts focused on removing perceived risk from cash flows to investors have the potential to lower the cost of capital and increase the amount of leverage in a solar project. It also discusses how creating business efficiencies that allow financing transactions to occur more quickly with less effort can reduce the upfront costs associated with arranging financing for a solar project or group of projects. The paper then assesses the impact that these R and D activities might have on the volatility of PV asset cash flows and asset value, as well as the upfront costs of arranging a financial transaction. Finally, we insert these assumptions into financial models to analyze their impacts on the cost of capital for equity and debt investors, project leverage, and upfront financial transaction costs.

  9. Cost estimation using ministerial regulation of public work no. 11/2013 in construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumsari, Putri; Juliastuti; Khalifah Al'farisi, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    One of the first tasks in starting a construction project is to estimate the total cost of building a project. In Indonesia there are several standards that are used to calculate the cost estimation of a project. One of the standards used in based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013. However in a construction project, contractor often has their own cost estimation based on their own calculation. This research aimed to compare the construction project total cost using calculation based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013 against the contractor’s calculation. Two projects were used as case study to compare the results. The projects were a 4 storey building located in Pantai Indah Kapuk area (West Jakarta) and a warehouse located in Sentul (West Java) which was built by 2 different contractors. The cost estimation from both contractors’ calculation were compared to the one based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013. It is found that there were differences between the two calculation around 1.80 % - 3.03% in total cost, in which the cost estimation based on Ministerial Regulation was higher than the contractors’ calculations.

  10. Contractors perspective for critical factors of cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohu, Samiullah; Abdullah, Abd Halid; Nagapan, Sasitharan; Fattah, Abdul; Ullah, Kaleem; Kumar, Kanesh

    2017-10-01

    Construction industry of Pakistan is creating a number of opportunities in employment as well as plays a role model for economy development of the country. This construction industry has a serious issue of cost overrun in all construction projects especially in construction of highway projects. Cost overrun is a serious and critical issue in construction of highway projects which gives negative impact to construction practitioners because it is not only cross the approved budget but also approved time of the project. The main objective of this study is to find out critical factors causing cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh according to contractors' perspectives. Deep literature review was carried out and a total of 64 factors of cost overrun were identified. To achieve the objective, a questionnaire was designed and distributed among 16 selected respondents who have more than 20 years of experience in construction of highway projects. The results from analysis found that most critical factors of cost overrun in the order of importance include financial and cash flow difficulties faced by contractor, frequent changes in design, changes in price of materials, poor planning by client, change in scope of project, change in specification of materials and delay in taking decisions. This study will assist contractors to narrow down some of the critical factors that would lead to cost overrun, and therefore be prepared with the ways to mitigate these problems in construction of highway projects of Sindh province.

  11. 523 factors influencing direct costs dynamics of building projects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-08-16

    Aug 16, 2013 ... effect of the direct cost variation factors (p-values between 0.365 and 0.930). Construction, resources, and performance factors are the most significant of the groups (MS range = 3.66 to 4.33), though no .... financial control on site ranked first and second ... order according to the consultants were, inflation.

  12. 24 CFR 954.303 - Eligible project costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... meet the applicable new construction standards of the grantee and the Model Energy Code referred to in... more per home) the cost of funding an initial operating deficit reserve, which is a reserve to meet any... only be used to pay operating expenses, reserve for replacement payments, and debt service. Any HOME...

  13. Data Flow in Relation to Life-Cycle Costing of Construction Projects in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolek, Vojtěch; Hanák, Tomáš; Marović, Ivan

    2017-10-01

    Life-cycle costing is an important part of every construction project, as it makes it possible to take into consideration future costs relating to the operation and demolition phase of a built structure. In this way, investors can optimize the project design to minimize the total project costs. Even though there have already been some attempts to implement BIM software in the Czech Republic, the current state of affairs does not support automated data flow between the bill of costs and applications that support building facility management. The main aim of this study is to critically evaluate the current situation and outline a future framework that should allow for the use of the data contained in the bill of costs to manage building operating costs.

  14. Projected costs of nuclear and conventional base load electricity generation in some IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The cost of nuclear and conventional electricity is one of the most important parameters for power system planning, and in particular for decisions on base load power projects. This study reviews the projected levelized electricity generation costs of the base load power generation options expected to be available in the medium term, using an agreed common economic methodology. Cost projections were obtained and evaluated for nuclear and fossil fuelled (mainly coal-fired) plants that could be commissioned in the mid- to late 1990s in 10 IAEA Member States. 27 refs, figs and tabs

  15. Cost Control and Performance Review of Software Projects by Using the Earned Value Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available EVM (Earned Value Management is a method that can be successfully used to measure the performance of a project from the cost and schedule points of view. Initially developed for the US government programs in the 60s, it later becomes an important feature of any modern project management practice thanks to its simplicity and efficiency in signaling project anomalies in time. EVM become extremely popular because it can be equally applied for any project in any industry.

  16. Projected costs of generating electricity from power stations for commissioning in the period 1995-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study reviews the projected electricity generation costs for the base load power generation options expected to be available in the medium term, using an agreed common economic methodology. Cost projections were obtained for nuclear and fossil fuelled plants that could in principle be commissioned in the mid-1990s, or shortly thereafter, although not all countries plan to commission plants at that time. The major changes in expectations compared with earlier studies, apart from those associated with changed perceptions of fossil fuel prices, include significantly lower nuclear investment costs for the United States, associated with an improved design and the expectation of achieving shorter construction periods than projected in the 1985 study, and generally lower nuclear fuel costs. Some countries project higher operation and maintenance costs for either coal-fired or nuclear plant or both. In the case of coal-fired plants these may be associated with the extra costs of operating desulphurisation equipment. The most marked change in nuclear operating and maintenance costs has taken place in the United States, where these costs are now expected to be twice as large as the projected nuclear fuel costs. There remain major differences in investment cost expectations between countries. The reasons for these differences have been examined in previous studies. They arise from differences in factor costs, regulatory approach, design and siting, and exchange rates which do not adequately reflect the differences in the capital investment costs between countries. In brief, most OECD countries continue to expect nuclear power to have a lower levelised generating cost than coal-fired generation when using their own technical and economic assumptions

  17. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewable...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  18. Cost Overruns in Large-scale Transportation Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarelli, Chantal C; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Molin, Eric J. E

    2010-01-01

    is also considered possible. Non-political explanations are diverse in character, therefore a range of different theories (including rational choice theory and prospect theory), depending on the kind of explanation is considered more appropriate than one all-embracing theory........ Overall, four categories of explanations can be distinguished: technical, economic, psychological, and political. Political explanations have been seen to be the most dominant explanations for cost overruns. Agency theory is considered the most interesting for political explanations and an eclectic theory...

  19. Comparison of approximate electrical energy generating costs in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Bertel, E.

    1996-01-01

    Costs of power generating in nuclear power plants have been predicted taking into account all factors connected with investment, maintenance, exploitation and decommissioning, basing on last OECD report. The costs have been compared with alternative solutions. In majority of OECD countries the direct costs of electricity generation are very close for nuclear fossil-fuel and gas power plants. All indirect costs such as environmental impact, public health hazard, waste management, accident risk and also public acceptance for nuclear power have been discussed. 13 refs, 5 tabs

  20. Policies to Avoid Cost Overruns in Infrastructure Projects: Critical Evaluation and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many infrastructure projects have cost overruns and there has been a lot of research both on why these cost overruns occur and what can be done to reduce hem. Bent Flyvbjerg is the leading researcher in the area and in this article his proposals are used as the starting point. Besides a literature review, a questionnaire was sent out to experienced Swedish project managers to find out what they thought could reduce cost overruns. The literature review and the questionnaire were the foundation for the proposals formulated in this article. Proposals concerned three areas: (1. Organisational macro-structure, e.g. using more PPP projects but also decentralisation of budgets where cost overruns in one project in a region lead to less alternative projects in the specific region. (2. Organisational quality: It should be easy to see when and where cost overruns occur and who was responsible. There should be a well-developed knowledge management system in the organisation and an organisation culture of openness with a focus on improvements. (3. Organisational processes, e.g. a systematic use of external reviewers in different stages of a project.   Keywords: Cost overruns, Infrastructure projects, Policy measures

  1. The Current and Projected Taxpayer Shares of US Health Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-03-01

    We estimated taxpayers' current and projected share of US health expenditures, including government payments for public employees' health benefits as well as tax subsidies to private health spending. We tabulated official Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services figures on direct government spending for health programs and public employees' health benefits for 2013, and projected figures through 2024. We calculated the value of tax subsidies for private spending from official federal budget documents and figures for state and local tax collections. Tax-funded health expenditures totaled $1.877 trillion in 2013 and are projected to increase to $3.642 trillion in 2024. Government's share of overall health spending was 64.3% of national health expenditures in 2013 and will rise to 67.1% in 2024. Government health expenditures in the United States account for a larger share of gross domestic product (11.2% in 2013) than do total health expenditures in any other nation. Contrary to public perceptions and official Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services estimates, government funds most health care in the United States. Appreciation of government's predominant role in health funding might encourage more appropriate and equitable targeting of health expenditures.

  2. Wilderness Recreation Demand: A Comparison of Travel Cost and On-Site Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Bowker; A. Askew; L. Seymour; J.P. Zhu; D. English; C.M. Starbuck

    2009-01-01

    This study used travel cost and on-site day cost models, coupled with the Forest Service’s National Visitor Use Monitoring data, to examine the demand for and value of recreation access to designated Wilderness.

  3. Analyzing Integrated Cost-Schedule Risk for Complex Product Systems R&D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the research efforts in project risk management tend to assess cost risk and schedule risk independently. However, project cost and time are related in reality and the relationship between them should be analyzed directly. We propose an integrated cost and schedule risk assessment model for complex product systems R&D projects. Graphical evaluation review technique (GERT, Monte Carlo simulation, and probability distribution theory are utilized to establish the model. In addition, statistical analysis and regression analysis techniques are employed to analyze simulation outputs. Finally, a complex product systems R&D project as an example is modeled by the proposed approach and the simulation outputs are analyzed to illustrate the effectiveness of the risk assessment model. It seems that integrating cost and schedule risk assessment can provide more reliable risk estimation results.

  4. A post-contract project analysis of material waste and cost overrun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Malaysia, 28.34% of the total waste sent to landfills originates from ..... by comparing the opinions of the first two interviewees. The process continued .... the causes of delay and cost overrun in Uganda's public sector construction projects.

  5. Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    ERDC/TN ANSRP-06-3 September 2006 Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources...Cole, R. A. (2006). “ Freshwater aquatic nuisance species impacts and management costs and benefits at Federal Water resources projects,” ANSRP...Projects1 by Richard A. Cole THE ISSUE: A small fraction of the species that inhabit the nation’s fresh waters become aquatic nuisance species (ANS

  6. Benefit/cost comparisons for utility SMES applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Steese, J.G.; Dagle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes eight cases studies that account for the benefits and costs of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in system-specific utility applications. Four of these scenarios are hypothetical SMES application in the Pacific Northwest, where relatively low energy costs impose a stringent test on the viability of the concept. The other four scenarios address SMES applications on high-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) transmission lines. While estimated SMES benefits are based on a previously reported methodology, this paper presents results of an improved cost-estimating approach that includes an assumed reduction in the cost of the power conditioning system (PCS) from approximately $160/kW to $80/kW. The revised approach results in all the SMES scenarios showing higher benefit/cost ratios that those reported earlier. However, in all but two cases, the value of any single benefit is still less than the unit's levelized cost. This suggests, as a general principle, that the total value of multiple benefits should always be considered if SMES is to appear cost effective in may utility applications. These results should offer utilities further encouragement to conduct more detailed analyses of SMES benefits in scenarios that apply to individual systems

  7. Benefit/cost comparison for utility SMES applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desteese, J. G.; Dagle, J. E.

    1991-08-01

    This paper summarizes eight case studies that account for the benefits and costs of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in system-specific utility applications. Four of these scenarios are hypothetical SMES applications in the Pacific Northwest, where relatively low energy costs impose a stringent test on the viability of the concept. The other four scenarios address SMES applications on high-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) transmission lines. While estimated SMES benefits are based on a previously reported methodology, this paper presents results of an improved cost-estimating approach that includes an assumed reduction in the cost of the power conditioning system (PCS) from approximately $160/kW to $80/kW. The revised approach results in all the SMES scenarios showing higher benefit/cost ratios than those reported earlier. However, in all but two cases, the value of any single benefit is still less than the unit's levelized cost. This suggests, as a general principle, that the total value of multiple benefits should always be considered if SMES is to appear cost effective in many utility applications. These results should offer utilities further encouragement to conduct more detailed analyses of SMES benefits in scenarios that apply to individual systems.

  8. Flexible resource management and its effect on project cost and duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinha, Denis C.; Ahluwalia, Rashpal S.

    2018-06-01

    In practice, most projects result in cost overruns and schedule slippage due to poor resource management. This paper presents an approach that aims at reducing project duration and costs by empowering project managers to assess different scenarios. The proposed approach addresses combinatorial modes for tasks, multi-skilled resources, and multiple calendars for resources. A case study reported in the literature is presented to demonstrate the capabilities of this method. As for practical implications, this approach enhances the decision-making process which results in improved solutions in terms of total project duration and cost. From an academic viewpoint, this paper adds empirical evidence to enrich the existing literature, as it highlights relevant issues to model properly the complexity of real-life projects.

  9. A new approach to cost effective projects: High performance project teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, N.C.

    1994-01-01

    In low oil price environment in which environmental conditions are more challenging, reservoir characteristics less favourable and political risk increasing, successful projects are required in such cases. The present paper deals with the visionary process of establishing high performance project teams. According to the author, such project teams embody dynamic recognition of holism. Holism is achieved as an output from the process of establishing the drivers and enablers for success on a project. They are given birth during the unfolding of the operators development plans and contracting strategy. The paper discusses the main drivers of project teams comprising purpose and performance goals, selection, common approach, commitment and accountability, and financial alignment

  10. A new approach to cost effective projects: High performance project teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, N.C. [Brown and Root Energy Services (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In low oil price environment in which environmental conditions are more challenging, reservoir characteristics less favourable and political risk increasing, successful projects are required in such cases. The present paper deals with the visionary process of establishing high performance project teams. According to the author, such project teams embody dynamic recognition of holism. Holism is achieved as an output from the process of establishing the drivers and enablers for success on a project. They are given birth during the unfolding of the operators development plans and contracting strategy. The paper discusses the main drivers of project teams comprising purpose and performance goals, selection, common approach, commitment and accountability, and financial alignment

  11. Direct/Delayed Response Project: Soil-characterization comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermaker, L.K.; Byers, G.E.; Starks, T.H.; Miah, M.J.; Palmer, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    A large amount of soil characterization data has been collected as a component of the Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) in the acid rain Aquatic Effects Research Program. An interlaboratory comparison study was undertaken to identify the comparability of the data to that obtained from representative soil characterization laboratories. Participating laboratories were selected at random from four regions of the U.S. and two regions of Canada. Two original DDRP contract laboratories also participated. Duplicate samples of six soil audit materials and two liquid soil extracts were sent to each of the laboratories in two separate batches. Laboratories used their own protocols to perform the analyses requested except for the contract laboratories which followed the DDRP protocol. Liquid audits were used in an effort to identify if interlaboratory differences were due to extraction procedures or chemical measurements. A component of the variability in the results was attributed to differences in the methods used such as soil/solution ratios, extractants or extraction procedures. The largest number of different methods used was for the measurement of cation exchange capacity. The results between the DDRP soil survey data and the study's results were compared using Youden-pair plots. In addition, standard statistical tests were performed. Overall, the DDRP data were comparable to the data from the study. However, out of the total 141 comparisons involving results from six or more laboratories, the results from the two contract laboratories did not meet the comparison criteria in 19 cases. Since there was never a case in which both contract laboratories failed, it would appear that the 19 cases which were not comparable were due to random analytical errors, incorrectly reported results, or misapplication of DDRP protocol

  12. Cost comparison between Subterrene and current tunneling methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, J.D.; Hill, J.E.; Coon, R.F.

    1975-05-01

    A study was made to compare tunnel construction costs between the Subterrene tunneling system and methods currently in use. Three completed tunnels were selected for study cases to represent finished diameters ranging from 3.05 meters (10 feet) to 6.25 meters (20.5 feet). The study cases were normalized by deleting extraneous work and assigning labor, equipment, and materials costs for the Southern California area in 1974. Detailed cost estimates (shown in Appendix A) were then made for the three tunnels for baseline. A conceptual nuclear powered Subterrene tunneling machine (NSTM) was designed. It was assumed that NSTM's were available for each of the three baseline tunnels. Costs were estimated (shown in Appendix B) for the baseline tunnels driven by NSTM

  13. 34 CFR 637.41 - What are the cost restrictions on design project grants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the cost restrictions on design project grants...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met by a Grantee? § 637.41 What are the cost restrictions on design...

  14. Productivity and Cost Comparison of Two Different-Sized Skidders

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Robert B. Rummer

    2000-01-01

    Productivity and cost of two skidders, Timberjack models 460 and 660, were evaluated while operatin in a loblolly pine plantation performin a clearcut harvest in the Southeastern US. Productivity without delimbing was 46.7 tonnes per PMH for the model 460 and 51.7 tonnes per PMH for the model 660. Cost per tonne was $1.70 for the model 460 and $1.90 for the model 660....

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING COST PERFORMANCE IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS WITHIN KELANTAN STATE IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    ABDELNASER OMRAN; SITI NORHYDAYATON BINTI MAMAT

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the factors affecting cost performance of construction projects in Kelantan State located in the east-coast part of Malaysia. It draws on relevant previous research in the theory of work on cost performance. Thirty-three contractors companies with different working grades in the state of Kelantan were participated in the study. Data were collected from the contractors using a questionnaire survey. The results indicated that the success factors affecting the cost perfor...

  16. The Project Of Another Low-Cost Metaphase Finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The most popular and 'gold standard' phenomenon in Biological dosimetry is the appearance of dicentric chromosomes in metaphase in white blood cells. The metaphase finder is a tool for biological dosimetry that finds metaphase cells on slide glasses. The author and a software company were using new special software that was faster than conventional systems. A Nikon Eclipse Ni-E microscope with motorised X-Y stage, 4x objective lens and 1920 x 1024 pixels colour camera for hardware were used. The software uses mathematical morphology filters. The new system was compact and low-priced. And the remarkable point is, this system can be applicable not only to human blood, but also to non-human samples. The speed was 208-236 s per 5 x 20 mm area, while capturing 378 images, which achieved the aim of the project. The false-positive ratio achieved below 5% in some slides. (author)

  17. Implementation of the international structure for decommissioning costing; examples and related IAEA projects - 59313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniska, Vladimir; Laraia, Michele; O'Sullivan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, IAEA, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the European Commission jointly proposed the standardised listing of decommissioning activities [1] to serve as a general basis for presentation of decommissioning costs and for promoting the harmonisation in decommissioning costing. The standardised listing of activities [1] was developed in three hierarchical levels based on analysis of typical decommissioning activities identified in various decommissioning projects. The structure [1] has been currently updated by the same organisations as the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) based on the experience gained over ten years of use of the original standardised listing [2]. First part of the paper presents the revised ISDC. The principle of the three-level original hierarchical structure has been preserved. Re-definition of the content and re-structuring was done to avoid ambiguity and to ensure comprehensiveness. Paper presents two basic approaches for implementation of the ISDC structure in costing - converting the cost data available in specific cost structures, mostly according the work breakdown structures of decommissioning projects into ISDC and implementation of the ISDC as the cost calculation structure. Examples of the second approach are given to show that this approach is feasible and may have several advantages. An ORACLE based costing model with implemented of the extended ISDC for detailed costing and an Excel based costing model for preliminary costing at IAEA for research reactors are given. (authors)

  18. A post-contract project analysis of material waste and cost overrun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Material waste and cost overrun have been identified as common problems in the construction industry. These problems occur at both pre- and post-contract stages of a construction project. As a result of a dearth of empirical research and low level of awareness, the majority of managers of construction projects in Nigeria ...

  19. 75 FR 8245 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 18, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This final..., Natural gas, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Jeff C. Wright, Director, Office of Energy Projects...

  20. Carbon accounting and cost estimation in forestry projects using CO2Fix V.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, T.A.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon and financial accounting of projects in the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry sector is a topic of hot debate. Large uncertainty remains concerning the carbon dynamics, the way they should be accounted and the cost efficiency of the projects. Part of the uncertainty can be alleviated by

  1. Make-up wells drilling cost in financial model for a geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviani Purwaningsih, Fitri; Husnie, Ruly; Afuar, Waldy; Abdurrahman, Gugun

    2017-12-01

    After commissioning of a power plant, geothermal reservoir will encounter pressure decline, which will affect wells productivity. Therefore, further drilling is carried out to enhance steam production. Make-up wells are production wells drilled inside an already confirmed reservoir to maintain steam production in a certain level. Based on Sanyal (2004), geothermal power cost consists of three components, those are capital cost, O&M cost and make-up drilling cost. The make-up drilling cost component is a major part of power cost which will give big influence in a whole economical value of the project. The objective of this paper it to analyse the make-up wells drilling cost component in financial model of a geothermal power project. The research will calculate make-up wells requirements, drilling costs as a function of time and how they influence the financial model and affect the power cost. The best scenario in determining make-up wells strategy in relation with the project financial model would be the result of this research.

  2. Methods of projecting operations and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Operations and maintenance cost (OMC) had increased its relative importance to the total generation cost for future nuclear power stations, according to the latest update of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) study on Projected Costs of Generating Electricity (EGC studies). OMC is some 20 to 30% of total generation cost for future nuclear power stations in most NEA member countries. However, nuclear OMC that countries projected in the latest EGC study are spread over a wide range, from 5 to 16 US mills/kWh. In order to understand better the reasons for this wide diversity in nuclear OMC projections, the NEA set up an Expert Group. The focus of this study was on projected OMC that were reported in the past EGC studies, but the Group studied actual OMC experienced from existing units, because knowledge or experience concerning actual OMC certainly influences the choice of assumptions or calculation procedure for estimating OMC for future plants. Cost informations from 14 NEA countries have been analysed on the basis of a standardized framework of detailed components of OMC costs. The rationale for different OMC cost projections reported in previous NEA studies on generation cost is discussed and suggestions are made for future studies on both generation cost and OMC cost. Despite the methodological approach and the reduced extent of differences when excluding exceptional figures, it was not possible fully to clarify the origins and to understand the remaining differences in OMC figures. Several countries which have a long and a good experience of operating nuclear units did not provide sufficient detailed data or did not provide any quantitative data at all. (J.S.). 14 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs., 4 annexes

  3. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent open-quotes Murder Board.close quotes Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters' budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management

  4. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent {open_quotes}Murder Board.{close_quotes} Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters` budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management.

  5. A life cycle cost economics model for automation projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [applied to Deep Space Network and Air Force Systems Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The described mathematical model calculates life-cycle costs for projects with operating costs increasing or decreasing linearly with time. The cost factors involved in the life-cycle cost are considered, and the errors resulting from the assumption of constant rather than uniformly varying operating costs are examined. Parameters in the study range from 2 to 30 years, for project life; 0 to 15% per year, for interest rate; and 5 to 90% of the initial operating cost, for the operating cost gradient. A numerical example is presented.

  6. Environmental cost of using poor decision metrics to prioritize environmental projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, David J; Gibson, Fiona L

    2016-04-01

    Conservation decision makers commonly use project-scoring metrics that are inconsistent with theory on optimal ranking of projects. As a result, there may often be a loss of environmental benefits. We estimated the magnitudes of these losses for various metrics that deviate from theory in ways that are common in practice. These metrics included cases where relevant variables were omitted from the benefits metric, project costs were omitted, and benefits were calculated using a faulty functional form. We estimated distributions of parameters from 129 environmental projects from Australia, New Zealand, and Italy for which detailed analyses had been completed previously. The cost of using poor prioritization metrics (in terms of lost environmental values) was often high--up to 80% in the scenarios we examined. The cost in percentage terms was greater when the budget was smaller. The most costly errors were omitting information about environmental values (up to 31% loss of environmental values), omitting project costs (up to 35% loss), omitting the effectiveness of management actions (up to 9% loss), and using a weighted-additive decision metric for variables that should be multiplied (up to 23% loss). The latter 3 are errors that occur commonly in real-world decision metrics, in combination often reducing potential benefits from conservation investments by 30-50%. Uncertainty about parameter values also reduced the benefits from investments in conservation projects but often not by as much as faulty prioritization metrics. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Digital and conventional radiology techniques: comparison of dosage and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranza, L.; Albornoz, C. de

    1996-01-01

    To compare the radiation dosage and costs in conventional and digital technologies. The study dealt with transverse sections. The dosage applied with conventional technology was measured in 254 patients who intertwined 402 explorations of 6 anatomic regions in 4 Radiodiagnostic Services. The dosage applied with digital technology was measured in 57 patients who underwent 95 explorations of the same anatomic region in one Radiodiagnostic Service. The costs of the 6 types of conventional and digital explorations performed were calculated for two Radiodiagnostic Service. The doses administered (mGy) using convectional/digital technology were as follows: chest PA 0.2/0.1; chest LAT 0.7/0.3; breast CC 7.0/8.4; breast LAT 7.0/7.8; breast OB 7.0/10.5; cervical spine AP 9.6/9.0; cervical spine LAT 21.9/29.6; pelvis AP 7.3/7.1; plain abdominal 6.5/2.2. The costs incurred (1992 pesetas) with the convectional/digital technologies: chest AP and LAT 1,393/2,973; portable chest 2,027/3,714; mammography 2,357/3,486; phlebography 12,718/14,023; hysterosalpingography 4,876/6,701; bone scientigraphy 1,633/2,839. Compared with conventional technology, digital imaging reduces the radiation doses received by the patients, except in the case of mammography. The costs associated with the use of digital technology are greater than those incurred with conventional technology, mainly due to the costs of amortization. the use of digital technology is more justified when: 1) it is very necessary to reduce the dosage; 2) studies of chest and abdomen predominant; 3) the volume of utilization is high; 4) staff management is flexible , and 5) the cost of purchasing the equipment is lower. (Author) 10 refs

  8. Applying Interpretive Structural Modeling to Cost Overruns in Construction Projects in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alzebdeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost overruns in construction projects are a problem faced by project managers, engineers, and clients throughout the Middle East.  Globally, several studies in the literature have focused on identifying the causes of these overruns and used statistical methods to rank them according to their impacts. None of these studies have considered the interactions among these factors. This paper examines interpretive structural modelling (ISM as a viable technique for modelling complex interactions among factors responsible for cost overruns in construction projects in the Sultanate of Oman. In particular, thirteen interrelated factors associated with cost overruns were identified, along with their contextual interrelationships. Application of ISM leads to organizing these factors in a hierarchical structure which effectively demonstrates their interactions in a simple way. Four factors were found to be at the root of cost overruns: instability of the US dollar, changes in governmental regulations, faulty cost estimation, and poor coordination among projects’ parties. Taking appropriate actions to minimize the influence of these factors can ultimately lead to better control of future project costs. Thisstudy is of value to managers and decision makers because it provides a powerful yet very easy to apply approach for investigating the problem of cost overruns and other similar issues.

  9. Comparison of costs of integrating working level devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    For the purpose of deciding upon the method for making routine field measurements of radon and radon daughter products there are primarily two factors to be taken into consideration: how well the various methods measure the parameter of interest and how much they cost. For the purpose of measuring the annual average working level within a structure there are available basically two devices: the integrating air sampler and track etch film. The cost and manpower requirements for each of these two devices are discussed

  10. Experiences of operational costs of HPV vaccine delivery strategies in Gavi-supported demonstration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Taylor; Nanda, Shreya; Bloem, Paul; Griffiths, Ulla K.; Sidibe, Anissa; Hutubessy, Raymond C. W.

    2017-01-01

    From 2012 to 2016, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, provided support for countries to conduct small-scale demonstration projects for the introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine, with the aim of determining which human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies might be effective and sustainable upon national scale-up. This study reports on the operational costs and cost determinants of different vaccination delivery strategies within these projects across twelve countries using a standardized micro-costing tool. The World Health Organization Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool was used to collect costing data, which were then aggregated and analyzed to assess the costs and cost determinants of vaccination. Across the one-year demonstration projects, the average economic and financial costs per dose amounted to US$19.98 (standard deviation ±12.5) and US$8.74 (standard deviation ±5.8), respectively. The greatest activities representing the greatest share of financial costs were social mobilization at approximately 30% (range, 6–67%) and service delivery at about 25% (range, 3–46%). Districts implemented varying combinations of school-based, facility-based, or outreach delivery strategies and experienced wide variation in vaccine coverage, drop-out rates, and service delivery costs, including transportation costs and per diems. Size of target population, number of students per school, and average length of time to reach an outreach post influenced cost per dose. Although the operational costs from demonstration projects are much higher than those of other routine vaccine immunization programs, findings from our analysis suggest that HPV vaccination operational costs will decrease substantially for national introduction. Vaccination costs may be decreased further by annual vaccination, high initial investment in social mobilization, or introducing/strengthening school health programs. Our analysis shows that drivers of cost are dependent on

  11. A bottom-up approach to estimating cost elements of REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merger Eduard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several previous global REDD+ cost studies have been conducted, demonstrating that payments for maintaining forest carbon stocks have significant potential to be a cost-effective mechanism for climate change mitigation. These studies have mostly followed highly aggregated top-down approaches without estimating the full range of REDD+ costs elements, thus underestimating the actual costs of REDD+. Based on three REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania, representing an area of 327,825 ha, this study explicitly adopts a bottom-up approach to data assessment. By estimating opportunity, implementation, transaction and institutional costs of REDD+ we develop a practical and replicable methodological framework to consistently assess REDD+ cost elements. Results Based on historical land use change patterns, current region-specific economic conditions and carbon stocks, project-specific opportunity costs ranged between US$ -7.8 and 28.8 tCOxxxx for deforestation and forest degradation drivers such as agriculture, fuel wood production, unsustainable timber extraction and pasture expansion. The mean opportunity costs for the three projects ranged between US$ 10.1 – 12.5 tCO2. Implementation costs comprised between 89% and 95% of total project costs (excluding opportunity costs ranging between US$ 4.5 - 12.2 tCO2 for a period of 30 years. Transaction costs for measurement, reporting, verification (MRV, and other carbon market related compliance costs comprised a minor share, between US$ 0.21 - 1.46 tCO2. Similarly, the institutional costs comprised around 1% of total REDD+ costs in a range of US$ 0.06 – 0.11 tCO2. Conclusions The use of bottom-up approaches to estimate REDD+ economics by considering regional variations in economic conditions and carbon stocks has been shown to be an appropriate approach to provide policy and decision-makers robust economic information on REDD+. The assessment of opportunity costs is a crucial first step to

  12. A bottom-up approach to estimating cost elements of REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Several previous global REDD+ cost studies have been conducted, demonstrating that payments for maintaining forest carbon stocks have significant potential to be a cost-effective mechanism for climate change mitigation. These studies have mostly followed highly aggregated top-down approaches without estimating the full range of REDD+ costs elements, thus underestimating the actual costs of REDD+. Based on three REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania, representing an area of 327,825 ha, this study explicitly adopts a bottom-up approach to data assessment. By estimating opportunity, implementation, transaction and institutional costs of REDD+ we develop a practical and replicable methodological framework to consistently assess REDD+ cost elements. Results Based on historical land use change patterns, current region-specific economic conditions and carbon stocks, project-specific opportunity costs ranged between US$ -7.8 and 28.8 tCOxxxx for deforestation and forest degradation drivers such as agriculture, fuel wood production, unsustainable timber extraction and pasture expansion. The mean opportunity costs for the three projects ranged between US$ 10.1 – 12.5 tCO2. Implementation costs comprised between 89% and 95% of total project costs (excluding opportunity costs) ranging between US$ 4.5 - 12.2 tCO2 for a period of 30 years. Transaction costs for measurement, reporting, verification (MRV), and other carbon market related compliance costs comprised a minor share, between US$ 0.21 - 1.46 tCO2. Similarly, the institutional costs comprised around 1% of total REDD+ costs in a range of US$ 0.06 – 0.11 tCO2. Conclusions The use of bottom-up approaches to estimate REDD+ economics by considering regional variations in economic conditions and carbon stocks has been shown to be an appropriate approach to provide policy and decision-makers robust economic information on REDD+. The assessment of opportunity costs is a crucial first step to provide information on the

  13. A low-cost and portable realization on fringe projection three-dimensional measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Fringe projection three-dimensional measurement is widely applied in a wide range of industrial application. The traditional fringe projection system has the disadvantages of high expense, big size, and complicated calibration requirements. In this paper we introduce a low-cost and portable realization on three-dimensional measurement with Pico projector. It has the advantages of low cost, compact physical size, and flexible configuration. For the proposed fringe projection system, there is no restriction to camera and projector's relative alignment on parallelism and perpendicularity for installation. Moreover, plane-based calibration method is adopted in this paper that avoids critical requirements on calibration system such as additional gauge block or precise linear z stage. What is more, error sources existing in the proposed system are introduced in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed low cost and portable fringe projection system.

  14. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  15. A Comparison of Creativity in Project Groups in Science and Engineering Education in Denmark and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Different pedagogical strategies influence the development of creativity in project groups in science and engineering education. This study is a comparison between two cases: Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Denmark and Project-Organized Learning (POL) in China.......Different pedagogical strategies influence the development of creativity in project groups in science and engineering education. This study is a comparison between two cases: Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Denmark and Project-Organized Learning (POL) in China....

  16. Accounting for the inaccuracies in demand forecasts and construction cost estimations in transport project evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2014-01-01

    For decades researchers have claimedthat particularly demand forecasts and construction cost estimations are assigned with/affected by a large degree of uncertainty. Massively, articles,research documents and reports agree that there exists a tendencytowards underestimating the costs...... in demand and cost estimations and hence the evaluation of transport infrastructure projects. Currently, research within this area is scarce and scattered with no commonagreement on how to embed and operationalise the huge amount of empiricaldata that exist within the frame of Optimism Bias. Therefore...... convertingdeterministic benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) into stochasticinterval results. A new data collection (2009–2013) forms the empirical basis for any risk simulation embeddedwithin the so-calledUP database (UNITE project database),revealing the inaccuracy of both construction costs and demandforecasts. Accordingly...

  17. Comparison of anaesthetic cost in open and laparoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Appendectomy is generally conducted as open or by laparoscopic surgical techniques under general anesthesia. Aims: This study aims to compare the anesthetic costs of the patients, who underwent open or laparoscopic appendectomy under general anesthesia. Settings and Design: The design is retrospective ...

  18. Multiple function benefit - cost comparison of conservation buffer placement strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Qiu; M.G. Dosskey

    2012-01-01

    Conservation buffers are considered to be effective practices for repairing impaired streams and restoring multiple ecosystem functions in degraded agricultural watersheds. Six different planning strategies for targeting their placement within watersheds were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness for environmental improvement in the 144 km² Neshanic River...

  19. The cost of solar refrigeration: The rococo project; Was solare Kuehlung kostet - das Rococo-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.P.

    2008-01-21

    The cost of modern solar refrigerators is between 1,300 and 8,000 Euros per kW of refrigeration capacity. The biggest potential for savings is in the peripheral components, as well as in the operating cost and especially in servicing. Cost reduction must have priority if solar refrigeration is to be successful in the market. In the context of the European research project ''Reduction of costs of Solar Cooling systems'' (Rococo), a team of scientists from France, Spain and Austria investigated existing systems. (orig.)

  20. Estimating Total Program Cost of a Long-Term, High-Technology, High-Risk Project with Task Durations and Costs That May Increase Over Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald G; Grose, Roger T; Koyak, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    .... Each task suffers some risk of delay and changed cost. Ignoring budget constraints, we use Monte Carlo simulation of the duration of each task in the project to infer the probability distribution of the project completion time...

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Coupler Designs of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Dynamic Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitong Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of coupler designs for wireless power transfer (WPT, meant for electric vehicle (EV dynamic charging. The design comparison of three common types of couplers is first based on the raw material cost, output power, transfer efficiency, tolerance of horizontal offset, and flux density. Then, the optimal cost-effectiveness combination is selected for EV dynamic charging. The corresponding performances of the proposed charging system are compared and analyzed by both simulation and experimentation. The results verify the validity of the proposed dynamic charging system for EVs.

  2. Comparison of anaesthetic cost in open and laparoscopic appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, I; Ozer, A B; Kilinc, M; Bayar, M K; Erhan, O L

    2014-01-01

    Appendectomy is generally conducted as open or by laparoscopic surgical techniques under general anesthesia. This study aims to compare the anesthetic costs of the patients, who underwent open or laparoscopic appendectomy under general anesthesia. The design is retrospective and records of 379 patients who underwent open or laparoscopic appendectomy under general anesthesia, falling under the category of I-III risk group according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification between the years 2011 and 2013, and aged 18-77. Open (Group I) or laparoscopic (Group II) appendectomy operation under general anesthesia were evaluated retrospectively by utilizing hospital automation and anesthesia observation records. This study evaluated the anesthesia time of the patients and total costs (Turkish Lira ₺, US dollar $) of anesthetic agents used (induction, maintenance), necessary medical materials (connecting line, endotracheal tube, airway, humidifier, branule, aspiration probe), and intravenously administered fluids were evaluated. We used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS version 17.0) for statistical analysis. Of the patients, 237 were males (62.53%) and 142 were females (37.47%). Anesthesia time limits were established as 70.30 ± 30.23 minute in Group I and 74.92 ± 31.83 minute in Group II. Mean anesthesia administration cost per patient was found to be 78.79 ± 30.01₺ (39.16 ± 14.15$) in Group I and 83.09 ± 26.85₺ (41.29 ± 13.34$) in Group II (P > 0.05). A correlation was observed between cost and operation times (P = 0.002, r = 0.158). Although a statistical difference was not established in this study in terms of time and costs in appendectomy operations conducted as open and laparoscopically, changes may occur in time in market conditions of drugs, patent rights, legal regulations, and prices. Therefore, we believe that it would be beneficial to update and revise cost analyses from time to time.

  3. Cost-Savings Analysis of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures Community-Based Project for Young Children and Their Families: A 10-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ray DeV; Petrunka, Kelly; Khan, Shahriar; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Nelson, Geoffrey; Pancer, S Mark; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the long-term cost-savings of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures (BBBF) initiative, a community-based early intervention project for young children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods during their transition to primary school. A quasi-experimental, longitudinal two-group design was used to compare costs and outcomes for children and families in three BBBF project neighborhoods (n = 401) and two comparison neighborhoods (n = 225). A cost-savings analysis was conducted using all project costs for providing up to 4 years of BBBF programs when children were in junior kindergarten (JK) (4 years old) to grade 2 (8 years old). Data on 19 government service cost measures were collected from the longitudinal research sample from the time the youth were in JK through to grade 12 (18 years old), 10 years after ending project participation. The average family incremental net savings to government of providing the BBBF project was $6331 in 2014 Canadian dollars. When the BBBF monetary return to government as a ratio of savings to costs was calculated, for every dollar invested by the government, a return of $2.50 per family was saved. Findings from this study have important implications for government investments in early interventions focused on a successful transition to primary school as well as parenting programs and community development initiatives in support of children's development.

  4. Projected costs of generating electricity from nuclear and coal-fired power stations for commissioning in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report updates and extends the previous NEA study, ''The Costs of Generating Electricity in Nuclear and Coal-fired Power Stations'', published by the OECD in late 1983. Despite the changed expectations concerning coal prices and the considerable movements in exchange rates since the first study was completed, the conclusions remain essentially the same. Nuclear Power is projected to be economically superior by a significant margin to coal-fired plants for base load electricity production in Europe, Japan and some regions of North America. In areas of North America in close proximity to supplies of cheap coal, this would be the more economic fuel, unless future nuclear investment costs can be reduced to match the best US and Canadian experience. In all regions considered, the economic advantage of both coal and nuclear over oil and gas-fired plants for commissioning in the mid-1990s is expected to be substantial. These conclusions are based on an analysis of cost projections for 900 MWe to 1400 MWe Light Water Reactors to be commissioned in 1995, operating at a levelised load factor of about 72 per cent over an assumed 25 years economic life and calculated with a 5 per cent (real) discount rate. This parallels the reference reactor selected for the NEA report ''The Economics of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle'', which was published by the OECD in June 1985, though it deviates somewhat from the reference conditions of the previous generation cost study. Contemporary coal-fired stations ranging in capacity from 330 MWe to 700 MWe with the same assumed economic life and load factor provide the basis for comparison. Some data are included on CANDU Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors, and a brief comment is annexed on the relevance of the comparisons for the smaller plants that may be of interest to countries with smaller electricity networks or where special circumstances apply

  5. Performance, size, mass, and cost estimates for projected 1kW EOL Si, InP, and GaAs arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifer, Luther W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    One method of evaluating the potential of emerging solar cell and array technologies is to compare their projected capabilities in space flight applications to those of established Si solar cells and arrays. Such an application-oriented comparison provides an integrated view of the elemental comparisons of efficiency, radiation resistance, temperature sensitivity, size, mass, and cost in combination. In addition, the assumptions necessary to make the comparisons provide insights helpful toward determining necessary areas of development or evaluation. Finally, as developments and evaluations progress, the results can be used in more precisely defining the overall potential of the new technologies in comparison to existing technologies. The projected capabilities of Si, InP, and GaAs cells and arrays are compared.

  6. Cost effective solutions for field development. System supplier approach to projects and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, P.O.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper outlines the most important elements for a new approach to project realisation that enable a cost reduction of 30-50% compared to conventional methods. The achievements are based on studies and evaluations to the Norwegian Vigdis development project. The system elements covered are the electrical and automation systems including safety and process control and all traditional phases of a project from concept design to the operational phase. The concept involves new principles for project execution where traditional borderlines and interfaces between the various participants have been redefined. Management attention has been verified as an important prerequisite for a successful implementation of this strategy. 2 figs

  7. Comparisons on International Approaches of Business and Project Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Carmen ENE

    2005-01-01

    In this article we intend to present a comparative approach between three recognized international methodologies for risk management: RISKMAN, Project Management Institute Methodology-PMBoK and Project Risk Analysis and Management Guide (produced by Association for Project Management).

  8. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R; Buysse, J; Gellynck, X

    2013-01-01

    The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a funding, cost, and spending model for satellite projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse P.

    1989-01-01

    The need for a predictive budget/funging model is obvious. The current models used by the Resource Analysis Office (RAO) are used to predict the total costs of satellite projects. An effort to extend the modeling capabilities from total budget analysis to total budget and budget outlays over time analysis was conducted. A statistical based and data driven methodology was used to derive and develop the model. Th budget data for the last 18 GSFC-sponsored satellite projects were analyzed and used to build a funding model which would describe the historical spending patterns. This raw data consisted of dollars spent in that specific year and their 1989 dollar equivalent. This data was converted to the standard format used by the RAO group and placed in a database. A simple statistical analysis was performed to calculate the gross statistics associated with project length and project cost ant the conditional statistics on project length and project cost. The modeling approach used is derived form the theory of embedded statistics which states that properly analyzed data will produce the underlying generating function. The process of funding large scale projects over extended periods of time is described by Life Cycle Cost Models (LCCM). The data was analyzed to find a model in the generic form of a LCCM. The model developed is based on a Weibull function whose parameters are found by both nonlinear optimization and nonlinear regression. In order to use this model it is necessary to transform the problem from a dollar/time space to a percentage of total budget/time space. This transformation is equivalent to moving to a probability space. By using the basic rules of probability, the validity of both the optimization and the regression steps are insured. This statistically significant model is then integrated and inverted. The resulting output represents a project schedule which relates the amount of money spent to the percentage of project completion.

  10. Cost comparisons of wet and dry interim storage facilities for PWR spent nuclear fuel in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chun-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Man; Seong, Ki-Yeoul; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Yoon, Jeong-Hyoun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We compare the costs of wet and dry interim storage facilities for PWR spent fuel. → We use the parametric method and quotations to deduce unknown cost items. → Net present values and levelized unit prices are calculated for cost comparisons. → A system price is the most decisive factor in cost comparisons. - Abstract: As a part of an effort to determine the ideal storage solution for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel, a cost assessment was performed to better quantify the competitiveness of several storage types. Several storage solutions were chosen for comparison, including three dry storage concepts and a wet storage concept. The net present value (NPV) and the levelized unit cost (LUC) of each solution were calculated, taking into consideration established scenarios and facility size. Wet storage was calculated to be the most expensive solution for a 1700 MTU facility, and metal cask storage marked the highest cost for a 5000 MTU facility. Sensitivity analyses on discount rate, metal cask price, operation and maintenance cost, and facility size revealed that the system price is the most decisive factor affecting competitiveness among the storage types.

  11. Cost comparisons of wet and dry interim storage facilities for PWR spent nuclear fuel in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chun-Hyung, E-mail: skycho@krmc.or.kr [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Man; Seong, Ki-Yeoul; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Yoon, Jeong-Hyoun [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > We compare the costs of wet and dry interim storage facilities for PWR spent fuel. > We use the parametric method and quotations to deduce unknown cost items. > Net present values and levelized unit prices are calculated for cost comparisons. > A system price is the most decisive factor in cost comparisons. - Abstract: As a part of an effort to determine the ideal storage solution for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel, a cost assessment was performed to better quantify the competitiveness of several storage types. Several storage solutions were chosen for comparison, including three dry storage concepts and a wet storage concept. The net present value (NPV) and the levelized unit cost (LUC) of each solution were calculated, taking into consideration established scenarios and facility size. Wet storage was calculated to be the most expensive solution for a 1700 MTU facility, and metal cask storage marked the highest cost for a 5000 MTU facility. Sensitivity analyses on discount rate, metal cask price, operation and maintenance cost, and facility size revealed that the system price is the most decisive factor affecting competitiveness among the storage types.

  12. Study of the standard direct costs of various techniques of advanced endoscopy. Comparison with surgical alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loras, Carme; Mayor, Vicenç; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, Maria

    2018-03-12

    The complexity of endoscopy has carried out an increase in cost that has a direct effect on the healthcare systems. However, few studies have analyzed the cost of advanced endoscopic procedures (AEP). To carry out a calculation of the standard direct costs of AEP, and to make a financial comparison with their surgical alternatives. Calculation of the standard direct cost in carrying out each procedure. An endoscopist detailed the time, personnel, materials, consumables, recovery room time, stents, pathology and medication used. The cost of surgical procedures was the average cost recorded in the hospital. Thirty-eight AEP were analyzed. The technique showing lowest cost was gastroscopy + APC (€116.57), while that with greatest cost was ERCP with cholangioscopy + stent placement (€5083.65). Some 34.2% of the procedures registered average costs of €1000-2000. In 57% of cases, the endoscopic alternative was 2-5 times more cost-efficient than surgery, in 31% of cases indistinguishable or up to 1.4 times more costly. Standard direct cost of the majority of AEP is reported using a methodology that enables easy application in other centers. For the most part, endoscopic procedures are more cost-efficient than the corresponding surgical procedure. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost comparison of transcatheter and operative closures of ostium secundum atrial septal defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Byrne, Michael L.; Gillespie, Matthew J.; Shinohara, Russell T.; Dori, Yoav; Rome, Jonathan J.; Glatz, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical outcomes for transcatheter and operative closures of atrial septal defects (ASDs) are similar. Economic cost for each method has not been well described. Methods A single-center retrospective cohort study of children and adults cost of operative and transcatheter closures of ASD. A propensity score weight-adjusted multivariate regression model was used in an intention-to-treat analysis. Costs for reintervention and crossover admissions were included in primary analysis. Results A total of 244 subjects were included in the study (64% transcatheter and 36% operative), of which 2% (n = 5) were ≥18 years. Crossover rate from transcatheter to operative group was 3%. Risk of reintervention (P = .66) and 30-day mortality (P = .37) were not significantly different. In a multivariate model, adjusted cost of operative closure was 2012 US $60,992 versus 2012 US $55,841 for transcatheter closure (P cost favoring transcatheter closure were length of stay, medications, and follow-up radiologic and laboratory testing, overcoming higher costs of procedure and echocardiography. Professional costs did not differ. The rate of 30-day readmission was greater in the operative cohort, further increasing the cost advantage of transcatheter closure. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that costs of follow-up visits influenced relative cost but that device closure remained favorable over a broad range of crossover and reintervention rates. Conclusion For single secundum ASD, cost comparison analysis favors transcatheter closure over the short term. The cost of follow-up regimens influences the cost advantage of transcatheter closure. PMID:25965721

  14. Procedures for initiation, cost-sharing and management of OECD projects in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    , finances and management should be considered in order to accommodate requirements and boundary conditions that might differ from case to case. Flexibility might include consideration of in-kind contributions when applicable for project furtherance. This proposal is primarily concerned with projects that are organised by the NEA secretariat upon CSNI recommendations and initiative. One should also notice that the NEA Nuclear Safety Division has for some time operated a database on common cause events denominated ICDE. Two additional databases, one on fire events (FIRE database) and one on piping failure (OPDE database) have started in 2002. They are smaller projects, which do not have a host country. These procedures apply also to these projects, with the exception that, for the latter ones, costs are equally shared among participants

  15. Assessing Risk in Costing High-energy Accelerators: from Existing Projects to the Future Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are large projects funded by public money, developed over the years and constructed via major industrial contracts both in advanced technology and in more conventional domains such as civil engineering and infrastructure, for which they often constitute one-of markets. Assessing their cost, as well as the risk and uncertainty associated with this assessment is therefore an essential part of project preparation and a justified requirement by the funding agencies. Stemming from the experience with large circular colliders at CERN, LEP and LHC, as well as with the Main Injector, the Tevatron Collider Experiments and Accelerator Upgrades, and the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab, we discuss sources of cost variance and derive cost risk assessment methods applicable to the future linear collider, through its two technical approaches for ILC and CLIC. We also address disparities in cost risk assessment imposed by regional differences in regulations, procedures and practices.

  16. Project-Based Emissions Trading. The Impact of Institutional Arrangements on Cost-Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdman, E.; Van der Gaast, W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the institutional arrangement (or: design) of Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has a decisive impact on their cost-effectiveness. We illustrate our arguments by statistically analyzing the costs from 94 Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) pilot phase projects as well as by adjusting these data on the basis of simple mathematical formulas. These calculations explicitly take into account the institutional differences between JI (sinks, no banking) and the CDM (banking, no sinks) under the Kyoto Protocol and also show the possible effects on credit costs of alternative design options. However, our numerical illustrations should be viewed with caution, because AIJ is only to a limited extent representative of potential future JI and CDM projects and because credit costs are not credit prices. Some of the main figures found in this study are: an average cost figure per unit of emission reduction for AIJ projects of 46 dollar per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent ($/Mg CO 2 -eq), an average potential JI credit cost figure which is lowered to 37 $/Mg CO 2 -eq by introducing banking and an average of 6 $/Mg CO 2 -eq per credit for potential low-cost CDM projects which includes sinks. However, at CoP6 in November 2000 in The Hague (The Netherlands), the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) did not (yet) reach consensus on the institutional details of the project-based mechanisms, such as the possible arrangement of early JI action or the inclusion of sinks under the CDM. 55 refs

  17. A comparison of project participants and extension officers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perception of project participants and extension officers regarding marketing of agricultural produce in agricultural projects in the North West Province. The objective of the study was primarily to compare the perceptions of project participants and extension officers. When establishing a project, ...

  18. The costs of radiosurgical treatment: Comparison between gamma knife and linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigsmaier, H.; Pauli-Ferch, B. de; Hackl, A.; Pendl, G.

    1998-01-01

    Radiosurgical treatment can be carried out by means of a gamma knife or a linear accelerator. The linear accelerator may be either a single-purpose appliance, exclusively employed in radiosurgery, or an adapted appliance which is used primarily for fractioned radiotherapy, and only additionally for radiosurgical purposes. The first alternative will be referred to briefly as a 'dedicated Linac', the latter as an 'adapted Linac'. Cost accounting data for these alternatives will be discussed under three main categories: investment costs. operating costs, and finally staffing costs. Costs are only considered to the extent that this is necessary to facilitate a comprehensive cost comparison. Factors for which the costs remain the same or at least broadly the same will from the outset not be taken into consideration. These include, for instance, the costs of general or special administration, diagnosis, and image processing. The results and conclusions of this study therefore cannot be employed immediately in the evaluation of cost reimbursement schemes of the type carried out by agencies responsible for social insurance. Here, appropriate complete cost analyzes especially for this purpose are required. The final comprehensive cost comparison reveals that the adapted Linac is the most favourable alternative with small annual quantities of patients. With larger numbers of patients the Gamma Knife represents the most favourable from a cost accounting angle. The dedicated Linac accordingly does not have a cost advantage for any of the examined numbers of patients. Clearly the lowest treatment costs per patient can be achieved by employing a Gamma Knife and using it to capacity. (author)

  19. Cost/schedule performance measurement system utilized on the Fast Flux Test Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.K.; Frost, R.A.; Zimmerman, F.M.

    1976-01-01

    An Earned Value-Integrated Cost/Schedule Performance Measurement System has been applied to a major nonmilitary nuclear design and construction project. This system is similar to the Department of Defense Cost/Schedule Performance Measurement System. The project is the Fast Flux Test Facility (a Fuels and Materials test reactor for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program) being built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, Washington, by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Because the project was well into the construction phase when the Earned Value System was being considered, it was decided that the principles of DOD's Cost/Schedule Control System Criteria would be applied to the extent possible but no major changes in accounting practices or management systems were imposed. Implementation of this system enabled the following questions to be answered: For work performed, how do actual costs compare with the budget for that work. What is the impact of cost and schedule variances at an overall project level composed of different kinds of activities. Without the Earned Value system, these questions could be answered in a qualitative, subjective manner at best

  20. Impact of accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety - Share cost project of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the growing interest in Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), some European institutes have established a shared cost project in the framework of the European Community. The overall objective of the project is to make an assessment of the possibilities of accelerator-driven hybrid reactor systems from the point of view of safe energy production, minimum waste production and transmutation capabilities

  1. Carbon accounting and cost estimation in forestry projects using CO2Fix V.3

    OpenAIRE

    Groen, T.A.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon and financial accounting of projects in the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry sector is a topic of hot debate. Large uncertainty remains concerning the carbon dynamics, the way they should be accounted and the cost efficiency of the projects. Part of the uncertainty can be alleviated by standardisation and transparency of reporting methods. For this reason we further developed CO2FIX, a forest ecosystem carbon model, with modules for carbon and financial accounting. The model is a...

  2. Documenting cost and performance for environmental remediation projects: Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-08

    The purpose of this DOE guide is to facilitate the use of consistent procedures to document cost and performance information for projects involving the remediation of media contaminated with hazardous and radioactive wastes. It provides remedial action project managers with a standardized set of data to document completed remediation projects. Standardized reporting of data will broaden the utility of the information, increase confidence in the effectiveness of future remedial technologies, and enhance the organization, storage and retrieval of relevant information for future cleanup projects. The foundation for this guide was laid down by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) in their publication, Guide to Documenting Cost and Performance for Remediation Projects, EPA-542-B- 95-002. Member agencies of the FRTR include the US EPA, the US DOD, the US DOE, and the US DOI. All the member agencies are involved in site remediation projects and anticipate following the guidance provided in the above reference. Therefore, there is much to be gained for DOE to be consistent with the other member agencies as it will be easier to compare projects across different agencies and also to learn from the experiences of a wider spectrum of prior completed projects.

  3. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 570 - Guidelines and Objectives for Evaluating Project Costs and Financial Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... breakdown of all project costs and that each cost element making up the project be reviewed for... either a firm commitment of its funds or a decision not to participate in the project; and B. Equity... his/her motivation remains high to pursue the business with vigor. The amount, type and terms of the...

  4. Process, cost modeling and simulations for integrated project development of biomass for fuel and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Wolff, D.M.B.; Souza Melo, H.N.

    1998-01-01

    The construction of the models for biomass project development are described. These models, first constructed using QPRO electronic spread sheet for Windows, are now being developed with the aid of visual and object oriented program as tools using DELPHI V.1 for windows and process simulator SUPERPRO, V.2.7 Intelligent Inc. These models render the process development problems with economic objectives to be solved very rapidly. The preliminary analysis of cost and investments of biomass utilisation projects which are included for this study are: steam, ammonia, carbon dioxide and alkali pretreatment process, methane gas production using anaerobic digestion process, aerobic composting, ethanol fermentation and distillation, effluent treatments using high rate algae production as well as cogeneration of energy for drying. The main project under developments are the biomass valuation projects with the elephant (Napier) grass, sugar cane bagasse and microalgae, using models for mass balance, equipment and production cost. The sensibility analyses are carried out to account for stochastic variation of the process yield, production volume, price variations, using Monte Carlo method. These models allow the identification of economical and scale up problems of the technology. The results obtained with few preliminary project development with few case studies are reported for integrated project development for fuel and protein using process and cost simulation models. (author)

  5. Cost Based Value Stream Mapping as a Sustainable Construction Tool for Underground Pipeline Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunduz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM as a sustainable construction tool on a real construction project of installation of underground pipelines. VSM was adapted to reduce the high percentage of non-value-added activities and time wastes during each construction stage and the paper searched for an effective way to consider the cost for studied construction of underground pipeline. This paper is unique in its way that it adopts cost implementation of VSM to improve the productivity in underground pipeline projects. The data was observed and collected from site during construction, indicating the cycle time, value added and non-value added of each construction stage. The current state was built based on these details. This was an eye-opening exercise and a process management tool as a trigger for improvement. After the current state assessment, a future state is attempted by Value Stream Mapping tool balancing the resources using a Line of Balance (LOB technique. Moreover, a sustainable cost estimation model was developed during current state and future state to calculate the cost of underground pipeline construction. The result shows a cost reduction of 20.8% between current and future states. This reflects the importance of the cost based Value Stream Mapping in construction as a sustainable measurement tool. This new tool could be utilized in construction industry to add the sustainability and effective cost management.

  6. Dynamics of a Bertrand duopoly with differentiated products and nonlinear costs: Analysis, comparisons and new evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brianzoni, Serena; Gori, Luca; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies mathematical properties and dynamics of a duopoly with price competition and horizontal product differentiation by introducing quadratic production costs (decreasing returns to scale), thus extending the model with linear costs (constant returns to scale) of Fanti et al. [11]. The economy is described by a two-dimensional non-invertible discrete time dynamic system. The paper first determines fixed points and other invariant sets, showing that synchronized dynamics can occur. Then, stability properties are compared in the cases of quadratic costs and linear costs by considering the degree of product differentiation and the speed of adjustment of prices as key parameters. It is also shown that synchronization takes place if products tend to be relatively complements and stressed similarities and differences between models with quadratic and linear costs. Finally, the paper focuses on the phenomenon of multistability thus underlying new evidences in comparison with the model with linear costs.

  7. ESTIMATION OF LONG-TERM INVESTMENT PROJECTS WITH ENERGY-EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS BASED ON LIFE CYCLE COSTS INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Viktor Ivanovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The starting stage of the tender procedures in Russia with the participation of foreign suppliers dictates the feasibility of the developments for economical methods directed to comparison of technical solutions on the construction field. The article describes the example of practical Life Cycle Cost (LCC evaluations under respect of Present Value (PV determination. These create a possibility for investor to estimate long-term projects (indicated as 25 years as commercially profitable, taking into account inflation rate, interest rate, real discount rate (indicated as 5 %. For economic analysis air-blower station of WWTP was selected as a significant energy consumer. Technical variants for the comparison of blower types are: 1 - multistage without control, 2 - multistage with VFD control, 3 - single stage double vane control. The result of LCC estimation shows the last variant as most attractive or cost-effective for investments with economy of 17,2 % (variant 1 and 21,0 % (variant 2 under adopted duty conditions and evaluations of capital costs (Cic + Cin with annual expenditure related (Ce+Co+Cm. The adopted duty conditions include daily and seasonal fluctuations of air flow. This was the reason for the adopted energy consumption as, kW∙h: 2158 (variant 1,1743...2201 (variant 2, 1058...1951 (variant 3. The article refers to Europump guide tables in order to simplify sophisticated factors search (Cp /Cn, df, which can be useful for economical analyses in Russia. Example of evaluations connected with energy-efficient solutions is given, but this reference involves the use of materials for the cases with resource savings, such as all types of fuel. In conclusion follows the assent to use LCC indicator jointly with the method of determining discounted cash flows, that will satisfy the investor’s need for interest source due to technical and economical comparisons.

  8. Comparison of standardised decommissioning costing tools on pilot Vienna TRIGA MARK-II research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornacek, M.; Kristofova, K.; Slugen, V.; Zachar, M.; Stummer, T.

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to compare decommissioning costing code CERREX (Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel) with advanced calculation methodology applied in eOMEGA-RR code. CERREX code was developed in line with the IAEA recommendations for decommissioning costing of research facilities and fully implements the ISDC (International Structure for Decommissioning Costing of Nuclear Installations) structure and costing methodology. In comparison with CERREX, usually applied in preliminary costing, the code eOMEGA-RR incorporates the realistic activity and material flow during decommissioning process (e.g. decontamination, dismantling and waste management). This advanced approach enables to carry out the decommissioning planning and costing more effectively. Moreover, the user-friendly interface helps to perform wide range of sensitivity analyses. In order to meet the above mentioned objectives, the model calculation costing case for TRIGA MARK-II research reactor in Vienna was developed in both calculation codes. The whole process covered four step-by-step procedures to be implemented. At first, inventory database taking into account physical as well as radiological parameters (e.g.: contamination, dose rates, nuclide vectors, limits and conditions) was developed. At second, advanced decommissioning costing case using CERREX and eOMEGA-RR code was created. At third, sensitivity analyses to estimate the impact of changing input parameters on calculated results were performed. Finally, costing results obtained from both cost calculation codes are compared and discussed. (authors)

  9. Cost-benefit of the telecardiology service in the state of Minas Gerais: Minas Telecardio Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Maia, Ana Carolina; Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Alkmim, Maria Beatriz; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz Pinho

    2011-10-01

    Telecardiology is a tool that can aid in cardiovascular care, mainly in towns located in remote areas. However, economic assessments on this subject are scarce and have yielded controversial results. To evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing a Telecardiology service in remote, small towns in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study used the database from the Minas Telecardio (MTC) Project, developed from June 2006 to November 2008, in 82 towns in the countryside of the state. Each municipality received a microcomputer with a digital electrocardiograph, with the possibility of transmitting ECG tracings and communicating with the on-duty cardiologist at the University hospital. The cost-benefit analysis was carried out by comparing the cost of performing an ECG in the project versus the cost of performing it by patient referral to another city. The average cost of an ECG in the MTC project was R$ 28.92, decomposed into R$ 8.08 for the cost of implementation and R$ 20.84 for maintenance. The cost simulation of the ECG with referral ranged from R$ 30.91 to R$ 54.58, with the cost-benefit ratio being always favorable to the MTC program, regardless of the type of calculation used for referral distance. The simulations considered the financial sponsor's and society's points-of-view. The sensitivity analysis with variation of calibration parameters confirmed these results. The implementation of a Telecardiology system as support to primary care in small Brazilian towns is feasible and economically beneficial, and can be used as a regular program within the Brazilian public health system.

  10. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, R.; Buysse, J.; Gellynck, X.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. ► We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. ► Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. ► All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. ► Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  11. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, R., E-mail: ray.jacobsen@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Buysse, J., E-mail: j.buysse@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Gellynck, X., E-mail: xavier.gellynck@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  12. Doubling the Performance-Cost Ratio of PV by Using Cheap Mirrors - a Secondary School Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, H.; van Herwaarden, S.; Keijsers, B.; van Dijk, V.A.P.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of cost is a major issue in the photovoltaics field. We have addressed this issue in a secondaryschool science project by considering the use of cheap mirrors in combination with solar panels, for application in developing countries. We have confirmed that it is possible to increase the

  13. 76 FR 8293 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 8, 2011. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: Effective... of Subjects in 18 CFR Part 157 Administrative practice and procedure, Natural Gas, Reporting and...

  14. 77 FR 8724 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 9, 2012. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This... CFR Part 157 Administrative practice and procedure, Natural gas, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  15. Army Corps of Engineers: Cost Increases in Flood Control Projects and Improving Communication with Nonfederal Sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    such poor condition that it had to have major rehabilitation work performed. Work to fix the deteriorated tunnel cost $10 million more than had...originally been estimated.19 Corps officials on the Little Calumet project said during construction they encountered a former landfill along one portion

  16. Wind pumps for agriculture: Cost and environmental benefits (comparisons with electric and combustion engine driven pumps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccoli, F.

    1991-01-01

    After describing initial and running costs of a group of wind-pumps, the author calculates and compares, as far as agricultural and zootechnical purposes are concerned, the costs for each cubic meter of water extracted through wind-powered, electric and internal-combustion engines. The comparisons clearly show, under adequate wind conditions, that wind-pumps are economically more suitable than electric and motor pumps with similar delivery heads

  17. Application of Boosting Regression Trees to Preliminary Cost Estimation in Building Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonseok Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the recent data mining techniques available, the boosting approach has attracted a great deal of attention because of its effective learning algorithm and strong boundaries in terms of its generalization performance. However, the boosting approach has yet to be used in regression problems within the construction domain, including cost estimations, but has been actively utilized in other domains. Therefore, a boosting regression tree (BRT is applied to cost estimations at the early stage of a construction project to examine the applicability of the boosting approach to a regression problem within the construction domain. To evaluate the performance of the BRT model, its performance was compared with that of a neural network (NN model, which has been proven to have a high performance in cost estimation domains. The BRT model has shown results similar to those of NN model using 234 actual cost datasets of a building construction project. In addition, the BRT model can provide additional information such as the importance plot and structure model, which can support estimators in comprehending the decision making process. Consequently, the boosting approach has potential applicability in preliminary cost estimations in a building construction project.

  18. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  19. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  20. An empirical analysis of the relationship between cost of control activities and project management success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tmeemy Samiaah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the objectives of continuous improvement programs, construction managers must link the achievement of quality with cost. This paper aims to associate project management success (PMS with cost of control (COC activities in an empirical manner. Thus, the purpose is to determine the extent to which COC activities impact PMS. Quantitative method was adopted to collect data from Malaysian building companies using postal and email surveys. Hypothesis is tested using correlation and simple linear regression analysis. The findings of this study indicate that COC activities are positively associated with the PMS. The empirical evidences obtained from this research, provides financial justification for all quality improvement efforts. This can assist building contractors to enhance the success of project management by reducing the level of business failures due to poor quality, cost overruns, and delays.

  1. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  2. Transmission avoided cost: a new parameter to evaluate the economic competitiveness of generations plants projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, D S [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, J C.R.; Rosenblat, J [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The paper presents a new formulation that makes feasible a composition of long run production marginal costs with the long run transmission marginal costs, including the costs related to the interconnection EHV networks and that related to the voltage levels below. The goal top be attained is to have available a more adequate parameter in order to compare production cost related to a plant, that will be connected to a certain voltage level network, to the cost related supplying the sam,e amount of energy from the bulk power system which will be represented by the marginal costs up to the voltage level under consideration. This procedure brings to light the Transmission Avoided Costs concepts, that are stressed throughout the text. The proposed methodology is now being used, in the brazilian Power Sector, as a rule of thumb in order to guide planning decisions about the schedule of new plants that have installed capacity below 30 MW. For plants with higher capacity, the transmission avoided costs are evaluated for each specific case, simulating the system behavior without the quoted hydroelectric plant. This paper focuses, an an application example, the case of the Canoas Hydroelectric Project, recently included in the Generation Expansion Reference Plan after a detailed analysis supported by the methodology described here. (author) 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Is integrated nursing home care cheaper than traditional care? A cost comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Aggie T G; van Raak, Arno J A; Maarse, Hans J A M

    2008-12-01

    It is generally assumed that integrated care has a cost-saving potential in comparison with traditional care. However, there is little evidence on this potential with respect to integrated nursing home care. DESIGN/METHODS/SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS: Between 1999 and 2003, formal and informal caregivers of different nursing homes in the Netherlands recorded activities performed for residents with somatic or psycho-social problems. In total, 23,380 lists were analysed to determine the average costs of formal and informal care per activity, per type of resident and per nursing home care type. For formal care activities, the total personnel costs per minute (in Euro) were calculated. For informal care costs, two shadow prices were used. Compared to traditional care, integrated care had lower informal direct care costs per resident and per activity and lower average costs per direct activity (for a set of activities performed by formal caregivers). The total average costs per resident per day and the costs of formal direct care per resident, however, were higher as were the costs of delivering a set of indirect activities to residents with somatic problems. The general assumption that integrated care has a cost-saving potential (per resident or per individual activity) was only partially supported by our research. Our study also raised issues which should be investigated in future research on integrated nursing home care.

  4. The cost-effectiveness of quality improvement projects: a conceptual framework, checklist and online tool for considering the costs and consequences of implementation-based quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carl; Pulleyblank, Ryan; Parrott, Steve; Essex, Holly

    2016-02-01

    In resource constrained systems, decision makers should be concerned with the efficiency of implementing improvement techniques and technologies. Accordingly, they should consider both the costs and effectiveness of implementation as well as the cost-effectiveness of the innovation to be implemented. An approach to doing this effectively is encapsulated in the 'policy cost-effectiveness' approach. This paper outlines some of the theoretical and practical challenges to assessing policy cost-effectiveness (the cost-effectiveness of implementation projects). A checklist and associated (freely available) online application are also presented to help services develop more cost-effective implementation strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report provides projected cost and performance assumptions for electric technologies considered in the Electrification Futures Study, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the effects of widespread electrification of end-use service demands in all major economic sectors - transportation, residential and commercial buildings, and industry - for the contiguous United States through 2050. Using extensive literature searches and expert assessment, the authors identify slow, moderate, and rapid technology advancement sensitivities on technology cost and performance, and they offer a comparative analysis of levelized cost metrics as a reference indicator of total costs. The identification and characterization of these end-use service demand technologies is fundamental to the Electrification Futures Study. This report, the larger Electrification Futures Study, and the associated data and methodologies may be useful to planners and analysts in evaluating the potential role of electrification in an uncertain future. The report could be broadly applicable for other analysts and researchers who wish to assess electrification and electric technologies.

  6. Cost-benefit comparison of nuclear and nonnuclear health and safety protective measures and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.P.; Mauro, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    This article compares the costs and benefits of health and safety measures and regulations in the nuclear and nonnuclear fields. A cost-benefit methodology for nuclear safety concerns is presented and applied to existing nuclear plant engineered safety features. Comparisons in terms of investment costs to achieve reductions in mortality rates are then made between nuclear plant safety features and the protective measures and regulations associated with nonnuclear risks, particularly with coal-fired power plants. These comparisons reveal a marked inconsistency in the cost effectiveness of health and safety policy, in which nuclear regulatory policy requires much greater investments to reduce the risk of public mortality than is required in nonnuclear areas where reductions in mortality rates could be achieved at much lower cost. A specific example of regulatory disparity regarding gaseous effluent limits for nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants is presented. It is concluded that a consistent health and safety regulatory policy based on uniform risk and cost-benefit criteria should be adopted and that future proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory requirements should be critically evaluated from a cost-benefit viewpoint

  7. Cost/benefit comparison of thermal solar energy systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    A comparison is made between thermal solar energy systems of different size for five different applications in the three main climatic zones in Switzerland. Conventional ways of energy conservation are also included in the comparison. A cost/benefit ratio is calculated for each system. The investment is used as a cost indicator whereas the useful solar heat or the conventional energy saving is chosen as benefit. It is shown that the most systems sold today in Switzerland - combined hot water and space heating systems for single family houses - have the poorest cost/benefit ratio among all systems considered in the analysis. Four applications with more favourable cost/benefit ratio are identified. Large systems have generally a better cost/benefit ratio than smaller ones, although the total investment is higher. Photovoltaics is even less favourable than all thermal systems considered. The large scale penetration of technologies with good cost/benefit ratio lies in the public interest. Supporting activities should consider the priority set by the cost/benefit ratio. (author) 1 fig., 14 refs

  8. How much electricity really costs. Comparison of the state subsidisation and overall social costs of conventional and renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechler, Swantje; Meyer, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    This study explains how the costs of electricity are an aggregate of different components. The electricity price paid by the end consumer contains not only the actual costs of energy production, which make up only about a third of the actual price in an average household, but also different surcharges such as network charges, electricity tax, value added tax and the concession levy. It furthermore contains the allocation charge stipulated by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG reallocation charge) as a means of allocating the costs of the subsidisation of electricity from renewable resources to the consumers. On the other hand conventional energy resources such as nuclear energy, hard coal and brown coal have substantially benefited over many decades from state subsidies in the form of financial aids, tax rebates and other promotive measures. The main difference between this and the subsidisation of renewable energy is that the costs of conventional energy resources are largely charged to the state budget rather than being made transparent in the electricity price. Based on an evaluation of the literature, data, interviews and the authors' own methodological deliberations this study makes a systematic comparison of the direct as well as indirect state subsidisation of renewable and conventional energy resources during the period from 1970 until 2012. The annual totals obtained for each energy resources are then set in relation to the share of that resource in overall electricity production, yielding specific subsidisation rates in terms of cents per kWh for each resource. This does not yet take into account the high consequential costs in the form of environmental damage and climate-related damage caused by fossil and nuclear fuels as well as the risks associated with the latter (collectively referred to as ''external costs''), all of which are charged to the polluters only at a small fraction of the true amount. The two cost categories of state

  9. Methods for cost management during product development: A review and comparison of different literatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.; Morales, S.; Grollmuss, S.; Scheer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The paper provides an overview of research published in the innovation and operations management (IOM) literature on 15 methods for cost management in new product development, and it provides a comparison to an earlier review of the management accounting (MA) literature (Wouters & Morales,

  10. Adjusting Teacher Salaries for the Cost of Living: The Effect on Salary Comparisons and Policy Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, C.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching salaries are commonly adjusted for the cost of living, but this incorrectly accounts for welfare differences across states. Adjusting for area amenities and opportunities, however, produces more accurate salary comparisons. Amenities and opportunities can be measured by the wage premium other workers in a state face. The two methods…

  11. Comparisons of Two Commercial and Two Low-cost Interfaces for Virtual Skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present two comparisons of two novel physical interface for interacting with a virtual environment in the form of a skiing game. The interfaces were compared through two separate within-subjects studies. In the first study we compared a wobble board augmented with a low-cost 3D a...

  12. Improved cost of energy comparison of permanent magnet generators for large offshore wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, K.; McDonald, A.; Polinder, H.; Corr, E.; Carroll, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates geared and direct-drive permanent magnet generators for a typical offshore wind turbine, providing a detailed comparison of various wind turbine drivetrain configurations in order to minimise the Cost of Energy. The permanent magnet generator topologies considered include a

  13. WORKING MACHINE-HOUR COST COMPARISON OF MODERN ROAD COVERAGE PROCESSING MECHANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara Kyazymovna Izmaylova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are mentioned features of alternative mechanization machine-hour cost calculations. Also determined analytical dependencies of calculating the expenses of ownership and maintenance. Given a comparison of expense items of various options for the processing implementation. The analysis is based on the international organizing experience for these types of work.

  14. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  15. The preliminary analysis of establishing the cost control system of AP1000 for the Haiyang nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Li Xiaobing

    2012-01-01

    The AP1000 technology has been first applied to Nuclear Power Plant construction in China. Haiyang Project is the second plant which applies the new technology, and it is the key to the success of the project, that how to control the cost. The cost control of AP1000 is to manage and monitor all the cost of the project, including the cost of project management, design, procurement, construction, and startup/commissioning. For the Haiyang Project, the cost control system should be established to ensure that the evaluation of the procurement order should be covered in the original budget, and all potential commitments are evaluated and approved within the confinement of cost control, and reduce the risk of the first reactor and get the most profit. (authors)

  16. Comparing Life-Cycle Costs of ESPCs and Appropriations-Funded Energy Projects: An Update to the 2002 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shonder, John A.; Hughes, Patrick; Atkin, Erica

    2006-01-01

    A study was sponsored by FEMP in 2001 - 2002 to develop methods to compare life-cycle costs of federal energy conservation projects carried out through energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) and projects that are directly funded by appropriations. The study described in this report follows up on the original work, taking advantage of new pricing data on equipment and on $500 million worth of Super ESPC projects awarded since the end of FY 2001. The methods developed to compare life-cycle costs of ESPCs and directly funded energy projects are based on the following tasks: (1) Verify the parity of equipment prices in ESPC vs. directly funded projects; (2) Develop a representative energy conservation project; (3) Determine representative cycle times for both ESPCs and appropriations-funded projects; (4) Model the representative energy project implemented through an ESPC and through appropriations funding; and (5) Calculate the life-cycle costs for each project.

  17. International comparison of cost of falls in older adults living in the community: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C; Robertson, M C; Ashe, M C; Liu-Ambrose, T; Khan, K M; Marra, C A

    2010-08-01

    Our objective was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. Our systematic review emphasized the need for a consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies to enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries. The purpose of this study was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. This is a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles reporting estimates for the cost of falls in people aged > or =60 years living in the community. We searched for papers published between 1945 and December 2008 in MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration, and NHS EED databases that identified cost of falls in older adults. We extracted the cost of falls in the reported currency and converted them to US dollars at 2008 prices, cost items measured, perspective, time horizon, and sensitivity analysis. We assessed the quality of the studies using a selection of questions from Drummond's checklist. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria. Studies varied with respect to viewpoint of the analysis, definition of falls, identification of important and relevant cost items, and time horizon. Only two studies reported a sensitivity analysis and only four studies identified the viewpoint of their economic analysis. In the USA, non-fatal and fatal falls cost US $23.3 billion (2008 prices) annually and US $1.6 billion in the UK. The economic cost of falls is likely greater than policy makers appreciate. The mean cost of falls was dependent on the denominator used and ranged from US $3,476 per faller to US $10,749 per injurious fall and US $26,483 per fall requiring hospitalization. A consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies would enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries.

  18. Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L.; Cooley, C.R.; Biagi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies' results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%

  19. AN ENHANCED MODEL TO ESTIMATE EFFORT, PERFORMANCE AND COST OF THE SOFTWARE PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pauline

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Authors have proposed a model that first captures the fundamentals of software metrics in the phase 1 consisting of three primitive primary software engineering metrics; they are person-months (PM, function-points (FP, and lines of code (LOC. The phase 2 consists of the proposed function point which is obtained by grouping the adjustment factors to simplify the process of adjustment and to ensure more consistency in the adjustments. In the proposed method fuzzy logic is used for quantifying the quality of requirements and is added as one of the adjustment factor, thus a fuzzy based approach for the Enhanced General System Characteristics to Estimate Effort of the Software Projects using productivity has been obtained. The phase 3 takes the calculated function point from our work and is given as input to the static single variable model (i.e. to the Intermediate COCOMO and COCOMO II for cost estimation. The Authors have tailored the cost factors in intermediate COCOMO and both; cost and scale factors are tailored in COCOMO II to suite to the individual development environment, which is very important for the accuracy of the cost estimates. The software performance indicators are project duration, schedule predictability, requirements completion ratio and post-release defect density, are also measured for the software projects in my work. A comparative study for effort, performance measurement and cost estimation of the software project is done between the existing model and the authors proposed work. Thus our work analyzes the interaction¬al process through which the estimation tasks were collectively accomplished.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of environmental management for vector control in resource development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, R

    1991-01-01

    Vector control methods are traditionally divided in chemical, biological and environmental management approaches, and this distinction also reflected in certain financial and economic aspects. This is particularly true for environmental modification, usually engineering or other structural works. It is highly capital intensive, as opposed to chemical and biological control which require recurrent expenditures, and discount rates are therefore a prominent consideration in deciding for one or the other approach. Environmental manipulation requires recurrent action, but can often be carried out with the community participation, which raises the issue of opportunity costs. The incorporation of environmental management in resource projects is generally impeded by economic considerations. The Internal Rate of Return continues to be a crucial criterion for funding agencies and development banks to support new projects; at the same time Governments of debt-riden countries in the Third World will do their best to avoid additional loans on such frills as environmental and health safeguards. Two approaches can be recommended to nevertheless ensure the incorporation of environmental management measures in resource projects in an affordable way. First, there are several examples of cases where environmental management measures either have a dual benefit (increasing both agricultural production and reducing vector-borne disease transmission) or can be implemented at zero costs. Second, the additional costs involved in structural modifications can be separated from the project development costs considered in the calculations of the Internal Rate of Return, and financial support can be sought from bilateral technical cooperation agencies particularly interested in environmental and health issues. There is a dearth of information in the cost-effectiveness of alternative vector control strategies in the developing country context. The process of integrating vector control in the

  1. Using Intelligent Techniques in Construction Project Cost Estimation: 10-Year Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Osman Elfaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is the most important preliminary process in any construction project. Therefore, construction cost estimation has the lion’s share of the research effort in construction management. In this paper, we have analysed and studied proposals for construction cost estimation for the last 10 years. To implement this survey, we have proposed and applied a methodology that consists of two parts. The first part concerns data collection, for which we have chosen special journals as sources for the surveyed proposals. The second part concerns the analysis of the proposals. To analyse each proposal, the following four questions have been set. Which intelligent technique is used? How have data been collected? How are the results validated? And which construction cost estimation factors have been used? From the results of this survey, two main contributions have been produced. The first contribution is the defining of the research gap in this area, which has not been fully covered by previous proposals of construction cost estimation. The second contribution of this survey is the proposal and highlighting of future directions for forthcoming proposals, aimed ultimately at finding the optimal construction cost estimation. Moreover, we consider the second part of our methodology as one of our contributions in this paper. This methodology has been proposed as a standard benchmark for construction cost estimation proposals.

  2. A review of the IEA/NEA Projected Costs of Electricity – 2015 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    The IEA/NEA recently issued their eighth edition of the Study on the “Projected Costs of Generating Electricity” – 2015 edition. The Study is mainly concerned with calculating the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE). The LCOE calculations are based on a levelised average life time cost approach using the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. The analysis was this year, and for the first time, performed using three discount rates (3%, 7%, and 10%). The LCOE can serve as a tool for calculating the cost of different generation technologies. However the Study's usefulness is affected by its narrow base of a limited set of countries that are not necessarily representative. It ignored the negative role of subsidies and did not provide a methodology for selective application of the discount rates and costing of carbon. The global power generation scene is changing. Generation growth in OECD countries has become very limited; simultaneously there is rapid growth of varying renewables (VRE) generation which needs special criteria for assessing its system cost. All this demands a rethinking of the application and usefulness of the LCOE in future generation planning. - Highlights: • LCOE is a useful tool for economics of generation technologies. • The IEA/NEA study did not cover fully the required criteria for assessment. • It ignored interpretation of: the discount rate, carbon costing and subsidies. • The world energy scene is changing, this requires reassessment of LCOE.

  3. Parametric Cost Modeling of Space Missions Using the Develop New Projects (DMP) Implementation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Leigh; Hihn, Jairus; Roust, Kevin; Warfield, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a parametric cost model that has been built at JPL to estimate costs of future, deep space, robotic science missions. Due to the recent dramatic changes in JPL business practices brought about by an internal reengineering effort known as develop new products (DNP), high-level historic cost data is no longer considered analogous to future missions. Therefore, the historic data is of little value in forecasting costs for projects developed using the DNP process. This has lead to the development of an approach for obtaining expert opinion and also for combining actual data with expert opinion to provide a cost database for future missions. In addition, the DNP cost model has a maximum of objective cost drivers which reduces the likelihood of model input error. Version 2 is now under development which expands the model capabilities, links it more tightly with key design technical parameters, and is grounded in more rigorous statistical techniques. The challenges faced in building this model will be discussed, as well as it's background, development approach, status, validation, and future plans.

  4. The process of life-cycle cost analysis on the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.Y.; Jacoboski, J.A.; Fisher, L.A.; Beirne, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Estimating Services Department of the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) is formalizing the process of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The LCCA process is based on the concepts, principles, and guidelines described by applicable Department of Energy's (DOE) orders, pertinent published literature, and the National Bureau of Standards handbook 135. LCC analyses will be performed following a ten-step process on the FEMP at the earliest possible decision point to support the selection of the least-cost alternatives for achieving the FERMCO mission

  5. Integral Cost-Benefit Analysis of Maglev Rail Projects Under Market Imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paul Elhorst

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates a new mode of high speed ground transportation, the magnetic levitation rail system (Maglev. The outcomes of this evaluation provide policy information on the interregional redistribution of employment and population and the national welfare improvement of two Dutch urban-conglomeration and two Dutch core-periphery projects. This article also compares the results of an integral cost- benefit analysis with those of a conventional cost-benefit analysis and concludes that the additional economic benefits due to market imperfections vary from –1% to +38% of the direct transport benefits, depending on the type of regions connected and the general condition of the economy.

  6. Carbon Accounting and Cost Estimation in Forestry Projects Using CO2Fix V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groen, T.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon and financial accounting of projects in the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry sector is a topic of hot debate. Large uncertainty remains concerning the carbon dynamics, the way they should be accounted and the cost efficiency of the projects. Part of the uncertainty can be alleviated by standardisation and transparency of reporting methods. For this reason we further developed CO2FIX, a forest ecosystem carbon model, with modules for carbon and financial accounting. The model is applied to four cases: (1) Joint implementation afforestation project in Romania, (2) Forest management project in Central Europe, (3) Reduced impact logging possibly under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in the future, and (4) Afforestation with native species under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results show the wide applicability of CO2FIX, from degrading grasslands as baseline cases to multiple cohort forest ecosystems. Also the results show that Forest Management in the European case can generate considerable amounts of carbon emission reductions. Further, the results show that although reduced impact logging is not yet an allowed option under the Clean Development Mechanism, it shows promising results in that it is (1) very cost effective, (2) seems to be able to generate intermediate amounts of credits and (3) seems to us as a project type that is not prone to leakage issues. These results are yet another indication to seriously consider reduced impact logging as an eligible measure under the CDM

  7. Genetic algorithm for project time-cost optimization in fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Md. Ariful Haque

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research is to develop a more realistic approach to solve project time-cost optimization problem under uncertain conditions, with fuzzy time periods. Design/methodology/approach: Deterministic models for time-cost optimization are never efficient considering various uncertainty factors. To make such problems realistic, triangular fuzzy numbers and the concept of a-cut method in fuzzy logic theory are employed to model the problem. Because of NP-hard nature of the project scheduling problem, Genetic Algorithm (GA has been used as a searching tool. Finally, Dev-C++ 4.9.9.2 has been used to code this solver. Findings: The solution has been performed under different combinations of GA parameters and after result analysis optimum values of those parameters have been found for the best solution. Research limitations/implications: For demonstration of the application of the developed algorithm, a project on new product (Pre-paid electric meter, a project under government finance launching has been chosen as a real case. The algorithm is developed under some assumptions. Practical implications: The proposed model leads decision makers to choose the desired solution under different risk levels. Originality/value: Reports reveal that project optimization problems have never been solved under multiple uncertainty conditions. Here, the function has been optimized using Genetic Algorithm search technique, with varied level of risks and fuzzy time periods.

  8. Comparison of the actual costs during removal of concrete layer by high-speed water jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hela, R.; Bodnárová, L.; Novotný, M.; Sitek, Libor; Klich, Jiří; Wolf, I.; Foldyna, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 763-775 ISSN 1611-1699 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Grant - others:GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01010948; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/387 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : computation model * total technological costs * total fixed costs * total variable costs * Triple helix model Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.881, year: 2012 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3846/16111699.2011.645866

  9. Project-based physics labs using low-cost open-source hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, F.; Bobroff, J.; Fuchs-Gallezot, M.; Maurines, L.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a project-based physics lab, which we proposed to third-year university students. These labs are based on new open-source low-cost equipment (Arduino microcontrollers and compatible sensors). Students are given complete autonomy: they develop their own experimental setup and study the physics topic of their choice. The goal of these projects is to let students to discover the reality of experimental physics. Technical specifications of the acquisition material and case studies are presented for practical implementation in other universities.

  10. Cost Forecasting of Substation Projects Based on Cuckoo Search Algorithm and Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Niu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of substation project cost is helpful to improve the investment management and sustainability. It is also directly related to the economy of substation project. Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD can decompose variables with non-stationary sequence signals into significant regularity and periodicity, which is helpful in improving the accuracy of prediction model. Adding the Gauss perturbation to the traditional Cuckoo Search (CS algorithm can improve the searching vigor and precision of CS algorithm. Thus, the parameters and kernel functions of Support Vector Machines (SVM model are optimized. By comparing the prediction results with other models, this model has higher prediction accuracy.

  11. Benefit–cost analysis of non-marginal climate and energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Conventional benefit–cost analysis incorporates the normally reasonable assumption that the policy or project under examination is marginal. Among the assumptions this entails is that the policy or project is small, so the underlying growth rate of the economy does not change. However, this assumption may be inappropriate in some important circumstances, including in climate-change and energy policy. One example is global targets for carbon emissions, while another is a large renewable energy project in a small economy, such as a hydropower dam. This paper develops some theory on the evaluation of non-marginal projects, with empirical applications to climate change and energy. We examine the conditions under which evaluation of a non-marginal project using marginal methods may be wrong, and in our empirical examples we show that both qualitative and large quantitative errors are plausible. - Highlights: • This paper develops the theory of the evaluation of non-marginal projects. • It also includes empirical applications to climate change and energy. • We show when evaluation of a non-marginal project using marginal methods is wrong

  12. Cost Comparison Model: Blended eLearning versus traditional training of community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissine, Mysha; Segan, Robert; Taylor, Mathew; Jefferson, Bobby; Borrelli, Alice; Koehler, Mohandas; Chelvayohan, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Another one million community healthcare workers are needed to address the growing global population and increasing demand of health care services. This paper describes a cost comparison between two training approaches to better understand costs implications of training community health workers (CHWs) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our team created a prospective model to forecast and compare the costs of two training methods as described in the Dalburge Report - (1) a traditional didactic training approach ("baseline") and (2) a blended eLearning training approach ("blended"). After running the model for training 100,000 CHWs, we compared the results and scaled up those results to one million CHWs. A substantial difference exists in total costs between the baseline and blended training programs. RESULTS indicate that using a blended eLearning approach for training community health care workers could provide a total cost savings of 42%. Scaling the model to one million CHWs, the blended eLearning training approach reduces total costs by 25%. The blended eLearning savings are a result of decreased classroom time, thereby reducing the costs associated with travel, trainers and classroom costs; and using a tablet with WiFi plus a feature phone rather than a smartphone with data plan. The results of this cost analysis indicate significant savings through using a blended eLearning approach in comparison to a traditional didactic method for CHW training by as much as 67%. These results correspond to the Dalberg publication which indicates that using a blended eLearning approach is an opportunity for closing the gap in training community health care workers.

  13. Comparison of MEA capture cost for low CO{sub 2} emissions sources in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, M.T.; Allinson, G.W.; Wiley, D.E. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    This paper estimates the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for three Australian industrial emission sources: iron and steel production, oil refineries and cement manufacturing. It also compares the estimated capture costs with those of post-combustion capture from a pulverised black coal power plant. The cost of capture in 2008 using MEA solvent absorption technology ranges from less than A$60 per tonne CO{sub 2} avoided for the iron and steel production to over A$70 per tonne CO{sub 2} avoided for cement manufacture and over A$100 per tonne CO{sub 2} avoided for oil refineries. The costs of capture for the iron and steel and cement industries are comparable to or less than that for post-combustion capture from a pulverised black coal power plant. This paper also investigates costs for converting low partial pressure CO{sub 2} streams from iron and steel production to a more concentrated stream using pressurisation and the water-gas shift reaction. In those cases, the costs were found to be similar to or less than the cost estimates without conversion. The analyses in this paper also show that estimated costs are highly dependent on the characteristics of the industrial emission source, the assumptions related to the type and price of energy used by the capture facilities and the economic parameters of the project such as the discount rate and capital costs.

  14. Projected hydrogen cost from methane reforming for North America 2015-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderveen, K.; Lutz, A.; Klebanoff, L.; Drennen, T.; Keller, J.; Drennen, T.; Kamery, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H 2 Sim) was used to project the cost for hydrogen at the point of sale to light duty vehicles for distributed, small-scale steam methane reforming. Projections cover the period from 2010-2050 in North America, and take into account assumptions about the quantity of recoverable natural gas remaining in North America. We conclude that there is a window for distributed reforming to play a positive role in supplying a H 2 fuel infrastructure, but this window is closing rapidly. The analysis assumes that production from natural gas reserves in North America will peak sometime before 2050 and demand will cause the price to rise after the peak of production in a manner consistent with Hotelling's model. We consider three scenarios for when the peak occurs, and evaluate the impact on the cost of hydrogen fuel produced via distributed small scale reforming in these three scenarios. (authors)

  15. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries

  16. Cost comparison of very high temperature nuclear reactors for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Newman, J.B.

    1975-03-01

    In April 1974, the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) authorized General Atomic Company, General Electric Company and Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory to assess the available technology for producing process heat utilizing very high temperature nuclear reactors. General Electric and Westinghouse produced concepts for the entire nuclear system, including the balance of plant. The General Atomic assessment included only the nuclear reactor portion of the nuclear plant. United Engineers and Constructors Inc. (UE and C) was requested by the USAEC in November 1974 to prepare an economic comparison of the three conceptual plants. The comparison is divided into three tasks: (1) Develop a balance of plant conceptual design to be combined with the General Atomic concept as a basis for comparison, and estimate the cost of the General Atomic/UE and C concept in July 1974 dollars; (2) Normalize the overall plant costs for the General Atomic/UE and C, General Electric and Westinghouse concepts, compare the costs, and identify significant differences between the concepts; and (3) Estimate the operation and maintenance costs for the General Atomic/UE and C plant and compare with the other concepts. The results of these task studies are discussed

  17. Frequent Change Request From User to Handle Cost on Project in Agile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Aziz Butt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agile has invented to improve and overcome Draw backs of software development. Now agile model is using in software development very vastly. It is facilitating the developer and client both very resourcefully. It is getting popularity than the other Software Development Life Cycle models because of its characteristics and most owing to allow change request at any level of the project. The client in the software development is the main part and asset of the company. The software house always focuses on its client because client is an asset. Thus developer has major concern with the client’s requirement and change request. Agile is getting popularity because of allow change request at any stage of project, on the other hand it is also a drawback in agile model because when project starts the project’s completion time and cost is decided. But due to frequent change of requests come from client the cost and completion time both increase eventually which is not good for software house’s business and reputation. So there is need a cost and time estimation technique to solve change request issue in agile model.

  18. Comparison of power spectra for tomosynthesis projections and reconstructed images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrom, Emma; Reiser, Ingrid; Nishikawa, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Burgess et al. [Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001)] showed that the power spectrum of mammographic breast background follows a power law and that lesion detectability is affected by the power-law exponent β which measures the amount of structure in the background. Following the study of Burgess et al., the authors measured and compared the power-law exponent of mammographic backgrounds in tomosynthesis projections and reconstructed slices to investigate the effect of tomosynthesis imaging on background structure. Our data set consisted of 55 patient cases. For each case, regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted from both projection images and reconstructed slices. The periodogram of each ROI was computed by taking the squared modulus of the Fourier transform of the ROI. The power-law exponent was determined for each periodogram and averaged across all ROIs extracted from all projections or reconstructed slices for each patient data set. For the projections, the mean β averaged across the 55 cases was 3.06 (standard deviation of 0.21), while it was 2.87 (0.24) for the corresponding reconstructions. The difference in β for a given patient between the projection ROIs and the reconstructed ROIs averaged across the 55 cases was 0.194, which was statistically significant (p<0.001). The 95% CI for the difference between the mean value of β for the projections and reconstructions was [0.170, 0.218]. The results are consistent with the observation that the amount of breast structure in the tomosynthesis slice is reduced compared to projection mammography and that this may lead to improved lesion detectability.

  19. Comparison of SUREPAK life cycle costs to other methods of low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, S.J.; Little, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of costs of low-level radioactive waste management techniques invariably degenerate into parochial arguments over differences in commercial objectives. The purpose of this paper is to establish a common basis for comparing technologies and then to examine the result as a complete cycle instead of a snapshot view taken at an arbitrary point in the progression. One objective is to portray cost sensitivity in terms of the options available for waste management. A second, perhaps less obvious, point is the definition of cost factors hidden from the short-term view. The final objective is to show the cumulative effects of costs externally imposed without reference to the technology employed (e.g., legislated surcharges based on arbitrary parameters)

  20. New vaccines against otitis media: projected benefits and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan A; Prosser, Lisa A; Paradise, Jack L; Ray, G Thomas; Kulldorff, Martin; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Mehta, Jyotsna; Colborn, D Kathleen; Lieu, Tracy A

    2009-06-01

    New vaccines that offer protection against otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and by Moraxella catarrhalis are under development. However, the potential health benefits and economic effects of such candidate vaccines have not been systematically assessed. We created a computerized model to compare the projected benefits and costs of (1) the currently available 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, (2) a candidate pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine that has been tested in Europe, (3) a hypothetical pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine, and (4) no vaccination. The clinical probabilities of acute otitis media and of otitis media with effusion were generated from multivariate analyses of data from 2 large health maintenance organizations and from the Pittsburgh Child Development/Otitis Media Study cohort. Other probabilities, costs, and quality-of-life values were derived from published and unpublished sources. The base-case analysis assumed vaccine dose costs of $65 for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, $100 for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine, and $125 for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine. With no vaccination, we projected that 13.7 million episodes of acute otitis media would occur annually in US children aged 0 to 4 years, at an annual cost of $3.8 billion. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was projected to prevent 878,000 acute otitis media episodes, or 6.4% of those that would occur with no vaccination; the corresponding value for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine was 3.7 million (27%) and for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine was 4.2 million (31%). Using the base-case vaccine costs, pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine use would result in net savings compared with nontypeable 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate use. Conversely, pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine use would not

  1. Approaches in estimation of external cost for fuel cycles in the ExternE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.A.; Maksimenko, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes, content and main results of studies realized within the frameworks of the International Project ExternE which is the first comprehensive attempt to develop general approach to estimation of external cost for different fuel cycles based on utilization of nuclear and fossil fuels, as well as on renewable power sources are discussed. The external cost of a fuel cycle is treated as social and environmental expenditures which are not taken into account by energy producers and consumers, i.e. these are expenditures not included into commercial cost nowadays. The conclusion on applicability of the approach suggested for estimation of population health hazards and environmental impacts connected with electric power generation growth (expressed in money or some other form) is made

  2. SECON - A tool for estimation of storage costs and storage project revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, O.

    1997-01-01

    The SECON model Storage ECONomics is useful for gas suppliers, storage operators, gas distributors and consumers when investigating new storage possibilities. SECON has been used within the Sydkraft group to compare cost for different types of storage and to identify the market niche for lined rock cavern (LRC) storage. In the model cost for the different storage types, salt caverns, LNG, and LRC can be compared. By using input according to market needs each storage type can be validated for a specific service e.g. peak shaving, seasonal storage or balancing. The project revenue can also be calculated. SECON includes three models for income calculation; US storage service, Trading and Avoided Supply Contract Costs. The income models calculates annual turnover, pay of time, net present value, internal rate of return and max. liquidity shortfall for the project. The SECON will facilitate sensitivity analysis both regarding cost for different services and different storage types and on the income side by using different scenarios. At the poster session SECON will be presented live and the delegates will have the opportunity to test the model. (au)

  3. Vulnerability in Determining the Cost of Information System Project to Avoid Loses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Kholid; Ikhsani, Zulfa Amalia

    2018-03-01

    Context: This study discusses the priority of cost required in software development projects. Objectives: To show the costing models, the variables involved, and how practitioners assess and decide the priorities of each variable. To strengthen the information, each variable also confirmed the risk if ignored. Method: The method is done by two approaches. First, systematic literature reviews to find the models and variables used to decide the cost of software development. Second, confirm and take judgments about the level of importance and risk of each variable to the software developer. Result: Obtained about 54 variables that appear on the 10 models discussed. The variables are categorized into 15 groups based on the similarity of meaning. Each group becomes a variable. Confirmation results with practitioners on the level of importance and risk. It shown there are two variables that are considered very important and high risk if ignored. That is duration and effort. Conclusion: The relationship of variable rates between the results of literature studies and confirmation of practitioners contributes to the use of software business actors in considering project cost variables.

  4. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Gary; Williams, David; Smith, Rick

    2013-01-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  5. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunford, Gary [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Williams, David [WIT, Inc., 11173 Oak Fern Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States); Smith, Rick [Knowledge Systems Design, Inc., 13595 Quaker Hill Cross Rd, Nevada City, CA 95959 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  6. Comparison of Actual Costs to Integrate Commercial Buildings with the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Black, Doug [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-01

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This paper discusses the impact factors that contribute to the costs of automated DR systems, with a focus on OpenADR 1.0 and 2.0 systems. In addition, this report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. In summary, median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude greater or less than median. Costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total such costs.

  7. Final radioactive waste disposal: A European comparison of organization and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drasdo, P.

    2000-01-01

    The investigation is aimed to the comparison of organization structures of operators (plants) and governmental institutions concerned with the final disposal of radioactive waste. The study is covering Germany, France, United Kingdom and Sweden. The capital amount of total final disposal costs are the highest in Germany, the lowest in Sweden. This is also true for the final disposal costs that have to be financed by electricity production from nuclear power plants. The reasons for the differences with respect to economic efficiencies, political decisions and technical concepts are discussed

  8. The cost-effectiveness of IVF in the UK: a comparison of three gonadotrophin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, D; Out, H J; Palmer, S J; van Loon, J

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of women undergoing IVF treatment with recombinant FSH (rFSH) in comparison with highly purified urinary FSH (uFSH-HP) and human menopausal gonadotrophins (HMG). A decision-analytic model was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios for 'the average cost per ongoing pregnancy' and 'incremental cost per additional pregnancy' for women entering into IVF treatment for a maximum of three cycles. The model was constructed based on a previously published large prospective randomized clinical trial comparing rFSH and uFSH-HP. Where necessary, these data were augmented with a combination of expert opinion, evidence from the literature and observational data relating to the management and cost of IVF treatment in the UK. The cost of rFSH, uFSH-HP and HMG were obtained from National Health Service list prices in the UK. The model predicted a cumulative pregnancy rate after three cycles of 57.1% for rFSH and 44.4% for both uFSH-HP and HMG. The cost of IVF treatment was 5135 pounds sterling for rFSH, 4806 pounds sterling for uFSH-HP and 4202 pounds sterling for HMG. When assessed in association with outcomes, the average cost per ongoing pregnancy was more favourable with rFSH (8992 pounds sterling) than with either uFSH-HP (10 834 pounds sterling) or HMG (9472 pounds sterling). The incremental cost per additional pregnancy was 2583 pounds sterling using rFSH instead of uFSH-HP and 7321 pounds sterling using rFSH instead of HMG. These results were robust to changes in the baseline assumptions of the model. rFSH is a cost-effective treatment strategy in ovulation induction prior to IVF.

  9. Application and importance of cost-benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurovic Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the advantages of using Cost-Benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings, and to prove the hypothesis that Cost-Benefit analysis boosts the effectiveness and efficiency of the said type of projects. The paper offers theoretical and practical explanation of the implementation of Cost-Benefit analysis in the relevant area. Since energy efficiency projects in public buildings usually represent a part of a broader portfolio of similar projects and their implementation demands allocation of substantial financial resources, communities are often be interested in achieving maximal economic and non-economic benefits. This paper aims to demonstrate that Cost-Benefit analysis can represent an excellent contribution when attempting to select the projects for implementation within a broader portfolio of energy efficiency projects in public buildings. This hypothesis was demonstrated by putting a greater emphasis on non-economic benefits and the costs arising from implementation of the aforementioned types of projects. In addition, a practical test of this hypothesis was performed through the implementation of an energy efficiency portfolio in public buildings, worth several tens of millions of dollars - the Serbian Energy Efficiency Project. The paper concludes that the use of Cost-Benefit analysis can help us to effectively evaluate and manage projects of this type aimed at achieving maximum benefits for the community in question.

  10. Comparison of Scientific Research Projects of Education Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Esen; Tonbul, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Many studies indicate that knowledge and knowledge production are the main predictors of social development, welfare and the ability to face the future with confidence. It could be argued that knowledge production is mainly carried out by universities. This study compares 1266 scientific research projects (SRPs) completed by faculties of education…

  11. Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruccelli, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.petruccelli@unibas.it

    2015-09-15

    Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.

  12. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, S; Larson, E D; Williams, R H [Center for Energy and Environment Studies School of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Katofsky, R E [Arthur D. Little Co., Cambridge, MA (United States); Chen, J [Thermo Fibertek, Inc., Auburn, MA (United States); Marrison, C I [Oliver, Wyman and Co., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    prospectively lower than with present-day coal-fuelled steam electric power generation using flue gas desulphurization, while sulphur emissions would be much lower. Assuming costs for plantation-grown biomass based on commercial plantation practice in Brazil, it is shown that the break-even coal price is lower that the cost of coal projected by the World Bank for many developing countries for the year 2005. For fluid fuels, a comparison is made between biomass and coal as feedstocks for the production of methanol and H{sub 2}. These fuels are the energy carriers of choice for vehicles based on fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell technology for transport applications is rapidly advancing, and fuel cell buses have already been demonstrated and will be available commercially before 2000; fuel cells could be available for automotive applications in the period 2005-2010. The main attractions of fuel cell vehicles for developing countries are their favourable emissions characteristics (zero or near-zero pollutant emissions without the need for control technologies), their high fuel economy (energy requirements per kilometre are just one third to one half those for internal combustion engine vehicles) and their energy supply diversity advantages (natural gas, biomass and coal can be used at fuel costs per kilometre that are prospectively competitive with costs for petroleum). As in the case of power generation, it is shown that methanol and H{sub 2} derived from plantation-grown biomass have good prospects for being competitive with coal-derived methanol and H{sub 2} in many regions, assuming biomass prices based on Brazilian experience with commercial plantations and World Bank projections of coal prices for developing countries. (author) 68 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, S.; Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.; Katofsky, R.E.; Chen, J.; Marrison, C.I.

    1995-01-01

    prospectively lower than with present-day coal-fuelled steam electric power generation using flue gas desulphurization, while sulphur emissions would be much lower. Assuming costs for plantation-grown biomass based on commercial plantation practice in Brazil, it is shown that the break-even coal price is lower that the cost of coal projected by the World Bank for many developing countries for the year 2005. For fluid fuels, a comparison is made between biomass and coal as feedstocks for the production of methanol and H 2 . These fuels are the energy carriers of choice for vehicles based on fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell technology for transport applications is rapidly advancing, and fuel cell buses have already been demonstrated and will be available commercially before 2000; fuel cells could be available for automotive applications in the period 2005-2010. The main attractions of fuel cell vehicles for developing countries are their favourable emissions characteristics (zero or near-zero pollutant emissions without the need for control technologies), their high fuel economy (energy requirements per kilometre are just one third to one half those for internal combustion engine vehicles) and their energy supply diversity advantages (natural gas, biomass and coal can be used at fuel costs per kilometre that are prospectively competitive with costs for petroleum). As in the case of power generation, it is shown that methanol and H 2 derived from plantation-grown biomass have good prospects for being competitive with coal-derived methanol and H 2 in many regions, assuming biomass prices based on Brazilian experience with commercial plantations and World Bank projections of coal prices for developing countries. (author)

  14. Cost comparison of orthopaedic fracture pathways using discrete event simulation in a Glasgow hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul J; McDonald, David A; Van Der Meer, Robert; Morton, Alec; Nugent, Margaret; Rymaszewski, Lech A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Healthcare faces the continual challenge of improving outcome while aiming to reduce cost. The aim of this study was to determine the micro cost differences of the Glasgow non-operative trauma virtual pathway in comparison to a traditional pathway. Design Discrete event simulation was used to model and analyse cost and resource utilisation with an activity-based costing approach. Data for a full comparison before the process change was unavailable so we used a modelling approach, comparing a virtual fracture clinic (VFC) with a simulated traditional fracture clinic (TFC). Setting The orthopaedic unit VFC pathway pioneered at Glasgow Royal Infirmary has attracted significant attention and interest and is the focus of this cost study. Outcome measures Our study focused exclusively on patients with non-operative trauma attending emergency department or the minor injuries unit and the subsequent step in the patient pathway. Retrospective studies of patient outcomes as a result of the protocol introductions for specific injuries are presented in association with activity costs from the models. Results Patients are satisfied with the new pathway, the information provided and the outcome of their injuries (Evidence Level IV). There was a 65% reduction in the number of first outpatient face-to-face (f2f) attendances in orthopaedics. In the VFC pathway, the resources required per day were significantly lower for all staff groups (p≤0.001). The overall cost per patient of the VFC pathway was £22.84 (95% CI 21.74 to 23.92) per patient compared with £36.81 (95% CI 35.65 to 37.97) for the TFC pathway. Conclusions Our results give a clearer picture of the cost comparison of the virtual pathway over a wholly traditional f2f clinic system. The use of simulation-based stochastic costings in healthcare economic analysis has been limited to date, but this study provides evidence for adoption of this method as a basis for its application in other healthcare settings

  15. Cost comparison of orthopaedic fracture pathways using discrete event simulation in a Glasgow hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gillian H; Jenkins, Paul J; McDonald, David A; Van Der Meer, Robert; Morton, Alec; Nugent, Margaret; Rymaszewski, Lech A

    2017-09-07

    Healthcare faces the continual challenge of improving outcome while aiming to reduce cost. The aim of this study was to determine the micro cost differences of the Glasgow non-operative trauma virtual pathway in comparison to a traditional pathway. Discrete event simulation was used to model and analyse cost and resource utilisation with an activity-based costing approach. Data for a full comparison before the process change was unavailable so we used a modelling approach, comparing a virtual fracture clinic (VFC) with a simulated traditional fracture clinic (TFC). The orthopaedic unit VFC pathway pioneered at Glasgow Royal Infirmary has attracted significant attention and interest and is the focus of this cost study. Our study focused exclusively on patients with non-operative trauma attending emergency department or the minor injuries unit and the subsequent step in the patient pathway. Retrospective studies of patient outcomes as a result of the protocol introductions for specific injuries are presented in association with activity costs from the models. Patients are satisfied with the new pathway, the information provided and the outcome of their injuries (Evidence Level IV). There was a 65% reduction in the number of first outpatient face-to-face (f2f) attendances in orthopaedics. In the VFC pathway, the resources required per day were significantly lower for all staff groups (p≤0.001). The overall cost per patient of the VFC pathway was £22.84 (95% CI 21.74 to 23.92) per patient compared with £36.81 (95% CI 35.65 to 37.97) for the TFC pathway. Our results give a clearer picture of the cost comparison of the virtual pathway over a wholly traditional f2f clinic system. The use of simulation-based stochastic costings in healthcare economic analysis has been limited to date, but this study provides evidence for adoption of this method as a basis for its application in other healthcare settings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  16. Comparison of Cloud vs. Tape Backup Performance and Costs with Oracle Database

    OpenAIRE

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbič, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Ora...

  17. The cost and value of pre-registration clinical placements for Project 2000 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M L; Akehurst, R

    1999-07-01

    The research outlined in this article was commissioned by the Sheffield and North Trent College of Nursing and Midwifery to explore the cost implications of pre-registration clinical placements in the context of Project 2000. The authors outline the methodology and findings of an exercise designed to collect relevant cost information which was not readily available. On the basis of these findings, they suggest that: at 1995/1996 pay and prices, clinical placements cost the education provider approximately pound 890 per student per annum; in terms of real resources, the value to service providers of the service contribution made by second- and third-year nursing and midwifery students on ward-based placements outweighs the value of the time spent by qualified staff on their supervision and education. Once the funding assumptions underlying the introduction of Project 2000 have been taken into account, second- and third-year nursing and midwifery students benefit the service provider by on average pound 3.46 for every hour they spend in an unrostered ward-based placement. The service contribution made by students in community-based clinical placements cannot free staff time in the same way as on the wards and, because qualified staff in these areas are generally more highly graded, the value of the time they spend on the supervision and education of students on placement is higher than in ward-based placements. Second- and third-year students therefore appear to cost the service provider on average pound 0.48 for each hour they spend in a community-based placement. It was not possible to determine whether this cost translates into a reduction in patient contacts.

  18. Review of OECD study into 'Projected costs of generating electricity-2010 Edition'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham

    2010-01-01

    This joint report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the seventh in the long established series of studies into electricity generating costs. It presents the main results of the work carried out in 2009 for calculating the costs of generating baseload electricity. The study is quite comprehensive in covering almost all financial aspects facing investors in the electricity generating system. Therefore this study although useful, its usefulness lies in explaining methodologies, mentioning factors that affect investment and cost, educating planners and improving investment evaluation and planning methodologies, its resulting figures and cost comparisons are however controversial. Generation planning and investments are case and country specific, and should be studied correspondingly and as close as possible to the timing of decision making to take account of trends. Most likely such case specific results will differ from figures calculated in the study. Therefore we need to emphasize a key conclusion of the study which is 'that country-specific circumstances determine the LCOE'; it is this that needs to be considered and not the results represented in the study.

  19. The AGORA High-resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Ji-hoon; Abel Tom; Agertz Oscar; Bryan Greg L.; Ceverino Daniel; Christensen Charlotte; Conroy Charlie; Dekel Avishai; Gnedin Nickolay Y.; Goldbaum Nathan J.; Guedes Javiera; Hahn Oliver; Hobbs Alexander; Hopkins Philip F.; Hummels Cameron B.

    2014-01-01

    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 210.1 (2014): 14 reproduced by permission of the AAS We introduce the Assembling Galaxies Of Resolved Anatomy (AGORA) project, a comprehensive numerical study of well-resolved galaxies within the ΛCDM cosmology. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with force resolutions of ∼100 proper pc or better will be run with a variety of code platforms to follow the hierarchical growth, star formation history, morphological transformation, and the cycle o...

  20. Investigation on the Factors Influencing Construction Time and Cost Overrun for High-Rise Building Projects In Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Haslinda, A.; Xian, T. Wei; Norfarahayu, K.; Muhamad Hanafi, R.; Fikri, H. Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Time and cost overruns have become one prominent issue for most construction projects around the world. Project costing and timeframe extension had been causing a lot of wastage and loss of opportunity for many parties involved. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the factors influencing time and cost overruns for high-rise construction projects in Penang, Malaysia. A set of questionnaires survey was distributed to the project managers who had been or currently involved in the high-rise building projects in Penang to get their input and perceptions for each factor identified as well as its frequency of occurrence. In order to rank all the factors gathered, the mean index of the most distinguishing factors and its frequency of occurrence were multiplied to get the severity index. The results revealed that for time overrun, the most predominant causes were due to design changes, inadequate planning and scheduling and poor labor productivity. Meanwhile, the predominant causes of cost overrun were poor pre-construction budget and material cost planning, inaccurate quantity take-off and materials cost increased by inflation. The significance of establishing the issues related to time and cost overruns for the high-rise building construction project is to provide a greater insight and understanding on the causes of delays, particularly among the main project players: contractors, client, and consultants.

  1. Bayesian comparison of cost-effectiveness of different clinical approaches to diagnose coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, R.E.; Eng, C.; Horowitz, S.F.; Gorlin, R.; Goldstein, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four clinical policies (policies I to IV) in the diagnosis of the presence or absence of coronary artery disease. A model based on Bayes theorem and published clinical data was constructed to make these comparisons. Effectiveness was defined as either the number of patients with coronary disease diagnosed or as the number of quality-adjusted life years extended by therapy after the diagnosis of coronary disease. The following conclusions arise strictly from analysis of the model and may not necessarily be applicable to all situations. As prevalence of coronary disease in the population increased, it caused a linear increase in cost per patient tested, but a hyperbolic decrease in cost per effect, that is, increased cost-effectiveness. Thus, cost-effectiveness of all policies (I to IV) was poor in populations with a prevalence of disease below 10%. Analysis of the model also indicates that at prevalences less than 80%, exercise thallium scintigraphy alone as a first test (policy II) is a more cost-effective initial test than is exercise electrocardiography alone as a first test (policy I) or exercise electrocardiography first combined with thallium imaging as a second test (policy IV). Exercise electrocardiography before thallium imaging (policy IV) is more cost-effective than exercise electrocardiography alone (policy I) at prevalences less than 80%. 4) Noninvasive exercise testing before angiography (policies I, II and IV) is more cost-effective than using coronary angiography as the first and only test (policy III) at prevalences less than 80%. 5) Above a threshold value of prevalence of 80% (for example patients with typical angina), proceeding to angiography as the first test (policy III) was more cost-effective than initial noninvasive exercise tests (policies I, II and IV)

  2. What can we learn from international comparisons of costs by DRG?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, M; Schenker, L; Martins, D; Dung, Duong; Chalé, J J; Leclercq, P

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare costs data by diagnosis related group (DRG) between Belgium and Switzerland. Our hypotheses were that differences between countries can probably be explained by methodological differences in cost calculations, by differences in medical practices and by differences in cost structures within the two countries. Classifications of DRG used in the two countries differ (AP-DRGs version 1.7 in Switzerland and APR-DRGs version 15.0 in Belgium). The first step of this study was to transform Belgian summaries into Swiss AP-DRGs. Belgian and Swiss data were calculated with a clinical costing methodology (full costing). Belgian and Swiss costs were converted into US$ PPP (purchasing power parity) in order to neutralize differences in purchasing power between countries. The results of this study showed higher costs in Switzerland despite standardization of cost data according to PPP. The difference is not explained by the case-mix index because this was similar for inliers between the two countries. The length of stay (LOS) was also quite similar for inliers between the two countries. The case-mix index was, however, higher for high outliers in Belgium, as reflected in a higher LOS for these patients. Higher costs in Switzerland are thus probably explained mainly by the higher number of agency staff by service in this country or because of differences in medical practices. It is possible to make international comparisons but only if there is standardization of the case-mix between countries and only if comparable accountancy methodologies are used. Harmonization of DRGs groups, nomenclature and accountancy is thus required.

  3. An integrated framework for cost- benefit analysis in road safety projects using AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mohamadian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost benefit analysis (CBA is a useful tool for investment decision-making from economic point of view. When the decision involves conflicting goals, the multi-attribute analysis approach is more capable; because there are some social and environmental criteria that cannot be valued or monetized by cost benefit analysis. The complex nature of decision-making in road safety normally makes it difficult to reach a single alternative solution that can satisfy all decision-making problems. Generally, the application of multi-attribute analysis in road sector is promising; however, the applications are in preliminary stage. Some multi-attribute analysis techniques, such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP have been widely used in practice. This paper presents an integrated framework with CBA and AHP methods to select proper alternative in road safety projects. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a case study of improving a road to reduce the accidents in Iran. The framework is used as an aid to cost benefit tool in road safety projects.

  4. Long-term care cost drivers and expenditure projection to 2036 in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hong Kong's rapidly ageing population, characterised by one of the longest life expectancies and the lowest fertility rate in the world, is likely to drive long-term care (LTC expenditure higher. This study aims to identify key cost drivers and derive quantitative estimates of Hong Kong's LTC expenditure to 2036. Methods We parameterised a macro actuarial simulation with data from official demographic projections, Thematic Household Survey 2004, Hong Kong's Domestic Health Accounts and other routine data from relevant government departments, Hospital Authority and other LTC service providers. Base case results were tested against a wide range of sensitivity assumptions. Results Total projected LTC expenditure as a proportion of GDP reflected secular trends in the elderly dependency ratio, showing a shallow dip between 2004 and 2011, but thereafter yielding a monotonic rise to reach 3.0% by 2036. Demographic changes would have a larger impact than changes in unit costs on overall spending. Different sensitivity scenarios resulted in a wide range of spending estimates from 2.2% to 4.9% of GDP. The availability of informal care and the setting of formal care as well as associated unit costs were important drivers of expenditure. Conclusion The "demographic window" between the present and 2011 is critical in developing policies to cope with the anticipated burgeoning LTC burden, in concert with the related issues of health care financing and retirement planning.

  5. Opportunities for low-cost CO2 storage demonstration projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Kyle C.; Williams, Robert H.; Celia, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Several CO 2 storage demonstration projects are needed in a variety of geological formations worldwide to prove the viability of CO 2 capture and storage as a major option for climate change mitigation. China has several low-cost CO 2 sources at sites that produce NH 3 from coal via gasification. At these plants, CO 2 generated in excess of the amount needed for other purposes (e.g., urea synthesis) is vented as a relatively pure stream. These CO 2 sources would potentially be economically interesting candidates for storage demonstration projects if there are suitable storage sites nearby. In this study a survey was conducted to estimate CO 2 availability at modern Chinese coal-fed ammonia plants. Results indicate that annual quantities of available, relatively pure CO 2 per site range from 0.6 to 1.1 million tonnes. The CO 2 source assessment was complemented by analysis of possible nearby opportunities for CO 2 storage. CO 2 sources were mapped in relation to China's petroliferous sedimentary basins where prospective CO 2 storage reservoirs possibly exist. Four promising pairs of sources and sinks were identified. Project costs for storage in deep saline aquifers were estimated for each pairing ranging from $15-21/t of CO 2 . Potential enhanced oil recovery and enhanced coal bed methane recovery opportunities near each prospective source were also considered

  6. Identifying The Effective Factors for Cost Overrun and Time Delay in Water Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mirzai Matin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water construction projects in Iran frequently face problems which cause cost overrun and time delay, the two most common issues in construction projects in general. The objective of this survey is to identify and quantify these problems and thus help in avoiding them. This survey represents a collection of the most significant problems found in the literature, classified into 11 groups according to their source. The questionnaire form used contains 84 questions which were answered by random engineers who work in water construction projects. The Relative Importance Weight (RIW method is used to weight the importance of each one of the 84 problems. The focus of this survey is on overall top ten issues which are: bureaucracy in bidding method, inflation, economical condition of the government, not enough information gathered and surveys done before design, monthly payment difficulties, material cost changes, law changes by the government, financial difficulties, mode of financing and payment for completed work and changes made by the owner. A section for each of these issues provides additional information about them. In the full text of this survey the same weighting method is used to classify the main groups, and the results show that issues related to the groups of government, owner and consultant has the most significant impact. The last part of this survey describes the point of view of the engineers who took part in this survey and the recommendations they made.

  7. Residential heating costs: A comparison of geothermal solar and conventional resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomster, C. H.; Garrett-Price, B. A.; Fassbender, L. L.

    1980-08-01

    The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location, being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, climate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

  8. THE AGORA HIGH-RESOLUTION GALAXY SIMULATIONS COMPARISON PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Conroy, Charlie; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Abel, Tom; Agertz, Oscar; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Bryan, Greg L.; Ceverino, Daniel; Christensen, Charlotte; Hummels, Cameron B.; Dekel, Avishai; Guedes, Javiera; Hahn, Oliver; Hobbs, Alexander; Hopkins, Philip F.; Iannuzzi, Francesca; Keres, Dusan; Klypin, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Assembling Galaxies Of Resolved Anatomy (AGORA) project, a comprehensive numerical study of well-resolved galaxies within the ΛCDM cosmology. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with force resolutions of ∼100 proper pc or better will be run with a variety of code platforms to follow the hierarchical growth, star formation history, morphological transformation, and the cycle of baryons in and out of eight galaxies with halo masses M vir ≅ 10 10 , 10 11 , 10 12 , and 10 13 M ☉ at z = 0 and two different ('violent' and 'quiescent') assembly histories. The numerical techniques and implementations used in this project include the smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes GADGET and GASOLINE, and the adaptive mesh refinement codes ART, ENZO, and RAMSES. The codes share common initial conditions and common astrophysics packages including UV background, metal-dependent radiative cooling, metal and energy yields of supernovae, and stellar initial mass function. These are described in detail in the present paper. Subgrid star formation and feedback prescriptions will be tuned to provide a realistic interstellar and circumgalactic medium using a non-cosmological disk galaxy simulation. Cosmological runs will be systematically compared with each other using a common analysis toolkit and validated against observations to verify that the solutions are robust—i.e., that the astrophysical assumptions are responsible for any success, rather than artifacts of particular implementations. The goals of the AGORA project are, broadly speaking, to raise the realism and predictive power of galaxy simulations and the understanding of the feedback processes that regulate galaxy 'metabolism'. The initial conditions for the AGORA galaxies as well as simulation outputs at various epochs will be made publicly available to the community. The proof-of-concept dark-matter-only test of the formation of a galactic halo with a z = 0 mass of M

  9. Sustained health-economic effects after reorganisation of a Swiss hospital emergency centre: a cost comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Klaus; Hess, Sascha; Chmiel, Corinne; Bögli, Karin; Sidler, Patrick; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Brügger, Urs

    2014-10-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) are increasingly overcrowded by walk-in patients. However, little is known about health-economic consequences resulting from long waiting times and inefficient use of specialised resources. We have evaluated a quality improvement project of a Swiss urban hospital: In 2009, a triage system and a hospital-associated primary care unit with General Practitioners (H-GP-unit) were implemented beside the conventional hospital ED. This resulted in improved medical service provision with reduced process times and more efficient diagnostic testing. We now report on health-economic effects. From the hospital perspective, we performed a cost comparison study analysing treatment costs in the old emergency model (ED, only) versus treatment costs in the new emergency model (triage plus ED plus H-GP-unit) from 2007 to 2011. Hospital cost accounting data were applied. All consecutive outpatient emergency contacts were included for 1 month in each follow-up year. The annual number of outpatient emergency contacts increased from n=10 440 (2007; baseline) to n=16 326 (2011; after intervention), reflecting a general trend. In 2007, mean treatment costs per outpatient were €358 (95% CI 342 to 375). Until 2011, costs increased in the ED (€423 (396 to 454)), but considerably decreased in the H-GP-unit (€235 (221 to 250)). Compared with 2007, the annual local budget spent for treatment of 16 326 patients in 2011 showed cost reductions of €417 600 (27 200 to 493 600) after adjustment for increasing patient numbers. From the health-economic point of view, our new service model shows 'dominance' over the old model: While quality of service provision improved (reduced waiting times; more efficient resource use in the H-GP-unit), treatment costs sustainably decreased against the secular trend of increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Array automated assembly task low cost silicon solar array project. Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Clayton

    1980-12-01

    The initial contract was a Phase II Process Development for a process sequence, but with concentration on two particular process steps: laserscribing and spray-on junction formation. The add-on portion of the contract was to further develop these tasks, to incorporate spray-on of AR Coating and aluminum and to study the application of microwave energy to solar cell fabrication. The overall process cost projection is 97.918 cents/Wp. The major contributor to this excess cost is the module encapsulation materials cost. During the span of this contract the study of microwave application to solar cell fabrication produced the ability to apply this technique to any requirement of 600/sup 0/C or less. Above this temperature, non-uniformity caused the processing to be unreliable. The process sequence is described in detail, and a SAMICS cost analysis for each valid process step studied is presented. A temporary catalog for expense items is included, and engineering specifications for the process steps are given. (WHK)

  11. COST OF TAX COMPLIANCE AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN PROJECTS: THE CASE STUDY OF A SMALL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Manzini Cianfanelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a risk management perspective to analyze compliance costs arising from overlapping service tax (ST jurisdictions. We study the case of an engineering company providing services to the Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo [São Paulo State Sanitation Company] – SABESP, a public entity. The engineering company was contracted under public law 8.666/93, to provide engineering service in several townships in São Paulo’s metropolitan area. Because the laws governing bidding do not permit later modification in price or provider, subsequent double taxation by one municipality cut into the firm’s margins, and should other local governments follow suit, multiple taxation would render the contract untenable for the provider. Our paper models the impact of conflicting jurisdictions on administrative burden, psychological costs and profit constriction and discusses project management techniques for decision making and management in similar situations.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of copper recovery in remediation projects: A case study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchko, Yevheniya; Norrman, Jenny; Rosén, Lars; Karlfeldt Fedje, Karin

    2017-12-15

    Contamination resulting from past industrial activity is a problem throughout the world and many sites are severely contaminated by metals. Advances in research in recent years have resulted in the development of technologies for recovering metal from metal-rich materials within the framework of remediation projects. Using cost-benefit analysis (CBA), and explicitly taking uncertainties into account, this paper evaluates the potential social profitability of copper recovery as part of four remediation alternatives at a Swedish site. One alternative involves delivery of copper-rich ash to a metal production company for refining. The other three alternatives involve metal leaching from materials and sale of the resulting metal sludge for its further processing at a metal production company using metallurgical methods. All the alternatives are evaluated relative to the conventional excavation and disposal method. Metal recovery from the ash, metal sludge sale, and disposal of the contaminated soil and the ash residue at the local landfill site, was found to be the best remediation alternative. However, given the present conditions, its economic potential is low relative to the conventional excavation and disposal method but higher than direct disposal of the copper-rich ash for refining. Volatile copper prices, the high cost of processing equipment, the highly uncertain cost of the metal leaching and washing process, coupled with the substantial project risks, contribute most to the uncertainties in the CBA results for the alternatives involving metal leaching prior to refining. However, investment in processing equipment within the framework of a long-term investment project, production of safe, reusable soil residue, and higher copper prices on the metal market, can make metal recovery technology socially profitable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. (abstract) Science-Project Interaction in the Low-Cost Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Stephen D.

    1994-01-01

    Large, complex, and highly optimized missions have performed most of the preliminary reconnaisance of the solar system. As a result we have now mapped significant fractions of its total surface (or surface-equivalent) area. Now, however, scientific exploration of the solar system is undergoing a major change in scale, and existing missions find it necessary to limit costs while fulfilling existing goals. In the future, NASA's Discovery program will continue the reconnaisance, exploration, and diagnostic phases of planetary research using lower cost missions, which will include lower cost mission operations systems (MOS). Historically, one of the more expensive functions of MOS has been its interaction with the science community. Traditional MOS elements that this interaction have embraced include mission planning, science (and engineering) event conflict resolution, sequence optimization and integration, data production (e.g., assembly, enhancement, quality assurance, documentation, archive), and other science support services. In the past, the payoff from these efforts has been that use of mission resources has been highly optimized, constraining resources have been generally completely consumed, and data products have been accurate and well documented. But because these functions are expensive we are now challenged to reduce their cost while preserving the benefits. In this paper, we will consider ways of revising the traditional MOS approach that might save project resources while retaining a high degree of service to the Projects' customers. Pre-launch, science interaction can be made simplier by limiting numbers of instruments and by providing greater redundancy in mission plans. Post launch, possibilities include prioritizing data collection into a few categories, easing requirements on real-time of quick-look data delivery, and closer integration of scientists into the mission operation.

  14. A learning curve approach to projecting cost and performance for photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, George D.; Tiedje, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    The current cost of electricity generated by PV power is still extremely high with respect to power supplied by the utility grid, and there remain questions as to whether PV power can ever be competitive with electricity generated by fossil fuels. An objective approach to this important question was given in a previous paper by the authors which introduced analytical tools to define and project the technical/economic status of PV power from 1988 through the year 2010. In this paper, we apply these same tools to update the conclusions of our earlier study in the context of recent announcements by Amoco/Enron-Solarex of projected sales of PV power at rates significantly less than the US utility average.

  15. Learning curve approach to projecting cost and performance for photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, George D.; Tiedje, Thomas

    1997-10-01

    The current cost of electricity generated by PV power is still extremely high with respect to power supplied by the utility grid, and there remain questions as to whether PV power can ever be competitive with electricity generated by fossil fuels. An objective approach to this important question was given in a previous paper by the authors which introduced analytical tools to define and project the technical/economic status of PV power from 1988 through the year 2010. In this paper, we apply these same tools to update the conclusions of our earlier study in the context of recent announcements by Amoco/Enron-Solar of projected sales of PV power at rates significantly less than the U.S. utility average.

  16. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

  17. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 12, January-April 1979 and proceedings of the 12th Project Integration Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This report describes progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period January through April 1979. It includes reports on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering and operations, and a discussion of the steps taken to integrate these efforts. It includes a report on, and copies of viewgraphs presented at the Project Integration Meeting held April 4-5, 1979.

  18. Minnesota wood energy scale-up project 1994 establishment cost data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pierce, R. [Champion International, Alexandria, MN (United States); Kroll, T. [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources-Forestry, St. Cloud, MN (United States)

    1996-03-18

    The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project began in late 1993 with the first trees planted in the spring of 1994. The purpose of the project is to track and monitor economic costs of planting, maintaining and monitoring larger scale commercial plantings. For 15 years, smaller scale research plantings of hybrid poplar have been used to screen for promising, high-yielding poplar clones. In this project 1000 acres of hybrid poplar trees were planted on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land near Alexandria, Minnesota in 1994. The fourteen landowners involved re-contracted with the CRP for five-year extensions of their existing 10-year contracts. These extended contracts will expire in 2001, when the plantings are 7 years old. The end use for the trees planted in the Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project is undetermined. They will belong to the owner of the land on which they are planted. There are no current contracts in place for the wood these trees are projected to supply. The structure of the wood industry in the Minnesota has changed drastically over the past 5 years. Stumpage values for fiber have risen to more than $20 per cord in some areas raising the possibility that these trees could be used for fiber rather than energy. Several legislative mandates have forced the State of Minnesota to pursue renewable energy including biomass energy. These mandates, a potential need for an additional 1700 MW of power by 2008 by Northern States Power, and agricultural policies will all affect development of energy markets for wood produced much like agricultural crops. There has been a tremendous amount of local and international interest in the project. Contractual negotiations between area landowners, the CRP, a local Resource Conservation and Development District, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and others are currently underway for additional planting of 1000 acres in spring 1995.

  19. Externality costing for hydroelectric projects: Is it desirable? Is it possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, L.

    1992-01-01

    The assignment of monetary values to environmental and social impacts of hydroelectric projects is discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the economic approach to externality costing are noted. The problem to be faced is that environmental externalities associated with a hydro project very often involve resources that have little or no relation with the market, such as disturbances of land not used for commercial activities. The valuation of externalities related to thermal power plants is examined to provide lessons for quantifying the externalities of hydro projects. One observation is that there is very little information on the real impacts of such phenomena as the release of greenhouse gases, making quantification of their effect difficult; another is that impacts from atmospheric emissions are well in excess of simple deterioration of material goods or recreational activities that have some relationship to the market. Applied to hydro projects, the lessons from these observations indicate that there are no exact and homogeneous measurement units for impacts of actions such as diking or alteration of wildlife habitats. One approach that has been tried is the contingent valuation method, which relies on asking respondents how much they would pay to avoid an impact or risk. This approach is criticized and it is suggested to experiment with a review of the tradeoffs between several possible environmental impacts defined in a precise manner

  20. Assessment of indirect losses and costs of emergency for project planning of alpine hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenda, Lisa; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    By virtue of augmented settling in hazardous areas and increased asset values, natural disasters such as floods, landslides and rockfalls cause high economic losses in Alpine lateral valleys. Especially in small municipalities, indirect losses, mainly stemming from a breakdown of transport networks, and costs of emergency can reach critical levels. A quantification of these losses is necessary to estimate the worthiness of mitigation measures, to determine the appropriate level of disaster assistance and to improve risk management strategies. There are comprehensive approaches available for assessing direct losses. However, indirect losses and costs of emergency are widely not assessed and the empirical basis for estimating these costs is weak. To address the resulting uncertainties of project appraisals, a standardized methodology has been developed dealing with issues of local economic effects and emergency efforts needed. In our approach, the cost-benefit-analysis for technical mitigation of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control (TAC) will be optimized and extended using the 2005-debris flow as a design event, which struggled a small town in the upper Inn valley in southwest Tyrol (Austria). Thereby, 84 buildings were affected, 430 people were evacuated and due to this, the TAC implemented protection measures for 3.75 million Euros. Upgrading the method of the TAC and analyzing to what extent the cost-benefit-ratio is about to change, is one of the main objectives of this study. For estimating short-run indirect effects and costs of emergency on the local level, data was collected via questionnaires, field mapping, guided interviews, as well as intense literature research. According to this, up-to-date calculation methods were evolved and the cost-benefit-analysis of TAC was recalculated with these new-implemented results. The cost-benefit-ratio will be more precise and specific and hence, the decision, which mitigation alternative will be carried out

  1. Estimation, comparison, and evaluation of advanced fission power reactor generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddell, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The study compares the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), the gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR), the molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR), the light water breeder reactor (LWBR), and the heavy water reactor (HWR) with proposed light water reactors (LWR) and liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). The relative electrical generation costs, including the effects of the introduction of advanced reactor fuel cycles into the U.S. nuclear power economy, were projected through the year 2030. The study utilized the NEEDS computer code which is a simulation of the U.S. nuclear power economy. The future potential electrical generation costs and cumulative consumption of uranium ore were developed using characterizations of the advanced systems. The reactor-fuel cycle characterizations were developed from literature reviews and personal discussions with the proponents of the various systems. The study developed a ranking of the concepts based on generation costs and uranium consumption

  2. A cost comparison of introducing and delivering pneumococcal, rotavirus and human papillomavirus vaccines in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabo, Fidèle; Levin, Ann; Wang, Susan A; Gatera, Maurice; Rugambwa, Celse; Kayonga, Celestin; Donnen, Philippe; Lepage, Philippe; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2015-12-16

    Detailed cost evaluations of delivery of new vaccines such as pneumococcal conjugate, human papillomavirus (HPV), and rotavirus vaccines in low and middle-income countries are scarce. This paper differs from others by comparing the costs of introducing multiple vaccines in a single country and then assessing the financial and economic impact at the time and implications for the future. The objective of the analysis was to understand the introduction and delivery cost per dose or per child of the three new vaccines in Rwanda to inform domestic and external financial resource mobilization. Start-up, recurrent, and capital costs from a government perspective were collected in 2012. Since pneumococcal conjugate and HPV vaccines had already been introduced, cost data for those vaccines were collected retrospectively while prospective (projected) costing was done for rotavirus vaccine. The financial unit cost per fully immunized child (or girl for HPV vaccine) of delivering 3 doses of each vaccine (without costs related to vaccine procurement) was $0.37 for rotavirus (RotaTeq(®)) vaccine, $0.54 for pneumococcal (Prevnar(®)) vaccine in pre-filled syringes, and $10.23 for HPV (Gardasil (®)) vaccine. The financial delivery costs of Prevnar(®) and RotaTeq(®) were similar since both were delivered using existing health system infrastructure to deliver infant vaccines at health centers. The total financial cost of delivering Gardasil(®) was higher than those of the two infant vaccines due to greater resource requirements associated with creating a new vaccine delivery system in for a new target population of 12-year-old girls who have not previously been served by the existing routine infant immunization program. The analysis indicates that service delivery strategies have an important influence on costs of introducing new vaccines and costs per girl reached with HPV vaccine are higher than the other two vaccines because of its delivery strategy. Documented information

  3. Increasing the Value of Research: A Comparison of the Literature on Critical Success Factors for Projects, IT Projects and Enterprise Resource Planning Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Maddison Warren

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of modern project management in the 1960s, academic researchers have sought to identify a definitive list of Critical Success Factors (CSFs, the key things that project managers must get right in order to deliver a successful product. With the advent of Information Technology (IT projects and, more recently, projects to deliver Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems, attention has turned to identifying definitive lists of CSFs for these more specific project types. The purpose of this paper is to take stock of this research effort by examining how thinking about each type of project has evolved over time, before producing a consolidated list of CSFs for each as a basis for comparison. This process reveals a high degree of similarity, leading to the conclusion that the goal of identifying a generic list of CSFs for project management has been achieved. Therefore, rather than continuing to describe lists of CSFs, researchers could increase the value of their contribution by taking a step forward and focusing on why, despite this apparent knowledge of how to ensure their success, ERP projects continue to fail.

  4. A Comparison of Four Software Programs for Implementing Decision Analytic Cost-Effectiveness Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Chase; Paulden, Mike; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; McCabe, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    The volume and technical complexity of both academic and commercial research using decision analytic modelling has increased rapidly over the last two decades. The range of software programs used for their implementation has also increased, but it remains true that a small number of programs account for the vast majority of cost-effectiveness modelling work. We report a comparison of four software programs: TreeAge Pro, Microsoft Excel, R and MATLAB. Our focus is on software commonly used for building Markov models and decision trees to conduct cohort simulations, given their predominance in the published literature around cost-effectiveness modelling. Our comparison uses three qualitative criteria as proposed by Eddy et al.: "transparency and validation", "learning curve" and "capability". In addition, we introduce the quantitative criterion of processing speed. We also consider the cost of each program to academic users and commercial users. We rank the programs based on each of these criteria. We find that, whilst Microsoft Excel and TreeAge Pro are good programs for educational purposes and for producing the types of analyses typically required by health technology assessment agencies, the efficiency and transparency advantages of programming languages such as MATLAB and R become increasingly valuable when more complex analyses are required.

  5. Second interlaboratory-comparison project on ESR dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, M.; Walther, R.; Radtke, U.

    1993-01-01

    An intercomparison project on ESR dating in which 14 ESR groups participated was initiated. Each group was provided with two samples of a coral powder, one of which (Sample A) was a fossil coral with a mass spectrometric determined U/Th age. Sample B was a recent coral, irradiated with a definite γ-dose (checked by alanine dosimetry). In both cases the accumulated dose (AD) had to be determined (for sample A the U-content and age as well). Additionally, the chance of a calibration of γ-sources by alanine dosimeters was offered. The results show that the γ-source calibration is better then ± 5%, the mean value of the AD from sample A seems to agree with the expected AD but the mean AD value from sample B is overestimated, systematic errors occur due to the fitting procedure: the AD estimate depends on the maximum γ-dose used for the irradiation curve, the AD determination including the smallest systematic error gives correct values for sample B but too low values for sample A which may be caused by fading of the signal g = 2.0006. (author)

  6. Windpower project ownership and financing: The cost impacts of alternative development structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper uses traditional financial cash-flow techniques to examine the impact of different ownership and financing structures on the cost of wind energy. While most large-scale wind projects are constructed, operated, and financed by non-utility generators (NUGs) via project financing, investor- and publicly-owned utilities have expressed interest in owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing wind energy from independent generators. A primary justification for utility ownership is that, because of financing and tax benefits, windpower may be cheaper when developed in this fashion. The results presented in this paper support that justification, though some of the estimated cost savings associated with utility ownership are found to be a result of shortcomings in utility analysis procedures and implicit risk shifting. This paper also discusses the comparative value of the federal production tax credit and renewable energy production incentive; estimates the financing premium paid by NUG wind owners compared to traditional gas-fired generation facilities; and explores the impact of electricity restructuring on financing.

  7. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W.; Domian, H.A.; Madson, A.A.

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs

  9. Cost-Benefit Study of a Project to Lower Cost and Improve Fleet Readiness through Integrating the Management of Technical Information

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This paper describes a cost-benefit analysis by the Institute for Defense Analyses of the ''Bridge Project'' that ADL (Advanced Distributed Learning) is conducting for the Office of Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (OSD(AT&L) to improve the management of Integrated Logistics Support (ILS). The Project is part of the OSD RTOC program (Reduction in Total ...

  10. Tuberculosis active case finding in Cambodia: a pragmatic, cost-effectiveness comparison of three implementation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard; Khim, Keovathanak; Boudarene, Lydia; Yoong, Joanne; Phalla, Chea; Saint, Saly; Koeut, Pichenda; Mao, Tan Eang; Coker, Richard; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2017-08-22

    Globally, almost 40% of tuberculosis (TB) patients remain undiagnosed, and those that are diagnosed often experience prolonged delays before initiating correct treatment, leading to ongoing transmission. While there is a push for active case finding (ACF) to improve early detection and treatment of TB, there is extremely limited evidence about the relative cost-effectiveness of different ACF implementation models. Cambodia presents a unique opportunity for addressing this gap in evidence as ACF has been implemented using different models, but no comparisons have been conducted. The objective of our study is to contribute to knowledge and methodology on comparing cost-effectiveness of alternative ACF implementation models from the health service perspective, using programmatic data, in order to inform national policy and practice. We retrospectively compared three distinct ACF implementation models - door to door symptom screening in urban slums, checking contacts of TB patients, and door to door symptom screening focusing on rural populations aged above 55 - in terms of the number of new bacteriologically-positive pulmonary TB cases diagnosed and the cost of implementation assuming activities are conducted by the national TB program of Cambodia. We calculated the cost per additional case detected using the alternative ACF models. Our analysis, which is the first of its kind for TB, revealed that the ACF model based on door to door screening in poor urban areas of Phnom Penh was the most cost-effective (249 USD per case detected, 737 cases diagnosed), followed by the model based on testing contacts of TB patients (308 USD per case detected, 807 cases diagnosed), and symptomatic screening of older rural populations (316 USD per case detected, 397 cases diagnosed). Our study provides new evidence on the relative effectiveness and economics of three implementation models for enhanced TB case finding, in line with calls for data from 'routine conditions' to be included

  11. Computational Comparison of Several Greedy Algorithms for the Minimum Cost Perfect Matching Problem on Large Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Laporte, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to computationally compare several algorithms for the Minimum Cost Perfect Matching Problem on an undirected complete graph. Our work is motivated by the need to solve large instances of the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP) arising in the optimization of garbage...... collection in Denmark. Common heuristics for the CARP involve the optimal matching of the odd-degree nodes of a graph. The algorithms used in the comparison include the CPLEX solution of an exact formulation, the LEDA matching algorithm, a recent implementation of the Blossom algorithm, as well as six...

  12. A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, J.; Luhning, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

  13. Automotive Manufacturers' Cost/Revenue, Financial and Risk Analysis : Projected Impact of Automobile Manufacturing on the Plastics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    The report is part of a study to update the historical and projected cost/revenue analysis of the U.S. domestic automobile manufacturers. It includes the evaluation of the historical and projected financial data to assess the corporate financial posi...

  14. Applicability of the cost-effectiveness approach for comparison of waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.; Peltonen, E.; Vieno, T.; Vira, J.

    1984-01-01

    There is an obvious need to consider the achievable level of safety of waste management in view of the costs involved. The feasibility of the cost-effectiveness approach for this purpose is discussed in the framework of practical case studies. The analysis indicates that such an approach has clear benefits, but it also reveals several issues and ambiguities in its application. The waste management alternatives considered include various concepts for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes as well as of the unreprocessed spent fuel. The employed impact indicators describe both the individual and collective risks. In addition, indicators simultaneously giving a perspective into other risks in the society and a means to make a rank ordering of the alternative options are proposed. The cost-effectiveness ratios for collective risks vary in the range of ten to hundreds of millions US $ per man.Sv. The examples considered also indicate that increased costs do not necessarily improve safety. Furthermore, the comparison of the safety of different options requires more sophisticated and realistic models than those employed in the present analyses, because an unbalanced degree of conservatism could result in misleading conclusions. (author)

  15. A cost comparison of more and less nutritious food choices in US supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Njike, Valentine; Treu, Judith A; Reynolds, Jesse; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Katz, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    The present study directly compared prices of more and less nutritious foods within given categories in US supermarkets. Foods selected from six supermarkets in Jackson County were categorized using the five criteria of the Nutrition Detectives™ (ND) programme and an item-to-item cost comparison was made using posted prices. The nutritional quality of foods was distinguished using the clues of the ND nutrition education programme for elementary-school children and validated using the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Supermarkets in Jackson County, MO, USA. Not applicable. The average price of the item for more nutritious foods did not differ significantly from that of less nutritious foods overall ($US 2·89 (sd $US 0·74) v. $US 2·85 (sd $0·68), P = 0·76). More nutritious breads cost more than less nutritious breads ($US 3·36 (sd $ US 0·28) v. $US 2·56 (sd $US 0·80, P = 0·03), whereas more nutritious cereals ($US 2·46 (sd $US 0·69) v. $US 3·50 (sd $US 0·30), P cost less. Our findings indicate that it is possible to choose more nutritious foods within many common categories without spending more money and suggest that making small improvements in dietary choices does not invariably cost more.

  16. Project on comparison of structural parameters and electron density maps of oxalic acid dihydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Philip; Dam, J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1984-01-01

    Results obtained from four X-ray and five neutron data sets collected under a project sponsored by the Commission on Charge, Spin and Momentum Densities are analyzed by comparison of thermal parameters, positional parameters and X - N electron density maps. Three sets of theoretical calculations are

  17. Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

  18. School nurses' role in asthma management, school absenteeism, and cost savings: a demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eunice; Rivera, Diana Austria; Perlroth, Daniella; Becker, Edmund; Wang, Nancy Ewen; Landau, Melinda

    2013-12-01

    With increasing budget cuts to education and social services, rigorous evaluation needs to document school nurses' impact on student health, academic outcomes, and district funding. Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated outcomes in 4 schools with added full-time nurses and 5 matched schools with part-time nurses in the San Jose Unified School District. Student data and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of illness-related absenteeism for 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. We calculated average daily attendance (ADA) funding and parent wages associated with an improvement in illness-related absenteeism. Utilizing parent surveys, we also estimated the cost of services for asthma-related visits to the emergency room (ER; N = 2489). Children with asthma were more likely to be absent due to illness; however, mean absenteeism due to illness decreased when full-time nurses were added to demonstration schools but increased in comparison schools during 2008-2009, resulting in a potential savings of $48,518.62 in ADA funding (N = 6081). Parents in demonstration schools reported fewer ER visits, and the estimated savings in ER services and parent wages were significant. Full-time school nurses play an important role in improving asthma management among students in underserved schools, which can impact school absenteeism and attendance-related economic costs. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  19. A comparison of discounted cashflow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the differences in the net present values (NPVs) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the weighted average cost of capital and a modern asset pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cashflow components. NPV differences of more than $10 million were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies and could influence tax policy. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model

  20. Comparison of maximum intensity projection and digitally reconstructed radiographic projection for carotid artery stenosis measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, Derek E.; Habets, Damiaan F.; Fox, Allan J.; Gulka, Irene; Kalapos, Paul; Lee, Don H.; Pelz, David M.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography is being supplanted by three-dimensional imaging techniques in many clinical applications, leading to extensive use of maximum intensity projection (MIP) images to depict volumetric vascular data. The MIP algorithm produces intensity profiles that are different than conventional angiograms, and can also increase the vessel-to-tissue contrast-to-noise ratio. We evaluated the effect of the MIP algorithm in a clinical application where quantitative vessel measurement is important: internal carotid artery stenosis grading. Three-dimensional computed rotational angiography (CRA) was performed on 26 consecutive symptomatic patients to verify an internal carotid artery stenosis originally found using duplex ultrasound. These volumes of data were visualized using two different postprocessing projection techniques: MIP and digitally reconstructed radiographic (DRR) projection. A DRR is a radiographic image simulating a conventional digitally subtracted angiogram, but it is derived computationally from the same CRA dataset as the MIP. By visualizing a single volume with two different projection techniques, the postprocessing effect of the MIP algorithm is isolated. Vessel measurements were made, according to the NASCET guidelines, and percentage stenosis grades were calculated. The paired t-test was used to determine if the measurement difference between the two techniques was statistically significant. The CRA technique provided an isotropic voxel spacing of 0.38 mm. The MIPs and DRRs had a mean signal-difference-to-noise-ratio of 30:1 and 26:1, respectively. Vessel measurements from MIPs were, on average, 0.17 mm larger than those from DRRs (P<0.0001). The NASCET-type stenosis grades tended to be underestimated on average by 2.4% with the MIP algorithm, although this was not statistically significant (P=0.09). The mean interobserver variability (standard deviation) of both the MIP and DRR images was 0.35 mm. It was concluded that the MIP

  1. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  2. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates

  3. HIV prevention costs and program scale: data from the PANCEA project in five low and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Nicci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic theory and limited empirical data suggest that costs per unit of HIV prevention program output (unit costs will initially decrease as small programs expand. Unit costs may then reach a nadir and start to increase if expansion continues beyond the economically optimal size. Information on the relationship between scale and unit costs is critical to project the cost of global HIV prevention efforts and to allocate prevention resources efficiently. Methods The "Prevent AIDS: Network for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis" (PANCEA project collected 2003 and 2004 cost and output data from 206 HIV prevention programs of six types in five countries. The association between scale and efficiency for each intervention type was examined for each country. Our team characterized the direction, shape, and strength of this association by fitting bivariate regression lines to scatter plots of output levels and unit costs. We chose the regression forms with the highest explanatory power (R2. Results Efficiency increased with scale, across all countries and interventions. This association varied within intervention and within country, in terms of the range in scale and efficiency, the best fitting regression form, and the slope of the regression. The fraction of variation in efficiency explained by scale ranged from 26% – 96%. Doubling in scale resulted in reductions in unit costs averaging 34.2% (ranging from 2.4% to 58.0%. Two regression trends, in India, suggested an inflection point beyond which unit costs increased. Conclusion Unit costs decrease with scale across a wide range of service types and volumes. These country and intervention-specific findings can inform projections of the global cost of scaling up HIV prevention efforts.

  4. Comparison of the costs of superconducting accelerator dipoles using NbTi, Nb3Sn and NbTiTa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1981-03-01

    The present study, which is based on the assumption that future, high-energy accelerators will use superconductors, is a comparison of the costs of 5 to 12 Tesla NbTi, Nb 3 S/sub n/, and NbTiTa accelerator magnets operating at 4.2 K or 1.8 K. The object of this evaluation is not to determine the actual cost of future accelerators, rather, its purpose is to provide some rationale for research on the next generation of superconducting accelerator magnets. Thus, though the actual costs of accelerator magnets may be different from those given here, the comparisons are valid

  5. Seizure-related hospital admissions, readmissions and costs: Comparisons with asthma and diabetes in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Michelle L; Barton, Christopher; McCaffrey, Nikki; Parker, Denise; Hutchinson, Claire

    2017-08-01

    Seizures are listed as an Ambulatory Care Sensitive Condition (ACSC), where, in some cases, hospitalisation may be avoided with appropriate preventative and early management in primary care. We examined the frequencies, trends and financial costs of first and subsequent seizure-related hospital admissions in the adult and paediatric populations, with comparisons to bronchitis/asthma and diabetes admissions in South Australia between 2012 and 2014. De-identified hospital separation data from five major public hospitals in metropolitan South Australia were analysed to determine the number of children and adults admitted for the following Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Groups: seizure related conditions; bronchitis/asthma; and diabetes. Additional data included length of hospital stay and type of admission. Demographic data were analysed to identify whether social determinants influence admission, and a macro costing approach was then applied to calculate the financial costs to the Health Care System. The rate of total seizure hospitalizations was 649 per 100,000; lower than bronchitis/asthma (751/100,000), yet higher than diabetes (500/100,000). The highest proportions of subsequent separations were recorded by children with seizures regardless of complexity (47% +CSCC; 17% -CSCC) compared with asthma (11% +CSCC; 14% -CSCC) or diabetes (14% +CSCC; 13% -CSCC), and by adults with seizures with catastrophic or severe complications/comorbidity (25%), compared with diabetes (22%) or asthma (14%). The mean cost per separation in both children and adults was highest for diabetes (AU$4438/$7656), followed by seizures (AU$2408/$5691) and asthma (AU$2084/$3295). Following the lead of well-developed and resourced health promotion initiatives in asthma and diabetes, appropriate primary care, community education and seizure management services (including seizure clinics) should be targeted in an effort to reduce seizure related hospitalisations which may be avoidable

  6. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Roberts, Barry L.; Passell, Howard D.; Jensen, Daniel; Forsgren, Christopher; Sehlke, Gerald; Cook, Margaret A.; King, Carey W.; Larsen, Sara

    2014-05-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  7. Projection of Big Cities Waste Management and Cost Based on Economic and Demographic Factors in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajati, Gita; Padmi, Tri; Benno Rahardyan, dan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, solid waste management continues to be a major challenge in urban areas, especially in developing country. It is triggered by population growth, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization. Indonesia itselfs categorized into developing country. Indonesia's government has many program in order to increase the economic growth. One of them is MP3EI (Masterplan Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia. This program should be suppported by right waste management system. If Indonesia's waste management system can't afford the economic growth, it will trigger health and environmental problems. This study's purpose is to develop the socio-economic-environment model that can be used as a basis planning for the facility and cost of waste management systems. In this paper we used the development of Khajuria model test method. This method used six variables, which are GDP, population, population density, illiteracy, school's period and economic growth. The result showed that development of Khajuria test could explained the influence of economic and demographic factors to waste generation, 65.6%. The projection of waste generation shows that Pangkalpinang, Pekanbaru and Serang are the cities with the highest waste generation for the next five years. The number of dump truck and TPS in DKI Jakarata is the highest within another city, which is 39.37%. For the next five years, the waste management system in our study areas cost maximum 0.8% from GDP (Gross Domestic Products).

  8. Project Minerva: A low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, David; Bryan, Richard; Bui, Tuyen; Caviezel, Kelly; Cinnamon, Mark; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hanks, Natasha; Hamilton, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface using only two sets of two launches from the Kennedy Space Center. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the scenario originally proposed by R. Zubrin. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low Earth orbit (LEO): the first payload consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles; the second payload consists of the trans-Mars injection (TMI) upper stage. In LEO, the two payloads are docked and the configuration is injected into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis type process to combine nine tons of hydrogen with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce over a hundred tons of liquid oxygen and liquid methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. The systems necessary for the flights to and from Mars, as well as those needed for the stay on Mars, are discussed. These systems include the transfer vehicle design, life support, guidance and communications, rovers and telepresence, power generation, and propellant manufacturing. Also included are the orbital mechanics, the scientific goals, and the estimated mission costs.

  9. Critical analysis of the Hanford spent nuclear fuel project activity based cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.N.

    1998-09-29

    In 1997, the SNFP developed a baseline change request (BCR) and submitted it to DOE-RL for approval. The schedule was formally evaluated to have a 19% probability of success [Williams, 1998]. In December 1997, DOE-RL Manager John Wagoner approved the BCR contingent upon a subsequent independent review of the new baseline. The SNFP took several actions during the first quarter of 1998 to prepare for the independent review. The project developed the Estimating Requirements and Implementation Guide [DESH, 1998] and trained cost account managers (CAMS) and other personnel involved in the estimating process in activity-based cost (ABC) estimating techniques. The SNFP then applied ABC estimating techniques to develop the basis for the December Baseline (DB) and documented that basis in Basis of Estimate (BOE) books. These BOEs were provided to DOE in April 1998. DOE commissioned Professional Analysis, Inc. (PAI) to perform a critical analysis (CA) of the DB. PAI`s review formally began on April 13. PAI performed the CA, provided three sets of findings to the SNFP contractor, and initiated reconciliation meetings. During the course of PAI`s review, DOE directed the SNFP to develop a new baseline with a higher probability of success. The contractor transmitted the new baseline, which is referred to as the High Probability Baseline (HPB), to DOE on April 15, 1998 [Williams, 1998]. The HPB was estimated to approach a 90% confidence level on the start of fuel movement [Williams, 1998]. This high probability resulted in an increased cost and a schedule extension. To implement the new baseline, the contractor initiated 26 BCRs with supporting BOES. PAI`s scope was revised on April 28 to add reviewing the HPB and the associated BCRs and BOES.

  10. Opposition multiple objective symbiotic organisms search (OMOSOS for time, cost, quality and work continuity tradeoff in repetitive projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc-Hoc Tran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction managers often face with projects containing multiple units wherein activities repeat from unit to unit. Therefore effective resource management is crucial in terms of project duration, cost and quality. Accordingly, researchers have developed several models to aid planners in developing practical and near-optimal schedules for repetitive projects. Despite their undeniable benefits, such models lack the ability of pure simultaneous optimization because existing methodologies optimize the schedule with respect to a single factor, to achieve minimum duration, total cost, resource work breaks or various combinations, respectively. This study introduces a novel approach called “opposition multiple objective symbiotic organisms search” (OMOSOS for scheduling repetitive projects. The proposed algorithm used an opposition-based learning technique for population initialization and for generation jumping. Further, this study integrated a scheduling module (M1 to determine all project objectives including time, cost, quality and interruption. The proposed algorithm was implemented on two application examples in order to demonstrate its capabilities in optimizing the scheduling of repetitive construction projects. The results indicate that the OMOSOS approach is a powerful optimization technique and can assist project managers in selecting appropriate plan for project. Keywords: Symbiotic organisms search, Multi-objective analysis, Resource tradeoff, Schedules, Repetitive

  11. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antidepressants in primary care: a multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Ramsberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness over a one-year time horizon of pharmacological first line treatment in primary care for patients with moderate to severe depression. DESIGN: A multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis was employed to determine the relative efficacy in terms of remission of 10 antidepressants (citalopram, duloxetine escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine mirtazapine, paroxetine, reboxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine. The estimated remission rates were then applied in a decision-analytic model in order to estimate costs and quality of life with different treatments at one year. DATA SOURCES: Meta-analyses of remission rates from randomised controlled trials, and cost and quality-of-life data from published sources. RESULTS: The most favourable pharmacological treatment in terms of remission was escitalopram with an 8- to 12-week probability of remission of 0.47. Despite a high acquisition cost, this clinical effectiveness translated into escitalopram being both more effective and having a lower total cost than all other comparators from a societal perspective. From a healthcare perspective, the cost per QALY of escitalopram was €3732 compared with venlafaxine. CONCLUSION: Of the investigated antidepressants, escitalopram has the highest probability of remission and is the most effective and cost-effective pharmacological treatment in a primary care setting, when evaluated over a one year time-horizon. Small differences in remission rates may be important when assessing costs and cost-effectiveness of antidepressants.

  12. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  13. Outcomes and cost comparisons after introducing a robotics program for endometrial cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susie; Vaknin, Zvi; Ramana-Kumar, Agnihotram V; Halliday, Darron; Franco, Eduardo L; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of introducing a robotic program on cost and patient outcome. This was a prospective evaluation of clinical outcome and cost after introducing a robotics program for the treatment of endometrial cancer and a retrospective comparison to the entire historical cohort. Consecutive patients with endometrial cancer who underwent robotic surgery (n=143) were compared with all consecutive patients who underwent surgery (n=160) before robotics. The rate of minimally invasive surgery increased from 17% performed by laparoscopy to 98% performed by robotics in 2 years. The patient characteristics were comparable in both eras, except for a higher body mass index in the robotics era (median 29.8 compared with 27.6; Probotics had longer operating times (233 compared with 206 minutes), but fewer adverse events (13% compared with 42%; Probotics compared with the historical group (Can$7,644 compared with Can$10,368 [Canadian dollars]; Psurgery, the short-term recurrence rate appeared lower in the robotics group compared with the historic cohort (11 recurrences compared with 19 recurrences; Probotics for endometrial cancer surgery increased the proportion of patients benefitting from minimally invasive surgery, improved short-term outcomes, and resulted in lower hospital costs. II.

  14. Multiple Kernel Sparse Representation based Orthogonal Discriminative Projection and Its Cost-Sensitive Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Huaijiang; Xia, Guiyu; Sun, Quansen

    2016-07-07

    Sparse representation based classification (SRC) has been developed and shown great potential for real-world application. Based on SRC, Yang et al. [10] devised a SRC steered discriminative projection (SRC-DP) method. However, as a linear algorithm, SRC-DP cannot handle the data with highly nonlinear distribution. Kernel sparse representation-based classifier (KSRC) is a non-linear extension of SRC and can remedy the drawback of SRC. KSRC requires the use of a predetermined kernel function and selection of the kernel function and its parameters is difficult. Recently, multiple kernel learning for SRC (MKL-SRC) [22] has been proposed to learn a kernel from a set of base kernels. However, MKL-SRC only considers the within-class reconstruction residual while ignoring the between-class relationship, when learning the kernel weights. In this paper, we propose a novel multiple kernel sparse representation-based classifier (MKSRC), and then we use it as a criterion to design a multiple kernel sparse representation based orthogonal discriminative projection method (MK-SR-ODP). The proposed algorithm aims at learning a projection matrix and a corresponding kernel from the given base kernels such that in the low dimension subspace the between-class reconstruction residual is maximized and the within-class reconstruction residual is minimized. Furthermore, to achieve a minimum overall loss by performing recognition in the learned low-dimensional subspace, we introduce cost information into the dimensionality reduction method. The solutions for the proposed method can be efficiently found based on trace ratio optimization method [33]. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm when compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Multiobjective optimization applied to structural sizing of low cost university-class microsatellite projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Franchini, Sebastián

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, there has been continuing interest in the participation of university research groups in space technology studies by means of their own microsatellites. The involvement in such projects has some inherent challenges, such as limited budget and facilities. Also, due to the fact that the main objective of these projects is for educational purposes, usually there are uncertainties regarding their in orbit mission and scientific payloads at the early phases of the project. On the other hand, there are predetermined limitations for their mass and volume budgets owing to the fact that most of them are launched as an auxiliary payload in which the launch cost is reduced considerably. The satellite structure subsystem is the one which is most affected by the launcher constraints. This can affect different aspects, including dimensions, strength and frequency requirements. In this paper, the main focus is on developing a structural design sizing tool containing not only the primary structures properties as variables but also the system level variables such as payload mass budget and satellite total mass and dimensions. This approach enables the design team to obtain better insight into the design in an extended design envelope. The structural design sizing tool is based on analytical structural design formulas and appropriate assumptions including both static and dynamic models of the satellite. Finally, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) multiobjective optimization is applied to the design space. The result is a Pareto-optimal based on two objectives, minimum satellite total mass and maximum payload mass budget, which gives a useful insight to the design team at the early phases of the design.

  16. Comparison of E-Book Acquisitions Strategies Across Disciplines Finds Differences in Cost and Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2017-03-01

    other studies of this kind so the conclusions made are appropriate for local application, even if they are not broadly generalizable. The authors also relied on combined subject designations and use for each of their package collections. Because the authors used three broad disciplinary categories and did not consider large interdisciplinary packages, this likely did not significantly influence the results. Future studies approaching this question might use a common subject classification for all acquisitions strategies, especially when considering databases with general content. Future studies could also move beyond descriptive statistics for ranking and examine the statistical significance of differences in cost and cost per use. This study represents an important contribution to the landscape of findings on this topic, particularly for collections and acquisitions librarians. The results of this article persuaded the authors to change acquisitions processes to favor more cost-effective methods. Further research, including more meta-analysis of acquisitions strategies, is needed before these results can be generalized to all libraries, but librarians assessing their own collections will find this a good template for comparison.

  17. Comparison of costs for three hypothetical alternative kitchen waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiettecatte, Wim; Tize, Ronald; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-01

    Urban water and waste management continues to be a major challenge, with the Earth's population projected to rise to 9 billion by 2050, with 70% of this population expected to live in cities. A combined treatment of wastewater and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste offers opportunities for improved environmental protection and energy recovery, but the collection and transport of organic wastes must be cost effective. This study compares three alternative kitchen waste collection and transportation systems for a virtual modern urban area with 300,000 residents and a population density of 10,000 persons per square kilometre. Door-to-door collection, being the standard practice in modern urban centres, remains the most economically advantageous at a cost of 263 euros per tonne of kitchen waste. Important drawbacks are the difficult logistics, increased city traffic, air and noise pollution. The quieter, cleaner and more hygienic vacuum transport of kitchen waste comes with a higher cost of 367 euros per tonne, mainly resulting from a higher initial investment cost for the system installation. The third option includes the well-known use of under-sink food waste disposers (often called garbage grinders) that are connected to the kitchen's wastewater piping system, with a total yearly cost of 392 euros per tonne. Important advantages with this system are the clean operation and the current availability of a city-wide sewage conveyance pipeline system. Further research is recommended, for instance the application of a life cycle assessment approach, to more fully compare the advantages and disadvantages of each option. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Comparison of Australian and US Cost-Benefit Approaches to MEPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.

    2004-03-12

    The Australian Greenhouse Office contracted with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) for LBNL to compare US and Australian approaches to analyzing costs and benefits of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS). This report compares the approaches for three types of products: household refrigerators and freezers, small electric storage water heaters, and commercial/industrial air conditioners. This report presents the findings of similarities and differences between the approaches of the two countries and suggests changes to consider in the approach taken in Australia. The purpose of the Australian program is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while the US program is intended to increase energy efficiency; each program is thus subject to specific constraints. The market and policy contexts are different, with the USA producing most of its own products and conducting pioneering engineering-economic studies to identify maximum energy efficiency levels that are technologically feasible and economically justified. In contrast, Australia imports a large share of its products and adopts MEPS already in place elsewhere. With these differences in circumstances, Australia's analysis approach could be expected to have less analytical detail and still result in MEPS levels that are appropriate for their policy and market context. In practice, the analysis required to meet these different objectives is quite similar. To date, Australia's cost-benefit analysis has served the goals and philosophies of the program well and been highly effective in successfully identifying MEPS that are significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions while providing economic benefits to consumers. In some cases, however, the experience of the USA--using more extensive data sets and more detailed analysis--suggests possible improvements to Australia's cost-benefit analysis. The principal findings of the comparison are: (1) The Technology and Market

  19. Cost comparison of two systems for eliminating arsenic from drinking water; Comparacion de costes de dos sistemas para la eliminacion de arsenico en aguas potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujal Tasende, F.

    2007-07-01

    Two ways of reducing the arsenic content of drinking water one using iron oxide salts, the other employing bio filtration were compared taking into account the initial investment and the operating costs throughout the useful lifetime of the projects, estimated at 20 years. On the basis of this time scale, the cost of the water obtained is 0.18 Euros/m{sup 3} with the iron oxide salts method and 0.02 Euros/m{sup 3} with bio filtration, which makes the latter the method of choice for installations managed by public or private organisations in which operating costs are of vital importance. (Author) 19 refs.

  20. Cost, Schedule, And Performance Elements For Comparison of Hydrodynamic Models of Near-Surface Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. COST ...from the scope of this demonstration due to time constraints. Further study of this software would benefit similar cost , schedule, and performance...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Approved for public release. Distribution

  1. COMPARISON BETWEEN RGB AND RGB-D CAMERAS FOR SUPPORTING LOW-COST GNSS URBAN NAVIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rossi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A pure GNSS navigation is often unreliable in urban areas because of the presence of obstructions, thus preventing a correct reception of the satellite signal. The bridging between GNSS outages, as well as the vehicle attitude reconstruction, can be recovered by using complementary information, such as visual data acquired by RGB-D or RGB cameras. In this work, the possibility of integrating low-cost GNSS and visual data by means of an extended Kalman filter has been investigated. The focus is on the comparison between the use of RGB-D or RGB cameras. In particular, a Microsoft Kinect device (second generation and a mirrorless Canon EOS M RGB camera have been compared. The former is an interesting RGB-D camera because of its low-cost, easiness of use and raw data accessibility. The latter has been selected for the high-quality of the acquired images and for the possibility of mounting fixed focal length lenses with a lower weight and cost with respect to a reflex camera. The designed extended Kalman filter takes as input the GNSS-only trajectory and the relative orientation between subsequent pairs of images. Depending on the visual data acquisition system, the filter is different because RGB-D cameras acquire both RGB and depth data, allowing to solve the scale problem, which is instead typical of image-only solutions. The two systems and filtering approaches were assessed by ad-hoc experimental tests, showing that the use of a Kinect device for supporting a u-blox low-cost receiver led to a trajectory with a decimeter accuracy, that is 15 % better than the one obtained when using the Canon EOS M camera.

  2. Projected Costs of Informal Caregiving for Cardiovascular Disease: 2015 to 2035: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Sandra B; Khavjou, Olga A; Bakas, Tamilyn; Hunt, Gail; Kirch, Rebecca A; Leib, Alyssa R; Morrison, R Sean; Poehler, Diana C; Roger, Veronique L; Whitsel, Laurie P

    2018-05-08

    In a recent report, the American Heart Association estimated that medical costs and productivity losses of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are expected to grow from $555 billion in 2015 to $1.1 trillion in 2035. Although the burden is significant, the estimate does not include the costs of family, informal, or unpaid caregiving provided to patients with CVD. In this analysis, we estimated projections of costs of informal caregiving attributable to CVD for 2015 to 2035. We used data from the 2014 Health and Retirement Survey to estimate hours of informal caregiving for individuals with CVD by age/sex/race using a zero-inflated binomial model and controlling for sociodemographic factors and health conditions. Costs of informal caregiving were estimated separately for hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and other heart disease. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 16 731 noninstitutionalized adults ≥54 years of age. The value of caregiving hours was monetized by the use of home health aide workers' wages. The per-person costs were multiplied by census population counts to estimate nation-level costs and to be consistent with other American Heart Association analyses of burden of CVD, and the costs were projected from 2015 through 2035, assuming that within each age/sex/racial group, CVD prevalence and caregiving hours remain constant. The costs of informal caregiving for patients with CVD were estimated to be $61 billion in 2015 and are projected to increase to $128 billion in 2035. Costs of informal caregiving of patients with stroke constitute more than half of the total costs of CVD informal caregiving ($31 billion in 2015 and $66 billion in 2035). By age, costs are the highest among those 65 to 79 years of age in 2015 but are expected to be surpassed by costs among those ≥80 years of age by 2035. Costs of informal caregiving for patients with CVD represent an additional 11% of medical and productivity costs

  3. Breast and prostate cancer productivity costs: a comparison of the human capital approach and the friction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Timmons, Aileen; Walsh, Paul M; Sharp, Linda

    2012-05-01

    Productivity costs constitute a substantial proportion of the total societal costs associated with cancer. We compared the results of applying two different analytical methods--the traditional human capital approach (HCA) and the emerging friction cost approach (FCA)--to estimate breast and prostate cancer productivity costs in Ireland in 2008. Data from a survey of breast and prostate cancer patients were combined with population-level survival estimates and a national wage data set to calculate costs of temporary disability (cancer-related work absence), permanent disability (workforce departure, reduced working hours), and premature mortality. For breast cancer, productivity costs per person using the HCA were € 193,425 and those per person using the FCA were € 8,103; for prostate cancer, the comparable estimates were € 109,154 and € 8,205, respectively. The HCA generated higher costs for younger patients (breast cancer) because of greater lifetime earning potential. In contrast, the FCA resulted in higher productivity costs for older male patients (prostate cancer) commensurate with higher earning capacity over a shorter time period. Reduced working hours postcancer was a key driver of total HCA productivity costs. HCA costs were sensitive to assumptions about discount and growth rates. FCA costs were sensitive to assumptions about the friction period. The magnitude of the estimates obtained in this study illustrates the importance of including productivity costs when considering the economic impact of illness. Vastly different results emerge from the application of the HCA and the FCA, and this finding emphasizes the importance of choosing the study perspective carefully and being explicit about assumptions that underpin the methods. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Projected reduction in healthcare costs in Belgium after optimization of iodine intake: impact on costs related to thyroid nodular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Annemans, Lieven; Van Oyen, Herman; Tafforeau, Jean; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2010-11-01

    Several surveys in the last 50 years have repeatedly indicated that Belgium is affected by mild iodine deficiency. Within the framework of the national food and health plan in Belgium, a selective, progressive, and monitored strategy was proposed in 2009 to optimize iodine intake. The objective of the present study was to perform a health economic evaluation of the consequences of inadequate iodine intake in Belgium, focusing on undisputed and measurable health outcomes such as thyroid nodular disease and its associated morbidity (hyperthyroidism). For the estimation of direct, indirect, medical, and nonmedical costs related to thyroid nodular diseases in Belgium, data from the Federal Public Service of Public Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, the National Institute for Disease and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI), the Information Network about the prescription of reimbursable medicines (FARMANET), Intercontinental Marketing Services, and expert opinions were used. These costs translate into savings after implementation of the iodization program and are defined as costs due to thyroid nodular disease throughout the article. Costs related to the iodization program are referred to as program costs. Only figures dating from before the start of the intervention were exploited. Only adult and elderly people (≥18 years) were taken into account in this study because thyroid nodular diseases predominantly affect this age group. The yearly costs due to thyroid nodular diseases caused by mild iodine deficiency in the Belgian adult population are ∼€38 million. It is expected that the iodization program will result in additional costs of ∼€54,000 per year and decrease the prevalence of thyroid nodular diseases by 38% after a 4-5-year period. The net savings after establishment of the program are therefore estimated to be at least €14 million a year. Optimization of iodine intake in Belgium should be quite cost effective, if only considering its impact on

  5. Evaluation of learning moments, investment cost and life cost of five EOS DEMO/UKR projects; Evaluatie leermomenten, investerings- en levensduurkosten van vijf EOS DEMO/UKR projecten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    Subsidised, energy efficient building example projects in the Netherlands show that the additional cost of 10 to 15% for the initial investment are compensated by the much lower energy cost later on. A study has been conducted of the relation between investments, housing expenses and energy efficient building [Dutch] Gesubsidieerde, energiezuinig gebouwde voorbeeldprojecten in Nederland tonen aan dat de meerkosten van 10% tot 15% voor de initiele investering opwegen tegen de veel lagere energiekosten later. Een studie is uitgevoerd naar de relatie tussen investeringen, woonlasten en energiezuinig bouwen.

  6. Toward the Standardization of Biochar Analysis: The COST Action TD1107 Interlaboratory Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Hans Jörg; Bucheli, Thomas D; Dieguez-Alonso, Alba; Fabbri, Daniele; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Ulbricht, Axel; Becker, Roland; Buscaroli, Alessandro; Buerge, Diane; Cross, Andrew; Dickinson, Dane; Enders, Akio; Esteves, Valdemar I; Evangelou, Michael W H; Fellet, Guido; Friedrich, Kevin; Gasco Guerrero, Gabriel; Glaser, Bruno; Hanke, Ulrich M; Hanley, Kelly; Hilber, Isabel; Kalderis, Dimitrios; Leifeld, Jens; Masek, Ondrej; Mumme, Jan; Carmona, Marina Paneque; Calvelo Pereira, Roberto; Rees, Frederic; Rombolà, Alessandro G; de la Rosa, José Maria; Sakrabani, Ruben; Sohi, Saran; Soja, Gerhard; Valagussa, Massimo; Verheijen, Frank; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-01-20

    Biochar produced by pyrolysis of organic residues is increasingly used for soil amendment and many other applications. However, analytical methods for its physical and chemical characterization are yet far from being specifically adapted, optimized, and standardized. Therefore, COST Action TD1107 conducted an interlaboratory comparison in which 22 laboratories from 12 countries analyzed three different types of biochar for 38 physical-chemical parameters (macro- and microelements, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pH, electrical conductivity, and specific surface area) with their preferential methods. The data were evaluated in detail using professional interlaboratory testing software. Whereas intralaboratory repeatability was generally good or at least acceptable, interlaboratory reproducibility was mostly not (20% < mean reproducibility standard deviation < 460%). This paper contributes to better comparability of biochar data published already and provides recommendations to improve and harmonize specific methods for biochar analysis in the future.

  7. A cost comparison of nuclear and fossil power for the Alberta tar sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochaski, R.O.; Smith, D.W.

    1977-04-01

    One technique envisaged for commercial development of the Alberta tar sands is in-situ removal of bitumen by injection of steam into the formation at high temperature and pressure. The 3000 MW of thermal power required for a typical 20 Gg/d plant could be supplied by a nuclear reactor. Accordingly, an economic comparison was made between a CANDU organic-cooled reactor and a conventional coal-fired station, using a variety of financial ground rules. This analysis shows that for debt-financed cases, nuclear power has essentially no economic competition from coal. For equity cases, the competitive position of a coal-fired station is heavily dependent on the cost of coal delivered to the tar sands area, discount rate, amortization period and inflation rate. (author)

  8. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    Kimberly M Carlson Payments for reducing carbon emissions due to deforestation and degradation (REDD) have garnered considerable global interest and investments. These financial incentives aim to alter the drivers of land use change by reducing opportunity costs of retaining forest cover, and are often promoted as multipartite solutions that not only generate profits and reduce carbon emissions but provide benefits for human development and biodiversity. Currently, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is debating a post-Kyoto protocol with national or sub-national emission reduction targets. Anticipating the inclusion of REDD in this agreement, >80% of pilot REDD projects are being established in tropical regions (table 1). While the capacity of REDD projects to meet their stated objectives must be assessed post- implementation, land use change models are powerful tools for generating potential outcomes from these pilot initiatives. Table 1. Extent and emissions reductions for all REDD projects as reported by Ecosystem Marketplace, which maintains a comprehensive and up-to-date inventory of REDD projects that are selling credits and/or are verified by a third-party verifier. Adapted from Forest Carbon Portal (2009). Geographical zoneContinentProjects (#) Area (km2) Emissions reductions (Mt C) Tropical and Subtropical Africa2775019.50 Asia28100109.60 South America 9183 880278.24 TemperateAustralia1140.18 North America115N/A Totals15199 759407.52 In this issue of ERL, Gaveau et al (2009) use a spatially-explicit model to explore the potential of a REDD pilot project in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, to reduce deforestation and conserve orangutan biodiversity. This project is conceived by the Provincial Government of Aceh, financed by Merrill Lynch, and co-managed by carbon trading firm Carbon Conservation and NGO Flora and Fauna International. Project managers estimate CO2 emissions reductions at 3.4 Mt y-1 over 30 years across a 7500 km2

  9. NPV risk simulation of an open pit gold mine project under the O'Hara cost model by using GAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franco-Sepulveda Giovanni; Campuzano Carlos; Pineda Cindy

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes an open pit gold mine project based on the O'Hara cost model. Hypothetical data is proposed based on different authors that have studied open pit gold projects, and variations are proposed according to the probability distributions associated to key variables affecting the NPV, like production level, ore grade, price of ore, and others, so as to see what if, in a gold open pit mine project of 3000 metric tons per day of ore. Two case scenarios were analyzed to simulate the NPV, one where there is low certainty data available, and the other where the information available is of high certainty. Results based on genetic algorithm metaheuristic simulations, which combine basically Montecarlo simulations provided by the Palisade Risk software, the O'Hara cost model, net smelter return and financial analysis tools offered by Excel are reported, in order to determine to which variables of the project is more sensitive the NPV.

  10. Comparison of the Ministry of Health's tariffs with the cost of radiology services using the activity-based costing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Emami, Majid; Kakasoltani, Keivan; Rhamani, Nasim; Kalhor, Leila

    2016-02-01

    Efficient use of resources in organizations is one of the most important duties of managers. Appropriate allocation of resources can help managers to do this well. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of radiology services and to compare it with governmental tariffs (introduced by the Ministry of Health in Iran). This was a descriptive and applied study that was conducted using the retrospective approach. First, activity centers were identified on the basis of five main groups of hospital activities. Then, resources and resource drivers, activities, and hospital activity drivers were identified. At the next step, the activities related to the delivery of radiology process were identified. Last, through allocation of activities cost to the cost objects, the cost price of 66 services that were delivered in the radiology department were calculated. The data were collected by making checklists, using the hospital's information system, observations, and interviews. Finally, the data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, Microsoft Excel, and SPSS software, version 18. The findings showed that from the total cost of wages, materials, and overhead obtained, the unit cost of the 66 cost objects (delivered services) in the Radiology Department were calculated using the ABC method (Price of each unit of Nephrostogram obtained $15.8 and Cystogram obtained $18.4). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that the distribution of data of cost price using the ABC method was not normal (p = 0.000). The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the cost of services and the tariff of radiology services (p = 0.000). The cost of delivered services in radiology departments was significantly higher than approved tariffs of the Ministry of Health, which can have a negative impact on the quality of services.

  11. A Framework of Combining Case-Based Reasoning with a Work Breakdown Structure for Estimating the Cost of Online Course Production Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Currently, a work breakdown structure (WBS) approach is used as the most common cost estimation approach for online course production projects. To improve the practice of cost estimation, this paper proposes a novel framework to estimate the cost for online course production projects using a case-based reasoning (CBR) technique and a WBS. A…

  12. GMMIP (v1.0) contribution to CMIP6: Global Monsoons Model Inter-comparison Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tianjun; Turner, Andrew G.; Kinter, James L.; Wang, Bin; Qian, Yun; Chen, Xiaolong; Wu, Bo; Wang, Bin; Liu, Bo; Zou, Liwei; He, Bian

    2016-10-10

    The Global Monsoons Model Inter-comparison Project (GMMIP) has been endorsed by the panel of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP) as one of the participating model inter-comparison projects (MIPs) in the sixth phase of CMIP (CMIP6). The focus of GMMIP is on monsoon climatology, variability, prediction and projection, which is relevant to four of the “Grand Challenges” proposed by the World Climate Research Programme. At present, 21 international modeling groups are committed to joining GMMIP. This overview paper introduces the motivation behind GMMIP and the scientific questions it intends to answer. Three tiers of experiments, of decreasing priority, are designed to examine (a) model skill in simulating the climatology and interannual-to-multidecadal variability of global monsoons forced by the sea surface temperature during historical climate period; (b) the roles of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in driving variations of the global and regional monsoons; and (c) the effects of large orographic terrain on the establishment of the monsoons. The outputs of the CMIP6 Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima experiments (DECK), “historical” simulation and endorsed MIPs will also be used in the diagnostic analysis of GMMIP to give a comprehensive understanding of the roles played by different external forcings, potential improvements in the simulation of monsoon rainfall at high resolution and reproducibility at decadal timescales. The implementation of GMMIP will improve our understanding of the fundamental physics of changes in the global and regional monsoons over the past 140 years and ultimately benefit monsoons prediction and projection in the current century.

  13. Cost comparison of dry-type and conventional cooling systems for representative nuclear generating plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, J.P.; Cecil, E.A.; Young, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of studies comparing the use of dry-type cooling towers with conventional cooling methods for representative pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants. The studies were based on the hypothetical use of dry-type cooling towers for three nuclear power plants now under construction which were designed and are being built to use conventional cooling methods. One of the plants is located in the northeastern United States, one in the Southeast and one in the West. The report also presents the results of comparisons based on a hypothetical plant at a typical eastern United States site. The three electric utilities which participated in these studies have furnished actual construction cost information for the conventional cooling systems being constructed, and the authors have made construction estimates for economically optimum dry cooling systems which might have been built in place of the conventional cooling systems being constructed. The report compares the physical and operating characteristics of dry-type and conventional cooling systems as well as the relative economics of the different cooling methods. The effect of dry cooling on the bus-bar cost of power has been computed for the three selected plants and for the typical eastern plant

  14. Exploiting the Medium Term Biomass Energy Potentials in Austria. A Comparison of Costs and Macroeconomic Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steininger, K.W.; Voraberger, H.

    2003-01-01

    The transition to an implicitly solar-based energy system can make use of various specific biomass energy systems. This paper provides economic and environmental indicators for evaluating alternative options. The paper proceeds in three empirical steps. First, an expert survey supplies the primary biomass potentials available for non-food use in Austria and their respective costs. Second, an inquiry into investment, operating and financing costs of 30 different biomass energy use systems allows a standardized comparison among them and their relationship to fossil reference technologies. Third, a computable general equilibrium model of the Austrian economy is employed to quantify the impacts of fostering the use of distinct biomass energy technologies. The results allow us to distinguish between those technologies that tend to lead to an increase in both GDP and employment (e.g., combined heat and power production from sewage sludge biogas), to an increase only in employment, while GDP tends to diminish (e.g., district heating based on agricultural pellets) or to a decline in both (e.g., co-firing based on wood-chips, bark or industrial pellets). Individual technologies could account for up to one third of Austria's Kyoto obligation, while combinations of technologies, triggered by a combined CO2 tax and biomass energy subsidy for example, could almost fully lead to Austrian Kyoto-compliance

  15. Costs of stroke and stroke services: Determinants of patient costs and a comparison of costs of regular care and care organised in stroke services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmanschap Marc A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients. This paper discusses patient costs after stroke and compares costs between regular and stroke service care. Methods Costs were calculated within the framework of the evaluation of three experiments with stroke services in the Netherlands. Cost calculations are base on medical consumption data and actual costs. Results 598 patients were consecutively admitted to hospital after stroke. The average total costs of care per patient for the 6 month follow-up are estimated at €16,000. Costs are dominated by institutional and accommodation costs. Patients who die after stroke incur less costs. For patients that survive the acute phase, the most important determinants of costs are disability status and having a partner – as they influence patients' stroke careers. These determinants also interact. The most efficient stroke service experiment was most successful in co-ordinating patient flow from hospital to (nursing home, through capacity planning and efficient discharge procedures. In this region the costs of stroke service care are the same as for regular stroke care. The other experiments suffered from waiting lists for nursing homes and home care, leading to "blocked beds" in hospitals and nursing homes and higher costs of care. Costs of co-ordination are estimated at about 3% of total costs of care. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that by organising care for stroke patients in a stroke service, better health effects can be achieved with the same budget. In addition, it provides insight in need, predisposing and enabling factors that determine costs of care after stroke.

  16. 'Lifecycle cost' management used in ITER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Chao; Wu Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    'Lifecycle cost' management is a new kind of management. The International Nuclear Fusion Energy Program was managing by 'lifecycle cost' method. The cost and other factors associated with cost were under control by the method. In the future, the system engineering method should be focused in engineering management, paying equal attention to both evaluation and management, and strengthening the application of information system in the cost management to effectively improve the management level. (authors)

  17. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles in the US Transportation Sector Following Optimistic Cost and Efficiency Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzmohammadian, Azadeh; Henze, Daven K; Milford, Jana B

    2017-06-20

    This study investigates emission impacts of introducing inexpensive and efficient electric vehicles into the US light duty vehicle (LDV) sector. Scenarios are explored using the ANSWER-MARKAL model with a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 9-region database. Modified cost and performance projections for LDV technologies are adapted from the National Research Council (2013) optimistic case. Under our optimistic scenario (OPT) we find 15% and 47% adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in 2030 and 2050, respectively. In contrast, gasoline vehicles (ICEVs) remain dominant through 2050 in the EPA reference case (BAU). Compared to BAU, OPT gives 16% and 36% reductions in LDV greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 2030 and 2050, respectively, corresponding to 5% and 9% reductions in economy-wide emissions. Total nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and SO 2 emissions are similar in the two scenarios due to intersectoral shifts. Moderate, economy-wide GHG fees have little effect on GHG emissions from the LDV sector but are more effective in the electricity sector. In the OPT scenario, estimated well-to-wheels GHG emissions from full-size BEVs with 100-mile range are 62 gCO 2 -e mi -1 in 2050, while those from full-size ICEVs are 121 gCO 2 -e mi -1 .

  18. Final Report for Project titled High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low-Cost Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Alahyari, Abbas [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Heat exchangers (HXs) are critical components in a wide range of heat transfer applications, from HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Cooling) to automobiles to manufacturing plants. They require materials capable of transferring heat at high rates while also minimizing thermal expansion over the usage temperature range. Conventionally, metals are used for applications where effective and efficient heat exchange is required, since many metals exhibit thermal conductivity over 100 W/m K. While metal HXs are constantly being improved, they still have some inherent drawbacks due to their metal construction, in particular corrosion. Polymeric material can offer solution to such durability issues and allow designs that cannot be afforded by metal construction either due to complexity or cost. A major drawback of polymeric material is their low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.5? W/mK) that would lead to large system size. Recent improvements in the area of filled polymers have highlighted the possibility to greatly improve the thermal conductivity of polymeric materials while retaining their inherent manufacturing advantage, and have been applied to heat sink applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to develop a robust review of materials for the manufacturing of industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. This review consisted of material identification, literature evaluation, as well as empirical and model characterization, resulting in a database of relevant material properties and characteristics to provide guidance for future heat exchanger development.

  19. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Comparison of technology of KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH concepts by using an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Lars; Sandstedt, H.

    1992-09-01

    This report constitutes a technical comparison and ranking of four repository concepts for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, that have been studied by SKB: KBS-3, Medium Long Holes (MLH), Very Long Holes (VLH) and Very Deep Holes (VDH). The technical comparison is part of the project 'Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS', which was initiated by SKB. With the objective of presenting a ranking of the four concepts. Besides this comparison of Technology the ranking is separately made for Long-term Performance and Safety, and Costs before the merging into one verdict. The ranking regarding Technology was carried out in accordance with the method Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP, and by the aid of expert judgement in the form of a group consisting of six experts. The AHP method implies that the criteria for comparison are ordered in a hierarchy and that the ranking is carried out by pairwise comparison of the criteria. In the evaluation process a measure of the relative importance of each criterion is obtained. The result of the expert judgement exercise was that each expert individually ranked the four concepts in the following order with the top ranked alternative first: KBS-3, MLH, VLH and VDH. The common opinion among the experts was that the top ranking of KBS-3 is significant and the the major criteria used in the study could change substantially without changing the top ranking of KBS-3

  20. [Cost assessment for endoscopic procedures in the German diagnosis-related-group (DRG) system - 5 year cost data analysis of the German Society of Gastroenterology project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmayer, Markus; Heinlein, Wolfgang; Reiß, Claudia; Albert, Jörg G; Akoglu, Bora; Braun, Martin; Brechmann, Thorsten; Gölder, Stefan K; Lankisch, Tim; Messmann, Helmut; Schneider, Arne; Wagner, Martin; Dollhopf, Markus; Gundling, Felix; Röhling, Michael; Haag, Cornelie; Dohle, Ines; Werner, Sven; Lammert, Frank; Fleßa, Steffen; Wilke, Michael H; Schepp, Wolfgang; Lerch, Markus M

    2017-10-01

    Background  In the German hospital reimbursement system (G-DRG) endoscopic procedures are listed in cost center 8. For reimbursement between hospital departments and external providers outdated or incomplete catalogues (e. g. DKG-NT, GOÄ) have remained in use. We have assessed the cost for endoscopic procedures in the G-DRG-system. Methods  To assess the cost of endoscopic procedures 74 hospitals, annual providers of cost-data to the Institute for the Hospital Remuneration System (InEK) made their data (2011 - 2015; § 21 KHEntgG) available to the German-Society-of-Gastroenterology (DGVS) in anonymized form (4873 809 case-data-sets). Using cases with exactly one endoscopic procedure (n = 274 186) average costs over 5 years were calculated for 46 endoscopic procedure-tiers. Results  Robust mean endoscopy costs ranged from 230.56 € for gastroscopy (144 666 cases), 276.23 € (n = 32 294) for a simple colonoscopy, to 844.07 € (n = 10 150) for ERCP with papillotomy and plastic stent insertion and 1602.37 € (n = 967) for ERCP with a self-expanding metal stent. Higher costs, specifically for complex procedures, were identified for University Hospitals. Discussion  For the first time this catalogue for endoscopic procedure-tiers, based on § 21 KHEntgG data-sets from 74 InEK-calculating hospitals, permits a realistic assessment of endoscopy costs in German hospitals. The higher costs in university hospitals are likely due to referral bias for complex cases and emergency interventions. For 46 endoscopic procedure-tiers an objective cost-allocation within the G-DRG system is now possible. By international comparison the costs of endoscopic procedures in Germany are low, due to either greater efficiency, lower personnel allocation or incomplete documentation of the real expenses. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. KEY COMPARISON: Final report of EUROMET Project 696: pH determination of a phthalate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Petra; Charlet, Philippe; Eberhard, Ralf; Karpov, Oleg V.; Philippe, Rachel; Rivier, Cedric; Maximov, Igor; Sudmeier, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    The EUROMET project 696, a trilateral comparison between PTB, Germany, LNE, France and VNIIFTRI, Russia was performed in order to demonstrate and document the capability of the participants to measure the pH of a phthalate buffer by the primary measurement procedure for pH. Good agreement of the reported results was observed. The sample was very similar to the one used in the comparison CCQM-K17. PTB acts as pilot laboratory in CCQM-K17 and in EUROMET 696. This comparison allows one to link the results obtained by LNE to the CCQM-K17 key comparison through the degree of equivalence of PTB. On the other hand, the discrepancy between measured pH values at the VNIIFTRI and PTB for the same type of buffer solution decreased, as compared with a bilateral comparison in 1997. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  2. Low-Cost Mapping and Publishing Methods for Landscape Architectural Analysis and Design in Slum-Upgrading Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Rekittke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The research project “Grassroots GIS” focuses on the development of low-cost mapping and publishing methods for slums and slum-upgrading projects in Manila. In this project smartphones, collaborative mapping and 3D visualization applications are systematically employed to support landscape architectural analysis and design work in the context of urban poverty and urban informal settlements. In this paper we focus on the description of the developed methods and present preliminary results of this work-in-progress.

  3. Who gains? allocation of freight transport user benefits from international infrastructure projects in multicountry cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Buus

    2005-01-01

    A public decision by several countries on whether to cofinance an international infrastructure project is the subject of a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The CBA elements are broken out and analyzed for each country. The issue of freight user benefits is discussed, and results are derived from...

  4. Cost Estimating for Decommissioning of a Plutonium Facility--Lessons Learned From The Rocky Flats Building 771 Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J. L.; Titus, R.; Sanford, P. C.

    2002-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site is implementing an aggressive approach in an attempt to complete Site closure by 2006. The replanning effort to meet this goal required that the life-cycle decommissioning effort for the Site and for the major individual facilities be reexamined in detail. As part of the overall effort, the cost estimate for the Building 771 decommissioning project was revised to incorporate both actual cost data from a recently-completed similar project and detailed planning for all activities. This paper provides a brief overview of the replanning process and the original estimate, and then discusses the modifications to that estimate to reflect new data, methods, and planning rigor. It provides the new work breakdown structure and discusses the reasons for the final arrangement chosen. It follows with the process used to assign scope, cost, and schedule elements within the new structure, and development of the new code of accounts. Finally, it describes the project control methodology used to track the project, and provides lessons learned on cost tracking in the decommissioning environment

  5. A project of reuse of reclaimed wastewater in the Po Valley, Italy: Polishing sequence and cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, P.; Al Aukidy, M.; Galletti, A.; Zambello, E.; Zanni, G.; Masotti, L.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryThe paper presents a study carried out in the environmentally sensitive area of the Po Valley in northern Italy, with the aim of evaluating, from technical and economic perspectives, a project to reuse part of the final effluent from the Ferrara wastewater treatment plant for irrigation and to develop the site for recreational purposes. Although this area features plentiful supplies of surface water, the Ministry of the Environment has declared it to be at risk of environmental crises due to eutrophication and the drought recurring over the last decade. Thus the availability of fresh water, particularly for agricultural purposes, is threatened, and prompt water saving and protection measures are required. Hence, the possibility of reusing reclaimed wastewater from this plant was investigated, with the aim of exploiting the space around the WWTP, situated within a large urban park, to install natural polishing treatment systems and create green spaces for recreational use. Based on experimental investigation on a pilot plant (featuring both natural and conventional treatments), the study outlines the rationale behind the treatment train selected for the project, details the initial and ongoing costs involved, evaluates the benefits deriving from the project, and assesses public acceptance of the project by the contingent valuation method. A cost-benefit analysis completes the study, and various economic indicators (net present value, benefit-cost ratio, pay-back period, and internal rate of return) revealed that the proposed project was financially feasible.

  6. A Nonlinear Multiobjective Bilevel Model for Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem in a Large-Scale Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to deal with a minimum cost network flow problem (MCNFP in a large-scale construction project using a nonlinear multiobjective bilevel model with birandom variables. The main target of the upper level is to minimize both direct and transportation time costs. The target of the lower level is to minimize transportation costs. After an analysis of the birandom variables, an expectation multiobjective bilevel programming model with chance constraints is formulated to incorporate decision makers’ preferences. To solve the identified special conditions, an equivalent crisp model is proposed with an additional multiobjective bilevel particle swarm optimization (MOBLPSO developed to solve the model. The Shuibuya Hydropower Project is used as a real-world example to verify the proposed approach. Results and analysis are presented to highlight the performances of the MOBLPSO, which is very effective and efficient compared to a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm.

  7. Data Collection for Current U.S. Wind Energy Projects: Component Costs, Financing, Operations, and Maintenance; January 2011 - September 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Tretton, M.; Reha, M.; Drunsic, M.; Keim, M.

    2012-01-01

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV) used an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Cost Model to evaluate ten distinct cost scenarios encountered under variations in wind turbine component failure rates. The analysis considers: (1) a Reference Scenario using the default part failure rates within the O&M Cost Model, (2) High Failure Rate Scenarios that increase the failure rates of three major components (blades, gearboxes, and generators) individually, (3) 100% Replacement Scenarios that model full replacement of these components over a 20 year operating life, and (4) Serial Failure Scenarios that model full replacement of blades, gearboxes, and generators in years 4 to 6 of the wind project. DNV selected these scenarios to represent a broad range of possible operational experiences. Also in this report, DNV summarizes the predominant financing arrangements used to develop wind energy projects over the past several years and provides summary data on various financial metrics describing those arrangements.

  8. Projected Costs of U.S. Nuclear Forces, 2017 to 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    amounts at roughly the same rates that costs for similar programs have grown in the past. Nuclear forces account for roughly 6 percent of the total 10...nuclear forces, some published estimates of the total costs of nuclear weapons account for the costs of several related activities. Examples include...based its estimate on historical costs of analogous programs. b. This category includes nuclear-related research and operations support activities by

  9. Cost, Schedule and Risk Management, The Building Blocks of a U.S. Nuclear Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, John

    2002-01-01

    The most important consideration in the decision to build a new nuclear plant is the capital cost. Right? Yes and no. Yes, the capital cost accounts for 80% of the generation cost of a new plant. No, because there are other equally important considerations. (author)

  10. Production of solidified high level wastes: a cost comparison of solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Differential cost estimates of the annual operating and maintenance costs and the capital costs for five HLW Waste Solidification Alternates were developed. The annual operating and maintenance cost estimates included the cost of labor, consumables, utilities, shipping casks, shipping and disposal at a federal repository. The capital cost included the cost of the component, installation and building. The differential cost estimates do not include equipment and facilities which are either shared with the reprocessing facility or are common between all of the alternates. Total annual cost differential between the five waste form alternates is summarized in tabular form. The Borosilicate Glass Alternate has the lowest total annual cost. The other alternates have higher costs which range from $6.6 M to $7.4 M per year higher than the Glass alternate with the Supercalcine being the highest cost at $7.4 M per year differential. The major items in the cost estimates are then disposal costs in the operating cost estimates and the HLW Storage Tanks in the capital cost estimates. The Supercalcine Multibarrier Alternate ships 180 canisters per year more than the other alternates and consequently has a significantly higher operating cost. However, off-setting this the Supercalcine Multibarrier Alternate does not require HLW Storage Tanks for decay because of the high heat conductivity of this product and correspondingly the capital cost for this alternate is significantly lower than the other alternates. The radiological risk values are correlated with the cost evaluation normalized to cost ($)/MWe-yr

  11. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km 2 Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included

  12. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Breast Cancer Screening and Vascular Event Primary Prevention with Aspirin in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    Aim: For the first time, this article presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of a breast cancer screening programme with a possible health education programme with aspirin for vascular event primary prevention. Background: Breast cancer screening is a well established part of cancer control programmes yet recent evidence on this intervention has…

  14. Transportation Infrastructure: Progress on and Challenges to Central Artery/Tunnel Project's Cost and Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Central Artery/Tunnel project in Boston, Massachusetts--one of the largest, most complex, and most expensive highway construction projects ever undertaken--is well under way, with contracts worth nearly $8 billion either completed or awarded. Con...

  15. Design of management information system for nuclear industry architectural project costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingzhi; Li Wei

    1996-01-01

    Management Information System (MIS) for nuclear industry architectural project is analysed and designed in detail base on quota management and engineering budget management of nuclear industry in respect of the practice of Qinshan Second Phase 2 x 600 MW Project

  16. 50 CFR 84.49 - What if the project costs more or less than originally expected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... monies for approved coastal wetland grants will be subject to the entire review process along with new grants. Any monies left over after the project is complete, or if the project is not completed, should be...

  17. Estimating railway infrastructure project cost from transferring nominal price to real price by considering the working time possessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Salling, Kim Bang

    are varying depending on the working time possessions presented through the closure of the railway line. The effective working hours, type of construction work and construction speed are used as constraints to ensure the track closure plan remains feasible. To demonstrate the approach a Danish railway...... and 2) railway construction work costs are not transparent in the market. This paper suggests separating the costs into 3 sub-categories: materials, labour and machinery. Evidently, the materials are further broke-down into subcomponents which then remains fixed whereas the cost of labour and machinery...... construction project, the new line to the fixed link across Fehmarn Belt, is introduced where it is shown that the non-material cost is about 19% of the total expenditure. By assuming three sets of track blocking scenarios with the same amount of construction works it is proven that given an optimal track...

  18. Analysis and evaluation of process and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the Low Cost Solar Array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that substantial cost reductions can be realized from technical advancements which fall into four categories: an increase in furnace productivity; the reduction of crucible cost through use of the crucible for the equivalent of multiple state-of-the-art crystals; the combined effect of several smaller technical improvements; and a carry over effect of the expected availability of semiconductor grade polysilicon at greatly reduced prices. A format for techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed, called the University of Pennsylvania Process Characterization (UPPC) format. The accumulated Cz process data are presented.

  19. 75 FR 48365 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-NIC Cost Containment Online Resource Center Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ..., or design aspects proposed that will enhance the project? Organizational (35%) Does the proposed..., organization, individual or team have the organizational capacity to complete the project tasks? Are the... there a reasonable justification for their inclusion in the project and a clear structure to ensure...

  20. Capital cost evaluation of liquid metal reactor by plant type - comparison of modular type with monolithic type -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, K. H.; Seok, S. D.; Song, K. D.; Kim, I. C.

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary economic comparison study was performed for KALIMER(Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor)between a modular plant type with 8 150MWe modules and a 1200MWe monolithic plant type. In both cases of FOAK (First-Of-A-Kind) Plant and NOAK (Nth-Of-A-Kind) Plant, the result says that the economics of monolithic plant is superior to its modular plant. In case of NOAK plant comparison, however, the cost difference is not significant. It means that modular plant can compete with monolithic plant in capital cost if it makes efforts of cost reduction and technical progress on the assumption that the same type of NOAK plant will be constructed continuously

  1. Parallel search engine optimisation and pay-per-click campaigns: A comparison of cost per acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter T. Kritzinger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is imperative that commercial websites should rank highly in search engine result pages because these provide the main entry point to paying customers. There are two main methods to achieve high rankings: search engine optimisation (SEO and pay-per-click (PPC systems. Both require a financial investment – SEO mainly at the beginning, and PPC spread over time in regular amounts. If marketing budgets are applied in the wrong area, this could lead to losses and possibly financial ruin. Objectives: The objective of this research was to investigate, using three real-world case studies, the actual expenditure on and income from both SEO and PPC systems. These figures were then compared, and specifically, the cost per acquisition (CPA was used to decide which system yielded the best results. Methodology: Three diverse websites were chosen, and analytics data for all three were compared over a 3-month period. Calculations were performed to reduce the figures to single ratios, to make comparisons between them possible. Results: Some of the resultant ratios varied widely between websites. However, the CPA was shown to be on average 52.1 times lower for SEO than for PPC systems. Conclusion: It was concluded that SEO should be the marketing system of preference for e-commerce-based websites. However, there are cases where PPC would yield better results – when instant traffic is required, and when a large initial expenditure is not possible.

  2. Comparison of low cost measurement techniques for long-term monitoring of atmospheric ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, M A; Miners, B; Tang, Y S; Milford, C; Wyers, G P; Duyzer, J H; Fowler, D

    2001-10-01

    An inter-comparison of techniques for long-term sampling of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) was conducted with a view to establishing a national network with > 50 sites. Key requirements were for: a low cost system, simplicity and durability to enable a postal exchange with local site operators, a precision of sampling at expected NH3 concentrations of 1-2 micrograms m-3, a detection limit sufficient to resolve the small NH3 concentrations (sampling methods were compared: A, a commercially available membrane diffusion tube (exposed in triplicate), with membranes removed immediately after sampling; B, the above method, with the membranes left in place until analysis; C, open-ended diffusion tubes (exposed with 4 replicates); D, a new active sampling diffusion denuder system; and E, an active sampling bubbler system. Method D consisted of two 0.1 m acid coated glass denuders in series with sampling at approximately 0.3 l min-1. These methods were deployed at 6 locations in the UK and the Netherlands and compared against reference estimates. Method D was the most precise and sensitive of the techniques compared, with a detection limit of 3 micrograms m-3), but were less precise and overestimated NH3 at smaller concentrations. Of the passive methods, A was the most precise and C the least precise. On the basis of the results, method D has been implemented in the national network, together with application of method A to explore spatial variability in regions with expected high NH3 concentrations.

  3. Virtual Versus In-Person Focus Groups: Comparison of Costs, Recruitment, and Participant Logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Hayes, Jennifer J; Ray, Sarah E; Moultrie, Rebecca R

    2017-03-22

    Virtual focus groups-such as online chat and video groups-are increasingly promoted as qualitative research tools. Theoretically, virtual groups offer several advantages, including lower cost, faster recruitment, greater geographic diversity, enrollment of hard-to-reach populations, and reduced participant burden. However, no study has compared virtual and in-person focus groups on these metrics. To rigorously compare virtual and in-person focus groups on cost, recruitment, and participant logistics. We examined 3 focus group modes and instituted experimental controls to ensure a fair comparison. We conducted 6 1-hour focus groups in August 2014 using in-person (n=2), live chat (n=2), and video (n=2) modes with individuals who had type 2 diabetes (n=48 enrolled, n=39 completed). In planning groups, we solicited bids from 6 virtual platform vendors and 4 recruitment firms. We then selected 1 platform or facility per mode and a single recruitment firm across all modes. To minimize bias, the recruitment firm employed different recruiters by mode who were blinded to recruitment efforts for other modes. We tracked enrollment during a 2-week period. A single moderator conducted all groups using the same guide, which addressed the use of technology to communicate with health care providers. We conducted the groups at the same times of day on Monday to Wednesday during a single week. At the end of each group, participants completed a short survey. Virtual focus groups offered minimal cost savings compared with in-person groups (US $2000 per chat group vs US $2576 per in-person group vs US $2,750 per video group). Although virtual groups did not incur travel costs, they often had higher management fees and miscellaneous expenses (eg, participant webcams). Recruitment timing did not differ by mode, but show rates were higher for in-person groups (94% [15/16] in-person vs 81% [13/16] video vs 69% [11/16] chat). Virtual group participants were more geographically diverse (but

  4. National energy cost optimization and project implementation: Two different worlds?. Discussion paper in the framework of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.

    1994-08-01

    One of the main targets of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study is combining the techno-economic and purely economic modelling approaches into one overall modelling methodology for greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. This type of models can be categorized as bottom-up models, since technology data on a very detailed level result in costs and emissions on a national level. In contrast with, but not necessarily in conflict with these models, macro-economists rely in general on macro-economic models which derive economic projections from aggregated national and sectorial economic data. These so called top-down models describe the complete national economy. Therefore the energy sector is modelled in a very aggregated way. Since the micro-economic and techno-economic approaches can be classified both as bottom-up approaches, it could be expected that mutual understanding exists. However, this is not true for all issues in this field. Techno-economical views and micro-economic views differ for instance on the implementation of options. This topic drew attention during the UNEP study, next to other items as techno-economic and macro-economic model assessments of the costs of CO 2 abatement. One of the most important implementation issues is the so-called negative cost (benefit) potential of energy saving options, which exists in the techno-economic view at this very moment, but which is not implemented yet. In the view of micro-economic analysis this potential does not exist, since options which are profitable would have been implemented according to presently adopted cost-benefit theory. Several aspects of this controversy have been discussed extensively elsewhere. In this paper the two visions are summarized and it is discussed whether it is fruitful to combine techno-economic and micro-economic approaches in an overall methodological framework. 1 tabs., 8 refs

  5. Low cost 3D-printing used in an undergraduate project: an integrating sphere for measurement of photoluminescence quantum yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomes, John J; Finlayson, Chris E

    2016-01-01

    We report upon the exploitation of the latest 3D printing technologies to provide low-cost instrumentation solutions, for use in an undergraduate level final-year project. The project addresses prescient research issues in optoelectronics, which would otherwise be inaccessible to such undergraduate student projects. The experimental use of an integrating sphere in conjunction with a desktop spectrometer presents opportunities to use easily handled, low cost materials as a means to illustrate many areas of physics such as spectroscopy, lasers, optics, simple circuits, black body radiation and data gathering. Presented here is a 3rd year undergraduate physics project which developed a low cost (£25) method to manufacture an experimentally accurate integrating sphere by 3D printing. Details are given of both a homemade internal reflectance coating formulated from readily available materials, and a robust instrument calibration method using a tungsten bulb. The instrument is demonstrated to give accurate and reproducible experimental measurements of luminescence quantum yield of various semiconducting fluorophores, in excellent agreement with literature values. (paper)

  6. Low cost 3D-printing used in an undergraduate project: an integrating sphere for measurement of photoluminescence quantum yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, John J.; Finlayson, Chris E.

    2016-09-01

    We report upon the exploitation of the latest 3D printing technologies to provide low-cost instrumentation solutions, for use in an undergraduate level final-year project. The project addresses prescient research issues in optoelectronics, which would otherwise be inaccessible to such undergraduate student projects. The experimental use of an integrating sphere in conjunction with a desktop spectrometer presents opportunities to use easily handled, low cost materials as a means to illustrate many areas of physics such as spectroscopy, lasers, optics, simple circuits, black body radiation and data gathering. Presented here is a 3rd year undergraduate physics project which developed a low cost (£25) method to manufacture an experimentally accurate integrating sphere by 3D printing. Details are given of both a homemade internal reflectance coating formulated from readily available materials, and a robust instrument calibration method using a tungsten bulb. The instrument is demonstrated to give accurate and reproducible experimental measurements of luminescence quantum yield of various semiconducting fluorophores, in excellent agreement with literature values.

  7. Projected costs for mined geologic repositories for dispoal of commercial nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddell, J.D.; Dippold, D.G.; McSweeney, T.I.

    1982-12-01

    This documen reports cost estimates for: (1) the exploration and development activities preceding the final design of terminal isolation facilities for disposal of commercial high-level waste; and (2) the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of such facilities. Exploration and evelopment costs also include a separate cost category for related programs such as subseabed research, activities of the Transportation Technology Center, and waste disposal impact mitigation activities

  8. Summary of cost projection for regulatory uncertainties in the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raudenbush, M.H.; Geller, L.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel recycle cost deviations resulting from regulatory changes in the back end of the fuel cycle are examined from a number of different data sources, and three potentially large cost uncertainties are identified; HLW disposal, alpha-waste criteria, and in-plant material control/accountability for safeguards. Present and past methods of regulatory cost effectiveness determinations are critiqued and in some cases found wanting

  9. Method of levelized discounted costs applied in economic evaluation of nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Liu Jingquan; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    The main methods of economic evaluation of bid which are in common use are introduced. The characteristics of levelized discounted cost method and its application are presented. The method of levelized discounted cost is applied to the cost calculation of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor economic evaluation. The results indicate that the method of levelized discounted costs is simple, feasible and which is considered most suitable for the economic evaluation of various case. The method is suggested which is used in the national economic evaluation

  10. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook

    2015-01-01

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost

  11. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost.

  12. Comparison of methods for estimating the cost of human immunodeficiency virus-testing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ram K; Sansom, Stephanie L; Farnham, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, spends approximately 50% of its $325 million annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention funds for HIV-testing services. An accurate estimate of the costs of HIV testing in various settings is essential for efficient allocation of HIV prevention resources. To assess the costs of HIV-testing interventions using different costing methods. We used the microcosting-direct measurement method to assess the costs of HIV-testing interventions in nonclinical settings, and we compared these results with those from 3 other costing methods: microcosting-staff allocation, where the labor cost was derived from the proportion of each staff person's time allocated to HIV testing interventions; gross costing, where the New York State Medicaid payment for HIV testing was used to estimate program costs, and program budget, where the program cost was assumed to be the total funding provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Total program cost, cost per person tested, and cost per person notified of new HIV diagnosis. The median costs per person notified of a new HIV diagnosis were $12 475, $15 018, $2697, and $20 144 based on microcosting-direct measurement, microcosting-staff allocation, gross costing, and program budget methods, respectively. Compared with the microcosting-direct measurement method, the cost was 78% lower with gross costing, and 20% and 61% higher using the microcosting-staff allocation and program budget methods, respectively. Our analysis showed that HIV-testing program cost estimates vary widely by costing methods. However, the choice of a particular costing method may depend on the research question being addressed. Although program budget and gross-costing methods may be attractive because of their simplicity, only the microcosting-direct measurement method can identify important determinants of the program costs and provide guidance to improve

  13. Costs of achieving live birth from assisted reproductive technology: a comparison of sequential single and double embryo transfer approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sara; Boulet, Sheree L; Mneimneh, Allison S; Perkins, Kiran M; Jamieson, Denise J; Zhang, Yujia; Kissin, Dmitry M

    2016-02-01

    To assess treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs and birth outcomes for assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles in a subset of patients using elective double embryo (ET) and to project the difference in costs and outcomes had the cycles instead been sequential single ETs (fresh followed by frozen if the fresh ET did not result in live birth). Retrospective cohort study using 2012 and 2013 data from the National ART Surveillance System. Infertility treatment centers. Fresh, autologous double ETs performed in 2012 among ART patients younger than 35 years of age with no prior ART use who cryopreserved at least one embryo. Sequential single and double ETs. Actual live birth rates and estimated ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs for double ET cycles started in 2012 and projected ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs if the double ET cycles had been performed as sequential single ETs. The estimated total ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs were $580.9 million for 10,001 double ETs started in 2012. If performed as sequential single ETs, estimated costs would have decreased by $195.0 million to $386.0 million, and live birth rates would have increased from 57.7%-68.0%. Sequential single ETs, when clinically appropriate, can reduce total ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs by reducing multiple births without lowering live birth rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The implications of regional and national demographic projections for future GMS costs in Ireland through to 2026.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conway, Aisling

    2014-10-21

    As the health services in Ireland have become more resource-constrained, pressure has increased to reduce public spending on community drug schemes such as General Medical Services (GMS) drug prescribing and to understand current and future trends in prescribing. The GMS scheme covers approximately 37% of the Irish population in 2011 and entitles them, inter alia, to free prescription drugs and appliances. This paper projects the effects of future changes in population, coverage, claims rates and average claims cost on GMS costs in Ireland.

  15. A Cost Comparison Between Active and Naval Reserve Force FFG 7 Class Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    so in our hypothetical depreciation schedule 1/30th of the depreciable cost would be expensed each year. Under GAAP , the historical cost of the asset...and Support Costs (VAMOSC) data base provided by the* aval Center For Cost Analysis. The thesis also sets up theoretical depreciation schedules for...VAMOSC) data base provided by the Naval Center for Cost Analysis. The thesis also sets up theoretical depreciation schedules for selected ships to

  16. Project Minerva: A low-cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Adam P.; Anderson, Hobie; Caviezel, Kelly; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hamling, Steven; Johnson, Bryan; Kalberer, Martin; Machula, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface, using only two sets of two launches. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the senario originally proposed by R. Zubrin of Martin Marietta. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low earth orbit (LEO): one consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles, and the second consists of the upper stage/trans-Mars injection (TMI) booster. In LEO, the two payloads are joined and inserted into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis-type process to combine six tons of hydrogen brought from earth with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce 100 tons of liquid oxygen and methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. Once the in-situ propellant production is completed, approximately two years after the first set of launches, the manned portion of the mission leaves earth. This set of two launches is similar to that of the unmanned vehicles; the two payloads are the Manned Transfer Vehicle (MTV) and the upper stage/TMI booster. The MTV contains the manned rover and the habitat which houses the astronauts enroute to Mars and on the Martian surface. During the 180-day trip to Mars, artificial gravity is created by tethering the MTV to the TMI booster and inducing rotation. Upon arrival the MTV performs aerobraking maneuvers to land near the fully-fueled ERV, which will be used by the crew a year and a half later to return to earth. The mission entails moderate travel times with relatively low-energy conjunction-class trajectories and allows ample time for scientific

  17. Using Coevolution Genetic Algorithm with Pareto Principles to Solve Project Scheduling Problem under Duration and Cost Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Victorovich Budylskiy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the multicriteria optimization approach using the modified genetic algorithm to solve the project-scheduling problem under duration and cost constraints. The work contains the list of choices for solving this problem. The multicriteria optimization approach is justified here. The study describes the Pareto principles, which are used in the modified genetic algorithm. We identify the mathematical model of the project-scheduling problem. We introduced the modified genetic algorithm, the ranking strategies, the elitism approaches. The article includes the example.

  18. A Global Survey and Review of the Determinants of Transaction Costs of Forestry Carbon Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, D.T.H.; Brouwer, Roy; Davidson, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing carbon emissions in the forestry sector by means of market-based schemes is considered a cost-effective measure for tackling climate change impacts. However, the transaction costs (TCs) involved are typically unknown or unquantified and therefore often neglected. In this study three types

  19. A Global Survey and Review of the Determinants of Transaction Costs of Forestry Carbon Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, T.-H.D.; Brouwer, R.; Davidson, M.D.

    Reducing carbon emissions in the forestry sector by means of market-based schemes is considered a cost-effective measure for tackling climate change impacts. However, the transaction costs (TCs) involved are typically unknown or unquantified and therefore often neglected. In this study three types

  20. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN REALIZING AND APPLYING COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR THE INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Andrei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cost-benefit analysis represents the most frequent technique used for a rational allocation of resources. This modality of evaluating the expenditure programs is an attempt to measure the costs and gains of a community as a result of running the evaluated

  1. Basic Research on Selecting ISDC Activity for Decommissioning Costing in KRR-2 Decommissioning Project Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KAERI is performing research for calculation of expected time of a decommissioning work and evaluation of decommissioning cost and this research calculate a decommissioning work unit productivity based on the experience data of decommissioning activity for KRR-2. The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the experience data from the decommissioning activity through the Decommissioning Information Management System (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), and Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System (DEWOCS). In this paper, the methodology was presented how select the ISDC activities in dismantling work procedures of a 'removal of radioactive concrete'. The reason to select the 'removal of radioactive concrete' is main key activity and generates the amount of radioactive waste. This data will take advantage of the cost estimation after the code for the selected items derived ISDC. There are various efforts for decommissioning costing in each country. In particular, OECD/NEA recommends decommissioning cost estimation using the ISDC and IAEA provides for Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel (CERREX) program that anyone is easy to use the cost evaluation from a limited decommissioning experience in domestic. In the future, for the decommissioning cost evaluation, the ISDC will be used more widely in a strong position. This paper has described a method for selecting the ISDC item from the actual dismantling work procedures.

  2. Least-cost electrical services as an alternative to the braidwood project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a summary of testimony before the Illinois Commerce Commission. The author argues that even if it cost nothing to build the Braidwood plant, it would cost less to write it off and buy electricity-saving measures instead

  3. Cost-benefit comparisons of investments in improved water supply and cholera vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuland, Marc; Whittington, Dale

    2009-05-18

    This paper presents the first cost-benefit comparison of improved water supply investments and cholera vaccination programs. Specifically, we compare two water supply interventions -- deep wells with public hand pumps and biosand filters (an in-house, point-of-use water treatment technology) -- with two types of cholera immunization programs with new-generation vaccines -- general community-based and targeted and school-based programs. In addition to these four stand-alone investments, we also analyze five combinations of water and vaccine interventions: (1) borehole+hand pump and community-based cholera vaccination, (2) borehole+hand pump and school-based cholera vaccination, (3) biosand filter and community-based cholera vaccination, (4) biosand filter and school-based cholera vaccination, and (5) biosand filter and borehole+hand pump. Using recent data applicable to developing country locations for parameters such as disease incidence, the effectiveness of vaccine and water supply interventions against diarrheal diseases, and the value of a statistical life, we construct cost-benefit models for evaluating these interventions. We then employ probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate a frequency distribution of benefit-cost ratios for all four interventions, given a wide variety of possible parameter combinations. Our results demonstrate that there are many plausible conditions in developing countries under which these interventions will be attractive, but that the two improved water supply interventions and the targeted cholera vaccination program are much more likely to yield attractive cost-benefit outcomes than a community-based vaccination program. We show that implementing community-based cholera vaccination programs after borehole+hand pump or biosand filters have already been installed will rarely be justified. This is especially true when the biosand filters are already in place, because these achieve substantial cholera risk reductions on their own

  4. Utility-Scale Solar 2015: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2016-08-17

    The utility-scale solar sector—defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar power (“CSP”) project that is larger than 5 MWAC in capacity—has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. It is expected to maintain its market-leading position for at least another five years, driven in part by December 2015’s three-year extension of the 30% federal investment tax credit (“ITC”) through 2019 (coupled with a favorable switch to a “start construction” rather than a “placed in service” eligibility requirement, and a gradual phase down of the credit to 10% by 2022). In fact, in 2016 alone, the utility-scale sector is projected to install more than twice as much new capacity as it ever has previously in a single year. This unprecedented boom makes it difficult, yet more important than ever, to stay abreast of the latest utility-scale market developments and trends. This report—the fourth edition in an ongoing annual series—is intended to help meet this need, by providing in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. Drawing on empirical project-level data from a wide range of sources, this report analyzes not just installed project costs or prices—i.e., the traditional realm of most solar economic analyses—but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects throughout the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are also presented where appropriate.

  5. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

  6. Projections of cost and on-site manual-labor requirements for constructing electric-generating plants, 1980-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This report represents part of a continuing effort by the Federal Government to forecast the capital and labor required for constructing electric generating capacity additions necessary to accommodate projected economic and population growth in the US and its regions. Information is included on anticipated additions to electric generating capacity, labor requirements for these additions, capital cost requirements, and forecasting models. Coal-fired, nuclear, hydro, and pumped storage power plants are considered in these forecasts

  7. Cost-effective way to reduce stimulant-abuse among gay/bisexual men and transgender women: a randomized clinical trial with a cost comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S X; Shoptaw, S; Reback, C J; Yadav, K; Nyamathi, A M

    2018-01-01

    A randomized controlled study was conducted with 422 homeless, stimulant-using gay/bisexual (G/B) men and 29 transgender women (n = 451) to assess two community-based interventions to reduce substance abuse and improve health: (a) a nurse case-managed program combined with contingency management (NCM + CM) versus (b) standard education plus contingency management (SE + CM). Hypotheses tested included: a) completion of hepatitis A/B vaccination series; b) reduction in stimulant use; and c) reduction in number of sexual partners. A deconstructive cost analysis approach was utilized to capture direct costs associated with the delivery of both interventions. Based on an analysis of activity logs and staff interviews, specific activities and the time required to complete each were analyzed as follows: a) NCM + CM only; b) SE + CM only; c) time to administer/record vaccines; and d) time to receive and record CM visits. Cost comparison of the interventions included only staffing costs and direct cash expenditures. The study outcomes showed significant over time reductions in all measures of drug use and multiple sex partners, compared to baseline, although no significant between-group differences were detected. Cost analysis favored the simpler SE + CM intervention over the more labor-intensive NCM + CM approach. Because of the high levels of staffing required for the NCM relative to SE, costs associated with it were significantly higher. Findings suggest that while both intervention strategies were equally effective in achieving desired health outcomes, the brief SE + CM appeared less expensive to deliver. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF AN UNDERWATER ARCHAELOGICAL SITE: COMPARISON BETWEEN LOW COST CAMERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction with a metric content of a submerged area, where objects and structures of archaeological interest are found, could play an important role in the research and study activities and even in the digitization of the cultural heritage. The reconstruction of 3D object, of interest for archaeologists, constitutes a starting point in the classification and description of object in digital format and for successive fruition by user after delivering through several media. The starting point is a metric evaluation of the site obtained with photogrammetric surveying and appropriate 3D restitution. The authors have been applying the underwater photogrammetric technique since several years using underwater digital cameras and, in this paper, digital low cost cameras (off-the-shelf. Results of tests made on submerged objects with three cameras are presented: © Canon Power Shot G12, © Intova Sport HD e © GoPro HERO 2. The experimentation had the goal to evaluate the precision in self-calibration procedures, essential for multimedia underwater photogrammetry, and to analyze the quality of 3D restitution. Precisions obtained in the calibration and orientation procedures was assessed by using three cameras, and an homogeneous set control points. Data were processed with © Agisoft Photoscan. Successively, 3D models were created and the comparison of the models derived from the use of different cameras was performed. Different potentialities of the used cameras are reported in the discussion section. The 3D restitution of objects and structures was integrated with sea bottom floor morphology in order to achieve a comprehensive description of the site. A possible methodology of survey and representation of submerged objects is therefore illustrated, considering an automatic and a semi-automatic approach.

  9. D Reconstruction of AN Underwater Archaelogical Site: Comparison Between Low Cost Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, A.; Dubbini, M.; Bertacchini, E.; Castagnetti, C.; Mancini, F.

    2015-04-01

    The 3D reconstruction with a metric content of a submerged area, where objects and structures of archaeological interest are found, could play an important role in the research and study activities and even in the digitization of the cultural heritage. The reconstruction of 3D object, of interest for archaeologists, constitutes a starting point in the classification and description of object in digital format and for successive fruition by user after delivering through several media. The starting point is a metric evaluation of the site obtained with photogrammetric surveying and appropriate 3D restitution. The authors have been applying the underwater photogrammetric technique since several years using underwater digital cameras and, in this paper, digital low cost cameras (off-the-shelf). Results of tests made on submerged objects with three cameras are presented: Canon Power Shot G12, Intova Sport HD e GoPro HERO 2. The experimentation had the goal to evaluate the precision in self-calibration procedures, essential for multimedia underwater photogrammetry, and to analyze the quality of 3D restitution. Precisions obtained in the calibration and orientation procedures was assessed by using three cameras, and an homogeneous set control points. Data were processed with Agisoft Photoscan. Successively, 3D models were created and the comparison of the models derived from the use of different cameras was performed. Different potentialities of the used cameras are reported in the discussion section. The 3D restitution of objects and structures was integrated with sea bottom floor morphology in order to achieve a comprehensive description of the site. A possible methodology of survey and representation of submerged objects is therefore illustrated, considering an automatic and a semi-automatic approach.

  10. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station: Comparison of two decommissioning cost estimates developed for the same commercial nuclear reactor power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1990-12-01

    This study presents the results of a comparison of a previous decommissioning cost study by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and a recent decommissioning cost study of TLG Engineering, Inc., for the same commercial nuclear power reactor station. The purpose of this comparative analysis on the same plant is to determine the reasons why subsequent estimates for similar plants by others were significantly higher in cost and external occupational radiation exposure (ORE) than the PNL study. The primary purpose of the original study by PNL (NUREG/CR-0672) was to provide information on the available technology, the safety considerations, and the probable costs and ORE for the decommissioning of a large boiling water reactor (BWR) power station at the end of its operating life. This information was intended for use as background data and bases in the modification of existing regulations and in the development of new regulations pertaining to decommissioning activities. It was also intended for use by utilities in planning for the decommissioning of their nuclear power stations. The TLG study, initiated in 1987 and completed in 1989, was for the same plant, Washington Public Supply System's Unit 2 (WNP-2), that PNL used as its reference plant in its 1980 decommissioning study. Areas of agreement and disagreement are identified, and reasons for the areas of disagreement are discussed. 31 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs

  11. Renewable energy finance and project ownership. The impact of alternative development structures on the cost of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses traditional financial cash flow techniques to examine the impact of different ownership and financing structures on the cost of renewable energy, specifically wind power. Most large, non-hydroelectric, renewable energy projects are developed, owned and financed by private non-utility generators. Recently, however, US utilities have begun to consider owning and financing their own wind power facilities rather than purchasing power from independent renewable energy suppliers. Utilities in other countries have also expressed interest in direct renewable energy investments. A primary justification for utility ownership of wind turbine power plants is that utility self-financing and ownership is cheaper than purchasing wind energy from non-utility renewable energy suppliers. The results presented in this paper support that justification, although some of the estimated cost savings associated with utility ownership are a result of suboptimal utility analysis procedures and implicit risk shifting. Financing terms and variables are shown to significantly impact wind power costs. (author)

  12. Low cost Czochralski crystal growing technology. Near implementation of the flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction of the low cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    Equipment developed for the manufacture of over 100 kg of silicon ingot from one crucible by rechanging from another crucible is described. Attempts were made to eliminate the cost of raising the furnace temperature to 250 C above the melting point of silicon by using an RF coil to melt polycrystalline silicon rod as a means of rechanging the crucible. Microprocessor control of the straight growth process was developed and domonstrated for both 4 inch and 6 inch diameter. Both meltdown and melt stabilization processes were achieved using operator prompting through the microprocessor. The use of the RF work coil in poly rod melting as a heat sink in the accelerated growth process was unsuccessful. The total design concept for fabrication and interfacing of the total cold crucible system was completed.

  13. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  14. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  15. Robotic longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis: Comparison of clinical outcomes and cost to the open approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirks, Russell C; Lorimer, Patrick D; Fruscione, Michael; Cochran, Allyson; Baker, Erin H; Iannitti, David A; Vrochides, Dionisios; Martinie, John B

    2017-09-01

    This study compares clinical and cost outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) and open longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ) for chronic pancreatitis. Clinical and cost data were retrospectively compared between open and RAL LPJ performed at a single center from 2008-2015. Twenty-six patients underwent LPJ: 19 open and 7 RAL. Two robot-assisted cases converted to open were included in the open group for analysis. Patients undergoing RAL LPJ had less intraoperative blood loss, a shorter surgical length of stay, and lower medication costs. Operation supply cost was higher in the RAL group. No difference in hospitalization cost was found. Versus the open approach, RAL LPJ performed for chronic pancreatitis shortens hospitalization and reduces medication costs; hospitalization costs are equivalent. A higher operative cost for RAL LPJ is mitigated by a shorter hospitalization. Decreased morbidity and healthcare resource economy support use of the robotic approach for LPJ when appropriate. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of intensified versus conventional multifactorial intervention in type 2 diabetes: results and projections from the Steno-2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Valentine, William J; Palmer, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    and account Danish-specific costs to project life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE), and lifetime direct medical costs expressed in year 2005 Euros. Clinical and cost outcomes were projected over patient lifetimes and discounted at 3% annually. Sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS...... gained. This is considered a conservative estimate because accounting prescription of generic drugs and capturing indirect costs would further favor intensified therapy. CONCLUSIONS: From a health care payer perspective in Denmark, intensive therapy was more cost-effective than conventional treatment...

  17. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).

  18. Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    ...) when they significantly degrade services provided by water resources. Government agencies, utilities, and other water resource managers incur substantial costs controlling ANS and repairing damage to restore service performance to desired levels...

  19. Cost-Benefit Comparison: A Method for Evaluation Proposed Changes to Defense Acquisition Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Department of Civil Engineering, Florida University, Gainsville FL, Summer 1986 (AD-A170752). Horngren , Charles T. and George Foster. Cost Accounting : A...Acquisition Regulation (FAR) system, The Department of Labor (DOL) , the Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) , and the General Services...decision. In management and in managerial accounting , this type of study is known as cost - benefit analysis. A cost -benefit analysis is the most important

  20. Cost comparison between base-load coal-fired and nuclear plants in the midterm future (1985--2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, D.L.

    1976-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relative costs of the coal and nuclear modes of electricity generation in the period between 1985 and 2015. These two modes of power generation are likely to be the mainstay source of electric power in the United States for that time period. A thorough understanding of their competitiveness not only is important in utility companies' decisions to go one route or the other but also is important to the government and the public when answers must be found for difficult questions, such as economic and environmental implications of a massive societal leaning toward one or the other option. In this study, the primary and secondary factors that affect the cost comparison of coal-fired and nuclear plant options for the midterm future have been separated and arranged so that they can be examined systematically. Estimated inflation of the economy and net fuel cost increases are internalized in the determination of life-cycle levelized cost of electricity in several plausible scenarios. Baseline data for capital and operating costs at beginning-of-life are determined by the tax rate, the expected rate of inflation at the time of capitalization, the net rate of fuel cost increases, and future eventualities of inflation. Other factors such as plant life spans, capacity factors, changes in baseline capital, and fuel cost are considered in sensitivity studies

  1. Direct medical costs of hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases in Shanghai, China: trends and projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Petzold, Max; Cao, Junshan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Weibing

    2015-05-01

    Few studies in China have focused on direct expenditures for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), making cost trends for CVDs uncertain. Epidemic modeling and forecasting may be essential for health workers and policy makers to reduce the cost burden of CVDs.To develop a time series model using Box-Jenkins methodology for a 15-year forecasting of CVD hospitalization costs in Shanghai.Daily visits and medical expenditures for CVD hospitalizations between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were analyzed. Data from 2012 were used for further analyses, including yearly total health expenditures and expenditures per visit for each disease, as well as per-visit-per-year medical costs of each service for CVD hospitalizations. Time series analyses were performed to determine the long-time trend of total direct medical expenditures for CVDs and specific expenditures for each disease, which were used to forecast expenditures until December 31, 2030.From 2008 to 2012, there were increased yearly trends for both hospitalizations (from 250,354 to 322,676) and total costs (from US $ 388.52 to 721.58 million per year in 2014 currency) in Shanghai. Cost per CVD hospitalization in 2012 averaged US $ 2236.29, with the highest being for chronic rheumatic heart diseases (US $ 4710.78). Most direct medical costs were spent on medication. By the end of 2030, the average cost per visit per month for all CVDs was estimated to be US $ 4042.68 (95% CI: US $ 3795.04-4290.31) for all CVDs, and the total health expenditure for CVDs would reach over US $1.12 billion (95% CI: US $ 1.05-1.19 billion) without additional government interventions.Total health expenditures for CVDs in Shanghai are estimated to be higher in the future. These results should be a valuable future resource for both researchers on the economic effects of CVDs and for policy makers.

  2. Results from the OECD report on international projections of electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paffenbarger, J.A.; Bertel, E.

    1998-01-01

    The International Energy Agency and Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have periodically undertaken a joint study on electricity generating costs in OECD Member countries and selected non-Member countries. This paper presents key results from the 1998 update of this study. Experts from 19 countries drawn from electric utility companies and government provided data on capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs from which levelized electricity generating costs (US cents/kWh) for baseload power plants were estimated in each country using a common set of economic assumptions. Light water nuclear power plants, pulverized coal plants, and natural gas-fired combined cycle gas turbines were the principal options evaluated. five and 10% discount rates, 40-year operating lifetime, and 75% annual load factor were the base assumptions, with sensitivity analyses on operating lifetime and load factor. Fuel costs and fuel escalation were provided individually by country, with a sensitivity case to evaluate costs assuming no real fuel price escalation over plant lifetimes. Of the three principal fuel/technology options, none is predominantly the cheapest option for all economic assumptions. However, fossil-fueled options are generally estimated to be the least expensive option. The study confirms that gas-fired combined cycles have improved their economic performance in most countries in recent years and are strong competitors to nuclear and coal-fired plants. Eleven out of the 18 countries with two or more options show gas-fired plants to be the cheapest option at 10% discount rate. Coal remains a strong competitor to gas when lower discount rates are used. Nuclear is the least expensive at both 5 and 10% discount rate in only two countries. Generally, with gas prices above 5 US$/GJ, nuclear plants constructed at overnight capital costs below 1 650 $/kWe have the potential to be competitive only at lower discount rates

  3. Comparison of SRP high-level waste disposal costs for borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1982-04-01

    An evaluation of costs for the immobilization and repository disposal of SRP high-level wastes indicates that the borosilicate glass waste form is less costly than the crystalline ceramic waste form. The wastes were assumed immobilized as glass with 28% waste loading in 10,300 reference 24-in.-diameter canisters or as crystalline ceramic with 65% waste loading in either 3400 24-in.-diameter canisters or 5900 18-in.-diameter canisters. After an interim period of onsite storage, the canisters would be transported to the federal repository for burial. Total costs in undiscounted 1981 dollars of the waste disposal operations, excluding salt processing for which costs are not yet well defined, were about $2500 million for the borosilicate glass form in reference 24-in.-diameter canisters, compared to about $2900 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 24-in.-diameter canisters and about $3100 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 18-in.-diameter canisters. No large differences in salt processing costs for the borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic forms are expected. Discounting to present values, because of a projected 2-year delay in startup of the DWPF for the crystalline ceramic form, preserved the overall cost advantage of the borosilicate glass form. The waste immobilization operations for the glass form were much less costly than for the crystalline ceramic form. The waste disposal operations, in contrast, were less costly for the crystalline ceramic form, due to fewer canisters requiring disposal; however, this advantage was not sufficient to offset the higher development and processing costs of the crystalline ceramic form. Changes in proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations to permit lower cost repository packages for defense high-level wastes would decrease the waste disposal costs of the more numerous borosilicate glass forms relative to the crystalline ceramic forms

  4. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  5. Hardwood? Carpet? or Tile? A comparison of flooring costs under residential conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Martens; David G. Martens

    1971-01-01

    Initial installation cost, annual maintenance cost, and total long-term cost are important in the purchase of flooring products. Before deciding on a flooring material, the prudent buyer will consider each of these in relation to his personal desires. From these evaluations, he will then be able to select the flooring material that is best suited to his individual...

  6. Cost comparison of open and robotic partial nephrectomy using a short postoperative pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Roy; Schulman, Ariel; Hakimi, A Ari; Sternberg, Itay A; Bernstein, Melanie; Bochner, Bernard H; Coleman, Jonathan A; Russo, Paul

    2015-03-01

    To compare immediate perioperative direct costs of open partial nephrectomy (OPN) and robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN), managed under a common care pathway. Retrospective review of detailed institutional cost data for patients treated with OPN and RPN during 2011 was conducted. Cost and clinical data of OPN and RPN were compared for all patients and for patients stratified by length of stay (LOS), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), and RENAL nephrometry scores. The study cohort included 190 OPN and 63 RPN cases. OPN was associated with higher ASA scores (P days (2-3 days) for OPN compared with 1 day (1-2 days) for RPN (P cost of OPN was lower than that of RPN with a difference of $3091 (P costs were higher in OPN, surgical costs were higher in RPN ($854 and $3695 difference in median costs, respectively; P cost of OPN for patients with an above-average LOS remained lower than that of RPN ($2680 difference in median costs; P = .001). RPN costs remained significantly higher when stratifying patients by their ASA and RENAL nephrometry scores. Despite the shorter hospital LOS associated with RPN, the immediate perioperative cost of OPN was lower than that of RPN for patients managed under a common care pathway, mainly due to high robotic purchase and maintenance costs. In light of the current health care debate, such financial disincentives may compromise the sustainability of advances in medical technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in children with chronic otitis media: a randomized comparison of costs and effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonacker, C.W.; Veen, E.L. van der; Wilt, G.J. van der; Schilder, A.G.M.; Rovers, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the cost-effectiveness of a 6- to 12-week course of high-dose oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in children with chronic active otitis media (COM). STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness study including both direct and indirect costs alongside a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

  8. THE DISCRETE TIME, COST AND QUALITY TRADE-OFF PROBLEM IN PROJECT SCHEDULING: AN EFFICIENT SOLUTION METHOD BASED ON CELLDE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Assadipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The trade-off between time, cost, and quality is one of the important problems of project management. This problem assumes that all project activities can be executed in different modes of cost, time, and quality. Thus a manager should select each activity’s mode such that the project can meet the deadline with the minimum possible cost and the maximum achievable quality. As the problem is NP-hard and the objectives are in conflict with each other, a multi-objective meta-heuristic called CellDE, which is a hybrid cellular genetic algorithm, is implemented as the optimisation method. The proposed algorithm provides project managers with a set of non-dominated or Pareto-optimal solutions, and enables them to choose the best one according to their preferences. A set of problems of different sizes is generated and solved using the proposed algorithm. Three metrics are employed for evaluating the performance of the algorithm, appraising the diversity and convergence of the achieved Pareto fronts. Finally a comparison is made between CellDE and another meta-heuristic available in the literature. The results show the superiority of CellDE.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Balans tussen tyd, koste en gehalte is een van die belangrike probleme van projekbestuur. Die vraagstuk maak gewoonlik die aanname dat alle projekaktiwiteite uitgevoer kan word op uiteenlopende wyses wat verband hou met koste, tyd en gehalte. ‘n Projekbestuurder selekteer gewoonlik die uitvoeringsmetodes sodanig per aktiwiteit dat gehoor gegegee word aan minimum koste en maksimum gehalte teen die voorwaarde van voltooiingsdatum wat bereik moet word.

    Aangesien die beskrewe problem NP-hard is, word dit behandel ten opsigte van konflikterende doelwitte met ‘n multidoelwit metaheuristiese metode (CellDE. Die metode is ‘n hibride-sellulêre genetiese algoritme. Die algoritme lewer aan die besluitvormer ‘n versameling van ongedomineerde of Pareto

  9. A comparison of cost-based pricing rules for natural gas distribution utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Partial-equilibrium social welfare deadweight losses under uniform Ramsey pricing, a cost allocation pricing method, and the actual average revenues by customer class for two natural gas distribution utilities are calculated and compared. Marginal cost estimates are derived from a multiple-output translog variable cost function and used, along with three sets of demand elasticities, to generate the Ramsey prices and welfare losses. The actual and cost-allocation prices are taken directly from rate case files. The largest social welfare losses are associated with the cost-allocation rule, as high as 10-25% of revenue, despite suggestions in the literature to the contrary. (Author)

  10. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  11. Developing a performance measurement approach to benefit/cost freight project prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Future reauthorizations of the federal transportation bill will require a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the freight benefits : of proposed freight system projects. To prioritize public investments in freight systems and to insure conside...

  12. Cheap-GSHPs, an European project aiming cost-reducing innovations for shallow geothermal installations. - Geological data reinterpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertermann, David; Müller, Johannes; Galgaro, Antonio; Cultrera, Matteo; Bernardi, Adriana; Di Sipio, Eloisa

    2016-04-01

    The success and widespread diffusion of new sustainable technologies are always strictly related to their affordability. Nowadays the energy price fluctuations and the economic crisis are jeopardizing the development and diffusion of renewable technologies and sources. With the aim of both reduce the overall costs of shallow geothermal systems and improve their installation safety, an European project has took place recently, under the Horizon 2020 EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. The acronym of this project is Cheap-GSHPs, meaning "cheap and efficient application of reliable ground source heat exchangers and pumps"; the CHEAP-GSHPs project involves 17 partners among 9 European countries such Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Spain, Switzerland. In order to achieve the planned targets, an holistic approach is adopted, where all involved elements that take part of shallow geothermal activities are here integrated. In order to reduce the drilling specific costs and for a solid planning basis the INSPIRE-conformal ESDAC data set PAR-MAT-DOM ("parent material dominant") was analysed and reinterpreted regarding the opportunities for cost reductions. Different ESDAC classification codes were analysed lithologically and sedimentologically in order to receive the most suitable drilling technique within different formations. Together with drilling companies this geological data set was translated into a geotechnical map which allows drilling companies the usage of the most efficient drilling within a certain type of underground. The scale of the created map is 1: 100,000 for all over Europe. This leads to cost reductions for the final consumers. Further there will be the definition of different heat conductivity classes based on the reinterpreted PAR-MAT-DOM data set which will provide underground information. These values will be reached by sampling data all over Europe and literature data. The samples will be measured by several

  13. A comparison of municipal forest benefits and costs in Modesto and Santa Monica, California, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the structure, function, and value of street and park tree populations in two California cities. Trees provided net annual benefits valued at $ 2.2 million in Modesto and $805, 732 in Santa Monica. Benefit-cost ratios were 1.85:1 and 1.52:1 in Modesto and Santa Monica, respectively. Residents received $1.85 and $1.52 in annual...

  14. A comparison of two methods for estimating the technical costs of external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, James A.; Lash, Kathy A.; Tao, May L.; Halman, Marc A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment with external beam radiation, it is necessary to have accurate estimates of its cost. One of the most common methods for estimating technical costs has been to convert Medicare charges into costs using Medicare Cost-to-Charge Ratios (CCR). More recently, health care organizations have begun to invest in sophisticated cost-accounting systems (CAS) that are capable of providing procedure-specific cost estimates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these competing approaches result in similar cost estimates for four typical courses of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Technical costs were estimated for the following treatment courses: 1) a palliative 'simple' course of 10 fractions using a single field without blocks; 2) a palliative 'complex' course of 10 fractions using two opposed fields with custom blocks; 3) a curative course of 30 fractions for breast cancer using tangent fields followed by an electron beam boost; and 4) a curative course of 35 fractions for prostate cancer using CT-planning and a 4-field technique. Costs were estimated using the CCR approach by multiplying the number of units of each procedure billed by its Medicare charge and CCR and then summing these costs. Procedure-specific cost estimates were obtained from a cost-accounting system, and overall costs were then estimated for the CAS approach by multiplying the number of units billed by the appropriate unit cost estimate and then summing these costs. All costs were estimated using data from 1997. The analysis was also repeated using data from another academic institution to estimate their costs using the CCR and CAS methods, as well as the appropriate relative value units (RVUs) and conversion factor from the 1997 Medicare Fee Schedule to estimate Medicare reimbursement for the four treatment courses. Results: The estimated technical costs for the CCR vs. CAS approaches for the four

  15. Squaring the Project Management Circle: Updating the Cost, Schedule, and Performance Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    MIT Sloan Management Review . MIT Sloan Management Review . Retrieved from http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/the-new-industrial-engineering-information-technology-and- business-process-redesign/ ...critical variable that must be addressed by project managers . The research methodology consists of a system-focused approach based on an extensive review ...doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2007.01.004 Baccarini, D. (1996). The concept of project complexity–A review .

  16. Surgical management of bilateral vocal fold paralysis: A cost-effectiveness comparison of two treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Song, Phillip C; Franco, Ramon A; Alkire, Blake C; Shrime, Mark G

    2017-03-01

    Endoscopic management of bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) includes cordotomy and arytenoidectomy, and has become a well-accepted alternative to tracheostomy. However, the costs and quality-of-life benefits of endoscopic management have not been examined with formal economic analysis. This study undertakes a cost-effectiveness analysis of tracheostomy versus endoscopic management of BVFP. Cost-effectiveness analysis. A literature review identified a range of costs and outcomes associated with surgical options for BVFP. Additional costs were derived from Medicare reimbursement data; all were adjusted to 2014 dollars. Cost-effectiveness analysis evaluated both therapeutic strategies in short-term and long-term scenarios. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to assess confidence levels regarding the economic evaluation. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for endoscopic management versus tracheostomy is $31,600.06 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), indicating that endoscopic management is the cost-effective short-term strategy at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000/QALY. The probability that endoscopic management is more cost-effective than tracheostomy at this WTP is 65.1%. Threshold analysis demonstrated that the model is sensitive to both utilities and cost in the short-term scenario. When costs of long-term care are included, tracheostomy is dominated by endoscopic management, indicating the cost-effectiveness of endoscopic management at any WTP. Endoscopic management of BVFP appears to be more cost-effective than tracheostomy. Though endoscopic cordotomy and arytenoidectomy require expertise and specialized equipment, this model demonstrates utility gains and long-term cost advantages to an endoscopic strategy. These findings are limited by the relative paucity of robust utility data and emphasize the need for further economic analysis in otolaryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:691-697, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological

  17. MR cholangiopancreatography: prospective comparison of a breath-hold 2D projection technique with diagnostic ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomas, D.J.; Bearcroft, P.W.P.; Gimson, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare prospectively a breath-hold projection magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) technique with diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Seventy-six patients with suspected strictures or choledocholithiasis were referred for MRCP and subsequent ERCP examination, which were performed within 4 h of each other. The MRCP technique was performed using fat-suppressed rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) projection images obtained in standardised planes with additional targeted projections as required by the supervising radiologist. Two radiologists (in consensus) assessed the MRCP results prospectively and independently for the presence of bile duct calculi, strictures, non-specific biliary dilatation and pancreatic duct dilatation, and recorded a single primary diagnosis. The ERCP was assessed prospectively and independently by a single endoscopist and used as a gold standard for comparison with MRCP. Diagnostic agreement was assessed by the Kappa statistic. The MRCP technique failed in two patients and ERCP in five. In the remaining 69 referrals ERCP demonstrated normal findings in 23 cases, strictures in 19 cases, choledocholithiasis in 9 cases, non-specific biliary dilatation in 14 cases and chronic pancreatitis in 4 cases. The MRCP technique correctly demonstrated 22 of 23 normal cases, 19 strictures with one false positive (sensitivity 100 %, specificity 98 %), all 9 cases of choledocholithiasis with two false positives (sensitivity 100 %, specificity 97 %), 12 of 14 cases of non-specific biliary dilatation and only 1 of 4 cases of chronic pancreatitis. There was overall good agreement for diagnosis based on a kappa value of 0.88. Breath-hold projection MRCP can provide non-invasively comparable diagnostic information to diagnostic ERCP for suspected choledocholithiasis and biliary strictures and may allow more selective use of therapeutic ERCP. (orig.)

  18. Utility-Scale Solar 2016: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2017-09-19

    The utility-scale solar sector has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. In 2016, the utility-scale sector installed more than 2.5 times as much new capacity as did the residential and commercial sectors combined, and is expected to maintain its dominant position for at least another five years. This report—the fifth edition in an ongoing annual series—provides data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. We analyze not just installed project prices, but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement ("PPA") prices from a large sample of utility-scale PV and CSP projects throughout the United States. Highlights from this year's edition include the following: Installation Trends: The use of solar tracking devices dominated 2016 installations, at nearly 80% of all new capacity. In a reflection of the ongoing geographic expansion of the market beyond California and the Southwest, the median long-term average insolation level at newly built project sites declined again in 2016. While new fixed-tilt projects are now seen predominantly in less-sunny regions, tracking projects are increasingly pushing into these same regions. The median inverter loading ratio has stabilized in 2016 at 1.3 for both tracking and fixed-tilt projects. Installed Prices: Median installed PV project prices within a sizable sample have fallen by two-thirds since the 2007-2009 period, to $2.2/WAC (or $1.7/WDC) for projects completed in 2016. The lowest 20th percentile of projects within our 2016 sample were priced at or below $2.0/WAC, with the lowest-priced projects around $1.5/WAC. Overall price dispersion across the entire sample and across geographic regions decreased significantly in 2016. Operation and Maintenance (“O&M”) Costs: What limited empirical O&M cost data are publicly available suggest that PV O&M costs were in the neighborhood of $18/kWAC-year, or $8/MWh, in 2016. These

  19. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  20. Low Cost Solar Array Project. Feasibility of the silane process for producing semiconductor-grade silicon. Final report, October 1975-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The commercial production of low-cost semiconductor-grade silicon is an essential requirement of the JPL/DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project. A 1000-metric-ton-per-year commercial facility using the Union Carbide Silane Process will produce molten silicon for an estimated price of $7.56/kg (1975 dollars, private financing), meeting the DOE goal of less than $10/kg. Conclusions and technology status are reported for both contract phases, which had the following objectives: (1) establish the feasibility of Union Carbide's Silane Process for commercial application, and (2) develop an integrated process design for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) and a commercial facility, and estimate the corresponding commercial plant economic performance. To assemble the facility design, the following work was performed: (a) collection of Union Carbide's applicable background technology; (b) design, assembly, and operation of a small integrated silane-producing Process Development Unit (PDU); (c) analysis, testing, and comparison of two high-temperature methods for converting pure silane to silicon metal; and (d) determination of chemical reaction equilibria and kinetics, and vapor-liquid equilibria for chlorosilanes.